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Sample records for reported calcium intake

  1. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Calcium Intake in Elderly Australian Women Is Inadequate

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    Colin W. Binns

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium in the prevention of bone loss in later life has been well established but little data exist on the adequacy of calcium intakes in elderly Australian women. The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake including calcium of elderly Australian women with the Australian dietary recommendation, and to investigate the prevalence of calcium supplement use in this population. Community-dwelling women aged 70–80 years were randomly recruited using the Electoral Roll for a 2-year protein intervention study in Western Australia. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline by a 3-day weighed food record and analysed for energy, calcium and other nutrients. A total of 218 women were included in the analysis. Mean energy intake was 7,140 ± 1,518 kJ/day and protein provided 19 ± 4% of energy. Mean dietary calcium intake was 852 ± 298 mg/day, which is below Australian recommendations. Less than one quarter of women reported taking calcium supplements and only 3% reported taking vitamin D supplements. Calcium supplements by average provided calcium 122 ± 427 mg/day and when this was taken into account, total calcium intake increased to 955 ± 504 mg/day, which remained 13% lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR, 1,100 mg/day for women of this age group. The women taking calcium supplements had a higher calcium intake (1501 ± 573 mg compared with the women on diet alone (813 ± 347 mg. The results of this study indicate that the majority of elderly women were not meeting their calcium requirements from diet alone. In order to achieve the recommended dietary calcium intake, better strategies for promoting increased calcium, from both diet and calcium supplements appears to be needed.

  3. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

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    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

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    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  5. Calcium intake is not associated with increased coronary artery calcification: The Framingham Study

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    Adequate calcium intake is known to protect the skeleton. However, studies that have reported adverse effects of calcium supplementation on vascular events have raised widespread concern. We assessed the association between calcium intake (from diet and supplements) and coronary artery calcification...

  6. Reported Dietary Intake, Disparity between the Reported Consumption and the Level Needed for Adequacy and Food Sources of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Vitamin D in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

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    Olza, Josune; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Gil, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D have important biological roles in the body, especially in bone metabolism. We aimed to study the reported intake, the disparity between the reported consumption and the level needed for adequacy and food sources of these four nutrients in the Spanish population. We assessed the reported intake for both, general population and plausible reporters. Results were extracted from the ANIBES survey, n = 2009. Three-day dietary reported intake data were obtained and misreporting was assessed according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Mean ± SEM (range) total reported consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D for the whole population were 698 ± 7 mg/day (71–2551 mg/day), 1176 ± 8 mg/day, (331–4429 mg/day), 222 ± 2 mg/day (73–782 mg/day), and 4.4 ± 0.1 µg/day (0.0–74.2 µg/day), respectively. In the whole group, 76% and 66%; 79% and 72%; and 94% and 93% of the population had reported intakes below 80% of the national and European recommended daily intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D, respectively; these percentages were over 40% when the plausible reporters were analysed separately. The main food sources were milk and dairy products for calcium and phosphorus, cereals and grains for magnesium and fish for vitamin D. In conclusion, there is an important percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the recommended intakes for calcium, magnesium and vitamin D. PMID:28230782

  7. Calcium intake and cows' milk free diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; Stanton, R H; David, T J

    1989-01-01

    In children with atopic eczema on elimination diets, the calcium intake was below the estimated requirement in 15 out of 20 who avoided cows' milk and received no milk substitute, and in three out of 26 who avoided cows' milk but were provided with a soya or casein hydrolysate formula.

  8. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

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    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  9. Critical assessment of high-circulation print newspaper coverage of the Institute of Medicine report Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Daniel P; Sweeney, Kathryn P; Lau, Joseph; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate high-circulation US and Canadian newspaper coverage of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D and assess pre-report and post-report reporter-specific vitamin D-related coverage. Two independent reviewers analysed the newspaper articles. The key report findings cited, proportion of sentences describing the IOM report and proportion of sentences describing critical viewpoints on the report were calculated. The content of articles written by reporters with a history of pre-report vitamin D-related articles was compared with that of articles written by reporters without such a history. Factiva and LexisNexis searches of the top thirty US and three English-language Canadian print newspapers, by circulation. Articles on the IOM report published from 30 November to 21 December 2010 and previous vitamin D-related articles written by the same reporters. Only ten articles met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Articles inconsistently cited the key findings in the IOM report. Reporters with a history of pre-report articles highlighting the benefits of vitamin D dedicated a greater proportion of sentences to viewpoints critical of the IOM report (P newspaper articles did not consistently or comprehensively report the IOM recommendations and that pre-report publication history of reporters was related to post-report article content.

  10. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

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    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Findings Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance. PMID:28182142

  11. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

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    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk.Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2).Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors.Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk.Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other dairy

  12. Research on Calcium Food Intake of Young Gymnasts

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    Li Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the calcium food intake of young gymnasts and the relationship among calcium nutrition, exercise and bone mineral status. 13 elite young gymnasts aged 11~12 with 3 to 7 years of training experience are chosen as subjects. At the same time, 14 young students at the same age are selected as control group. Dietary survey is made to investigate their calcium and protein intakes status. The calcium intakes of young gymnasts are 515.3±218.0 mg/d, which are only 51.5% of calcium reference intakes. The BMC, bone area and BMD of young gymnasts are all significantly lower than those of young students by 23, 14 and 11%, respectively (p<0.05. It concludes that the calcium intakes of young gymnasts are lower than Chinese calcium reference intakes. The BMC and BMD of young gymnasts are lower than those of young students at the same age. Perhaps it is related to their heavy training load, the high requirement of calcium and the long-term inadequate calcium intake. Therefore, we suggest that young gymnasts can appropriate to eat more calcium rich food (milk or dairy products to improve the calcium intakes and then to add BMC and BMD.

  13. First Quantification of Calcium Intake from Calcium-Dense Dairy Products in Dutch Fracture Patients (The Delft Cohort Study

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    Peter van den Berg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians. An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day. After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  14. First quantification of calcium intake from calcium-dense dairy products in Dutch fracture patients (the Delft cohort study).

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    van den Berg, Peter; van Haard, Paul M M; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Niesten, Dieu Donné; van der Elst, Maarten; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2014-06-23

    Recommendations for daily calcium intake from dairy products are variable and based on local consensus. To investigate whether patients with a recent fracture complied with these recommendations, we quantified the daily dairy calcium intake including milk, milk drinks, pudding, yoghurt, and cheese in a Dutch cohort of fracture patients and compared outcomes with recent data of a healthy U.S. cohort (80% Caucasians). An observational study analyzed dairy calcium intakes of 1526 female and 372 male Dutch fracture patients older than 50. On average, participants reported three dairy servings per day, independently of age, gender or population density. Median calcium intake from dairy was 790 mg/day in females and males. Based on dairy products alone, 11.3% of women and 14.2% of men complied with Dutch recommendations for calcium intake (adults ≤ 70 years: 1100 mg/day and >70 years: 1200 mg/day). After including 450 mg calcium from basic nutrition, compliance raised to 60.5% and 59.1%, respectively, compared to 53.2% in the U.S. cohort. Daily dairy calcium intake is not associated with femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores or WHO Fracture Assessment Tool (FRAX) risk scores for major fracture or hip fracture. However, when sub analyzing the male cohort, these associations were weakly negative. The prevalence of maternal hip fracture was a factor for current fracture risks, both in women and men. While daily dairy calcium intake of Dutch fracture patients was well below the recommended dietary intake, it was comparable to intakes in a healthy U.S. cohort. This questions recommendations for adding more additional dairy products to preserve adult skeletal health, particularly when sufficient additional calcium is derived from adequate non-dairy nutrition.

  15. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

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    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  16. Calcium and dairy intake: Longitudinal trends during the transition to young adulthood and correlates of calcium intake.

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    Larson, Nicole I; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Harnack, Lisa; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2009-01-01

    To describe changes in calcium and dairy intake during the transition from middle adolescence to young adulthood and to identify baseline correlates of calcium intake in young adulthood. Population-based, 5-year follow-up study (Project EAT: Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN schools and by mail at follow-up. Males and females (N = 1521) attending high school at baseline (mean age = 15.9 years) and with a mean age of 20.5 years at follow-up. Calcium intake. Mixed and linear regression methods were used to respectively examine trends and correlates of intake. During the transition to young adulthood, mean daily calcium intakes of females and males decreased by an average of 153 mg and 194 mg respectively. Mealtime milk availability, health/nutrition attitudes, taste preference for milk, healthful weight control behaviors, and peer support for healthful eating at baseline were associated with better follow-up calcium intake. Time spent watching television and lactose intolerance were associated with lower intake at follow-up. Nutrition interventions are needed to counter longitudinal decreases in calcium intake. Interventions targeted to adolescents should address the availability of milk at meals and other identified supports for healthful eating.

  17. Effect of dairy calcium or supplementary calcium intake on postprandial fat metabolism, appetite, and subsequent energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, J.K.; Nielsen, S.; Holst, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. Objective: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. Design: Four different isocaloric meals...... were tested in 18 subjects according to a randomized crossover design. The test meals contained high (HC meal: 172 mg/MJ), medium (MC meal: 84 mg/MJ), or low (LC meal: 15 mg/MJ) amounts of calcium from dairy products or a high amount of calcium given as a calcium carbonate supplement (Suppl meal: 183...... and approximate to 15% lower after the MC meal (P = 0.0495) and approximate to 17% lower after the HC meal (P = 0.02) than after the Suppl meal. No consistent effects of calcium on appetite sensation, or on energy intake at the subsequent meal, or on the postprandial responses of cholecystokinin, glucagon...

  18. Relationship between dietary calcium intake and adiposity in female adolescents.

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    Castro Burbano, José; Fajardo Vanegas, Pamela; Robles Rodríguez, Julieta; Pazmiño Estévez, Karina

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence and magnitude of obesity in children and adolescents increase rapidly. Besides genetic and environmental factors, calcium intake has recently been identified as a dietary factor that is inversely related with body mass index and development of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between dietary calcium intake and body mass index and fat distribution in female adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study where anthropometric variables (weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference) were collected in 244 female adolescents to establish total body adiposity and fat distribution. A 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire were used to assess total calorie, calcium, and dairy products intake. Calcium intake was inversely related to body mass index (P.05), and waist to hip ratio (P<.05).Overweight (8.3%) and obese (0.7%) adolescents had a lower mean calcium intake than adolescents of normal weight (P=.06). Dietary calcium intake and, to a lesser extent, consumption of dairy products are inversely related to total and abdominal adiposity, and also to the prevalence of overweight in this group of adolescents. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of calcium intake on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.

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    Challoumas, D; Cobbold, C; Dimitrakakis, G

    2013-11-01

    The use of calcium supplements for the prevention of complications of osteoporosis has significantly increased during the last years. The effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure, serum lipids and cardiovascular events are controversial. Even though transient beneficial effects of calcium supplementation have been reported, especially in women with low dietary calcium intake, their long-term outcomes are inconclusive. Only a very few studies investigating serum lipids in postmenopausal women have been described and these showed significant increases in high-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein ratio. With regards to cardiovascular events in this population group adverse effects have been reported on the rates of myocardial infarction and stroke with increased calcium intake by some authors, however, others described no effects or even beneficial outcomes. We present a review of the current literature which provides a balanced summary of the possible beneficial and adverse effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters. Taking into account the modest effect of calcium supplementation in reducing fracture rates, a reassessment of the role, benefits and adverse effects of calcium supplements should be conducted in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calcium intake in health maintenance – a systematic review

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    Kirsti Uusi-Rasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca is an essential nutrient for the human body. Despite lively research, there is uncertainty about Ca requirements in terms of desirable health outcomes including an upper intake level above which the potential for harm increases. Objectives: The aim was to conduct a review to update requirements and desirable or harmful health effects of Ca on the current scientific evidence. Methods: We searched Medline and Swemed from January 2000 to December 2011 and included all systematic reviews that reported Ca supplementation or usual Ca intake on health outcomes. Meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and cohort studies were included in the second search between May 2009 and March 2011 and an additional search covering studies till the end of 2011. This review concentrated on studies reporting independent effects of Ca, although a few recent trials report sole effects of Ca on health outcomes, most trials use Ca in combination with vitamin D vs. placebo. Results: In total, we reviewed 38 studies addressing the effects of Ca on bone, pregnancy-related outcomes, cancers, cardiovascular outcomes, obesity, and mortality. There was a lot of heterogeneity in the study protocols, which made it difficult to draw any strong conclusions. According to the literature, high Ca intake seems to have a small positive effect on bone mineral content (BMC or bone mineral density (BMD in children and postmenopausal women. We did not find any consistent evidence on the effects of Ca on bone health in premenopausal women or men. Also, the evidence that Ca supplementation reduces fracture incidence is scarce and inconsistent. Maternal diet may influence the peak bone mass of offspring but more studies are required. There was no overall effect of Ca intake on cancers. Ca was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer and a slightly increased risk of prostate cancer in two of the three studies. No associations were found with other cancers. We

  1. Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

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    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

    2012-07-01

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    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to re-evaluate the safety in use of calcium. The Panel was requested to consider if the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL for calcium established by the SCF in 2003 (2,500 mg/day for adults, including pregnant and lactating women, which was based on different intervention studies of long duration in which total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements were tolerated without adverse effects, needed to be changed on the basis of new available evidence. A number of placebo controlled human intervention studies in adults published since then also showed that total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements are tolerated without adverse effects. The Panel considers that no relationship has been established between long-term calcium intakes from diet and supplements and increased risk of nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular disease or prostate cancer. No new data have become available which would require a revision of the UL for calcium for adults, including pregnant and lactating women, of 2,500 mg. No new data have become available which would allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents. Data from European populations indicate that intakes of calcium in high consumers among adult males can be close to the UL. Although available data do not allow the setting of a UL for infants, children or adolescents, no risk has been identified with highest current levels of calcium intake in these age groups.

  2. Effect of lowering dietary calcium intake on fractional whole body calcium retention

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    Dawson-Hughes, B.; Stern, D.T.; Shipp, C.C.; Rasmussen, H.M.

    1988-07-01

    Although fractional calcium absorption is known to vary inversely with calcium intake, the extent and timing of individual hormonal and calcium absorption responses to altered calcium intake have not been defined. We measured fractional whole body retention of orally ingested /sup 47/Ca, an index of calcium absorption, in nine normal women after they had eaten a 2000-mg calcium diet for 8 weeks and a 300-mg calcium diet for 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. After the diet change, serum intact PTH (32.2% increase; P = 0.005), serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; 43.8% increase; P = 0.003), and fractional whole body calcium retention (42.8% increase; P = 0.004) increased within 1 week. Although the PTH and calcium retention responses remained fairly constant throughout the low calcium intake period, serum 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations declined toward baseline after week 1. Thus, the late increase in calcium retention may have resulted from calcium absorption that was independent of 1,25-(OH)2D stimulation.

  3. Dietary Calcium Intake and Calcium Supplementation in Hungarian Patients with Osteoporosis

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    Gábor Speer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Adequate calcium intake is the basis of osteoporosis therapy—when this proves insufficient, even specific antiosteoporotic agents cannot exert their actions properly. Methods. Our representative survey analyzed the dietary intake and supplementation of calcium in 8033 Hungarian female and male (mean age: 68 years (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 patients with osteoporosis. Results. Mean intake from dietary sources was 665±7.9 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. A significant positive relationship could be detected between total dietary calcium intake and lumbar spine BMD (P=0.045, whereas such correlation could not be demonstrated with femoral T-score. Milk consumption positively correlated with femur (P=0.041, but not with lumbar BMD. The ingestion of one liter of milk daily increased the T-score by 0.133. Average intake from supplementation was 558±6.2 mg (68.01 (CI95: 67.81–68.21 daily. The cumulative dose of calcium—from both dietary intake and supplementation—was significantly associated with lumbar (r=0.024, P=0.049, but not with femur BMD (r=0.021, P=0.107. The currently recommended 1000–1500 mg total daily calcium intake was achieved in 34.5% of patients only. It was lower than recommended in 47.8% of the cases and substantially higher in 17.7% of subjects. Conclusions. We conclude that calcium intake in Hungarian osteoporotic patients is much lower than the current recommendation, while routinely applied calcium supplementation will result in inappropriately high calcium intake in numerous patients.

  4. Protective effects of low calcium intake and low calcium absorption vitamin D receptor genotype in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2013-01-01

    High calcium intake is consistently associated with increased prostate cancer risk in epidemiologic studies. We previously reported that the positive association between calcium intake and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was modified by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CDX-2 binding site of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, among African American men. We expanded our previous study to include White men, a population with a higher calcium intake and a higher prevalence of the low absorption allele. We also examined VDR polymorphisms at other loci unrelated to calcium absorption. The study included 1,857 prostate cancer cases (1,140 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 717 with localized stage) and 1,096 controls. OR were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Among both Blacks and Whites, we observed a threshold for calcium intake (604 mg/d) below which prostate cancer risk declined sharply. Low calcium intake was most strongly associated with decreased risk among men with the VDR Cdx2 low calcium absorption genotype (P for interaction = 0.001 and P = 0.06 for Whites and African Americans, respectively). Among all men with this genotype, those in the lowest quartile of calcium intake (≤604 mg/d) had a 50% reduction in risk as compared with those in the upper three quartiles [OR = 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.67]. The association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk was not modified by genotype at other VDR loci. Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic determinants of calcium absorption influence prostate cancer risk. The differences between African Americans and Whites in calcium absorption and dietary calcium intake may contribute to racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates.

  5. Calcium intake and calcium deficiency in toddlers in a slum population of Bhubaneswar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Kar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: When considering their children's nutrition, parents often think more about fat grams, carbs, and calories, and forget about calcium, a mineral that is important to help build strong and healthy bones and collagen structures like teeth. The RDI recommendation for 1-3 years is minimum 400mg/day. Calcium is selectively present in milk and milk products besides vegetables like spinach and fruits like orange. The current study was undertaken in the urban field practice area of KIMS that caters to a slum population of nearly 20,000. Aims & Objectives: To assess the knowledge of mothers regarding calcium rich foods and its deficiency and their sociodemographic conditions; to assess the average intake of Calcium using the 7 day recall method; to find the prevalence of possible calcium deficiency in the study population ie 1-3 years of age. Methods: All the mothers with children in the age group 1-3 years were recruited in the study after due informed consent, the final sample being nearly 284. The male female child ratio was 56:44. Mostly women i.e. 83% had some formal education and out of the total nearly 65% had heard never heard of calcium and of those who had heard only 30% could say that milk was the best source of calcium. Result: Average daily Calcium intake was poor i.e. 288mg/d which was worse for the female child 233mg/d. Teeth eruption defects or infections and bone deformities were taken as a proxy for calcium deficiency and were detected in 69.2% and 32% respectively. Diarrhea and skin infections were more in those whose calcium intake was less than 220mg/d which was mildly significant. Conclusion: The study suggests more emphasis on dietary calcium intake and probably recommend calcium supplements for the socioeconomically compromised class who probably cannot afford dietary sources of calcium

  6. Effect of calcium intake on urinary oxalate excretion in calcium stone-forming patients

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    Nishiura J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary calcium lowers the risk of nephrolithiasis due to a decreased absorption of dietary oxalate that is bound by intestinal calcium. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxaluria in normocalciuric and hypercalciuric lithiasic patients under different calcium intake. Fifty patients (26 females and 24 males, 41 ± 10 years old, whose 4-day dietary records revealed a regular low calcium intake (<=500 mg/day, received an oral calcium load (1 g/day for 7 days. A 24-h urine was obtained before and after load and according to the calciuria under both diets, patients were considered as normocalciuric (NC, N = 15, diet-dependent hypercalciuric (DDHC, N = 9 or diet-independent hypercalciuric (DIHC, N = 26. On regular diet, mean oxaluria was 30 ± 14 mg/24 h for all patients. The 7-day calcium load induced a significant decrease in mean oxaluria compared to the regular diet in NC and DIHC (20 ± 12 vs 26 ± 7 and 27 ± 18 vs 32 ± 15 mg/24 h, respectively, P<0.05 but not in DDHC patients (22 ± 10 vs 23 ± 5 mg/24 h. The lack of an oxalate decrease among DDHC patients after the calcium load might have been due to higher calcium absorption under higher calcium supply, with a consequent lower amount of calcium left in the intestine to bind with oxalate. These data suggest that a long-lasting regular calcium consumption <500 mg was not associated with high oxaluria and that a subpopulation of hypercalciuric patients who presented a higher intestinal calcium absorption (DDHC tended to hyperabsorb oxalate as well, so that oxaluria did not change under different calcium intake.

  7. Strategies of Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white parents to influence young adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, 2004 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefsen, Miriam; Reicks, Marla; Goldberg, Dena; Auld, Garry; Bock, Margaret A; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Wang, Changzheng; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2008-10-01

    Optimal intake of dietary calcium is critical to prevent osteoporosis later in life, yet most young adolescents do not consume the recommended amount. We describe parental strategies that can influence young adolescents' calcium intake in Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white households A qualitative research design employed semistructured individual interviews with a convenience sample of mostly female parents self-reported as Asian (n = 48), Hispanic (n = 44), or non-Hispanic white (n = 76) having a child aged 10 to 13 years at home. Interviews were conducted in homes or community centers in 12 states. Interview data were analyzed by using qualitative data analysis software and thematic content analysis procedures. Parents monitored calcium intake by making calcium-rich foods available, preparing calcium-rich foods, and setting expectations that children would consume calcium-rich foods. As mentors, parents encouraged intake of calcium-rich foods and advised children to moderate or increase intake of specific foods. Although parents perceived modeling of calcium intake as important, some were ambivalent about its effects. We noted minimal differences by racial/ethnic groups and sex of children in reported availability of selected calcium-rich foods at home, parental modeling of intake, and mentoring behaviors. Our findings suggest that interventions to help parents increase children's intake of calcium should focus on types of foods made available, giving age-appropriate encouragement and advice, and modeling proper intake.

  8. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Tom D; Abrams, Steven A

    2010-11-01

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH)D concentrations, and serum 1,25(OH)(2) D values are markedly elevated. Studies of Nigerian children with rickets demonstrated they have high fractional calcium absorption. A high-phytate diet was demonstrated to increase calcium absorption compared with the fasting state, and enzymatic dephytinization did not significantly improve calcium absorption. When given vitamin D, children with rickets have a marked increase in 1,25(OH)(2) D concentrations without any change in fractional calcium absorption. No positive relationship was found between fractional calcium absorption and serum 25(OH)D concentrations in children on low-calcium diets. More research is needed to understand the interaction between calcium and vitamin D and the role of vitamin D in calcium absorption.

  9. [Calcium intake and glucose and lipids concetrations in overweight and obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachocka, Lucyna M; Nowak, Agnieszka; Targosz, Urszula; Kłosiewicz-Latoszek, Longina; Stolarska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    Well-balanced diet is one of the determinants of the health and wellbeing. Inadequate nutrients' intake can promote disease development. The purpose of this study was to assess the intake of calcium, phosphorus and protein and relation between calcium intake and lipids and glucose serum concentration in patients with obesity. The studied group consisted of 57 subjects, aged 21-63 years. Dietary assessment was based on 3-d dietary record. Serum lipids concentrations were assessed by enzymatic methods, serum calcium concentrations were assessed by Vitros 250. The mean calcium intake in men was 588.8 mg/d, in women 549.3 mg/d. Calcium intake was statistically significant correlated with glucose concentration in women and men, but not with lipids concentrations. Dietary calcium intake in studied group was below the RDA. Calcium intake could be one of determinants of glucose concentration in obese persons.

  10. Effect of dietary calcium intake on its retention by caged broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important mineral in bone development and egg shell formation of broiler breeder hens. A study was undertaken to further examine the effect of dietary calcium intake on calcium retention of broiler breeder hens and to investigate the relationship between calcium retention and egg characteristics. Ninety broiler breeder hens were obtained from a previous study and allocated to three dietary treatments, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5% calcium level. Feeds were isocaloric and isonitrogenous but differed only in calcium and phosphorus contents. Birds were fed and caged individually with metal trays placed below cages for excreta collection. Excreta samples (30 birds per treatment were collected for calcium and phosphorus determinations during a 7-day period at 3-weekly intervals, i.e., 27, 33, 36 and 42 weeks of age. Other parameters measured included calcium intake of hens, hen day production, egg mass, egg weight, shell weight, shell percentage, shell thickness, egg surface area, shell weight per unit surface area, total calcium retention, shell calcium excretion, shell calcium as a percentage of calcium intake and faecal calcium as percentage of calcium intake. These results showed that dietary calcium level had significant (P<.0001 effect on calcium intake and retention. Dietary calcium level had significant effect on all parameters except egg weight and shell calcium excretion as a percentage of calcium intake. Calcium retention of hens was correlated with age, calcium intake and eggshell characteristics. Age was significantly correlated with all traits except daily calcium intake, calcium retention and shell percentage. The net effect of calcium intake and total calcium excretion was that the 2.5% calcium level (3.8 g calcium /hen/day exhibit a significant (P<.05 higher calcium retention compared to 1.5% calcium level. This suggests that the calcium level of 2.5% and intake of 3.8 g/hen/day is adequate to support egg production, good shell

  11. Effectiveness of a theory-driven nutritional education program in improving calcium intake among older Mauritian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhurosy, Trishnee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P adults when compared to the CG (P older community-based Mauritian adults.

  12. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent...

  13. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

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    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  14. Intake of dairy calcium and tooth loss among Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Twetman, Svante; Christensen, Lisa B

    2011-01-01

    and 1988 through 1993 and 1994. Total calcium intake, estimated by a 7-d food record or a a diet history interview, was divided into dairy and non-dairy forms of calcium. RESULTS: In men, a 10-fold increase in dairy calcium intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of tooth loss (incidence...

  15. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Laura E. Monnat; Rose, Angela M; Julie A. Kennel; Holloman, Christopher H.; Gail L. Kaye; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers) compared to those lacking access in...

  16. Influence of estrous and circadian cycles on calcium intake of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voznesenskaya, Anna; Tordoff, Michael G

    2013-03-15

    The food, water and sodium intake of laboratory rats fluctuates over the circadian and estrous cycles. Blood calcium and calcium-regulating hormones also wax and wane in response to these cycles, raising the possibility that the same might be true of calcium intake. To investigate this, we monitored the fluid intakes of female Long-Evans rats given a choice between water and 10mM CaCl2 solution for two consecutive estrous cycles. We found that calcium solution intake changed over the circadian cycle in a similar manner to water intake; the preference scores for CaCl2 solution remained stable. We did not detect any changes in calcium solution intake or preference scores during the estrous cycle despite a decrease in fluid intake at estrus. Thus, fluctuations in intake of calcium solution during the circadian cycle appear to be nonspecific and probably the result of changes in fluid balance. Estrous changes either do not influence calcium intake or their effects are masked by other factors, resulting in stable levels of calcium intake.

  17. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in mature human milk: influence of calcium intake, age and socioeconomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítolo, M R; Valente Soares, L M; Carvalho, E B; Cardoso, C B

    2004-03-01

    Concentrations of calcium and magnesium were measured in mature milk, collected between 30 and 90 days after childbirth, from a group of 90 mothers between 14 and 39 years of age, exclusively breastfeeding. The group was divided into three sub-groups: low socioeconomic-level adolescents (LSAd), low socioeconomic-level adults (LSA), and high socioeconomic-level adults (HSA). Each mother's nutritional status was determined using the body-mass index (BMI) and her eating habits, obtained on the basis of a 24-h dietary recall. Adolescent and adult mothers in the low socioeconomic-level group had lower average calcium intake (LSAd = 618.4 +/- 555.2 mg and LSA = 679.4 +/- 411.4 mg) than adult mothers in the higher socioeconomic-level group (853.6 +/- 415.5 mg). The average concentration of calcium in the adolescent mothers' milk (LSAd) was significantly lower (5.30 +/- 1.42 mmol Ca/L, P = 0.01) than that of the two adult groups (LSA = 5.82 +/- 1.55 mmol Ca/L and HSA = 6.40 mmol Ca/L). The average magnesium concentrations for all groups did not show significant differences (LSAd = 1.06 +/- 0.18, LSA = 1.16 +/- 0.23 and HSA = 1.11 +/- 0.23 mmol Mg/L, for P= 0.16). These results indicate that magnesium concentrations in mature human milk do not seem to depend on maternal nutritional status. The condition of adolescence, however, associated with lower calcium intake by the mother, resulted in lower calcium concentrations in the milk secreted when compared to that of adult mothers.

  18. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  19. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium int...

  20. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...... as below vs. within-recommendations and dairy intake as =3 servings/ d. Dental plaque, defined as the percentage of tooth surfaces exhibiting plaque, was classified as =median value (9.5%). Analyses were stratified by lower and higher (>=6.8 mug/d) vitamin D intake. FINDINGS: Intakes of calcium (OR = 0.......53; 95%CI = 0.31--0.92) and dairy servings (OR = 0.54; 95%CI = 0.33--0.89) within-recommendations were significantly associated with lower plaque score after adjustments for age, gender, education, intakes of alcohol, sucrose and mineral supplements, smoking, diseases, number of teeth, visits...

  1. Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Intakes and Risk of Stroke in Male Smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsson, S.C.; Virtanen, M.J.; Mars, M.; Mannisto, S.; Pietinen, P.; Albanes, D.; Virtamo, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background A high intake of magnesium, calcium, and potassium and a low intake of sodium have been hypothesized to reduce the risk of stroke. However, prospective data relating intake of these minerals to risk of stroke are inconsistent. Methods We examined the relationship of dietary magnesium, cal

  2. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  3. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2017-02-21

    Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intake (AI) values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006). Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032). When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086) and fluorine (p = 0.503). These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  4. Calcium intake and hypertension among obese adults in United States: associations and implications explored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Strasser, S; Cao, Y; Wang, K-S; Zheng, S

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between calcium intake and hypertension is receiving increased research attention. The prevalence of hypertension is high among the obese populations. Calcium is a mineral that influences blood pressure. The aim of the study was to examine the association between calcium intake and hypertension in a large nationally representative sample of obese American adults. A total of 14,408 obese adults aged 20 years or older were obtained from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Analysis of variance and linear regression models were used to examine relationships between calcium intake and systolic blood pressure (SBP) as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between calcium intake and hypertension after adjusting for potential confounders and interactions, including: age, race, education level, alcohol use, smoking, diabetes status, sodium intake and potassium intake. Calcium intake was significantly lower for the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group (Padults aged 20-44 years and among non-diabetic obese adults. Based on ordinary linear regression analysis, a significant inverse relationship was detected, SBP and DBP decreased if calcium intake increased (SBP: regression coefficient estimate=-0.015, Phypertension (odds ratio (OR)=0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.87, Padults (age 20-44 years) had the lowest likelihood of hypertension (OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.64-0.93, Phypertension was stronger among females (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.55-0.84, Padults. The protective effect of calcium intake and hypertension was found significantly in obese non-diabetic adults (OR: OR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.89, Padults. SBP, DBP and calcium intake were log transformed for both ordinary linear regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Our study findings underscore the need to explore the physiological mechanism between calcium intake and

  5. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Association between calcium intake, parathormone levels and blood pressure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the association between calcium intake from diet, calciotropic hormones (PTH, PTH-rp, vasoactive regulators (endothelin, nitric oxide and blood pressure levels during pregnancy, birth and puerperium.Method: In a prospective study 149 healthy normotensive primigravidas were followed-up from 15 weeks of gestation to puerperium. Daily calcium intake, calciuria, PTH, PTH-rp, endothelin, nitrite-nitrate, and Holter Test were assessed. Linear regression models were performed to evaluate the association between calcium intake, blood pressure levels and the laboratory tests. Multivariate regression models were performed to control potential confounders.Results: A significant increase of calcium intake during pregnancy was observed (931±301 mg/day to 1,195±467 mg/day, p<0.001. Plasma PTH-rp, endothelin, and nitrite-nitrate levels did not change during pregnancy. Among the women 38 (25.4% had low calcium intake (<800 mg/day with a larger increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy (p=0.04 birth (p=0.006 and puerperium (p=0.01. After adjusting for other factors the multivariate analyses showed statistical association between low calcium intake, high parathormone levels and high systolic blood pressure levels during pregnancy (p=0.002.Conclusion: Low calcium intake during pregnancy is associated with a larger increase of systolic blood pressure and high parathormone levels.

  7. Patterns of dietary calcium intake in south Indian rural, urban and metropolitan city subjects

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    Harinarayan CV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate dietary calcium intake favours bone mineral accrual. Sparse published data are available on dietary calcium intake of metropolitan city population from south India. Methods: We recorded the dietary intake of calcium and phytates of 524 healthy subjects from Bengaluru, a metropolitan city, by recalling the diet consumed in the previous 5 to 7 days and compared it with dietary intake of calcium of 325 healthy subjects from rural areas around Tirupati, and 508 healthy subjects from urban Tirupati. Results: The dietary calcium intake of the Tirupati rural subjects was the least compared to that of the urban and metropolitan city subjects. In the metropolitan and urban groups the diet was high in calories, milk, milk products and vegetables compared to rural subjects. Dietary calcium intake was significantly lower (p<0.0001 in the rural subjects compared to the urban and metropolitan city subjects. The dietary phytate were significantly different in both the rural, urban as well as the metropolitan city groups (p<0.0001. The dietary phytate/calcium ratio was significantly higher in rural subjects compared to urban and metropolitan city group (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Improving the quality of diet by reducing the phytate and enriching/supplementing with calcium will be of benefit for maintaining bone health.

  8. Dairy calcium intake and lifestyle risk factors for bone loss in hiv-infected and uninfected mediterranean subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchi Valentina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-population, there have been no previous studies examining dairy calcium intake and bone mineral density (BMD in HIV-subjects. We assessed the prevalence of low BMD in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects and analyzed the effects of calcium intake, lifestyle and HIV-related risk factors on BMD. Methods One hundred and twelve HIV-infected subjects were consecutively enrolled. Seventy- six HIV-uninfected subjects matched for age and sex were enrolled as the control group. The HIV-subjects were interviewed about lifestyle habits and completed a weekly food-frequency questionnaire to estimate calcium intake. HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell count and data on antiretroviral therapy were also recorded. Both biochemical bone turnover markers and BMD, assessed by dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DXA were recorded in the HIV-cases and controls. We also calculated the 10-year fracture risks using the WHO FRAX equation. Results Osteoporosis prevalence was significantly higher in the HIV-cases than controls (p p p BMI values were significantly correlated with dairy intake quartiles (p p p p p p p Conclusions Among the foods rich in calcium, yogurt was a protective predictor of BMD in HIV-subjects. HIV/HCV co-infection, nadir CD4 + T-cell count

  9. Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy product intake and prostate cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Stram, Daniel O; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2007-12-01

    High intakes of calcium and dairy products have been suggested to be related to prostate cancer risk. Such associations were examined in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (1993-2002) among 82,483 men who completed a detailed quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 8 years, 4,404 total cases of prostate cancer were identified. In Cox proportional hazards models, no association was found between calcium and vitamin D intake and total, advanced, or high-grade prostate cancer risk, whether for total intake, intake from foods, or intake from supplements, among all male participants or among nonusers of supplemental calcium. No association of calcium or vitamin D intake was seen across racial/ethnic groups. In analyses of food groups, dairy product and total milk consumption were not associated with prostate cancer risk. However, low-/nonfat milk was related to an increased risk and whole milk to a decreased risk of total prostate cancer; after stratification, these effects were limited to localized or low-grade tumors. Although the findings from this study do not support an association between the intakes of calcium and vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, they do suggest that an association with milk consumption may vary by fat content, particularly for early forms of this cancer.

  10. The 2011 dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D: what dietetics practitioners need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, comprehensively reviewed the evidence for both skeletal and nonskeletal health outcomes and concluded, that a causal role of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health provided the necessary basis for th...

  11. Parental Influences on Dairy Intake in Children, and Their Role in Child Calcium-Fortified Food Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Beth H.; Chung, Kimberly R.; Reckase, Mark; Schoemer, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand how parental influences on dairy food intake relate to early adolescent children's use of calcium-fortified food. Design: Content analysis of qualitative interviews to identify parental influences on dairy intake; calcium-fortified food survey to identify children as either calcium-fortified food users or nonusers. Setting…

  12. Quantitative analysis of efficacy and associated factors of calcium intake on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Xu, L; Lv, Y; Dong, L; Zheng, Q; Li, L

    2017-03-23

    A model-based meta-analysis method was performed to quantitatively analyze the efficacy characteristics of calcium intake in BMD increase among postmenopausal women. We found that age and calcium intake dose were key factors affecting the efficiency and onset of BMD change, and daily 1200 mg calcium was suggested to be a beneficial dosage.

  13. Parents' Calcium Knowledge Is Associated with Parental Practices to Promote Calcium Intake among Parents of Early Adolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Carolyn W.; Rose, Angela M.; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Reicks, Marla; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Boushey, Carol J.; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to identify the relationship of parents' calcium knowledge with diet-related parental practices and determinants of calcium knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted measuring parental practices, calcium knowledge, and demographics. A convenience sample of 599 racially/ethnically diverse parents of children…

  14. Status of Dietary Intake of Calcium in Women of Reproductive Age in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nighat Yaseen Sofi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium (Ca plays an important role in bone formation. Attaining optimal bone mass and peak bone densities is essential to prevent osteoporotic fractures in future life. In conditions of Ca deficiency, Ca from the bones maintains the blood levels of Ca leading to its depletion in bones. Calcium depletion leads to poor bone density and a higher risk of osteoporosis particularly in women who have repeated episodes of pregnancy and lactation.Aim & Objective: To assess the dietary intake of calcium.Material Methods: the study was conducted among 200 healthy women of reproductive age group of 20-49 years.Result: The dietary intake of calcium was less than the Recommended Dietary Allowances of 600mg/day. Women from upper socioeconomic class had a higher intake of dietary calcium 435±268 mg/day as compared to women from low socioeconomic class with a dietary intake of 295±163 mg/day.Conclusion: The dietary intake of calcium improved with an increase in socioeconomic class.

  15. [Association between dietary calcium/dairy intakes and overweight/obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanrong; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hongmei; Bao, Yuxin; Luo, Jiao; Tian, Guo; Cheng, Guo

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the intakes of dietary calcium/dairy and the current prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 7-15 in Longquanyi District, Chengdu, and to explore the association of dietary calcium and dairy intake with overweight/obesity. 1738 children and adolescents were recruited in the cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method. Information on dietary calcium and dairy intakes was collected using 24-hour dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI)/waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index standard deviation (BMI SDS). Overweight/obesity was defined based on the criteria of Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC). Participants were grouped into 3 categories indicating lower, moderate and higher intakes of dietary calcium and dairy, respectively. The association of dietary calcium and dairy consumption with (BMI SDS) /WHtR and the prevalence of overweight/obesity was analyzed after being stratified by gender and age. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in boys and girls were 11.92%/7.04% and 8.04%/6.30%, respectively. The intake of dietary calcium and dairy in girls were much higher than that in boys (P overweight (P = 0.03). However, similar results were not observed among girls. Dietary calcium and dairy intakes seemed to be related to overweight/ obesity in boys, however the associations were inconsistent among different age groups. Associations between consumption of calcium, dairy and overweight/obesity were not found among girls.

  16. Inadequate dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes in renal-transplant recipients in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Irene T

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in adult renal-transplant recipients attending at a large teaching hospital in Ireland for follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient renal-transplant follow-up clinic. SUBJECTS: Fifty-nine adult renal transplant recipients (58% male) with a mean age of 46 years, a median transplant duration of 6 years, and a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 50 mL\\/min per 1.73 m2. Fifty-three percent were at National Kidney Foundation stage 3 chronic kidney disease, and 14% had stage 4 chronic kidney disease. INTERVENTION: This cross-sectional, observational study used a tailored food frequency questionnaire specific for calcium and vitamin D intake in Irish adults, which was completed during a face-to-face interview with each subject. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was the average daily dietary and supplemented calcium and vitamin D intake. RESULTS: The median interquartile range (IQR) dietary calcium intake was 820 mg\\/day (range, 576-1,177 mg\\/day), and was similar in men and women (recommended intake > or = 1,000 mg\\/day in adult men and nonmenopausal adult women, > or = 1,500 mg\\/day in menopausal women). Five participants received calcium supplementation. Overall, 59% of men and 64% of women had total calcium intakes below the recommended amounts. The median IQR estimated dietary vitamin D intake was 5.2 microg\\/day (range, 2.4-6.4 microg\\/day) in women, and 4.6 microg\\/day (range, 2.2-6.6 microg\\/day) in men (recommended intake, > or = 10 microg\\/day). Six subjects received vitamin D supplementation. Total vitamin D intakes were suboptimal in 91% of men and 87% of women. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes significantly correlated with each other, but neither was significantly related to eGFR category, and was similarly low in both presumed menopausal women and in the initial year posttransplantation. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dietary and total calcium and

  17. Modeling of the parathyroid hormone response after calcium intake in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae Eun; Jeon, Sangil; Lee, Jongtae; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Plasma ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations are tightly regulated in the body and maintained within a narrow range; thus it is challenging to quantify calcium absorption under normal physiologic conditions. This study aimed to develop a mechanistic model for the parathyroid hormone (PTH) response after calcium intake and indirectly compare the difference in oral calcium absorption from PTH responses. PTH and Ca(2+) concentrations were collected from 24 subjects from a clinical trial performed to evaluate the safety and calcium absorption of Geumjin Thermal Water in comparison with calcium carbonate tablets in healthy subjects. Indirect response models (NONMEM Ver. 7.2.0) were fitted to observed Ca(2+) and PTH data, respectively, in a manner that absorbed but unobserved Ca(2+) inhibits the secretion of PTH. Without notable changes in Ca(2+) levels, PTH responses were modeled and used as a marker for the extent of calcium absorption.

  18. A study of calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescent boys and girls from two socioeconomic strata, in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwalka, Neha J; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Mughal, M Zulf; Sayyad, Mehmood G; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Shirole, Shilpa C; Divate, Uma P; Bhandari, Dhanshari R

    2010-01-01

    Adequate intake of calcium is important for skeletal growth. Low calcium intake during childhood and adolescence may lead to decreased bone mass accrual thereby increasing the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Our aim was to study dietary calcium intake and sources of calcium in adolescents from lower and upper economic strata in Pune, India. We hypothesized that children from lower economic strata would have lower intakes of calcium, which would predominantly be derived from non-dairy sources. Two hundred male and female adolescents, from lower and upper economic stratum were studied. Semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate intakes of calcium, phosphorus, oxalic acid, phytin, energy and protein. The median calcium intake was significantly different in all four groups, with maximum intake in the upper economic strata boys (893 mg, 689-1295) and lowest intake in lower economic strata girls (506 mg, 380-674). The median calcium intake in lower economic strata boys was 767 mg (585-1043) and that in upper economic strata girls was 764 mg (541-959). The main source of calcium was dairy products in upper economic strata adolescents while it was dark green leafy vegetables in lower economic strata adolescents. The median calcium intake was much lower in lower economic strata than in the upper economic strata both in boys and girls. Girls from both groups had less access to dairy products as compared to boys. Measures need to be taken to rectify low calcium intake in lower economic strata adolescents and to address gender inequality in distribution of dairy products in India.

  19. Impact of High Calcium Intake from Calcium Carbonate or Dairy on Cardiovascular Function, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Artery Disease Burden in Ossabaw Miniature Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Alyssa K.

    2013-01-01

    Recent secondary analyses have associated supplemental calcium use with increased risk for myocardial infarction and cardiovascular-related death in healthy, older adults. Subsequent concern over the safety of calcium supplements has spurred a calcium controversy, because calcium is a shortfall essential nutrient that is critical for bone health and a mainstay of osteoporosis prevention and treatment. The proposed mechanism by which calcium intake may detriment cardiovascular health is throug...

  20. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Joan M; McMahon, Donald J; Laughlin, Ann; Hanson, Corrine; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Begley, Margaret; Schwartz, Misty

    2017-03-15

    Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake. Participants had above-the-median body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Design: We enrolled 274 healthy postmenarcheal 13- to 14-y-old overweight girls who had calcium intakes of ≤600 mg/d in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial. Girls were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 groups within each of 3 BMI percentiles: 50th to dairy, which included low-fat milk or yogurt servings providing ≥1200 mg Ca/d or 2) control, which included the usual diet of ≤600 mg Ca/d.Results: We failed to detect a statistically significant difference between groups in percentage of body fat gain over 12 mo (mean ± SEM: dairy 0.40% ± 0.53% > control; P dairy group gained body fat similar to the control group provide no support for dairy food as a stratagem to decrease body fat or weight gain in overweight adolescent girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01066806.

  1. Intake technologies: Research status: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGroddy, P.M.; Matousek, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes recent research activities related to fish protection at water intake structures, with particular emphasis on research reported on or conducted at pumped cooling-water intakes. Information gathered from 51 organizations (33 utilities, seven equipment manufacturers, six research organizations, two private engineering firms, one steel mill, and two government agencies) is provided along with specific summaries of EPRI-sponsored research on behavioral barriers at pumped and hydroelectric facilities. The level of research activity indicted by utilities at pumped intakes has decreased recently, although the interest in potential plant operational impact mitigative techniques remains high. Two studies sponsored by EPRI at pumped cooling-water intake structures evaluated the individual and combined deterrent capabilities of three devices: an air bubble curtain, pneumatic guns, and underwater strobe lights. A study conducted during 1985 and 1986 at Ontario Hydro's nearshore test facility, located in Lake Ontario off the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station intake, indicated that all three devices and combinations of devices elicited an avoidance response in alewife. The pneumatic gun exhibited the highest deterrent capability and the air bubble curtain the lowest. Studies conducted using the same deterrent devices at the intake of Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation's Roseton Generating Station on the Hudson River did not indicate an overall avoidance response; some species-specific responses to the devices were noted. 22 refs., 9 tabs.

  2. Dietary calcium intake in a cohort of elderly patients already in drug therapy for osteoporosis. Is it possible and how to modify the eating habits before calcium supplementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Manzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate intake of calcium via the diet is very common in patients taking drugs for osteoporosis. We have evaluated 302 consecutive elderly patients (68.6 median age attending our Rheumatological and Orthopedic Outpatient Clinics using a questionnaire for evaluation of dietary calcium intake. Two hundred and forty of these had a questionnaire score 7 in 205/240 after an average period of 3-6 months. In the 35 patients in which this was not possible, the exact knowledge of calcium dietary intake (poor or absent has allowed a tailored calcium supplementation.

  3. Calcium Intake and Body Composition in African-American Children and Adolescents at Risk for Overweight and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances A. Tylavsky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of calcium intake on body composition in 186 African-American adolescents at risk for overweight and obesity. The average weight of 89.8 kg ± 23.6 (SD had a mean BMI z score of 2.2. Females with a calcium intake of < 314 mg/day had higher percent fat mass compared to those with the highest calcium intakes that were ≥ 634 mg/day. Compared to those with a low calcium intake (< 365 mg/day, those with the highest calcium intake of > 701 mg/day had higher intake of thiamin, folate, cobalamin, vitamin D, phosphorus, iron, zinc.

  4. The relationship between habitual dietary phosphorus and calcium intake, and bone mineral density in young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sanae; Ishida, Hiromi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus and calcium are essential for bone health. There is a concern that a low calcium/phosphorus intake ratio resulting from low calcium intake coupled with high phosphorus intake may have a negative effect on bone mineral status, especially in Western countries. The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectionally the influence of habitual phosphorus and calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio on the bone mineral density (BMD) in 441 young Japanese women (aged 18-22) whose calcium/phosphorus intake ratio was assumed to be lower than young Western women. We also ascertained the relationship between dietary intake and serum or urinary measurements of phosphorus and calcium. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) were also examined for 214 of the 441 subjects. Phosphorus and calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio had significant positive correlations with urinary phosphorus. Calcium intake and the calcium/phosphorus intake ratio independently had positive and significant associations with BMD in the distal radius adjusted for postmenarcheal age, body mass index, and physical activity. There were no significant associations with BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck. These results indicate that in young Japanese women, phosphorus intake did not have a significantly negative effect on bone mineral density, and calcium intake and calcium/phosphorus intake ratio had a small but significant association only in a site-specific manner with BMD.

  5. Estimation of milk, dairy products and calcium intake in nutrition of the celiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Panjkota Krbavčić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley and possibly oats. The smallest amount of gluten in food damages the small intestine of these patients. In Croatia there is no data about nutrition and dietary habits of people with celiac disease. In celiac disease there is one and only cure: a gluten-free diet. Milk and dairy products are major source of calcium, and this population, because of malapsorptive syndrome is especially sensitive and predisposed for osteoporosis and osteopenya. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to establish milk, dairy products and calcium intake in celiac patients nutrition. Milk and dairy products was determined by using 3-day-dietary record (3DD combined with food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in 15 celiac patients. Energy share of milk and dairy products were 11,82 % kJ, twice less than recommendation. Average daily intake of calcium was also below the recommendation (62,64 % DRI, and 67 % of examinees did not achieve neither 2/3 of daily recommendation intake (DRI for calcium. From milk and dairy group examinees use milk and pudding the most, yoghurt and fruit yoghurt less. It is necessary to increase intake of calcium from milk and dairy products group because they are the best source of this nutrient.

