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Sample records for reported auditory hallucinations

  1. Auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations constitute a phenomenologically rich group of endogenously mediated percepts which are associated with psychiatric, neurologic, otologic, and other medical conditions, but which are also experienced by 10-15% of all healthy individuals in the general population. The group of phenomena is probably best known for its verbal auditory subtype, but it also includes musical hallucinations, echo of reading, exploding-head syndrome, and many other types. The subgroup of verbal auditory hallucinations has been studied extensively with the aid of neuroimaging techniques, and from those studies emerges an outline of a functional as well as a structural network of widely distributed brain areas involved in their mediation. The present chapter provides an overview of the various types of auditory hallucination described in the literature, summarizes our current knowledge of the auditory networks involved in their mediation, and draws on ideas from the philosophy of science and network science to reconceptualize the auditory hallucinatory experience, and point out directions for future research into its neurobiologic substrates. In addition, it provides an overview of known associations with various clinical conditions and of the existing evidence for pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  3. Suicide Risk, Stress Sensitivity, and Self-Esteem among Young Adults Reporting Auditory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with subthreshold psychotic experiences are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior, similar to those with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. This may be explained by shared risk factors such as heightened stress sensitivity or low self-esteem. Understanding the nature of this relationship could inform suicide prevention in social work practice. In this study, authors examined the relationship between self-reported auditory hallucinations and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts, in a nonclinical sample of young adults, controlling for scores on the Psychological Stress Index and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Auditory hallucinations were associated with approximately double the odds of suicidal ideation and plans and four times the odds for suicide attempts. This relationship was not explained by stress sensitivity or self-esteem, which were independently related to hallucinations and suicidality, respectively. Subthreshold auditory hallucinations may be a useful indicator of suicide risk. This association may represent a clinically significant relationship that may be addressed through social work interventions intended to alleviate stress sensitivity or improve self-esteem.

  4. Reality of auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, Tuukka T; Valkonen-Korhonen, Minna; Holi, Matti; Therman, Sebastian; Lehtonen, Johannes; Hari, Riitta

    2009-11-01

    Distortion of the sense of reality, actualized in delusions and hallucinations, is the key feature of psychosis but the underlying neuronal correlates remain largely unknown. We studied 11 highly functioning subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder while they rated the reality of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjective reality of AVH correlated strongly and specifically with the hallucination-related activation strength of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), including the Broca's language region. Furthermore, how real the hallucination that subjects experienced was depended on the hallucination-related coupling between the IFG, the ventral striatum, the auditory cortex, the right posterior temporal lobe, and the cingulate cortex. Our findings suggest that the subjective reality of AVH is related to motor mechanisms of speech comprehension, with contributions from sensory and salience-detection-related brain regions as well as circuitries related to self-monitoring and the experience of agency.

  5. Threatening auditory hallucinations and Cotard syndrome in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Stewart A; Molho, Eric S

    2004-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms are commonly reported in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). In particular, patients experience nonthreatening visual hallucinations that can occur with insight (so called hallucinosis) or without. Auditory hallucinations are uncommon, and schizophrenialike symptoms such as pejorative and threatening auditory hallucinations and delusions that are persecutory, referential, somatic, religious, or grandiose have rarely been reported. The authors present 2 PD patients who experienced threatening auditory hallucinations, without visual hallucinations, and schizophrenialike delusions with detailed description of the clinical phenomenology including 1 patient with Cotard syndrome.

  6. Auditory hallucinations and PTSD in ex-POWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crompton, Laura; Lahav, Yael; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    (PTSD) symptoms, over time. Former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War (n = 99) with and without PTSD and comparable veterans (n = 103) were assessed twice, in 1991 (T1) and 2003 (T2) in regard to auditory hallucinations and PTSD symptoms. Findings indicated that ex-POWs who suffered...... from PTSD reported higher levels of auditory hallucinations at T2 as well as increased hallucinations over time, compared to ex-POWs without PTSD and combatants who did not endure captivity. The relation between PTSD and auditory hallucinations was unidirectional, so that the PTSD overall score at T1...... predicted an increase in auditory hallucinations between T1 and T2, but not vice versa. Assessing the role of PTSD clusters in predicting hallucinations revealed that intrusion symptoms had a unique contribution, compared to avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms. The findings suggest that auditory...

  7. The Study of Frequency Self Care Strategies against Auditory Hallucinations

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    Mahin Nadem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In schizophrenic clients, self-care strategies against auditory hallucinations can decrease disturbances results in hallucination. This study was aimed to assess frequency of self-care strategies against auditory hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenic patients, hospitalized in Shafa Hospital.Materials and Method: This was a descriptive study on 201 patients with paranoid schizophrenia hospitalized in psychiatry unit with convenience sampling in Rasht. The gathered data consists of two parts, first unit demographic characteristic and the second part, self- report questionnaire include 38 items about self-care strategies.Results: There were statistically significant relationship between demographic variables and knowledg effect and self-care strategies against auditory hallucinaions. Sex with phisical domain p0.07, marriage status with cognitive domain (p>0.07 and life status with behavioural domain (p>0.01. 53.2% of reported type of our auditory hallucinations were command hallucinations, furtheremore the most effective self-care strategies against auditory hallucinations were from physical domain and substance abuse (82.1% was the most effective strategies in this domain.Conclusion: The client with paranoid schizophrenia used more than physical domain strategies against auditory hallucinaions and this result highlight need those to approprait nursing intervention. Instruction and leading about selection the effective self-care strategies against auditory ha

  8. Simulating Auditory Hallucinations in a Video Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinel, Jonathan; Cunningham, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    In previous work the authors have proposed the concept of 'ASC Simulations': including audio-visual installations and experiences, as well as interactive video game systems, which simulate altered states of consciousness (ASCs) such as dreams and hallucinations. Building on the discussion...... of the authors' previous paper, where a large-scale qualitative study explored the changes to auditory perception that users of various intoxicating substances report, here the authors present three prototype audio mechanisms for simulating hallucinations in a video game. These were designed in the Unity video...... that make up the player character, and in future developments of this type of work we foresee a more advanced, standardised interface that models the senses, emotions and state of consciousness of player avatars....

  9. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, N.; Hayward, M.; Peters, E; van der Gaag, M.; Bentall, R.P.; Jenner, J.; Strauss, C.; Sommer, I.E.; Johns, L.C.; Varese, F.; Gracia-Montes, J.M.; Waters, F.; Dodgson, G.; McCarthy-Jones, S.

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions,

  10. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-06-14

    who use mobile phones, and those experiencing more distress, were reportedly more open to using Facebook as a support and/or therapeutic tool in the future. Facebook advertisements can be used to recruit research participants who experience auditory hallucinations quickly and in a cost-effective manner. Most (58%) Web-based respondents are open to Facebook-based support and treatment and are willing to describe their subjective experiences with auditory hallucinations.

  11. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    auditory hallucinations. Women, people who use mobile phones, and those experiencing more distress, were reportedly more open to using Facebook as a support and/or therapeutic tool in the future. Conclusions Facebook advertisements can be used to recruit research participants who experience auditory hallucinations quickly and in a cost-effective manner. Most (58%) Web-based respondents are open to Facebook-based support and treatment and are willing to describe their subjective experiences with auditory hallucinations. PMID:27302017

  12. Musical Hallucinations and Schizophrenia: Case Report

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    Catarina Klut

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Musical hallucinations are a type of complex auditory hallucinations. They are a relatively rare and etiologically heterogeneous phenomenon. Their major causes are deafness, organic brain disease, epilepsy and psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. Based on a clinical case report the authors aim to review and discuss the etiology and psychopathology of musical hallucinations. It seems to be an under recognized phenomenon that, if systematically inquired, may enable a better understanding and characterization of the patient ́s clinical picture.

  13. Musical Hallucinations and Schizophrenia: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina Klut; Salomé Xavier; João Graça; Graça Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Musical hallucinations are a type of complex auditory hallucinations. They are a relatively rare and etiologically heterogeneous phenomenon. Their major causes are deafness, organic brain disease, epilepsy and psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia. Based on a clinical case report the authors aim to review and discuss the etiology and psychopathology of musical hallucinations. It seems to be an under recognized phenomenon that, if systematically inquired, may enable a better understand...

  14. Verbal working memory deficits predict levels of auditory hallucination in first-episode psychosis.

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    Gisselgård, Jens; Anda, Liss Gøril; Brønnick, Kolbjørn; Langeveld, Johannes; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Larsen, Tor Ketil

    2014-03-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia. Recent causal models of auditory verbal hallucinations propose that cognitive mechanisms involving verbal working memory are involved in the genesis of auditory verbal hallucinations. Thus, in the present study, we investigate the hypothesis that verbal working memory is a specific factor behind auditory verbal hallucinations. In the present study, we investigated the association between verbal working memory manipulation (Backward Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing) and auditory verbal hallucinations in a population study (N=52) of first episode psychosis. The degree of auditory verbal hallucination as reported in the P3-subscale of the PANSS interview was included as dependent variable using sequential multiple regression, while controlling for age, psychosis symptom severity, executive cognitive functions and simple auditory working memory span. Multiple sequential regression analyses revealed verbal working memory manipulation to be the only significant predictor of verbal hallucination severity. Consistent with cognitive data from auditory verbal hallucinations in healthy individuals, the present results suggest a specific association between auditory verbal hallucinations, and cognitive processes involving the manipulation of phonological representations during a verbal working memory task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oscillatory Cortical Network Involved in Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lutterveld, R.; Hillebrand, A.; Diederen, K.M.J.; Daalman, K.; Kahn, R.S.; Stam, C.J.; Sommer, I.E.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), a prominent symptom of schizophrenia, are often highly distressing for patients. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of hallucinations could increase therapeutic options. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides direct measures of neuronal activity

  16. Auditory verbal hallucinations predominantly activate the right inferior frontal area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Iris E. C.; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Blom, Jan-Dirk; Willems, Anne; Kushan, Leila; Slotema, Karin; Boks, Marco P. M.; Daalman, Kirstin; Hoek, Hans W.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Kahn, Rene S.

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) is largely unknown. Several functional imaging studies have measured cerebral activation during these hallucinations, but sample sizes were relatively small (one to eight subjects) and findings inconsistent. In this study cerebral

  17. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging...

  18. Online Methods of Managing Auditory Hallucinations: A New Trend to Understand Psychopathology.

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    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2017-01-01

    Treatment seekers use various coping methods to reduce the distress associated with auditory hallucinations. With the increase use of technology, the technology means are also in use to manage the auditory hallucination. The current report documents the implications of technology means for the management of auditory hallucinations. The user was assessed using clinical interview, internet addiction test, problematic online gaming questionnaire, and screening questions for technology addiction. It showed the use of technology to manage the auditory hallucinations. Psychotherapy work revealed a reduction in their use of technology means at follow-up. It implies to evolve the therapeutic use of technology means and development of alternative therapeutic means to manage the auditory hallucinations.

  19. Internal versus External Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: Symptom and Course Correlates

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    Docherty, Nancy M.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; McCleery, Amanda; Bell, Emily K.; Shakeel, Mohammed K.; Moe, Aubrey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The auditory hallucinations associated with schizophrenia are phenomenologically diverse. “External” hallucinations classically have been considered to reflect more severe psychopathology than “internal” hallucinations, but empirical support has been equivocal. Methods We examined associations of “internal” v. “external” hallucinations with (a) other characteristics of the hallucinations, (b) severity of other symptoms, and (c) course of illness variables, in a sample of 97 stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who experienced auditory hallucinations. Results Patients with internal hallucinations did not differ from those with external hallucinations on severity of other symptoms. However, they reported their hallucinations to be more emotionally negative, distressing, and long-lasting, less controllable, and less likely to remit over time. They also were more likely to experience voices commenting, conversing, or commanding. However, they also were more likely to have insight into the self-generated nature of their voices. Patients with internal hallucinations were not older, but had a later age of illness onset. Conclusions Differences in characteristics of auditory hallucinations are associated with differences in other characteristics of the disorder, and hence may be relevant to identifying subgroups of patients that are more homogeneous with respect to their underlying disease processes. PMID:25530157

  20. Treatment of Alice in Wonderland Syndrome and Verbal Auditory Hallucinations Using Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation : A Case Report with fMRI Findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Jan Dirk; Looijestijn, Jasper; Goekoop, Rutger; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Rijkaart, Anne-Marije; Slotema, Christina W.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare cluster of CNS symptoms characterized by visual distortions (i.e. metamorphopsias), body image distortions, time distortions, and deja experiences. Verbal auditory hallucinations (VAHs) are the most prevalent type of hallucination in adults

  1. Diminished auditory sensory gating during active auditory verbal hallucinations.

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    Thoma, Robert J; Meier, Andrew; Houck, Jon; Clark, Vincent P; Lewine, Jeffrey D; Turner, Jessica; Calhoun, Vince; Stephen, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Auditory sensory gating, assessed in a paired-click paradigm, indicates the extent to which incoming stimuli are filtered, or "gated", in auditory cortex. Gating is typically computed as the ratio of the peak amplitude of the event related potential (ERP) to a second click (S2) divided by the peak amplitude of the ERP to a first click (S1). Higher gating ratios are purportedly indicative of incomplete suppression of S2 and considered to represent sensory processing dysfunction. In schizophrenia, hallucination severity is positively correlated with gating ratios, and it was hypothesized that a failure of sensory control processes early in auditory sensation (gating) may represent a larger system failure within the auditory data stream; resulting in auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). EEG data were collected while patients (N=12) with treatment-resistant AVH pressed a button to indicate the beginning (AVH-on) and end (AVH-off) of each AVH during a paired click protocol. For each participant, separate gating ratios were computed for the P50, N100, and P200 components for each of the AVH-off and AVH-on states. AVH trait severity was assessed using the Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scales AVH Total score (PSYRATS). The results of a mixed model ANOVA revealed an overall effect for AVH state, such that gating ratios were significantly higher during the AVH-on state than during AVH-off for all three components. PSYRATS score was significantly and negatively correlated with N100 gating ratio only in the AVH-off state. These findings link onset of AVH with a failure of an empirically-defined auditory inhibition system, auditory sensory gating, and pave the way for a sensory gating model of AVH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A.A.; Jenner, J.A.; van de Willige, G.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    Background Hearing voices occurs in middle childhood, but little is known about prevalence, aetiology and immediate consequences. Aims To investigate prevalence, developmental risk factors and behavioural correlates of auditory vocal hallucinations in 7- and 8-year-olds. Method Auditory vocal

  3. Auditory hallucinations: A review of the ERC "VOICE" project.

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    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2015-06-22

    In this invited review I provide a selective overview of recent research on brain mechanisms and cognitive processes involved in auditory hallucinations. The review is focused on research carried out in the "VOICE" ERC Advanced Grant Project, funded by the European Research Council, but I also review and discuss the literature in general. Auditory hallucinations are suggested to be perceptual phenomena, with a neuronal origin in the speech perception areas in the temporal lobe. The phenomenology of auditory hallucinations is conceptualized along three domains, or dimensions; a perceptual dimension, experienced as someone speaking to the patient; a cognitive dimension, experienced as an inability to inhibit, or ignore the voices, and an emotional dimension, experienced as the "voices" having primarily a negative, or sinister, emotional tone. I will review cognitive, imaging, and neurochemistry data related to these dimensions, primarily the first two. The reviewed data are summarized in a model that sees auditory hallucinations as initiated from temporal lobe neuronal hyper-activation that draws attentional focus inward, and which is not inhibited due to frontal lobe hypo-activation. It is further suggested that this is maintained through abnormal glutamate and possibly gamma-amino-butyric-acid transmitter mediation, which could point towards new pathways for pharmacological treatment. A final section discusses new methods of acquiring quantitative data on the phenomenology and subjective experience of auditory hallucination that goes beyond standard interview questionnaires, by suggesting an iPhone/iPod app.