  6. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  7. Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III. METHODS: Mortality linkage of NHANES III to death certificate data for those aged 17 years or older (n = 20,024 was used to estimate risk of overall cardiovascular death as well as death from ischemic heart disease (IHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI, heart failure (HF, and cerebrovascular disease (CD with multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. RESULTS: About 10.0% of the population died of cardiovascular disease and the majority (5.4% died of IHD. There was increased risk of overall CVD death for those in the bottom 5% of serum calcium compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.51 (95% CI: 1.03-2.22. For women there was a statistically significant increased risk of IHD death for those with serum calcium levels in the top 5% compared to those in the mid 90% (HR: 1.72 (95%CI: 1.13-2.61, whereas in men, low serum calcium was related to increased IHD mortality (HR: 2.32 (95% CI 1.14-3.01, Pinteraction: 0.306. No clear association with CVD death was observed for dietary or supplemental calcium intake. CONCLUSIONS: Calcium as assessed by serum concentrations is involved in cardiovascular health, though differential effects by sex may exist. No clear evidence was found for an association between dietary or supplementary intake of calcium and cardiovascular death.

  8. Dairy products, calcium intake, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cai-Xia; Ho, Suzanne C; Fu, Jian-Hua; Cheng, Shou-Zhen; Chen, Yu-Ming; Lin, Fang-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The results of dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk are conflicting, and their relationship has not previously been studied in China. The objective of this study is to examine the association between dairy products, calcium intake, and breast cancer risk among Chinese women. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted among Chinese women in the Guangdong province from June 2007 to August 2008. Four hundred and thirty-eight consecutively recruited cases with primary breast cancer were frequency-matched to 438 controls on age and residence. Dietary intake information was collected by interviewers using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression adjusted for various potential confounders. We observed a statistically significant inverse association of dietary calcium intake with breast cancer risk, with the adjusted OR (95% CI) of 0.35 (0.22-0.56) comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No significant association was found between dairy products measured either by dry weight of dairy product or dairy product protein intake and breast cancer risk. Our study supports a protective effect of high intake of dietary calcium on breast cancer risk, and no association with dairy product intake.

  9. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Medical University of Southern Africa,. PO Medunsa ... only an FFQ was undertaken, with anthropometric data collected. ... 0.5 kg on a portable electronic scale (Soehnle Digital,. Germany). .... AI (UK) < 1 000 mg/d. 82. 29 .... the major health benefits of calcium, but lack specific.

  10. Calcium intake is weakly but consistently negatively associated with iron status in girls and women in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Charzewska, J.; Rotily, M.; Charles, P.; Maggiolini, M.; Ando, S.; Väänänen. K.; Wajszczyk, B.; Heikkinen, J.; Deloraine, A.; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Several studies indicate that intake of calcium can inhibit iron absorption especially when taken simultaneously. In the CALEUR study, a cross-sectional study among girls (mean 13.5 y) and young women (mean 22.0 y) in six European countries, the association between calcium intake and iron status was

  11. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  12. Dietary intake of vitamin d and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, S.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Chang-Claude, J.; Peeters, P.H.; Engel, P.; Brustad, M.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European

  13. The influence of calcium intake and physical activity on bone mineral content and bone size in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Christian; Thomsen, B. Lykke; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted......Adolescents, Bone area, Bone minral content, Calcium intake, Children, Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Physical activity, Size-adjusted...

  14. Effect of maternal calcium intake during pregnancy on children's blood pressure: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Aluisio JD

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium supplementation during pregnancy has been shown to reduce the incidence of hypertension in the mother, but the effects on the offspring are uncertain. Assessing the impact on the offspring is very important given the now large body of evidence indicating that blood pressure levels in childhood and young adulthood can be influenced by factors operating during fetal life. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to summarize the evidence supporting an association between maternal dietary calcium intake during pregnancy and blood pressure in the offspring. Methods A systematic review was performed to identify randomized, quasi-randomized and cohort studies reporting the relationship between offspring blood pressure or incidence of hypertension and levels of maternal dietary calcium intake during pregnancy, either from supplements (i.e. pills or food. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library Registry were searched for relevant trials. Results Two randomized trial and three observational studies were identified and included in this review. In 4 of the 5 studies, loss to follow-up was a serious concern. There was heterogeneity between the studies, particularly those conducted on children below 12 month of age. Results were more consistent among the studies including older children (1 to 9 years where a higher maternal calcium intake was associated with a reduction of -1.92 mm Hg (95% CI -3.14 to -0.71 in offspring systolic blood pressure. One large randomized trial found a clinically and statistically significant reduction in the incidence of hypertension in 7-year-old children (RR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.90. Conclusion There is evidence in the literature to support an association between maternal calcium intake during pregnancy and offspring blood pressure. However, more research is needed to confirm these finding given the small sample sizes and the methodological problems in many of the studies conducted so

  15. Rankings of iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in relation to maternal characteristics of pregnant Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Weiler, Hope A; Dubois, Lise; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Dodds, Linda; Massarelli, Isabelle; Vigneault, Michel; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2016-07-01

    Iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in the prenatal period are important determinants of maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to examine iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes from diet and supplements in relation to maternal characteristics. Data were collected in a subsample of 1186 pregnant women from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a cohort study including pregnant women recruited from 10 Canadian sites between 2008 and 2011. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to obtain rankings of iron, calcium, and vitamin D intake (16-21 weeks of pregnancy). Intakes from supplements were obtained from a separate questionnaire (6-13 weeks of pregnancy). Women were divided into 2 groups according to the median total intake of each nutrient. Supplement intake was an important contributor to total iron intake (median 74%, interquartile range (IQR) 0%-81%) and total vitamin D intake (median 60%, IQR 0%-73%), while the opposite was observed for calcium (median 18%, IQR 0%-27%). Being born outside of Canada was significantly associated with lower total intakes of iron, vitamin D, and calcium (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Consistent positive indicators of supplement use (iron, vitamin D, and calcium) were maternal age over 30 years and holding a university degree. In conclusion, among Canadian women, the probability of having lower iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes is higher among those born outside Canada; supplement intake is a major contributor to total iron and vitamin D intakes; and higher education level and age over 30 years are associated with supplement intake.

  16. Dietary patterns with special reference to calcium intake in 2-16-year-old Urban Western Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbote, Veena H; Khadilkar, Anuradha V; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Mughal, Zulf

    2017-01-01

    It is important to establish good dietary practices in childhood that promote adequate calcium intake throughout life and reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures in later life. To assess dietary patterns of 2-16-year-old children with special reference to calcium and suggest strategies and develop recipes suitable to identified patterns to increase dietary calcium intake. We studied 220 schoolchildren (2-16 years) around Pune city, India. The study duration was June 2013-July 2014. Height and weight were measured using standard protocols. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h diet recall on 3 nonconsecutive days. Dietary patterns were derived by cluster analysis in two age groups; children (2-9 years) and adolescents (10-16 years). As per the dietary patterns, calcium-rich recipes were developed. Among children, "rice-pulse" (RP) and "wheat, milk, and milk products" (WM) patterns were observed. Among adolescents, RP, "wheat, milk, and bakery" (WMB), and "mixed food" patterns were observed. Children who consumed "WM" and "WMB" patterns had greater intake of calcium (P patterns. The daily calcium intake of whole group was 53% of the recommended dietary allowance. From this, 30% calcium came from milk. Each serve of the developed recipe provided an average of 254 mg of calcium. Majority of children had cereal-pulse-based dietary patterns. By replacing foods from existing dietary patterns with calcium-rich foods, the dietary calcium content may be increased in a sustainable manner.

  17. Dairy Product, Calcium Intake and Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Xu; Yao, Qinghua; Qin, Liqiang; Xu, Chao

    2016-02-15

    The effects of dairy products on human health have been studied for years. However, the relationship between dairy products as well as calcium intake and the risk of lung cancer is still inconclusive. A total of 32 studies regarding this association were identified from the PubMed and Web of Science databases through April 1, 2015, including 12 cohort studies and 20 case-control studies. After pooling the results of individual studies, the summary RRs (relative risks) of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest intake were 1.05 (95%CI: 0.84-1.31) and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.80-1.46) for total dairy products and milk, respectively. The results on the consumption of cheese, yogurt and low-fat milk were also negative, and the RRs for total and dietary calcium intakes were 0.99 (95%CI: 0.70-1.38) and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.63-1.13), respectively. After stratifying by potential confounders, the results remained consistent in most subgroup analyses. Our study indicates that intake of dairy products or calcium was not statistically associated with the risk of lung cancer. This negative finding provides a conclusive answer to the disease association issue based on current evidence, and suggests that further efforts should be made to find other nutritional risk factors for lung cancer.

  18. Dietary patterns are associated with calcium and vitamin D intake in an adult Mexican population

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    Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition research has traditionally promoted a nutrient-based approach; however, to evaluate population compliance with dietary recommendations, researchers have increasingly used dietary pattern analysis. Objective: To assess the relationship between dietary patterns and vitamin D and calcium intake in an adult Mexican population. Methods: We characterized the dietary patterns of 8,456 men and women aged 20-80 years who were participating in the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on participants' sociodemographic conditions and physical activity was collected via self-administered questionnaires. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess diet. In a cross-sectional analysis, we examined dietary patterns in relation to vitamin D and calcium consumption. Results: Factor analysis revealed 3 major dietary patterns. Pattern 1, labeled as "prudent pattern", was characterized by high positive loads for the consumption of fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, whole grains, oils, and legumes. The second dietary pattern, named as "dairy and fish pattern", was positively correlated with intake of dairy foods, fish and other seafood, milk and whole grains. Finally, dietary pattern 3 was associated with higher intake of red meat, soft drinks, fats, eggs, white meat and alcoholic beverages. Of these, the "dairy and fish pattern" was positively and significantly associated with vitamin D and calcium consumption (r = 0.42, p < 0.001; and r = 0.20, p < 0.001 respectively. Conversely, the third dietary pattern was negatively associated with vitamin D and calcium intake (r = -0.28, p < 0.001; and r = -0.41, p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusions: In summary, our findings show that dietary patterns represented by high consumption of milk, dairy products, whole grains, fish are associated with higher consumption of vitamin D and calcium in Mexican adult population. Additionally, our results highlight the importance of following an appropriate

  19. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

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    Suriawati, A. A.; Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC) in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs). Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females) were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher) with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC. PMID:27783041

  20. Vitamin D and Calcium Intakes, Physical Activity, and Calcaneus BMC among School-Going 13-Year Old Malaysian Adolescents

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    A. A. Suriawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone development. Apart from diet, physical activity may potentially improve and sustain bone health. Objective: To investigate the relationship between the dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D, physical activity, and bone mineral content (BMC in 13-year-old Malaysian adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Selected public secondary schools from the central and northern regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Participants: The subjects were from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Cohort study (MyHeARTs. Methods: The data included seven-day diet histories, anthropometric measurements, and the BMC of calcaneal bone using a portable broadband ultrasound bone densitometer. Nutritionist Pro software was used to calculate the dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes from the diet histories, based on the Nutrient Composition of Malaysian Food Database guidance for the dietary calcium intake and the Singapore Energy and Nutrient Composition of Food Database for vitamin D intake. Results: A total of 289 adolescents (65.7% females were recruited. The average dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D were 377 ± 12 mg/day and 2.51 ± 0.12 µg/day, respectively, with the majority of subjects failing to meet the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI of Malaysia for dietary calcium and vitamin D. All the subjects had a normal Z-score for the BMC (−2.00 or higher with a mean of 0.55 ± 0.01. From the statistical analysis of the factors contributing to BMC, it was found that for those subjects with a higher intake of vitamin D, a higher combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium resulted in significantly higher BMC quartiles. The regression analysis showed that the BMC might have been influenced by the vitamin D intake. Conclusions: A combination of the intake of vitamin D and calcium is positively associated with the BMC.

  1. Adult-type hypolactasia and calcium intake in polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Giuliani, Albrecht; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen; Pieber, Thomas R; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Adult-type hypolactasia (ATH) is related to lower calcium and milk intake, which might be associated with obesity and metabolic disturbances. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) frequently suffer from metabolic disturbances including central obesity. We aimed to examine the association of ATH and calcium intake with anthropometric, metabolic and endocrine parameters in a cohort of PCOS and control women. Metabolic, endocrine and anthropometric measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 504 PCOS and 366 control women. Genotyping of ATH, defined by the -13910 variant of the MCM6 gene, was performed. Calcium intake was assessed by questionnaires. Adult-type hypolactasia was more prevalent in PCOS women (29·8%) than in controls (23·5%) (P = 0·040). PCOS women with ATH had higher waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (0·80 [0·75-0·88] vs 0·78 [0·73-0·85], P = 0·046), glucose 2 h (5·28 [4·57-6·33] mmol/l vs 5·67 [4·68-6·78] mmol/l, P = 0·037), HbA1c (5·2 [5·0-5·4]%vs 5·1 [5·0-5·3]%, P = 0·009), parathyroid hormone (3·72(2·91-4·86] pmol/l vs 3·61 [2·94-4·63] pmol/l, P = 0·030) and Ferriman-Gallwey-Scores (FG Scores) (7 [3-12] vs 4 [1-9], P = 0·002) and lower 25(OH)D levels (54·4 [35·2-80·6] nmol/l vs 68·4 [49·7-89·4] nmol/l, P < 0·001) than PCOS women without ATH. The association of 25(OH)D and FG-Scores with ATH remained significant in age-, BMI- and WHR-adjusted analyses. PCOS women within the highest quartile of calcium intake had significantly lower testosterone (P = 0·023) and androstenedione (P = 0·032) and significantly higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels (P = 0·035) than PCOS women with lower calcium intake. Our results indicate an association of ATH with PCOS susceptibility. Moreover, ATH might influence WHR, HbA1c and FG-Scores as well as 25(OH)D levels. Higher calcium intake was associated with lower androgens and higher HDL levels. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Calcium intake, serum vitamin D and obesity in children: is there an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Kelly Aparecida; Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Loureiro, Laís Monteiro Rodrigues; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; de Novaes, Juliana Farias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between calcium intake and serum vitamin D levels and childhood obesity by an integrative review. DATA SOURCE: The research was conducted in the databases PubMed/medLine, Science Direct and SciELO with 2001 to 2014 publications. We used the combined terms in English: ''children'' and ''calcium'' or ''children'' and ''vitamin D'' associated with the descriptors: ''obesity'', ''adiposity'' or ''body fat'' for all bases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies, as well as clinical trials, were included. Review articles or those that that have not addressed the association of interest were excluded. DATA SYNTHESIS: Eight articles were part of this review, five of which were related to calcium and three to vitamin D. Most studies had a longitudinal design. The analyzed studies found an association between calcium intake and obesity, especially when age and sex were considered. Inverse relationship between serum vitamin D and measures of adiposity in children has been observed and this association was influenced by the sex of the patient and by the seasons of the year. CONCLUSIONS: The studies reviewed showed an association between calcium and vitamin D with childhood obesity. Considering the possible protective effect of these micronutrients in relation to childhood obesity, preventive public health actions should be designed, with emphasis on nutritional education. PMID:25890445

  3. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children

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    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Methods Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41–50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Results Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose–response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend = 0.01. The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend = 0.07, 0.51 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend = 0.07, and 0.50 (95 % CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend = 0.08, respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. Conclusion These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  4. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  5. Better Knowledge on Vitamin D and Calcium in Older People Is Associated with a Higher Serum Vitamin D Level and a Higher Daily Dietary Calcium Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Christian; Hartholt, Klaas A.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P. T. M.; Colin, Edgar M.; van der Velde, Nathalie; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional survey consisted of 426 individuals (greater than or equal to 65 years),…

  6. Better knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in older people is associated with a higher serum vitamin D level and a higher daily dietary calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Oudshoorn (Christian); K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); E.M. Colin (Edgar); N. van der Velde (Nathalie); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Objective: The objective of the present study was to examine knowledge on vitamin D and calcium in a cohort of older adults and to test the association between health knowledge, vitamin D status and dietary calcium intake. Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional surv

  7. Calcium/magnesium intake ratio, but not magnesium intake, interacts with genetic polymorphism in relation to colorectal neoplasia in a two-phase study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangzhu; Shrubsole, Martha J; Ness, Reid M; Hibler, Elizabeth A; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Chen, Zhi; Li, Guoliang; Jiang, Ming; Hou, Lifang; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Zhang, Bing; Smalley, Walter E; Edwards, Todd L; Giovannucci, Edward L; Zheng, Wei; Dai, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Some studies suggest that the calcium to magnesium ratio intakes modify the associations of calcium or magnesium with risk of colorectal adenoma, adenoma recurrence, and cancer. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a key role in the regulation of homeostasis for both calcium and magnesium. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in PTH and 13 other genes may modify the association between the calcium/magnesium intake ratio and colorectal neoplasia risk. We conducted a two-phase study including 1336 cases and 2891 controls from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study. In Phase I, we identified 19 SNPs that significantly interacted with the calcium/magnesium intake ratio in adenoma risk. In Phase II, rs11022858 in PTH was replicated. In combined analysis of phases I and II, we found high calcium/magnesium intake ratio tended to be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal adenoma (P for trend, 0.040) among those who carried the TT genotype in rs11022858. In stratified analyses, calcium intake (≥ 1000 mg/d) was significantly associated with 64% reduced adenoma risk (OR = 0.36 (95% CI : 0.18-0.74)) among those homozygous for the minor allele (TT genotype) (P for trend, 0.012), but not associated with risk in other genotypes (CC/TC). Conversely, we found that highest magnesium intake was significantly associated with 27% reduced risk (OR = 0.73 (95% CI : 0.54-0.97)) of colorectal adenoma (P for trend, 0.026) among those who possessed the CC/TC genotypes, particularly among those with the TC genotype, whereas magnesium intake was not linked to risk among those with the TT genotype. These findings, if confirmed, will help for the development of personalized prevention strategies for colorectal cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Calcium intake and adiposity in adolescents aged 12-16 years in Guadalajara, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Gabriela; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Bárbara; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio

    2013-06-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the association between calcium (Ca) intake and adiposity in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 125 adolescents 12 to 16 years. Ca intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall dietary surveys and food frequency consumption. Adiposity was measured by anthropometric methods and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). The association between Ca intake and adiposity was identified by simple correlation and multivariate models adjusted to energy consumption, age, sex and menarche. Mean age of adolescents was 13.5 +/- 0.8 years. A negative correlation was identified between Ca intake and anthropometric indicators weight, skinfolds, body mass index, fat mass and percentage of fat (the latter two by BIA and only in women). Multivariate analysis, including energy consumption showed no association between Ca intake and adiposity. In conclusion, Ca consumption does not associate with adiposity in adolescents; multivariate models showed that energy intake and menarche are the variables that show a higher association with adiposity at this stage of life.

  9. Prenatal calcium and vitamin D intake, and bone mass in later life.

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    Curtis, Elizabeth M; Moon, Rebecca J; Dennison, Elaine M; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2014-06-01

    The aging population will result in an increasing burden of osteoporotic fractures, necessitating the identification of novel strategies for prevention. There is increasing recognition that factors in utero may influence bone mineral accrual, and, thus, osteoporosis risk. The role of calcium and vitamin D has received much attention in recent years, and in this review, we will survey available studies relating maternal calcium and vitamin D status during pregnancy to offspring bone development. The evidence base supporting a positive influence on intrauterine skeletal growth appears somewhat stronger for maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D concentration than for calcium intake, and the available data point toward the need for high-quality randomized controlled trials in order to inform public health policy. It is only with such a rigorous approach that it will be possible to delineate the optimal strategy for vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy in relation to offspring bone health.

  10. Effect of supplementation with barley and calcium hydroxide on intake of Mediterranean shrubs

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    Dragan Skobic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Maquis plant communities are one of the most varied vegetation types in the Mediterranean region and an important habitat for wild and domestic herbivores. Although the majority of these shrubs are nutritious, the secondary compounds are main impediments that reduce their forage value. In five experiments we determined the effect of supplementing goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley, and barley alone on intake of five dominant shrubs (Quercus ilex, Erica multiflora, Arbutus unedo, Viburnum tinus and Pistacia lentiscus of the Mediterranean maquis community. The combination of calcium hydroxide plus barley and barley alone increased utilization of all five investigated Mediterranean shrubs; therewith that intake of Arbutus unedo and Viburnum tinus was not statistically significant. Supplemented goats with calcium hydroxide plus barley or barley alone could be effective in controlling secondary compounds-rich Mediterranean shrubs where their abundance threatens biodiversity. This control can be facilitated by browsing dominant Mediterranean shrubs, which has been shown to be effective in managing Mediterranean maquis density. Calcium hydroxide and barley (energy enhance use of secondary compounds-containing plants, which may increase production of alternate forages and create a more diverse mix of plant species in the Mediterranean maquis plant community.

  11. Can the controversial relationship between dietary calcium and body weight be mechanistically explained by alterations in appetite and food intake?

    OpenAIRE

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Gunther, Carolyn W

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and the incidence of overweight and obesity continues to rise. Diet plays a significant role in the modulation of body weight and there is some evidence to suggest that calcium or dairy intake may modulate body weight and body fat mass. Several mechanisms through which calcium or dairy products may affect body weight or fat have been suggested, including a possible effect on appetite and food intake. A recent study investiga...

  12. High dietary calcium intake does not counteract disuse-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baecker, N.; Boese, A.; Smith, S. M.; Heer, M.

    Reduction of mechanical stress on bone inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, increases osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and leads to what has been called disuse osteoporosis. Prolonged therapeutic bed rest, immobilization and space flight are common causes of disuse osteoporosis. There are sufficient data supporting the use of calcium in combination with vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In our study we examined the potential of high dietary calcium intake as a nutrition therapy for disuse-induced bone loss during head-down bed rest in healthy young men. In 2 identical metabolic ward, head-down bed rest (HDBR) experiments (crossover design), we studied the effect of high dietary calcium intake (2000 mg/d) in comparison to the recommended calcium intake of 1000 mg/d on markers of bone turnover. Experiment A (EA) was a 6-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. Experiment B (EB) was a 14-day randomized, controlled HDBR study. In both experiments, the test subjects stayed under well-controlled environmental conditions in our metabolic ward. Subjects' diets in the relevant study phases (HDBR versus Ambulatory Control) of EA and EB were identical except for the calcium intake. The subjects obtained 2000 mg/d Calcium in EA and 2000 mg/d in EB. Blood was drawn at baseline, before entering the relevant intervention period, on day 5 in study EA, and on days 6, 11 and 14 in study EB. Serum calcium, bone formation markers - Procollagen-I-C-Propeptide (PICP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (bAP) were analyzed in serum. 24h-urine was collected throughout the studies for determination of the excretion of calcium (UCaV) and a bone resorption marker, C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (UCTX). In both studies, serum calcium levels were unchanged. PICP tended to decrease in EA (p=0.08). In EB PICP decreased significantly over time (p=0.003) in both the control and HDBR periods, and tended to further decrease in the HDBR period (p

  13. Effects of vitamin D deficiency and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Seung Joo; Koh, Yae Kyu; Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jinae; Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Bo Hyon; Lee, Byung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the combined effects of vitamin D and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study consisting of 1,921 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years without thyroid dysfunction, from the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified into six groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and daily calcium intake. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at femur and at lumbar spine, and the serum vitamin D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results The BMD divided according to serum 25(OH)D and daily calcium intakes were not statistically different among the groups. However, when both daily calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D were not sufficient, risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in both femur neck and lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] 2.242, P=0.006; OR 3.044, P=0.001; respectively). Although daily calcium intake was sufficient, risks of osteopenia and osteoporosis significantly increased in lumbar spine group if serum 25(OH)D is <20 ng/mL (OR 2.993, P=0.006). Conclusion The combined effects of insufficient daily calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency may cause low BMD and increase in prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years. PMID:28217672

  14. Associations of dietary calcium intake with metabolic syndrome and bone mineral density among the Korean population: KNHANES 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Chon, S J; Noe, E B; Roh, Y H; Yun, B H; Cho, S; Choi, Y S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2017-01-01

    Excessive amount of calcium intake increased risk for metabolic syndrome in men. However, modest amount decreased the risk of metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Modest amount of calcium also increased bone mineral density (BMD) in both men and postmenopausal women.

  15. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improve magnesium absorption in adolescent girls with a low calcium intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muijs, T.; Brouns, F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) has been shown to improve mineral absorption in the short term, but no long-term effects were studied in girls with a low calcium intake. Therefore, we hypothesized that short- and long-term consumption of short-chain FOS (sc-FOS) improves calcium and mag

  16. Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate calcium intake in Puerto Ricans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Cristina; Segarra, Adelaida; Trak, Maria Angélica; Colón, Ixian

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of the study was to assess the reproducibility and validity of a short semi-quantitative calcium specific FFQ in a convenience Puerto Rican sample. Reproducibility was tested by the difference between calcium intakes from the FFQ completed twice, with a one month difference: validity was assessed against 6-day diet records (DR) in a sample of students, employees and faculty of the Medical Sciences Campus of the University of Puerto Rico. The statistical analyses performed were Pearson correlations, paired t-test. Bland-Altman plots, cross-classification analysis. Willett’s surrogate categories, specificity, sensitivity and predictive value. A total of 93 subjects were included in the study (mean age 28.8±10.1 years, BMI 25.7±6.1 kg/m2). Mean estimated calcium intakes were 846.4±356.9 mg/day for the first FFQ, 801.1±423.7 mg/day for the repeated FFQ and 845.4±377.5 mg/day for 6-day DR. No statistical difference was observed between the means by paired t-test (p>0.05), with significant correlations between means (p<0.05). The FFQ was found to have a specificity of 65.2%, a sensitivity of 73.5%, a positive predictive value of 86.2% and a negative predictive value of 45.5%. In conclusion, the short FFQ is a valid tool that could be used in the future to assess calcium intake in epidemiological surveys in this group. PMID:24617021

  17. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  18. Phytate intake and molar ratios of phytate to zinc, iron and calcium in the diets of people in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, G.; Li, Y.; Jin, Y.; Zhai, F.; Kok, F.J.; Yang, X.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the phytate intake and molar ratios of phytate to calcium, iron and zinc in the diets of people in China. Design: 2002 China Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey is a cross-sectional nationwide representative survey on nutrition and health. The information on dietary intakes w

  19. PROVISION OF VITAMINS AND CALCIUM IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: ESTIMATION OF INTAKE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS

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    V. N. Khodyrev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the actual intake of vitamins and calcium and their provision in rheumatoid arthritis (RA in the Middle Urals. Subjects and methods. The case-control method was used to form 150 pairs of RA patients aged 55.31±11.3 years. Their actual nutrition was studied from the frequency of food intake for a month, by applying a questionnaire. Based on the obtained food consumption data, the authors calculated the daily intake of vitamins A, B2, C, E, β-carotene, and calcium. The plasma levels of these factors were measured in 40% of the random patient sample and in 68 (45% control persons. A complete clinical examination included the evaluation of patients' general health and articular status, inflammatory activity assessment with DAS28, laboratory tests (general blood and urine analyses, estimation of the levels of transaminases, creatinine, electrolytes, C-reactive protein, and rheumatoid factor, and instrumental examination, involving electrocardiography and joint X-ray. Results and discussion. The study demonstrated that actual nutrition was depleted of vitamins A, C, and B2 in the patients with RA as compared to the controls. Inadequate provision of vitamin C, β-carotene, riboflavin, and calcium was found in RA. The inconsistency between the consumption of vitamins C, B2, and β-carotene and their plasma levels could suggest increased demands for these nutrients in RA. The findings should undergo detailed studies; first of all, this concerns the comparison of intake of the nutrients and their provision with the most important clinical characteristics of RA, such as duration, progression, activity, X-ray stage, and the presence of rheumatoid factor. The knowledge of these matters could, in our opinion, improve the results of therapy and prognosis in RA.

  20. Daily calcium intake in male children and adolescents obtained from the rapid assessment method and the 24-hour recall method

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    Falk Bareket

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to rapidly assess nutrient intake, Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ have been developed and proven to be reliable for quick, user friendly analysis in adults. However, the accuracy of these questionnaires in children has been studied to a limited extent. The aim of this study was to compare the daily calcium intake values obtained from the Rapid Assessment Method (RAM, an FFQ, for assessing daily calcium intake in child and adolescent males with the values obtained from the 24-hour recall method. Methods Subjects included 162 child and adolescent males, aged 9–16 years, subdivided into elementary school (ES, 9–12 years and high school (HS, 14–16 years age groups. Results Daily calcium intake was significantly lower in ES compared with HS, using both methods. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC between RAM values and those obtained using the 24-hour recall questionnaire were significant yet moderate (ICC = 0.46 and 0.43 for ES and HS, respectively. However, daily calcium intake obtained using RAM was significantly higher when compared with the 24-hour recall values in both ES (1576 +/- 1101 vs. 1003 +/- 543 mg, in RAM and 24-hour, respectively and in HS males (1873 +/- 739 vs. 1159 +/- 515 mg, in RAM and 24-hour, respectively. Conclusion RAM overestimates daily calcium intake as compared with the 24-hour recall method in both child and adolescent males.

  1. Associations between Yogurt, Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intake and Obesity among U.S. Children Aged 8–18 Years: NHANES, 2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra R. Keast

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate associations of yogurt and dairy consumption with energy, macronutrient, calcium, and vitamin D intakes, and associations with indicators of overweight/obesity in U.S. children in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2008. Using 24-hour recall data, children 8–18 years of age were classified to dairy consumption groups of <1, 1 to <2, or 2+ dairy servings, and yogurt consumers were those who reported eating yogurt during at least one of two dietary intake interviews. NHANES anthropometric measurements were used, and BMI and BMI-for-age percentiles were calculated. Yogurt and dairy consumption were associated with higher intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Yogurt intake was associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and body fat as measured by subscapular skinfold thickness. This study supports consumption of yogurt and higher amounts of dairy as eating patterns associated with greater intake of specific shortfall nutrients, and lower body fat in U.S. children.

  2. Mineral Intake in Urban Pregnant Women from Base Diet, Fortified Foods, and Food Supplements: Focus on Calcium, Iron, and Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai Xian; Han, Jun Hua; Li, Hu Zhong; Liang, Dong; Deng, Tao Tao; Chang, Su Ying

    2016-12-01

    In the Chinese national nutrition surveys, fortified foods were not investigated separately from the base diet, and the contribution of fortified foods to micronutrients intake is not very clear. This study investigated the diet, including fortified foods and food supplements, of urban pregnant women and analyzed the intake of calcium, iron, and zinc to assess the corresponding contributions of fortified foods, food supplements, and the base diet. The results demonstrated that the base diet was the major source of calcium, iron, and zinc, and was recommended to be the first choice for micronutrients intake. Furthermore, consumption of fortified foods and food supplements offered effective approaches to improve the dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc in Chinese urban pregnant women.

  3. Intake of phytate and its effect on the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) and calcium in Chinese preschool children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Sian; Liu Shengjie (Beijing Pediatric Research Inst. (China))

    1991-03-15

    A metabolic balance experiment of 2 periods was conducted. In period 1, foods were eaten as usual. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 538 {plus minus} 18 mg/day, 829 {plus minus} 0.4 mg/day and 341 {plus minus} 8 mg/day respectively. The molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 14 {plus minus} 2% and 29 {plus minus} 9%. According to the usual diet of children in rural areas of China, products of corn and soybean were added in period 2. Before period 2, subjects had been adapted to the diet for one week. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 826 {plus minus} 26 mg/day, 7.7 {plus minus} 0.16 mg/day and 343 {plus minus} 6 mg/day respectively. The molar ratios of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 10.64 and 0.14. The absorption of Zn and calcium were 13 {plus minus} 2% and 16 {plus minus} 2%. In summary intake of Chinese children was 80% of US RDA and calcium was 43% of US RDA. The absorption of Zn and calcium were low. Phytic acid was one of the factors affecting the bioavailability of calcium while inhibitory effect of phytic acid could not be found on Zn absorption in current dietary condition of Chinese children.

  4. Calcium intake is associated with decreased prevalence of periodontal disease in young Japanese women

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationships between calcium intake and the prevalence of periodontal disease. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1162 women with a mean age of 31.5 years. Information on dietary factors was collected using a diet history questionnaire during pregnancy. Oral examinations were performed between one and twelve months postpartum. Periodontal disease was defined as positive if a woman had at least one tooth with a pocket depth of 4.0 mm or deeper. Adjustme...

  5. Association of dietary calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium intake with caries status among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Han-Shan; Lin, Jia-Rong; Hu, Suh-Woan; Kuo, Hsiao-Ching; Yang, Yi-Hsin

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between caries experience and daily intake of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), and Ca/P ratio. A total of 2248 schoolchildren were recruited based on a population-based survey. Each participant received a dental examination and questionnaire interviews about the 24-hour dietary recalls and food frequency. The daily intake of Ca, P, Mg, and Ca/P ratio were inversely associated with primary caries index, but only the Ca/P ratio remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. According to the Taiwanese Dietary Reference Intakes, the Ca/P ratio was related to both caries in primary teeth (odds ratio = 0.52, p = 0.02) and in permanent teeth (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.02). The daily intakes of Ca/P ratio remained an important factor for caries after considering potential confounding factors.

  6. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affenito, Sandra G; Thompson, Douglas R; Barton, Bruce A; Franko, Debra L; Daniels, Stephen R; Obarzanek, Eva; Schreiber, George B; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

    2005-06-01

    To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal biracial cohort study with annual 3-day food records. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited 2,379 girls (1,166 white and 1,213 African American), aged 9 or 10 years at baseline for an observational study. Retention rates were very high at visits two through four (96%, 94%, and 91%), but declined to a low of 82% at visit seven, and increased to 89% at visit 10. Frequency of breakfast consumption, dietary calcium and fiber, and BMI. Generalized estimation equations methodology was used to examine differences in the frequency of breakfast eating by age and race. Generalized estimation equations analyses were also conducted to test whether breakfast consumption was predictive of intake of dietary calcium and fiber, and BMI, adjusting for potentially confounding effects of site, age, race, parental education, physical activity, and total energy intake. Frequency of breakfast eating declined with age, white girls reported more frequent breakfast consumption than African-American girls, and the racial difference decreased with increasing age. Days eating breakfast were associated with higher calcium and fiber intake in all models, regardless of adjustment variables. Days eating breakfast were predictive of lower BMI in models that adjusted for basic demographics (ie, site, age, and race), but the independent effect of breakfast was no longer significant after parental education, energy intake, and physical activity were added to the model. Dietetics professionals need to promote the importance of consuming breakfast to all children and adolescents, especially African-American girls.

  7. Lactase gene c/t(-13910) polymorphism, calcium intake, and pQCT bone traits in Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Sanna; Laaksonen, Marika; Mikkilä, Vera; Sievänen, Harri; Mononen, Nina; Räsänen, Leena; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho J

    2011-02-01

    Genetic lactase nonpersistence may influence calcium intake and thereby bone health. We investigated in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finn Study whether young adults aged 31-46 years with the C/C(-13910) genotype are more susceptible to reduced bone phenotypes, low-energy fractures, and low calcium intake than subjects with other lactase genotypes. We also analyzed the gene-environment interactions on bone with calcium intake and physical activity. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography bone traits were measured from the distal and shaft sites of the radius and tibia. The total number of those subjects whose nondominant forearm was measured and the lactase genotype was defined was 1551. Information on diet, lifestyle factors, and fractures was collected with questionnaires. The mean intake of calcium was the lowest in men with the C/C(-13910) genotype (P = 0.001). Men with the T/T(-13910) genotype had ~3% higher trabecular density at the distal radius and distal tibia compared to other lactase genotypes (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). In women, we found no evidence of the gene effect at the radius and tibia. No major interactions of the C/T(-13910) polymorphism with calcium intake or physical activity on bone phenotypes were found in either sex. In conclusion, the C/T(-13910) polymorphism was associated with trabecular density at the distal radius and tibia in men. These differences may be due to the differences in calcium intake between the lactase genotypes.

  8. Assessment of intake of calcium and vitamin D and sun exposure in the context of osteoporosis risk in a study conducted on perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kopiczko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The results of many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and develops mainly in women during menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet with particular emphasis on calcium and vitamin D intake and sun exposure in premenopausal women in terms of risk of osteoporosis. Material and methods : The study involved 300 women aged 45-55 years from Warsaw. The method used was a questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption from the last three months. Exposure to the sun evaluated using a questionnaire prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw. For the purpose of the project, profiles of attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis were developed. Results : Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D among the majority of women surveyed was confirmed. The highest percentage of women represented profile VIII: attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis, characterized by insufficient exposure to sunlight and a diet deficient in both calcium and vitamin D. Conclusions: In the diets of women surveyed significant deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D were found, which confirms previous reports on the lack of nutritional support for normal women’s bone mineralization. Among the surveyed women the majority reported insufficient exposure to sunlight as a source of vitamin D additional to food. There is a need for health education of these women in the prevention of osteoporosis and especially paying attention to the proper intake of calcium and more vitamin D in their diet. At the same time, adequate exposure to the sun is vital as it is the main source of vitamin D for the body coming not from the food consumed.

  9. Calcium intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of total calcium intake for the prevention of hip fracture risk has not been well established. The objective of this analysis was to assess the relation of calcium intake to risk of hip fracture based on meta-analyses of cohort studies and clinical trials. In cohort studies in women (7 stu...

  10. Intake of dairy products and calcium and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Okubo, H; Sasaki, S; Arakawa, M

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship between the intake of dairy products and calcium and the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study (KOMCHS). A cohort of 1745 pregnant Japanese women. Dietary intake during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Scores of 16 or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale denoted depressive symptoms. Adjustment was made for age, gestation, region of residence, number of children, family structure, history of depression, family history of depression, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work, job type, household income, education, and body mass index. In our analyses regarding dairy products in general, adjustment was also made for fish intake; in our analysis regarding calcium, adjustment was also made for the intake of saturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid, and vitamin D. Depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Higher intake levels of yogurt and calcium were independently related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios between extreme quartiles were 0.69 (95% CI 0.48-0.99, P for trend = 0.03) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40-0.88, P for trend = 0.006), respectively. No relationships were observed between the intake of all dairy products, milk, or cheese and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. The current results suggest that a higher intake of yogurt and calcium may be associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Theory-Driven Intervention Improves Calcium Intake, Osteoporosis Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy in Community-Dwelling Older Black Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Oyinlola T.; Himburg, Susan P.; Newman, Frederick L.; Campa, Adriana; Dixon, Zisca

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an osteoporosis education program to improve calcium intake, knowledge, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older Black adults. Design: Randomized repeated measures experimental design. Setting: Churches and community-based organizations. Participants: Men and women (n = 110) 50 years old and older…

  12. Higher Dietary Acidity is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Iranian Women, Independent of Dietary Calcium Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Bafghi, Seyedeh-Elaheh; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, Elaheh; Karamati, Mohsen; Rashidkhani, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50-85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference -0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

  13. Dietary calcium intake, serum copper concentration and bone density in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strause, L.; Andon, M.B.; Howard, G.; Smith, K.T.; Saltman, P. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (United States) Procter and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Data from experimental animal nutrition and animal husbandry indicate that several trace minerals, including copper (Cu) are involved in bone metabolism. In addition, a large body of data suggests that low dietary calcium (Ca) intake is a risk factor for age related bone loss. The authors measured the serum (Cu), dietary Ca intake (dCa) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine of 225 postmenopausal women. The median dCa and serum (Cu) were 562 mg/d and 9.73 umoles/L, respectively. Serum (Cu) but, not dCa, was greater in subjects with a history of estrogen therapy (ERT). BMD was higher in subjects with above median dCa and serum (Cu) (group 1) compared to those with below median values (group 2). BMD was intermediate for subjects with either Low serum (Cu):High dCa or High serum (Cu):Low dCa. This relationship was observed in the subject group as a whole, as well as in subgroups partitioned according to history of ERT. Groups 1 and 2 did not differ in basic demographic characteristics such as age, age at menopause, body weight and height. These data support the hypothesis that Ca and Cu nutriture are determinants of skeletal health in postmenopausal women.

  14. A prospective cohort study examining the associations of dietary calcium intake with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in older Chinese community-dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most epidemiological studies of calcium intake and mortality risk have been conducted in populations with moderate to high calcium intake, and limited studies have focused on populations with low habitual calcium intake (i.e., mean dietary calcium intake =65 years and free of heart diseases or stroke at baseline, were analyzed. Primary outcome measures, identified from the death registry, were death from all causes and cardiovascular disease. Dietary calcium intake assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire was categorized into sex-specific quartiles. Data on use of supplemental calcium (yes or no including individual calcium supplements and other calcium containing supplement were collected. Cox regression models adjusted for demographic and lifestyle variables were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: During a median of 9.1 years of follow-up, 529 all-cause deaths (344 men, 185 women and 114 (74 men, 40 women deaths from cardiovascular disease were identified. An inverse trend between dietary calcium intake and mortality was observed. Compared with the lowest quartile (762 mg/d for men, >688 mg/d for women had a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality (multivariate HR=0.63, 95% CI=0.49-0.81, P(trend<0.001 but an insignificant decreased risk of cardiovascular mortality (multivariate HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.41-1.21, P(trend=0.228. Similar inverse association was observed when the analyses were stratified on calcium supplemental use. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of dietary calcium was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and possibly cardiovascular mortality in Chinese older people with low habitual calcium intake.

  15. Dietary potassium intake is beneficial to bone health in a low calcium intake population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, S H; Kim, J H; Hong, A R; Lee, J H; Kim, S W; Shin, C S

    2017-05-01

    Dietary potassium may neutralize acid load and reduce calcium loss from the bone, leading to beneficial effect on bone mineral density. In this nationwide Korean population study, dietary potassium intake was associated with improved bone mineral density in older men and postmenopausal women. Nutrition is a major modifiable factor that affects bone health. The accompanying anion in dietary potassium may act as an alkaline source by neutralizing the acid load and reducing calcium loss from the bone. We aimed to evaluate the association between dietary potassium intake and bone mineral density (BMD) in the Korean population. We analyzed a total of 3135 men aged >50 years and 4052 postmenopausal women from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Lumbar spine, total hip, and femur neck BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The daily food intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. When we divided the participants into tertiles based on the intake of potassium intake, the highest potassium intake tertile group showed a significantly higher total hip and femur neck BMD as compared to lower tertile groups (0.914 ± 0.004, 0.928 ± 0.003, 0.925 ± 0.004 mg/day across the tertiles, P = .014 for total hip; 0.736 ± 0.003, 0.748 ± 0.003, 0.750 ± 0.004 mg/day, P = .012 for femur neck). Postmenopausal women in the highest potassium intake tertile group showed significantly higher lumbar, total hip, and femur neck BMD as compared to those in lower potassium intake tertile groups (0.793 ± 0.004, 0.793 ± 0.003, 0.805 ± 0.004 mg/day across the tertiles, P = .029 for lumbar spine; 0.766 ± 0.003, 0.770 ± 0.002, 0.780 ± 0.003 mg/day, P = .002 for total hip; 0.615 ± 0.003, 0.619 ± 0.002, 0.628 ± 0.003 mg/day, P = .002 for femur neck). Dietary potassium intake was positively associated with BMD in men aged >50 years and postmenopausal women, indicating the

  16. Milk of calcium renal stone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    守屋, 賢治; 西尾, 正一; 前川, 正信; 小早川, 等; 安本, 亮二

    1989-01-01

    A case of milk of calcium renal stone is reported. The patient was a 24-year-old woman who complained of dull flank pain on the right side. A plain film of the abdomen revealed a right renal stone, which showed peculiar radiopacity of a half-moon shape in the upright position. The operation was performed on July 6, 1984. Postoperative chemical analysis of sand granules showed calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate.

  17. Effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin on bone metabolism in girls with low calcium intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Corrêa de Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present clinical study, the effect of oligofructose-enriched inulin was studied on bone metabolism in girls from 9 to 12 years old, with low habitual calcium intakes, who attended public schools. Two calcium-enriched formulations, supplemented with oligofructose-enriched inulin (test drink or without (standard drink were made. Sixty pre-pubertal girls were randomized into a double-blind and crossover design, divided into three groups and received one daily portion of either the standard drink (group 1 or test drink (group 2 during 11 weeks, followed by a three-week washout period. Group control did not receive any supplementation. Biochemical evaluations of serum calcium, intact parathyroid hormone - iPTH - and bone alkaline phosphatase - BAP - were performed at baseline and after 4, 8 and 11 weeks of each intervention period. In group 1, a significant increase in serum calcium and BAP and a reduction of iPTH were observed after consumption of the test drink.No presente ensaio clínico, o efeito de oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina foi estudado no metabolismo ósseo de meninas de 9 a 12 anos com baixa ingestão habitual de cálcio, matriculadas em escolas públicas. Duas formulações foram suplementadas ou não (bebida padrão com oligofrutose enriquecida com inulina (bebida teste. Sessenta meninas pré-púberes foram aleatorizadas em estudo duplo cego crossover e divididas em três grupos e receberam uma porção diária da bebida padrão (grupo 1 ou teste (grupo 2 durante 11 semanas, seguidos por um período de intervalo de três semanas. O grupo controle não recebeu nenhuma suplementação. As avaliações bioquímicas de cálcio sérico, paratormônio intacto - PTHi e fosfatase alcalina fração óssea - FAO foram executadas ao início e após 4, 8 e 11 semanas de cada período de intervenção. No grupo 1, um aumento significante no cálcio sérico e FAO e uma redução no PTHi foram observadas após o consumo da bebida teste.

  18. Effects of a high intake of unsaturated and saturated oils on intestinal transference of calcium and calcium mobilization from bone in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, S; Islam, N; Ghosh, T K; Mitra, C

    1999-06-01

    Intestinal transference of calcium and rate of bone turnover were evaluated in ovariectomized rats fed for 15 days with a high amount (30%) of lipid enriched with monounsaturated (groundnut oil), polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) and saturated (coconut oil) fatty acids. The results were compared with those for sham-operated control and ovariectomized groups fed a normal diet (7% groundnut oil). Irrespective of the saturation and unsaturation characteristics, all lipids (edible oils) used in our study considerably decreased the rate of in situ intestinal transference of calcium. Likewise, the activities of intestinal mucosal enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and calcium ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase) were decreased significantly in all the segments of the small intestine in a descending gradient. Significant changes in bone turnover and bone calcium (Ca) mobilization were confirmed in these animals by marked alterations in plasma AP activity, urinary calcium and phosphate excretion and calcium to creatinine (Ca:creatinine) ratio. Lipid supplementation (30%) in such ovariectomized rats using groundnut oil (monounsaturated), sunflower oil (polyunsaturated) or coconut oil (saturated) for 15 days further enhanced all of the above observed parameters. These results suggest that the intake of high amounts of lipids with different unsaturation and saturation characteristics may be an important factor in determining bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

  19. Predictors of calcium intake at dinner meals of ethnically diverse mother-child dyads from families with limited incomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Franklin, Frank; Liu, Yan

    2009-10-01

    Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study's objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their young children and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically diverse families with limited incomes. This was a secondary analysis of dietary data on mother-child dyads from a cross-sectional study. The sample was 465 children (4.4+/-0.6 years) and their mothers, 41% African American, 34% Hispanic, and 21% white. Dietary and anthropometric data were collected in 52 Head Start centers in Alabama and Texas during 1 year starting fall 2004. Associations between mother-child intakes were examined by race/ethnicity using correlations. Calcium intake from dinners was predicted (stepwise regression) from four beverage categories-milk, sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juices, and non-energy-containing beverages plus water-and from cheese and dairy desserts. Overall, the mother's dinnertime intake of milk did not predict that of her child. Mother-child intakes of cheese, dairy desserts, and sweetened beverages correlated more strongly than did milk. All the beverages and dairy groups demonstrated moderate correlations for dyads with those for cheese (r=0.56), dairy desserts (r=0.39), fruit juice (r=0.36), and sweetened beverages (r=0.31) higher than that for milk overall (r=0.29, Pdinner with low-fat milk or calcium-fortified beverages to improve the nutrient density of meals.

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    diet and supplements and increased risk of nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular disease or prostate cancer. No new data have become available which would require a revision of the UL for calcium for adults, including pregnant and lactating women, of 2,500 mg. No new data have become available which would....../day for adults, including pregnant and lactating women), which was based on different intervention studies of long duration in which total daily calcium intakes of 2,500 mg from both diet and supplements were tolerated without adverse effects, needed to be changed on the basis of new available evidence. A number...

  1. Threshold Effects of Vitamin D Status on Bone Health in Chinese Adolescents With Low Calcium Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feitong; Laslett, Laura L; Zhang, Qian

    2015-12-01

    There is no consensus on the definition of vitamin D deficiency for bone health based on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels. Our objective was to determine whether thresholds exist for associations between 25OHD levels and bone outcomes and if low 25OHD levels have adverse effects on bone health. This is a cross-sectional study. This study included secondary school students in Beijing, China, aged 12-15 years. We measured serum 25OHD; bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, hip, and lumbar spine (LS); serum PTH; bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP); and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b) in 222 healthy adolescents (111 girls, 111 boys). The prevalence of low 25OHD was 61% (Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in healthy Chinese adolescents. Attaining serum 25OHD levels of more than 20-37 nmol/liter in girls and 33-39 nmol/liter in boys had positive influences on BMD and bone remodelling markers. However, estimates may be affected by low calcium intake and low serum 25OHD levels, with 97% of adolescents having levels below 50 nmol/liter.