  4. Resting-state functional connectivity in medication-naïve schizophrenia patients with and without auditory verbal hallucinations : A preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Xiao; Collin, Guusje; Xi, Yibin; Cui, Longbiao; Scholtens, Lianne H.; Sommer, Iris E.; Wang, Huaning; Yin, Hong; Kahn, René S.; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.

    2017-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a cardinal feature of schizophrenia that has been associated with activation in language processing areas, in concert with higher-order cognitive brain networks. It remains to be determined whether, and if so how, the functional dynamics between these brain

  5. Use of media technology to enhance the learning of student nurses in regards to auditory hallucinations.

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    Mawson, Kerry

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if simulation aided by media technology contributes towards an increase in knowledge, empathy, and a change in attitudes in regards to auditory hallucinations for nursing students. A convenience sample of 60 second-year undergraduate nursing students from an Australian university was invited to be part of the study. A pre-post-test design was used, with data analysed using a paired samples t-test to identify pre- and post-changes on nursing students' scores on knowledge of auditory hallucinations. Nine of the 11 questions reported statistically-significant results. The remaining two questions highlighted knowledge embedded within the curriculum, with therapeutic communication being the core work of mental health nursing. The implications for practice are that simulation aided by media technology increases the knowledge of students in regards to auditory hallucinations. © 2013 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation as a treatment for auditory hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Sanne; van den Brink, Hilde; Sommer, Iris E C

    2015-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are a symptom of several psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. In a significant minority of patients, AH are resistant to antipsychotic medication. Alternative treatment options for this medication resistant group are scarce and most of them focus on coping with

  7. Auditory Hallucinations in Polyglots | Hemphill | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients' mental performance was relatively better when the non-home language was used. In the psychosis of toxic, drug, and organic origin and in epilepsy, hallucinations may be multilingual, in contrast to schizophrenia. This is of value in differential diagnosis. A case of paranoid psychosis in which a White man had ...

  8. The Neurophysiology of Auditory Hallucinations – A Historic and Contemporary Review

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    Remko evan Lutterveld

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG are two techniques that distinguish themselves from other neuroimaging methodologies through their ability to directly measure brain-related activity and their high temporal resolution. A large body of research has applied these techniques to study auditory hallucinations. Across a variety of approaches, the left superior temporal cortex is consistently reported to be involved in this symptom. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that a failure in corollary discharge, i.e. a neural signal originating in frontal speech areas that indicates to sensory areas that forthcoming thought is self-generated, may underlie the experience of auditory hallucinations

  9. Hearing voices: does it give your patient a headache? A case of auditory hallucinations as acoustic aura in migraine

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    Van der Feltz-Cornelis CM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis1–3, Henk Biemans1, Jan Timmer11Clinical Centre for Body, Mind and Health, GGz Breburg, Tilburg, The Netherlands; 2Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands; 3Trimbos Instituut, Utrecht, The NetherlandsObjective: Auditory hallucinations are generally considered to be a psychotic symptom. However, they do occur without other psychotic symptoms in a substantive number of cases in the general population and can cause a lot of individual distress because of the supposed association with schizophrenia. We describe a case of nonpsychotic auditory hallucinations occurring in the context of migraine.Method: Case report and literature review.Results: A 40-year-old man presented with imperative auditory hallucinations that caused depressive and anxiety symptoms. He reported migraine with visual aura as well which started at the same time as the auditory hallucinations. The auditory hallucinations occurred in the context of nocturnal migraine attacks, preceding them as aura. No psychotic disorder was present. After treatment of the migraine with propranolol 40 mg twice daily, explanation of the etiology of the hallucinations, and mirtazapine 45 mg daily, the migraine subsided and no further hallucinations occurred. The patient recovered.Discussion: Visual auras have been described in migraine and occur quite often. Auditory hallucinations as aura in migraine have been described in children without psychosis, but this is the first case describing auditory hallucinations without psychosis as aura in migraine in an adult. For description of this kind of hallucination, DSM-IV lacks an appropriate category.Conclusion: Psychiatrists should consider migraine with acoustic aura as a possible etiological factor in patients without further psychotic symptoms presenting with auditory hallucinations, and they should ask for headache symptoms when they take the history. Prognosis may be

  10. Auditory Hallucinations and the Brain’s Resting-State Networks: Findings and Methodological Observations

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    Alderson-Day, Ben; Diederen, Kelly; Fernyhough, Charles; Ford, Judith M.; Horga, Guillermo; Margulies, Daniel S.; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Northoff, Georg; Shine, James M.; Turner, Jessica; van de Ven, Vincent; van Lutterveld, Remko; Waters, Flavie; Jardri, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the potential for alterations to the brain’s resting-state networks (RSNs) to explain various kinds of psychopathology. RSNs provide an intriguing new explanatory framework for hallucinations, which can occur in different modalities and population groups, but which remain poorly understood. This collaboration from the International Consortium on Hallucination Research (ICHR) reports on the evidence linking resting-state alterations to auditory hallucinations (AH) and provides a critical appraisal of the methodological approaches used in this area. In the report, we describe findings from resting connectivity fMRI in AH (in schizophrenia and nonclinical individuals) and compare them with findings from neurophysiological research, structural MRI, and research on visual hallucinations (VH). In AH, various studies show resting connectivity differences in left-hemisphere auditory and language regions, as well as atypical interaction of the default mode network and RSNs linked to cognitive control and salience. As the latter are also evident in studies of VH, this points to a domain-general mechanism for hallucinations alongside modality-specific changes to RSNs in different sensory regions. However, we also observed high methodological heterogeneity in the current literature, affecting the ability to make clear comparisons between studies. To address this, we provide some methodological recommendations and options for future research on the resting state and hallucinations. PMID:27280452

  11. Auditory Hallucinations as Translational Psychiatry: Evidence from Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2017-12-01

    In this invited review article, I present a translational perspective and overview of our research on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia at the University of Bergen, Norway, with a focus on the neuronal mechanisms underlying the phenomenology of experiencing "hearing voices". An auditory verbal hallucination (i.e. hearing a voice) is defined as a sensory experience in the absence of a corresponding external sensory source that could explain the phenomenological experience. I suggest a general frame or scheme for the study of auditory verbal hallucinations, called Levels of Explanation. Using a Levels of Explanation approach, mental phenomena can be described and explained at different levels (cultural, clinical, cognitive, brain-imaging, cellular and molecular). Another way of saying this is that, to advance knowledge in a research field, it is not only necessary to replicate findings, but also to show how evidence obtained with one method, and at one level of explanation, converges with evidence obtained with another method at another level. To achieve breakthroughs in our understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations, we have to advance vertically through the various levels, rather than the more common approach of staying at our favourite level and advancing horizontally (e.g., more advanced techniques and data acquisition analyses). The horizontal expansion will, however, not advance a deeper understanding of how an auditory verbal hallucination spontaneously starts and stops. Finally, I present data from the clinical, cognitive, brain-imaging, and cellular levels, where data from one level validate and support data at another level, called converging of evidence. Using a translational approach, the current status of auditory verbal hallucinations is that they implicate speech perception areas in the left temporal lobe, impairing perception of and attention to external sounds. Preliminary results also show that amygdala is implicated in the emotional

  12. Auditory Hallucinations as Translational Psychiatry: Evidence from Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hugdahl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this invited review article, I present a translational perspective and overview of our research on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia at the University of Bergen, Norway, with a focus on the neuronal mechanisms underlying the phenomenology of experiencing "hearing voices". An auditory verbal hallucination (i.e. hearing a voice is defined as a sensory experience in the absence of a corresponding external sensory source that could explain the phenomenological experience. I suggest a general frame or scheme for the study of auditory verbal hallucinations, called Levels of Explanation. Using a Levels of Explanation approach, mental phenomena can be described and explained at different levels (cultural, clinical, cognitive, brain-imaging, cellular and molecular. Another way of saying this is that, to advance knowledge in a research field, it is not only necessary to replicate findings, but also to show how evidence obtained with one method, and at one level of explanation, converges with evidence obtained with another method at another level. To achieve breakthroughs in our understanding of auditory verbal hallucinations, we have to advance vertically through the various levels, rather than the more common approach of staying at our favourite level and advancing horizontally (e.g., more advanced techniques and data acquisition analyses. The horizontal expansion will, however, not advance a deeper understanding of how an auditory verbal hallucination spontaneously starts and stops. Finally, I present data from the clinical, cognitive, brain-imaging, and cellular levels, where data from one level validate and support data at another level, called converging of evidence. Using a translational approach, the current status of auditory verbal hallucinations is that they implicate speech perception areas in the left temporal lobe, impairing perception of and attention to external sounds. Preliminary results also show that amygdala is implicated in

  13. Neuropsychopharmacology of auditory hallucinations: insights from pharmacological functional MRI and perspectives for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Erik; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Kroken, Rune A; Kompus, Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    Experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations is a prominent symptom in schizophrenia that also occurs in subjects at enhanced risk for psychosis and in the general population. Drug treatment of auditory hallucinations is challenging, because the current understanding is limited with respect to the neural mechanisms involved, as well as how CNS drugs, such as antipsychotics, influence the subjective experience and neurophysiology of hallucinations. In this article, the authors review studies of the effect of antipsychotic medication on brain activation as measured with functional MRI in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations. First, the authors examine the neural correlates of ongoing auditory hallucinations. Then, the authors critically discuss studies addressing the antipsychotic effect on the neural correlates of complex cognitive tasks. Current evidence suggests that blood oxygen level-dependant effects of antipsychotic drugs reflect specific, regional effects but studies on the neuropharmacology of auditory hallucinations are scarce. Future directions for pharmacological neuroimaging of auditory hallucinations are discussed.

  14. Improvement of auditory hallucinations and reduction of primary auditory area's activation following TMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, Frederik L.; Mehndiratta, Amit; Hempel, Albrecht; Hempel, Eckhard; Kress, Kai R.; Essig, Marco; Schröder, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the present case study, improvement of auditory hallucinations following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) therapy was investigated with respect to activation changes of the auditory cortices. Methods: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), activation of the auditory cortices was assessed prior to and after a 4-week TMS series of the left superior temporal gyrus in a schizophrenic patient with medication-resistant auditory hallucinations. Results: Hallucinations decreased slightly after the third and profoundly after the fourth week of TMS. Activation in the primary auditory area decreased, whereas activation in the operculum and insula remained stable. Conclusions: Combination of TMS and repetitive fMRI is promising to elucidate the physiological changes induced by TMS.

  15. MR and genetics in schizophrenia: Focus on auditory hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Eduardo Jesus; Sanjuan, Julio; Garcia-Marti, Gracian; Lull, Juan Jose; Robles, Montserrat

    2008-01-01

    Although many structural and functional abnormalities have been related to schizophrenia, until now, no single biological marker has been of diagnostic clinical utility. One way to obtain more valid findings is to focus on the symptoms instead of the syndrome. Auditory hallucinations (AHs) are one of the most frequent and reliable symptoms of psychosis. We present a review of our main findings, using a multidisciplinary approach, on auditory hallucinations. Firstly, by applying a new auditory emotional paradigm specific for psychosis, we found an enhanced activation of limbic and frontal brain areas in response to emotional words in these patients. Secondly, in a voxel-based morphometric study, we obtained a significant decreased gray matter concentration in the insula (bilateral), superior temporal gyrus (bilateral), and amygdala (left) in patients compared to healthy subjects. This gray matter loss was directly related to the intensity of AH. Thirdly, using a new method for looking at areas of coincidence between gray matter loss and functional activation, large coinciding brain clusters were found in the left and right middle temporal and superior temporal gyri. Finally, we summarized our main findings from our studies of the molecular genetics of auditory hallucinations. Taking these data together, an integrative model to explain the neurobiological basis of this psychotic symptom is presented

  16. MR and genetics in schizophrenia: Focus on auditory hallucinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Eduardo Jesus [Psychiatric Service, Clinic University Hospital, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: eduardoj.aguilar@gmail.com; Sanjuan, Julio [Psychiatric Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Valencia University, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Marti, Gracian [Department of Radiology, Hospital Quiron, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 14, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Lull, Juan Jose; Robles, Montserrat [ITACA Institute, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    Although many structural and functional abnormalities have been related to schizophrenia, until now, no single biological marker has been of diagnostic clinical utility. One way to obtain more valid findings is to focus on the symptoms instead of the syndrome. Auditory hallucinations (AHs) are one of the most frequent and reliable symptoms of psychosis. We present a review of our main findings, using a multidisciplinary approach, on auditory hallucinations. Firstly, by applying a new auditory emotional paradigm specific for psychosis, we found an enhanced activation of limbic and frontal brain areas in response to emotional words in these patients. Secondly, in a voxel-based morphometric study, we obtained a significant decreased gray matter concentration in the insula (bilateral), superior temporal gyrus (bilateral), and amygdala (left) in patients compared to healthy subjects. This gray matter loss was directly related to the intensity of AH. Thirdly, using a new method for looking at areas of coincidence between gray matter loss and functional activation, large coinciding brain clusters were found in the left and right middle temporal and superior temporal gyri. Finally, we summarized our main findings from our studies of the molecular genetics of auditory hallucinations. Taking these data together, an integrative model to explain the neurobiological basis of this psychotic symptom is presented.

  17. Suicidality and hospitalisation in patients with borderline personality disorder who experience auditory verbal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, C. W.; Niemantsverdriet, Ellis; Blom, J. D.; van der Gaag, M.; Hoek, H. W.; Sommer, I. E. C.

    Background: In patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), about 22-50% experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, the impact of these hallucinations on suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, crisis-service interventions, and hospital admissions is unknown. Methods: In a

  18. Interaction of language, auditory and memory brain networks in auditory verbal hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, Branislava; Ford, Judith M.; Hubl, Daniela; Orlov, Natasza D.; Sommer, Iris E.; Waters, Flavie; Allen, Paul; Jardri, Renaud; Woodruff, Peter W.; David, Olivier; Mulert, Christoph; Woodward, Todd S.; Aleman, Andre

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of

  19. Functional studies of the human auditory cortex, auditory memory and musical hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goycoolea, Marcos; Mena, Ismael; Neubauer, Sonia

    2004-01-01

    of Brodmann, more intense in the contralateral (right) side. There is activation of both frontal executive areas without lateralization. Simultaneously, while area 39 of Brodmann was being activated, the temporal lobe was being inhibited. This seemingly not previously reported functional observation is suggestive that also inhibitory and not only excitatory relays play a role in the auditory pathways. The central activity in our patient (without external auditory stimuli) -who was tested while having musical hallucinations- was a mirror image of that of our normal stimulated volunteers. It is suggested that the trigger role of the inner ear -if any- could conceivably be inhibitory, desinhibitory and not necessarily purely excitatory. Based on our observations the trigger effect in our patient, could occur via the left ear. Finally, our functional studies are suggestive that auditory memory for musical perceptions could be seemingly located in the right area 39 of Brodmann (Au)

  20. Self-recognition Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients With Auditory Hallucinations : A Meta-analysis of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, Flavie; Woodward, Todd; Allen, Paul; Aleman, Andre; Sommers, Iris

    Theories about auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia suggest that these experiences occur because patients fail to recognize thoughts and mental events as self-generated. Different theoretical models have been proposed about the cognitive mechanisms underlying auditory hallucinations. Regardless

  1. Lilliputian hallucinations in Schizophrenia: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCIENTIFIC LETTER | http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v15i5.37. Afr J Psychiatry 2012 ... Her illness was characterized by auditory hallucinations of commenting and ... Further research should focus on firstly, developing an understanding of the ...

  2. Auditory hallucinations in adults with hearing impairment: a large prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linszen, M M J; van Zanten, G A; Teunisse, R J; Brouwer, R M; Scheltens, P; Sommer, I E

    2018-03-20

    Similar to visual hallucinations in visually impaired patients, auditory hallucinations are often suggested to occur in adults with hearing impairment. However, research on this association is limited. This observational, cross-sectional study tested whether auditory hallucinations are associated with hearing impairment, by assessing their prevalence in an adult population with various degrees of objectified hearing impairment. Hallucination presence was determined in 1007 subjects aged 18-92, who were referred for audiometric testing to the Department of ENT-Audiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands. The presence and severity of hearing impairment were calculated using mean air conduction thresholds from the most recent pure tone audiometry. Out of 829 participants with hearing impairment, 16.2% (n = 134) had experienced auditory hallucinations in the past 4 weeks; significantly more than the non-impaired group [5.8%; n = 10/173; p impairment, with rates up to 24% in the most profoundly impaired group (p impairment in the best ear. Auditory hallucinations mostly consisted of voices (51%), music (36%), and doorbells or telephones (24%). Our findings reveal that auditory hallucinations are common among patients with hearing impairment, and increase with impairment severity. Although more research on potential confounding factors is necessary, clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon, by inquiring after hallucinations in hearing-impaired patients and, conversely, assessing hearing impairment in patients with auditory hallucinations, since it may be a treatable factor.

  3. Left auditory cortex gamma synchronization and auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenton Martha E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oscillatory electroencephalogram (EEG abnormalities may reflect neural circuit dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. Previously we have found positive correlations between the phase synchronization of beta and gamma oscillations and hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that the propensity for hallucinations is associated with an increased tendency for neural circuits in sensory cortex to enter states of oscillatory synchrony. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining whether the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR generated in the left primary auditory cortex is positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms in schizophrenia. We also examined whether the 40 Hz ASSR deficit in schizophrenia was associated with cross-frequency interactions. Sixteen healthy control subjects (HC and 18 chronic schizophrenia patients (SZ listened to 40 Hz binaural click trains. The EEG was recorded from 60 electrodes and average-referenced offline. A 5-dipole model was fit from the HC grand average ASSR, with 2 pairs of superior temporal dipoles and a deep midline dipole. Time-frequency decomposition was performed on the scalp EEG and source data. Results Phase locking factor (PLF and evoked power were reduced in SZ at fronto-central electrodes, replicating prior findings. PLF was reduced in SZ for non-homologous right and left hemisphere sources. Left hemisphere source PLF in SZ was positively correlated with auditory hallucination symptoms, and was modulated by delta phase. Furthermore, the correlations between source evoked power and PLF found in HC was reduced in SZ for the LH sources. Conclusion These findings suggest that differential neural circuit abnormalities may be present in the left and right auditory cortices in schizophrenia. In addition, they provide further support for the hypothesis that hallucinations are related to cortical hyperexcitability, which is manifested by

  4. Auditory verbal hallucinations and cognitive functioning in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daalman, Kirstin; van Zandvoort, Martine; Bootsman, Florian; Boks, Marco; Kahn, René; Sommer, Iris

    2011-11-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute a predisposition for AVH. However, it is difficult to disentangle a specific relation with AVH in patients with schizophrenia, as so many other factors can affect the performance on cognitive tests. Examining the cognitive profile of healthy individuals experiencing AVH may reveal a more direct association between AVH and aberrant cognitive functioning in a specific domain. For the current study, performance in executive functioning, memory (both short- and long-term), processing speed, spatial ability, lexical access, abstract reasoning, language and intelligence performance was compared between 101 healthy individuals with AVH and 101 healthy controls, matched for gender, age, handedness and education. Although performance of both groups was within the normal range, not clinically impaired, significant differences between the groups were found in the verbal domain as well as in executive functioning. Performance on all other cognitive domains was similar in both groups. The predisposition to experience AVH is associated with lower performance in executive functioning and aberrant language performance. This association might be related to difficulties in the inhibition of irrelevant verbal information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated Voriconazole Level Associated With Hallucinations and Suicidal Ideation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jeffrey W; Sen, Sumon K; Moenster, Ryan P

    2017-01-01

    Voriconazole, a broad-spectrum antifungal, has been associated with visual and auditory hallucinations. We report the case of patient being treated with voriconazole for pulmonary aspergillosis who developed visual hallucinations and new suicidal ideation with plan. Voriconazole troughs were supratherapeutic (9.0 mcg/mL) and the patient was positive for the CYP2C19*1/*2 allele.

  6. Do auditory verbal hallucinations have always aclinical significance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Rabe-Jabłońska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs across the life span in various clinical and nonclinical groups in childhood, adolescence, and adult populations. Data on the occurrence of this phenomenon in the general population vary and usually are in the range of 5–28%. The prevalence of non-clinical AVHs is similar in childhood, ado‑ lescence and adulthood. It seems possible that the mechanisms which cause AVHs in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVHs presentations in psychotic illness. In this paper the characteristics of differentiating clini‑ cal forms of hallucinations from the non-clinical ones are discussed. These are: the location of sensations, their content, inhibition control disorders, metacognitive disorders, emotional dysregulation, stress level, and their influence on functioning dis‑ orders. Considered as  etiological factors are abnormal activities of  some areas of  the brain and abnormal pruning. The triggering factors of both types of perception disorders are traumatic events and psychoactive substances use. Long-term studies have shown that the factors which lead to the transformation of non-clinical hallucinations into their clinical forms are: genetic predisposition, schizotypy, at-risk mental state, and stress. The future research needs to focus on the comparison of underlying factors and mechanisms that lead to the onset of AVHs in both patients and non-clinical populations.

  7. Association of auditory-verbal and visual hallucinations with impaired and improved recognition of colored pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Usall, Judith; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Perez del Olmo, Mireia; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Haro, Josep Maria; Ochoa, Susana

    2015-09-01

    A number of cognitive underpinnings of auditory hallucinations have been established in schizophrenia patients, but few have, as yet, been uncovered for visual hallucinations. In previous research, we unexpectedly observed that auditory hallucinations were associated with poor recognition of color, but not black-and-white (b/w), pictures. In this study, we attempted to replicate and explain this finding. Potential associations with visual hallucinations were explored. B/w and color pictures were presented to 50 schizophrenia patients and 45 healthy individuals under 2 conditions of visual context presentation corresponding to 2 levels of visual encoding complexity. Then, participants had to recognize the target pictures among distractors. Auditory-verbal hallucinations were inversely associated with the recognition of the color pictures presented under the most effortful encoding condition. This association was fully mediated by working-memory span. Visual hallucinations were associated with improved recognition of the color pictures presented under the less effortful condition. Patients suffering from visual hallucinations were not impaired, relative to the healthy participants, in the recognition of these pictures. Decreased working-memory span in patients with auditory-verbal hallucinations might impede the effortful encoding of stimuli. Visual hallucinations might be associated with facilitation in the visual encoding of natural scenes, or with enhanced color perception abilities. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation as a treatment for auditory hallucinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne eKoops

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations (AH are a symptom of several psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. In a significant minority of patients, AH are resistant to antipsychotic medication. Alternative treatment options for this medication-resistant group are scarce and most of them focus on coping with the hallucinations. Finding an alternative treatment that can diminish AH is of great importance.Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe and non-invasive technique that is able to directly influence cortical excitability through the application of very low electric currents. A 1-2 mA direct current is applied between two surface electrodes, one serving as the anode and the other as the cathode. Cortical excitability is increased in the vicinity of the anode and reduced near the cathode. The technique, which has only a few transient side effects and is cheap and portable, is increasingly explored as a treatment for neurological and psychiatric symptoms. It has shown efficacy on symptoms of depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy and stroke. However, the application of tDCS as a treatment for AH is relatively new. This article provides an overview of the current knowledge in this field and provides guidelines for future research.

  9. Oscillatory cortical network involved in auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko van Lutterveld

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH, a prominent symptom of schizophrenia, are often highly distressing for patients. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of hallucinations could increase therapeutic options. Magnetoencephalography (MEG provides direct measures of neuronal activity and has an excellent temporal resolution, offering a unique opportunity to study AVH pathophysiology.Twelve patients (10 paranoid schizophrenia, 2 psychosis not otherwise specified indicated the presence of AVH by button-press while lying in a MEG scanner. As a control condition, patients performed a self-paced button-press task. AVH-state and non-AVH state were contrasted in a region-of-interest (ROI approach. In addition, the two seconds before AVH onset were contrasted with the two seconds after AVH onset to elucidate a possible triggering mechanism.AVH correlated with a decrease in beta-band power in the left temporal cortex. A decrease in alpha-band power was observed in the right inferior frontal gyrus. AVH onset was related to a decrease in theta-band power in the right hippocampus.These results suggest that AVH are triggered by a short aberration in the theta band in a memory-related structure, followed by activity in language areas accompanying the experience of AVH itself.

  10. Brazilian National Anthem presenting as musical hallucination: A case report with 9-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Musical hallucination is a type of complex auditory hallucination. Possible etiologies are deafness, psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, use of medication and stress, besides neurologic diseases including epilepsy, stroke and cancer. Uncommon etiologies encompass infectious diseases, metabolic disorders, and sensory deprivation. Although musical hallucinations have a major impact on patients' lives, they have been undervalued and understudied in the literature. We report a case of a 79-year-old woman with musical hallucination (hearing a sung National anthem without cognitive impairment or hearing loss. The patient had preserved insight of her complaint and responded well to neuroleptics.