  2. The effect of different amounts of calcium intake on bone metabolism and arterial calcification in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Umon; Park, Jong-Hoon; Hattori, Satoshi; Iimura, Yuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Akimoto, Takayuki; Omi, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Low calcium (Ca) intake is the one of risk factors for both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis in an estrogen deficiency state. To examine the effect of different amounts of Ca intake on the relationship between bone mass alteration and medial elastocalcinosis, 6-wk-old female SD rats were randomized into ovariectomized (OVX) control or OVX treated with vitamin D(3) plus nicotine injection (VDN) groups. The OVX treated with VDN group was then divided into 5 groups depending on the different Ca content in their diet, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 2.4% Ca intakes. After 8 wk of experimentation, the low Ca intake groups of 0.01% and 0.1% showed a low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone properties significantly different from those of the other groups, whereas the high Ca intake groups of 1.2% and 2.4% showed no difference compared with the OVX control. Only in the 0.01% Ca intake group, a significantly higher Ca content in the thoracic artery was found compared with that of the OVX control. Arterial tissues of the 0.01% Ca intake group showed an increase of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity, a marker of bone mineralization, associated with arterial Ca content. However, the high Ca intake did not affect arterial Ca content nor arterial BAP activity. These results suggested that a low Ca intake during periods of rapid bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency might be one possible cause for the complication of both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis.

  3. Development and Testing of a Mobile Phone App for Self-Monitoring of Calcium Intake in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    Background Interventions to prevent osteoporosis by increasing dairy intake or physical activity in young women have been limited to increasing osteoporosis knowledge and awareness. However, findings have shown that this does not always lead to a change in behaviors. Self-monitoring using mobile devices in behavioral interventions has yielded significant and positive outcomes. Yet, to our knowledge, mobile self-monitoring has not been used as an intervention strategy to increase calcium intake, particularly in young women, for better bone health outcomes. Objective As development and testing of mobile app–based interventions requires a sequence of steps, our study focused on testing the acceptability and usability of Calci-app, a dietary app to self-monitor calcium consumption, before it is used in a behavioral change intervention in young women aged 18-25 years. Methods Calci-app development followed 4 steps: (1) conceptualization, (2) development and pretesting, (3) pilot testing, and (4) mixed methods evaluation. Results We present the development process of Calci-app and evaluation of the acceptability and usability of the app in young women. Overall, 78% (31/40) of study participants completed the 5-day food record with high compliance levels (defined as more than 3 days of full or partial completion). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants completing all meal entries over the 5 days (P=.01). Participants generally found Calci-app easy and convenient to use, but it was time-consuming and they expressed a lack of motivation to use the app. Conclusions We present a detailed description of the development process of Calci-app and an evaluation of its usability and acceptability to self-monitor dietary calcium intake. The findings from this preliminary study demonstrated acceptable use of Calci-app to self-monitor calcium consumption. However, for regular and long-term use the self-monitoring function in Calci-app could be expanded

  4. Development and Testing of a Mobile Phone App for Self-Monitoring of Calcium Intake in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ilona; Garland, Suzanne; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2017-03-07

    Interventions to prevent osteoporosis by increasing dairy intake or physical activity in young women have been limited to increasing osteoporosis knowledge and awareness. However, findings have shown that this does not always lead to a change in behaviors. Self-monitoring using mobile devices in behavioral interventions has yielded significant and positive outcomes. Yet, to our knowledge, mobile self-monitoring has not been used as an intervention strategy to increase calcium intake, particularly in young women, for better bone health outcomes. As development and testing of mobile app-based interventions requires a sequence of steps, our study focused on testing the acceptability and usability of Calci-app, a dietary app to self-monitor calcium consumption, before it is used in a behavioral change intervention in young women aged 18-25 years. Calci-app development followed 4 steps: (1) conceptualization, (2) development and pretesting, (3) pilot testing, and (4) mixed methods evaluation. We present the development process of Calci-app and evaluation of the acceptability and usability of the app in young women. Overall, 78% (31/40) of study participants completed the 5-day food record with high compliance levels (defined as more than 3 days of full or partial completion). There was a significant reduction in the proportion of participants completing all meal entries over the 5 days (P=.01). Participants generally found Calci-app easy and convenient to use, but it was time-consuming and they expressed a lack of motivation to use the app. We present a detailed description of the development process of Calci-app and an evaluation of its usability and acceptability to self-monitor dietary calcium intake. The findings from this preliminary study demonstrated acceptable use of Calci-app to self-monitor calcium consumption. However, for regular and long-term use the self-monitoring function in Calci-app could be expanded to allow participants to view their total daily

  5. How does fortification affect the distribution of calcium and vitamin B1 intake at the school lunch for fifth-grade children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Miho; Jun, Kyungyul; Ishihara, Yoko; Taketa, Yasuko; Naruse, Akiko; Nagai, Narumi; Yoshita, Katsushi; Ishida, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the usual intake distribution of calcium and vitamin B(1) of fifth-grade children based on a 3-d dietary survey and to assess nutrient intake using Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs 2010). A cross-sectional study was undertaken from October 2007 to February 2008 in schools located in Tokyo and Okayama, Japan. A total of 94 fifth-grade children attending 5 elementary schools participated in the study. The weighed plate waste method and observation were used to collect data on the school lunches and dietary records by children, accompanied by photographs used to collect data on meals at home. The study lasted 3 d, 2 non-consecutive days with school lunches and 1 d without. The estimated proportion of subjects below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for calcium intake with milk in the school lunch decreased by 40% compared to the calcium intake without milk in the school lunch. Vitamin B1 intake from less than 0.45 mg/1,000 kcal fortified rice was estimated to be 0%. The intake distribution of calcium has increased by 150 mg by taking milk and the intake distribution of vitamin B1 has increased 0.20 mg by taking fortified rice in the school lunch. Calcium and vitamin B1 intake in the school lunch has changed the distribution of calcium and vitamin B1 intake upward, and decreased the number of estimated subjects that were below EAR. However, the distribution was not shifted across the board and the shape of the distribution has changed.

  6. Statistical modelling of usual intake. Scientific report submitted to EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Arcella, D.; Bakker, M.; Boeing, H.; Boon, P.E.; Crépét, A.; Dekkers, A.; Boer, de W.; Dodd, K.W.; Ferrari, P.; Goedhart, P.W.; Hart, A.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kennedy, M.; Kipnis, V.; Knüppel, S.; Merten, C.; Ocké, M.; Slob, W.

    2010-01-01

    Within the EFSA Article 36 project “European Tool Usual Intake” (ETUI) a workshop was organised in May 2010 where the different available models to calculate usual intake were presented and discussed. This report integrates the workshop background document, the presentations given by experts, and th

  7. The Impact of Different Amounts of Calcium Intake on Bone Mass and Arterial Calcification in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agata, Umon; Park, Jong-Hoon; Hattori, Satoshi; Aikawa, Yuki; Kakutani, Yuya; Ezawa, Ikuko; Akimoto, Takayuki; Omi, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Reduced estrogen secretion and low calcium (Ca) intake are risk factors for bone loss and arterial calcification in female rodents. To evaluate the effects of Ca intake at different amounts on bone mass changes and arterial calcification, 8-wk-old female Wistar rats were randomly placed in ovariectomized (OVX) control and OVX with vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN) treatment groups. The OVX with VDN rats were then divided into six groups to receive different amounts of Ca in their diets: 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.2%, or 2.4% Ca. After 8 wk of administration, low Ca intake groups with 0.01% and 0.1% Ca diets had significantly reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mechanical properties as compared with those of the other groups, whereas high Ca intake groups with 1.2% and 2.4% Ca diets showed no differences as compared with the 0.6% Ca intake group. For both the 0.01% and 2.4% Ca intake groups, Ca levels in their thoracic arteries were significantly higher as compared with those of the 0.6% Ca diet group, and that was highly correlated with serum PTH levels. An increase in relative BMP-2 mRNA expression in the arterial tissues of the 0.01% and 2.4% Ca diet groups was also observed. These results suggested that extremely low Ca intake during periods of estrogen deficiency may be a possible risk for the complications of reduced BMD and arterial calcification and that extremely high Ca intake may promote arterial calcification with no changes in BMD.

  8. Associations of intakes of magnesium and calcium and survival among women with breast cancer: results from Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Meng-Hua; Dai, Qi; Millen, Amy E; Nie, Jing; Edge, Stephen B; Trevisan, Maurizio; Shields, Peter G; Freudenheim, Jo L

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonizes each other in (re) absorption, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, and many other physiologic activities. However, few studies have investigated the association between magnesium and calcium intakes and breast cancer survival, and the interaction between calcium and magnesium intake. In a cohort of 1,170 women with primary, incident, and histologically confirmed breast cancer from Western New York State, we examined the relationship between intakes of these two minerals and survival. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Mean follow-up time was 87.4 months after breast cancer diagnosis; there were 170 deaths identified. After adjustment for known prognostic factors, and intakes of energy, total vitamin D and total calcium, higher dietary intake of magnesium was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.28-0.90 for highest vs. lowest tertile; p trend = 0.02). Likewise, a marginal association was found for total Magnesium intake from foods and supplements combined (HR = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.31-1.08; p trend = 0.09). The inverse association of higher total magnesium intake with all-cause mortality was primarily presented among postmenopausal women and was stronger among women who had a high Ca:Mg intake ratio (>2.59). There were no clear associations for prognosis with intake of calcium. We found that magnesium intake alone may improve overall survival following breast cancer, and the association may be stronger among those with high Ca:Mg intake ratio.

  9. Initial amino acid intake influences phosphorus and calcium homeostasis in preterm infants--it is time to change the composition of the early parenteral nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bonsante

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN, consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs. METHODS: Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA. A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated. RESULTS: 154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5% and hypercalcemia (9.8% were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8% and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%; both p<0.001. DISCUSSION: Calcium-phosphorus homeostasis was influenced by the early AA intake. We propose to consider phosphorus and calcium imbalances as being part of a syndrome, related to incomplete provision of nutrients after the abrupt discontinuation of the placental nutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome. We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium the main determinants of cellular growth.

  10. Self-reported energy intake by FFQ compared with actual energy intake to maintain body weight in 516 adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, E.; Geelen, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that a FFQ is not suitable to estimate the absolute levels of individual energy intake. However, in epidemiological studies, reported nutrients by FFQ are often corrected for this intake. The objective of the present study was to assess how accurately participants report thei

  11. Is bone equally responsive to calcium and vitamin D intake from food vs. supplements? Use of (41)calcium tracer kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tara S; Garrod, Marjorie G; Peerson, Janet M; Hillegonds, Darren J; Buchholz, Bruce A; Demmer, Elieke; Richardson, Christine; Gertz, Erik R; Van Loan, Marta D

    2016-12-01

    Few interventions directly compare equivalent calcium and vitamin D from dairy vs. supplements on the same bone outcomes. The radioisotope calcium-41 ((41)Ca) holds promise as a tracer method to directly measure changes in bone resorption with differing dietary interventions. Using (41)Ca tracer methodology, determine if 4 servings/day of dairy foods results in greater (41)Ca retention than an equivalent amount of calcium and vitamin D from supplements. Secondary objective was to evaluate the time course for the change in (41)Ca retention. In this crossover trial, postmenopausal women (n = 12) were dosed orally with 100 nCi of (41)Ca and after a 180 day equilibration period received dairy (4 servings/day of milk or yogurt; ~ 1300 mg calcium, 400 IU cholecalciferol (vitamin D3/day)) or supplement treatments (1200 mg calcium carbonate/day and 400 IU vitamin D3/day) in random order. Treatments lasted 6 weeks separated by a 6 week washout (WO). Calcium was extracted from weekly 24 h urine collections; accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was used to determine the (41/40)Ca ratio. Primary outcome was change in (41/40)Ca excretion. Secondary outcome was the time course for change in (41)Ca excretion during intervention and WO periods. The (41/40)Ca ratio decreased significantly over time during both treatments; there was no difference between treatments. Both treatments demonstrated a significant retention of (41)Ca within 1-2 weeks (p = 0.0007 and p supplements, respectively). WO demonstrated a significant decrease (p = 0.0024) in (41)Ca retention within 1-2 weeks, back to pre-intervention levels. These data demonstrate that urinary (41)Ca retention is increased with an increase in calcium and vitamin D intake regardless of the source of calcium, and the increased retention occurs within 1-2 weeks.

  12. Dietary calcium intake and higher body mass index in Mexican adults aged 20 to 59 years old: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Efraín Flores-Aldana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although energy balance is the main factor that regulates body weight, recent studies suggest that calcium metabolism can modify the energy balance and help regulate body weight. Objective. To evaluate the association between the calcium intake in the diet and high body mass index in Mexican adults in the 20-59 age group. Material and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analytical study was conducted based on the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutritional Survey (ENSANUT 2006. Food intake questionnaires applied to 16,494 adults were analyzed. After removing biologically implausible values or incomplete information, we arrived at a final sample of 15,662 adults grouped according to their body mass index. Linear regression was used to assess association between daily dietary calcium intake and body mass index. Results. There was an inverse association between dietary calcium consumption and a high body mass index. The mean calcium intake in subjects with normal body mass index was 903.9 mg/day versus 832.0 mg/day in obese subjects (p < 0.0001. Conclusion. The study corroborates existing evidence of an inverse association between the dietary calcium intake and a high body mass index.

  13. The calcium and phosphorus intakes of rural Gambian women during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, A; Laskey, M A; Shaw, J; Hudson, G J; Day, K C; Jarjou, L M; Dibba, B; Paul, A A

    1993-05-01

    The Ca and P intakes of 148 pregnant and lactating women in a rural village in The Gambia, West Africa, have been estimated by direct weighing of food on a total of 4188 d. The Ca and P contents of local foods were determined by analysis of raw ingredients, snack foods and prepared dishes. Information about the contribution of mineral-rich seasonings was obtained. Efforts were made to discover unusual sources of Ca that might not be perceived as food by subject or observer. The main contributors to daily Ca intake were shown to be leaves, fish, cereals, groundnuts and local salt. Cow's milk accounted for only 5% of Ca intake. Unusual sources of Ca were discovered, namely baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit and selected earths, but these were consumed infrequently and their contributions to Ca intakes were small. Cereals and groundnuts were the main sources of P. Ca and P intakes (mg/d) were shown to average 404 (SD 110) and 887 (SD 219) respectively. Seasonal changes in the availability of leaves, cereals and groundnuts resulted in variations in Ca and P intakes. The rainy season was associated with increased Ca intakes (by 16%) but decreased P consumption (by 15%). No difference was observed in Ca intake between pregnant and lactating women but P intake in lactation was 11% higher than that in pregnancy during the post-harvest season. The implications of these low Ca intakes require investigation.

  14. Intakes of Dairy Products and Calcium and Obesity in Korean Adults: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Jeung; Cho, Jang-ik; Lee, Hye-Seung H.; Kim, Cho-il; Cho, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Background The possible effects of dairy product intake against obesity have been suggested in animal studies; however, the association is still not well established in epidemiological studies. Few studies in Asian countries with relatively low intake of dairy products exist. Objective We investigated the association between dairy products and calcium intake and obesity in Korean population with relatively low intake of dairy products. Subjects and Methods Our study population consisted of adults (n = 7173) aged 19–64 among participants of the 2007, 2008 and 2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey who had not made any attempt of intentional weight loss. Dietary intake data from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour recall were used. Dairy products included milk and yogurt in the FFQ. Obesity was defined as BMI≥25 kg/m2. Results Higher frequency of dairy product intake was associated with a reduced prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.45–0.89 for ≥2 times/day vs. ≤1 time/month; p for trend = 0.003) using the intake data from FFQ. Similarly, high frequency of milk or yogurt intake had an inverse association with obesity. The association between milk and yogurt intake and obesity was similar when the intake from 24-hour recall was examined. Higher calcium intake from dairy products as well as total dietary calcium intake was associated with a decreased prevalence of obesity (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.71–0.98 for highest vs. lowest quintile of dairy calcium intake; p for trend = 0.02, OR = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.64–0.94 for highest vs. lowest quintile of total calcium intake; p for trend = 0.04). The associations appeared to be stronger in women than in men. Conclusion These results suggest that high consumption of dairy products is associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and that calcium in dairy products may be one of the components contributing to the association. Further

  15. Effects of zinc and calcium minerals intake on cadmium accumulation in the liver of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rachmawati

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a heavy metal which can accumulate in animal tissues, may have an effect the growth of chicken, causes a residual problems and is danger for human consumption. Study on evaluating the effect of mineral zinc (Zn and calcium (Ca intake on cadmium (Cd accumulation in the liver of broilers and their growth was carried out. One hundred and eighty of day old chicks (DOC were divided into 6 groups, group I was used as control, group II, III, IV, V and VI were given feed containing of 5 ppm Cd, 5 ppm Cd and 10 ppm Zn, 5 ppm Cd and 15 ppm Zn, 5 ppm Cd and 10 ppm Ca, 5 ppm Cd and 15 ppm Ca respectively in their feed. Cd, Zn and Ca were added as CdCl2, ZnCl2 and CaCl2. During the experiment, at week -0, -1,-2,-3 and -4, five chickens from each group were weighed and then they were slaughtered and livers were collected. The liver samples were analyzed for Cd content by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result indicated that Cd exposed to chickens caused the accumulation of that Cd in their liver. The addition of 15 ppm Zn in feed reduced the accumulation of Cd in liver significantly (P<0.05. However the addition of Ca in chicken feed gave greater effect in reducing the Cd accumulation in liver compared to that of Zn supplementation. 10 ppm Ca and 15 ppm Ca in chicken feed caused the accumulation of Cd in liver chicken significantly decreased (P<0.05. Ca supplementation also caused of increasing body weight of chickens. The body weight of five weeks old chickens given 15 ppm Ca in their feed as in average of 1,820 grams is higher than that of chickens in control group, which was 1,761 grams. Whereas the body weight of chickens in group IV, which was given with 15 ppm Zn in their diet was in average of 1,745 grams. It was concluded that Zn and Ca can reduce the accumulation of Cd in broiler chicken liver.

  16. Lack of association of dairy food, calcium, and vitamin D intake with the risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Tanaka, K; Fukushima, W; Sasaki, S; Kiyohara, C; Tsuboi, Y; Yamada, T; Oeda, T; Miki, T; Kawamura, N; Sakae, N; Fukuyama, H; Hirota, Y; Nagai, M

    2011-02-01

    Three previous cohort studies in the USA reported that dairy product consumption was significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in men, but not in women. We examined the relationship between consumption of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and the risk of PD using data from a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Japan. Included were 249 cases within 6 years of onset of PD based on the UK PD Society Brain Bank clinical diagnostic criteria. Controls were 368 inpatients and outpatients without a neurodegenerative disease. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, and dietary factors including cholesterol, dietary glycemic index, vitamin E, β-carotene, vitamin B(6), caffeine, iron, and alcohol. Total dairy product consumption was not materially associated with the risk of PD (P for trend = 0.62). No evident relationships were observed between intake of milk, yogurt, cheese, or ice cream and the risk of PD (P for trend = 0.75, 0.63, 0.59, and 0.35, respectively). There were no measurable associations between consumption of calcium or vitamin D and PD (P for trend = 0.37 and 0.69, respectively). No significant interactions were observed between the dietary exposures and sex regarding PD. Our results suggest that intake of dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D was not related to PD, regardless of sex. However, such null relationships might be a consequence of PD.

  17. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila; Leticia Hernández-Cadena; Gabriela Rueda-Hernández; Maritsa Solano-González; Luis G Ibarra; Howard Hu; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cro...

  18. Low calcium intake is related to increased risk of tooth loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    (30-60 y) with information on dietary Ca intake and number of teeth and a subset of 511 participants with information on tooth loss from 1987-88 to 1993-94. Ca intake less than the recommendations, estimated by a 7-d food record or a diet history interview in 1982-83, was more frequent among females...

  19. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. previous continue Working Calcium ... drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations for Building Bones Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, so it's ...

  20. Greater Calcium Intake is Associated with Better Bone Health Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound of the Phalanges in Pediatric Patients Treated with Anticonvulsant Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS was measured in 33 epileptic children and 32 healthy children aged 6.5 ± 3.1 and 6.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD years, respectively. There were no significant differences in the demographics such as age, weight and height between epileptic children and the control group children. None of the children in the epileptic or the treatment group were found to have a vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences in laboratory tests between groups. Lower QUS figures were found in the epileptic children (p = 0.001. After further adjustment for potential confounders such age, height, weight, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, physical activity and sex, the differences remained significant (p < 0.001. After further classification of the participants based on the tertile of calcium intake, no significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in the greatest tertile of calcium intake (p = 0.217. We conclude that anticonvulsant therapy using valproate may lead to low bone mass in children and that an adequate intake of calcium might counteract such deleterious effects.

  1. Female White-Footed Mice (Peromyscus leucopus) Trade Off Offspring Skeletal Quality for Self-Maintenance When Dietary Calcium Intake is Low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina M; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-11-01

    During gestation and lactation in mammals, calcium and other minerals are transferred from female to offspring to support skeletal ossification. To meet mineral requirements, females commonly mobilize mineral from their own skeleton to augment dietary intake. Because the fitness costs of bone loss are expected to limit the amount of endogenous mineral that females transfer to their young, the amount of mineral allocated to offspring is predicted to be influenced by the availability of mineral in the female's diet. Calcium is the most abundant element in bone, and exogenous calcium appears to be limiting for many species. Thus, we expected that females would adjust mineral allocation to offspring relative to calcium abundance in the diet. We provided breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) with a low-calcium (0.1% Ca) or a standard diet (0.85% Ca) for approximately 1 year. Body mass and skeletal size of pups did not differ between diets. Relative to pups from females on the standard diet, pups from females on the low-calcium diet had less calcium and phosphorus in their femurs and humeri, less body calcium content, reduced mass of their femurs and humeri, and had femurs with a reduced width. Reproducing white-footed mice mobilize more bone when calcium intake is low; however, our results suggest that this does not completely compensate for a reduction in calcium intake. Thus, it appears that when calcium availability is low, female white-footed mice reduce the quantity of mineral allocated per offspring as a means of maintaining their own skeletal condition.

  2. Nutritional geometry of calcium and phosphorus nutrition in broiler chicks. Growth performance, skeletal health and intake arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E J; Wilkinson, S J; Cronin, G M; Thomson, P C; Bedford, M R; Cowieson, A J

    2014-07-01

    The interaction between calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in broiler nutrition and skeletal health is highly complex with many factors influencing their digestion, absorption and utilisation. The use of an investigative model such as the geometric framework allows a graphical approach to explore these complex interactions. A total of 600 Ross 308-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated to one of 15 dietary treatments with five replicates and eight birds per replicate. Dietary treatments were formulated to one of three total densities of total Ca+nPP; high (15 g/kg), medium (13.5 g/kg) and low (12 g/kg) and at each density there were five different ratios of Ca : nPP (4, 2.75, 2.1, 1.5 and 1.14 : 1). Weekly performance data was collected and at the end of the experiment birds were individually weighed and the right leg removed for tibia ash analysis. Skeletal health was assessed using the latency to lie (LTL) at day 27. At low Ca and high nPP as well as high Ca and low nPP diets, birds had reduced feed intake, BW gain, poorer feed efficiency and lower tibia ash, resulting in a significant interaction between dietary Ca and nPP (P<0.05). LTL times were negatively influenced by diets having either a broad ratio (high Ca, low nPP) or too narrow a ratio (low Ca, high nPP) indicating that shorter LTL times may be influenced by the ratio of Ca : nPP rather than absolute concentrations of either mineral. The calculated intake arrays show that broilers more closely regulate Ca intake than nPP intake. Broilers are willing to over consume nPP to defend a Ca intake target more so than they are willing to over consume Ca to defend an nPP target. Overall dietary nPP was more influential on performance metrics, however, from the data it may appear that birds prioritise Ca intake over nPP and broadly ate to meet this requirement. As broilers are more willing to eat to a Ca intake target rather than an nPP intake target, this emphasises the importance of formulating

  3. Calcium, magnesium and potassium intake and mortality in women with heart failure: the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Emily B; Shikany, James M; Ahmed, Ali; Snetselaar, Linda G; Martin, Lisa W; Curb, J David; Lewis, Cora E

    2013-07-14

    Although diet is thought to affect the natural history of heart failure (HF), nutrient intake in HF patients has not been well studied. Based on prior research linking high intake of Ca, Mg and K to improved cardiovascular health, we hypothesised that these nutrients would be inversely associated with mortality in people with HF. Of the 161 808 participants in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), we studied 3340 who experienced a HF hospitalisation. These participants were followed for post-hospitalisation all-cause mortality. Intake was assessed using questionnaires on food and supplement intake. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographics, physical function, co-morbidities and dietary covariates. Over a median of 4·6 years of follow-up, 1433 (42·9 %) of the women died. HR across quartiles of dietary Ca intake were 1·00 (referent), 0·86 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·00), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·75, 1·04) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·76, 1·11) (P for trend = 0·63). Corresponding HR were 1·00 (referent), 0·86 (95 % CI 0·71, 1·04), 0·88 (95 % CI 0·69, 1·11) and 0·84 (95 % CI 0·63, 1·12) (P for trend = 0·29), across quartiles of dietary Mg intake, and 1·00 (referent), 1·20 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·43), 1·06 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·32) and 1·16 (95 % CI 0·90, 1·51) (P for trend = 0·35), across quartiles of dietary K intake. Results were similar when total (dietary plus supplemental) nutrient intakes were examined. In summary, among WHI participants with incident HF hospitalisation, intakes of Ca, Mg and K were not significantly associated with subsequent mortality.

  4. Milk intake, calcium and vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: effects on maternal, fetal and infant bone in low- and high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D are essential for bone growth and maintenance. Among the bone-forming minerals, dietary calcium supply is close to biological requirements and may be limiting in some parts of the world where there are few rich dietary sources of calcium, particularly for children and women during pregnancy and lactation. Animal milk is a rich source of calcium and, in countries where milk is fortified with vitamin D, a contributor to dietary vitamin D intake. Current evidence indicates that, in the human, there are physiological mechanisms that support the necessary calcium fluxes across the placenta and mammary gland and that are unresponsive to increases in calcium intake. This applies across the range of dietary calcium intakes recorded in healthy individuals. In contrast, although there is unlikely to be an additional requirement for vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation, many women have poor vitamin D status. This places them at risk of osteomalacia and their infants at risk of rickets, osteomalacia, compromised skeletal growth and other outcomes. There needs to be increased awareness among policy makers, health professionals and the public about the importance of safe UVB sunshine exposure and consumption of dietary vitamin D by women of reproductive age at risk of vitamin D deficiency.

  5. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  6. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  7. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starters...... assigned to 10 dietary treatments. Birds were also provided with a source of Ca in a separate feed trough. Increasing dietary Ca concentration decreased (P supplemented......, but the total Ca intake in phytase-supplemented diets were similar (P > 0.05). Birds fed 1.3 g Ca/kg diet showed the lowest (P 0.05) to the diets with 4.3 g Ca/kg. No significant (P > 0.05) effect of dietary Ca concentration on the CAID of starch, fat and GE was found...

  8. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  9. Initial Amino Acid Intake Influences Phosphorus and Calcium Homeostasis in Preterm Infants – It Is Time to Change the Composition of the Early Parenteral Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsante, Francesco; Iacobelli, Silvia; Latorre, Giuseppe; Rigo, Jacques; De Felice, Claudio; Robillard, Pierre Yves; Gouyon, Jean Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN), consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA) amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs. Methods Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA). A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated. Results 154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5%) and hypercalcemia (9.8%) were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8%) and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%); both pnutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome). We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium) the main determinants of cellular growth. PMID:23977367

  10. Vitamin D, calcium and dairy intake, and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Helen G; Murray, Liam J; Anderson, Lesley A; Cantwell, Marie M

    2011-09-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin D may be protective against carcinogenesis, although exceptions have been observed for some digestive tract neoplasms. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between dietary vitamin D and related nutrients and the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions, Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis. In an all-Ireland case-control study conducted between March 2002 and July 2005, 218 oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients, 212 Barrett's oesophagus patients, 208 reflux oesophagitis patients and 252 population-based controls completed a 101-item FFQ, and provided lifestyle and demographic information. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the association between dietary intake and disease risk. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk was significantly greater for individuals with the highest compared with the lowest tertile of vitamin D intake (OR 1·99, 95 % CI 1·03, 3·86; P for trend = 0·02). The direct association could not be attributed to a particular vitamin D food source. Vitamin D intake was unrelated to Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis risk. No significant associations were observed for Ca or dairy intake and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's oesophagus or reflux oesophagitis development. High vitamin D intake may increase oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk but is not related to reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus. Ca and dairy product intake did not influence the development of these oesophageal lesions. These findings suggest that there may be population subgroups at an increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma if advice to improve vitamin D intake from foods is implemented. Limited work has been conducted in this area, and further research is required.

  11. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...... study of DANHES 2007-2008. RESULTS: Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.58, 0.99), whey ≥9.6 g/d (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0.75 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education...

  12. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...... study of DANHES 2007-2008. RESULTS: Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.58, 0.99), whey ≥9.6 g/d (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0.75 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education...

  13. [Health benefits and demerits of calcium nutrition or supplementation in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Masataka

    2015-10-01

    The benefit of calcium nutrition for health has been believed for a long time. In fact, higher calcium intake is associated with reduction of blood pressure, rate of bone loss after menopause and mild risk reduction of fracture. Since calcium intake from food has not been achieved to be the recommended level, calcium supplementation is widely used especially in the US. However, calcium supplementation has been reported to increase in vascular events, recently. On the other hand, calcium nutrition from foods have not been reported any harmful effect on health. Therefore, calcium effects on health seemed to be composite effects of other nutrients taking together with calcium.

  14. [Calcium pros and cons significance and risk of phosphorus supplementation. The risk of dietary phosphorus intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohi, Akiko; Nomura, Kengo; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary intake of phosphorus (Pi) is an important determinant of Pi balance in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a reduced GFR. High dietary Pi burden may promote vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Recently, Ohnishi and Razzaque suggest that phosphate toxicity accelerates the mammalian aging process and that reducing the phosphate burden can delay the aging (FASEB J 24, 3562, 2010) . Dietary Pi is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives. Accurate information on the Pi content of foods is needed to achieve a low Pi intake and effectively manage CKD and the aging. In this review, we discuss the risk of dietary Pi intake in CKD and the aging.

  15. Low intakes of carotene, vitamin B2 , pantothenate and calcium predict cognitive decline among elderly patients with diabetes mellitus: The Japanese Elderly Diabetes Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Yukio; Sakurai, Takashi; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Kamada, Chiemi; Iimuro, Satoshi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Ito, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether nutrient intakes predicted cognitive decline among elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated data from a 6-year prospective follow up of 237 elderly patients (aged ≥65 years) with diabetes mellitus, and the associations of baseline nutrient intakes with cognitive decline. Cognitive decline was defined as a ≥2-point decrease in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Intakes of food and nutrients were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and were compared between patients with cognitive decline and intact cognition. Analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis were used to compare the changes in the MMSE score during the follow up among intake tertile groups for each nutrient. Compared with men with intact cognition, the men with cognitive decline had lower baseline intakes of calcium, vitamin A, vitamin B2 , pantothenate, soluble fiber, green vegetables and milk. However, no significant associations between cognitive decline and nutrient intakes were observed among women. After adjusting for age, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin levels, history of severe hypoglycemia, previous stroke and baseline MMSE score, we found that cognitive decline was significantly associated with low intakes of carotene, vitamin B2 , pantothenate, calcium and green vegetables. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that intakes of nutrients and green vegetables predicted cognitive decline after adjusting for age, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin levels, baseline MMSE score, and incident stroke during the follow up. These findings suggest that sufficient intakes of carotene, vitamin B2 , pantothenate, calcium and vegetables could help prevent cognitive decline among elderly men with diabetes mellitus. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1168-1175. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Increased fruit, vegetable and fiber intake and lower fat intake reported among women previously treated for invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Flatt, Shirley W; Rock, Cheryl L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Newman, Vicky; Pierce, John P

    2002-06-01

    To describe the dietary intake patterns of women before and after breast cancer diagnosis. 3,084 women (age range 27 to 70 years) who had been treated for early-stage breast cancer, who were free of recurrent disease, and who were willing to complete study questionnaires. A descriptive analysis of baseline demographic and lifestyle questionnaire data, including reported dietary intake data from women who have had breast cancer participating in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention trial. Outcomes include dietary intakes of high- and low-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and whole grains. Analyses included frequency of intake of selected food items, chi2 analysis to determine associations between reported intakes and demographic and personal characteristics, and logistic regression to assess odds of making more healthful changes. Women who have had breast cancer reported higher fruit, vegetable, and fiber-rich food intakes (58%, 60%, 38% more, respectively) and lower intakes of high-fat foods, including fast foods, after diagnosis. Those older than age 60 years were more likely to report no change in intake, including red meat (41%), vegetables (51%), and whole grains (62%). Odds ratios (OR) for more healthful diet choices varied by age and time since diagnosis. The longer the time since diagnosis the more likely women selected low-fat (vs high-fat) foods (OR 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.09 for 3 to 4 years vs dietetics professionals may be able to promote healthful and evidence-based eating habits among women previously treated for breast cancer.

  17. INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVELS, DAIRY PRODUCTS AND CALCIUM INTAKES ON RISK FACTORS OF OSTEOPOROSIS PREVENTION IN FEMALE STUDENTS OF ISLAMIC AZAD UNIVERSITY OF DAMAVAND, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marya Rehmani Ghobadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis is a serious metabolic bone disorder that often results in hip fracture and usually asymptomatic in its initial stages. Since the majority of bone formation occurs during childhood and adolescence, it is important to begin primary prevention at an early age, although the optimal way for instilling this preventive behavior in youth has not yet been defined. The purpose of this study was to investigating the effects of physical activity levels, dairy products and calcium intakes on risk factors of osteoporosis prevention in female students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand in Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 280 healthy female university students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were selected randomly from the university students of Islamic Azad university of Damavand, Iran. Subjects completed an informed consent form, health history questionnaire; food questionnaire was used to assess the entire dietary component intakes and physical activity questionnaire (Baecke. Result: The result shows that Increase in physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake with a decrease in BMI, and increase in BMD. Also results shows that there were significant negative correlations between the physical activity levels, diary product consumption, the calcium intake and risk factors of osteoporosis. Conclusions: Increased physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake is associated with an increase in BMD and a concomitant decrease in BMI. These findings suggest that population-level interventions to increase physical activity and diary product consumption, the calcium intake would favorably impact bone and other health outcomes. Thus, dietary pattern coupled with higher education levels and greater physical activity favored bone health and osteoporosis prevention in middle school females.

  18. Self-perceived lactose intolerance results in lower intakes of calcium and dairy foods and is associated with hypertension and diabetes in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-perceived lactose intolerance may result in adverse dietary modifications; thus, more studies are needed to understand the prevalence of self-perceived lactose intolerance and how it relates to calcium intake and selected health conditions. The objective was to examine the effects of self-perce...

  19. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  20. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  1. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students.

  2. Under- and Over-Reporting of Energy Intake in Slovenian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Helena; Krzisnik, Ciril; Mis, Natasa Fidler

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among adolescents and to compare relative food and nutrient intakes of under-reporters (UR), over-reporters (OR), and the whole population to acceptable reporters (AR). Design: All adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires at regional health centers, and a subgroup…

  3. High vitamin D and calcium intakes increase bone mineral (Ca and P) content in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N

    2015-02-01

    Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone formation, mineralization, and remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that an increased body mass can be detrimental to bone health. However, whether an increase in dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes in obesity is beneficial to bone health has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased vitamin D and calcium intakes, alone or in combination, on bone status in a high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. We hypothesized that DIO in growing mice affects bone mineral status and that high vitamin D and calcium intakes will promote mineralization of the growing bone in obesity via Ca(2+) regulatory hormones, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Male mice were fed high vitamin D3 (10 000 IU/kg), high calcium (1.2%), or high vitamin D3 plus high-calcium diets containing 60% energy as fat for 10 weeks. Bone weight, specific gravity, mineral (Ca and P), and collagen (hydroxyproline) content were measured in the femur and the tibia. Regulators of Ca(2+) metabolism and markers of bone status (PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25(OH)2D3, and osteocalcin) were measured in blood plasma. Diet-induced obese mice exhibited lower bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight compared with the normal-fat control mice, whereas collagen (hydroxyproline) content was not different between the two groups. High vitamin D3 and calcium intakes significantly increased bone Ca and P content and relative bone weight in DIO mice, which was accompanied by an increase in 1,25(OH)2D3 and a decrease in PTH and osteocalcin concentrations in blood. The findings obtained indicate that increased vitamin D and calcium intakes are effective in increasing mineral (Ca and P) content in the growing bone of obese mice and that the hormonal mechanism of this effect may involve the vitamin D-PTH axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prerna P.; Patel, Pinal A.; Zulf, M. Mughal; Yagnik, Bhrugu; Kajale, Neha; Mandlik, Rubina; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Phanse, Supriya; Patwardhan, Vivek; Joshi, Priscilla; Patel, Ashish; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a) prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES) and (b) association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90), from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India). Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall) and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd). Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis); no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05). Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01) as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937) and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825) did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  5. Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and serum vitamin D concentration in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna P Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Fluorosis is controlled by the duration of fluoride exposure and calcium and Vitamin D nutrition status. Aim: To examine (a prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis in adolescents from upper, middle, and lower socioeconomic strata (SES and (b association of fluorosis with calcium intake and Vitamin D status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in 10–13.9 years apparently healthy adolescents (n = 90, from different SES of Patan (Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: Dental fluorosis was graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Radiographs of the right hand and wrist were examined and graded. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD and parathyroid hormone concentrations were measured. Diet was recorded (24 h recall and calcium intake was computed (C-diet V-2.1, 2013, Xenios Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Statistical Analysis: Generalized linear model was used to analyze relationships between fluorosis, SES, serum 25OHD concentration, and calcium intake. Results: Fluorosis was predominant in lower SES (17% had both dental and radiological features whereas 73% had dental fluorosis; no skeletal deformities were observed. Mean 25OHD concentrations and dietary calcium were 26.3 ± 4.9, 23.4 ± 4.7, and 18.6 ± 4 ng/ml and 441.2 ± 227.6, 484.3 ± 160.9, and 749.2 ± 245.4 mg/day, respectively, for lower, middle, and upper SES (P < 0.05. Fluorosis and SES showed a significant association (exponential β = 2.5, P = 0.01 as compared to upper SES, middle SES adolescents were at 1.3 times while lower SES adolescents were at 2.5 times higher risk. Serum 25OHD concentrations (P = 0.937 and dietary calcium intake (P = 0.825 did not show a significant association with fluorosis. Conclusion: Fluorosis was more common in lower SES adolescents, probably due to the lack of access to bottled water. Relatively adequate calcium intake and serum 25OHD concentrations may have increased the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption, thus preventing severe

  6. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  7. Cross-sectional analysis of calcium intake for associations with vascular calcification and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes from the Diabetes Heart Study123

    OpenAIRE

    Raffield, Laura M; Agarwal, Subhashish; Cox, Amanda J.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Carr, J Jeffrey; Barry I Freedman; Xu, Jianzhao; Donald W. Bowden; Vitolins, Mara Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of calcium supplements to prevent declines in bone mineral density and fractures is widespread in the United States, and thus reports of elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in users of calcium supplements are a major public health concern. Any elevation in CVD risk with calcium supplement use would be of particular concern in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) because of increased risks of CVD and fractures observed in this population.

  8. Weight-bearing physical activity, calcium intake, systemic glucocorticoids, chronic inflammation, and body constitution as determinants of lumbar and femoral bone mineral in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaniemi, A; Savolainen, A; Kröger, H; Kautiainen, H; Isomäki, H

    1999-01-01

    The associations between the lumbar and femoral bone mineral and several body constitutional, lifestyle, and disease related variables were studied in 111 children with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) by factor and multiple linear regression analyses. In addition to the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), bone width and bone mineral volumetric density (BMDvol) were determined by dual-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Factor analysis of 13 explanatory variables yielded six non-correlating factors, named as body size, physical activity, calcium intake, glucocorticoids, disease duration, and disease activity. These six factors were used as new variables to explain BMD, BMDvol, and bone width by multiple linear regression analyses. These showed body size, physical activity, and calcium intake as significant positive and disease activity and glucocorticoids as significant negative determinants of BMD in JCA. The analyses revealed also considerable differences in the relationships between factors and BM Dvol or bone width.

  9. High prevalence of genu varum/valgum in European children with low vitamin D status and insufficient dairy products/calcium intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloc, A; Esterle, L; Nguyen, T M; Walrant-Debray, O; Colofitchi, A; Jehan, F; Garabedian, M

    2010-11-01

    The prevalence of lower limb deformities physiologically decreases after 5 years of age. It remains high in some tropical and subtropical regions where it has been associated with severe vitamin D deficiency, low calcium/milk intakes, malnutrition, and/or fluoride overexposure. Very little data is available in apparently healthy Caucasian children and adolescents. We evaluated the prevalence of genu varum/valgum and other clinical symptoms, and assessed vitamin D status and markers of calcium metabolism in 226 apparently healthy European full-time boarders (7-16 years) seen during winter-spring and fed a cereal-based diet with little access to meat, milk, and dairy products. A cohort of 71 white children and adolescents hospitalized for acute illness served as age-matched controls. Association studies showed a high prevalence of lower limb deformities (36%) and higher alkaline phosphate activities in the 21% of children and adolescent full-time boarders with serum 25-(OH)D levels ≤ 30 nmol/l, and low serum calcium in the 74% of boarders with 25-(OH)D levels ≤ 50 nmol/l, compared with boarders with higher vitamin D status. No such anomalies were found in the control cohort despite lower serum 25-(OH)D levels. Low 25-(OH)D levels, at least during winter-spring, combined with additional risk factors such as very low calcium/milk intakes and possibly digestive disorders, are associated with an increased risk of genu varum/valgum in European children and adolescents. Thus, dietary fortification, or supplementation with vitamin D, may be recommended, at least during the winter, to European children and adolescents with either none or insufficient calcium/dairy product intakes.

  10. Chronic ethanol intake modifies pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes under resting and K+ -stimulated conditions: role of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García-López, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2008-07-04

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase (Pcp) is an omega peptidase that removes pyroglutamyl N-terminal residues of peptides such as thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is one of the neuropeptides that has been localized into many areas of the brain and acts as an endogenous neuromodulator of several parameters related to ethanol (EtOH) consumption. In this study, we analysed the effects of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity on mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and their corresponding supernatant under basal and K+ -stimulated conditions, in presence and absence of calcium (Ca2+) to know the regulation of Pcp on TRH. In basal conditions, chronic EtOH intake significantly decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+. However, supernatant Pcp activity is also decreased in presence and absence of calcium. Under K+-stimulated conditions, chronic EtOH intake decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+, whereas supernatant Pcp activity was significantly decreased only in presence of Ca2+. The general inhibitory effect of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity suggests an inhibition of TRH metabolism and an enhancement of TRH neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions, which could be related to putative processes of tolerance to EtOH in which TRH has been involved. Our data may also indicate that active peptides and their degrading peptidases are released together to the synaptic cleft to regulate the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions of these peptides, through a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism.

  11. Greater Calcium Intake is Associated with Better Bone Health Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound of the Phalanges in Pediatric Patients Treated with Anticonvulsant Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Vicente; Moran, Jose M; Barros, Patricia; Canal-Macias, Maria L; Guerrero-Bonmatty, Rafael; Costa-Fernandez, Carmen; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus M; Roncero-Martin, Raul; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan D

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS) and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) was measured in 33 epileptic children and 32 healthy children aged 6.5 ± 3.1 and 6.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) years, respectively. There were no significant differences in the demographics such as age, weight and height between epileptic children and the control group children. None of the children in the epileptic or the treatment group were found to have a vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences in laboratory tests between groups. Lower QUS figures were found in the epileptic children (p = 0.001). After further adjustment for potential confounders such age, height, weight, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, physical activity and sex, the differences remained significant (p anticonvulsant therapy using valproate may lead to low bone mass in children and that an adequate intake of calcium might counteract such deleterious effects.

  12. Self-Reported Appetite and Intake Adequacy In Patients With Non-dialysis Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chan

    2012-06-01

    The positive predictive value (95%CI of appetite rating for energy and protein were 0.37 (0.32–0.41 and 0.90 (0.86–0.93 respectively. In conclusion, while self-reported appetite scores were useful in ranking energy and protein intakes, subjective reporting of good appetite was associated with adequate protein but not energy intake. Report of a good appetite does not always mean adequate intake in non-dialysis ESKD patients with high symptom burden.

  13. Relationship between reported carbohydrate intake and fasting blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Elevated fasting blood glucose ranges from normal glucose tolerance (under 100 mg/dL) to impaired glucose tolerance (100-125 mg/dL) to diabetes mellitus (above 126 mg/dL). Dietary intake may have a direct influence on glucose metabolism. Objective: We hypothesized that dietary carbohydra...

  14. Accuracy of reporting food energy intake: influence of ethnicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-24

    Sep 24, 2009 ... positive energy balance in the form of food energy intake (EI) that is higher than physical .... of Cape Town) was used to calculate Chi-squared test for trend of the adequate ..... sociodemographic factors, Tehran, Iran. Vascular ...

  15. Cálcio dietético: estratégias para otimizar o consumo Dietary calcium: strategies to optimize intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle A. P. Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O cálcio é um nutriente essencial necessário em diversas funções biológicas. Estudos têm demonstrado a associação entre o baixo consumo de cálcio e doenças crônicas, entre elas osteoporose, câncer de colón, hipertensão arterial e obesidade. Entretanto, grande parte da população brasileira apresenta consumo de cálcio abaixo do recomendado. Este artigo objetiva revisar os fatores endógenos (idade e estado hormonal e exógenos (fitatos, oxalatos, sódio, compostos bioativos e vitamina D que influenciam a absorção do cálcio, bem como as principais metodologias utilizadas para avaliar a absorção e biodisponibilidade desse nutriente. Discorre-se sobre os possíveis fatores para o baixo consumo de cálcio: 1 Hábito alimentar - substituição de leite por bebidas com baixo teor de cálcio como o refrigerante, refeições realizadas fora de casa e a não realização de refeições como o café da manhã; 2 Alto custo dos alimentos fontes de cálcio. Além disso, este artigo discute as estratégias para otimizar o consumo do cálcio, que incluem: 1 Aumentar o conhecimento sobre a importância do consumo de cálcio para a saúde e as principais fontes alimentares desse nutriente; 2 Aumentar a disponibilidade de alimentos fortificados com cálcio; 3 Uso de suplementos em grupos específicos - quando e como administrar os sais de cálcio.Calcium is an essential nutrient required for numerous biological functions. Studies have demonstrated an association between low calcium intake and chronic diseases, such as osteoporosis, colon cancer, hypertension, and obesity. However, most Brazilians do not meet the adequate intake for calcium. This review focuses on the endogenous (age, hormonal state and exogenous (phytate, oxalate, sodium, bioactive compounds and vitamin D factors that can influence calcium absorption. The main methods used for evaluating calcium absorption and bioavailability. The potential factors for the low calcium intake

  16. Estimated intake and food sources of vitamin A, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, calcium, iron, and zinc for Guamanian children aged 9 to 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobocik, Rebecca S; Richer, Jennifer J

    2002-09-01

    This study describes the nutrient intake and food sources of select vitamins and minerals for children on Guam. Food records (n = 954) from public school students aged nine to twelve of all regions on Guam were analyzed for nutrient content and compared to Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA). Individual foods were condensed into 194 food aggregates and food lists representing 84% to 91% of the major vitamins and minerals in the diet of the children were developed by frequency analysis. Median intake of calcium, vitamin E, folate were less than 50% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and mean intake of these nutrients was 60% RDA or less. Mean and median vitamin A intake was 107% and 76% RDA, respectively. Both mean and median intake of Vitamin C, iron and zinc were present at levels above 100% RDA. Rice, meat, fruit drink from powder, milk, and fortified cereals are foods that provide substantial contributions to the vitamin and mineral content of the diets. Traditional, nutrient dense foods, such as fish, yams, papaya, and mango had minor contributions because of low frequently of consumption. Information from this study can be used to develop specific diet assessment instruments and culturally appropriate nutrition education.

  17. Risk of High Dietary Calcium for Arterial Calcification in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Klemmer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concern has recently arisen about the potential adverse effects of excessive calcium intakes, i.e., calcium loading from supplements, on arterial calcification and risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in older adults. Published reports that high calcium intakes in free-living adults have relatively little or no beneficial impact on bone mineral density (BMD and fracture rates suggest that current recommendations of calcium for adults may be set too high. Because even healthy kidneys have limited capability of eliminating excessive calcium in the diet, the likelihood of soft-tissue calcification may increase in older adults who take calcium supplements, particularly in those with age or disease-related reduction in renal function. The maintenance of BMD and bone health continues to be an important goal of adequate dietary calcium consumption, but eliminating potential risks of CVDs from excessive calcium intakes needs to be factored into policy recommendations for calcium by adults.

  18. Dietary Calcium and Framingham Risk Score in Vitamin D Deficient Male (KNHANES 2009-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Jin; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between excess calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality has already been reported. In the present study, we investigated the relation between dietary calcium intake and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status. Materials and Methods A total of 7809 subjects (3452 males and 4357 female) aged over 40 years were selected for this cross-sectional study from data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011). Daily dietary calcium intake was categorized into 1200 mg/day and serum 25(OH)D concentration classified into 75 mmol/L. The FRS was compared by the daily dietary calcium intake categories according to 25(OH)D concentration after adjustment with relevant variables in both genders. Results Higher FRS was observed in males with both 1200 mg of dietary calcium intake and females with 1200 mg of dietary calcium intake groups in both genders after adjustments for relevant variables. FRS was significantly higher in the group with >1200 mg of dietary calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D 1200 mg/day) dietary calcium intake were related with higher FRS in both genders. In particular, higher FRS was observed in the excess (>1200 mg/day) dietary calcium intake male group under vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L). PMID:25837195

  19. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods. The objective ...