  11. Interaction of language, auditory and memory brain networks in auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Ford, Judith M; Hubl, Daniela; Orlov, Natasza D; Sommer, Iris E; Waters, Flavie; Allen, Paul; Jardri, Renaud; Woodruff, Peter W; David, Olivier; Mulert, Christoph; Woodward, Todd S; Aleman, André

    2017-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) occur in psychotic disorders, but also as a symptom of other conditions and even in healthy people. Several current theories on the origin of AVH converge, with neuroimaging studies suggesting that the language, auditory and memory/limbic networks are of particular relevance. However, reconciliation of these theories with experimental evidence is missing. We review 50 studies investigating functional (EEG and fMRI) and anatomic (diffusion tensor imaging) connectivity in these networks, and explore the evidence supporting abnormal connectivity in these networks associated with AVH. We distinguish between functional connectivity during an actual hallucination experience (symptom capture) and functional connectivity during either the resting state or a task comparing individuals who hallucinate with those who do not (symptom association studies). Symptom capture studies clearly reveal a pattern of increased coupling among the auditory, language and striatal regions. Anatomical and symptom association functional studies suggest that the interhemispheric connectivity between posterior auditory regions may depend on the phase of illness, with increases in non-psychotic individuals and first episode patients and decreases in chronic patients. Leading hypotheses involving concepts as unstable memories, source monitoring, top-down attention, and hybrid models of hallucinations are supported in part by the published connectivity data, although several caveats and inconsistencies remain. Specifically, possible changes in fronto-temporal connectivity are still under debate. Precise hypotheses concerning the directionality of connections deduced from current theoretical approaches should be tested using experimental approaches that allow for discrimination of competing hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive insight and objective quality of life in people with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Ruchika; Luhrmann, Tanya M; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N

    2018-01-01

    Poor cognitive insight in schizophrenia has been linked to delusions, hallucinations, and negative symptoms as well as to depressive/anxiety symptoms. Its impact on quality of life has been less studied, especially in schizophrenia subjects with ongoing auditory hallucinations. The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS) were administered to subjects who met DSM IV criteria for schizophrenia after due translation and validation. All subjects reported ongoing auditory hallucinations at recruitment. Mean composite cognitive insight scores from participants (N = 60) (2.97 ± 2.649) were in the lower range as compared to published literature. Cognitive insight scores as well as self-reflectiveness subscale scores, but not self-certainty scores, correlated significantly with the QLS scores p insight, especially self-reflectiveness, may be linked to better quality of life. Self-reflectiveness could be a useful construct to address in psychotherapy to improve rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of the HIT programme in patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stant, AD; TenVergert, EM; Groen, H; Jenner, JA; Nienhuis, FJ; van de Willige, G; Wiersma, D

    Objective: To examine the cost-effectiveness of Hallucination focused Integrative Treatment (HIT) in patients with schizophrenia and a history of persistent auditory hallucinations. Method: Costs, in and outside the health care sector, and outcomes were registered prospectively during a period of 18

  14. Chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients: MR analysis of the coincidence between functional and morphologic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Lull, Juan José; García-Martí, Gracián; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Moratal-Pérez, David; Poyatos, Cecilio; Robles, Montserrat; Sanjuán, Julio

    2007-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate if functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging abnormalities associated with auditory emotional stimuli coexist with focal brain reductions in schizophrenic patients with chronic auditory hallucinations. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all participants gave written informed consent. Twenty-one right-handed male patients with schizophrenia and persistent hallucinations (started to hear hallucinations at a mean age of 23 years +/- 10, with 15 years +/- 8 of mean illness duration) and 10 healthy paired participants (same ethnic group [white], age, and education level [secondary school]) were studied. Functional echo-planar T2*-weighted (after both emotional and neutral auditory stimulation) and morphometric three-dimensional gradient-recalled echo T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM2) software. Brain activation images were extracted by subtracting those with emotional from nonemotional words. Anatomic differences were explored by optimized voxel-based morphometry. The functional and morphometric MR images were overlaid to depict voxels statistically reported by both techniques. A coincidence map was generated by multiplying the emotional subtracted functional MR and volume decrement morphometric maps. Statistical analysis used the general linear model, Student t tests, random effects analyses, and analysis of covariance with a correction for multiple comparisons following the false discovery rate method. Large coinciding brain clusters (P < .005) were found in the left and right middle temporal and superior temporal gyri. Smaller coinciding clusters were found in the left posterior and right anterior cingular gyri, left inferior frontal gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. The middle and superior temporal and the cingular gyri are closely related to the abnormal neural network involved in the auditory emotional dysfunction seen in schizophrenic patients.

  15. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a preliminary open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Oded; Roth, Yiftach; Kotler, Moshe; Zangen, Abraham; Dannon, Pinhas

    2011-02-09

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling disease that presents with delusions and hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations are usually expressed as voices speaking to or about the patient. Previous studies have examined the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the temporoparietal cortex on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Our aim was to explore the potential effect of deep TMS, using the H coil over the same brain region on auditory hallucinations. Eight schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, mainly from Beer Ya'akov Mental Health Institution (Tel Aviv university, Israel) ambulatory clinics, as well as from other hospitals outpatient populations. Low-frequency deep TMS was applied for 10 min (600 pulses per session) to the left temporoparietal cortex for either 10 or 20 sessions. Deep TMS was applied using Brainsway's H1 coil apparatus. Patients were evaluated using the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS) as well as the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores (SAPS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale, and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). This preliminary study demonstrated a significant improvement in AHRS score (an average reduction of 31.7% ± 32.2%) and to a lesser extent improvement in SAPS results (an average reduction of 16.5% ± 20.3%). In this study, we have demonstrated the potential of deep TMS treatment over the temporoparietal cortex as an add-on treatment for chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Larger samples in a double-blind sham-controlled design are now being preformed to evaluate the effectiveness of deep TMS treatment for auditory hallucinations. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00564096).

  16. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a preliminary open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangen Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling disease that presents with delusions and hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations are usually expressed as voices speaking to or about the patient. Previous studies have examined the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over the temporoparietal cortex on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Our aim was to explore the potential effect of deep TMS, using the H coil over the same brain region on auditory hallucinations. Patients and methods Eight schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, mainly from Beer Ya'akov Mental Health Institution (Tel Aviv university, Israel ambulatory clinics, as well as from other hospitals outpatient populations. Low-frequency deep TMS was applied for 10 min (600 pulses per session to the left temporoparietal cortex for either 10 or 20 sessions. Deep TMS was applied using Brainsway's H1 coil apparatus. Patients were evaluated using the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS as well as the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores (SAPS, Clinical Global Impressions (CGI scale, and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS. Results This preliminary study demonstrated a significant improvement in AHRS score (an average reduction of 31.7% ± 32.2% and to a lesser extent improvement in SAPS results (an average reduction of 16.5% ± 20.3%. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated the potential of deep TMS treatment over the temporoparietal cortex as an add-on treatment for chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Larger samples in a double-blind sham-controlled design are now being preformed to evaluate the effectiveness of deep TMS treatment for auditory hallucinations. Trial registration This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00564096.

  17. Depictions of auditory verbal hallucinations in news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhauer, Ruvanee P

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), diverges from recent research literature, which demonstrates the occurrence of AVH in individuals who are psychologically healthy. This discrepancy raises the question of how the public perceives AVH. Public perceptions are important because they could potentially affect how individuals with AVH interpret these experiences and how people view voice hearers. Because media portrayals can provide a window into how phenomena are viewed by the public, an archival study of newspaper articles was carried out to examine depictions of AVH. A sample of 181 newspaper articles originating in the United States was analyzed using a content analysis approach. The majority of articles examined contained no suggestion that AVH are possible in psychologically healthy individuals. Most articles suggested that AVH were a symptom of mental illness, and many suggested that AVH were associated with criminal behavior, violence and suicidality. The news media examined tended to present a misleading and largely pathologizing view of AVH. More research is needed to shed light on how, and to what extent, public perceptions may influence those who experience AVH. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Neurofeedback-Based Enhancement of Single-Trial Auditory Evoked Potentials: Treatment of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kathryn; Rarra, Marie-Helene; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Hubl, Daniela; Koenig, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations depend on a broad neurobiological network ranging from the auditory system to language as well as memory-related processes. As part of this, the auditory N100 event-related potential (ERP) component is attenuated in patients with schizophrenia, with stronger attenuation occurring during auditory verbal hallucinations. Changes in the N100 component assumingly reflect disturbed responsiveness of the auditory system toward external stimuli in schizophrenia. With this premise, we investigated the therapeutic utility of neurofeedback training to modulate the auditory-evoked N100 component in patients with schizophrenia and associated auditory verbal hallucinations. Ten patients completed electroencephalography neurofeedback training for modulation of N100 (treatment condition) or another unrelated component, P200 (control condition). On a behavioral level, only the control group showed a tendency for symptom improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score in a pre-/postcomparison ( t (4) = 2.71, P = .054); however, no significant differences were found in specific hallucination related symptoms ( t (7) = -0.53, P = .62). There was no significant overall effect of neurofeedback training on ERP components in our paradigm; however, we were able to identify different learning patterns, and found a correlation between learning and improvement in auditory verbal hallucination symptoms across training sessions ( r = 0.664, n = 9, P = .05). This effect results, with cautious interpretation due to the small sample size, primarily from the treatment group ( r = 0.97, n = 4, P = .03). In particular, a within-session learning parameter showed utility for predicting symptom improvement with neurofeedback training. In conclusion, patients with schizophrenia and associated auditory verbal hallucinations who exhibit a learning pattern more characterized by within-session aptitude may benefit from electroencephalography neurofeedback

  19. Right prefrontal rTMS treatment for refractory auditory command hallucinations - a neuroSPECT assisted case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Shaul; Dannon, Pinhas N; Goshen, Elinor; Amiaz, Revital; Zwas, Tzila S; Grunhaus, Leon

    2002-11-30

    Auditory command hallucinations probably arise from the patient's failure to monitor his/her own 'inner speech', which is connected to activation of speech perception areas of the left cerebral cortex and to various degrees of dysfunction of cortical circuits involved in schizophrenia as supported by functional brain imaging. We hypothesized that rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), by increasing cortical activation of the right prefrontal brain region, would bring about a reduction of the hallucinations. We report our first schizophrenic patient affected with refractory command hallucinations treated with 10 Hz rTMS. Treatment was performed over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with 1200 magnetic stimulations administered daily for 20 days at 90% motor threshold. Regional cerebral blood flow changes were monitored with neuroSPECT. Clinical evaluation and scores on the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale demonstrated a global improvement in the patient's condition, with no change in the intensity and frequency of the hallucinations. NeuroSPECT performed at intervals during and after treatment indicated a general improvement in cerebral perfusion. We conclude that right prefrontal rTMS may induce a general clinical improvement of schizophrenic brain function, without directly influencing the mechanism involved in auditory command hallucinations.

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of Student Pharmacists’ Response after an Auditory Hallucination Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve L Ness

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of this research was to evaluate pharmacy students’ experiences and reactions when exposed to an auditory hallucination simulator. Methods: A convenient sample of 16 pharmacy students enrolled in the Advanced Psychiatry Elective at a private, faith-based university in the southeastern United States was selected. Students participated in an activity in which they listened to an auditory hallucination simulator from their personal laptop computers and completed a variety of tasks. Following the conclusion of the simulator, students composed a reflection guided by a five-question prompt. Qualitative analysis of the reflections was then completed to identify and categorize overarching themes. Results: The overarching themes identified included: 1 students mentioned strategies they used to overcome the distraction; 2 students discussed how the voices affected their ability to complete the activities; 3 students discussed the mental/physical toll they experienced; 4 students identified methods to assist patients with schizophrenia; 5 students mentioned an increase in their empathy for patients; 6 students reported their reactions to the voices; 7 students recognized how schizophrenia could affect the lives of these patients; and 8 students expressed how their initial expectations and reactions to the voices changed throughout the course of the simulation. Overall, the use of this simulator as a teaching aid was well received by students. Summary: In conclusion, pharmacy students were impacted by the hallucination simulator and expressed an increased awareness of the challenges faced by these patients on a daily basis. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert

  1. Case study: a young male with auditory hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowski, Abigail

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate use of the nursing process and the standardized nursing languages of NANDA International (NANDA-I), the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC), and the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) to assist a young male with paranoid schizophrenia to deal with auditory hallucinations. Data were obtained from the experience and expertise of the author and published literature. This case study demonstrates nurses' clinical decision making in providing care for an adolescent with mental illness. This case study provides the pertinent nursing diagnosis, patient outcomes, and nursing interventions for a young male with auditory hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia. The use of NANDA-I, NOC, and NIC can provide the necessary framework for enhancing and improving the management of care with patients who experience auditory hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia. © 2011, The Authors. International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications © 2011, NANDA International.

  2. Short and long term effects of left and bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Bais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left temporo-parietal junction area has been studied as a treatment option for auditory verbal hallucinations. Although the right temporo-parietal junction area has also shown involvement in the genesis of auditory verbal hallucinations, no studies have used bilateral stimulation. Moreover, little is known about durability effects. We studied the short and long term effects of 1 Hz treatment of the left temporo-parietal junction area in schizophrenia patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations, compared to sham stimulation, and added an extra treatment arm of bilateral TPJ area stimulation. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 51 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and persistent auditory verbal hallucinations were randomly allocated to treatment of the left or bilateral temporo-parietal junction area or sham treatment. Patients were treated for six days, twice daily for 20 minutes. Short term efficacy was measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS. We included follow-up measures with the AHRS and PANAS at four weeks and three months. RESULTS: The interaction between time and treatment for Hallucination item P3 of the PANSS showed a trend for significance, caused by a small reduction of scores in the left group. Although self-reported hallucination scores, as measured with the AHRS and PANAS, decreased significantly during the trial period, there were no differences between the three treatment groups. CONCLUSION: We did not find convincing evidence for the efficacy of left-sided rTMS, compared to sham rTMS. Moreover, bilateral rTMS was not superior over left rTMS or sham in improving AVH. Optimizing treatment parameters may result in stronger evidence for the efficacy of rTMS treatment of AVH. Moreover, future research should consider

  3. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  4. The auditory dorsal stream plays a crucial role in projecting hallucinated voices into external space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looijestijn, Jasper; Diederen, Kelly M. J.; Goekoop, Rutger; Sommer, Iris E. C.; Daalman, Kirstin; Kahn, Rene S.; Hoek, Hans W.; Blom, Jan Dirk

    Introduction: Verbal auditory hallucinations (VAHs) are experienced as spoken voices which seem to originate in the extracorporeal environment or inside the head. Animal and human research has identified a 'where' pathway for sound processing comprising the planum temporale, the middle frontal gyrus

  5. Cognitive biases and auditory verbal hallucinations in healthy and clinical individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalman, K.; Sommer, I. E. C.; Derks, E. M.; Peters, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several cognitive biases are related to psychotic symptoms, including auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). It remains unclear whether these biases differ in voice-hearers with and without a 'need-for-care'. Method. A total of 72 healthy controls, 72 healthy voice-hearers and 72 clinical

  6. An EMG Study of the Lip Muscles during Covert Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Lucile; Dohen, Marion; Polosan, Mircea; Perrier, Pascal; Loevenbruck, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: "Auditory verbal hallucinations" (AVHs) are speech perceptions in the absence of external stimulation. According to an influential theoretical account of AVHs in schizophrenia, a deficit in inner-speech monitoring may cause the patients' verbal thoughts to be perceived as external voices. The account is based on a…

  7. Subjective Loudness and Reality of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Activation of the Inner Speech Processing Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercammen, Ans; Knegtering, Henderikus; Bruggeman, Richard; Aleman, Andre

    Background: One of the most influential cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) suggests that a failure to adequately monitor the production of one's own inner speech leads to verbal thought being misidentified as an alien voice. However, it is unclear whether this theory can

  8. The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in a general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multivariate analyses revealed a significant association between role impairment, service utilisation, suicidality and reported auditory or visual hallucinations. No significant association was found between urbanicity and reported psychotic symptoms. Conclusion: Our finding that psychotic symptoms (ie hallucinations) are ...

  9. Theta Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Auditory Verbal Hallucinations : Negative Findings From a Double-Blind-Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Sanne; van Dellen, Edwin; Schutte, Maya J L; Nieuwdorp, Wendy; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Sommer, Iris E C

    BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia are resistant to antipsychotic medication in approximately 25% of patients. Treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for refractory AVH has shown varying results. A stimulation protocol using continuous theta

  10. Persistent Interictal Musical Hallucination in a Patient With Mesial Temporal Sclerosis-Related Epilepsy: First Case Report and Etiopathological Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Paolo; Vedovello, Marcella; Braga, Massimiliano; Pederzoli, Massimo; Beretta, Sandro

    2016-12-01

    Musical hallucination is a disorder of complex sound processing of instrumental music, songs, choirs, chants, etc. The underlying pathologies include moderate to severe acquired hearing loss (the auditory equivalent of Charles Bonnet syndrome), psychiatric illnesses (depression, schizophrenia), drug intoxication (benzodiazepines, salicylate, pentoxifylline, propranolol), traumatic lesions along the acoustic pathways, and epilepsy. The hallucinations are most likely to begin late in life; 70% of patients are women. Musical hallucination has no known specific therapy. Treating the underlying cause is the most effective approach; neuroleptic and antidepressant medications have only rarely succeeded.Musical hallucination in epilepsy typically presents as simple partial seizures originating in the lateral temporal cortex. To our knowledge, no formal report of musical hallucination in the interictal state has been published before. In contrast, other interictal psychotic features are a relatively common complication, especially in patients with long-standing drug-resistant epilepsy.We describe a 62-year-old woman with a long history of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy whose musical hallucination was solely interictal. We speculate on the possible link between temporal epilepsy and her hallucination. We hypothesize that, as a result of her epileptic activity-induced damage, an imbalance developed between the excitatory and inhibitory projections connecting the mesial temporal cortex to the other auditory structures. These structures may have generated hyperactivity in the lateral temporal cortex through a "release" mechanism that eventually resulted in musical hallucination.

  11. Auditory top-down control and affective theory of mind in schizophrenia with and without hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, Christian; Bleier, Angelika; Fitz, Werner; Marksteiner, Josef; Fink, Andreas; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2016-07-01

    Social cognitive impairments may represent a core feature of schizophrenia and above all are a strong predictor of positive psychotic symptoms. Previous studies could show that reduced inhibitory top-down control contributes to deficits in theory of mind abilities and is involved in the genesis of hallucinations. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between auditory inhibition, affective theory of mind and the experience of hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, 20 in-patients with schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls completed a social cognition task (the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) and an inhibitory top-down Dichotic Listening Test. Schizophrenia patients with greater severity of hallucinations showed impaired affective theory of mind as well as impaired inhibitory top-down control. More dysfunctional top-down inhibition was associated with poorer affective theory of mind performance, and seemed to mediate the association between impairment to affective theory of mind and severity of hallucinations. The findings support the idea of impaired theory of mind as a trait marker of schizophrenia. In addition, dysfunctional top-down inhibition may give rise to hallucinations and may further impair affective theory of mind skills in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J.; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B.; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital–cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  13. Exploratory study of once-daily transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) as a treatment for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, F; Burrello, T N; Mellin, J M; Cordle, A L; Lustenberger, C M; Gilmore, J H; Jarskog, L F

    2016-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are resistant to pharmacotherapy in about 25% of adults with schizophrenia. Treatment with noninvasive brain stimulation would provide a welcomed additional tool for the clinical management of auditory hallucinations. A recent study found a significant reduction in auditory hallucinations in people with schizophrenia after five days of twice-daily transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that simultaneously targeted left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left temporo-parietal cortex. We hypothesized that once-daily tDCS with stimulation electrodes over left frontal and temporo-parietal areas reduces auditory hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. We performed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study that evaluated five days of daily tDCS of the same cortical targets in 26 outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder with auditory hallucinations. We found a significant reduction in auditory hallucinations measured by the Auditory Hallucination Rating Scale (F2,50=12.22, PtDCS for treatment of auditory hallucinations and the pronounced response in the sham-treated group in this study contrasts with the previous finding and demonstrates the need for further optimization and evaluation of noninvasive brain stimulation strategies. In particular, higher cumulative doses and higher treatment frequencies of tDCS together with strategies to reduce placebo responses should be investigated. Additionally, consideration of more targeted stimulation to engage specific deficits in temporal organization of brain activity in patients with auditory hallucinations may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The self or the voice? Relative contributions of self-esteem and voice appraisal in persistent auditory hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannon, Dominic; Hayward, Peter; Thompson, Neil; Green, Nicola; Surguladze, Simon; Wykes, Til

    2009-07-01

    Persistent auditory hallucinations are common, disabling and difficult to treat. Cognitive behavioural therapy is recommended in their treatment though there is limited empirical evidence of the role of cognitive factors in the formation and persistence of voices. Low self-esteem is thought to play a causal and maintaining role in a range of clinical disorders, particularly depression, which is prevalent and disabling in schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that low self-esteem is prominent in, and contributes to, depression in voice hearers. Beliefs about persistent auditory hallucinations were investigated in 82 patients using the Beliefs About Voices Questionnaire--revised in a cross-sectional design. Self-esteem and depression were assessed using standardized measures. Depression and low self-esteem were prominent as were beliefs about the omnipotence and malevolence of auditory hallucinations. Beliefs about the uncontrollability and dominance of auditory hallucinations and low self-esteem were significantly correlated with depression. Low self-esteem did not mediate the effect of beliefs about auditory hallucinations--both acted independently to contribute to depression in this sample of patients with schizophrenia and persistent auditory hallucinations. Low self-esteem is of fundamental importance to the understanding of affective disturbance in voice hearers. Therapeutic interventions need to address both the appraisal of self and hallucinations in schizophrenia. Measures which ameliorate low self-esteem can be expected to improve depressed mood in this patient group. Further elucidation of the mechanisms involved can strengthen existing models of positive psychotic symptoms and provide targets for more effective treatments.

  15. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation add-on for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Oded; Gersner, Roman; Klein, Limor Dinur; Kotler, Moshe; Zangen, Abraham; Dannon, Pinhas

    2012-05-06

    About 25% of schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations are refractory to pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy. We conducted a deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pilot study in order to evaluate the potential clinical benefit of repeated left temporoparietal cortex stimulation in these patients. The results were encouraging, but a sham-controlled study was needed to rule out a placebo effect. A total of 18 schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, from Beer Yaakov MHC and other hospitals outpatient populations. Patients received 10 daily treatment sessions with low-frequency (1 Hz for 10 min) deep TMS applied over the left temporoparietal cortex, using the H1 coil at the intensity of 110% of the motor threshold. Procedure was either real or sham according to patient randomization. Patients were evaluated via the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms-Negative Symptoms, Clinical Global Impressions, and Quality of Life Questionnaire. In all, 10 patients completed the treatment (10 TMS sessions). Auditory hallucination scores of both groups improved; however, there was no statistical difference in any of the scales between the active and the sham treated groups. Low-frequency deep TMS to the left temporoparietal cortex using the protocol mentioned above has no statistically significant effect on auditory hallucinations or the other clinical scales measured in schizophrenic patients. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00564096.

  16. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation add-on for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Oded

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 25% of schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations are refractory to pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy. We conducted a deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pilot study in order to evaluate the potential clinical benefit of repeated left temporoparietal cortex stimulation in these patients. The results were encouraging, but a sham-controlled study was needed to rule out a placebo effect. Methods A total of 18 schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, from Beer Yaakov MHC and other hospitals outpatient populations. Patients received 10 daily treatment sessions with low-frequency (1 Hz for 10 min deep TMS applied over the left temporoparietal cortex, using the H1 coil at the intensity of 110% of the motor threshold. Procedure was either real or sham according to patient randomization. Patients were evaluated via the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms-Negative Symptoms, Clinical Global Impressions, and Quality of Life Questionnaire. Results In all, 10 patients completed the treatment (10 TMS sessions. Auditory hallucination scores of both groups improved; however, there was no statistical difference in any of the scales between the active and the sham treated groups. Conclusions Low-frequency deep TMS to the left temporoparietal cortex using the protocol mentioned above has no statistically significant effect on auditory hallucinations or the other clinical scales measured in schizophrenic patients. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00564096.

  17. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Dollfus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS. Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI. After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities.

  18. Cerebral Responses to Vocal Attractiveness and Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: A Functional MRI Study

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    Michihiko eKoeda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Impaired self-monitoring and abnormalities of cognitive bias have been implicated as cognitive mechanisms of hallucination; regions fundamental to these processes including inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and superior temporal gyrus (STG are abnormally activated in individuals that hallucinate. A recent study showed activation in IFG-STG to be modulated by auditory attractiveness, but no study has investigated whether these IFG-STG activations are impaired in schizophrenia. We aimed to clarify the cerebral function underlying the perception of auditory attractiveness in schizophrenia patients. Cerebral activation was examined in 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 controls when performing Favourability Judgment Task (FJT and Gender Differentiation Task (GDT for pairs of greetings using event-related functional MRI. A full-factorial analysis revealed that the main effect of task was associated with activation of left IFG and STG. The main effect of Group revealed less activation of left STG in schizophrenia compared with controls, whereas significantly greater activation in schizophrenia than in controls was revealed at the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG, right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ, right occipital lobe, and right amygdala (p<0.05, FDR-corrected. A significant positive correlation was observed at the right TPJ and right MFG between cerebral activation under FJT minus GDT contrast and the score of hallucinatory behaviour on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Findings of hypo-activation in the left STG could designate brain dysfunction in accessing vocal attractiveness in schizophrenia, whereas hyper-activation in the right TPJ and MFG may reflect the process of mentalizing other person’s behaviour by auditory hallucination by abnormality of cognitive bias.

  19. A Case Report on Somatoform Disorder: Colorful Visual Hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Afghah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report a case of somatoform disorder (not otherwise specified-NOS. Methods: The patient was an eight-year-old boy who complained of anxiety and seeing visual hallucinations of colorful shapes. He was administered ant migraine and antiepileptic drugs. However, no changes were observed. Psychotherapy was started, as well as fluoxetine (20 mg per day. Initial assessments included a behavioral interview, charting of daily activities, and recording visual hallucinations with a description of the patient’s emotional and situational condition during the hallucinations. Results: The patient’s visual hallucinations disappeared completely after two months of treatment. Discussion: Somatoform disorders may respond well to a combination of behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication.

  20. Dissecting auditory verbal hallucinations into two components: audibility (Gedankenlautwerden) and alienation (thought insertion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Iris E; Selten, Jean-Paul; Diederen, Kelly M; Blom, Jan Dirk

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a theoretical framework which dissects auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) into 2 essential components: audibility and alienation. Audibility, the perceptual aspect of AVH, may result from a disinhibition of the auditory cortex in response to self-generated speech. In isolation, this aspect leads to audible thoughts: Gedankenlautwerden. The second component is alienation, which is the failure to recognize the content of AVH as self-generated. This failure may be related to the fact that cerebral activity associated with AVH is predominantly present in the speech production area of the right hemisphere. Since normal inner speech is derived from the left speech area, an aberrant source may lead to confusion about the origin of the language fragments. When alienation is not accompanied by audibility, it will result in the experience of thought insertion. The 2 hypothesized components are illustrated using case vignettes. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Childhood traumatic events and types of auditory verbal hallucinations in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Kiejna, Andrzej; Frydecka, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that childhood trauma might be associated with higher severity of positive symptoms in patients with psychosis and higher incidence of psychotic experiences in non-clinical populations. However, it remains unknown whether the history of childhood trauma might be associated with particular types of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). We assessed childhood trauma using the Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report - Short Form (ETISR-SF) in 94 first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. Lifetime psychopathology was evaluated using the Operational Criteria for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) checklist, while symptoms on the day of assessment were examined using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Based on ETISR-SF, patients were divided into those with and without the history of childhood trauma: FES(+) and FES(-) patients. FES(+) patients had significantly higher total number of AVH types and Schneiderian first-rank AVH as well as significantly higher PANSS P3 item score (hallucinatory behavior) in comparison with FES(-) patients. They experienced significantly more frequently third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices. These differences remained significant after controlling for education, PANSS depression factor score and chlorpromazine equivalent. Linear regression analysis revealed that the total number of AVH types was predicted by sexual abuse score after controlling for above mentioned confounders. This effect was significant only in females. Our results indicate that the history of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, is associated with higher number AVH in females but not in males. Third person AVH and abusive/accusatory/persecutory voices, representing Schneiderian first-rank symptoms, might be particularly related to childhood traumatic events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Five year follow-up of non-psychotic adults with frequent auditory verbal hallucinations : are they still healthy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalman, K; Diederen, K M J; Hoekema, L; van Lutterveld, R; Sommer, I E C

    BACKGROUND: Previously, we described 103 adults (mean age 41 years) who experienced frequent, auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), in the absence of a need for mental healthcare. Importantly, these adults were largely past the peak incidence age for psychosis (15-35 years). It is unclear if these

  3. [Distinguishing the voice of self from others: the self-monitoring hypothesis of auditory hallucination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2010-08-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH), a psychopathological phenomenon where a person hears non-existent voices, commonly occur in schizophrenia. Recent cognitive and neuroscience studies suggest that AH may be the misattribution of one's own inner speech. Self-monitoring through neural feedback mechanisms allows individuals to distinguish between their own and others' actions, including speech. AH maybe the results of an individual's inability to discriminate between their own speech and that of others. The present paper tries to integrate the three theories (behavioral, brain, and model approaches) proposed to explain the self-monitoring hypothesis of AH. In addition, we investigate the lateralization of self-other representation in the brain, as suggested by recent studies, and discuss future research directions.