  20. Chemical gastritis after chronic bromazepam intake: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakamp Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe a rare case of diffuse macroscopic discoloration and chemical gastritis due to chronic bromazepam intake. The chemical composition of pharmaceuticals has to be considered at endoscopy and it is evident that some chemical substances damage the epithelial tissue and lead to clinical symptoms. Case Presentation Endoscopy was performed in an 82-year-old patient due to gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and epigastric pain. Gastroscopy showed a hiatal hernia and a scarred duodenal bulb. More striking was the yellow-brownish discoloration of the gastric and the duodenal mucosa. The gastric antrum and the duodenal bulb showed local discoloration that could not be rinsed off. The medical history indicated that bromazepam (6 mg had been used daily as a sleeping aid in the previous two years. The histopathological findings showed appearances of chemical gastritis. Within the lamina propria and on the epithelial surface there were granules. There was no foreign body reaction to these granules. Corpus mucosa showed a mild chronic gastritis. Conclusions If discoloration of the mucosa at endoscopy is seen, a careful drug history must be sought. This is the first case in literature that shows a chemical gastritis after bromazepam intake.

  1. Chemical gastritis after chronic bromazepam intake: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschberg, Oliver; Saers, Thomas; Krakamp, Bernd; Brockmann, Michael

    2010-07-29

    We describe a rare case of diffuse macroscopic discoloration and chemical gastritis due to chronic bromazepam intake. The chemical composition of pharmaceuticals has to be considered at endoscopy and it is evident that some chemical substances damage the epithelial tissue and lead to clinical symptoms. Endoscopy was performed in an 82-year-old patient due to gastroesophageal reflux symptoms and epigastric pain. Gastroscopy showed a hiatal hernia and a scarred duodenal bulb. More striking was the yellow-brownish discoloration of the gastric and the duodenal mucosa. The gastric antrum and the duodenal bulb showed local discoloration that could not be rinsed off. The medical history indicated that bromazepam (6 mg) had been used daily as a sleeping aid in the previous two years. The histopathological findings showed appearances of chemical gastritis. Within the lamina propria and on the epithelial surface there were granules. There was no foreign body reaction to these granules. Corpus mucosa showed a mild chronic gastritis. If discoloration of the mucosa at endoscopy is seen, a careful drug history must be sought. This is the first case in literature that shows a chemical gastritis after bromazepam intake.

  2. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  3. Intake of dairy products, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in childhood and age at menarche in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Studies indicate that milk intake is associated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 concentrations and height in childhood, whether milk and other dairy products promote puberty remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate influences of pre-pubertal intakes of milk, yogurt and cheese on menarcheal age in Tehranian girls. The associations of total dietary calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, and phosphorus (P with menarcheal age were also examined. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted on 134 pre-pubertal girls, aged 4-12 years at baseline, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, and were followed for a median of 6.5 years. Dietary intakes were determined at initiation of the study using two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the age of menarche was documented during the follow-up. Logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years according to pre-pubertal levels of dairy or mineral intakes. RESULTS: The risk of earlier menarche was higher in girls with higher intakes of milk [OR: 2.28 (95% CI: 1.03-5.05], Ca [OR: 3.20 (95%CI: 1.39-7.42], Mg [OR: 2.43 (95% CI: 1.12-5.27] and P [OR: 3.37 (95 % CI: 1.44-7.87 after controlling for energy and protein intake, interval between the age at study initiation and the age of menarche, and maternal age at menarche (Model 1. Girls in the middle tertile of cheese intakes had a lower risk of reaching menarche ≤ 12 years than those in the lowest tertile after controlling for covariates in model 1. These associations remained significant after further adjustment of BMI Z-score at baseline. The relationship of Ca, Mg, and P with menarche remained after further adjustment for height Z-score at baseline, whereas the association between milk and cheese intakes became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pubertal intake of milk, but not cheese and yogurt, may hasten age at menarche.

  4. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.

  5. New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, M.E.

    1996-02-28

    A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The current year objectives include the study of sorbents made by hydrating ordinary or Type I portland cement or portland cement clinker (a cement intermediate) under carefully selected conditions. Results of this study show that an excellent portland cement sorbent can be prepared by milling cement at 120{degrees}C at 600 rpm for 15 minutes with MgO-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} beads. They also show that clinker, which is cheaper than cement can be used interchangeably with cement as a starting material. Further, it is clear that while a high surface area may be a desirable property of a good sorbent, it is not a requisite property. Among the hydration reaction variables, milling time is highly important, reaction temperature is important and stirring rate and silicate-to-H{sub 2}O ratio are moderately important. The components of hydrated cement sorbent are various combinations of C-S-H, calcium silicate hydrate:Ca(OH){sub 2};AFm. a phase in hydrated cement.

  6. Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the 26 April 2010 Environmental Assessment and Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    February 8, 2013 Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana...Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the Intake Diversion Dam Modification Lower Yellowstone Project, Montana Draft Supplement to the...Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Intake Project IEPR Final IEPR Report Final Independent External Peer Review Report for the

  7. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Yoko; Narisawa, Hajime; Ueda, Fumitaka; Saito, Hitomi; Sakaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Makoto; Suzuki, Rina; Tamura, Norihisa; Inoue, Shigeru; Inoue, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep). We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1) small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2) energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3) intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men. PMID:28208812

  8. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Yoko; Narisawa, Hajime; Ueda, Fumitaka; Saito, Hitomi; Sakaguchi, Hiroyuki; Mitarai, Makoto; Suzuki, Rina; Tamura, Norihisa; Inoue, Shigeru; Inoue, Yuichi

    2017-02-13

    Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep). We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1) small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2) energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3) intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  9. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Komada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  10. Investigation of the interaction between separate calcium feeding and phytase supplementation on growth performance, calcium intake, nutrient digestibility and energy utilisation in broiler starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdollahi, M.R.; Duangnumsawang, Y.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Steenfeldt, S.; Bootwalla, S.M.; Ravindran, V.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between separate calcium (Ca) feeding and phytase supplementation on performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of nitrogen (N), starch, fat and phosphorus (P), total tract retention (TTR) of Ca and P, and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) in broiler starter

  11. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, de W.; Dofkova, M.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Maeyer, de M.; Frost Andersen, L.; Ruprich, J.; Rehurkova, I.; Geelen, Anouk; Veer, van 't P.; Henauw, de S.; Crispim, S.P.; Boer, de Evelien; Ocke, M.C.; Slimani, N.; Huybrechts, I.

    2015-01-01

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the
    present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall
    (24-HDR). Par

  12. SELF-REPORTED DIETARY INTAKE FOLLOWING ENDURANCE, RESISTANCE AND CONCURRENT ENDURANCE AND RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Shaw

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With regards to obesity-related disease the impact of exercise training on health depends on the ability of exercise to promote a negative energy balance. Exercise's effect on promoting a negative energy balance is more likely to occur if exercise can induce a favourable dietary intake such as a reduced relative fat content in the diet. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of aerobic training, weight training and concurrent aerobic and weight training on self-reported dietary intake. The effects of 16 weeks of aerobic (n = 12, weight (n = 13 and concurrent aerobic and weight training (n = 13 on self-reported dietary intakes were compared in previously sedentary males using the computer-based Dietary Manager® software programme. Only the concurrent aerobic and weight training group showed significant (p < 0.05 reductions in total kilocalories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats consumed while the aerobic training group showed significant reductions in fat intake at the completion of the experimental period (before: 91.0 ± 42.1g versus after: 77.1 ± 62.1g. However, no changes were observed in self-reported dietary intake in the weight training or non-exercising control groups. It is concluded that concurrent aerobic and weight training is the most effective mode of exercise at promoting a favourable improvement in self-reported dietary intake in the short term. This finding provides support for efforts to promote increases in overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of dietary intake

  13. Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Donne Cinzia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents. Methods The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile. Results In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to

  14. Visualizing presynaptic calcium dynamics and vesicle fusion with a single genetically encoded reporter at individual synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Jackson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic transmission depends on the influx of calcium into the presynaptic compartment, which drives neurotransmitter release. Genetically encoded reporters are widely used tools to understand these processes, particularly pHluorin-based reporters that report vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis through pH dependent changes in fluorescence, and genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs that exhibit changes in fluorescence upon binding to calcium. The recent expansion of the color palette of available indicators has made it possible to image multiple probes simultaneously within a cell. We have constructed a single molecule reporter capable of concurrent imaging of both presynaptic calcium influx and exocytosis, by fusion of sypHy, the vesicle associated protein synaptophysin containing a GFP-based pHluorin sensor, with the red-shifted GECI R-GECO1. Due to the fixed stoichiometry of the two probes, the ratio of the two responses can also be measured, providing an all optical correlate of the calcium dependence of release. Here, we have characterized stimulus-evoked sypHy-RGECO responses of hippocampal synapses in vitro, exploring the effects of different stimulus strengths and frequencies as well as variations in external calcium concentrations. By combining live sypHy-RGECO imaging with post-hoc fixation and immunofluorescence, we have also investigated correlations between structural and functional properties of synapses.

  15. Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in open-field behavior and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ expression in nucleus accumbens of rats: naloxone reversal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Wei-liang BIAN; Gui-qin XIE; Sheng-zhong CUI; Mei-ling WU; Yue-hua LI; Ling-li QUE; Xiao-ru YUAN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of chronic ethanol intake on the locomotor activity and the levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase Ⅳ (CaM kinase Ⅳ) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats. Simultaneously, the effects of non-selective opioid antagonist (naloxone) on the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the NAc and ethanol consumption of rats were also observed. Methods: Ethanol was administered in drinking water at the concentrations of 6% (v/v), for 28 d. The locomotor activity of rats was investigated in the open-field apparatus. CaM kinase Ⅳ levels in the NAc were analyzed using Western blotting. Results: Rats consuming ethanol solution exhibited a significant decrease of ambulation activity, accompanied by a reduced frequency of explorative rearing in an open-field task on d 7 and d 14 of chronic ethanol ingestion, whereas presumed adaptation to the neurological effects of ethanol was observed on d 28. Chronic ethanol intake elicited a significant decrease of the CaM kinase Ⅳ expression in the nuclei, but not in the cytoplasm of the NAc on d 28. Naloxone treatment significantly attenu-ated ethanol intake of rats and antagonized the decrease of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the nuclei of NAc neurons. The cytosolic CaM kinase Ⅳ protein levels of the NAc also increased in rats exposed to ethanol plus naloxone. Conclusion: Chronic ethanol intake-induced changes in explorative behavior is mediated at least partly by changes in CaM kinase Ⅳ signaling in the nuclei of the NAc, and naloxone attenuates ethanol consumption through antagonizing the downregulation of CaM kinase Ⅳ in the NAc.

  16. Recommendations for reporting whole-grain intake in observational and intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Kristensen, Mette; Seal, Chris J; Jacques, Paul; McKeown, Nicola M

    2015-05-01

    The finding that people who eat the most whole grains have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, compared with those who eat the least, is one of the most consistent findings in nutritional epidemiology. However, criteria for reporting whole-grain intake have varied widely, making it difficult to precisely explore the relation of whole grains and grain components with health outcomes. To enable better understanding of the health benefits of whole grain-rich diets, we propose that both observational and intervention studies should as far as possible be required to report as follows when describing whole grains: 1) quantify the amount of whole grain in the food or product in grams on a dry-weight basis, 2) describe the whole-grain definition used, 3) report and separate the different types of grains used, 4) if possible, report the structure of the grains (intact, crushed, partially milled) in foods, and 5) describe the main types of products used and processes used to make them. Added bran and germ should be reported distinctly from whole grains. In addition, we strongly recommend the incorporation of biomarkers of whole-grain intake to check compliance to intervention diets and help attenuate for errors in dietary recall of whole-grain intake. Of these measures, reporting whole-grain intake in grams is essential for future research work in the area. Improving reporting and estimation of whole-grain intake will enable easier comparison between different studies and lead to stronger meta-analyses in the future.

  17. Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akagun, Tulin; Yazici, Halil; Gulluoglu, Mine G.; Yegen, Gulcin; Turkmen, Aydin

    2011-01-01

    Sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate or analog) is an ion-exchange resin commonly used to treat hyperkalaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is known to cause digestive complications, such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Although rare, colonic necrosis and perforation are very severe complications associated with the medication. In this case report, we present a case of calcium polystyrene sulfonate-induced colonic necrosis and perforation to remind clinician...

  18. Recommendations for reporting whole-grain intake in observational and intervention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Alastair B; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Seal, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    The finding that people who eat the most whole grains have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, compared with those who eat the least, is one of the most consistent findings in nutritional epidemiology. However, criteria for reporting whole-grain intake have varied widely, making...

  19. Emotions and eating. Self-reported and experimentally induced changes in food intake under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, D J; Hetherington, M M

    2009-04-01

    Two studies investigated the stress-eating relationship. The first examined self-reported changes in intake of snack foods, whilst the second investigated stress-induced overconsumption in a laboratory setting comparing high (HF) and low-fat (LF) snacks. Eighty-nine females completed the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) [Van Strien, T., Fritjers, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295-315] and a self-report measure designed to evaluate changes in eating in response to stress. Increased intake of HF snacks was associated with high emotional eating but not with restraint. A laboratory-based experiment compared intake of HF and LF snacks after ego-threatening and neutral Stroop colour-naming tasks. Intake was suppressed by 31.8% in restrained compared to unrestrained eaters across tasks. Restrained eaters consumed significantly less after ego-threat than after the neutral manipulation, but this was associated only with intake of the LF snack. Restrained eaters' intake of dried fruit was suppressed by 33.2% after ego-threat relative to the neutral task, despite a significant increase in hunger for this group following ego-threat. These results suggest that the type and variety of foods offered influences the link between stress and eating in laboratory settings. Further research should aim to replicate and extend these findings, with a view to informing potential interventions for stress-related eating.

  20. Effect of maternal calcium intake during pregnancy on children's blood pressure: A systematic review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Barros Aluisio JD; Bergel Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Calcium supplementation during pregnancy has been shown to reduce the incidence of hypertension in the mother, but the effects on the offspring are uncertain. Assessing the impact on the offspring is very important given the now large body of evidence indicating that blood pressure levels in childhood and young adulthood can be influenced by factors operating during fetal life. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to summarize the evidence supporting an assoc...

  1. [Calcium supplementation uncovering lactose intolerance - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifina, Eva; Geissler, Dietmar; Zwettler, Elisabeth; Klaushofer, Klaus; Mikosch, Peter

    2012-03-01

    A 44 yr-old female with osteoporosis had no relevant gastrointestinal symptoms and did not avoid any specific food. However, after prescription of a lactose-rich calcium supplementation, clinical symptoms suspicious for lactose intolerance occurred, which were thereafter confirmed by a lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance may present with only slight or subtle symptoms. Drugs containing lactose may induce or increase gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with lactose intolerance. In case of gastrointestinal symptoms occurring after the initiation of drugs containing lactose, the possibility of lactose intolerance should be considered and tested by lactose tolerance test or genetic testing for the LCT (-13910) polymorphism. Due to the prevalence of about 15-25% lactose intolerance in the Austrian population, lactose free drugs should be prescribed as widely as possible.

  2. Intake of {sup 226} Ra in osteoporosis prevention and therapy with gran-white dolomite as calcium supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecequilo, B.R.S.; Campos, M.P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: brigitte@net.ipen.br; mpcampos@net.ipen.br

    2002-04-01

    A {sup 226} Ra average specific activity of 4.3 Bq.kg{sup -1} was determined by passive high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry in six samples of 'Gran White' dolomite. The committed effective dose and committed equivalent dose at bone surface were calculated through the Ana Comp code, using {sup 226} Ra intake and radium metabolic model from ICRP 67. The doses were calculated for patients submitted to osteoporosis prevention and osteoporosis therapy. (author)

  3. Integumentary loss of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J Y; Margen, S; Calloway, D H; Costa, F M

    1979-08-01

    Integumentary calcium loss was studied in 16 healthy young men. The daily loss by the 16 ambulatory but relatively sedentary young men in 52 determinations of 6-day periods each was 8.7 +/- 1.9 mg/m2 per day (average 15.8 mg/man per day). The amount lost was not influenced by calcium intake (0.1 to 2.3 g/day). In contrast to urinary calcium excretion, which is directly related to protein intake, there was no significant change in integumentary calcium loss with varying protein intakes (1 to 96 g nitrogen per day). No compensatory relationship between urinary and integumentary calcium excretion was noted. During strenuous exercise calcium loss increased to an average of 25 mg in 40 min. There was no compensatory decrease in urinary excretion on the day of strenuous exercise. It was also noted that integumentary calcium loss was not affected by general calcium balance.

  4. Perceptual and Affective Responses to Sampled Capsaicin Differ by Reported Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Alissa A; Hayes, John E

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to a) generate suprathresold dose-response functions for multiple qualities evoked by capsaicin across a wide range of concentrations, and b) revisit how intensity ratings and liking may differ as a function of self reported intake. Individuals rated eight samples of capsaicin for perceived burn and bitterness, as well as disliking/liking. Measures of reported preference for chili peppers, chili intake frequency, prior experience and personality measures were also assessed. Here, we confirm prior findings showing that burn in the laboratory differs with reported chili intake, with infrequent consumers reporting more burn. We extend these findings by exploring how capsaicin perception varies by reported liking, and measures of variety seeking. We also address the question of whether differences in burn ratings may potentially be an artifact of differential scale usage across groups due to prior experience, and not chronic desensitization, as is typically assumed. By using generalized scaling methods and recalled sensations, we conclude the differences observed here and elsewhere are not likely due to differences in how participants use rating scales.

  5. The remodeling transient and the calcium economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloia, J F; Arunabh-Talwar, S; Pollack, S; Yeh, J K

    2008-07-01

    The remodeling transient describes a change in bone mass that lasts one remodeling cycle following an intervention that disturbs the calcium economy. We demonstrated the transient in a study of the response of bone density to calcium/vitamin D3 supplementation and show the hazards of misinterpretation if the transient is not considered. The remodeling transient describes a change in bone mass that lasts for one remodeling cycle following an intervention that disturbs the calcium economy. We report an intervention with calcium and vitamin D supplementation in 208 postmenopausal African-American women where the remodeling transient was considered a priori in the study design. Both groups (calcium alone vs. calcium + 20 microg (800 IU) vitamin D3) were ensured a calcium intake in excess of 1200 mg/day. There were no differences between the two groups in changes in BMD over time. These BMD changes were therefore interpreted to reflect increased calcium intake in both groups but not any influence of vitamin D. A transient increase in bone mineral density was observed during the first year of study, followed by a decline. The remodeling period was estimated at about 9 months, which is similar to histomorphometric estimates. It is problematic to draw conclusions concerning interventions that influence the calcium economy without considering the remodeling transient in study design. Studies of agents that effect bone remodeling must be carried out for at least two remodeling cycles and appropriate techniques must be used in data analysis.

  6. Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following intake of alcoholic drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A.; Berg, N.D.; Gonzalez-Quintela, A.;

    2008-01-01

    symptoms from the upper and lower airways were significantly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma (odds ratios between 3.0 and 8.1, P-value self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following the intake...... of alcoholic drinks are common. These symptoms were markedly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma. The underlying mechanisms and the clinical significance of these symptoms remain to be elucidated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  7. Button battery intake as foreign body in Chinese children: review of case reports and the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenjing; Wen, Guangyi; Zhang, Xiaowen

    2015-06-01

    Button batteries have been recognized as one of the dangerous foreign bodies to children for more than 30 years, but few related studies have been published to give more concern in China. We reported 6 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children. The Chinese literature on button battery as foreign body in children was reviewed. The interval between the accidental ingestion and battery removal ranged from 6 hours to 3 days. Two patients had no sequela, 3 patients had tracheoesophageal fistulas, and 1 patient had nasal septal perforation. Twenty-eight articles about button battery as foreign body in children were obtained by Chinese-language literature searches including 25 case reports, 2 health education articles, and 1 imaging article. In total, 172 cases of button battery intake as foreign body in children were identified, 23 and 10 of the 159 cases involving nasal button battery lodgment developed nasal septal perforation and nasal adhesion, respectively. Tracheoesophageal fistula was identified in 4 of the 12 ingestion cases. One case of button battery intake was in external auditory canal. A small number of children with button battery as foreign body were reported in China, which is 1 of the biggest countries with large population of children.

  8. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  9. Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD, including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult population of the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone interview (n = 1,440. A multivariate analysis was run controlling for socio-behavioural variables, obesity and family antecedents of NCCD. A hierarchical linear regression model and a Poisson regression were used to verify association of type-2 diabetes and coffee intake. The independent variables which remained in the final model, following the hierarchical inclusion levels, were: first level—age and marital status; second level—diabetes and dyslipidaemias in antecedents; third level—cigarette smoking, supplement intake, body mass index; and fourth level—coffee intake (£100 mL/d, 101 to 400 mL/day, and >400 mL/day. After adjusting hierarchically for the confounding variables, consumers of 100 to 400 mL of coffee/day had a 2.7% higher (p = 0.04 prevalence of not having diabetes than those who drank less than 100 mL of coffee/day. Compared to coffee intake of £100 mL/day, adults consuming >400 mL of coffee/day showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus, moderate coffee intake is favourably associated with self-reported type-2 diabetes in the studied population. This is the first study to show a relationship between coffee drinking and diabetes in a Brazilian population.

  10. Children's Food Security and Intakes from School Meals. Final Report. Contractor and Cooperator Report No. 61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…

  11. [Severe ocular burns by calcium carbide in a speleologist: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testud, F; Voegtlé, R; Nordmann, J P; Descotes, J

    2002-03-01

    A case of severe ocular burns in an amateur speleologist is reported. The explosion of his acetylene lamp caused the projection of calcium carbide particles, which induced burning of the cornea and conjunctiva in both eyes. He slowly recovered in several months. The pathophysiology of the burns, linked to the in situ production of lime, and their management are discussed.

  12. Reported food intake and distribution of body fat: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass, as well as distribution of body fat, are predictors of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In Northern Sweden, despite a marked increase in average body mass, prevalence of diabetes was stagnant and myocardial infarctions decreased. A more favourable distribution of body fat is a possible contributing factor. This study investigates the relative importance of individual food items for time trends in waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC on a population level. Methods Independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1999 in the two northernmost counties of Sweden with a common population of 250000. Randomly selected age stratified samples, altogether 2982 men and 3087 women aged 25–64 years. Questionnaires were completed and anthropometric measurements taken. For each food item, associations between frequency of consumption and waist and hip circumferences were estimated. Partial regression coefficients for every level of reported intake were multiplied with differences in proportion of the population reporting the corresponding levels of intake in 1986 and 1999. The sum of these product terms for every food item was the respective estimated impact on mean circumference. Results Time trends in reported food consumption associated with the more favourable gynoid distribution of adipose tissue were increased use of vegetable oil, pasta and 1.5% fat milk. Trends associated with abdominal obesity were increased consumption of beer in men and higher intake of hamburgers and French fried potatoes in women. Conclusion Food trends as markers of time trends in body fat distribution have been identified. The method is a complement to conventional approaches to establish associations between food intake and disease risk on a population level.

  13. Colonic necrosis and perforation due to calcium polystyrene sulfonate in a uraemic patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagun, Tulin; Yazici, Halil; Gulluoglu, Mine G; Yegen, Gulcin; Turkmen, Aydin

    2011-12-01

    Sodium or calcium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate or analog) is an ion-exchange resin commonly used to treat hyperkalaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is known to cause digestive complications, such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. Although rare, colonic necrosis and perforation are very severe complications associated with the medication. In this case report, we present a case of calcium polystyrene sulfonate-induced colonic necrosis and perforation to remind clinicians of this rare, but dangerous, toxicity associated with this commonly used medication.

  14. Chronic high fructose intake reduces serum 1,25 (OH2D3 levels in calcium-sufficient rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Douard

    Full Text Available Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D.

  15. Chronic high fructose intake reduces serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 levels in calcium-sufficient rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D.

  16. Estudio nutricional para evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D (Densia® en mujeres postmenopáusicas Nutritional trial to evaluate calcium intake in postmenopausic women on a diet of fermented milk enriched in calcium and vitamin D (Densia®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª E. González Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el aporte de calcio sobre la dieta de una unidad de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D sobre los niveles diarios de ingesta de Calcio en mujeres postmenopáusicas. Población del estudio: 261 mujeres postmenopáusicas. Método: Estudio nutricional exploratorio de 28 días de duración. A los individuos de la muestra se les proporcionó recomendaciones dietéticas para aumentar el aporte de calcio en la dieta y pautas de ejercicio físico junto con una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en Calcio y vitamina D (Densia® que consumieron diariamente durante los 28 días de duración del estudio. Se valoró la ingesta dietética de calcio pre y post intervención mediante encuesta dietética. Resultados: La cantidad media en miligramos de Calcio ingerida fue superior después de la intervención frente a la media al inicio del estudio, aumentando incluso el porcentaje de mujeres que llegaban a las recomendaciones diarias de calcio para su franja de edad. Conclusión: El aporte de calcio diario a través de medidas dietéticas y el consumo de una unidad diaria de leche fermentada enriquecida en calcio y vitamina D incrementa el aporte dietético diario de calcio. No obstante, un porcentaje de la muestra seguía presentando valores de aporte diario de calcio por debajo de las recomendaciones dietéticas, indicando la necesidad de adoptar medidas mas intensivas para alcanzar las recomendaciones de ingesta diaria de calcio.Aim: To analyse the calcium contribution of one unit of fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D in the daily calcium intake for postmenoupausic women. Subjects: 261 postmenoupausic women. Methods: 28 day duration of exploratoy, nutritional trial. All subjects received dietary advice on how to increase calcium intake in the daily diet and excercise recommendations with a unit of a fermented milk enriched with calcium and vitamin D (Densia® which was comsumed daily for the 28 day

  17. 6-n-propylthiouracil taster status not related to reported cruciferous vegetable intake among ethnically diverse children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Watson, Kathleen B; Jago, Russell; Islam, Noemi; Beltran, Alicia; Martin, Shelby J; Nguyen, Nga; Tepper, Beverly J

    2011-08-01

    Sensitivity to the taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) (a bitter chemical related to the phenylthiocarbamide found in cruciferous vegetables) has been related to dietary intake or preferences of cruciferous vegetables among adults and young children but not middle-aged children or adolescents. We hypothesized that PROP taste sensitivity is related to lower reported dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables, primarily among younger children (ie, a moderating effect of child age). This study examined the relationship of PROP sensitivity to reported dietary intake across 3 days in 2 age groups of youth (9-10 and 17-18 years) while statistically controlling for physical activity, social desirability, and reporting bias. Cross-sectional design was used with a multiethnic (white, African American, Hispanic, etc) sample of 843 men and women. Children were recruited from and data were collected in local elementary and high schools that had at least 30% ethnic minority enrollment. Children providing nonplausible reports of dietary intake were deleted from the analyses. Body mass index was calculated and expressed in z scores. Energy intake and physical activity were measured by 3 telephone-conducted 24-hour dietary recalls with the Nutrient Data System for Research and 5 days of Actigraph (ActiGraph, Shalimar, Florida) activity monitor. The primary analyses included 347 students. 6-n-Propylthiouracil sensitivity was not related to intake of cruciferous vegetables. Intakes of the cruciferous vegetables were low, which may explain the lack of relationship.

  18. [Milk and milk products: food sources of calcium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré Rovira, Rosaura

    2015-04-07

    The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.

  19. Calcium acetate versus calcium carbonate as phosphorus binders in patients on chronic haemodialysis: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, T; Nielsen, C; Andersen, S P; Behrens, J K; Sodemann, B; Kornerup, H J

    1993-01-01

    The first reported double-blind cross-over comparison between the phosphorus binders calcium carbonate and calcium acetate was undertaken in 15 stable patients on chronic maintenance haemodialysis. Detailed registration of diet and analysis of the protein catabolic rate suggested an unchanged phosphorus intake during the study. It was found that predialytic serum phosphate concentration was significantly decreased by 0.11 mmol/l (0.34 mg/dl) (P = 0.021, 95% confidence limits 0.02-0.21 mmol/l; 0.06-0.65 mg/dl) during calcium acetate treatment. The calcium phosphate product was insignificantly decreased during treatment with calcium acetate whereas we could not exclude the possibility that calcium concentration had increased.

  20. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  1. Characterizing Blood Metabolomics Profiles Associated with Self-Reported Food Intakes in Female Twins.

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    Tess Pallister

    Full Text Available Using dietary biomarkers in nutritional epidemiological studies may better capture exposure and improve the level at which diet-disease associations can be established and explored. Here, we aimed to identify and evaluate reproducibility of novel biomarkers of reported habitual food intake using targeted and non-targeted metabolomic blood profiling in a large twin cohort. Reported intakes of 71 food groups, determined by FFQ, were assessed against 601 fasting blood metabolites in over 3500 adult female twins from the TwinsUK cohort. For each metabolite, linear regression analysis was undertaken in the discovery group (excluding MZ twin pairs discordant [≥1 SD apart] for food group intake with each food group as a predictor adjusting for age, batch effects, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (1.17x10-6 = 0.05/[71 food groups x 601 detected metabolites]. Significant results were then replicated (non-targeted: P<0.05; targeted: same direction in the MZ discordant twin group and results from both analyses meta-analyzed. We identified and replicated 180 significant associations with 39 food groups (P<1.17x10-6, overall consisting of 106 different metabolites (74 known and 32 unknown, including 73 novel associations. In particular we identified trans-4-hydroxyproline as a potential marker of red meat intake (0.075[0.009]; P = 1.08x10-17, ergothioneine as a marker of mushroom consumption (0.181[0.019]; P = 5.93x10-22, and three potential markers of fruit consumption (top association: apple and pears: including metabolites derived from gut bacterial transformation of phenolic compounds, 3-phenylpropionate (0.024[0.004]; P = 1.24x10-8 and indolepropionate (0.026[0.004]; P = 2.39x10-9, and threitol (0.033[0.003]; P = 1.69x10-21. With the largest nutritional metabolomics dataset to date, we have identified 73 novel candidate biomarkers of food intake for potential use in nutritional epidemiological studies. We compiled our findings into the

  2. The Daily Consumption of Cola Can Determine Hypocalcemia: A Case Report of Postsurgical Hypoparathyroidism-Related Hypocalcemia Refractory to Supplemental Therapy with High Doses of Oral Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnotta, Valentina; Riela, Serena; Massaro, Marina; Bonventre, Sebastiano; Inviati, Angela; Ciresi, Alessandro; Pizzolanti, Giuseppe; Benvenga, Salvatore; Giordano, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of soft drinks is a crucial factor in determining persistent hypocalcemia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the biochemical mechanisms inducing hypocalcemia in a female patient with usual high consumption of cola drink and persistent hypocalcemia, who failed to respond to high doses of calcium and calcitriol supplementation. At baseline and after pentagastrin injection, gastric secretion (Gs) and duodenal secretion (Ds) samples were collected and calcium and total phosphorus (Ptot) concentrations were evaluated. At the same time, blood calcium, Ptot, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium concentrations, and vitamin D were sampled. After intake of cola (1 L) over 180 min, Gs and Ds and blood were collected and characterized in order to analyze the amount of calcium and Ptot or sodium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride ions, respectively. A strong pH decrease was observed after cola intake with an increase in phosphorus concentration. Consequently, a decrease in calcium concentration in Gs and Ds was observed. A decrease in calcium concentration was also observed in blood. In conclusion, we confirm that in patients with postsurgical hypoparathyroidism, the intake of large amounts of cola containing high amounts of phosphoric acid reduces calcium absorption efficiency despite the high doses of calcium therapy. PMID:28184212

  3. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  4. Relation of blood pressure to reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol in healthy middle-aged population.

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, J.T.; Tuomilehto, J; A. Tanskanen

    1983-01-01

    The association of blood pressure with reported intake of salt, saturated fats, and alcohol was studied in a sample of 8479 subjects based on a cross sectional survey in a population aged 30 to 64 years. A consistent association was found between the mean arterial pressure and the intake of alcohol (p less than 0.001) and saturated fats (p less than 0.01). There was also a weak association between blood pressure and dietary salt intake, but this association was mostly explained by the correla...

  5. Dietary sodium: where science and policy conflict: impact of the 2013 IOM Report on Sodium Intake in Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.

  6. Ingesta y fuentes de calcio en una muestra representativa de escolares españoles Food sources and average intake of calcium in a representative sample of Spanish schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Ortega

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La adecuación de la ingesta de calcio de la población infantil española ha sido objeto de debate y controversia, pues algunos estudios señalan que puede ser inadecuada en un porcentaje variable de escolares, mientras que algunos documentos insisten en el peligro de una ingesta excesiva en un amplio porcentaje de la población escolar. Objetivos: Valorar la ingesta de calcio y las fuentes alimentarias de este nutriente en una muestra representativa de niños españoles, analizando también la adecuación del aporte a la cobertura de las ingestas recomendadas. Métodos: Se estudiaron 903 escolares (de 7 a 11 años de diez provincias españolas: Tarragona, Cáceres, Burgos, Guadalajara, Valencia, Salamanca, Córdoba, Vizcaya, Lugo y Madrid, que constituyen una muestra representativa de la población española de dicha edad. La ingesta de energía y nutrientes se determinó utilizando un registro del consumo de alimentos durante 3 días, incluyendo un domingo. El aporte de calcio se comparó con las Ingestas Recomendadas (IR marcadas para dicho mineral. Los parámetros antropométricos estudiados fueron el peso y la talla, lo que permitió calcular el índice de masa corporal (IMC. Resultados: En el colectivo estudiado (55,3% de niñas y 44,7% de niños, un 30,7% presentó exceso de peso (sobrepeso-23,3% y obesidad-7,4%. La ingesta de calcio de los niños estudiados (859,9 ± 249,2 mg/día supuso un 79,5% de lo recomendado, observándose la existencia de un 76,7% de niños con ingestas menores de las recomendadas y un 40,1 con ingestas Introduction: There is controversy about the adequacy of calcium intake to that recommended in Spanish schoolchildren. Some studies indicate that the intake is inadequate in a variable percentage of children, while others insist on the danger of an excessive intake in a huge percentage of this population. Aim: To assess calcium intake and food sources of this nutrient in a representative sample of

  7. The Role of Calcium in Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis results from several factors. Calcium deficiency is only one, and high calcium intake will prevent only those cases in which calcium is the limiting factor. Calcium cannot reverse, but only arrest, bone loss. A high calcium intake for every member of the population is advocated. (Author/MT)

  8. Early resorption of an artificial bone graft made of calcium phosphate for cranioplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco BA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bernardo Assumpção de Monaco, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Manoel Jacobsen TeixeiraDivision of Functional Neurosurgery, Department of Neurology, Hospital das Clinicas, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: The treatment of uncomplicated osteoma consists of an en bloc resection, or curettage, of the tumor, followed by cranioplasty. Here, we present a case report of a patient treated for a parietal osteoma, followed by a calcium phosphate cranioplasty, with early resorption after 3 months, which was presented by a sinking flap above the resection area. This case suggests that synthetic cranioplasty should be preferred, even in small skull-gap areas.Keywords: cranioplasty, bone cement, osteoma, calcium phosphate, resorption

  9. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self......-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (P

  10. Pooled results from five validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for potassium and sodium intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have pooled data from five large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as referents to assess food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. We reported on total potassium and sodium intakes, their densities, and their ratio. Results were...

  11. 膳食钙和奶类的摄入同肥胖关系的病例对照研究%Relationship of dietary calcium intake and dairy consumption with risk of obesity: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炜; 蔡东联

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship of dietary calcium intake and dairy consumption with risk of obesity in a case-control study design. Methods Cases were 119 obese or overweight female Chinese college students aged 18 to 22 years, who were pre-screening volunteers for a weight loss program, recruited from April to October, 2011. Control subjects were pair matched at 1 :1 ratio by age, gender and body height. Anthropometric data were collected and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was performed with each participant. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify predictive factors related to calcium or dairy intake for obesity. Pearson correlations were performed in the total sample of subjects between body fat percentage and dairy (or calcium ) intake. Results Significant protective effects were obtained for calcium intake ( OR = 0. 19, 0. 05, P < 0. 01). Quartiles of dairy consumption did not reach statistical significance, however, it seemed to have protective effects for obesity with the 3rd and 4th quartiles( OR = 0. 36, 0.16, P < 0. 01). The consumption of dairy, or calcium intake, was proven to be inversely related to BMI (r = - 0.25, - 0. 38, P < 0. 01, respectively) and body fat (r = - 0. 37, P < 0. 01, respectively). Conclusion In the present study, dietary calcium intake and dairy consumption are important predictive factors for obesity. In addition, dietary calcium show a significant negative association with adiposity.%目的 通过研究膳食钙和奶类的摄入量与肥胖的关系,旨在为进一步研究肥胖的发病机制和干预手段提供依据.方法 以2011年4-9月期间进入一项肥胖干预试验筛选阶段的119名大专院校女生为病例组,年龄18~22周岁;同时选择同性别、同年龄、同身高,体重正常的同校健康学生作为对照组,以1∶1配对.对病例组和对照组进行食物频率调查及人体测量.采用条件Logistic回归法,分析不同钙和奶类摄入量对肥胖

  12. Dietary intake in relation to self-reported constipation among Japanese women aged 18-20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K; Okubo, H; Sasaki, S

    2006-05-01

    Information on modifiable lifestyle factors associated with constipation is limited, especially among non-Western populations. We examined associations between dietary intake and self-reported constipation in young Japanese women. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1,705 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-20 years and free of current disease and current dietary counseling. Dietary intake was estimated over a 1-month period with a validated, self-administered, diet history questionnaire, and lifestyle variables including self-reported constipation were assessed by a second questionnaire designed for this survey. A total of 436 women (26%) reported themselves to be 'constipated'. A multivariate odds ratio (OR) for women in the highest quartile of rice intake was 0.47 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33, 0.68) compared with the lowest. Additionally, women in the highest category of coffee intake had a multivariate OR of 0.67 (0.47, 0.94) compared with women in the lowest. Conversely, women in the highest quartile of confectionery intake had a multivariate OR of 1.54 (1.12, 2.13) compared with women in the lowest. Moreover, a multivariate OR for constipation for women in the highest quartile of Japanese and Chinese tea intake was 1.49 (1.09, 2.05) compared with women in the lowest. Neither total dietary fiber intake nor other lifestyle factors examined were associated with constipation. The consumption of rice and coffee was inversely associated with and that of confectioneries and Japanese and Chinese tea was positively associated with a prevalence of self-reported constipation.

  13. High dietary calcium intake decreases bone mobilization during pregnancy in humans Alto consumo de calcio en la dieta, disminuye la movilización ósea durante el embarazo en seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Avendaño-Badillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium metabolism of the mother is modified during pregnancy because of the mineralization of the fetus skeleton. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of calcium intake and bone demineralization during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At each trimester of pregnancy a validated food frequency intake questionnaire was administered to assess individual daily calcium intake in a cohort of 206 pregnant women, residents of Mexico City. Samples of urine were collected to measure levels of the cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx, which is a biomarker of bone resorption. The association between calcium ingestion and bone resorption was analyzed using random effects models; non-linear associations were explored using generalized additive models. RESULTS: Progressive increases in NTx levels were observed during pregnancy; with mean and standard deviation (SD values during the first, second and third trimester of 76.50 (SD=38, 101.02 (SD=48.86 and 144.83 (SD=61.33 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine, respectively. Higher dietary calcium intake was associated with lower bone resorption (β=-0.015; pEl metabolismo de calcio es modificado durante el embarazo debido a la mineralización del esqueleto del feto. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre la ingesta de calcio y la desmineralización ósea durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se administró un Cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de alimentos en cada trimestre del embarazo para evaluar el consumo de calcio en una cohorte de 206 mujeres residentes de la Ciudad de México. Se recolectaron muestras de orina para medir los niveles de N-telopéptido de colágeno tipo I (NTx, biomarcador de resorción. Se hicieron modelos de efectos aleatorios; se estudiaron asociaciones no lineales utilizando modelos aditivos generalizados. RESULTADOS: Se observó aumento progresivo en los niveles de NTx durante el embarazo. El mayor consumo de calcio se asoció con una menor resorción ósea (β=- 0.015, p<0

  14. Calcium requirements for Chinese adults by cross-sectional statistical analyses of calcium balance studies: an individual participant data and aggregate data meta-regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Aiping; Li Keji; Shi Haoyu; He Jingjing; Li He

    2014-01-01

    Background Chinese dietary reference intakes for calcium are largely based on foreign studies.We undertook metaregression to estimate calcium requirements for Chinese adults derived from calcium balance data in Chinese adults.Methods We searched PubMed,Cochrane CENTRAL,and SinoMed from inception to March 5,2014,by using a structured search strategy.The bibliographies of any relevant papers and journals were also screened for potentially eligible studies.We extracted a standardized data set from studies in Chinese adults that reported calcium balance data.The relationship between calcium intake and output was examined by an individual participant data (IPD) and aggregate data (AD) meta-regression.Results We identified 11 metabolic studies in Chinese adults within 18-60 years of age.One hundred and forty-one IPD (n=35) expressed as mg/d,127 IPD (n=32) expressed as mg·kg body wt-1·d-1,and 44 AD (n=132) expressed as mg/d were collected.The models predicted a neutral calcium balance (defined as calcium output (Y) equal to calcium intake (C)) at intakes of 460 mg/d (Y=0.60C+183.98) and 8.27 mg·kg body wt-1·d-1 (Y=0.60C+3.33)for IPD,or 409 mg/d (Y=0.66C+139.00) for AD.Calcium requirements at upper intakes were higher than that at lower intakes in all these models.Conclusion Calcium requirement for Chinese adults 18-60 years of age approximately ranges between 400 mg/d and 500 mg/d when consuming traditional plant-based Chinese diets.

  15. The effects of dietary calcium and protein intake on bone mass in adolescents in Beijing%青春期学生膳食钙和蛋白质对骨量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴非同; 胡小琪; 檀倩影; 左娇蕾; 王晓君; 卢佳希; 黄振武; 张倩

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索北京郊区青春期学生的膳食钙及蛋白质摄入与全身和股骨颈骨量之间的关系.方法 多层随机整群抽样的方法,选取北京怀柔区342名12~16岁学生(男生170人,女生172人).采用3d24h膳食回顾调查问卷了解膳食摄人情况.采用双能X线骨密度测量仪(Dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry,DXA)测量全身及股骨颈骨量.结果 研究对象平均每天膳食钙和蛋白质摄人量分别为316mg和70g.多元逐步回归分析发现:无论低钙组或高钙组中,体重和身高都是全身和股骨颈骨密度(bone mineral density,BMD)、骨矿物含量(bone mineral content,BMC)的主要影响因素,其他影响因素还包括性别、年龄、能量和钙、蛋白质、脂肪、碳水化合物及铁等营养素.调整性别、年龄、身高等混杂因素时,全身BMD、BMC在高钙低蛋白组最高(分别为0.804 g/m2,2010 g),而在低钙高蛋白组最低(分别为0.708 g/m2,1660 g;P <0.05).股骨BMD在高钙低蛋白组(0.809 g/m2)最高,BMC在低钙低蛋白组(3.8g)最高,而两者均在高钙高蛋白组最低(0.752 g/m2,3.51g;P <0.05).进一步调整体重后,上述差异的显著性消失.结论 除性别和年龄等不可控因素外,对北京郊区学生全身和股骨颈骨量影响最大的是体重和身高.对于钙摄入量不足的北京郊区青春期少年,高蛋白质、低钙饮食通过影响体重的变化间接地对全身和股骨颈BMD、BMC产生不利影响.%Objective To explore the relationship between dietary calcium and protein intake and bone mass of the total body and the femur in adolescents of rural area of Beijing. Methods A total of 342 12-16-year-old students (170 boys and 172 girls) in Huairou district, Beijing, were selected using multi-layer random cluster sampling method. A consecutive 3-day-food questionnaire was used to understand the dietary intake. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA ) was used to measure the bone mass of total body and the femur

  16. Factors affecting calcium balance in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ailing; Du, Weijing; Wang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaoqi; Ma, Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for calcium were developed mainly from studies conducted amongst Caucasians, yet a recent review showed that reference calcium intakes for Asians are likely to be different from those of Caucasians (Lee and Jiang, 2008). In order to develop calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents, it is necessary to explore the characteristics and potential influencing factors of calcium metabolic balance in Chinese adolescents. A total of 80 students (15.1+/-0.8 years) were recruited stratified by gender from a 1-year calcium supplementation study. Subjects were randomly designed to four groups and supplemented with calcium carbonate tablets providing elemental calcium at 63, 354, 660, and 966 mg/day, respectively. Subjects consumed food from a 3-day cycle menu prepared by staff for 10 days. Elemental calcium in samples of foods, feces, and urine was determined in duplicates by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The total calcium intake ranged from 352 to 1323 mg/day. The calcium apparent absorption efficiency and retention in boys were significantly higher than that in girls (68.7% vs. 46.4%, 480 mg/day vs. 204 mg/day, PCalcium retention increased with calcium intakes, but did not reach a plateau. Calcium absorption efficiency in boys increased with calcium intake up to 665 mg/day, and decreased after that. In girls, calcium absorption efficiency decreased with calcium intake. Calcium absorption efficiency increased within 1 year after first spermatorrhea in boys, but decreased with pubertal development in girls. Sex, calcium intake, age, and pubertal development were the most important determinants of calcium absorption (R(2)=0.508, Pcalcium intake, age, and pubertal development are important factors for calcium retention and absorption during growth, which should be considered for the development of calcium DRIs for Chinese adolescents.

  17. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's Diet Based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1994-96, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential ...

  18. Calcinosis Cutis Complicated by Compartment Syndrome Following Extravasation of Calcium Gluconate in a Neonate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuo-Kang Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypocalcemia most frequently occurs in premature neonates. It is usually treated by intravenous (iv calcium supplementation. However, complications caused by extravasation of iv calcium gluconate include localized soft tissue calcification, necrosis, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and even compartment syndrome. We present a rare case of iatrogenic calcinosis cutis complicated by compartment syndrome secondary to extravasation of iv calcium gluconate in a neonate. Emergent fasciotomy was performed twice for decompression of compartment syndrome. Histologic findings revealed necrosis and calcification. Appropriate antibiotics were administered to control secondary infection. To the best of our knowledge, there were no previous case reports of calcinosis cutis with compartment syndrome in infants. Although iatrogenic calcinosis cutis is generally a benign entity, the early recognition of the presentation of extravasation of calcium gluconate is important to avoid severe complications and possible medical malpractice disputes. This report aims to raise doctors' awareness of the presentation, course, and management of this relatively rare iatrogenic complication.

  19. Dietary intake and stress fractures among elite male combat recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate and sufficient dietary intake is one of the main requirements for maintaining fitness and health. Inadequate energy intake may have a negative impact on physical performance which may result in injuries among physically active populations. The purpose of this research was to evaluate a possible relationship between dietary intake and stress fracture occurrence among combat recruits during basic training (BT. Methods Data was collected from 74 combat recruits (18.2 ± 0.6 yrs in the Israeli Defense Forces. Data analyses included changes in anthropometric measures, dietary intake, blood iron and calcium levels. Measurements were taken on entry to 4-month BT and at the end of BT. The occurrence of stress reaction injury was followed prospectively during the entire 6-month training period. Results Twelve recruits were diagnosed with stress fracture in the tibia or femur (SF group. Sixty two recruits completed BT without stress fractures (NSF. Calcium and vitamin D intakes reported on induction day were lower in the SF group compared to the NSF group-38.9% for calcium (589 ± 92 and 964 ± 373 mg·d-1, respectively, p -1, respectively, p Conclusions The development of stress fractures in young recruits during combat BT was associated with dietary deficiency before induction and during BT of mainly vitamin D and calcium. For the purpose of intervention, the fact that the main deficiency is before induction will need special consideration.

  20. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hilger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps.

  1. 膳食钙、骨密度与儿童肥胖相关代谢异常的关系%Effects of dietary calcium intake on bone mineral density and obesity-related metabolic disorders in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮慧娟; 汤庆娅

    2009-01-01

    越来越多研究支持增加钙摄入可减少代谢综合征的发生率,儿童时期的牛奶摄入水平及保持饮用牛奶的习惯与成年后骨密度呈正相关,有助于获得更高的骨峰值.本文总结了膳食钙摄入量对骨密度和儿童肥胖相关代谢异常之间的关系.%More studies have shown that dietary calcium intake can decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Milk consumption in childhood and the habit of milk drinking are positively correlated with bone mineral density in adult-hood. This article summarizes the relationship between dietary calcium and bone mineral density and obesity-related metabolic disorder in children.

  2. Reporting accuracy of population dietary sodium intake using duplicate 24 h dietary recalls and a salt questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyzer, Willem; Dofková, Marcela; Lillegaard, Inger Therese L; De Maeyer, Mieke; Andersen, Lene Frost; Ruprich, Jirí; Řehůřková, Irena; Geelen, Anouk; van 't Veer, Pieter; De Henauw, Stefaan; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; de Boer, Evelien; Ocké, Marga; Slimani, Nadia; Huybrechts, Inge

    2015-02-14

    High dietary Na intake is associated with multiple health risks, making accurate assessment of population dietary Na intake critical. In the present study, reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was evaluated by 24 h urinary Na excretion using the EPIC-Soft 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR). Participants from a subsample of the European Food Consumption Validation study (n 365; countries: Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic), aged 45-65 years, completed two 24 h urine collections and two 24-HDR. Reporting accuracy was calculated as the ratio of reported Na intake to that estimated from the urinary biomarker. A questionnaire on salt use was completed in order to assess the discretionary use of table and cooking salt. The reporting accuracy of dietary Na intake was assessed using two scenarios: (1) a salt adjustment procedure using data from the salt questionnaire; (2) without salt adjustment. Overall, reporting accuracy improved when data from the salt questionnaire were included. The mean reporting accuracy was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·62, 0·72), 0·73 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·79) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·85) for Belgium, Norway and Czech Republic, respectively. Reporting accuracy decreased with increasing BMI among male subjects in all the three countries. For women from Belgium and Norway, reporting accuracy was highest among those classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2: 0·73, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·81 and 0·81, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·86, respectively). The findings from the present study showed considerable underestimation of dietary Na intake assessed using two 24-HDR. The questionnaire-based salt adjustment procedure improved reporting accuracy by 7-13 %. Further development of both the questionnaire and EPIC-Soft databases (e.g. inclusion of a facet to describe salt content) is necessary to estimate population dietary Na intakes accurately.