  4. Musical hallucination associated with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Rocha, Savya Cybelle Milhomem; Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Kii, Márcia Akemi; Santos, Rosa Maria Rodrigues dos; Pereira, Cristiana Borges

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the fact that musical hallucination have a significant impact on patients' lives, they have received very little attention of experts. Some researchers agree on a combination of peripheral and central dysfunctions as the mechanism that causes hallucination. The most accepted physiopathology of musical hallucination associated to hearing loss (caused by cochlear lesion, cochlear nerve lesion or by interruption of mesencephalon or pontine auditory information) is the disinhibition of auditory memory circuits due to sensory deprivation. Concerning the cortical area involved in musical hallucination, there is evidence that the excitatory mechanism of the superior temporal gyrus, as in epilepsies, is responsible for musical hallucination. In musical release hallucination there is also activation of the auditory association cortex. Finally, considering the laterality, functional studies with musical perception and imagery in normal individuals showed that songs with words cause bilateral temporal activation and melodies activate only the right lobe. The effect of hearing aids on the improvement of musical hallucination as a result of the hearing loss improvement is well documented. It happens because auditory hallucination may be influenced by the external acoustical environment. Neuroleptics, antidepressants and anticonvulsants have been used in the treatment of musical hallucination. Cases of improvement with the administration of carbamazepine, meclobemide and donepezil were reported, but the results obtained were not consistent.

  5. Use of transcranial direct current stimulation for the treatment of auditory hallucinations of schizophrenia – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pondé PH

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pedro H Pondé,1 Eduardo P de Sena,2 Joan A Camprodon,3 Arão Nogueira de Araújo,2 Mário F Neto,4 Melany DiBiasi,5 Abrahão Fontes Baptista,6,7 Lidia MVR Moura,8 Camila Cosmo2,3,6,9,10 1Dynamics of Neuromusculoskeletal System Laboratory, Bahiana School of Medicine and Public Health, 2Postgraduate Program in Interactive Process of Organs and Systems, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 3Laboratory for Neuropsychiatry and Neuromodulation and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Clinical Service, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Scientific Training Center Department, School of Medicine of Bahia, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 5Neuromodulation Center, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 6Functional Electrostimulation Laboratory, Biomorphology Department, 7Postgraduate Program on Medicine and Human Health, School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 8Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 9Center for Technological Innovation in Rehabilitation, Federal University of Bahia, 10Bahia State Health Department (SESAB, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil Introduction: Auditory hallucinations are defined as experiences of auditory perceptions in the absence of a provoking external stimulus. They are the most prevalent symptoms of schizophrenia with high capacity for chronicity and refractoriness during the course of disease. The transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS – a safe, portable, and inexpensive neuromodulation technique – has emerged as a promising treatment for the management of auditory hallucinations. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the level of evidence in the literature available for the use of tDCS as a treatment for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review was performed

  6. Aberrant connectivity of areas for decoding degraded speech in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clos, Mareike; Diederen, Kelly M J; Meijering, Anne Lotte; Sommer, Iris E; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-03-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a hallmark of psychotic experience. Various mechanisms including misattribution of inner speech and imbalance between bottom-up and top-down factors in auditory perception potentially due to aberrant connectivity between frontal and temporo-parietal areas have been suggested to underlie AVH. Experimental evidence for disturbed connectivity of networks sustaining auditory-verbal processing is, however, sparse. We compared functional resting-state connectivity in 49 psychotic patients with frequent AVH and 49 matched controls. The analysis was seeded from the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG), thalamus, angular gyrus (AG) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) as these regions are implicated in extracting meaning from impoverished speech-like sounds. Aberrant connectivity was found for all seeds. Decreased connectivity was observed between the left MTG and its right homotope, between the left AG and the surrounding inferior parietal cortex (IPC) and the left inferior temporal gyrus, between the left thalamus and the right cerebellum, as well as between the left IFG and left IPC, and dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC/VLPFC). Increased connectivity was observed between the left IFG and the supplementary motor area (SMA) and the left insula and between the left thalamus and the left fusiform gyrus/hippocampus. The predisposition to experience AVH might result from decoupling between the speech production system (IFG, insula and SMA) and the self-monitoring system (DLPFC, VLPFC, IPC) leading to misattribution of inner speech. Furthermore, decreased connectivity between nodes involved in speech processing (AG, MTG) and other regions implicated in auditory processing might reflect aberrant top-down influences in AVH.

  7. The neuropsychology of hallucinations

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hallucinations are a psychopathological phenomenon with neuropsychological, neuroanatomical and pathophysiological correlates in specific brain areas. They can affect any of the senses, but auditory and visual hallucinations predominate. Verbal hallucinations reveal no gross organic lesions while visual hallucinations are connected to defined brain lesions. Functional neuroimaging shows impairments in modality specific sensory systems with the hyperactivity of the surrounding cerebral cortex. Disinhibition and expansion of the inner speech was noted with impaired internal monitoring in auditory verbal hallucinations. The subcortical areas and modal-specific associative cortex and cingulate cortex are essential for the occurrence of hallucinations.

  8. Examining frontotemporal connectivity and rTMS in healthy controls: implications for auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

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    Gromann, Paula M; Tracy, Derek K; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Krabbendam, Lydia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to have clinically beneficial effects in altering the perception of auditory hallucinations (AH) in patients with schizophrenia. However, the mode of action is not clear. Recent neuroimaging findings indicate that rTMS has the potential to induce not only local effects but also changes in remote, functionally connected brain regions. Frontotemporal dysconnectivity has been proposed as a mechanism leading to psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. The current study examines functional connectivity between temporal and frontal brain regions after rTMS and the implications for AH in schizophrenia. A connectivity analysis was conducted on the fMRI data of 11 healthy controls receiving rTMS, compared with 11 matched subjects receiving sham TMS, to the temporoparietal junction, before engaging in a task associated with robust frontotemporal activation. Compared to the control group, the rTMS group showed an altered frontotemporal connectivity with stronger connectivity between the right temporoparietal cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the angular gyrus. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that normalizing the functional connectivity between the temporoparietal and frontal brain regions may underlie the therapeutic effect of rTMS on AH in schizophrenia.

  9. Targeted neural network interventions for auditory hallucinations: Can TMS inform DBS?

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    Taylor, Joseph J; Krystal, John H; D'Souza, Deepak C; Gerrard, Jason Lee; Corlett, Philip R

    2017-09-29

    The debilitating and refractory nature of auditory hallucinations (AH) in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders has stimulated investigations into neuromodulatory interventions that target the aberrant neural networks associated with them. Internal or invasive forms of brain stimulation such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) are currently being explored for treatment-refractory schizophrenia. The process of developing and implementing DBS is limited by symptom clustering within psychiatric constructs as well as a scarcity of causal tools with which to predict response, refine targeting or guide clinical decisions. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), an external or non-invasive form of brain stimulation, has shown some promise as a therapeutic intervention for AH but remains relatively underutilized as an investigational probe of clinically relevant neural networks. In this editorial, we propose that TMS has the potential to inform DBS by adding individualized causal evidence to an evaluation processes otherwise devoid of it in patients. Although there are significant limitations and safety concerns regarding DBS, the combination of TMS with computational modeling of neuroimaging and neurophysiological data could provide critical insights into more robust and adaptable network modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hear today, not gone tomorrow? An exploratory longitudinal study of auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices).

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    Hartigan, Nicky; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Hayward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increasing volume of cross-sectional work on auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices), there remains a paucity of work on how the experience may change over time. The first aim of this study was to attempt replication of a previous finding that beliefs about voices are enduring and stable, irrespective of changes in the severity of voices, and do not change without a specific intervention. The second aim was to examine whether voice-hearers' interrelations with their voices change over time, without a specific intervention. A 12-month longitudinal examination of these aspects of voices was undertaken with hearers in routine clinical treatment (N = 18). We found beliefs about voices' omnipotence and malevolence were stable over a 12-month period, as were styles of interrelating between voice and hearer, despite trends towards reductions in voice-related distress and disruption. However, there was a trend for beliefs about the benevolence of voices to decrease over time. Styles of interrelating between voice and hearer appear relatively stable and enduring, as are beliefs about the voices' malevolent intent and power. Although there was some evidence that beliefs about benevolence may reduce over time, the reasons for this were not clear. Our exploratory study was limited by only being powered to detect large effect sizes. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  11. Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia From a Levels of Explanation Perspective.

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    Hugdahl, Kenneth; Sommer, Iris E

    2018-02-15

    In the present article, we present a "Levels of Explanation" (LoE) approach to auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. Mental phenomena can be understood at different levels of explanation, including cultural, clinical, cognitive, brain imaging, cellular, and molecular levels. Current research on AVHs is characterized by accumulation of data at all levels, but with little or no interaction of findings between levels. A second advantage with a Levels of Explanation approach is that it fosters interdisciplinarity and collaboration across traditional borders, facilitating a real breakthrough in future research. We exemplify a Levels of Explanation approach with data from 3 levels where findings at 1 level provide predictions for another level. More specifically, we show how functional neuroimaging data at the brain level correspond with behavioral data at the cognitive level, and how data at these 2 levels correspond with recent findings of changes in neurotransmitter function at the cellular level. We further discuss implications for new therapeutic interventions, and the article is ended by suggestion how future research could incorporate genetic influences on AVHs at the molecular level of explanation by providing examples for animal work.

  12. Stop, look, listen: the need for philosophical phenomenological perspectives on auditory verbal hallucinations

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    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Krueger, Joel; Larøi, Frank; Broome, Matthew; Fernyhough, Charles

    2013-01-01

    One of the leading cognitive models of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) proposes such experiences result from a disturbance in the process by which inner speech is attributed to the self. Research in this area has, however, proceeded in the absence of thorough cognitive and phenomenological investigations of the nature of inner speech, against which AVHs are implicitly or explicitly defined. In this paper we begin by introducing philosophical phenomenology and highlighting its relevance to AVHs, before briefly examining the evolving literature on the relation between inner experiences and AVHs. We then argue for the need for philosophical phenomenology (Phenomenology) and the traditional empirical methods of psychology for studying inner experience (phenomenology) to mutually inform each other to provide a richer and more nuanced picture of both inner experience and AVHs than either could on its own. A critical examination is undertaken of the leading model of AVHs derived from phenomenological philosophy, the ipseity disturbance model. From this we suggest issues that future work in this vein will need to consider, and examine how interdisciplinary methodologies may contribute to advances in our understanding of AVHs. Detailed suggestions are made for the direction and methodology of future work into AVHs, which we suggest should be undertaken in a context where phenomenology and physiology are both necessary, but neither sufficient. PMID:23576974

  13. Decreased middle temporal gyrus connectivity in the language network in schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

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    Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Huaning; Li, Liang; Liao, Qimei; Liu, Yang; Bao, Xianghong; Liu, Wenlei; Yin, Hong; Lu, Hongbing; Tan, Qingrong

    2017-07-13

    As the most common symptoms of schizophrenia, the long-term persistence of obstinate auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) brings about great mental pain to patients. Neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia have indicated that AVHs were associated with altered functional and structural connectivity within the language network. However, effective connectivity that could reflect directed information flow within this network and is of great importance to understand the neural mechanisms of the disorder remains largely unknown. In this study, we utilized stochastic dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate directed connections within the language network in schizophrenia patients with and without AVHs. Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia (18 with AVHs and 18 without AVHs), and 37 healthy controls participated in the current resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The results showed that the connection from the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) to left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) was significantly decreased in patients with AVHs compared to those without AVHs. Meanwhile, the effective connection from the left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) to LMTG was significantly decreased compared to the healthy controls. Our findings suggest aberrant pattern of causal interactions within the language network in patients with AVHs, indicating that the hypoconnectivity or disrupted connection from frontal to temporal speech areas might be critical for the pathological basis of AVHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hearing the unheard: An interdisciplinary, mixed methodology study of women’s experiences of hearing voices (auditory verbal hallucinations

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    Simon eMcCarthy-Jones

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the experiences of women who ‘hear voices’ (auditory verbal hallucinations. We begin by examining historical understandings of women hearing voices, showing these have been driven by androcentric theories of how women’s bodies functioned, leading to women being viewed as requiring their voices be interpreted by men. We show the twentieth-century was associated with recognition that the mental violation of women’s minds (represented by some voice-hearing was often a consequence of the physical violation of women’s bodies. We next report the results of a qualitative study into voice-hearing women’s experiences (N=8. This found similarities between women’s relationships with their voices and their relationships with others and the wider social context. Finally, we present results from a quantitative study comparing voice-hearing in women (n=65 and men (n=132 in a psychiatric setting. Women were more likely than men to have certain forms of voice-hearing (voices conversing and to have antecedent events of trauma, physical illness, and relationship problems. Voices identified as female may have more positive affect than male voices. We conclude that women voice-hearers have and continue to face specific challenges necessitating research and activism, and hope this paper will act as a stimulus to such work.

  15. Virtual reality therapy for refractory auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia: A pilot clinical trial.

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    du Sert, Olivier Percie; Potvin, Stéphane; Lipp, Olivier; Dellazizzo, Laura; Laurelli, Mélanie; Breton, Richard; Lalonde, Pierre; Phraxayavong, Kingsada; O'Connor, Kieron; Pelletier, Jean-François; Boukhalfi, Tarik; Renaud, Patrice; Dumais, Alexandre

    2018-02-24

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental illness that poses significant challenges. While many pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are available, many treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients continue to suffer from persistent psychotic symptoms, notably auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), which are highly disabling. This unmet clinical need requires new innovative treatment options. Recently, a psychological therapy using computerized technology has shown large therapeutic effects on AVH severity by enabling patients to engage in a dialogue with a computerized representation of their voices. These very promising results have been extended by our team using immersive virtual reality (VR). Our study was a 7-week phase-II, randomized, partial cross-over trial. Nineteen schizophrenia patients with refractory AVH were recruited and randomly allocated to either VR-assisted therapy (VRT) or treatment-as-usual (TAU). The group allocated to TAU consisted of antipsychotic treatment and usual meetings with clinicians. The TAU group then received a delayed 7weeks of VRT. A follow-up was ensured 3months after the last VRT therapy session. Changes in psychiatric symptoms, before and after TAU or VRT, were assessed using a linear mixed-effects model. Our findings showed that VRT produced significant improvements in AVH severity, depressive symptoms and quality of life that lasted at the 3-month follow-up period. Consistent with previous research, our results suggest that VRT might be efficacious in reducing AVH related distress. The therapeutic effects of VRT on the distress associated with the voices were particularly prominent (d=1.2). VRT is a highly novel and promising intervention for refractory AVH in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Discrimination of schizophrenia auditory hallucinators by machine learning of resting-state functional MRI.