  3. Bone metabolism in postmenopausal women and effect of calcium intake on their fracture risk%绝经后妇女的骨代谢及钙摄入对骨折风险的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏代敏; 郁琦

    2011-01-01

    绝经后妇女一方面由于骨转化速率加快,矿化不足,骨矿含量降低;另一方面由于需要矿化的骨基质增加,导致机体对钙的需求量增加。同时,由于雌激素水平降低,导致肠道对钙的吸收能力及肾脏对钙的重吸收能力降低,导致钙吸收降低而排泄增加。因此,保证充足钙摄入对维持绝经后妇女骨骼结构具有重要意义。目前各国制定的钙参考摄入量不同。我国2000年制定的50岁以上妇女的适宜摄入量为元素钙1000 mg/d。增加饮食来源钙摄入是最佳的预防骨质疏松的方法。钙剂补充对增加绝经后妇女骨密度具有一定的有利作用,但对骨折风险的影响尚缺乏一致性的结论,对心血管疾病的影响尚不明确。目前的证据表明:联合补充钙剂与维生素D不增加心血管疾病的风险。%The rate of bone turnover in postmenopausal women accelerates and the newly formed osteoid is poorly mineralized, resulting in the loss of bone mineral content. Meanwhile, the requirement for calcium increases as more bone matrix needs to be mineralized. On the other hand, the reduction of serum estrogen level impairs the absorption of calcium in intestinal tract and the reabsorption in kidney, resulting in the decreased absorption and increased excretion of calcium. Therefore, sufficient calcium intake is critical for maintaining the bone structure in postmenopausal women. The reference intake of calcium differs greatly among different countries. In 2000, China established the adequate intake of calcium for Chinese women aged 50 years and older as 1000 mg/d. Diets provide the optimal source of calcium to prevent osteoporosis. Although calcium supplements have been demonstrated to be beneficial for the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women, its impact on fracture risk and cardiovascular diseases remains controversial. Available evidences suggest that calcium supplements combined with vitamin

  4. Calcium and caffeine interaction in increased calcium balance in ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tavares da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effects of caffeine intake associated with inadequate or adequate calcium intake in laparotomized or ovariectomized rats by means of the calcium balance. Forty adults Wistar rats were ovariectomized or laparotomized. METHODS: The animals (n=40 were randomly placed in eight groups receiving the AIN-93 diet with 100% or 50% of the recommended calcium intake with or without added caffeine (6mg/kg/day. The animals were kept in individuals metabolic cages at a temperature of 24°±2ºC, light/dark cycles of 12/12 hours, and deionized water available ad libitum. On the 8th week of the experiment, food consumption was measured and 24-hour urine and 4-day feces were collected to determine calcium balance [Balance=Ca intake-(Urinary Ca+Fecal Ca]. RESULTS: Animals with adequate calcium intake presented higher balances and rates of calcium absorption and retention (p<0.05 than those with inadequate calcium intake, regardless of caffeine intake (p<0.05. Caffeine intake did not affect urinary calcium excretion but increased balance (p<0.05 in the groups with adequate calcium intake. CONCLUSION: Adequate calcium intake attenuated the negative effects of estrogen deficiency and improved calcium balance even in the presence of caffeine.

  5. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  6. Increased calcium absorption from synthetic stable amorphous calcium carbonate: Double-blind randomized crossover clinical trial in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium supplementation is a widely recognized strategy for achieving adequate calcium intake. We designed this blinded, randomized, crossover interventional trial to compare the bioavailability of a new stable synthetic amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) with that of crystalline calcium carbonate (C...

  7. NUTRITIONAL INTAKE OF YOUNG ITALIAN HIGH-LEVEL SOCCER PLAYERS: UNDER-REPORTING IS THE ESSENTIAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Caccialanza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized that much of the dietary data on adolescents and athletes is prone to reporting error, mostly through under-reporting. Nevertheless, in the majority of studies assessing the nutritional intake of young soccer players under-reporting has not been taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary intake of a sample of young male Italian high-level soccer players on two time points to evaluate the degree of under- reporting. Seventy-five male high level soccer players (age range: 15-17 years completed 4-day food records on two separate occasions (T0; T1, 3 months after T0. Under-reporting was assessed by the ratio of reported estimated energy intake (EEI to estimated energy expenditure (EEE. Forty- three subjects, whose food records were judged accurate enough both at T0 and T1, were included in the data analysis (inclusion rate 57.3%. No significant weight changes were documented between T0 and T1 and in the two weeks preceding both T0 and T1. Reported mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than mean estimated daily energy expenditure both at T0 and T1 (p < 0.001. The average EEI/EEE ratio was 0.75 + 0.2 both at T0 and T1. It was < 80% in 27 subjects (62.8% at T0 and in 23 (53.4% at T1; it reached 50% in 4 subjects both at T0 and T1. The degree of under- reporting of the young soccer players was in line with the available data on this age group. This study emphasizes that under-reporting is a critical issue in the evaluation of young athletes dietary intake, which should be considered in the interpretation of data, particularly when energy inadequacies are reported. Further studies with uniformed methods are needed, in order to reduce the degree of under-reporting, obtain reliable data on the dietary intake of young soccer players and evaluate the efficacy of targeted nutrition education programs

  8. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Gallagher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study (n = 991. We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements, along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR or Adequate Intake (AI where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  9. The Association between Self-Reported Energy Intake and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue in Perimenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Kazlauskaite

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that physical activity predicts intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAT, but it is unknown whether energy intake predicts IAT independently of physical activity in a community-based, naturalistic environment. The association of energy intake with IAT was explored cross-sectionally in women, recruited between 2002 and 2005 for a study of fat patterning in midlife. IAT at L4-L5 vertebral interspace was assessed by computed tomography, energy intake by the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire, and physical activity by the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey. Linear regression models were used for the principal analyses. Among the 257 women, 48% were African American and 52% were Caucasian. Women were 52±3 years old, and 49% were postmenopausal. Every 500 kcal increase in energy intake was associated with a 6% higher IAT (P=0.02, independent of physical activity (P=0.02, after adjustment for ethnicity, menopausal status, age, smoking, income, and DXA-assessed percent body fat. Energy intake had a significant interaction with ethnicity (P=0.02, but not with physical activity. Models using the IAT to subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue ratio as an outcome had similar associations. In conclusion, self-reported EI was associated with preferential IAT accumulation in midlife women, independent of physical activity. This association was significantly stronger in Caucasian than African American women. Future longitudinal studies are needed to explore lifestyle predictors of IAT accumulation during the menopausal transition.

  10. New high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents, calcium silicate sorbents. Final report, 1993--August 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, M.C.; Chiang, R.K.; Fillgrove, K.L. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-02-01

    A search is being carried out for new calcium-based S0{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The objectives for the current year include the study of sorbents made from Ca(OH){sub 2}, from mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}, and from portland cement. They also include the study of sorbents made from model compounds. During this year, sorbents prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and from mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and fumed SiO{sub 2} were investigated. The results show that very good SiO{sub 2}-modified Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents in which the Si-to-Ca reactant ratio is low can be prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and fumed SiO{sub 2}. Sorbents prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and natural SiO{sub 2} or natural SiO{sub 2} sources were also studied. The results obtained show that very good SiO{sub 2}-modified Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbents and calcium silicate hydrate sorbents, C-S-H sorbents, can be prepared from Ca(OH){sub 2} and diatomite, pumice or perlite, minerals that are readily available. In addition. sorbents prepared from Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and {beta}-Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and from mixtures of these compounds and SiO{sub 2} were studied. The results secured demonstrate that very good C-S-H rich sorbents can be prepared from these compounds and from mixtures of them with SiO{sub 2}. They also provide information useful for interpreting the cement sorbent results. Sorbents prepared from cement and from mixtures of cement and natural SiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2} sources were investigated as well. The results secured show that cement and mixtures of it with diatomite, pumice or perlite rapidly yield excellent sorbents with the proper reaction conditions.

  11. Fear of Fatness Among Young Irish Adolescents : Association with Obesity, Reported Iron and Folate Intake, and Dental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Anne C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of fear of fatness (the desire to be thinner) and associated factors, including obesity, reported energy, iron and folate intakes. The difficulties in defining overweight among Irish children and an assessment of dietary and socio-economic factors related to dental caries and also reported in the group. METHODS: A one-year follow up study of 251 healthy schoolchildren at baseline (119 boys and 132 girls; mean age 11 years) attending 7 fee-paying (6 singl...

  12. Mammary-Specific Ablation of the Calcium-Sensing Receptor During Lactation Alters Maternal Calcium Metabolism, Milk Calcium Transport, and Neonatal Calcium Accrual

    OpenAIRE

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; Bikle, Daniel; Chang, Wenhan; Brown, Edward; Wysolmerski, John

    2013-01-01

    To meet the demands for milk calcium, the lactating mother adjusts systemic calcium and bone metabolism by increasing dietary calcium intake, increasing bone resorption, and reducing renal calcium excretion. As part of this adaptation, the lactating mammary gland secretes PTHrP into the maternal circulation to increase bone turnover and mobilize skeletal calcium stores. Previous data have suggested that, during lactation, the breast relies on the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to coordinate ...

  13. Reported high salt intake is associated with increased prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and larger aortic diameter in older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    Full Text Available Salt intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA through studies in rodent models but not previously studied in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between reported addition of salt to food and the prevalence of AAA.A risk factor questionnaire which contained a question about salt intake was included as part of a population screening study for AAA in 11742 older men. AAA presence was assessed by abdominal ultrasound imaging using a reproducible protocol.The prevalence of AAA was 6.9, 8.5 and 8.6% in men who reported adding salt to food never, sometimes and always, respectively, p = 0.005. Addition of salt to food sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.44 or always (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47 was independently associated with AAA after adjustment for other risk factors including age, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke. Salt intake was also independently associated with aortic diameter (beta 0.023, p = 0.012. In men with no prior history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, myocardial infarction or stroke (n = 4185, the association between addition of salt to food sometimes (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.08 or always (OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.22 and AAA remained evident.Reported salt intake is associated with AAA in older men. Additional studies are needed to determine whether reducing salt intake would protect against AAA.

  14. Low calcium-phosphate intakes modulate the low-protein diet-related effect on peak bone mass acquisition: a hormonal and bone strength determinants study in female growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C; Rizzoli, R; Ammann, P

    2014-11-01

    Peak bone mass acquisition is influenced by environmental factors including dietary intake. A low-protein diet delays body and skeletal growth in association with a reduction in serum IGF-1 whereas serum FGF21 is increased by selective amino acid deprivation. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) are also key nutrients for skeletal health, and inadequate intakes reduce bone mass accrual in association with calciotropic hormone modulation. Besides, the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mass in prepubertal children appears to be influenced by protein intake. To further explore the interaction of dietary protein and Ca-P intake on bone growth, 1-month-old female rats were fed with an isocaloric 10%, 7.5%, or 5% casein diet containing normal or low Ca-P for an 8-week period (6 groups). Changes in tibia geometry, mineral content, microarchitecture, strength, and intrinsic bone quality were analyzed. At the hormonal level, serum IGF-1, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), and FGF23 were investigated as well as the Ghr hepatic gene expression. In normal dietary Ca-P conditions, bone mineral content, trabecular and cortical bone volume, and bone strength were lower in the 5% casein group in association with a decrease in serum IGF-1 and an increase in FGF21 levels. Unexpectedly, the low-Ca-P diet attenuated the 5% casein diet-related reduction of serum IGF-1 and Ghr hepatic gene expression, as well as the low-protein diet-induced decrease in bone mass and strength. However, this was associated with lower cortical bone material level properties. The low-Ca-P diet increased serum calcitriol but decreased FGF23 levels. Calcitriol levels positively correlated with Ghr hepatic mRNA levels. These results suggest that hormonal modulation in response to a low-Ca-P diet may modify the low-protein diet-induced effect on Ghr hepatic mRNA levels and consequently the impact of low protein intakes on IGF-1 circulating levels and skeletal

  15. Conservation of body calcium by increased dietary intake of potassium: A potential measure to reduce the osteoporosis process during prolonged exposure to microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechay, Bohdan R.

    1989-01-01

    During the 1988 NASA Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, it was proposed that the loss of skeletal calcium upon prolonged exposure to microgravity could be explained, in part, by a renal maladjustment characterized by an increased urinary excretion of calcium. It was theorized that because the conservation of body fluids and electrolytes depends upon the energy of adenosine triphosphate and enzymes that control the use of its energy for renal ion transport, an induction of renal sodium and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na + K ATPase) by oral loading with potassium would increase the reabsorption of sodium directly and that of calcium indirectly, leading to improved hydration and to reduced calcium loss. Preliminary studies showed the following. Rats drinking water containing 0.2 M potassium chloride for six to 13 days excreted in urine 22 muEq of calcium and 135 muEq of sodium per 100 grams of body weight per day. The corresponding values for control rats drinking tap water were 43 muEq and 269 muEq respectively. Renal Na + K ATPase activity in potassium loaded rats was higher than in controls. Thus, oral potassium loading resulted in increased Na + K ATPase activity and diminished urinary excretion of calcium and of sodium as predicted by the hypothesis. An extension of these studies to humans has the potential of resulting in development of harmless, non-invasive, drug-free, convenient measures to reduce bone loss and other electrolyte and fluid problems in space travelers exposed to prolonged periods of microgravity.

  16. Actions taken to reduce sodium intake among adults with self-reported hypertension: HealthStyles survey, 2005 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carma; Tong, Xin; Valderrama, Amy; Ivy, Andrae; Keenan, Nora

    2010-10-01

    Consuming high amounts of dietary sodium is associated with hypertension. The authors analyzed the HealthStyles 2005 and 2008 survey for behaviors to lower blood pressure related to dietary sodium, including the reduction of sodium intake and reading food labels for sodium content among hypertensives. All estimates were based on self-reported data. The relative percent change (RPC) in the prevalence of these behaviors between 2005 and 2008 was assessed. During the 3-year period, there were increases in the prevalence of reducing dietary sodium (RPC=17.2%, 56.6% in 2008 vs 48.3% in 2005; P<.05) and reading food labels for sodium content (RPC=7.9%, 53.0% vs 49.1%; P<.05). In 2005, the proportion of hypertensive adults who reported reducing dietary sodium was higher for persons 65 years and older, for blacks, for those with income <$25,000, and for those with more than a high school education compared with those in their comparison groups. In 2008, those aged 65 years and older had the highest percentage, while Hispanics and blacks had essentially the same percentage for reducing sodium. Based on 2005 and 2008 HealthStyles surveys, about half of hypertensive patients reported reducing their intake of sodium and reading food labels for salt. Health care providers should emphasize the importance of knowing the daily recommended limit for dietary sodium to help adults lower this intake.

  17. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    .54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...

  18. Associations between salivary bacteria and reported sugar intake and their relationship with body mass index in women and their adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vågstrand, Karin; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Birkhed, Dowen; Linné, Yvonne

    2008-04-01

    To study associations between reported sugar intake and salivary bacteria (mutans streptococci, MS and lactobacilli, LB), and sugar intake in relation to body mass index (BMI), in women and adolescents. Cross-sectional study. Habitual dietary intake was reported in a questionnaire and whole saliva samples were collected and cultivated. Stockholm, Sweden. Four hundred and fourteen mothers and their 16-year-old children (57% girls). Reported total sugar intake was significantly associated with LB in mothers (P = 0.001), but not in daughters and sons (P = 0.03 for mother-son interaction). When excluding lactose, the associations with LB and MS were significant in daughters (P = 0.032 and 0.005, respectively). High BMI and sugar intake from milk were independently associated with MS counts in mothers in a multiple regression model (R2 = 0.053). In daughters, sugar from beverages, candies/chocolates and fruits were all independently associated with MS counts (R2 = 0.074), whereas in sons, only mothers' MS counts were associated (R2 = 0.084). High BMI, low intake from cooked meals and high intake of candies/chocolates were all independently associated with LB in mothers (R2 = 0.076), while, except for candies/chocolates in daughters, no significant associations were found in children. BMI was significantly associated with bacteria counts in both mothers and children, whereas reported sugar intake was not. The associations between reported sugar intake and bacteria were generally weak. In mothers and daughters, some significant associations were found, but not in sons. Bacteria counts, but not reported sugar intake, were positively associated with BMI.

  19. ASUPAN KALSIUM DAN VITAMIN D PADA ANAK INDONESIA USIA 2 – 12 TAHUN [Calcium and Vitamin D Intake of Indonesian Children 2-12 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valentina*

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption is playing an important role for nutritional status of children 2-12 years old. During growth and development phase, body needs macro and micro nutrients even more than later phase. The process can not be catched up at later stage therefore it is very important to pay attention to food consumption during this phase. This study used secondary data of South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS 2011-2012 which was covered recapitulation profile data of 300 children age 2-12 years old representative of 48 districts in Indonesia. The study showed that Indonesian children consuming less calcium and vitamin D-rich foods than the recommended daily allowance (RDA. It does not reflects on the result of anthropometry data, vitamin D on the blood and bone mass density since the dietary recall 24 hours shows only food consumption in that specific day while nutritional status shows a result of longer process. However, vitamin D in blood has a significant correlation with bone mass density of tibia bone (p<0.05. Deficiency of calcium and mainly vitamin D is a new finding at this time. Therefore, the study showed that fortification of calcium and vitamin min D in food become important to improve nutritional status of Indonesian children. 20% of RDA per serving size twice a day is recommended as well for fortification level of Calcium and Vitamin D.

  20. Dietary intake of calcium and magnesium and the metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) 2001-2010 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Albert, Jeffrey M; Singer, Mendel E; Swain, James; Nock, Nora L

    2015-09-28

    Higher dietary intakes of Mg and Ca, individually, have been associated with a decreased risk for the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Experimental studies suggest that a higher intra-cellular ratio of Ca:Mg, which may be induced by a diet high in Ca and low in Mg, may lead to hypertension and insulin resistance. However, no previous epidemiological studies have examined the effects of the combined intake of Mg and Ca on MetSyn. Thus, we evaluated the association between dietary intakes of Ca and Mg (using 24-h recalls), independently and in combination, and MetSyn in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2001-2010 data, which included 9148 adults (4549 men and 4599 women), with complete information on relevant nutrient, demographic, anthropometric and biomarker variables. We found an inverse association between the highest (>355 mg/d) v. the lowest (intakes in the highest quartile for Mg (≥ 386 mg/d) and Ca (≥ 1224 mg/d) had a lower odds of MetSyn (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.59, 0.93). Our results suggest that women who meet the RDA for Mg and Ca have a reduced odds of MetSyn but men may require Ca levels higher than the RDA to be protected against MetSyn.

  1. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  2. Self-reported alcohol intake in pregnancy: comparison between four methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, U; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE To assess the agreement between four different measures of alcohol intake in pregnancy. DESIGN AND SETTING Danish speaking pregnant women referred to the Midwife Centre in Aarhus, Denmark, for routine antenatal care were contacted at their first visit at approximately 15–16 weeks...

  3. Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in children - a workshop report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletzko, B.; Uauy, R.; Palou, A.; Kok, F.J.; Hornstra, G.; Eilander, A.; Moretti, D.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Innis, S.

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy whether children should have a dietary supply of preformed long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The aims of the workshop were to review evidence for a possible benefit of a preformed EPA and/or DHA supply, of data required to set desirable intakes for children

  4. Accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods in a school meal intervention study: comparison between control and intervention period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Andersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    Bias in self-reported dietary intake is important when evaluating the effect of dietary interventions, particularly for intervention foods. However, few have investigated this in children, and none have investigated the reporting accuracy of fish intake in children using biomarkers. In a Danish...... school meal study, 8- to 11-year-old children (n 834) were served the New Nordic Diet (NND) for lunch. The present study examined the accuracy of self-reported intake of signature foods (berries, cabbage, root vegetables, legumes, herbs, potatoes, wild plants, mushrooms, nuts and fish) characterising...... the NND. Children, assisted by parents, self-reported their diet in a Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children during the intervention and control (packed lunch) periods. The reported fish intake by children was compared with their ranking according to fasting whole-blood EPA and DHA...

  5. Macronutrient and calcium intakes of rural left-behind children living in Ziyang%资阳市农村留守儿童宏量营养素和钙摄入现况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝刚; 张瑞; 张莎; 封平; 尹开武; 周欢

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解农村留守儿童营养素摄人情况以及相关影响因素,为开展营养干预、改善农村儿童营养状况提供依据.方法 分层整群抽取四川省资阳市2所农村小学二~五年级学生共计472名,使用调查问卷收集家庭构成,并采用7d连续膳食个人食物登记法收集调查对象的饮食状况.结果 非留守、双亲留守、单亲留守儿童的总能量摄入量与推荐值之比分别为0.57,0.56,0.52,总能量、脂肪、钙的摄入量差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);回归分析显示,留守类别、吃零食情况是影响农村儿童总能量摄入的重要因素.结论 农村留守儿童膳食营养素中的总能量、蛋白质、脂肪、钙的摄人量均不足.应着重针对留守儿童及其吃零食行为等方面进行膳食营养干预.%Objective To investigate the macronutrient and calcium intake status and related factors among left-behind children living in rural areas.Methods By applying the stratified cluster sampling,472 children and adolescents in grade 2-5were enrolled in rural areas to complete the questionnaires about general status and nutrient intake status.Results The ratios of gross energy intake and its RNIs for no-left-behind children,left-behind children with parents,and left-behind children with single parent were 0.57,0.56 and 0.52,and variance analysis showed that the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.05),same were the fat and calcium's intake.Regression analysis showed that the main related factors were left type,the conditions of eating snacks and so on.Conclusion The nutrient intake status of rural children especially in gross energy,fat and calcium was worrying,especially for left-behind children.So the nutrition intervention should focus on left-behind children and their behavior of eating snacks.

  6. Variability in estimation of self-reported dietary intake data from elite athletes resulting from coding by different sports dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhuis, Andrea J; Meredith, Kelly; Cox, Gregory R; Hopkins, William G; Burke, Louise M

    2003-06-01

    A routine activity for a sports dietitian is to estimate energy and nutrient intake from an athlete's self-reported food intake. Decisions made by the dietitian when coding a food record are a source of variability in the data. The aim of the present study was to determine the variability in estimation of the daily energy and key nutrient intakes of elite athletes, when experienced coders analyzed the same food record using the same database and software package. Seven-day food records from a dietary survey of athletes in the 1996 Australian Olympic team were randomly selected to provide 13 sets of records, each set representing the self-reported food intake of an endurance, team, weight restricted, and sprint/power athlete. Each set was coded by 3-5 members of Sports Dietitians Australia, making a total of 52 athletes, 53 dietitians, and 1456 athlete-days of data. We estimated within- and between- athlete and dietitian variances for each dietary nutrient using mixed modeling, and we combined the variances to express variability as a coefficient of variation (typical variation as a percent of the mean). Variability in the mean of 7-day estimates of a nutrient was 2- to 3-fold less than that of a single day. The variability contributed by the coder was less than the true athlete variability for a 1-day record but was of similar magnitude for a 7-day record. The most variable nutrients (e.g., vitamin C, vitamin A, cholesterol) had approximately 3-fold more variability than least variable nutrients (e.g., energy, carbohydrate, magnesium). These athlete and coder variabilities need to be taken into account in dietary assessment of athletes for counseling and research.

  7. Serum calcium levels are not associated with coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Y

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yuelong Jin,* Lianping He,* Quanhai Wang, Yan Chen, Xiaohua Ren, Hui Tang, Xiuli Song, Lingling Ding, Qin Qi, Zhiwei Huang, Jiegen Yu, Yingshui Yao Department of Preventive Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Numerous studies have reported that low calcium intake is related to a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between serum calcium and coronary heart disease is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare serum calcium levels in patients with coronary heart disease and those in healthy individuals. Methods: This retrospective, case-control study conducted in the People's Republic of China comprised 380 cases and 379 controls. Serum calcium levels, blood lipids, and anthropometric measurements were measured in both groups. The Student's unpaired t-test or Chi-square test was used to compare differences between cases and controls. Pearson's partial correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between serum calcium, blood lipids, and blood pressure in both groups. Results: Our results indicate that the average level of serum calcium in cases was higher than in controls. Serum calcium levels showed no correlation with any parameter except for triglycerides in either group. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that serum calcium has no influence on coronary heart disease or triglyceride levels in the general population. Keywords: serum calcium, hypertension, blood lipids

  8. Total Usual Intake of Shortfall Nutrients Varies With Poverty Among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; Akabas, Sharon R; Paxson, Erin E; Thuppal, Sowmyanarayanan V; Saklani, Shilpa; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-09-01

    To examine shortfall nutrient intakes (ie, calcium, folate, potassium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E) by poverty-to-income ratio (PIR). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. US adults with complete data on poverty status and diet were included (n = 4,524). The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate total usual micronutrient intakes from foods, beverages, medications, and dietary supplements reported on 2 24-hour dietary recalls using measurement error correction. Calcium, folate, potassium, magnesium, and vitamins A, C, D, and E across 3 PIR categories: <130%, 130% to 350%, and ≥350%. Mean intakes of folate, vitamin C, and vitamin D were significantly greater in men, and magnesium in women, across all PIR categories. Except for calcium in men and vitamin C in women, the highest PIR category had significantly higher mean total usual intakes of all remaining shortfall micronutrients. Importantly, men and women in the highest PIR category (≥350%) were significantly less likely to have intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement across all micronutrients compared with those in the lower PIR categories. Even with dietary supplements, large proportions of US adults have micronutrient intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement. Adults at the highest adjusted income have higher micronutrient intakes and lower risk of inadequacy than those with lower incomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Trace element intakes and (phytate)/(zinc) and (phytate)(calcium)/(zinc) millimolar ratios of some peri-urban pregnant Guatemalan women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, S.; Gibson, R.S.; Thompson, L.; Quan de Serrano, J.; Portocarrero, L.; Zepeda, E.; Lopez, C.Y. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Center for Studies on Sensory Impairment, Aging and Metabolism, Guatemala City (Guatemala))

    1991-03-15

    Repeated 24-hr recalls were conducted on 52 peri-urban Guatemalan women aged 25 {plus minus} 5 years during the third trimester of pregnancy from which trace element intakes and millimolar ratios of phytate (Ph)/(Zn) and (Ph)(Ca)/(Zn) were calculated. Food composition values for trace elements and phytate were based on chemical analysis and the literature. Mean intakes were: Zn 11.3 {plus minus} 2.7; Cu 1.3 {plus minus} 0.3; Mn 2.8 {plus minus} 0.6; Ca 727 {plus minus} 163; Ph 2,254 {plus minus} 773; dietary fiber (g/d) 27.6 {plus minus} 8.0. 94% of the women had Zn intakes below the WHO recommendations. Tortillas were a major source of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca, and phytate; only 19% of Zn was from animal foods. Mean ({plus minus}SD) mM ratios of (Ph)/(Zn), and (Ph)(Ca)/(Zn) per 4.2 MJ were 18.8 {plus minus} 4.2 and 168 {plus minus} 51, respectively. Of the women, 79% and 38% had (Ph)/(Zn) > 15 and > 20 respectively, whereas 94% had mM ratios (Ph)(Ca)/(Zn) per 4.2 MJ > 91. The high prevalence of dietary (Ph)/(Zn) and (Ph)(Ca)/(Zn) mM ratios per 4.2 MKJ above suggested critical values may comprise the zinc status of these pregnant women.

  10. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  11. [Allergy of calcium phosphate cement material following skull reconstruction: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizowaki, Takashi; Miyake, Shigeru; Yoshimoto, Yuji; Matsuura, Yoshitaka; Akiyama, Sou

    2013-04-01

    The paste form of calcium phosphate cement is often used in skull reconstruction because of the biocompatibility and early handling of these cements. Although it had rarely been shown to produce a foreign body reaction, we encountered a patient who experienced an allergic reaction to calcium phosphate cements(Biopex®. A patch test was performed and a positive reaction to magnesium phosphate was obtained. Biopex® contains magnesium phosphate, so we diagnosed this case as allergic reaction. Pathological analysis revealed infiltration of plasmacytes in the bone flap around the calcium phosphate cement. The postoperative course was uneventful 3 years after surgery. Allergy to calcium phosphate cements is rare, but must be considered in differential diagnosis of its side effects.

  12. The effects of calcium hydroxide-treated whole-plant and fractionated corn silage on intake, digestion, and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D E; Bender, R W; Shinners, K J; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate, in dairy cattle, the effects of calcium hydroxide treatment of whole-plant corn and a treatment applied to the bottom stalk fraction of the corn plant, achieved by harvesting corn in 2 crop streams. The treatments were calcium hydroxide-treated corn silage (TRTCS), toplage supplemented with calcium hydroxide-treated stalklage (TPL), a positive control of brown midrib corn silage (BMR), and a negative control of conventional whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). The toplage was harvested at a height of 82 cm with 2 of the 6 rows set as ear-snapping to incorporate higher tissues into the stalklage. Stalklage was harvested at 12 cm, and other corn silages were harvested at 27 cm. Sixteen pens, each with 8 Holstein cows averaging 70±25 d in milk and 46±11 kg of milk d(-1), were assigned 4 per treatment in a completely randomized design. The diet was approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate on a dry matter basis. A 2-wk covariate period with conventional corn silage was followed by an 8-wk treatment period in which the 4 corn silage treatments were the only effective difference in diets. Cows fed TPL and TRTCS consumed more (1.9 and 1.4 kg of organic matter d(-1), respectively) than did cows fed WPCS. Milk yield was greater for cows fed BMR, TPL, and TRTCS. Cows fed BMR and TPL produced 2.9 and 2.7 kg d(-1), respectively, more energy-corrected milk (ECM) than cows fed WPCS, and cows fed TRTCS had the greatest ECM production (4.8 kg of ECM d(-1) greater than cows fed WPCS). No differences in body weight or body condition scored were observed. Milk fat concentration was similar among treatments and milk protein concentration was reduced for TRTCS. Starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were greater for cows fed TRTCS.

  13. Validation of Reported Whole-Grain Intake from a Web-Based Dietary Record against Plasma Alkylresorcinol Concentrations in 8- to 11-Year-Olds Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Ygil, Karin Hess

    2016-01-01

    plasma alkylresorcinol (AR) concentrations, and to investigate the 3-mo reproducibility of AR concentrations and reported WG intake. METHODS: AR concentrations were analyzed in fasting blood plasma samples, and WG intake was estimated in a 7-d web-based diary by 750 participants aged 8-11 y in a 2 school......BACKGROUND: Whole-grain (WG) intake is important for human health, but accurate intake estimation is challenging. Use of a biomarker for WG intake provides a possible way to validate dietary assessment methods. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to validate WG intake from 2 diets reported by children, using...

  14. Excessive fructose intake causes 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)-dependent inhibition of intestinal and renal calcium transport in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Sabbagh, Yves; Lee, Jacklyn; Patel, Chirag; Kemp, Francis W; Bogden, John D; Lin, Sheldon; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2013-06-15

    We recently discovered that chronic high fructose intake by lactating rats prevented adaptive increases in rates of active intestinal Ca(2+) transport and in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D. Since sufficient Ca(2+) absorption is essential for skeletal growth, our discovery may explain findings that excessive consumption of sweeteners compromises bone integrity in children. We tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)2D3 mediates the inhibitory effect of excessive fructose intake on active Ca(2+) transport. First, compared with those fed glucose or starch, growing rats fed fructose for 4 wk had a marked reduction in intestinal Ca(2+) transport rate as well as in expression of intestinal and renal Ca(2+) transporters that was tightly associated with decreases in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, bone length, and total bone ash weight but not with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Dietary fructose increased the expression of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and decreased that of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), suggesting that fructose might enhance the renal catabolism and impair the synthesis, respectively, of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Serum FGF23, which is secreted by osteocytes and inhibits CYP27B1 expression, was upregulated, suggesting a potential role of bone in mediating the fructose effects on 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis. Second, 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment rescued the fructose effect and normalized intestinal and renal Ca(2+) transporter expression. The mechanism underlying the deleterious effect of excessive fructose intake on intestinal and renal Ca(2+) transporters is a reduction in serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. This finding is significant because of the large amounts of fructose now consumed by Americans increasingly vulnerable to Ca(2+) and vitamin D deficiency.

  15. Excessive fructose intake causes 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent inhibition of intestinal and renal calcium transport in growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douard, Veronique; Sabbagh, Yves; Lee, Jacklyn; Patel, Chirag; Kemp, Francis W.; Bogden, John D.; Lin, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    We recently discovered that chronic high fructose intake by lactating rats prevented adaptive increases in rates of active intestinal Ca2+ transport and in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D. Since sufficient Ca2+ absorption is essential for skeletal growth, our discovery may explain findings that excessive consumption of sweeteners compromises bone integrity in children. We tested the hypothesis that 1,25-(OH)2D3 mediates the inhibitory effect of excessive fructose intake on active Ca2+ transport. First, compared with those fed glucose or starch, growing rats fed fructose for 4 wk had a marked reduction in intestinal Ca2+ transport rate as well as in expression of intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporters that was tightly associated with decreases in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, bone length, and total bone ash weight but not with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Dietary fructose increased the expression of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and decreased that of 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), suggesting that fructose might enhance the renal catabolism and impair the synthesis, respectively, of 1,25-(OH)2D3. Serum FGF23, which is secreted by osteocytes and inhibits CYP27B1 expression, was upregulated, suggesting a potential role of bone in mediating the fructose effects on 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis. Second, 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment rescued the fructose effect and normalized intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression. The mechanism underlying the deleterious effect of excessive fructose intake on intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporters is a reduction in serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3. This finding is significant because of the large amounts of fructose now consumed by Americans increasingly vulnerable to Ca2+ and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:23571713

  16. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.;

    1995-01-01

    dietary self- administered questionnaire and interview, with fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids. Daily intake (g/d) and nutrient density of marine n-3 fatty acids (mg/MJ) correlated with the n-3 fatty acid: arachidonic acid ratio (FA-ratio) with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.......54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  17. Self-reported academic grades and other correlates of sugar-sweetened soda intake among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping 2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions.

  18. Past and current body size affect validity of reported energy intake among middle-aged Danish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Birgit M; Nielsen, Marie M; Toubro, Søren; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Jess, Tine; Heitmann, Berit L

    2009-12-01

    Our objectives were to estimate the degree of misreporting energy intake (EI) and analyze associations with previous BMI, current BMI, or both. The study was part of the Adiposity and Genetics Study follow-up study including 309 Danish men (age 40-65 y) originally sampled from the obligatory draft board examination. Height and weight were measured at the mean ages of 20 (draft board), 33, 44, and 49 y (current age). Obesity was categorized as BMI >or= 31 kg/m(2). Dietary intake for 7 d and physical activity (PA) level (PAL) were self-reported. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured in a ventilated hood system. By comparing EI with energy expenditure and assuming energy balance, reporting accuracy (RA) was estimated as EI/(RMR.PAL). A plausibility interval was calculated to encompass specific variation components of EI, RMR, and PAL; the specific 95% plausibility interval was 1.00 +/- 0.35. Participants were categorized as underreporters (RA 1.35) of EI. The relation between RA and BMI was studied through linear regression analysis. Overall, the RA was (mean +/- SE) 0.76 +/- 0.01. Of 309 participants, 35% underreported and 7% overreported. Whether stratified for current BMI or draft board BMI, the obese men were more likely to underreport than those who were not obese. Among those currently not obese, underreporting was more prevalent among those who were obese at the draft board examination (44%) than among those who were not (21%). Regression analysis showed that both previous and current BMI and their combination were significantly associated with RA. Thus, underreporting of dietary intake seems to be associated with not only current BMI but also with current BMI in combination with previous BMI.

  19. A comparison of the accuracy of self reported intake vs. measured intake of a laboratory overeating episode in obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose was to: 1) Confirm that those with binge eating disorder (BED) consume significantly more kilocalories (kcal) than obese controls when instructed to overeat in the laboratory and 2) Compare dietary recall data with measured intake. Methods: Fifteen women fulfilling BED criteria and 17 c...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories Small-Scale Sensitivity Testing (SSST) Report: Calcium Nitrate Mixtures with Various Fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jason Joe [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Based upon the presented sensitivity data for the examined calcium nitrate mixtures using sugar and sawdust, contact handling/mixing of these materials does not present hazards greater than those occurring during handling of dry PETN powder. The aluminized calcium nitrate mixtures present a known ESD fire hazard due to the fine aluminum powder fuel. These mixtures may yet present an ESD explosion hazard, though this has not been investigated at this time. The detonability of these mixtures will be investigated during Phase III testing.

  1. High Sodium Intake Is Associated With Self-Reported Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross Sectional and Case Control Analysis Within the SUN Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Eva; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; de Irala, Jokin; Carmona, Loreto; Gómez-Reino, Juan J

    2015-09-01

    Sodium intake is a potential environmental factor for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of sodium intake with rheumatoid arthritis. We performed a cross-sectional study nested in a highly educated cohort investigating dietary habits as determinants of disease. Daily sodium intake in grams per day was estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified prevalent self-reported cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio for rheumatoid arthritis by sodium intake adjusting for confounders. Linear trend tests and interactions between variables were explored. Sensitivity analyses included age- and sex-matched case-control study, logistic multivariate model adjusted by residuals, and analysis excluding individuals with prevalent diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The effective sample size was 18,555 individuals (mean age 38-years old, 60% women) including 392 self-reported rheumatoid arthritis. Median daily sodium intake (estimated from foods plus added salt) was 3.47 (P25-75: 2.63-4.55) grams. Total sodium intake in the fourth quartile showed a significant association with rheumatoid arthritis (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1, P for trend = 0.02). Never smokers with high sodium intake had higher association than ever smokers with high sodium intake (P for interaction = 0.007). Dose-dependent association was replicated in the case-control study. High sodium intake may be associated with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This confirms previous clinical and experimental research.

  2. Reaction of calcium-based sorbents with sulfur compounds during gasification. Second annual report, October 1987-September 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A.

    1989-01-01

    This report outlines the objective and the data obtained under the project related to efficient utilization of high-sulfur Illinois coal in a One-Step Coal Gasification/Desulfurization Process by employing in-situ removal of sulfur using calcium-based sorbents. The research was supported jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the State of Illinois Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal. The scope of the research included a study of the reaction of calcium-based sorbent with sulfur present in the coal at gasification conditions. Low-pressure tests were conducted in an ambient-pressure quartz electrobalance and high-pressure tests were conducted in a high-pressure/high-temperature thermobalance reactor. The test parameters included temperature, pressure, H/sub 2/S concentration, and sorbent particle size. The sulfidation reaction tests at elevated pressure were conducted with both fully calcined and half-calcined sorbents.

  3. Recent nutritional trends of calcium and vitamin D in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ohta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake may play an important role on bone health. The recent national nutritional survey in Japan revealed the gradual decrease in calcium intake to around 480 mg/day. In addition, the patients with low level of vitamin D become too large in proportion. The present perspective proposes to increase calcium intake in Asian population.

  4. [Epidemiologic studies on nutrition role in develomeat of osteoarthrosis. Report 1. Analysis of actual intake of nutrients and energy in depend on financial position and in come patients osteoarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyrev, V N; Martinchik, A N

    2010-01-01

    The study gives the characteristic of the social situation of patients with osteoarthrosis (OA), among which is dominated by people with disabilities and senior citizens (60%), most of which belongs to the poor. The actual nutrition of patients with OA is characterized by low energy intake and macronutrients. Feeding low-income patients with OA was characterized by inadequate intake of ascorbic acid and calcium, whereas the intake of vitamin A, E and beta-carotene was higher in patients with OA compared with the control group.

  5. Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yoke San; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ayob, Ainaa Fatehah; Othman, Nor Effendy; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-01

    Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i) evaluate users’ acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app); and (ii) identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%), perceived ease of use (77.1%), attitude (73.6%), perceived enjoyment (62.6%), and smartphone experience (91.1%), but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1%) and social influence (33.4%). Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i) features; (ii) potential use; (iii) utility issues of the food app; and (iv) suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance. PMID:28098770

  6. Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke San Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i evaluate users’ acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app; and (ii identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%, perceived ease of use (77.1%, attitude (73.6%, perceived enjoyment (62.6%, and smartphone experience (91.1%, but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1% and social influence (33.4%. Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i features; (ii potential use; (iii utility issues of the food app; and (iv suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance.

  7. Can Malaysian Young Adults Report Dietary Intake Using a Food Diary Mobile Application? A Pilot Study on Acceptability and Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yoke San; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ayob, Ainaa Fatehah; Othman, Nor Effendy; Poh, Bee Koon

    2017-01-13

    Mobile applications may improve dietary reporting among young adults due to their high accessibility and embedded camera function. This pilot study aimed to (i) evaluate users' acceptability and compliance in reporting dietary intake using a newly developed food diary mobile application (food app); and (ii) identify issues and recommendations for improving dietary assessment using this food app via quantitative and qualitative protocols. Twenty-eight university students each used a food app for seven consecutive days and attended one of five focus group interviews. A 42% decrement in reporting compliance was observed throughout the seven-day recording period. An average of 5.9 recording days were reported and 4.8 occasions of meal data were uploaded each day. Based on questionnaires, high levels of agreement were reported in terms of perceived usefulness (69.3%), perceived ease of use (77.1%), attitude (73.6%), perceived enjoyment (62.6%), and smartphone experience (91.1%), but such agreement was not reported for intention to use (38.1%) and social influence (33.4%). Four major themes emerged from the focus group interviews, namely, (i) features; (ii) potential use; (iii) utility issues of the food app; and (iv) suggestions for improvements. While the food app was well-accepted by most of the young adults, the current prototype would benefit from incorporation of a barcode scanning function, customizable reminders, in-app tutorial, an entertainment component, and enhancement in overall appearance.

  8. Accidental injury of the inferior alveolar nerve due to the extrusion of calcium hydroxide in endodontic treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yooseok; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Kim, Yemi; Kim, Taehyeon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-02-01

    During clinical endodontic treatment, we often find radiopaque filling material beyond the root apex. Accidental extrusion of calcium hydroxide could cause the injury of inferior alveolar nerve, such as paresthesia or continuous inflammatory response. This case report presents the extrusion of calcium hydroxide and treatment procedures including surgical intervention. A 48 yr old female patient experienced Calcipex II extrusion in to the inferior alveolar canal on left mandibular area during endodontic treatment. After completion of endodontic treatment on left mandibular first molar, surgical intervention was planned under general anesthesia. After cortical bone osteotomy and debridement, neuroma resection and neurorrhaphy was performed, and prognosis was observed. But no improvement in sensory nerve was seen following surgical intervention after 20 mon. A clinician should be aware of extrusion of intracanal medicaments and the possibility of damage on inferior alveolar canal. Injectable type of calcium hydroxide should be applied with care for preventing nerve injury. The alternative delivery method such as lentulo spiral was suggested on the posterior mandibular molar.

  9. Reaction of calcium-based sorbents with sulfur compounds during gasification. Final report, 1 October 1986-30 June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-12-01

    The report outlines the objectives and the data obtained under the project related to the efficient utilization of high-sulfur Illinois coal in a One-Step Coal Gasification/Desulfurization Process by employing in-situ removal of sulfur using calcium-based sorbents. The research was supported jointly by the Gas Research Institute and the State of Illinois Center for Research on Sulfur in Coal. The scope of the research included a study of fluidization behavior of coal char/sorbent mixtures and the reactions of calcium-based sorbents with sulfur present in the coal during gasification as well as sulfation of the sulfided sorbents. The test parameters included the choice of sorbent, sorbent size, the effect of temperature and pressure, and the reactant gas composition on the sulfidation and sulfation reactions. The reaction conditions for these reactions were chosen to be applicable to scale-up of an in-situ desulfurization-type coal gasification process such as the one proposed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and KRW Energy Systems, Inc., of the U.S.A. A PC-based computer model was developed that is capable of describing a fluidized-bed gasifier with in-bed calcium-based sorbents.

  10. Self-reported whole-grain intake and plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations in combination in relation to the incidence of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Markus Dines; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja;

    2014-01-01

    (colon, proximal, distal or rectum cancer) when using an FFQ as the measure/exposure variable for whole-grain intake. The results suggest that assessing whole-grain intake using a combination of FFQs and biomarkers slightly increases the precision in estimating the risk of colon or rectal cancer......-grain consumption (HELGA, 1992-1998). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations alone and Howe's score with ranks were inversely associated with the incidence of distal colon cancer when the highest quartile......Self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) have occasionally been used to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the incidence of colorectal cancer, but the results from those studies have been inconsistent. We investigated this association using intakes of whole grains...

  11. Vitamin D and Calcium Status in South African Adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fein

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adequate vitamin D and calcium are essential for optimal adolescent skeletal development. Adolescent vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and poor calcium intake have been reported worldwide. Heavy alcohol use impacts negatively on skeletal health, which is concerning since heavy adolescent drinking is a rising public health problem. This study aimed to examine biochemical vitamin D status and dietary intakes of calcium and vitamin D in 12–16 year-old adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD, but without co-morbid substance use disorders, compared to adolescents without AUD. Substance use, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OHD concentrations, energy, calcium and vitamin D intakes were assessed in heavy drinkers (meeting DSM-IV criteria for AUD (n = 81 and in light/non-drinkers without AUD (non-AUD (n = 81, matched for age, gender, language, socio-economic status and education. Lifetime alcohol dose was orders of magnitude higher in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. AUD adolescents had a binge drinking pattern and “weekends-only” style of alcohol consumption. Significantly lower (p = 0.038 s-25(OHD (adjusted for gender, smoking, vitamin D intake were evident in AUD adolescents compared to non-AUD adolescents. High levels of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (s-25(OHD < 29.9 ng/mL were prevalent in both groups, but was significantly higher (p = 0.013 in the AUD group (90% compared to the non-AUD group (70%. All participants were at risk of inadequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Both groups were at risk of inadequate calcium intake and had poor biochemical vitamin D status, with binge drinking potentially increasing the risk of the latter. This may have negative implications for peak bone mass accrual and future osteoporosis risk, particularly with protracted binge drinking.

  12. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  13. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  14. Dietary zinc intake of vegetarian and nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, R; Birmingham, C L; Aeberhardt, L; Goldner, E M

    1993-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and zinc deficiency, found most frequently in young females, have a number of symptoms in common. These include weight loss, alterations in taste and appetite, depression, and amenorrhea. Approximately half of anorexia nervosa patients (ANs) are vegetarian (VANs), a practice that may increase their risk for zinc deficiency. This study compared the dietary intake of zinc and related nutrients in 9 outpatient VANs with that of 11 outpatient nonvegetarian patients with anorexia nervosa (NVANs). VANs reported significantly lower (p < .05) dietary intakes of zinc, fat, and protein, and a significantly higher (p < .05) intake of calories from carbohydrates than NVANs. There were no significant differences between the groups in dietary intake of calories, calcium, copper, iron, or magnesium. These findings indicate that zinc intake should be routinely assessed in VANs and that zinc supplementation of their diets may be indicated.

  15. Calcium Supplements Might Raise Older Women's Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrient," she said. "For example, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium all are typically looked at for their effects ... which was not originally designed to assess calcium intake," MacKay noted. "Further, the new analysis included only ...

  16. Description of self-reported fluid intake and its effects on body weight, symptoms, quality of life and physical capacity in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Marie; Strömberg, Anna; Lindholm, Maud; Willenheimer, Ronnie

    2008-09-01

    To describe the self-reported fluid intake and its effects on body weight, signs and symptoms of heart failure, quality of life, physical capacity and thirst, in patients with stabilised chronic heart failure. Patients with chronic heart failure are often recommended a fluid restriction of 1.5 l/day but there is no evidence in the literature for this recommendation and little is known about the fluid intake consequences. Crossover study. Chronic heart failure patients, clinically stabilised after an unstable state, were randomised to a 32-week cross-over study assessing the clinical importance of fluid prescription. In a secondary analysis of 63 patients, efficacy variables were analysed in relation to the self-reported median fluid intake of 19 ml/kg body weight/day. The mean fluid intake was 16 ml/kg/day in the below-median group and 24 ml/kg/day in the above-median group. No between-group differences were found in change in body weight, signs and symptoms, diuretic use, quality of life or physical capacity. However, the above-median group significantly decreased sense of thirst and difficulties to adhere to the fluid prescription compared with the below-median group. In clinically stabilised chronic heart failure patients on optimal pharmacological treatment, a larger fluid intake was associated with decreasing thirst without any measurable negative effects on signs and symptoms of heart failure, diuretic use or physical capacity. Thus, a more liberal fluid intake may be advisable in chronic heart failure patients who have been stabilised after an initial unstable clinical state. Nurses involved in the care for patients with heart failure known how troublesome thirst can be and how difficult it can be to follow a restricted fluid intake. This study indicates that it is possible to reassess and recommend a less strict fluid intake in stabilised patients with chronic heart failure.

  17. Vertical root fracture associated with prolonged use of calcium hydroxide during apexification. A case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ribadeneira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Apexification is a procedure performed in young permanent teeth to promote apical closure and root elongation if Hertwig’s epithelial sheath has not been irreversibly damaged. The objective of this article is to describe vertical root fracture as a complication during apexification when using calcium hydroxide for extended periods of time. The patient was a 9-year-old female student who went to the Faculty of Dentistry of the Universidad Andres Bello in Concepcion. She presented strong and spontaneous pain and pressure and swelling on the left cheek. Clinically, the vestibule of the lower left first molar (3.6 was edematous and had pus. Radiographically, lesions and open apices were seen in the apical zone. Diagnosis was pulp necrosis and acute apical abscess. The tooth was trephined to perform intracanal drainage and an oral antibiotic was prescribed. Afterwards, she was referred to the endodontic specialty office. The selected treatment was apexification with calcium hydroxide until achieving the formation of an apical barrier. When the apical formation was observed, a vertical root fracture was discovered as well, confirming that the use of calcium hydroxide should not be prolonged because dehydration processes lead to weakening of the walls and therefore of the tooth

  18. Social Desirability Trait Is Associated with Self-Reported Vegetable Intake among Women Enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Cullen, Karen Weber; Monica, Dorothy

    2016-12-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Fresh Start (WFS) is a randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers' market fruit and vegetable (F/V) purchases and consumption among women enrolled in WIC. Using baseline data from WFS to examine associations between social desirability trait, the tendency to respond in a manner consistent with expected norms, and self-reported F/V intake and to determine whether associations, if found, are moderated by participant characteristics. Cross-sectional. Seven hundred forty-four women enrolled in WFS. The setting is a New Jersey-based WIC agency located in a densely populated urban area. Items assessing participant characteristics, a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and validated measures of the frequency and quantity of F/V intake. Linear regression analysis to examine associations between social desirability trait and F/V intake and hierarchical regression analysis to test for moderation by participant characteristics of the associations between social desirability trait and F/V intake. Social desirability trait was significantly associated with times per day vegetables were reported to have been consumed (β=0.08, P=0.03). The association was moderated by breastfeeding status. Among breastfeeding women, social desirability trait was unrelated to reported intake, whereas among non-breastfeeding women, it was positively associated with intake (a 1-unit increase in the social desirability score was associated with a 0.12 increase in times per day vegetables were reported to have been consumed). Social desirability trait is associated with self-reported vegetable intake among WIC participants generally and non-breastfeeding participants in particular and should be assessed in these groups. Replication studies with comparative measures of "true intake" are needed to determine whether social desirability trait biases self-reports of

  19. Ossifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff after arthroscopic excision of calcium deposits: report of two cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dave, Arpit C; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    Ossifying tendinitis (OT) is a type of heterotopic ossification, characterized by deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in a histologic pattern of mature lamellar bone. It is usually associated with surgical intervention or trauma and is more commonly seen in Achilles or distal biceps tendons, and also in the gluteus maximus tendon. To our knowledge, there is no description of OT as a complication of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff. In this report, we describe two cases in which the patients developed an OT of the supraspinatus after arthroscopic removal of calcium deposits. The related literature is reviewed.

  20. Mechanisms of calcium transport in small intestine. Progress report, March 1, 1976--September 30, 1977. [Chickens, rats, lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLuca, H.F.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: subcellular location of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/(1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/) in intestine of chickens; studies on receptor proteins in intestine for 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D3; studies on intestinal cytosol receptors in chickens and rats; control of intestinal calcium transport; effect of calcitonin on 25-OH-D/sub 3/-1-hydroxylase; isolation and identification of the active principle of Solonum glaucophyllum, the South American plant that causes metastatic calcification and death to grazing animals; and studies on lead transport in vitro and in vivo. (HLW)

  1. Self-reported dietary intake of youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes: results from the TODAY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Linda; Kriska, Andrea; Edelstein, Sharon; Amodei, Nancy; Chadwick, Jennifer; Copeland, Kenneth; Galvin, Bryan; El Ghormli, Laure; Haymond, Morey; Kelsey, Megan M; Lassiter, Chad; Milaszewski, Kerry; Syme, Amy; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Despite the widely recognized importance of diet in managing diabetes, few studies have documented usual dietary intake in young people with type 2 diabetes. The objectives of our study were to assess dietary intake among a large, ethnically diverse cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes and compare intake to current recommendations. The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study is a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 699 youth aged 10 to 17 years. At baseline, following a run-in period that included standard diabetes education, diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire between 2004 and 2009. Analysis of variance and nonparametric tests were used to compare mean and median nutrient intakes; logistic regression was used to compare the odds of meeting predefined dietary intake recommendation cutpoints between subgroups of age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Percent of energy from saturated fat was consistently 13% to 14% across all subgroups-substantially exceeding national recommendations. Overall, only 12% of youth met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for intake of Diabetes Association recommendations for intake of fruit consumption goals, 5% met vegetable consumption goals, and 67% met grain intake goals. Overall, dietary intake in this large cohort of young people with type 2 diabetes fell substantially short of recommendations, in ways that were consistent by sex, age, and race-ethnicity. The data suggest a critical need for better approaches to improve dietary intake of these young people.

  2. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium Bajos niveles de vitamina D en jugadores profesionales de baloncesto después del invierno: relación con la ingesta oral de vitamina D y calcio

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bescós García; F. A. Rodríguez Guisado

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. Aim: To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Methods: Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OH)D levels were collected after wintertime during the ...

  3. Lung adenocarcinoma with Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome indicated by voltage-gated calcium channel: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai Hiromasa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome is a rare disorder and it is known as a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome. Small cell lung cancer often accompanies this syndrome. Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome associated with lung adenocarcinoma is extremely rare; there are only a few reported cases worldwide. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese man with a past history of chronic rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren syndrome was diagnosed with Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome by electromyography and serum anti-P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel antibody level preceding the diagnosis of lung cancer. A chest computed tomography to screen for malignant lesions revealed an abnormal shadow in the lung. Although a histopathological examination by bronchoscopic study could not reveal the malignancy, lung cancer was mostly suspected after the results of a chest computed tomography and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. An intraoperative diagnosis based on the frozen section obtained by tumor biopsy was adenocarcinoma so the patient underwent a lobectomy of the right lower lobe and lymph node dissection with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The permanent pathological examination was the same as the frozen diagnosis (pT2aN1M0: Stage IIa: TNM staging 7th edition. Immunohistochemistry revealed that most of the cancer cells were positive for P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel. Conclusions Our case is a rare combination of Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome associated with lung adenocarcinoma, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren syndrome, and to the best of our knowledge it is the first report that indicates the presence of voltage-gated calcium channel in lung adenocarcinoma by immunostaining.

  4. Should we prescribe calcium or vitamin D supplements to treat or prevent osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, M J; Grey, A; Reid, I R

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the highest level of evidence to inform clinical practice. Meta-analyses of large RCTs of calcium and/or vitamin D supplements completed in the last 15 years provide strong evidence for clinical recommendations. These meta-analyses with data for > 50,000 older adults reported that calcium with or without vitamin D has only weak, inconsistent effects on fracture, and that vitamin D without calcium has no effect on fracture. Only one RCT of co-administered calcium and vitamin D in frail, institutionalized, elderly women with low dietary calcium intake and vitamin D levels showed significant reductions in fracture risk. These RCTs have also reported previously unrecognized adverse events of calcium supplements including kidney stones, myocardial infarction, hypercalcemia, and hospitalization with acute gastrointestinal symptoms. The small risk of these important adverse effects, together with the moderate risk of minor side-effects such as constipation, probably outweighs any benefits of calcium supplements on fracture. These data suggest the role for calcium and vitamin D supplements in osteoporosis management is very limited. Neither calcium nor vitamin D supplements should be recommended for fracture prevention in community-dwelling adults, although vitamin D should be considered for prevention of osteomalacia in at-risk individuals.

  5. A importância do consumo dietético de cálcio e vitamina D no crescimento The importance for growth of dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline L. Bueno

    2008-10-01

    (genetic and metabolic and extrinsic factors (environmental factors such as diet, health, hygiene, housing and access to health services. Among the nutritional factors are vitamin and oligoelement deficiencies which may be associated with malnutrition or caused by insufficient absorption. Since calcium is one of the main mineral components of bone tissue, it is essential for adequate bone formation and, considering that vitamin D plays an important role in calcium metabolism, a diet with insufficient quantities of these nutrients can impact on the formation of the skeleton and on the process of growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: In children and adolescents, low intake or low absorption of calcium and vitamin D may limit their statural growth, and it is necessary to supply sufficient quantities of both during the critical growth phases.

  6. Effects of dietary calcium on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimuro, Masaki; Nakamura, Shiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection causes gastritis and is considered a gastric cancer risk factor. We have previously reported that codfish meal markedly enhanced Hp-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. In the present study, we sought the responsible components in codfish meal. Codfish were divided into three parts (meat, viscera and 'other parts', including bone), and administered to Hp-infected gerbils. Subsequently, cod bone, sardine bone and prawn shell were tested, along with major calcium components, hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, in bone and shell, respectively. 'Other parts' and cod bone enhanced Hp-induced gastritis, as was observed for whole codfish. Similarly, sardine bone and prawn shell, as well as 0.22-0.88% hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, enhanced gastritis. In contrast, administration of a higher dose of the calcium compounds exerted protective effects. Intake of calcium compounds may contribute to enhancement of Hp-induced gastritis.

  7. Nutrient intake and meal patterns of Micmac indian and Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J L; Williams, C N; Weldon, K L

    1977-06-18

    North American Indians have a higher morbidity from gallbladder disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity than other North Americans; this may result from their food intake. Nutrient intake and meal patterns were compared in 120 Micmac Indian and 115 Caucasian women in Shubenacadie, NS. Findings were compared with the Canadian Dietary Standard (CDS) and the Nutrition Canada national and Indian survey reports. The diet of Indian women had higher carbohydrate, lower protein and lower fibre content than that of Caucasian women, who derived a higher percentage of energy from protein and had a higher intake of vitamin A, niacin and ascorbic acid. Overnight fast was longer among Indian women. A high percentage of all women studied reported diets that did not reach the CDS for total energy intake in kilocalories or for calcium, iron, vitamin A, thiamin or riboflavin.

  8. Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Christel L; Johansson, Gunnar K

    2002-07-01

    Adolescents sometimes become vegetarian for ethical rather than health reasons. This may result in health problems caused by lack of interest in and knowledge of nutrition. We compared the dietary intake and nutritional status of young Swedish vegans and omnivores. The dietary intakes of 30 vegans (15 males and 15 females; mean age: 17.5 +/- 1.0 y) and 30 sex-, age-, and height-matched omnivores were assessed with the use of a diet-history interview and validated by the doubly labeled water method and by measuring nitrogen, sodium, and potassium excretion in urine. Iron status and serum vitamin B-12 and folate concentrations were measured in blood samples. The diet-history method underestimated energy intake by 13% and potassium intake by 7% compared with the doubly labeled water method and 24-h urine excretion, respectively. Reported dietary nitrogen and sodium intakes agreed with the 24-h urinary excretion measure. Vegans had higher intakes of vegetables, legumes, and dietary supplements and lower intakes of cake and cookies and candy and chocolate than did omnivores. Vegans had dietary intakes lower than the average requirements of riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, and selenium. Intakes of calcium and selenium remained low even with the inclusion of dietary supplements. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of low iron status among vegans (20%) and omnivores (23%). Two vegans with low intakes of vitamin B-12 had low serum concentrations. The dietary habits of the vegans varied considerably and did not comply with the average requirements for some essential nutrients.

  9. Reported Dietary Intake and Food Sources of Zinc, Selenium, and Vitamins A, E and C in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    Zinc, selenium, and the vitamins A, E and C, all have specific biological functions that are involved mainly in the antioxidant defence system, which has important implications for the development of chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the reported intake of those six nutrients, as well as the food that contributes to their sources of intakes. Data were obtained from the Spanish ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, n = 2009 (9–75 years old). The analyses were performed in the whole population and in the plausible energy reporters after a misreporting analysis according to the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) protocol. A validated, photo-based three-day food record was used to collect the data. Mean (max−min) reported intake for the whole population of zinc was 8.1 ± 0.1 mg/day, (2.3–27.3 mg/day), selenium 75 ± 1 µg/day, (14–265 µg/day), vitamin A 668 µg RE/day (2–11,017 µg RE/day), retinol 364 ± 18 µg/day (0–10,881 µg/day), carotenes 1735 ± 35 µg/day (13–13,962 µg/day), vitamin E 7.0 ± 0.1 mg α-TE/day (0.7–55.2 mg α-TE/day) and vitamin C 84.4 ± 1.4 mg/day (5.0–802.7 mg/day). The main source intakes for zinc were meat and meat products, for selenium cereals and grains, for vitamin E oils and fat, and for vitamin A and C vegetables. There is an elevated percentage of the Spanish ANIBES population not meeting the EFSA recommended intakes for all analysed micronutrients: zinc (83%), vitamin A (60%), vitamin E (80%), vitamin C (36%) and selenium (25%). PMID:28684689

  10. Micronutrient Intakes among Children and Adults in Greece: The Role of Age, Sex and Socio-Economic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Manios

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9–13-year-old children; 40–60-year-old adults; and 50–75-year-old women were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05. Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05. The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.

  11. Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).

  12. Food intake and nutritional status after gastrectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisballe, S; Buus, S; Lund, B

    1986-01-01

    .01). The serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase was raised and the concentration of calcium, phosphorus and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol reduced in the gastrectomized group. None of these results could be explained from the nutritional study as both the intake of energy and protein and the intake of calcium......Food intake and nutritional status was studied in 67 patients, who had had a gastrectomy 2-30 years earlier, and in a randomly selected, matched group of healthy persons. The gastrectomized patients weighed less than the control persons (women 56.4 +/- 9.5 vs 61.4 +/- 6.9 kg; P less than 0.05; men...

  13. Effects of twelve weeks of capsaicinoid supplementation on body composition, appetite and self-reported caloric intake in overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Stacie L; Roberts, Michael D; Kephart, Wesley C; Villa, Katelyn B; Santos, Emily N; Olivencia, Alyssa M; Bennett, Haley M; Lara, Marissa D; Foster, Cliffa A; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf; Taylor, Lem W; Wilborn, Colin D

    2017-02-21

    We examined if 12 weeks of capsaicinoid (CAP) supplementation affected appetite, body composition and metabolic health markers. Seventy seven healthy male and female volunteers (30 ± 1 y, 171.2 ± 9.8 cm, 81.0 ± 2.2 kg, 27.5 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to ingest either low-dose CAP (2 mg/d; L-CAP, n = 27), high-dose CAP (4 mg/d; H-CAP, n = 22) from Capsimax or placebo (corn starch; PLA, n = 28) for 12 weeks. At baseline (0 WK), 6 weeks (6 WK) and 12 weeks (12 WK) waist: hip ratio, body composition via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, 0 WK and 12 WK only), self-reported Calorie intakes, appetite levels via Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and serum metabolic health markers (0 WK and 12 WK only) were analyzed. Moreover, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered at 0 WK and 12 WK, and serum glucose and insulin responses were examined 30-120 min post test-drink consumption. Waist: hip ratio significantly decreased in L-CAP from 0 WK to 6 WK (p decreases in serum HDL cholesterol levels from WK0 to WK12. However, supplementation did not affect the insulin response to the administered OGTT and/or other indices of insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that H-CAP supplementation reduces self-reported energy intake after 12 weeks of supplementation, and L-CAP supplementation also reduces waist: hip ratio. Longer-term effects of capsaicinoid supplementation on basal insulin and cholesterol levels warrant further investigation.

  14. Reaction of calcium-based sorbents with sulfur componds during gasification. Annual report, October 1, 1986-September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Abbasian, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    This report outlines the objectives and the data obtained under the project related to the efficient utilization of high-sulfur Illinois coal in a One-Step Coal Gasification/Desulfurization Process by employing in-situ removal of sulfur using calcium-based sorbents. The scope of the research included a study of fluidization behavior of coal char/sorbent mixtures and the reactions of calcium-based sorbents with sulfur present in the coal during gasification. Tests were conducted in bench-scale units; an 8-inch (0.2 meter) fluidization column was utilized for fluidization tests, and a thermobalance reactor was used for gas/solid sulfidation and sulfation reactions. The test parameters included the choice of sorbent, sorbent size, the effect of temperature on the sulfidation and sulfation reactions, the effect of the steam-to-hydrogen sulfide ratio on the sulfidation reaction, the effect of the steam on the sulfation reaction, and the influence of exposure time on sulfation of the presulfided sorbent. The reaction conditions for these reactions were chosen to be applicable to scale-up of an in-situ desulfurization-type coal gasification process such as the one proposed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and KRW Energy Systems, Inc., of the USA.

  15. Proximal myopathy in lacto-vegetarian Asian patients responding to Vitamin D and calcium supplement therapy - two case reports and review of the literature

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2011-05-13

    Abstract Introduction Severe proximal myopathy can occasionally be the first presenting complaint of patients with osteomalacia. This may lead to investigations and misdiagnosis of a neuromuscular disease, rather than a metabolic bone disease. Case presentations We present here two cases of severe proximal myopathy in patients who were both of South Asian origin and lacto-vegetarians: a 31-year-old Indian man and a 34-year-old Indian woman. In both cases, their clinical symptoms fully resolved following vitamin D and calcium replacement therapy. These patients were at risk of osteomalacia due to their dietary intake and ethnicity. The role of dietary intake and sunlight exposure in the development of osteomalacia in certain ethnic groups living in Western Europe is reviewed here. Conclusion These two cases emphasize the importance of recognizing osteomalacia in at-risk individuals, as the condition is reversible and easily treated with vitamin D and calcium supplementation. It may also help avoid prolonged and unnecessary investigations of these patients.

  16. Proximal myopathy in lacto-vegetarian Asian patients responding to Vitamin D and calcium supplement therapy - two case reports and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thabit, Hood

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe proximal myopathy can occasionally be the first presenting complaint of patients with osteomalacia. This may lead to investigations and misdiagnosis of a neuromuscular disease, rather than a metabolic bone disease. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We present here two cases of severe proximal myopathy in patients who were both of South Asian origin and lacto-vegetarians: a 31-year-old Indian man and a 34-year-old Indian woman. In both cases, their clinical symptoms fully resolved following vitamin D and calcium replacement therapy. These patients were at risk of osteomalacia due to their dietary intake and ethnicity. The role of dietary intake and sunlight exposure in the development of osteomalacia in certain ethnic groups living in Western Europe is reviewed here. CONCLUSION: These two cases emphasize the importance of recognizing osteomalacia in at-risk individuals, as the condition is reversible and easily treated with vitamin D and calcium supplementation. It may also help avoid prolonged and unnecessary investigations of these patients.

  17. Proximal myopathy in lacto-vegetarian Asian patients responding to Vitamin D and calcium supplement therapy - two case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenan Seamus

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Severe proximal myopathy can occasionally be the first presenting complaint of patients with osteomalacia. This may lead to investigations and misdiagnosis of a neuromuscular disease, rather than a metabolic bone disease. Case presentations We present here two cases of severe proximal myopathy in patients who were both of South Asian origin and lacto-vegetarians: a 31-year-old Indian man and a 34-year-old Indian woman. In both cases, their clinical symptoms fully resolved following vitamin D and calcium replacement therapy. These patients were at risk of osteomalacia due to their dietary intake and ethnicity. The role of dietary intake and sunlight exposure in the development of osteomalacia in certain ethnic groups living in Western Europe is reviewed here. Conclusion These two cases emphasize the importance of recognizing osteomalacia in at-risk individuals, as the condition is reversible and easily treated with vitamin D and calcium supplementation. It may also help avoid prolonged and unnecessary investigations of these patients.

  18. Associations between Macronutrient Intake and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea as Well as Self-Reported Sleep Symptoms: Results from a Cohort of Community Dwelling Australian Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingting Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: macronutrient intake has been found to affect sleep parameters including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA in experimental studies, but there is uncertainty at the population level in adults. Methods: cross-sectional analysis was conducted of participants in the Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress cohort (n = 784, age 35–80 years. Dietary intake was measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Self-reported poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were measured by questionnaires. Overnight in-home polysomnography (PSG was conducted among participants with without previously diagnosed OSA. Results: after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases, the highest quartile of fat intake was positively associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (relative risk ratio (RRR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.10, 2.89 and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI ≥20, (RRR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.20–7.38. Body mass index mediated the association between fat intake and AHI (30%, but not daytime sleepiness. There were no associations between other intake of macronutrient and sleep outcomes. Conclusion: high fat is associated with daytime sleepiness and AHI. Sleep outcomes are generally not assessed in studies investigating the effects of varying macronutrient diets on weight loss. The current result highlights the potential public health significance of doing so.

  19. Calcium, essential for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Victoria, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    Calcium (Ca) is the most abundant mineral element in our body. It accounts for about 2% of body weight. The functions of calcium are: a) functions skeletal and b) regulatory functions. Bone consists of a protein matrix that mineralizes mainly with calcium (the most abundant), phosphate and magnesium, for it is essential an adequate dietary intake of Ca, phosphorus and vitamin D. The ionic Ca (Ca2+) is essential to maintain and / or perform different specialized functions of, virtually, all body cells cellular. Because of its important functions Ca2+ must be closely regulated, keeping plasma concentrations within narrow ranges. For this reason there is an accurate response against hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia in which the parathormone, calcitriol, calcitonin and vitamin K are involved. Ca intakes in the Spanish population are low in a significant percentage of the older adult’s population, especially in women. The main source of Ca in the diet is milk and milk derivatives. Green leafy vegetables, fruits and legumes can be important sources of Ca in a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The bioavailability of dietary Ca depends on physiological and dietary factors. Physiological include age, physiological status (gestation and lactation) Ca and vitamin D status and disease. Several studies relate Ca intake in the diet and various diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular disease and obesity.

  20. Severe gynecomastia due to anti androgens intake: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chentli Farida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is the most bothersome side effect in men taking antiandrogens. It is exceptionally severe and distressing physically and mentally as in the reported case. A man, aged 63, with a history of a well-treated macroprolactinoma, was referred in 2004 for gynecomastia that appeared after treatment by microsurgery, radiotherapy and flutamide for a lesion suspected to be prostate cancer. Clinical examination was normal except for huge enlargement of the breasts. Mammography and breasts MRI did not show any tumor. There was not any metastasis of the supposed prostate cancer and prostatic acid phosphates were within normal ranges. Hormonal exploration showed subclinical hypogonadism [testosterone: 7.4 ng/ml (n: 3-9, FSH: 14.9 mu/ml (n: 0.7-11 and LH: 9.7 mu/ml (n: 0.8-7.6]. Testes ultrasounds were normal. Radiological and hormonal adrenal explorations were normal [Cortisol: 76 ng/ml (n: 50-250, DHEA-S: 59 μg/ml (n: 50-560, E2:40.2 pg/ml (n < 50]. Body scan was normal too. The discussed etiologies were post radiation subclinical hypogonadism, and treatment with anti androgens. After flutamide withdraw, there was not any sign of prostate cancer recurrence, and gynecomastia decreased significantly, but did not disappear probably because of fibrosis.

  1. Bone mass and breast milk calcium concentration are associated with vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Flávia F; Cabello, Giselda M K; Mendonça, Laura M C; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2008-02-01

    Lactation-associated bone loss has been reported in adolescent mothers. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene may contribute to differences in the physiologic skeletal response to lactation in these mothers. We evaluated the influence of VDR gene polymorphisms ApaI, BsmI, and TaqI on bone mass, bone and calcium-related hormones, and breast milk calcium of lactating adolescents with habitually low calcium intake. Total body bone mineral content (TBMC), total body bone mineral density (TBMD), lumbar spine BMD (LSBMD), serum hormones [intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF1), prolactin, and estradiol), and breast milk calcium were measured in 40 lactating Brazilian adolescents (15-18 y), and compared by VDR genotype subgroups after adjustment for calcium intake and postmenarcheal and lactational periods. TBMD and LSBMD Z scores were -0.55 +/- 1.01 and -1.15 +/- 1.48, respectively. LSBMD was higher (21%; P milk calcium and serum iPTH were higher (24 and 80%, respectively; P milk calcium are significantly associated with VDR genotypes in lactating Brazilian adolescents. Those with aa and tt genotypes had a better bone status and those with bb genotype had greater breast milk calcium.

  2. Self-reported alcohol intake is a better estimate of 5-year change in blood pressure than biochemical markers in low resource settings: the PURE study

    OpenAIRE

    Zatu, Mandlenkosi C.; Van Rooyen, Johannes M.; Du Toit, Loots; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Greeff, Minrie; Schutte, Aletta E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite criticism of self-reported alcohol intake, it is a valuable tool to screen for alcohol abuse as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare various self-reported estimates of alcohol use with γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and percentage carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) considering their relationship with blood pressure changes (%BP) over a 5-year period in black South Africans. Method: We recruited 1994 participants and collected 5-year followe...

  3. Reported Energy Intake Accuracy Compared to Doubly Labeled Water and Usability of the Mobile Food Record among Community Dwelling Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, Carol J.; Spoden, Melissa; Delp, Edward J.; Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Ahmad, Ziad; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; DeLany, James P.; Kerr, Deborah A.

    2017-01-01

    The mobile Food Record (mFR) is an image-based dietary assessment method for mobile devices. The study primary aim was to test the accuracy of the mFR by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) to total energy expenditure (TEE) using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Usability of the mFR was assessed by questionnaires before and after the study. Participants were 45 community dwelling men and women, 21–65 years. They were provided pack-out meals and snacks and encouraged to supplement with usual foods and beverages not provided. After being dosed with DLW, participants were instructed to record all eating occasions over a 7.5 days period using the mFR. Three trained analysts estimated rEI from the images sent to a secure server. rEI and TEE correlated significantly (Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.58, p < 0.0001). The mean percentage of underreporting below the lower 95% confidence interval of the ratio of rEI to TEE was 12% for men (standard deviation (SD) ± 11%) and 10% for women (SD ± 10%). The results demonstrate the accuracy of the mFR is comparable to traditional dietary records and other image-based methods. No systematic biases could be found. The mFR was received well by the participants and usability was rated as easy. PMID:28327502

  4. Monetary cost of self-reported diet in relation to biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2009-08-01

    All previous studies on monetary diet cost have examined the relationship of monetary cost of self-reported diet to self-reported, rather than biomarker-based, estimates of dietary intake. The present cross-sectional study examined the association between monetary costs of self-reported diet and biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake. Monetary diet cost (Japanese yen/1000 kJ) was calculated based on dietary intake information from a self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire using retail food prices. Biomarker-based estimates of nutrient intake (percentage of energy for protein and mg/1000 kJ for K and Na) were estimated based on 24 h urinary excretion and estimated energy expenditure. A total of fifteen universities and colleges in Japan. A total of 1046 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-22 years. Total monetary diet cost showed a significant positive association with biomarker-based estimates of protein, K and Na. Vegetables and fish were not only the main contributors to total monetary diet cost (16.4 % and 15.5 %, respectively) but also were relatively strongly correlated with total monetary diet cost (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.70 and 0.68, respectively). Monetary cost of vegetables was significantly positively associated with all three nutrients, while that of fish showed a significant and positive association only with protein. Total monetary cost of self-reported diet was positively associated with biomarker-based estimates of protein, K and Na intake in young Japanese women, and appeared mainly to be explained by the monetary costs of vegetables and fish.

  5. Calcium and vitamin D nutrition and bone disease of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, C

    2001-04-01

    Osteoporosis, a systemic skeletal disease characterized by a low bone mass, is a major public health problem in EC member states because of the high incidence of fragility fractures, especially hip and vertebral fracture. In EC member states the high incidence of osteoporotic fractures leads to considerable mortality, morbidity, reduced mobility and decreased quality of life. In 1995 the number of hip fractures in 15 countries of EC has been 382,000 and the estimated total care cost of about 9 billion of ECUs. Given the magnitude of the problem public health measures are important for preventive intervention. Skeletal bone mass is determined by a combination of endogenous (genetic, hormonal) and exogenous (nutritional, physical activity) factors. Nutrition plays an important role in bone health. The two nutrients essential for bone health are calcium and vitamin D. Reduced supplies of calcium are associated with a reduced bone mass and osteoporosis, whereas a chronic and severe vitamin D deficiency leads to osteomalacia, a metabolic bone disease characterized by a decreased mineralization of bone. Vitamin D insufficiency, the preclinical phase of vitamin D deficiency, is most commonly found in the elderly. The major causes of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are decreased renal hydroxylation of vitamin D, poor nutrition, scarce exposition to sunlight and a decline in the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin. The daily average calcium intake in Europe has been evaluated in the SENECA study concerning the diet of elderly people from 19 towns of 10 European countries. In about one third of subjects the dietary calcium intake results were very low, between 300 and 600 mg/day in women, and 350 and 700 mg/day in men. Calcium supplements reduce the rate of bone loss in osteoporotic patients. Some recent studies have reported a significant positive effect of calcium treatment not only on bone mass but also on fracture incidence. The SENECA study, has also shown that

  6. The Role of Calcium in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, C. D.; Sanchez, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    Calcium requirements may vary throughout the lifespan. During the growth years and up to age 25 to 30, it is important to maximize dietary intake of calcium to maintain positive calcium balance and achieve peak bone mass, thereby possibly decreasing the risk of fracture when bone is subsequently lost. Calcium intake need not be greater than 800 mg/day during the relatively short period of time between the end of bone building and the onset of bone loss (30 to 40 years). Starting at age 40 to 50, both men and women lose bone slowly, but women lose bone more rapidly around the menopause and for about 10 years after. Intestinal calcium absorption and the ability to adapt to low calcium diets are impaired in many postmenopausal women and elderly persons owing to a suspected functional or absolute decrease in the ability of the kidney to produce 1,25(OH)2D2. The bones then become more and more a source of calcium to maintain critical extracellular fluid calcium levels. Excessive dietary intake of protein and fiber may induce significant negative calcium balance and thus increase dietary calcium requirements. Generally, the strongest risk factors for osteoporosis are uncontrollable (e.g., sex, age, and race) or less controllable (e.g., disease and medications). However, several factors such as diet, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use are lifestyle related and can be modified to help reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  7. Calcium enriched mixture cement for primary molars exhibiting root perforations and extensive root resorption: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli-Hojjati, Sara; Kameli, Somayeh; Rahimian-Emam, Sara; Ahmadyar, Maryam; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    In primary molars with root perforations of endodontic origin, tooth extraction and space maintainer are recommended. Calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement is a new biomaterial demonstrating favorable sealability/biocompatibility. This report presents a novel treatment modality for cases of primary molar teeth with root perforations associated with a periodontal lesion due to extensive inflammatory root resorption, whereby CEM was used as a perforation repair/pulpotomy biomaterial. Three cases of primary molar root perforations due to inflammatory resorption were selected; all cases were associated with furcal lesions of endodontic origin. Pulp chambers were accessed/irrigated with NaOCl; the root canal orifices were filled with CEM and restored with stainless steel crowns. Clinical/radiographic examinations up to 17 months revealed that all teeth were functional and free of signs/symptoms of infection and all had complete bone healing. Further trials are suggested to confirm CEM use for management of root perforations in primary molars exhibiting root perforation.

  8. Development of Colonic Perforation during Calcium Polystyrene Sulfonate Administration: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Meda, Testuo; Iida, Masato; Ohtsuka, Akihito; Naba, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A 90-year-old female complaining of severe upper abdominal pain was transferred to our institution. The patient had been prescribed with calcium polystyrene sulfonate (CPS) for the treatment of hyperkalemia following myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) associated glomerulonephritis. Physical examination revealed diffuse tenderness over the abdomen, with signs of peritoneal irritation. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed the retention of ascites, free air in the abdominal cavity, and the retention of hard stools in the left-sided colon. The diagnosis of intestinal perforation was immediately confirmed; thereafter, the patient underwent emergency surgical treatment. Surgical findings revealed a perforated site in the descending colon surrounded with hard stools. Histopathology of the perforated colon revealed crystalline materials, suggestive of association with CPS. CPS is a cation-exchange resin used to treat hyperkalemia; the major adverse effect in patients receiving CPS is constipation. When CPS is administered to patients with frequent constipation or the elderly, the risk of intestinal perforation should be considered. PMID:24391670

  9. Vital Pulp Therapy with Calcium-Silicate Cements: Report of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Hengameh; Rahmati, Afsaneh; Amini, Neda

    2017-01-01

    This article describes successful use of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and Biodentine in apexogenesis treatment in two 8-year-old patients, one with immature permanent molar diagnosed primarily with irreversible pulpitis and the other with partially vital maxillary central incisor. After access cavity preparation, partial pulpotomy in molar and full pulpotomy in central was performed, and the remaining pulps was capped with either Biodentine or CEM cement, in each tooth. The crowns were restored with composite filling material at the following visit. The post-operative radiographic and clinical examinations (approx. average of 16 months) showed that both treated teeth remained functional, with complete root development and apex formation. A calcified bridge was produced underneath the capping material. No further endodontic intervention was necessary. Considering the healing potential of immature vital pulps, the use of CEM cement and Biodentine for apexogenesis might be an applicable choice. These new endodontic biomaterials might be appropriate for vital pulp therapies in an immature tooth. However, further clinical studies with longer follow-up periods are recommended. PMID:28179936

  10. Repercusiones del consumo de mezclas calentadas de glucosa-lisina y glucosa-metionina sobre el calcio óseo Effects of intake of heated mixtures of glucose-lysine and glucose-methionine on bone calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Delgado-Andrade

    2005-02-01

    interfere with mineral bioavailability because of modifications of their physical-chemical moiety in the food or the lumen, disrupting the absorption process or its normal metabolism. In this study, we sought to investigate MRP influence on issues related to Ca bioavailability in vitro and in vivo. Equimolar mixtures of glucose-lysine (GL and glucose-methionine (GM (40% moisture were heated at 150º C for 90 minutes (samples GL90 and GM90, respectively. In vitro solubility was measured by additioning each samples to a 3.75 mM Ca solution at intestinal pH and ionic strength; after shaking and centrifugation, soluble and insoluble calcium was determined. Three percent of GL90 and GM90 were individually added to the AIN93-G diet to obtain D-GL90 and D-GM90 diets. Three Wistar rats groups were fed for 21 days with both diets and with AIN93-G as control, carrying out calcium balance during last week and extirpating various organs after sacrifice. GM90 did not affect calcium solubility; GL90 reduced it slightly, remaining in both cases more than 94% soluble. D-GL90 and D-GM90 did not modify calcium bioavailability, with as effective usage as with the control diet (57.6 ± 1.3%, 57.8 ± 2.3% and 63.9 ± 2.6% in control diet, D-GL90 and D-GM90, respectively. MRP intake produced, however, metabolic changes that decreased bone calcium, accumulating compensatorily in other organs.

  11. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  12. Childhood obesity and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Yi; Qi, Sui-Jian

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children is growing in China at present. Childhood obesity reflects complex interactions of genetic, environmental, social and behavioral factors. Foods, nutritional components, and food intake patterns may be associated with the increasing obesity rate in children. Articles about the relationship between childhood obesity and food intake were collected from the databases including Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar. Foods and nutritional components such as calcium, dietary fiber are inversely related to obesity, whereas others such as vitamin B and sugar-sweeten beverages play a positive role in obesity development. The differences in food intake pattern also influence the risk of obesity. Food intake is an important factor influencing childhood obesity. One strategy to prevent childhood obesity is to take foods of moderate amount in a proper pattern.

  13. Effects of Perceived Sugar on Chocolate Intake on Self-Reported Food Cravings, Mood States, and Food Intake: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Lara J.

    1999-01-01

    Many dieters and compulsive overeaters report that sugar and chocolate are the most commonly craved foods. Further, many individuals have proclaimed themselves to be "addicted" to sugar or chocolate. It remains unclear, however, what factors lead to report of specific food addictions. A number of researchers have suggested that highly repetitive consumption of sugar and chocolate may result from various physiological processes (e.g., neurochemical imbalances, glucose/insulin malfunctioning). ...

  14. Reported Action to Decrease Sodium Intake Is Associated with Dining Out Frequency and Use of Menu Nutrition Information among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Karen; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard F; Behnke, Carl; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2017-08-03

    Restaurant foods have been shown to be high in sodium and limited sodium content information provided through menu nutrition information (MNI) is available at the point of purchase. Dining out and use of MNI are behaviors that can be altered by consumers who are trying to decrease their sodium intake. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between reported consumer actions to decrease sodium intake and dining out frequency and awareness and use/or intended use of MNI. A secondary analysis was conducted using responses from 5,588 US adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the 2013-2014 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey household interview. The main outcomes were dining out frequency and seeing MNI, using MNI if seen, or would use MNI if provided. Linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship of consumers reporting and not reporting action to decrease sodium intake and the outcome measures. Reported consumer action to decrease sodium intake compared to no action was associated with an overall decreased dining out frequency of approximately one meal per week (mean±standard error=3.12±0.10 compared to 4.11±0.14; Pdecrease their sodium intake compared to those who were not for both fast-food or pizza establishments and restaurants with wait staff (odds ratio ranged from 1.17 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.32] to 2.24 [95% CI 1.82 to 2.76]; P values ranged from decrease sodium intake, consumers reporting actions indicate they dine out less frequently, specifically at fast-food or pizza restaurants and report they are more likely to use MNI. These results may inform the restaurant industry of the actions of a potentially growing consumer group and provide insights for future public health initiatives targeting population sodium reduction. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Christensen, Lisa B; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided...... into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss =3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from...... milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist...

  16. Inadequate calcium intake is a significant determinant on generalised osteopenia in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis%膳食钙不足对香港青少年先天性脊柱侧凸全身骨质密度偏低的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德强; 郑振耀; 张笑; 郭霞; 秦岭; 何雪鹦; 刘德辉

    2003-01-01

    青少年先天性脊柱侧凸(AIS)是一种主要影响女孩的脊柱严重三维畸形病.在香港有3%~4%的发病率,AIS的病人同时发现患有全身性的骨密度偏低现象.本文试图研究是否低骨矿物质密度(BMD)与AIS 病人钙摄入量有关.以11~16岁582名AIS患者和206名健康对照人群为研究对象.面积骨矿物质密度(aBMD)和体积骨矿物质密度(vBMD)分别用DXA(Norland-XR-36)和PQCT(Densiscan-1000)检测.钙和其它营养素摄入量用食物频率法评价.受试者钙绝对摄入量低(<500mg/d).患AIS少女平均钙摄入量显著高于对照组少女[(441±344)mg/d vs. (390±281)mg/d, P=0.015],11~16岁AIS患者大多数骨骼测定点BMD显著低于同龄对照组(P≤0.05).AIS患者与对照组BMD的差异程度随着年龄的增长而增加.15~16岁年龄组AIS患者中钙摄入量与在大多数骨骼测定点测得的BMD有显著相关性,而在对照组中没有发现这种相关性.经多因素分析,在控制干扰变量的情况下,预测BMD的变化,钙摄入量是一个非依从性决定因素.结果提示,AIS患者绝对钙摄入量低,在各年龄组青少年中各个骨骼测定点测得的BMD,AIS患者组均低于对照组.只有在AIS患者中钙摄入量与BMD有相关性,而健康的对照中没有相关性.这表明钙摄入量对AIS患者在增加骨矿物质含量方面的重要性.这也反映出AIS患者体内钙动态平衡及骨质更新的不正常机制,需对AIS患者做进一步的钙干预研究以确定钙对BMD增加的影响.%Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a seriou s 3dimentional deformity of the spine affecting mostly girls. The prevalence rate is 3%-4% in Hong Kong. Generalised osteopenia are found in AIS patients. This study attempted to study whether low bone mineral density (BMD) is related to calcium intake in AIS. 582 AIS patients & 206 healthy controls aged 11 16 years were enro lled. Areal BMD (aBMD) and volumetric BMD (vBMD) were evaluated by DXA

  17. Lipid Rescue Therapy and High-Dose insulin Euglycemic Therapy are Effective for Severe Refractory Calcium Channel Blocker Overdose: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Bekjarovski

    2013-09-01

    How to cite this article: Bekjarovski NG. Lipid Rescue Therapy and High-Dose insulin Euglycemic Therapy are Effective for Severe Refractory Calcium Channel Blocker Overdose: Case Report and Review of Literature. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:114-6.

  18. Calcium-Mediated Regulation of Proton-Coupled Sodium Transport - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumaker, Karen S [Professor

    2013-10-24

    The long-term goal of our experiments was to understand mechanisms that regulate energy coupling by ion currents in plants. Activities of living organisms require chemical, mechanical, osmotic or electrical work, the energy for which is supplied by metabolism. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has long been recognized as the universal energy currency, with metabolism supporting the synthesis of ATP and the hydrolysis of ATP being used for the subsequent work. However, ATP is not the only energy currency in living organisms. A second and very different energy currency links metabolism to work by the movement of ions passing from one side of a membrane to the other. These ion currents play a major role in energy capture and they support a range of physiological processes from the active transport of nutrients to the spatial control of growth and development. In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), the activity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger, SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), is essential for regulation of sodium ion homeostasis during plant growth in saline conditions. Mutations in SOS1 result in severely reduced seedling growth in the presence of salt compared to the growth of wild type. SOS1 is a secondary active transporter coupling movement of sodium ions out of the cell using energy stored in the transplasma membrane proton gradient, thereby preventing the build-up of toxic levels of sodium in the cytosol. SOS1 is regulated by complexes containing the SOS2 and CALCINEURIN B-LIKE10 (CBL10) or SOS3 proteins. CBL10 and SOS3 (also identified as CBL4) encode EF-hand calcium sensors that interact physically with and activate SOS2, a serine/threonine protein kinase. The CBL10/SOS2 or SOS3/SOS2 complexes then activate SOS1 Na+/H+ exchange activity. We completed our studies to understand how SOS1 activity is regulated. Specifically, we asked: (1) how does CBL10 regulate SOS1 activity? (2) What role do two putative CBL10-interacting proteins play in SOS1 regulation? (3) Are

  19. O recordatório de 24 horas como instrumento na avaliação do consumo alimentar de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura The 24-hour recall for the assessment of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D intakes in stunted children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar em que medida o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas como instrumento de avaliação do consumo alimentar contribui para a avaliação de parâmetros biológicos envolvidos no metabolismo de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 59 crianças e adolescentes com baixa estatura do Ambulatório de Baixa Estatura do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Causas orgânicas, genéticas e endócrinas de baixa estatura foram excluídas da avaliação. Foram dosados cálcio, fósforo, creatinina, vitamina D, paratormônio fosfatase alcalina no soro e cálcio, fósforo, creatinina e sódio em urina de Recordatório Alimentar de 24h foi empregado para estimar o consumo dietético. RESULTADOS: Foi constatada ingestão reduzida de cálcio e vitamina D, em relação ao recomendado para idade e sexo. Verificou-se correlação negativa entre paratormônio e vitamina D dietética (r= -0,46; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the extent to which the 24 hour recall, used as a tool to assess dietary intake, contributes to the assessment of biological parameters involved in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in stunted children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 59 stunted children and adolescents seen at the outpatient clinic that specializes in stunting of the Endocrinology Service of Hospital das Clínicas in Porto Alegre, were assessed. Organic, genetic and endocrine causes of stunting were excluded from the assessment. Serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, vitamin D, parathormone and alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine and sodium were measured. The 24 hour recall was used to determine dietary intake of these nutrients. RESULTS: Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low according to the values recommended for the two genders and studied age groups. There was a negative correlation

  20. Calcium and vitamin D for obesity: a review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, M J; Chan She Ping-Delfos, W; Ghanbari, M H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity often coexists with low calcium intake and vitamin D insufficiency. There is emerging evidence of a role for these nutrients in the regulation of body weight. However, it is unclear whether increasing intakes of calcium and/or vitamin D during energy restriction, is a better strategy for weight and fat loss. We searched the literature from 2000 to date for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on weight loss that had increased calcium or vitamin D per se, or in combination. Primary and secondary studies were included for this analysis. A total of 15 RCTs on calcium with or without vitamin D and seven on vitamin D alone met our criteria. Two studies reported that supplemental calcium significantly increased fat loss during caloric restriction by 1.8 and 2.2 kg, three found differences between 1 and 3.5 kg but were statistically nonsignificant, while nine trials were equivocal (±0.7 kg). The data on vitamin D supplementation during weight loss were too few to make firm conclusions. Current evidence from RCTs did not consistently support the contention that calcium and vitamin D accelerated weight or fat loss in obesity. There were studies that favoured the hypothesis but lacked the statistical power. There is a need for RCTs to examine the influence of vitamin D on body fat.

  1. Calcium and vitamin D requirements for optimal bone mass during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A

    2011-11-01

    There remains very strong interest in the calcium and vitamin D requirements of adolescents related to bone health. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released new dietary guidelines in late 2010 for these nutrients. These guidelines were primarily based on literature published in 2009 and earlier and emphasized the role of vitamin D combined with calcium in optimizing bone health. A series of research studies published in 2010 and 2011, mostly not included in the IOM report, have further addressed these issues. These most recently published data are generally consistent with the IOM report and earlier data in supporting calcium intakes of 1300 mg/day and vitamin D intakes of 600 IU/day for adolescents. However, there is some suggestion that a slightly higher Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamin D might be considered at some future time. New dietary guidelines and recent research support increased vitamin D intakes compared with previous recommendations, but not very high doses. Further studies are needed related to high-dose vitamin D intake.

  2. DIETARY INTAKE LEVEL OF CALCIUM, IRON AND ZINC OF STUDENTS FROM ONE UNIVERSITY IN HENAN PROVINCE ASSESSED BY THE DUPLICATE DIET TECHNIQUE%应用双份饭法研究测定河南省某高校学生膳食钙、铁、锌摄入水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付鹏钰; 张光明; 张书芳; 张丁; 吕全军; 叶冰; 詹瑄; 钞凤; 吴绍彬; 王中州

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解河南省某高校学生膳食钙、铁、锌的摄入水平.[方法]随机抽取在校大学生20人,采用.双份饭法收集被调查对象3 d内摄入的所有食物,实验室测定钙、铁、锌的含量.[结果]大学生膳食钙、铁、锌的平均摄入量分别为510.71 mg/d、29.14 mg/d、13.57 mg/d.其中男性每日锌膳食摄入量明显高于女性(P=0.01)[结论]大学生膳食钙的摄入明显偏低,应引起相关部门的重视,采取综合措施,开展多种形式的营养知识宣传教育,引导学生合理膳食,及时纠正不合理的膳食结构,并采取适当的措施进行营养干预.%[Objective] To evaluate the dietary intake levels of calcium, iron and zinc in students from one university in Henan Province. [Methods] 3-days duplicate diets from 20 students who were randomly selected in one university in Henan Province were collected. The levels of calcium, iron and zinc were determined by laboratory detection. [Results] The dietary intake of calcium, iron, and zinc for the students were 510.71mg/d, 29.14mg/d, and 13.57mg/d, respectively. The dietary intake of zinc among male students was statistically higher than that among female students (P = 0.01). [Conclusion] The dietary intake level of calcium among students is obviously low, which should be noticed. It need take general measures to develop nutritional knowledge propaganda, conduct nutritional intervention, and guide the students to a reasonable dietary pattern.

  3. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisling, Heinz; van Bakel, Marit M E; Biessy, Carine; May, Anne M; Byrnes, Graham; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Santucci de Magistris, Maria; Grioni, Sara; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Teucher, Birgit; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Crowe, Francesca L; Tumino, Rosario; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Boeing, Heiner; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Riboli, Elio; Peeters, Petra H; Slimani, Nadia

    2012-03-01

    Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m²) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1·7 and 1·3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P 0·15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries.

  4. Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, R P; Rafferty, K

    2001-09-01

    Intake of carbonated beverages has been associated with increased fracture risk in observational studies. The usual explanation given is that one or more of the beverage constituents increase urinary calcium. We assessed the short-term effects on urinary calcium excretion of carbonated beverages of various compositions. An incomplete random block design was used to study 20-40-y-old women who customarily consumed > or =680 mL carbonated beverages daily. Four carbonated beverages were tested: 2 with caffeine and 2 without. Two contained phosphoric acid as the acidulant and 2 contained citric acid. The study included one neutral control (water) and one positive control (skim or chocolate milk). Serving size was 567 mL for the carbonated beverages and water and 340 mL for the milks. Beverages were consumed with a light breakfast after an overnight fast; no other foods were ingested until urine collection was complete. pH, titratable and total acidity, sodium, creatinine, and calcium were measured in 2-h (morning) fasting and 5-h postbeverage urine specimens. Relative to water, urinary calcium rose significantly only with the milks and the 2 caffeine-containing beverages. The excess calciuria was approximately 0.25 mmol, about the same as previously reported for caffeine alone. Phosphoric acid without caffeine produced no excess calciuria; nor did it augment the calciuria of caffeine. The excess calciuria associated with consumption of carbonated beverages is confined to caffeinated beverages. Acidulant type has no acute effect. Because the caffeine effect is known to be compensated for by reduced calciuria later in the day, we conclude that the net effect of carbonated beverage constituents on calcium economy is negligible. The skeletal effects of carbonated beverage consumption are likely due primarily to milk displacement.