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    Chyzhyk, Darya; Graña, Manuel; Öngür, Döst; Shinn, Ann K

    2015-05-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are a symptom that is most often associated with schizophrenia, but patients with other neuropsychiatric conditions, and even a small percentage of healthy individuals, may also experience AH. Elucidating the neural mechanisms underlying AH in schizophrenia may offer insight into the pathophysiology associated with AH more broadly across multiple neuropsychiatric disease conditions. In this paper, we address the problem of classifying schizophrenia patients with and without a history of AH, and healthy control (HC) subjects. To this end, we performed feature extraction from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data and applied machine learning classifiers, testing two kinds of neuroimaging features: (a) functional connectivity (FC) measures computed by lattice auto-associative memories (LAAM), and (b) local activity (LA) measures, including regional homogeneity (ReHo) and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). We show that it is possible to perform classification within each pair of subject groups with high accuracy. Discrimination between patients with and without lifetime AH was highest, while discrimination between schizophrenia patients and HC participants was worst, suggesting that classification according to the symptom dimension of AH may be more valid than discrimination on the basis of traditional diagnostic categories. FC measures seeded in right Heschl's gyrus (RHG) consistently showed stronger discriminative power than those seeded in left Heschl's gyrus (LHG), a finding that appears to support AH models focusing on right hemisphere abnormalities. The cortical brain localizations derived from the features with strong classification performance are consistent with proposed AH models, and include left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), parahippocampal gyri, the cingulate cortex, as well as several temporal and prefrontal cortical brain regions. Overall, the observed findings suggest that

  17. A Comprehensive Review of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: Lifetime Prevalence, Correlates and Mechanisms in Healthy and Clinical Individuals

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    Saskia ede Leede-Smith

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH has been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnaogogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s. This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example; the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the comparison of underlying

  18. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  19. A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leede-Smith, Saskia; Barkus, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the prevalence of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been documented across the lifespan in varied contexts, and with a range of potential long-term outcomes. Initially the emphasis focused on whether AVHs conferred risk for psychosis. However, recent research has identified significant differences in the presentation and outcomes of AVH in patients compared to those in non-clinical populations. For this reason, it has been suggested that auditory hallucinations are an entity by themselves and not necessarily indicative of transition along the psychosis continuum. This review will examine the presentation of auditory hallucinations across the life span, as well as in various clinical groups. The stages described include childhood, adolescence, adult non-clinical populations, hypnagogic/hypnopompic experiences, high schizotypal traits, schizophrenia, substance induced AVH, AVH in epilepsy, and AVH in the elderly. In children, need for care depends upon whether the child associates the voice with negative beliefs, appraisals and other symptoms of psychosis. This theme appears to carry right through to healthy voice hearers in adulthood, in which a negative impact of the voice usually only exists if the individual has negative experiences as a result of their voice(s). This includes features of the voices such as the negative content, frequency, and emotional valence as well as anxiety and depression, independently or caused by voices presence. It seems possible that the mechanisms which maintain AVH in non-clinical populations are different from those which are behind AVH presentations in psychotic illness. For example, the existence of maladaptive coping strategies in patient populations is one significant difference between clinical and non-clinical groups which is associated with a need for care. Whether or not these mechanisms start out the same and have differential trajectories is not yet evidenced. Future research needs to focus on the

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Compared with Non-specialized Therapy for Alleviating the Effect of Auditory Hallucinations in People with Reoccurring Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Laura; Xyrichis, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is recommended as a psychological intervention for those diagnosed with schizophrenia. The prevalence of auditory hallucinations is high among this group, many of whom are cared for by community mental health teams that may not have easy access to qualified CBT practitioners. This systematic review examined the evidence for the superiority of CBT compared to non-specialized therapy in alleviating auditory hallucinations in community patients with schizophrenia. Two RCTs met the inclusion criteria totaling 105 participants. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)-Positive Scale was the outcome measure examined. A meta-analysis revealed a pooled mean difference of -0.86 [95 % CI -2.38, 0.65] in favor of CBT, although this did not reach statistical significance. This systematic review concluded there is no clinically significant difference in the reduction of positive symptoms of schizophrenia when treated by CBT compared to a non-specialized therapy for adults experiencing auditory hallucinations.

  1. A synthesis of evidence on inhibitory control and auditory hallucinations based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC framework.

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    Johanna C. Badcock

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Institute of Mental Health initiative called the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC project aims to provide a new approach to understanding mental illness grounded in the fundamental domains of human behaviour and psychological functioning. To this end the RDoC framework encourages researchers and clinicians to think outside the [diagnostic]box, by studying symptoms, behaviours or biomarkers that cut across traditional mental illness categories. In this article we examine and discuss how the RDoC framework can improve our understanding of psychopathology by zeroing in on hallucinations- now widely recognized as a symptom that occurs in a range of clinical and non-clinical groups. We focus on a single domain of functioning - namely cognitive [inhibitory] control - and assimilate key findings structured around the basic RDoC units of analysis, which span the range from observable behaviour to molecular genetics. Our synthesis and critique of the literature provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emergence of auditory hallucinations, linked to the individual dynamics of inhibitory development before and after puberty; favours separate developmental trajectories for clinical and nonclinical hallucinations; yields new insights into co-occurring emotional and behavioural problems; and suggests some novel avenues for treatment.

  2. Targeting treatment-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia with fMRI-based neurofeedback – exploring different cases of schizophrenia

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    Miriam S. Dyck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs are a hallmark of schizophrenia and can significantly impair patients’ emotional, social, and occupational functioning. Despite progress in psychopharmacology, over 25% of schizophrenia patients suffer from treatment-resistant hallucinations. In the search for alternative treatment methods, neurofeedback (NF emerges as a promising therapy tool. NF based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI allows voluntarily change of the activity in a selected brain region – even in patients with schizophrenia. This study explored effects of NF on ongoing AVHs. The selected participants were trained in the self-regulation of activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a key monitoring region involved in generation and intensity modulation of AVHs. Using rt-fMRI, three right-handed patients, suffering from schizophrenia and ongoing, treatment-resistant AVHs, learned control over ACC activity on three separate days. The effect of NF training on hallucinations’ severity was assessed with the Auditory Vocal Hallucination Rating Scale (AVHRS and on the affective state – with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS.All patients yielded significant up-regulation of the ACC and reported subjective improvement in some aspects of AVHs (AVHRS such as disturbance and suffering from the voices. In general, mood (PANAS improved during NF training, though two patients reported worse mood after NF on the third day. ACC and reward system activity during NF learning and specific effects on mood and symptoms varied across the participants. None of them profited from the last training set in the prolonged 3-session training. Moreover, individual differences emerged in brain networks activated with NF and in symptom changes, which were related to the patients’ symptomatology and disease history.NF based on rt-fMRI seems a promising tool in therapy of AVHs. The patients, who suffered from continuous

  3. Reduced neuronal activity in language-related regions after transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for auditory verbal hallucinations.

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    Kindler, Jochen; Homan, Philipp; Jann, Kay; Federspiel, Andrea; Flury, Richard; Hauf, Martinus; Strik, Werner; Dierks, Thomas; Hubl, Daniela

    2013-03-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a novel therapeutic approach, used in patients with pharmacoresistant auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). To investigate the neurobiological effects of TMS on AVH, we measured cerebral blood flow with pseudo-continuous magnetic resonance-arterial spin labeling 20 ± 6 hours before and after TMS treatment. Thirty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were investigated. Fifteen patients received a 10-day TMS treatment to the left temporoparietal cortex, and 15 received the standard treatment. The stimulation location was chosen according to an individually determined language region determined by a functional magnetic resonance imaging language paradigm, which identified the sensorimotor language area, area Spt (sylvian parietotemporal), as the target region. TMS-treated patients showed positive clinical effects, which were indicated by a reduction in AVH scores (p ≤ .001). Cerebral blood flow was significantly decreased in the primary auditory cortex (p ≤ .001), left Broca's area (p ≤ .001), and cingulate gyrus (p ≤ .001). In control subjects, neither positive clinical effects nor cerebral blood flow decreases were detected. The decrease in cerebral blood flow in the primary auditory cortex correlated with the decrease in AVH scores (p ≤ .001). TMS reverses hyperactivity of language regions involved in the emergence of AVH. Area Spt acts as a gateway to the hallucination-generating cerebral network. Successful therapy corresponded to decreased cerebral blood flow in the primary auditory cortex, supporting its crucial role in triggering AVH and contributing to the physical quality of the false perceptions. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. External misattribution of internal thoughts and proneness to auditory hallucinations: the effect of emotional valence in the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm

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    Mari eKanemoto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that a tendency to externalize internal thought is related to auditory hallucinations or even proneness to auditory hallucinations (AHp in the general population. However, although auditory hallucinations are related to emotional phenomena, few studies have investigated the effect of emotional valence on the aforementioned relationship. In addition, we do not know what component of psychotic phenomena relate to externalizing bias. The current study replicated our previous research, which suggested that individual differences in auditory hallucination-like experiences are strongly correlated with the external misattribution of internal thoughts, conceptualized in terms of false memory, using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM paradigm. We found a significant relationship between experimental performance and total scores on the Launay–Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS. Among the LSHS factors, only vivid mental image, which is said to be a predictor of auditory hallucinations, was significantly related to experimental performance.We then investigated the potential effect of emotional valence using the DRM paradigm. The results indicate that participants with low scores on the LSHS (the low-AHp group in the current study showed an increased discriminability index (d' for positive words and a decreased d' for negative words. However, no effects of emotional valence were found for participants with high LSHS scores (high-AHp group. This study indicated that external misattribution of internal thoughts predicts AHp, and that the high-AHp group showed a smaller emotional valence effect in the DRM paradigm compared with the low-AHp group. We discuss this outcome from the perspective of the dual-process activation-monitoring framework in the DRM paradigm in regard to emotion-driven automatic thought in false memory.

  5. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

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    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  6. [Formed visual hallucination after excision of the right temporo parietal cystic meningioma--a case report].

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    Yoshimura, Masaki; Uchiyama, Yoshinori; Kaneko, Akira; Hayashi, Noriko; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Iwai, Yoshiyasu

    2010-08-01

    We report the case of a 64-year-old woman with cystic meningioma; this patients was otherwise healthy and experienced formed visual hallucinations after excision of the tumor. She experienced diplopia associated with metamorphopsia, which had persisted for 5 years only when she laid down and turned on her left side. After the excision of the convexity meningioma located in the right temporoparietal lobe, she experienced several types of formed visual hallucinations such as closet-like pictures, flowers sketched on stones, falling maple-like leaves, and moving or wriggling dwarves. She was alert and her visual field was normal; further, she did not experience delirium or seizures. She experienced these hallucinations only when she closed her eyes; these hallucinations persisted for 3 days after the operation. The patient illustrated her observations with beautiful sketches, and the mechanism of visual hallucinations was studied.

  7. Visual Hallucinations Due to Rivastigmine Transdermal Patch Application in Alzheimer's Disease; The First Case Report

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    Yıldız Değirmenci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rivastigmine is a well-known dual acting acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor, which is effective on behavioral and psychiatric symptoms including hallucinations, as well as cognitive symptoms of dementia. The most common adverse effects of rivastigmine related to cholinergic stimulation in brain and peripheral tissues are gastrointestinal, cardiorespiratory, extrapyramidal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal symptoms, sleep disturbances, and skin irritations with the transdermal patch form in particular. Despite to the previous reports revealing the improving effects of the drug on hallucinations, we presented a-80 year old women with Alzheimer's disease suffering from visual hallucinations whose complaints began with rivastigmine treatment. Since the patient had recent memory disturbance without any behavioral and/or psychiatric symptoms before rivastigmine administration, and visual hallucinations disappeared with the discontinuation of the drug, visual hallucinations were attributed to rivastigmine.

  8. Auditory verbal hallucinations are related to cortical thinning in the left middle temporal gyrus of patients with schizophrenia.

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    Cui, Y; Liu, B; Song, M; Lipnicki, D M; Li, J; Xie, S; Chen, Y; Li, P; Lu, L; Lv, L; Wang, H; Yan, H; Yan, J; Zhang, H; Zhang, D; Jiang, T

    2018-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are one of the most common and severe symptoms of schizophrenia, but the neuroanatomical abnormalities underlying AVHs are not well understood. The present study aims to investigate whether AVHs are associated with cortical thinning. Participants were schizophrenia patients from four centers across China, 115 with AVHs and 93 without AVHs, as well as 261 healthy controls. All received 3 T T1-weighted brain scans, and whole brain vertex-wise cortical thickness was compared across groups. Correlations between AVH severity and cortical thickness were also determined. The left middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) was significantly thinner in schizophrenia patients with AVHs than in patients without AVHs and healthy controls. Inferences were made using a false discovery rate approach with a threshold at p < 0.05. Left MTG thickness did not differ between patients without AVHs and controls. These results were replicated by a meta-analysis showing them to be consistent across the four centers. Cortical thickness of the left MTG was also found to be inversely correlated with hallucination severity across all schizophrenia patients. The results of this multi-center study suggest that an abnormally thin left MTG could be involved in the pathogenesis of AVHs in schizophrenia.

  9. Associations between nonauditory hallucinations, dissociation, and childhood adversity in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longden, Eleanor; House, Allan O; Waterman, Mitch G

    2016-01-01

    Although repeated associations have been found between adversity exposure (particularly exposure to childhood sexual abuse), dissociation, and auditory hallucinations in the context of psychosis, there is little comparable research examining hallucinations in other modalities. This study aimed to determine whether cumulative adversity exposure influences the likelihood of experiencing visual, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory hallucinations among psychosis patients and whether measures of dissociation are significantly associated with nonauditory hallucinations when exposure to childhood adversity and psychological distress are adjusted for. Self-report measures and a retrospective case-control design were applied to assess nonauditory hallucinations, dissociation, psychological distress, and childhood adversity exposure in a sample of first-episode psychosis patients reporting nonauditory hallucinations (n = 36) and controls from the same clinical population without nonauditory hallucinations (n = 31). Case participants reported higher levels of dissociation, psychological distress, and exposure to childhood rape than the control group. Dissociation remained significantly associated with nonauditory hallucinations when we adjusted for childhood sexual abuse, other types of childhood adversity, and a combined measure of emotional distress. Indication of a dose-response relationship was detected, in that total number of adversities was significantly associated with reporting more than one modality of nonauditory hallucination. Observed associations between auditory hallucinations and dissociation in psychosis may extend to other hallucination modalities. It is suggested that more research attention be paid to the etiology and impact of nonauditory hallucinations in psychosis samples.