  5. Calcium channel as a potential anticancer agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriazhev, L

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer treatment in modern clinical practices includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgical interventions. Efficiency of both methods varies greatly depending on cancer types and stages. Besides, chemo- and radiotherapy are toxic and damaging that causes serious side effects. This fact prompts the search for alternative methods of antitumor therapy. It is well known that prolonged or high increase of intracellular calcium concentration inevitably leads to the cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. However, stimulation of cell calcium level by chemical agents is hardly achievable because cells have very sophisticated machinery for maintaining intracellular calcium in physiological ranges. This obstacle can be overridden, nevertheless. It was found that calcium channels in so called calcium cells in land snails are directly regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The higher the concentration the higher the calcium intake is through the channels. Bearing in mind that extracellular/intracellular calcium concentration ratio in human beings is 10,000-12,000 fold the insertion of the channel into cancer cells would lead to fast and uncontrollable by the cells calcium intake and cell death. Proteins composing the channel may be extracted from plasma membrane of calcium cells and sequenced by mass-spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. Either proteins or corresponding genes could be used for targeted delivery into cancer cells.

  6. The calcium and vitamin D controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Areas of the world where vitamin D levels are low for months of the year and intakes of calcium are high have a high prevalence of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. This suggests a public health message of avoiding calcium supplements and increasing vitamin D intake. No message could be more...... welcome as vitamin D can be given as a bolus while calcium must be taken daily and may be poorly tolerated. This approach is based on no evidence from intervention studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that vitamin D given with calcium elicits a small reduction in fracture risk and deaths....... This has not been demonstrated for D given alone. The cardiovascular safety of calcium and vitamin D (CaD) supplements is difficult to ascertain due to weaknesses in RCT designs and adjudication that cannot be remedied by subanalysis. Moreover, no major new RCTs are in process to provide better evidence...

  7. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  8. The role of calcium in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, M L; Heaney, R P; Kalkwarf, H J; Pitkin, R M; Repke, J T; Tsang, R C; Schulkin, J

    1999-12-01

    Skeletal fragility at the end of the life span (osteoporosis) is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Adequate calcium intake from childhood to the end of the life span is critical for the formation and retention of a healthy skeleton. High intakes of calcium and vitamin D potentiate the bone loss prevention effects of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Pregnancy and lactation are not risk factors for skeletal fragility, although lactation is associated with a transient loss of bone that cannot be prevented by calcium supplementation. Low calcium intake has been implicated in the development of hypertension, colon cancer, and premenstrual syndrome, and it is associated with low intakes of many other nutrients. Encouragement of increased consumption of calcium-rich foods has the potential to be a cost-effective strategy for reducing fracture incidence later in life and for increasing patients' dietary quality and overall health.

  9. State-dependent FRET reports calcium- and voltage-dependent gating-ring motions in BK channels

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Pablo; Contreras, Jorge E.; Plested, Andrew J. R.; Sigworth, Fred J.; Holmgren, Miguel; Giraldez, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Large-conductance voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium channels (BK, “Big K+”) are important controllers of cell excitability. In the BK channel, a large C-terminal intracellular region containing a “gating-ring” structure has been proposed to transduce Ca2+ binding into channel opening. Using patch-clamp fluorometry, we have investigated the calcium and voltage dependence of conformational changes of the gating-ring region of BK channels, while simultaneously monitoring channel conductan...

  10. Intakes of whole grain in an Italian sample of children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Stefania; D'Addezio, Laura; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Hopkins, Sinead; Le Donne, Cinzia; Ferrari, Marika; Mistura, Lorenza; Turrini, Aida

    2017-03-01

    There is wide evidence that regular consumption of whole grain foods may reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The aim of this work was to quantify the intake of whole grains and identify main dietary sources in the Italian population. Whole grain intakes were calculated in a sample of 2830 adults/older adults and of 440 children/adolescents from the last national survey INRAN-SCAI 2005-06. Food consumption was assessed from a 3-day food record. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly from quantitative ingredient declarations on labels. Mean whole grain intakes were 3.7 g/day in adults/older adults and 2.1 g/day in children/adolescents. Overall, 23 % of the sample reported consumption of whole grain foods during the survey, among which mean whole grain intakes ranged from 6.0 g/day in female children to 19.1 g/day in female older adults. The main sources of whole grains were breakfast cereals in children/adolescents (32 %) and bread in adults/older adults (46 %). Consumption of whole grain among adults was associated with significantly higher daily intakes and adequacy of dietary fibre, several vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6) and minerals (iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, magnesium) compared to non-consumption. Among children, whole grain intake was associated with significantly higher intakes of iron and magnesium. The study reveals very low whole grain intakes across all age groups of the Italian population. Considering the positive association in consumers between whole grain intakes and fibre and micro-nutrient intakes, public health strategies to increase whole grain consumption should be considered.

  11. 21 CFR 101.72 - Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... osteoporosis. 101.72 Section 101.72 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....72 Health claims: calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. (a) Relationship between calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis. An inadequate intake of calcium or calcium and vitamin D contributes to low...

  12. Bioavailability of enteric-coated microencapsulated calcium during pregnancy: A randomized crossover trial in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal calcium and iron supplements are recommended in settings of low dietary calcium intake and high prevalence of anemia. However, calcium administration may inhibit iron absorption. To overcome calcium-iron interactions, we developed a multi-micronutrient powder containing iron (60 mg), folic ...

  13. Job strain and alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between work-related stress and alcohol intake is uncertain. In order to add to the thus far inconsistent evidence from relatively small studies, we conducted individual-participant meta-analyses of the association between work-related stress (operationalised as self-reported job...... strain) and alcohol intake....

  14. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and life-threatening shock due to calcium channel blocker overdose: a case report and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Tauseef Afaq; Hill, Jennifer; Huckleberry, Yvonne; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2014-02-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) overdose can be life-threatening when manifest as catastrophic shock and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. We describe a case of massive overdose of multiple medications, including sustained-release verapamil, which was resistant to conventional support. Initial treatment for CCB overdose is primarily supportive, and includes fluid resuscitation. The mechanism of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema is not well known, and reported cases have been successfully treated with mechanical ventilation. Circulatory shock may fail to respond to atropine, glucagon, and calcium in severely poisoned patients, and vasopressors are usually required. Attempting to overcome calcium-channel antagonism with the supra-therapeutic doses of calcium salts is clinically indicated to reverse hypotension and bradycardia. There is evidence that hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy is superior to other therapies for CCB poisoning, and the mechanism is thought to be the insulin-mediated active transport of glucose into the cells, which counters the CCB-induced intra-cellular carbohydrate-deficient state. Conventional decontamination measures are ineffective in accelerating clearance of CCB. Experience with intravenous lipid emulsion for lipophilic drug overdose, such as verapamil, is limited, but has been proposed as a rescue therapy and might improve cardiac inotropy through intravascular sequestration of the lipophilic CCB.

  15. The effect of under-reporting of energy intake on dietary patterns and on the associations between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease in women aged 50-69 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether under-reporting of energy intake affects derived dietary patterns and the association between dietary patterns and self-reported chronic disease. Diets of 6204 women aged 50-69 years participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program were assessed using a 253-item FFQ. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis. According to the revised Goldberg cut-off method, women with a ratio of reported energy intake:estimated BMRpatterns and self-reported chronic diseases by log-binomial regression, and the results are presented as prevalence ratios (PR) and CI. 'Prudent', 'Western' and 'Continental' dietary patterns were identified among all reporters and plausible reporters. The PR expressing the associations between the 'Western' and 'Prudent' dietary pattern scores and self-reported chronic diseases were consistently highest among plausible reporters except for joint/muscle/skeletal disorders. The largest difference in PR among plausible v. all reporters was found for the association between the 'Prudent' pattern and diabetes (PR for highest v. lowest tertile: PRall reporters 2·16; 95 % CI 1·50, 3·13; P trendpattern and disease. In studies of dietary patterns, investigators ought to consider reporting effect estimates both for all individuals and for plausible reporters.

  16. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Intake on Ambulation, Muscular Pain and Bone Mineral Density in a Woman with Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Feron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OHD with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS, reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed with MS in 1990. From 1980 to 2000, her ability to walk decreased from ~20 to 1 km per day. Since January 2001, a vitamin D3 supplement was ingested daily. The starting dose was 20 mcg (800 IU/day and escalated to 100 mcg (4000 IU/day in September 2004 and then to 150 mcg (6000 IU/day in December 2005. Vitamin D3 intake reduced muscular pain and improved ambulation from 1 (February 2000 to 14 km/day (February 2008. Vitamin D intake over 10 years caused no adverse effects: no hypercalcaemia, nephrolithiasis or hypercalciuria were observed. Bowel problems in MS may need to be addressed as they can cause malabsorption including calcium, which may increase serum PTH and 1,25(OH2D levels, as well as bone loss. We suggest that periodic assessment of vitamin D3, calcium and magnesium intake, bowel problems and the measurement of serum 25(OHD, PTH, Ca levels, UCa/Cr and bone health become part of the integral management of persons with MS.

  17. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Razif Shahril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG or control group (CG according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students.

  18. Effects of Adding Chymosin to Milk on Calcium Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ulla Kristine; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake and absorption is important for bone health. In a randomized double-blind cross-over trial, we investigated effects of adding chymosin to milk on the intestinal calcium absorption as measured by renal calcium excretion and indices of calcium homeostasis. The primary outcome...... of the study was 24-h renal calcium excretion that is considered a proxy measure of the amount of calcium absorbed from the intestine. We studied 125 healthy men and women, aged 34 (25-45) years on two separate days. On each day, a light breakfast was served together with 500 ml of semi-skimmed milk to which...

  19. Imaging long distance propagating calcium signals in intact plant leaves with the BRET-based GFP-Aequorin reporter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tou Cheu eXiong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ is a second messenger involved in many plant signalling processes. Biotic and abiotic stimuli induce Ca2+ signals within plant cells, which, when decoded, enable these cells to adapt in response to environmental stresses. Multiple examples of Ca2+ signals from plants containing the fluorescent yellow cameleon sensor (YC have contributed to the definition of the Ca2+ signature in some cell types such as root hairs, pollen tubes and guard cells. YC is, however, of limited use in highly autofluorescent plant tissues, in particular mesophyll cells. Alternatively, the bioluminescent reporter aequorin enables Ca2+ imaging in the whole plant, including mesophyll cells, but this requires specific devices capable of detecting the low amounts of emitted light. Another type of Ca2+ sensor, referred to as GFP-aequorin (G5A, has been engineered as a chimeric protein, which combines the two photoactive proteins from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, the green fluorescent protein (GFP and the bioluminescent protein aequorin. The Ca2+-dependent light-emitting property of G5A is based on a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET between aequorin and GFP. G5A has been used for over 10 years for enhanced in vivo detection of Ca2+ signals in animal tissues.Here, we apply G5A in Arabidopsis and show that G5A greatly improves the imaging of Ca2+ dynamics in intact plants. We describe a simple method to image Ca2+ signals in autofluorescent leaves of plants with a cooled charge-coupled device (cooled CCD camera. We present data demonstrating how plants expressing the G5A probe can be powerful tools for imaging of Ca2+ signals. It is shown that Ca2+ signals propagating over long distances can be visualized in intact plant leaves and are visible mainly in the veins.

  20. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...straightener. The annular gap at the inner diameter of the straightener feeds air to a centrally located pilot flame and the proportion that passes to...integrated with the missile forebody. A central air transfer duct feeds the Odin engine at the rear. The central schematic in figure 10 shows the

  1. [Vitamin D intake and the prevention of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2005-08-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis in Japan is increasing. Osteoporotic fractures have been causes of "bedridden" status among the elderly in recent years, and vitamin D has the potential to decrease the incidence of these health problems of osteoporosis. This article tried to clarify the preventive effect of increased vitamin D intake on osteoporosis in Japan. Vitamin D intake of 700-800 IU/day together with sufficient calcium intake is recommended to prevent fractures in the elderly, and vitamin D intake of 400 IU/day is recommended to prevent bone loss in adult women. The author also discusses the importance of increasing vitamin D intake in public health in Japan.

  2. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  3. Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); B. Kraja (Bledar); R. Ruiter (Rikje); L. Lahousse (Lies); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods: We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rot

  4. Dietary mineral intake and lung cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Muka (Taulant); B. Kraja (Bledar); R. Ruiter (Rikje); L. Lahousse (Lies); C.E. de Keyser (Catherina Elisabeth); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); G.G. Brusselle (Guy); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Limited data are available on the role of mineral intake in the development of lung cancer (LC). We investigated whether dietary calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, selenium and zinc intake were associated with LC risk. Methods: We analyzed data from 5435 participants of the Rot

  5. Calcium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D is needed to help your body use calcium. Milk is fortified with vitamin D for this reason. ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ...

  6. Nutrient intake of first generation Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Diwan, Sadhna

    2002-10-01

    To examine the nutrient intake of Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants in the U.S. and the influence of length of residence in the U.S. and socioeconomic status (SES) on their macronutrient intake. Subjects were male (n = 90) and female (n = 99) Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants over the age of 45. Each participant completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary recalls were analyzed using Food Processor nutrient analysis software. Participants were classified into recent immigrants (10 years length of residence in the U.S.) and into low, medium and high education groups, based on highest level of education achieved, to examine the influence of these variables on their macronutrient intake. The macronutrient contributions to the total energy intake of these Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants were as follows: carbohydrate 57%, protein 12% and total fat 33%. The diets were low in cholesterol (/=25 g/day). Reported intakes of vitamin D, calcium (women only), potassium (women only), copper and zinc were less than two-thirds of the recommendations. Significant differences (p Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants. The nutrient intakes of these Gujarati Asian Indian immigrants indicate both inadequacies and excesses of select macro and micronutrients. These nutrient inadequacies and excesses can impact overall health and risk of chronic diseases of these individuals. Further investigation of the influence of the diets of these immigrants on their health is warranted.

  7. A preliminary study on nutritional status and intake in Chinese children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Zhou, Yanjuan; Sun, Caihong; Wang, Jia; Wu, Lijie

    2010-10-01

    Parents of children with autism often report gastrointestinal problems as well as picky eating and selective eating in their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and the nutrient intake in 111 Chinese children with autism, aged between 2 and 9 years. Anthropometric data were expressed as Z scores. A 3-day dietary recall was provided by the parents, and the data were compared with the national Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) standards for Chinese children. The results showed that only nine of the autistic children (8.1%) were acute or chronically malnourished. From the remaining 102 patients, 67 (60.4%) were eutrophic and 35 (31.5%) had either overweight or obesity. Intakes of both calories and proteins were adequate in the vast majority of these children, but the calories from fat was lower than DRI in the same age group. The average intake of vitamin E and niacin exceeded 100% of DRI, and the intakes of vitamin B1 and B2, magnesium, and iron were between 80% and 90% of DRI range. However, the following nutrients did not meet the DRI requirements at all: vitamins A, B6 and C, folic acid, calcium, and zinc. Although growth was satisfactory in the vast majority of these children with autistic disorder, this study revealed serious deficiencies in the intakes of several vitamins and essential nutrients.

  8. Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Bitarafan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients.This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS. Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient.In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101 were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium.Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients.

  9. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Bone Diseases National Resource Center. Calcium and vitamin D: Important at every age. NIAMS.NIH.gov website. www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Bone_Health/Nutrition . Updated May 2015. Accessed March ...

  10. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  11. Evaluation of chloropentafluorobenzene as an intake simulant for chemical defense training. Final report, October 1991-October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clewell, H.J.; Jarnot, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    For a number of years the U.S. Air Force has been performing research to develop safe intake simulants for chemical warfare agents (CWA) to provide accurate and quantitative real-time assessment of troop proficiency and gear efficacy during chemical warfare (CW) field exercises. Chloropentafluorobenzene (CPFB) was identified and evaluated as a candidate inhalation simulant, and was determined to possess desirable physiochemical and toxicological properties. These include rapid uptake, low metabolism and toxicity, rapid and predictable clearance, real-time detectability by existing portable 'breathalyzer' technology and by fielded CWA detectors, realistic canister breakthrough and commercial availability. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for CPEB has been developed which accurately describes the time course of blood and exhaled air concentrations during and following inhalation exposures of rats and primates to CPFB. This model has been employed to predict human exhaled air concentrations for several hours following brief CPFB exposures, such as might be experienced in training exercises using CPFB as an intake simulant. These simulants could be used to determine the exhaled air concentrations at which personnel would have been incapacitated had the exposure been to a real agent. The PBPK model was also used to calculate internal dose measures for a quantitative assessment of safe exposure criteria for the use of CPFB in such exercises. To assure the safety of personnel it is recommended that field exercises be designed to avoid exposures greater than 30 parts per million (ppm), with the daily (8 h) time-weighted average not to exceed 3 ppm. The exposure guideline should not impair use of CPFB since field analytical methods can measure CPFB.

  12. Dietary antioxidant vitamins intake and mortality: A report from two cohort studies of Chinese adults in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long-Gang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Jing; Sun, Jiang-Wei; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have evaluated dietary antioxidant vitamins intake in relation to risk of mortality in Asia. We examined the associations between total carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E from diet and risk of mortality from all causes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease in 134,358 participants (59,739 men and 74,619 women) from the Shanghai Men's Health Study and Shanghai Women's Health Study, two prospective cohort studies of middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults in urban Shanghai. Participants were followed up for a median period of 8.3 and 14.2 years for men and women, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. During the 495,332 and 1,029,198 person-years of follow-up for men and women, respectively, there were 10,079 deaths (4170 men and 5909 women). For men, compared with the lowest quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted risk reductions in the highest categories were 17% (HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.92) for dietary total carotene and 17% (HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91) for dietary vitamin C. Associations were weaker in women than in men, though they were still statistically significant (highest versus lowest quintiles of dietary total carotene, HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95; dietary vitamin C: HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.91). Significant inverse associations were observed between dietary total carotene, vitamin C, and risk of cardiovascular disease mortality but not cancer mortality. This study suggests that total carotene and vitamin C intake from diet were inversely associated with deaths from all causes and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged or elderly people in China. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel Michael B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Insufficient calcium intake has been proposed to cause unbalanced energy partitioning leading to obesity. However, weight loss interventions including dietary calcium or dairy product consumption have not reported changes in lipid metabolism measured by the plasma lipidome. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between dairy product or supplemental calcium intake with changes in the plasma lipidome and body composition during energy restriction. A secondary objective of this study was to explore the relationships among calculated macronutrient composition of the energy restricted diet to changes in the plasma lipidome, and body composition during energy restriction. Overweight adults (n = 61 were randomized into one of three intervention groups including a deficit of 500kcal/d: 1 placebo; 2 900 mg/d calcium supplement; and 3 3-4 servings of dairy products/d plus a placebo supplement. Plasma fatty acid methyl esters of cholesterol ester, diacylglycerol, free fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and triacylglycerol were quantified by capillary gas chromatography. Results After adjustments for energy and protein (g/d intake, there was no significant effect of treatment on changes in weight, waist circumference or body composition. Plasma lipidome did not differ among dietary treatment groups. Stepwise regression identified correlations between reported intake of monounsaturated fat (% of energy and changes in % lean mass (r = -0.44, P P Conclusions Dairy product consumption or calcium supplementation during energy restriction over the course of 12 weeks did not affect plasma lipids. Independent of calcium and dairy product consumption, short-term energy restriction altered body composition. Reported dietary fat composition of energy restricted diets was associated with the degree of change in body composition in these overweight and obese individuals.

  14. Calcium supplementation for prevention of primary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormick, Gabriela; Ciapponi, Agustín; Cafferata, María Luisa; Belizán, José M

    2015-06-30

    Hypertension is a major public health problem that increases the risk of cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Several studies have shown an inverse association between calcium intake and blood pressure. As small reductions in blood pressure have been shown to produce rapid reductions in vascular disease risk even in individuals with normal blood pressure ranges, this review intends to evaluate the effect of calcium supplementation in normotensive individuals as a preventive health measure. To assess the efficacy and safety of calcium supplementation versus placebo or control for reducing blood pressure in normotensive people. We searched the Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE and ClinicalTrials.gov for randomised controlled trials up to October 2014. The WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) is searched for inclusion in the Group's Specialised Register. We also reviewed reference lists from retrieved studies and contacted authors of relevant papers. We applied no language restrictions. We selected trials that randomised normotensive people to dietary calcium interventions such as supplementation or food fortification versus placebo or control. We excluded quasi-random designs. The primary outcomes were hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg) and blood pressure measures. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, abstracted the data and assessed the risks of bias. We included 16 trials with 3048 participants. None of the studies reported hypertension as a dichotomous outcome. The effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure was mean difference (MD) -1.43 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI) -2.15 to -0.72) and -0.98 mmHg (95%CI -1.46 to -0.50) respectively. The effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure for those younger than 35 years (7 trials with 399 participants) was -2.11 mmHg (95%CI -3

  15. Options for basing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) on chronic disease endpoints: report from a joint US-/Canadian-sponsored working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetley, Elizabeth A; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Greene-Finestone, Linda S; Garza, Cutberto; Ard, Jamy D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Bier, Dennis M; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Harlan, William R; Hattis, Dale; King, Janet C; Krewski, Daniel; O'Connor, Deborah L; Prentice, Ross L; Rodricks, Joseph V; Wells, George A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used in Canada and the United States in planning and assessing diets of apparently healthy individuals and population groups. The approaches used to establish DRIs on the basis of classical nutrient deficiencies and/or toxicities have worked well. However, it has proved to be more challenging to base DRI values on chronic disease endpoints; deviations from the traditional framework were often required, and in some cases, DRI values were not established for intakes that affected chronic disease outcomes despite evidence that supported a relation. The increasing proportions of elderly citizens, the growing prevalence of chronic diseases, and the persistently high prevalence of overweight and obesity, which predispose to chronic disease, highlight the importance of understanding the impact of nutrition on chronic disease prevention and control. A multidisciplinary working group sponsored by the Canadian and US government DRI steering committees met from November 2014 to April 2016 to identify options for addressing key scientific challenges encountered in the use of chronic disease endpoints to establish reference values. The working group focused on 3 key questions: 1) What are the important evidentiary challenges for selecting and using chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews, 2) what intake-response models can future DRI committees consider when using chronic disease endpoints, and 3) what are the arguments for and against continuing to include chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews? This report outlines the range of options identified by the working group for answering these key questions, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each option.

  16. Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Robin M.; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements) of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (current...

  17. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  18. Impact of calcium and vitamin D insufficiencies on serum parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density: analysis of the 4th & 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative contributions of calcium and vitamin D to calcium metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) have been examined previously, but not in a population with very low calcium intake. To determine the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concent...

  19. Role of calcium and vitamin D in the treatment of muscle pain

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Raymond CR

    1985-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D deficiencies are associated with abnormal muscular functions including non-specific pain and weakness. A diet survey of a patient complaining of back pain showed a low calcium intake. Clinically patients may have low utilization of dietary calcium. In addition to the normal chiropractic treatments, the patient was given calcium and vitamin D supplements. These supplements greatly improved the recovery of the patient. The nutritional status of calcium and vitamin D in the...

  20. Laminitis and dermatitis in heifers associated with excessive carbohydrate intake : skin lesions and biochemical findings : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yeruham

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a sudden addition of a large quantity of readily fermentable carbohydrate to the feed ration of pregnant heifers are described. Clinical and pathological changes caused by the resulting disease were confined to the digits and skin. The 4 acutely affected heifers were reluctant to get up or move (group II. They tended to lie down or stand with feet bunched together and the back arched, often shifting weight from limb to limb. They walked stiffly with great tenderness and pain in the digits. Extreme pain was noticed when the digits were examined. In 4 of 8 heifers, separation of the sole at the heel, with leakage of exudate, and under-running of the sole were observed. Necrotic dermatitis of the legs, alopecia and hyperkeratosis of the tail were noticed in all 8 heifers. Skin lesions appeared simultaneously. Four of the heifers (group I recovered, and the other 4 (group II were sent to slaughter. No post mortem examination was performed. The biochemical findings revealed a significantly higher concentration of total serum globulins and sodium, and increased activity, in CK, LDH and AST. A significantly decreasing pattern was noted in blood urea concentration, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and calcium. No significant differences among the various groups were found in the activities of amylase, GGT, and concentration of creatinine, total bilirubin, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and potassium.

  1. Development of an in vitro model using calcium imaging to investigate antidotal efficacy against saxitoxin. Report September 1994-September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebler, J.A.; Dant, B.C.; Chang, F.C.T.

    1997-05-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the utility of a novel in vitro system to monitor the efficacy of potential antidotes against sodium channel neurotoxins. Intracellular free calcium levels were measured in PC-12 (rat adrenal pheochromocytoma) cells utilizing a calcium imaging system with Fura-2 as the ratiometric calcium-sensitive indicator. Elevations in Ca(++) induced by high extracellular potassium (K(+)) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) were demonstrated, thus confirming the responsiveness of the system. Saxitoxin (STX), however, did not produce any alteration in Ca(++), perhaps due to a relatively low level of neuronal activity, i.e., impulse generation, in the in vitro state. Therefore, we attempted to activate PC-12 cells using the sodium channel agonist veratridine (VER) to determine whether STX could reduce enhanced Ca(++) levels. Although VER generally increased Ca(++), this response was somewhat variable and thus could not be used to demonstrate STX-induced toxic effects. Such variability may be inherent to cell lines; thus, the use of primary cultures is recommended to develop an in vitro system using Ca(++) levels as an endpoint to evaluate the efficacy of antidotes against sodium channel toxins.

  2. Brief report: Does PTH increase with age, independent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Simon J; Walsh, John P; Brown, Suzanne J; Wardrop, Robert; Hadlow, Narelle C

    2015-05-01

    Circulating PTH concentrations increase with age. It is uncertain whether an age-related PTH increase occurs independent of changes in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium. The purpose of this article was to analyze the relationship between PTH and age, controlling for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzing the relationship between PTH and age in 2 independent datasets (laboratory 1, n = 17 275 and laboratory 2, n = 4878). We further analyzed subgroups after excluding participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate of increase in age was associated with a 5.0% increase in PTH (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4%-5.6%; P increase in laboratory 2 (95% CI, 3.0%-5.4%; P increase in age was associated with a 6.1% increase in PTH (95% CI, 5.5%-6.8%; P increase (95% CI 3.5%-6.2%; P increase with age, independent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium, phosphate, and renal function. Further research is required to explore the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance and to determine whether the use of age-related PTH reference ranges improves diagnostic accuracy, particularly in elderly individuals.

  3. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources.Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individualbattery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5%eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feedexperiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Eachexperimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, proteinintake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Resultsof the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. Theuse of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake,egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was thatthe use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestoneor mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  4. Calcium: A Nutrient Deserving a Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Whiting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in calcium has continued since the 1980s when its role in promoting bone growth and retention was established in clinical trials of children and postmenopausal women. The human nutrition functions now attributed to calcium have expanded beyond bone health to include other conditions such as body weight maintenance. While most efforts have been focused on the findings that dietary intakes are low, there are emerging data on safety concerns of excess amounts. This Special Issue on calcium nutrition, spanning the lifecycle from critically ill neonates through to older adults, has been written by some of the leading researchers in this field.

  5. Daily intake of antioxidants in relation to survival among adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'yasova Dora

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant glioma is a rare cancer with poor survival. The influence of diet and antioxidant intake on glioma survival is not well understood. The current study examines the association between antioxidant intake and survival after glioma diagnosis. Methods Adult patients diagnosed with malignant glioma during 1991-1994 and 1997-2001 were enrolled in a population-based study. Diagnosis was confirmed by review of pathology specimens. A modified food-frequency questionnaire interview was completed by each glioma patient or a designated proxy. Intake of each food item was converted to grams consumed/day. From this nutrient database, 16 antioxidants, calcium, a total antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were available for survival analysis. Cox regression estimated mortality hazard ratios associated with each nutrient and the antioxidant index adjusting for potential confounders. Nutrient values were categorized into tertiles. Models were stratified by histology (Grades II, III, and IV and conducted for all (including proxy subjects and for a subset of self-reported subjects. Results Geometric mean values for 11 fat-soluble and 6 water-soluble individual antioxidants, antioxidant index and 3 macronutrients were virtually the same when comparing all cases (n = 748 to self-reported cases only (n = 450. For patients diagnosed with Grade II and Grade III histology, moderate (915.8-2118.3 mcg intake of fat-soluble lycopene was associated with poorer survival when compared to low intake (0.0-914.8 mcg, for self-reported cases only. High intake of vitamin E and moderate/high intake of secoisolariciresinol among Grade III patients indicated greater survival for all cases. In Grade IV patients, moderate/high intake of cryptoxanthin and high intake of secoisolariciresinol were associated with poorer survival among all cases. Among Grade II patients, moderate intake of water-soluble folate was associated with greater survival for all cases

  6. Does television viewing predict dietary intake five years later in high school students and young adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumark-Sztainer Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior research has found that television viewing is associated with poor diet quality, though little is known about its long-term impact on diet, particularly during adolescence. This study examined the associations between television viewing behavior with dietary intake five years later. Methods Survey data, which included television viewing time and food frequency questionnaires, were analyzed for 564 middle school students (younger cohort and 1366 high school students (older cohort who had complete data available at Time 1 (1998–1999 and five years later at Time 2 (mean age at Time 2, 17.2 ± 0.6 and 20.5 ± 0.8 years, respectively. Regression models examined longitudinal associations between Time 1 television viewing behavior and Time 2 dietary intake adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, Time 1 dietary intake, and Time 2 total daily energy intake. Results Respondents were categorized as limited television users (2 hours/daily, moderately high television viewers (2–5 hours/daily, and heavy television viewers (≥5 hours/daily. Among the younger cohort, Time 1 heavy television viewers reported lower fruit intake and higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption than the other two groups. Among the older cohort, watching five or more hours of television per day at Time 1, predicted lower intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grain and calcium-rich foods, and higher intakes of trans fat, fried foods, fast food menu items, snack products, and sugar-sweetened beverages (products commonly advertised on television five years later. Conclusion Television viewing in middle and high school predicted poorer dietary intake five years later. Adolescents are primary targets of advertising for fast food restaurants, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which may influence their food choices. Television viewing, especially during high school, may have long-term effects on eating choices and contribute to poor eating

  7. The Association between Self-Reported Grocery Store Access, Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity in a Racially Diverse, Low-Income Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren Nichol; DeFosset, Amelia Rose; Smith, Lisa V; Kuo, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index (BMI). We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7%) and driving (59.9%) to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9%) and traveling 5 min or less to reach (50.3%) the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or BMI. Results suggest that the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  8. The association between self-reported grocery store access, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and obesity in a racially diverse, low-income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Nichol Gase

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the relationship between self-reported time and distance to the nearest retail grocery store, healthy and unhealthy food consumption, and objectively measured body mass index. We conducted a survey with 1,503 racially diverse, low-income residents at five public health centers in Los Angeles County. Most participants reported shopping at a supermarket (86.7% and driving (59.9% to their usual source for groceries. Over half reported living less than a mile from (58.9% and traveling five minutes or less to reach (50.3% the nearest grocery store. In the multivariable regression models, neither self-reported distance nor time to the nearest grocery store was consistently associated with fruit and vegetable intake, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, or body mass index. Results suggest the need to consider access and quality as well as urban planning and transportation, when examining the relationship between the retail food environment and health outcomes.

  9. Variable efficacy of calcium carbonate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, S M; Goldstein, S J; Shangraw, R F; Raja, R M

    1989-12-01

    Orally administered calcium carbonate tablets are commonly prescribed as a calcium supplement and for their phosphate-binding effects in renal failure patients. Two cases are reported in which a commercially available brand of calcium carbonate tablets appeared to be ineffective. Formal investigation of the bioavailability of this product revealed it to have impaired disintegration and dissolution and a lack of clinical efficacy. Recommendations that will enable physicians to avoid prescribing and pharmacists to avoid dispensing ineffective calcium carbonate tablets are proposed.

  10. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of calc

  11. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of calc

  12. Avian eggshell formation in calcium-rich and calcium-poor habitats: Importance of snail shells and anthropogenic calcium sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.

    1996-01-01

    Most passerines depend on the intake of calcium-rich material in addition to their normal food for proper eggshell formation and skeletal growth. A large proportion of Great Tits (Pants major) in forests on nutrient-poor soils in the Netherlands produce eggs with defective shells as a result of

  13. Nerve lesions following apical extrusion of non-setting calcium hydroxide: A systematic case review and report of two cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper Jared; Thorn, Jens Jørn; Korsgaard, Niels

    2014-01-01

    We present two cases of apical extrusion of non-setting, calcium hydroxide paste which had been placed as an interappointment root canal dressing during routine endodontic treatment and which resulted in tissue necrosis of a large part of themandible, while. Surgical intervention consisted...... effects and the use of an injectable system had most often been related to apical extrusion. Consequently, great care should be taken when applying the paste into the canal system. 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-12-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary sugars intake. Only thirteen countries (all in the developed world) appear to report estimates of sugars intake from national nutrition surveys at more than one point in time. Definitions of dietary sugars that were used include 'total sugars', 'non-milk extrinsic sugars', 'added sugars', sucrose' and 'mono- and disaccharides'. This variability in terminology across countries meant that comparisons were limited to within countries. Hence trends in dietary sugars intake were examined by country for the whole population (where data permitted), and for specific or combined age and sex subpopulations. Findings indicate that in the majority of population comparisons, estimated dietary sugars intake is either stable or decreasing in both absolute (g/d) and relative (% energy) terms. An increase in sugars intake was observed in few countries and only in specific subpopulations. In conclusion, the findings from the present review suggest that, in the main, dietary sugars intake are decreasing or stable. A consistent approach to estimation of dietary sugars intake from national nutrition surveys is required if more valid estimates of changes in dietary sugars intakes are required in the future.

  15. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone strength and calcium ... calcium (as well as phosphorus) to make healthy bones. Bones are the main storage site of calcium in ... your body does not absorb enough calcium, your bones can get weak or will not grow properly. ...

  16. The use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sunyecz, John A

    2008-01-01

    John A SunyeczMenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Calcium and vitamin D utilization in the optimization of bone health is often overlooked by patients and health care providers. In addition, the optimal standard of care for osteoporosis should encompass adequate calcium and vitamin D intake. Dietary intake or supplementation with calcium and vitamin D will be reviewed, including recen...

  17. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had kidney disease or stomach conditions.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking calcium carbonate, call your doctor.

  18. Calcium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  19. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    OpenAIRE

    Rumpler William V; Rhodes Donna G; Kramer Matthew; Paul David R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To inve...

  20. Associations of Coffee, Tea, and Caffeine Intake with Coronary Artery Calcification and Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P Elliott; Zhao, Di; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Michos, Erin D; Averill, Michelle; Sandfort, Veit; Burke, Gregory L; Polak, Joseph F; Lima, Joao A C; Post, Wendy S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Guallar, Eliseo; Martin, Seth S

    2017-02-01

    Coffee and tea are 2 of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. The association of coffee and tea intake with coronary artery calcium and major adverse cardiovascular events remains uncertain. We examined 6508 ethnically diverse participants with available coffee and tea data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Intake for each was classified as never, occasional (coffee drinkers, regular coffee intake (≥1 cup per day) was not statistically associated with coronary artery calcium progression or cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.20). Caffeine intake was marginally inversely associated with coronary artery calcium progression. Moderate tea drinkers had slower progression of coronary artery calcium and reduced risk for cardiovascular events. Future research is needed to understand the potentially protective nature of moderate tea intake. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biochemical and physiological functions and consequences of deficient intakes, which show the nutritional importance of calcium, magnesium and potassium for humans, are reviewed. The dietary recommendations and food sources for these essential mineral elements for humans are presented. Factors t...

  2. Adolescence: How do we increase intestinal calcium absorption to allow for bone mineral mass accumulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    An increase in calcium absorptive efficiency (fractional absorption of dietary calcium) during adolescence is associated with a rapid increase in total body bone mineral mass (BMM) accumulation. This increase occurs across a range of calcium intakes. It appears to be principally mediated by hormonal...

  3. Duodenal calcium absorption in vitamin D receptor-knockout mice: functional and molecular aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromphaut, S.J. van; Dewerchin, M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Stockmans, I.; Herck, E. van; Kato, S.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Collen, D.; Carmeliet, P.; Bouillon, R.; Carmeliet, G.

    2001-01-01

    Rickets and hyperparathyroidism caused by a defective vitamin D receptor (VDR) can be prevented in humans and animals by high calcium intake, suggesting that intestinal calcium absorption is critical for 1,25(OH)(2) vitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] action on calcium homeostasis. We assessed the rate of s

  4. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  5. Calcium and vitamin d supplementation in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloia, John F; Dhaliwal, Ruban; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul; Yeh, James K

    2013-11-01

    Bone health is influenced by the intake of both calcium and vitamin D. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on PTH and bone turnover. SETTING, PATIENTS, AND DESIGN: At an ambulatory research center, 159 postmenopausal healthy white women participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel, longitudinal factorial study that was 6 months in duration. Subjects were randomly allocated to 4 groups: 1) double placebo, 2) calcium (1200 mg daily) plus placebo, 3) vitamin D3 (100 μg) plus placebo, and 4) vitamin D3 and calcium. Serum and urine were collected fasting and 2 hours after a calcium load at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Serum PTH, cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) were measured. Before study medication, a calcium load resulted in a decline in PTH and CTX and an increase in urinary calcium excretion. Serum CTX and P1NP declined over time with calcium supplementation but did not change with increased vitamin D intake. There was a decline in PTH in the vitamin D groups in the fasting state compared with placebo. Suppression of PTH was greater after a calcium load in the vitamin D groups. A calcium load decreased PTH and CTX and raised urinary calcium. Fasting PTH declines with vitamin D supplementation. PTH declines after calcium intake. Supplementation of the diet with 1200 mg calcium/d reduces bone turnover markers, whereas supplementation with up to100 μg vitamin D3/d does not.

  6. Nerve lesions following apical extrusion of non-setting calcium hydroxide: a systematic case review and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J J; Thorn, J J; Korsgaard, N; Pinholt, E M

    2014-09-01

    We present two cases of apical extrusion of non-setting, calcium hydroxide paste which had been placed as an interappointment root canal dressing during routine endodontic treatment resulting in tissue necrosis of a large part of the mandible. Surgical intervention consisted of resections in both instances. In relation to the cases presented, a systematic review of similar cases in the literature between 1980 and April 2013 was conducted which resulted in eight cases meeting the criteria outlined. As with the two presented cases, half of these eight cases showed serious adverse effects and the use of an injectable system had most often been related to apical extrusion. Consequently, great care should be taken when applying the paste into the canal system.

  7. Impact of lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on energy and nutrient intake among moderately underweight 8-18-month-old children participating in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M; Ashorn, Per; Phuka, John C; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Maleta, Kenneth M

    2015-12-01

    Nutrition interventions have an effect on growth, energy and nutrient intake, and development, but there are mixed reports on the effect of supplementation of energy-dense foods on dietary intake. This substudy aimed at assessing the effect of supplementation with corn-soy blend (CSB) or lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) on energy and nutrient intake in moderately underweight children participating in a clinical trial. A total of 188 children aged 8-18 months participated and received daily either 284 kcal from CSB or 220 kcal from LNS and no supplements (control). An interactive 24-h recall method was used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes in the groups. Total mean energy intake was 548 kcal, 551 kcal and 692 kcal in the control, CSB and LNS groups, respectively (P = 0.011). The mean (95% confidence interval) intake of energy and protein were 144 (37-250; P Energy intake from non-supplement foods was significantly lower in the CSB group compared with the control group, but not in the LNS group, suggesting a lower displacement of non-supplement foods with LNS. Both CSB and LNS supplementation resulted in higher intakes of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin C compared with controls (all P ≤ 0.001). This study indicates that LNS might be superior to CSB to supplement underweight children as it results in higher energy intake, but this requires confirmation in other settings.

  8. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture, exhausti

  9. Monetary value of self-reported diets and associations with sociodemographic characteristics and dietary intake among Japanese adults: analysis of nationally representative surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hitomi; Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    To examine the relationships of monetary value of diets with sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics and dietary intake among Japanese adults. Cross-sectional study based on two nationally representative surveys: the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2013. Dietary intake was assessed by a 1 d semi-weighed household dietary record with information on individual proportion of intakes. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with retail food prices. A wide variety of sociodemographic and lifestyle variables were obtained from the two surveys. A random sample of nationally representative households in Japan. Japanese adults aged 20 years or older (n 4658). Lower energy-adjusted diet cost (Japanese yen/4184 kJ) was significantly associated with being younger, having a lower education, less equivalent monthly household expenditure, large household size, less physical activity and living in rented houses. Lower diet cost was associated with a lower intake of pulses, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and dairy products, and a higher intake of grain, eggs, and fats and oils. At the nutrient level, lower diet cost was associated with a lower intake of protein, alcohol, dietary fibre, cholesterol and all vitamins and minerals examined, and a higher intake of carbohydrate. Diet cost was inversely associated with dietary energy density. These data suggest that certain low socio-economic subgroups in Japan consume diets of lower monetary value, resulting in a lower quality of food and nutrient intake pattern except for lower sodium, cholesterol and alcohol consumption.

  10. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzozero, Julien, E-mail: julien.bizzozero@gmail.com; Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  11. Vitamin and mineral supplements have a nutritionally significant impact on micronutrient intakes of older adults attending senior centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Allisha; Remig, Valentina; Holcomb, Carol Ann; Herald, Thomas J; Baybutt, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Older adults frequently report use of vitamin and mineral (VM) supplements, although the impact of supplements on dietary adequacy remains largely unknown. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate micronutrient intakes of older adults with emphasis on identifying nutrients most improved by VM supplements, nutrients most likely to remain inadequate, and nutrients most likely consumed in excess. Community-based volunteers were recruited from senior centers and completed a questionnaire querying demographic data, current health status, and VM supplement use. Participants (n = 263) were then contacted by telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls and confirm VM supplement use. Dietary adequacy was determined by comparing the ratio of mean dietary intake to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Dietary consumption was lowest for vitamins D and E, calcium, and magnesium. VM supplementation most improved intakes of vitamins E, D, B(6), folic acid, and calcium. Participants were most likely to exceed the Tolerable Upper Limit with supplementation of niacin, folic acid, and vitamin A.

  12. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Residents of Villages Surrounding Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ebrahimof

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a major health problem because of the large health care costs associated with its clinical consequences. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors. We investigated association between fruit and vegetables intake and bone mineral density in rural population of Tehran surroundings. Subjects were a subgroup of a large study on prevalence and causes of vitamin D deficiency in rural population surrounding Tehran, capital of Iran. Fruit and vegetable intake of 82 subjects whose bone mineral density (BMD was measured and had a 24 hour food recall, was assessed. Weight and height were measured by standard methods. BMD was measured by Dual X-Ray (DXL (Calscan method at the heels. Osteopenia and osteoporosis rate in women older than 50 years were 55.5% and 33.3% and in men were 69.2% and 7.7%, respectively. Fruit intake was not correlated with BMD. Vegetable intake was positively associated with BMD just in women. According to interquartile range of vegetable intake women were grouped as those consuming less than 1.5 servings of vegetables per day and those consuming more. The women reported consuming more than 1.5 serving of vegetables had significantly higher T-score (-1.1±0.8 compared with -1.9±1.0, P<0.01. Those consumed more vegetables had high intake of some nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, potassium, magnesium, zinc, folate, iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus but none of them except for vitamin A (r= 0.03, P<0.05 was correlated with BMD. High consumption of vegetables positively affected bone mineral density in rural women and daily intake of at least 1.5 servings of vegetables could positively affect osteoporosis prevention.

  13. Testosterone increases urinary calcium excretion and inhibits expression of renal calcium transport proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Y.J.; Dimke, H.; Schoeber, J.P.H.; Hsu, S.C.; Lin, S.H.; Chu, P.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although gender differences in the renal handling of calcium have been reported, the overall contribution of androgens to these differences remains uncertain. We determined here whether testosterone affects active renal calcium reabsorption by regulating calcium transport proteins. Male mice had hig

  14. Heart failure drug digitoxin induces calcium uptake into cells by forming transmembrane calcium channels

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Digitoxin and other cardiac glycosides are important, centuries-old drugs for treating congestive heart failure. However, the mechanism of action of these compounds is still being elucidated. Calcium is known to potentiate the toxicity of these drugs, and we have hypothesized that digitoxin might mediate calcium entry into cells. We report here that digitoxin molecules mediate calcium entry into intact cells. Multimers of digitoxin molecules also are able to form calcium channels in pure plan...

  15. Nutrient intake among elderly in southern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriah, A R; Zainorni, M; Shafawi, S; Mimie Suraya, S; Zarina, N; Wan Zainuddin, W; Zalifah, M

    1996-03-01

    Studies were conducted in selected areas in three states namely Johor (n=117, male=55, female=62), Negeri Sembilan (n=130, male=52, female=78) and Malacca (n=97, male=33, female=64) involving free living elderly (age range from 60 to 93 years old). Respondents were divided into three age cohort groups that is 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years and above 80 years old. Assessment of macro and micronutrients were obtained from 24-hour diet recall for three consecutive days. Household measurements were used to estimate the amount of food consumed. Mean energy intake for both sexes were lower than the Malaysian RDA. Mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment. The percentage of carbohydrate from total calories is higher compared to fat and protein. No respondents were found to consume less than 1/3 RDA for protein. Although no significant difference in nutrient intake was noted among age cohort groups, there was a decline in the intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate. Significantly (p <0.05) lower carbohydrate intake was noted in cohort group above 80 years. As for vitamins and minerals consumption, more than 50% of the elderly population studied consumed less than 2/3 RDA for vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium. Very low intake of nutrient may lead to many health problems. Overall mean energy intake indicate the respondents consume less than the Malaysian RDA for all three age cohort groups. Total mean energy intake were also found to decline with age increment for both sexes. Due to the low energy intake, higher percentage of elderly were found consuming less than 2/3 RDA for thiamine (65%), riboflavin (63%) and niacin (90%). Other nutrients which were also being consumed less than 2/3 RDA by the respondents are vitamin A (67%) and calcium (65%). The intake of calcium which was found to be extremely low (ranged from 277 to 303 mg) could lead to problems like osteoporosis.

  16. [Comparative study of the short-term effect of mineral water on calcium metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Giuseppe; Arcidiacono, Teresa; Puzzovio, Maria; Mora, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Mineral water may be a useful means to achieve optimal dietary calcium intake, but the effect of different mineral waters on calcium metabolism is unknown. We therefore evaluated calcium excretion in 24-hour urine in 10 healthy individuals (5 women and 5 men) after two weeks of drinking at least 1500 mL/day of mineral water with a low electrolyte content or 1500 mL/day of mineral water rich in calcium and bicarbonate but with a different sodium content. The low-sodium water Sangemini was one of these two mineral waters. Calcium excretion did not significantly increase after intake of the Sangemini mineral water in comparison with the baseline period of low-electrolyte mineral water intake. Conversely, the calcium excretion increased significantly after intake of the second mineral water. The plasma concentration of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and the urinary phosphate excretion decreased after intake of the second mineral water in comparison with the baseline period, whereas they did not decrease after intake of Sangemini water. Therefore, phosphate excretion was higher after drinking Sangemini water than the other studied mineral water. Drinking Sangemini water may have a slight effect on calcium excretion and may not inhibit bone turnover in the short term. The lesser effect of Sangemini water on calcium excretion could be useful in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  17. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health

    OpenAIRE

    Maresz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate calcium intake can lead to decreased bone mineral density, which can increase the risk of bone fractures. Supplemental calcium promotes bone mineral density and strength and can prevent osteoporosis. Recent scientific evidence, however, suggests that elevated consumption of calcium supplements may raise the risk for heart disease and can be connected with accelerated deposit of calcium in blood-vessel walls and soft tissues. In contrast, vitamin K2 is associated with the inhibition...

  18. Breast Cancer and DNA Repair Capacity: Association With Use of Multivitamin and Calcium Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Yeidyly; Matta, Jaime; Morales, Luisa; Vargas, Wanda; Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina; Bayona, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Context Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, with over 1 million new cases diagnosed every year worldwide. Over recent decades, considerable interest has emerged regarding whether vitamins and/or other supplements can lower the risk of BC. However, previous epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between intake of multivitamin and supplements of single vitamins and minerals and BC risk have reported conflicting results. Whether vitamins can actually reduce BC risk is still controversial. Objective This study examined whether multivitamin and calcium use was associated with BC incidence and DNA repair capacity (DRC). Design The research team designed an observational, case-control study. Setting All work was performed at the Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences under the direct supervision of principal investigator Dr Jaime Matta. Participants Participants were 836 women recruited primarily from the private practices of oncologists, gynecologists, and surgeons in Puerto Rico. Intervention(s) A total of 312 individuals in the breast cancer (BC) group and 524 individuals in the control group were compared for their multivitamin and calcium intake, DRC levels, and other covariates. Outcome Measure(s) Odds ratios (OR), adjusted using both crude analysis and multiple logistic regression, were used as measures of association between BC and DRC and other selected variables. Results The BC group had 30% reduced odds of taking multivitamins and calcium as compared to controls: (1) OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4–1.0; P = .073) for multivitamins and (2) OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4–1.2; P = .167) for calcium. Women with low DRC had 50% lower odds of taking calcium and 30% lower odds of currently taking vitamins OR = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4–0.7; P = .001) for calcium and (2) OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5–0.9.1; P = .047) for vitamins. Conclusions Although this study is a case-control study in which the risk of BC could not be assessed, results suggest that

  19. Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Burkhart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia. Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ, with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg (median = 3.8 and contributing to 50% total energy (TE (range 14%–79%. Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7 to 10–138 g (median = 67 g, and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48% and 24% TE (range 8%–44%, respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15 in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes.

  20. Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Sarah J.; Pelly, Fiona E.

    2016-01-01

    International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete’s competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia). Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384–18,009 kJ), with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0–9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg) (median = 3.8) and contributing to 50% total energy (TE) (range 14%–79%). Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3–4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7) to 10–138 g (median = 67 g), and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%–48%) and 24% TE (range 8%–44%), respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15) in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes. PMID:27754418

  1. Dietary Intake of Athletes Seeking Nutrition Advice at a Major International Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Sarah J; Pelly, Fiona E

    2016-10-14

    International travel and short-term residence overseas is now a common feature of an elite athlete's competition schedule, however, food choice away from home may be challenging and potentially impact on performance. Guidelines for dietary intake specific to competition exist for athletes, however, there is little evidence available to ascertain if athletes meet these recommendations during competition periods, particularly when food is provided in-house. During the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games, dietitians based in the dining hall recorded 24 h dietary recalls with all athletes who visited the nutrition kiosk. Analysis of dietary intake was conducted with FoodWorks (Xyris Pty Ltd., Brisbane, Australia). Overall, athletes reported consuming a median total daily energy intake of 8674 kJ (range 2384-18,009 kJ), with carbohydrate within the range of 1.0-9.0 g per kg of bodyweight (g/kg) (median = 3.8) and contributing to 50% total energy (TE) (range 14%-79%). Protein and fat intake ranged from 0.3-4.0 g/kg (median = 1.7) to 10-138 g (median = 67 g), and contributed to 21% TE (range 8%-48%) and 24% TE (range 8%-44%), respectively. Athletes reported consuming between 4 and 29 different food items (median = 15) in the previous 24 h period, with predominately discretionary, grains/cereals, meats, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternative items. This suggests that dairy, fruit, and vegetable intake may be suboptimal and intake of the micronutrients iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins A and C may be of concern for a number of athletes.

  2. Estimated protein intakes of toddlers: predicted prevalence of inadequate intakes in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, G H; Calloway, D H; Murphy, S P

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents a probability assessment of the adequacy of protein intakes of toddlers (aged 18-30 mo) in study communities in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico judged in relation to FAO/WHO/UNU estimates of requirements. Effects of supplementing amino acid intakes, or of assuming lower bioavailability for lysine are also considered. In Egypt and Mexico existing protein intakes of toddlers were adequate. In Kenya existing intakes were marginal. Total protein intake was low and often lysine or tryptophan concentration was low. If Kenyan intakes met estimated energy requirements, protein intakes would be adequate. We conclude that protein intake is unlikely to be a primary limiting factor for toddler growth and development, and the benefit to be expected from increasing the intake of limiting amino acids is marginal. Reported associations of animal-source protein and energy with growth, size, and psychologic function of these toddlers are unlikely to be causally attributable to inadequacy of protein intakes.

  3. Magnesium intake is not related to depression risk in Spanish university graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derom, Marie-Laure; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Sayón-Orea, Maria del Carmen; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Beunza, Juan J; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium is the second most predominant intracellular cation and it is an important cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions. It is a calcium antagonist and a voltage-dependent blocker of the N-methyl-D-aspartate channel, which plays a role in the entrance of calcium into the neuron. Other mechanisms also add biological plausibility to neuro-protective properties for magnesium, including an inverse association with major depression. A higher magnesium intake has been related to lower depressive symptoms. However, epidemiological evidence on this issue is scarce. Our aim was to prospectively evaluate the association between dietary magnesium intake and depression incidence in a cohort of 12,939 Spanish university graduates initially free of depression (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Cohort Study). Total magnesium intake was assessed with a validated, semiquantitative FFQ and incident depression was ascertained through self-reports of a new clinical diagnosis of depression done by a medical doctor and/or the habitual use of antidepressive drugs. The self-report was validated against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) criteria in a subsample of the cohort. Cox regression models were used to obtain HR of incident depression during follow-up according to baseline quintiles of magnesium intake using the lowest quintile as the reference category. After a median follow-up of 6.3 y, 737 new cases of depression were identified. No association between magnesium intake and depression was found, with multivariate-adjusted HR = 1 (reference), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.78-1.27), 1.00 (0.76-1.31), 0.95 (0.70-1.30), and 1.11 (0.77-1.59) for increasing categories (quintiles 1-5) of total magnesium intake. No dose-response relationship was found (P-trend = 0.59). Results were robust through different sensitivity analyses, including nutrient density or residual models. In conclusion, our findings do not suggest an inverse association between magnesium

  4. Nutrient Intake Is Insufficient among Senegalese Urban School Children and Adolescents: Results from Two 24 h Recalls in State Primary Schools in Dakar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Landais, Edwige; Bastard, Guillaume; Carriquiry, Alicia; Wieringa, Frank T.; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization and high food prices and in the absence of nutrition programs, school children from urban areas in West Africa often have insufficient and inadequate diet leading to nutrient deficiencies that affect their health and schooling performance. Acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in children from primary state schools of Dakar (Senegal). The objectives of the present study were to assess the overall diet of these children, to report insufficient/excessive energy and nutrient intakes and to investigate association between insufficient nutrient intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Children attending urban state primary schools in the Dakar area were selected through a two-stage random cluster sampling (30 schools × 20 children). Dietary intake data were obtained from two 24 h recalls and blood samples were collected from 545 children (aged 5–17 years, 45% fat to global energy intake in one third of the children. Proportions of children with insufficient intake were: 100% for calcium, 100% for folic acid, 79% for vitamin A, 69% for zinc, 53% for vitamin C and 46% for iron. Insufficient iron and protein intake were risk factors for iron deficiency (odds ratio, OR 1.5, 2.2). Insufficient zinc intake and energy intake from protein were risk factors for zinc deficiency (OR 1.8, 3.0, 1.7, 2.9). Insufficient iron and vitamin C intake, and insufficient energy intake from protein were risk factors for marginal vitamin A status (OR 1.8, 1.8, 3.3). To address nutritional deficiencies associated with a diet deficient in energy, protein and micronutrients, nutrition education or school feeding programs are needed in urban primary schools of Senegal. PMID:27775598

  5. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  6. Foraminal deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals in the thoracic spine: possible relationship with disc herniation and implications for surgical planning. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Sergio; Ciappetta, Pasquale; Guiducci, Antonio; Principi, Massimo; Missori, Paolo; Delfini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The authors report two cases of nodular calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition close to the thoracic neural foramen, which caused chronic radiculopathy. Preoperatively, the lesions were interpreted as calcified disc herniations. Both patients underwent surgery in which an extended transfacet pedicle-sparing approach was used. Incision of the posterior longitudinal ligament released soft degenerated material. In both cases, histological examination showed abundant degenerative debris along with CPPD crystals. Spinal CPPD deposition is a comparatively rare disease that almost invariably involves the posterior aspect of the spinal canal, typically the ligamentum flavum. The exceptional foraminal location of the lesions reported here, combined with the surgical findings, indicated that the CPPD crystals were deposited on a laterally herniated disc fragment. A distinctive feature in both cases was the soft consistency of the resected tissue. The consistency of the disc material and the location of the lesion in the axial plane (that is, median compared with lateral) are key factors in determining the optimal surgical approach to thoracic disc herniations. In describing consistency, terms such as "calcified" and "hard" have been used interchangeably in the literature. In the cases reported here, what appeared on computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies to be densely calcified lesions were shown intraoperatively to be soft herniations. The authors' experience underscores that not all densely calcified herniated discs are hard. Although detection of this discrepancy would have left surgical planning for the lateral disc herniations unchanged, it could have altered planning for centrally or centrolaterally located disc herniations.

  7. The calcium-sensing receptor regulates mammary gland parathyroid hormone–related protein production and calcium transport

    OpenAIRE

    VanHouten, Joshua; Dann, Pamela; McGeoch, Grace; Brown, Edward M.; Krapcho, Karen; Neville, Margaret; Wysolmerski, John J

    2004-01-01

    The transfer of calcium from mother to milk during lactation is poorly understood. In this report, we demonstrate that parathyroid hormone–related protein (PTHrP) production and calcium transport in mammary epithelial cells are regulated by extracellular calcium acting through the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). The CaR becomes expressed on mammary epithelial cells at the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Increasing concentrations of calcium, neomycin, and a calcimimetic compound suppre...

  8. Relationship between nutritional habits and hair calcium levels in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Brzozowska, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether hair calcium levels are related to nutritional habits, selected status parameters, and life-style factors in young women. Eighty-five healthy female students neither pregnant nor lactating, using no hair dyes or permanents were recruited for the study. Food consumption data, including fortified products and dietary supplements were collected with 4-day records. The calcium levels in hair and serum were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were assayed by ELISA. The women were divided into four groups according to their total vitamin D and calcium intakes and hair calcium levels. At adequate calcium intake and comparable serum bone biomarker levels, supplemental vitamin D increased the hair calcium levels. On the other hand, at lower than estimated adequate requirement of vitamin D intake the hair calcium levels were comparable in women with low calcium intakes but consuming high amounts of meat products or those whose diets were rich in dairy products, possibly due to homeostatic mechanisms. Elevated hair calcium was seen in 25% of subjects and could not be related to nutritional or life-style factors. The results show that the hair calcium levels were weakly related to the quality of diet, with some synergistic interactions between nutrients, especially vitamin D and magnesium.

  9. Intake to Production Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, William; Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.

    2012-01-01

    population (inferred from urinary excretion data) divided by the rate that chemical is produced in or imported into that population's economy. We used biomonitoring data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with chemical manufacturing data reported by the U.S. Environmental...... Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use.RESULTS: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds......BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts...

  10. Calcium absorption from fortified ice cream formulations compared with calcium absorption from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hee, Regine M; Miret, Silvia; Slettenaar, Marieke; Duchateau, Guus S M J E; Rietveld, Anton G; Wilkinson, Joy E; Quail, Patricia J; Berry, Mark J; Dainty, Jack R; Teucher, Birgit; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J

    2009-05-01

    Optimal bone mass in early adulthood is achieved through appropriate diet and lifestyle, thereby protecting against osteoporosis and risk of bone fracture in later life. Calcium and vitamin D are essential to build adequate bones, but calcium intakes of many population groups do not meet dietary reference values. In addition, changes in dietary patterns are exacerbating the problem, thereby emphasizing the important role of calcium-rich food products. We have designed a calcium-fortified ice cream formulation that is lower in fat than regular ice cream and could provide a useful source of additional dietary calcium. Calcium absorption from two different ice cream formulations was determined in young adults and compared with milk. Sixteen healthy volunteers (25 to 45 years of age), recruited from the general public of The Netherlands, participated in a randomized, reference-controlled, double-blind cross-over study in which two test products and milk were consumed with a light standard breakfast on three separate occasions: a standard portion of ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a low level (3%) of butter fat, ice cream (60 g) fortified with milk minerals and containing a typical level (9%) of coconut oil, and reduced-fat milk (1.7% milk fat) (200 mL). Calcium absorption was measured by the dual-label stable isotope technique. Effects on calcium absorption were evaluated by analysis of variance. Fractional absorption of calcium from the 3% butterfat ice cream, 9% coconut oil ice cream, and milk was 26%+/-8%, 28%+/-5%, and 31%+/-9%, respectively, and did not differ significantly (P=0.159). Results indicate that calcium bioavailability in the two calcium-fortified ice cream formulations used in this study is as high as milk, indicating that ice cream may be a good vehicle for delivery of calcium.

  11. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  12. Calcium supplementation does not augment bone gain in young women consuming diets moderately low in calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger-Lux, M Janet; Davies, K Michael; Heaney, Robert P

    2005-10-01

    In earlier observational work, the dietary calcium:protein ratio was directly related to bone accrual in healthy postadolescent women. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that augmented calcium intake would increase postadolescent skeletal consolidation, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design. We recruited 152 healthy young women (age 23.1 +/- 2.7 y, BMI 22.5 +/- 3.0 kg/m2); their usual diets, as assessed by 7-d food diaries, were low in calcium (605 +/- 181 mg/d; 15.1 +/- 4.5 mmol/d) and in the calcium:protein ratio (10.1 +/- 2.0 mg/g). The subjects were randomly assigned to supplemental calcium [500 mg calcium (12.5 mmol) as the carbonate, 3 times/d, with meals] or placebo capsules identical in appearance; all participants also took a daily multivitamin, and they were followed for up to 36 mo with bone densitometry (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA) at 6-mo intervals. A total of 121 subjects remained in the study for at least 12 mo (median time in the study, 35 mo), with a mean compliance level (observed/expected tablet consumption) of 87.7%. DXA data for these 121 subjects indicated modest but significant mean rates of increase (i.e., 0.24 to 1.10%/y) in bone mineral content (BMC; total body, total hip, and lumbar spine) and in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) but no change in total hip BMD. None of these rates of change differed by group, i.e., calcium supplementation did not have any measurable effect on bone mass accrual. By midstudy, the calcium content of the subjects' usual diets for both groups had risen by approximately 15%. The combined effect of improved intakes of dietary calcium and the small amount of calcium added by the multivitamin tablets resulted in a mean calcium intake for the control group > 800 mg (20 mmol)/d, possibly at or near the threshold beyond which additional calcium has no further effect on bone accrual.

  13. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d......-saccharate becomes spontaneously supersaturated with both d-gluconate and d-saccharate calcium salts, from which only calcium d-saccharate slowly precipitates. Calcium d-saccharate is suggested to act as a stabilizer of supersaturated solutions of other calcium hydroxycarboxylates with endothermic complex formation...

  14. Effects of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood concentrations and bone quality of commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Berto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood profile and bone quality of commercial layers. A total of 576 birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement (calcium levels of 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and clinoptilolite levels of 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%, into 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds per cage (experimental unit. The experimental period was 112 days. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. Blood uric acid was significantly influenced by the interaction of the evaluated factors. Clinoptilolite levels significantly increased blood calcium levels. There was no effect of dietary calcium levels on any of the evaluated characteristics. It was concluded that feeding layers with up to 0.50% clinoptilolite does not benefit blood uric acid and calcium concentrations and does not affect their bone quality. When layers at the end of the first laying cycle are fed ad libitum and present 119.50g/hen/day average feed intake, 3.1% dietary calcium promotes 3.7g/hen/day calcium intake, which is sufficient to maintain adequate calcium blood levels and bone quality.

  15. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Won; Shin, Dayeon; Song, Won O

    2016-10-04

    Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods) and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water) and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean adults. Findings

  16. Total Water Intake from Beverages and Foods Is Associated with Energy Intake and Eating Behaviors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Won Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. Even though a recommendation exists for adequate water intake for Koreans, studies identifying actual water intake from all beverages and foods consumed daily in the Korean population are limited. Thus, we estimated total water intake from both beverages and foods and its association with energy intake and eating behaviors in Korean adults. We used a nationally representative sample of 25,122 Korean adults aged ≥19 years, from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2012. We performed multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related variables to investigate the contribution of overall energy and dietary intakes and eating behaviors to total water intake. The mean total water intake excluding plain water was 1071 g (398 g from beverages and 673 g from foods and the estimated plain water intake was 1.3 L. Among Korean adults, 82% consumed beverages (excluding plain water and these beverages contributed to 10% of daily energy intake and 32% of total water intake from beverages and foods. For every 100 kcal/day in energy intake, water intake consumed through beverages and foods increased by 18 g and 31 g, respectively. Water intake from beverages and foods was positively associated with energy from fat and dietary calcium, but inversely associated with energy density and energy from carbohydrates. When there was a 5% increase in energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home, there was an increase in water intake from beverages of 13 g and 2 g, respectively. Increased daily energy intake, the number of eating episodes, and energy intake from snacks and eating outside the home predicted higher water intake from beverages and foods. Our results provide evidence suggesting that various factors, including sociodemographic status, dietary intakes, and eating behaviors, could be important contributors to the water intake of Korean

  17. Dairy intake is associated with brain glutathione concentration in older adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phil; Denney, Douglas R; Spaeth, Kendra; Nast, Olivia; Ptomey, Lauren; Roth, Alexandra K; Lierman, Jo Ann; Sullivan, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Background: A reduction in key antioxidants such as glutathione has been noted in brain tissue undergoing oxidative stress in aging and neurodegeneration. To date, no dietary factor has been linked to a higher glutathione concentration. However, in an earlier pilot study, we showed evidence of a positive association between cerebral glutathione and dairy intake. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dairy food consumption is associated with cerebral glutathione concentrations in older adults. Design: In this observational study, we measured cerebral glutathione concentrations in 60 healthy subjects (mean ± SD age: 68.7 ± 6.2 y) whose routine dairy intakes varied. Glutathione concentrations were measured by using a unique, noninvasive magnetic resonance chemical shift imaging technique at 3 T and compared with dairy intakes reported in 7-d food records. Results: Glutathione concentrations in the frontal [Spearman's rank-order correlation (rs) = 0.39, P = 0.013], parietal (rs = 0.50, P = 0.001), and frontoparietal regions (rs = 0.47, P = 0.003) were correlated with average daily dairy servings. In particular, glutathione concentrations in all 3 regions were positively correlated with milk servings (P ≤ 0.013), and those in the parietal region were also correlated with cheese servings (P = 0.015) and calcium intake (P = 0.039). Dairy intake was related to sex, fat-free mass, and daily intakes of energy, protein, and carbohydrates. However, when these factors were controlled through a partial correlation, correlations between glutathione concentrations and dairy and milk servings remained significant. Conclusions: Higher cerebral glutathione concentrations were associated with greater dairy consumption in older adults. One possible explanation for this association is that dairy foods may serve as a good source of substrates for glutathione synthesis in the human brain. PMID:25646325

  18. A novel mutation in the calcium-sensing receptor gene in an Irish pedigree showing familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Elamin, Wael F

    2010-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by asymptomatic and non-progressive hypercalcemia due to mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor gene. Disorders of calcium metabolism are very common in the elderly, and they can coexist with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia in affected families.

  19. Documenting the use of calcium supplements with oral bisphosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Ann Marie; Hamrick, Irene; Rauch, Allison; Pound, Melanie W; Shelton, Penny S

    2013-01-01

    Patients receiving an oral bisphosphonate for treatment of osteopenia or osteoporosis without adequate calcium intake are not optimally treated. Physicians prescribing bisphosphonates may not consistently document calcium supplementation recommendations. This is a retrospective chart review of osteoporotic or osteopenic outpatients with an active prescription for an oral bisphosphonate. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the point prevalence of calcium supplementation recommendations by physicians. Academic family medicine outpatient clinics. Of the 1,229 patients with osteoporosis or osteopenia, 425 patients had an active prescription for an oral bisphosphonate and were included in the study. The active/inactive medication list and physician clinic notes in the electronic medical record were reviewed for documentation regarding calcium. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients on bisphosphonates also receiving calcium. The secondary endpoint was the identification of demographic characteristics associated with lower use of calcium. The patient sample was 94% female, 69% white, with a mean body mass index of 27, and mean age of 72 years. Of the 425 patients, 387 (91.1%) were taking calcium or had a documented recommendation for calcium supplementation. Of the demographic characteristics evaluated, only age was statistically significantly different, with an average age of 76 years in the calcium group and 66 years of age in the noncalcium group. In this study, 91% of outpatients who were prescribed a bisphosphonate also were taking calcium or had it recommended to them. The only statistically significant difference between groups was greater age for those who received calcium.

  20. Ileum and colon perforation following peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and high-dose calcium polystyrene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chih-Chin; Tsai, Yi-Chiun; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Mao, Tsui-Lien; Kao, Tze-Wah

    2015-10-01

    A rare but severe complication, intestinal necrosis, has been reported after sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS; Kayexalate) and sorbitol intake. Some case reports described bowel perforation following calcium polystyrene sulfonate (CPS; Kalimate) administration. We report a case of ileum and colon perforation following peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and high-dose Kalimate in a 59-year-old female patient. The patient had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). During hospitalization for peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, she developed hyperkalemia, and Kalimate was administered orally. However, severe abdominal distension and pain occurred just one day after Kalimate intake. An urgent surgery disclosed several perforations in the ileum and sigmoid colon. Pathology of the resected gut showed transmural necrosis and perforation with basophilic angulated crystals. The patient finally expired during hospitalization due to refractory septic shock.

  1. Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Fecal Lactobacilli in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yuangklang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Based on earlier studies in veal calves and rats, the hypothesis tested was that high calcium intakes by ruminating dairy calves reduce fat digestibility, but do not affect growth performance due to enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli. Approach: In dairy calves that were fed on a combination of milk replacer, concentrate on grass hay, the effects of supplemental calcium on growth, nutrient digestibility and fecal lactobacilli were studied. Four concentrates with different levels of calcium were used. Results: Final body weight and weight gain were raised by the calcium level in the concentrate in a dose-dependent, linear fashion. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat were not influenced by the level of calcium in the concentrate. The number of fecal lactobacilli was significantly increased by higher dietary calcium levels, the effect having a linear trend. Calcium intake did not change the number of fecal E. coli. The apparent absorptions of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were lowered in a linear, dose-dependent fashion by the calcium level in the concentrate. Conclusion: Increased calcium intakes stimulate weight gain in dairy calves fed a combination of milk replacer, concentrate and grass hay. This calcium effect may be related to an enhanced colonization of the intestine with lactobacilli.

  2. Intolerance to oral and intravenous calcium supplements in atopic eczema.

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, J; David, T J

    1990-01-01

    Children treated with dietary restriction for food intolerance may require calcium supplementation, particularly if cows' milk and milk substitutes are not tolerated. We report two children with atopic eczema who reacted adversely to a number of calcium supplement formulations.

  3. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Banna, JC; Fialkowski, MK; Townsend, MS

    2014-01-01

    © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on...

  4. Association of usual self-reported dietary intake with ecological momentary measures of affective and physical feeling states in children ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Gillian A.; Huh, Jimi; Schembre, Susan M.; Tate, Eleanor B.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Dunton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship between dietary intake and affective and physical feeling states in children. Purpose The current study used Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to examine how usual dietary intake is cross-sectionally associated with both average affective and physical feeling state ratings and rating variability in children. Methods Children (N = 110, mean age = 11.0 ± 1.2 years, 52.5% male, 30.1% Hispanic/Latino) completed EMA measures of affective and physical feeling states 3–7 times per day for a full or partial day (weekday evenings and weekend days and evenings) over a 4-day period. Usual intake of pre-selected dietary components was measured prior to the EMA measurement period using the Block Kids Food Screener. Statistical analyses included mixed models and mixed-effects location scale models. Results Greater usual fiber intake was cross-sectionally associated with higher average positive affect (PA) ratings, lower variability of NA ratings, and higher variability of physical fatigue ratings. Lower usual glycemic load of diet was cross-sectionally associated with lower variability of NA ratings. Lower usual added sugar intake was cross-sectionally associated with higher average physical energy ratings and lower variability of NA ratings. Conclusions Although temporal precedence was not established by these findings, they indicate that characteristics of children’s usual dietary intake are cross-sectionally associated with both the average and variability of affective and physical feeling states. EMA offers a promising avenue through which to explore the associations between affective states and diet and has the potential to provide insight into nuances of this relationship. PMID:26032196

  5. Calcium antagonists and vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F B

    1990-04-01

    A critical review of the clinical data supports the conclusion that nimodipine decreases the severity of neurologic deficits and improves outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The mechanisms by which mortality and morbidity are reduced are still controversial. First, the frequency of vasospasm is not altered (Figs. 5 and 6). Second, the consistent reversal of vasospasm once present has not been demonstrated either angiographically or by noninvasive cerebral blood flow studies. These observations suggest that there is either modification of microcirculatory flow (i.e., dilation of pial conducting vessels or decreased platelet aggregation) or a direct neuronal protective effect. As suggested previously, support for either mechanism is not resolute, and further investigation is necessary. Currently, nimodipine has been the most thoroughly investigated calcium antagonist both from an experimental and clinical perspective. Oral administration has had few reported complications. Therefore, the benefit/risk ratio clearly supports the prophylactic use of this calcium antagonist in patients of all clinical grades after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Evidence also indicates that starting nimodipine after the onset of delayed ischemic deficits is of benefit. Finally, it can be predicted that in the future additional calcium antagonists with more selective vascular or neuronal effects will be developed for use in neurologic disorders.

  6. Ossifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff after arthroscopic excision of calcium deposits: report of two cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dave, Arpit C.; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Ossifying tendinitis (OT) is a type of heterotopic ossification, characterized by deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals in a histologic pattern of mature lamellar bone. It is usually associated with surgical intervention or trauma and is more commonly seen in Achilles or distal biceps tendons, and also in the gluteus maximus tendon. To our knowledge, there is no description of OT as a complication of calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff. In this report, we describe two cases in which the...

  7. Vitamin and mineral intake of twelve adolescent male Kalenjin runners in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Jakobsen, Jette; Friis, H

    2005-01-01

    , and niacin all met RSDI by 208%, 107%, and 131%, respectively. Similarly, the intakes of magnesium, iron, and zinc were 272%, 404%, and 122% of RSDI, respectively, while calcium and selenium were below, 47% and 49%, respectively. The daily intakes of phosphorous, copper, and chromium were estimated to 4214...

  8. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, A; Hirvonen, T; Mensik, GBM

    2009-01-01

    and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E...

  9. Anthropometry, nutritional status, and dietary intake in pediatric patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Marina B; Brizola, Evelise S; Refosco, Lilia; Giugliani, Roberto; Félix, Têmis M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess anthropometric measurements, nutritional status, dietary intake, and body fat percentage of pediatric patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). A cross-sectional study evaluated 63 OI patients from 0 to 19 years of age. We analyzed anthropometric measurements, mobility, bisphosphonate treatment, body fat percentage (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DEXA] and sum of skinfold thickness), nutritional status, and dietary intake (using World Health Organization [WHO] and dietary reference intake recommendations for macronutrients and calcium intake, respectively). Participants' energy requirements were calculated using both kilocalorie per centimeter measurements and WHO methods. Patients with different types of OI had different anthropometric measurements (p Nutritional status was correlated with measurements of arm circumference and body fat. We also found a strong correlation between the 2 methods used to calculate percentage of body fat (r = 0.803). OI type III had a higher percentage of energy intake. We observed that 75% of subjects had a calcium intake below 95% of recommended daily value and there was an inverse correlation between age and calcium intake. This study showed that stature was compromised mainly in OI type III. Skinfold thickness and arm circumference correlated to nutritional status and also to body fat calculated by DEXA. Daily calcium intake was below the recommended levels in pediatric patients with OI. These findings are important for the management of OI subjects.

  10. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation increases spinal BMD in healthy, postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baeksgaard, L; Andersen, K P; Hyldstrup, Lars

    1998-01-01

    We undertook a double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a calcium and vitamin D supplement and a calcium supplement plus multivitamins on bone loss at the hip, spine and forearm. The study was performed in 240 healthy women, 58-67 years of age. Duration...... of treatment was 2 years. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine, hip and forearm. A dietary questionnaire was administered twice during the study and revealed a fairly good calcium and vitamin D intake (919 mg calcium/day; 3.8 micrograms vitamin D/day). An increase in lumbar spine BMD....... Together with significant changes in serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone, this indicates that a long-term calcium and vitamin supplement of 1 g elementary calcium (calcium carbonate) and 14 micrograms vitamin D3 increases intestinal calcium absorption. A positive effect on BMD was demonstrated...

  11. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...... current understanding of calcium sensing in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion....

  12. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  13. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  14. Vitamin D-enhanced duodenal calcium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2015-01-01

    For humans and rodents, duodenum is a very important site of calcium absorption since it is exposed to ionized calcium released from dietary complexes by gastric acid. Calcium traverses the duodenal epithelium via both transcellular and paracellular pathways in a vitamin D-dependent manner. After binding to the nuclear vitamin D receptor, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] upregulates the expression of several calcium transporter genes, e.g., TRPV5/6, calbindin-D9k, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase1b, and NCX1, thereby enhancing the transcellular calcium transport. This action has been reported to be under the regulation of parathyroid-kidney-intestinal and bone-kidney-intestinal axes, in which the plasma calcium and fibroblast growth factor-23 act as negative feedback regulators, respectively. 1,25(OH)2D3 also modulates the expression of tight junction-related genes and convective water flow, presumably to increase the paracellular calcium permeability and solvent drag-induced calcium transport. However, vitamin D-independent calcium absorption does exist and plays an important role in calcium homeostasis under certain conditions, particularly in neonatal period, pregnancy, and lactation as well as in naturally vitamin D-impoverished subterranean mammals.

  15. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium Bajos niveles de vitamina D en jugadores profesionales de baloncesto después del invierno: relación con la ingesta oral de vitamina D y calcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bescós García

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. Aim: To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Methods: Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OHD levels were collected after wintertime during the 2008/2009 (April and 2009/2010 (March seasons. In addition, athletes completed 4-day dietary records to estimate energy consumption and a food frequency questionnaire to determine dietary vitamin D and calcium intake. Serum 25(OHD levels were 47.8 ± 21.8 nmol/L, with twelve subjects (57% being vitamin D deficient (Introducción: Aunque la deficiencia de vitamina D es muy prevalente en todo el mundo en la población general, se sabe muy poco acerca del estado vitamínico en los atletas. Objetivo: investigar las concentraciones séricas de vitamina D (25[OH]D después del invierno en baloncestitas masculinos de élite, y relacionar estas concentraciones con el aporte dietético de vitamina D y calcio. Métodos: se estudió a 21 jugadores del mismo equipo profesional español. Se recogieron las muestras de sangre para evaluar las concentraciones de 25(OHD después del invierno durante las temporadas de 2008/2009 (abril y 2009/2010 (marzo. Además, los atletas completaron unos registros de 4 días para estimar el consumo de energía y un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos para determinar el aporte dietético de vitamina D y calcio. Las concentraciones séricas de 25(OHD fueron 47,8 ± 21,8 nmol/L, estando 12 individuos (57% con deficiencia de vitamina D (< 50 nmol/L. Resultados: el consumo de vitamina D fue 139 ± 78 IU/día y el de calcio de 948 ± 419 mg/día. Las concentraciones séricas de 25(OHD se correlacionaban con el aporte diet

  16. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  17. An Innovative Approach to Treat Incisors Hypomineralization (MIH: A Combined Use of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Hydrogen Peroxide—A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mastroberardino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH is characterized by a developmentally derived deficiency in mineral enamel. Affected teeth present demarcated enamel opacities, ranging from white to brown; also hypoplasia can be associated. Patient frequently claims aesthetic discomfort if anterior teeth are involved. This problem leads patients to request a bleaching treatment to improve aestheticconditions.Nevertheless, hydrogen peroxide can produce serious side-effects, resulting from further mineral loss. Microabrasion and/or a composite restoration are the treatments of choice in teeth with mild/moderate MIH, but they also need enamel loss. Recently, a new remineralizing agent based on Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP has been proposed to be effective in hypomineralized enamel, improving also aesthetic conditions. The present paper presents a case report of a young man with white opacities on incisors treated with a combined use of CPP-ACP mousse and hydrogen peroxide gel to correct the aesthetic defect. The patient was instructed to use CPP-ACP for two hours per day for three months in order to obtain enamel remineralization followed by a combined use of CPP-ACP and bleaching agent for further two months. At the end of this five-month treatment, a noticeable aesthetic improvement of the opacities was observed.

  18. An Innovative Approach to Treat Incisors Hypomineralization (MIH): A Combined Use of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Hydrogen Peroxide-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroberardino, Stefano; Campus, Guglielmo; Strohmenger, Laura; Villa, Alessandro; Cagetti, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is characterized by a developmentally derived deficiency in mineral enamel. Affected teeth present demarcated enamel opacities, ranging from white to brown; also hypoplasia can be associated. Patient frequently claims aesthetic discomfort if anterior teeth are involved. This problem leads patients to request a bleaching treatment to improve aestheticconditions.Nevertheless, hydrogen peroxide can produce serious side-effects, resulting from further mineral loss. Microabrasion and/or a composite restoration are the treatments of choice in teeth with mild/moderate MIH, but they also need enamel loss. Recently, a new remineralizing agent based on Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) has been proposed to be effective in hypomineralized enamel, improving also aesthetic conditions. The present paper presents a case report of a young man with white opacities on incisors treated with a combined use of CPP-ACP mousse and hydrogen peroxide gel to correct the aesthetic defect. The patient was instructed to use CPP-ACP for two hours per day for three months in order to obtain enamel remineralization followed by a combined use of CPP-ACP and bleaching agent for further two months. At the end of this five-month treatment, a noticeable aesthetic improvement of the opacities was observed.

  19. Is Excess Calcium Harmful to Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Daly

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most current guidelines recommend that older adults and the elderly strive for a total calcium intake (diet and supplements of 1,000 to 1,300 mg/day to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Traditionally, calcium supplements have been considered safe, effective and well tolerated, but their safety has recently been questioned due to potential adverse effects on vascular disease which may increase mortality. For example, the findings from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (currently published in abstract form only revealed that the use of calcium supplements was associated with an ~30% increased risk of myocardial infarction. If high levels of calcium are harmful to health, this may alter current public health recommendations with regard to the use of calcium supplements for preventing osteoporosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest information from human observational and prospective studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses related to the effects of calcium supplementation on vascular disease and related risk factors, including blood pressure, lipid and lipoprotein levels and vascular calcification.

  20. Induced calcium carbonate precipitation using Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is an emerging process for the production of self-healing concrete. This study was aimed to investigate the effects and optimum conditions on calcium carbonate biosynthesis. Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sphaericus, yeast extract, urea, calcium chloride and aeration were found to be the most significant factors affecting the biomineralization of calcium carbonate. It was noticed that the morphology of microbial calcium carbonate was mainly affected by the genera of bacteria (cell surface properties), the viscosity of the media and the type of electron acceptors (Ca(2+)). The maximum calcium carbonate concentration of 33.78 g/L was achieved at the optimum conditions This value is the highest concentration reported in the literature.

  1. Calcium supplementation of chocolate: effect on cocoa butter digestibility and blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkhalili, Y; Murset, C; Meirim, I; Duruz, E; Guinchard, S; Cavadini, C; Acheson, K

    2001-02-01

    The digestibility of cocoa butter was reported in animal but not human studies to be low (60-70% and 89-94%, respectively). These differences could be due to the much higher ratio of calcium to fat (by wt) in the diet of rats (0.04-0.18) than in that of humans (0.01). We investigated whether supplementation of chocolate with 0.9% calcium (by wt), as an integral part of a Western diet, reduces absorption of cocoa butter and hence the digestible energy value of chocolate. We also assessed the effect of calcium supplementation on the blood lipid profile. Ten men were fed control diets containing 98-101 g chocolate/d with or without a 0.9%-Ca supplement (0.9 g Ca/d) for 2 periods of 2 wk each. The study was conducted with use of a randomized, double-blind crossover design under free-living conditions but with strict control of food intake. Calcium supplementation of chocolate increased fecal fat 2-fold (from 4.4 to 8.4 g/d; P chocolate by approximately 9%. This supplementation also reduced plasma LDL cholesterol by 15% (P chocolate. Supplementation with 2.25% CaCO3 had no effect on the taste of chocolate, was well tolerated by the subjects, and reduced LDL cholesterol in a short-term study.

  2. Vitamin D supplementation and depression in the women's health initiative calcium and vitamin D trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Powers, Sally I; Spangler, Leslie; Larson, Joseph; Michael, Yvonne L; Millen, Amy E; Bueche, Maria N; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Brunner, Robert L; Ockene, Ira; Ockene, Judith K; Liu, Simin; Manson, Joann E

    2012-07-01

    While observational studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency increases risk of depression, few clinical trials have tested whether vitamin D supplementation affects the occurrence of depression symptoms. The authors evaluated the impact of daily supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin D(3) combined with 1,000 mg of elemental calcium on measures of depression in a randomized, double-blinded US trial comprising 36,282 postmenopausal women. The Burnam scale and current use of antidepressant medication were used to assess depressive symptoms at randomization (1995-2000). Two years later, women again reported on their antidepressant use, and 2,263 completed a second Burnam scale. After 2 years, women randomized to receive vitamin D and calcium had an odds ratio for experiencing depressive symptoms (Burnam score ≥0.06) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.56) compared with women in the placebo group. Supplementation was not associated with antidepressant use (odds ratio = 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.92, 1.12) or continuous depressive symptom score. Results stratified by baseline vitamin D and calcium intake, solar irradiance, and other factors were similar. The findings do not support a relation between supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin D(3) along with calcium and depression in older women. Additional trials testing higher doses of vitamin D are needed to determine whether this nutrient may help prevent or treat depression.

  3. Evaluation of daily intake for some elements of radiation protection concern by inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H.E. Monged

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr were determined in common foodstuffs consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area (GCA. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb intake. The medium daily intakes for the adult inhabitants of GCA from the analyzed elements were reported. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of GCA could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of GCA may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggests that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP data. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and consumption rates, broad bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, being therefore a very important source of micronutrients.

  4. Dietary magnesium, not calcium, prevents vascular calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgels, Theo; Waarsing, Jan; Wolf, Anneke; Brink, Jacoline; Loves, Willem; Bergen, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a heritable disorder characterized by ectopic calcification of connective tissue in skin, Bruch's membrane of the eye, and walls of blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in the ABCC6 gene, but the exact etiology is still unknown. While observations on patients suggest that high calcium intake worsens the clinical symptoms, the patient organization PXE International has published the dietary advice to increase calcium intake in combination with...

  5. Dietary Intake of Some Essential Micronutrients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Based on the data collected in the 1992 national nutrition survey in China, the food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated, and the consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated. Method Dietary data were obtained by using a three days' inventory change plus food weighing in combination with 24 hours recall method for three consecutive days. The food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated in accordance with the Chinese food composition table. The consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated in reference to the Chinese RDAs. Results The average intakes of niacin, ascorbic acid and vitamin E were sufficient, whereas that of zinc, selenium and thiamin were between 80% and 90% RDAs. The consumption of calcium, retinol equivalent and riboflavin was low compared with the Chinese RDAs. Calcium was the most insufficient nutrient in Chinese diet. Conclusion Food fortification seems necessary for improving the nutritional status of some micronutrients in China.

  6. OSTEOPOROSIS IN CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Vladimirov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the incidence of osteoporosis (OP in patients with calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition disease (CPCDD. Subjects and methods. Eighty patients with CPCDD were examined. Bone mineral density (BMD of the forearm, lumbar spine, and femoral neck was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory diagnosis involved determination of the blood levels of C-reactive protein, parathyroid hormone, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus and the daily urinary excretion of calcium and phosphates. Results. The patients with OP were significantly older than those with normal BMD and osteopenia. Forearm bones were the most common isolated location of OP and osteopenia. Injuries in the history, traumatic fractures, and the intake of diuretics were somewhat more common in the patients diagnosed with OP. The incidence of hyperparathyroidism did not differ significantly in the groups.

  7. Discussion on the mechanism of the calcium absorption in the human body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The present article discusses a new mechanism of calcium absorption in the human body. The mechanism is revealed as follows. First, after food is digested in the stomach, calcium ions (Ca2+) are released. The small intestine secretes amino acid or short peptide chain with small molecniar weight automatically, which are called chelating agent; when the calcium ions from the stomach get to the small intestine, the reaction of the chelating agent with the calcium ions occurs, producing the neutral amino acid calcium chelate. Then, this kind of calcium chelate with small molecular weight is absorbed as a whole into the tissues of the small intestine. After being absorbed, in the cell the calcium chelate can break down its chelating bond automatically and decompose into the amino acid and calcium ion again. Finally, the calcium ion goes into blood through portal vein and is transferred to the organs and also deposits on the bone. The reason for the body's calcium insufficiency, which has no linear relation with the calcium intake amount, is the lack of the amino acid secreted by the small intestine. The main barrier that influences the calcium absorption is anion pollution. The calcium absorptivity of the body has nothing to do with the solubility of the calcium source out of the body.A new kind of calcium supplement agent--glycine calcium chelate--is synthesized, whose molecular weight is 206.06(containing a molecular water). If the glycine calcium chelate is used to make calcium supplement agent, about 20 mg calcium element (converted from the glycine calcium chelate,the same below, no longer indicated) per day for one person,50 mg at most, is enough to maintain the positive balance of calcium metabolism.``

  8. Calcium balance in young adults on a vegan and lactovegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg-Mueller, Kathrin; Raschka, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    For people in Western countries, the vegan diet has the advantage of low energy intake, but the calcium status of this strictly plant-based diet is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the calcium balance of individuals on a vegan diet in comparison with a lactovegetarian diet in a short-term investigation. Seven women and one man, ranging in age from 19 to 24 years, received during the first 10 days a vegan diet based on plant foods and calcium-rich mineral water and a lactovegetarian diet during the following 10 days. Portion size was adapted to the subjects' individual energy requirements. Calcium status was assessed by means of calcium intake in food and calcium output in feces and urine as measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In addition, deoxypyridinoline was measured in urine as a marker of bone resorption. The results show a significantly smaller daily calcium intake with an average of 843 +/- 140 mg in the vegan versus 1322 +/- 303 mg in the lactovegetarian diet. Apparent calcium absorption rates were calculated as 26% +/- 15% in the vegan and 24% +/- 8% in the lactovegetarian group (NS). The calcium balance was positive both in the vegan diet (119 +/- 113 mg/day) and in the lactovegetarian diet (211 +/- 136 mg/day) (NS). Deoxypyridinoline excretion showed no significant difference between the two diets (105 +/- 31 and 98 +/- 23 nmol/day). The present results indicate that calcium balance and a marker of bone turnover are not affected significantly when calcium is provided either solely by plant foods or by a diet including dairy products, despite the significantly different calcium intake levels in the diets. We conclude that a well-selected vegan diet maintains calcium status, at least for a short-term period.

  9. RICKETS IN RURAL KENYAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwibo, N O; Nyawade, S; Neumann, C G

    2013-03-01

    Clinical rickets has not been reported previously in Embu district, Kenya. Baseline clinical assessments performed for a nutrition intervention study in preschool children (n=324) identified 28 cases of rickets (8.6% of study sample). Clinical characteristics included: delays of sitting, walking, and teething; bone and chest deformities; widened wrists and ankles; and bowed lower extremities. Risk factors identified were short duration of breastfeeding with feeding of cereal-based supplements with little or no milk, low calcium intake, limited sunlight exposure. Vitamin D and calcium deficiencies likely contributed to these cases. Treatment with Vitamin D3 and milk resulted in clinical improvement.

  10. Effect of High-Calcium Diet on Coronary Artery Disease in Ossabaw Miniature Swine With Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; McKenney-Drake, Mikaela L; Bahls, Martin; Newcomer, Sean C; Radcliffe, John S.; Wastney, Meryl E; Van Alstine, William G; Jackson, George; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Martin, Berdine R.; Sturek, Michael; Weaver, Connie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium is a shortfall essential nutrient that has been a mainstay of osteoporosis management. Recent and limited findings have prompted concern about the contribution of calcium supplementation to cardiovascular risk. A proposed mechanism is through the acceleration of coronary artery calcification. Determining causality between calcium intake and coronary artery calcification has been hindered by a lack of sensitive methodology to monitor early vascular calcium accumulation. The ...

  11. Fortification of all-purpose wheat-flour tortillas with calcium lactate, calcium carbonate, or calcium citrate is acceptable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchik-Cerpovicz, Joelle E; McKemie, Rebecca J

    2007-03-01

    Fortification helps provide adequate nutrients for individuals not meeting daily needs. Foods may be fortified with calcium to assist individuals with lactose intolerance and others preferring not to consume traditional forms of dairy. This study examined the quality of all-purpose wheat-flour tortillas fortified with calcium lactate, calcium carbonate, or calcium citrate. These tortillas were compared to similarly prepared nonfortified flour tortillas (control) and commercial nonfortified flour tortillas. Calcium-fortified tortillas contained 114 mg elemental calcium per standard serving (48 g tortilla), an 8.6-fold increase compared to nonfortified tortillas. Moisture contents and rollabilities of all tortillas were similar. Consumers (N=87) evaluated each tortilla in duplicate using a hedonic scale and reported liking the appearance, texture, flavor, aftertaste, and overall acceptability of all tortillas. However, the appearance of control tortillas was preferred over commercial tortillas (P<0.01), whereas the aftertaste of commercial tortillas or those fortified with calcium carbonate was preferred over the control (P<0.05). Despite these differences, consumers were equally willing to purchase both fortified and nonfortified tortillas, suggesting that appearance and aftertaste may not influence willingness to purchase. Overall, this study shows that fortification of flour tortillas with various forms of calcium is a feasible alternative calcium source.

  12. Vitamin D and calcium: what do we need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Vincent; Jiang, Xuezhi; Farukhi, Yousaf Z; Rosen, Clifford J; Schnatz, Peter F

    2013-12-01

    This chapter provides a summary of the literature including results from large trials, meta-analyses, and recent major recommendations. Two well-accepted and recent recommendations include those from the Agency for Health Research and Quality on calcium and vitamin D supplementation and from the Institute of Medicine's dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. This review suggests that there is strong evidence for synergistic roles of calcium and vitamin D in maintaining bone health in postmenopausal women, but the correlation between vitamin D alone and bone health is overall inconclusive.

  13. Assessment of vitamin D and vitamin A intake by female students at the United Arab Emirates University based on self-reported dietary and selected fortified food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laleye, Louis C; Kerkadi, Abdel Hamid; Wasesa, Abdulkadar Ah; Rao, Madduri V; Aboubacar, Adam

    2011-06-01

    In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), many adolescent girls and women (especially the UAE citizens) are not adequately exposed to sunlight and their dietary intake of vitamin D is insufficient to fulfill the required recommended daily allowance of the vitamin. In the present study, the problem of vitamin D and vitamin A insufficiency in female students of UAE University was investigated through a dietary intake assessment of the vitamins. Results indicated that over 70% of female students constituting the survey population did not consume enough milk and other vitamin-D-rich foods, and many showed poor food habits. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among the population studied indicated that 37% of the total population was considered vitamin D insufficient and 40% of the female students residing in the hostels also had vitamin D insufficiency ( food consumption.

  14. Sugar intake, soft drink consumption and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sigrid; Neate, Deborah

    2007-09-01

    We investigated associations between body mass index (BMI) and intake of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) and caloric soft drinks using weighed 7-day food records, nutrient intakes, BMI measurements and 7-day physical activity (PA) diaries from the UK National Dietary and Nutritional Survey of Young People (n=1,294 aged 7-18 years). NMES and caloric soft drinks (excluding 100% fruit juice) were quantified by their contribution to energy intake. BMI z-scores were calculated from UK reference curves and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off values were used to define overweight. The BMI z-score was weakly inversely correlated with percentage energy from NMES after adjustment for under-reporting and dieting (r=-0.06, P=0.03). The percentage of energy from soft drinks was not associated with the BMI z-score or PA. After excluding under-reporters and dieters, the heaviest children (top quintile: Q5 of BMI z-scores) consumed more total energy (+1,220 kJ/day) than those in the lowest quintile (Q1), but only 60 kJ (5%) was from soft drinks. In logistic regression (adjusted for age and gender, under-reporting, and dieting), overweight was positively associated with energy intake (MJ) (odds ratio [OR]=1.58, confidence interval [CI]=1.42-1.77) and sedentary activity (h) (OR=1.11, CI=1.01-1.23), and inversely associated with moderate/vigorous activity (h) (OR=0.71, CI=0.58-0.86). In the macronutrient model, high fat and protein intake (top tertile vs lowest tertile, g/day) were positively associated with overweight (OR>2.5, Psoft drinks were weakly associated with overweight (OR=1.39, CI=0.96-2.0, P=0.08), while other sources of NMES showed no association (OR=0.81, CI=0.52-1.27, P=0.4). Risk associated with caloric soft drinks appeared non-linear with an increase in odds only for very high consumers (top quintile, mean 870 kJ/day; OR=1.67, CI=1.04-2.66, P=0.03). These data are not consistent with any specific role for NMES or caloric soft drinks in obesity among

  15. FEMA Registration Intake and Individuals Household Program - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The dataset is composed of Registration Intake and Individuals and Households Program (IHP) Information from the Individual Assistance (IA) reporting authority where...

  16. Are we justified in suggesting change to caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drink intake in lower urinary tract disease? Report from the ICI-RS 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dudley; Hanna-Mitchell, Ann; Rantell, Angie; Thiagamoorthy, Gans; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that diet may have a significant role in the development of lower urinary tract symptoms. While fluid intake is known to affect lower urinary tract function the effects of alcohol, caffeine, carbonated drinks, and artificial sweeteners are less well understood and evidence from epidemiological studies is mixed and sometimes contradictory. The aim of this paper is to appraise the available evidence on the effect of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated drinks on lower urinary tract function and dysfunction in addition to suggesting proposals for further research. Literature review based on a systematic search strategy using the terms "fluid intake," "caffeine," "alcohol," "carbonated" and "urinary incontinence," "detrusor overactivity," "Overactive Bladder," "OAB." In addition to fluid intake, there is some evidence to support a role of caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated beverages in the pathogenesis of OAB and lower urinary tract dysfunction. Although some findings are contradictory, others clearly show an association between the ingestion of caffeine, carbonated drinks, and alcohol with symptom severity. CONCLUSIONS Given the available evidence lifestyle interventions and fluid modification may have an important role in the primary prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms. However, more research is needed to determine the precise role of caffeine, carbonated drinks, and alcohol in the pathogenesis and management of these symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate that research. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:876-881, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dairy foods, calcium, and colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, E.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Colditz, G.A.; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Potter, J.D.; Rohan, T.E.; Terry, P.; Toniolo, P.; Virtanen, M.J.; Willet, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Wu, K.; Yaun, S.-S.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Hunter, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Studies in animals have suggested that calcium may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. However, results from epidemiologic studies of intake of calcium or dairy foods and colorectal cancer risk have been inconclusive. Methods: We pooled the primary data from 10 cohort studies in five c

  18. The influence of a physician and patient intervention program on dietary intake.