  10. [The Effects of Auditory Hallucination Simulation on Empathy, Knowledge, Social Distance, and Attitudes Toward Patients With Mental Illness Among Undergraduate Students: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Feng; Lin, Ching-Lan Esther

    2017-10-01

    The negative attitudes of the general public toward mental illness frequently influence the integration of mental illness patients into the community. Auditory hallucination simulation may be considered as a creative teaching strategy to improve the attitudes of learners toward mental illness. However, the empirical effects of auditory hallucination simulation to change the negative attitudes toward mental illness remains uncertain. To compare and analyze, using a systematic review and meta-analysis, the effectiveness of auditory hallucination simulation in improving empathy, knowledge, social distance, and attitudes toward mental illness in undergraduates. A search using the keywords "auditory hallucination" and "simulation" and the 4 outcome indicators of empathy, knowledge, social distance, and attitudes toward mental illness was conducted to identify related articles published between 2008 and 2016 in 6 Chinese and English electronic databases, including Cochrane Library, EBSCO-CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Airiti Library. Research quality was appraised using the Modified Jadad Scale (MJS), the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Level of Evidence (OCEBM LoE), and the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Eleven studies were recruited, and 7 studies with sufficient data were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that hallucination simulation significantly improved the empathy and knowledge of participants, with respective effect sizes of 0.63 (95% CI [0.21, 1.05]) and 0.69 (95% CI [0.43-0.94]). However, this intervention also increased social distance, with an effect size of 0.60 (95% CI [0.01, 1.19]), and did not change attitudes toward mental illness significantly, with an effect size of 0.33 (95% CI [-0.11, 0.77]). Auditory hallucination simulation is an effective teaching strategy for improving the empathy and knowledge of undergraduates. However, related evidence for the effects of social distance and attitudes toward mental illness

  11. Inner Speech and Clarity of Self-Concept in Thought Disorder and Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Paulo; Sellwood, William; Spray, Amy; Fernyhough, Charles; Bentall, Richard P

    2016-12-01

    Eighty patients and thirty controls were interviewed using one interview that promoted personal disclosure and another about everyday topics. Speech was scored using the Thought, Language and Communication scale (TLC). All participants completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS) and the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ). Patients scored lower than comparisons on the SCCS. Low scores were associated the disorganized dimension of TD. Patients also scored significantly higher on condensed and other people in inner speech, but not on dialogical or evaluative inner speech. The poverty of speech dimension of TD was associated with less dialogical inner speech, other people in inner speech, and less evaluative inner speech. Hallucinations were significantly associated with more other people in inner speech and evaluative inner speech. Clarity of self-concept and qualities of inner speech are differentially associated with dimensions of TD. The findings also support inner speech models of hallucinations.

  12. Inner Speech and Clarity of Self-Concept in Thought Disorder and Auditory-Verbal Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Paulo; Sellwood, William; Spray, Amy; Fernyhough, Charles; Bentall, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eighty patients and thirty controls were interviewed using one interview that promoted personal disclosure and another about everyday topics. Speech was scored using the Thought, Language and Communication scale (TLC). All participants completed the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS) and the Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ). Patients scored lower than comparisons on the SCCS. Low scores were associated the disorganized dimension of TD. Patients also scored significantly higher on condensed and other people in inner speech, but not on dialogical or evaluative inner speech. The poverty of speech dimension of TD was associated with less dialogical inner speech, other people in inner speech, and less evaluative inner speech. Hallucinations were significantly associated with more other people in inner speech and evaluative inner speech. Clarity of self-concept and qualities of inner speech are differentially associated with dimensions of TD. The findings also support inner speech models of hallucinations. PMID:27898489

  13. Five year follow-up of non-psychotic adults with frequent auditory verbal hallucinations: are they still healthy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daalman, K; Diederen, K M J; Hoekema, L; van Lutterveld, R; Sommer, I E C

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we described 103 adults (mean age 41 years) who experienced frequent, auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), in the absence of a need for mental healthcare. Importantly, these adults were largely past the peak incidence age for psychosis (15-35 years). It is unclear if these older individuals with AVH are still at increased risk for psychosis or other psychopathology. To address this question, we conducted a 5-year follow-up of previously included individuals (103 with AVH, 60 controls). Eighty-one adults with AVH (78.6%) and forty-nine controls (81.7%) could be contacted and were willing to participate. Participants were screened for psychosis and a need for mental healthcare at follow-up using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History interview (CASH). Need for mental healthcare was defined as a clinical diagnosis as identified using the CASH and/or treatment by a mental healthcare specialist. Phenomenology of AVH was assessed with the PSYRATS Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale. Five individuals with AVH (6.2%) had developed psychosis and 32 (39.5%) had developed a need for mental healthcare. Voice-related distress at baseline significantly predicted need for mental healthcare. AVH persisted in most individuals (86.4%), without significant changes in phenomenology. None of the controls had developed psychotic symptoms, and need for mental healthcare (n = 6, 12.2%) was significantly lower in this group. These findings suggest that frequent AVH in non-psychotic adults past the peak incidence age for psychosis constitute a rather static symptom and that individuals with AVH may be best viewed as situated on a need for care continuum.

  14. Visual hallucinations associated with varenicline: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidoo B Mahendri

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Varenicline is widely used for smoking cessation. It has shown efficacy over placebo and bupropion in manufacturer-sponsored trials. Those with mental illness were excluded from these trials. There are case reports of exacerbation of mental illness and development of psychiatric symptoms with varenicline use. Case presentation A 61-year-old male Caucasian being treated for post-traumatic stress disorder, depression not otherwise specified and alcohol dependence, was prescribed varenicline while he was in a post-traumatic stress disorder/alcohol dual diagnosis treatment program. He developed visual hallucinations, which became worse with titration of the medication. These symptoms resolved upon discontinuation of varenicline. Conclusion Patients with mental illness have a higher incidence of nicotine dependence, and attempts should be made for smoking cessation. Varenicline has not been widely tested in this population. There are reports of exacerbation of mental illness, and probable causation of psychiatric symptoms in the mentally ill. Providers should be aware of this possibility and advise their patients appropriately.

  15. Visual Hallucinations in First-Episode Psychosis: Association with Childhood Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solesvik, Martine; Joa, Inge; Larsen, Tor Ketil; Langeveld, Johannes; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Bjørnestad, Jone; Anda, Liss Gøril; Gisselgård, Jens; Hegelstad, Wenche Ten Velden; Brønnick, Kolbjørn

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations are a core diagnostic criterion for psychotic disorders and have been investigated with regard to its association with childhood trauma in first-episode psychosis samples. Research has largely focused on auditory hallucinations, while specific investigations of visual hallucinations in first-episode psychosis remain scarce. The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of visual hallucinations, and to explore the association between visual hallucination and childhood trauma in a first-episode psychosis sample. Subjects were included from TIPS-2, a first episode psychosis study in south Rogaland, Norway. Based on the medical journal descriptions of the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), a separate score for visual and auditory hallucinations was created (N = 204). Patients were grouped according to hallucination severity (none, mild, and psychotic hallucinations) and multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with visual hallucination group. Visual hallucinations of a psychotic nature were reported by 26.5% of patients. The experience of childhood interpersonal trauma increased the likelihood of having psychotic visual hallucinations. Visual hallucinations are common in first-episode psychosis, and are related to childhood interpersonal trauma.

  16. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de la Iglesia-Vaya

    2014-01-01

    These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH.

  17. Increased psychophysiological parameters of attention in non-psychotic individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Oranje, Bob; Abramovic, Lucija

    2010-01-01

    with an auditory oddball paradigm in 18 non-psychotic individuals with AVH and 18 controls. RESULTS: P300 amplitude was increased in the AVH group as compared to controls, reflecting superior effortful attention. A trend in the same direction was found for processing negativity. No significant differences were...... found for mismatch negativity. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our expectations, non-psychotic individuals with AVH show increased rather than decreased psychophysiological measures of effortful attention compared to healthy controls, refuting a pivotal role of decreased effortful attention...

  18. A clinical study of auditory hallucination by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyobu, Tsuyoshi; Inao, Gyoshun; Ii, Masayasu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Hisada, Kinichi.

    1988-01-01

    SPECT images with N-isopropyl-p-I-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) were reviewed in 24 right-handed patients with hallucination (H Group), comprising schizophrenic disorder (20), alcohol hallucinosis (2), epileptic hallucinosis (one), and organic mental disorder (one), and 50 subjects without hallucination (non-H Group), consisting of 39 patients with mental or organic central nervous system disorder and 11 healthy volunteers. Early SPECT images showed an increased uptake of IMP in the auditory area and angular gyrus in 23 patients of H Group and 3 persons of non-H Group. A similar uptake of IMP was seen on delayed SPECT images in 12 patients of H Group and 4 patients with a history of hallucination of non-H Group. There were no SPECT findings specific to diseases. For schizophrenic patients, increased and decreased uptakes of IMP were seen in the striatolimbic region and in the bilateral frontal lobes, respectively, irrespective of hallucination. Factors contributing to increased uptake of IMP are discussed. (Namekawa, K.) 84 refs

  19. Abnormal Degree Centrality of Bilateral Putamen and Left Superior Frontal Gyrus in Schizophrenia with Auditory Hallucinations: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shi-Hao; Huang, Huan; Zou, Ji-Lin; Chen, Jun; Jiang, Tian-Zi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-12-05

    Dysconnectivity hypothesis of schizophrenia has been increasingly emphasized. Recent researches showed that this dysconnectivity might be related to occurrence of auditory hallucination (AH). However, there is still no consistent conclusion. This study aimed to explore intrinsic dysconnectivity pattern of whole-brain functional networks at voxel level in schizophrenic with AH. Auditory hallucinated patients group (n = 42 APG), no hallucinated patients group (n = 42 NPG) and normal controls (n = 84 NCs) were analyzed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity metrics index (degree centrality [DC]) across the entire brain networks was calculated and evaluated among three groups. DC decreased in the bilateral putamen and increased in the left superior frontal gyrus in all the patients. However, in APG, the changes of DC were more obvious compared with NPG. Symptomology scores were negatively correlated with the DC of bilateral putamen in all patients. AH score of APG positively correlated with the DC in left superior frontal gyrus but negatively correlated with the DC in bilateral putamen. Our findings corroborated that schizophrenia was characterized by functional dysconnectivity, and the abnormal DC in bilateral putamen and left superior frontal gyrus might be crucial in the occurrence of AH.

  20. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Longden, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: 'hearing voices') are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual's personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed 'dissociative AVH') and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called 'psychotic AVH') needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  1. Auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder: common phenomenology, common cause, common interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eMccarthy-Jones

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH: ‘hearing voices’ are found in both schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this paper we first demonstrate that AVH in these two diagnoses share a qualitatively similar phenomenology. We then show that the presence of AVH in schizophrenia is often associated with earlier exposure to traumatic/emotionally overwhelming events, as it is by definition in PTSD. We next argue that the content of AVH relates to earlier traumatic events in a similar way in both PTSD and schizophrenia, most commonly having direct or indirect thematic links to emotionally overwhelming events, rather than being direct re-experiencing. We then propose, following cognitive models of PTSD, that the reconstructive nature of memory may be able to account for the nature of these associations between trauma and AVH content, as may threat-hypervigilance and the individual’s personal goals. We conclude that a notable subset of people diagnosed with schizophrenia with AVH are having phenomenologically and aetiologically identical experiences to PTSD patients who hear voices. As such we propose that the iron curtain between AVH in PTSD (often termed ‘dissociative AVH’ and AVH in schizophrenia (so-called ‘psychotic AVH’ needs to be torn down, as these are often the same experience. One implication of this is that these trauma-related AVH require a common trans-diagnostic treatment strategy. Whilst antipsychotics are already increasingly being used to treat AVH in PTSD, we argue for the centrality of trauma-based interventions for trauma-based AVH in both PTSD and in people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  2. Glutamate in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia: A 1H MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurčić-Blake, Branislava; Bais, Leonie; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Pijnenborg, Hendrika Maria; Knegtering, Henderikus; Liemburg, Edith; Aleman, André

    2017-08-01

    Glutamatergic models of psychosis propose that dysfunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and associated excess of glutamate, may underlie psychotic experiences in people with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the specific relation between glutamate and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with psychosis. In this study, levels of glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the left lateral prefrontal lobe were determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) to calculate their association with AVH. Sixty-seven patients with schizophrenia and thirty healthy control participants (HC) underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to estimate levels of Glx in the white matter of the left prefrontal lobe. The spectrum was estimated from an 8mm 3 voxel placed in the left lateral prefrontal region, belonging to both the cingulum and forceps minor. Patients with lifetime AVH (AVH group; n=45) and patients without lifetime AVH were compared (NoAVH group; n=22) to control participants. Levels of Glx were significantly different between the groups (F(2,94)=5.27, p=0.007). Planned comparisons showed that higher Glx levels were found in control participants than in the total patient group (p=0.010). However, patients with lifetime AVH had higher levels of Glx compared to patients without lifetime AVH (p=0.019). Creatin levels were similar in all three groups. We found no association between Glx and the severity of symptoms (item P3 of the PANSS or PANSS positive subscale). The higher Glx levels in patients with lifetime AVH as compared to patients without lifetime AVH suggest a mediating role for Glx in AVH. Our results are consistent with a previous study that found similar decreased levels of Glx in patients with schizophrenia, and increased levels in an AVH group as compared to a NoAVH group. The role of the glutamatergic system deserves further investigation, for example in different brain regions and in relation to clinical variables

  3. Hallucination- and speech-specific hypercoupling in frontotemporal auditory and language networks in schizophrenia using combined task-based fMRI data: An fBIRN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Katie M; Woodward, Todd S

    2018-04-01

    Hypercoupling of activity in speech-perception-specific brain networks has been proposed to play a role in the generation of auditory-verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia; however, it is unclear whether this hypercoupling extends to nonverbal auditory perception. We investigated this by comparing schizophrenia patients with and without AVHs, and healthy controls, on task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data combining verbal speech perception (SP), inner verbal thought generation (VTG), and nonverbal auditory oddball detection (AO). Data from two previously published fMRI studies were simultaneously analyzed using group constrained principal component analysis for fMRI (group fMRI-CPCA), which allowed for comparison of task-related functional brain networks across groups and tasks while holding the brain networks under study constant, leading to determination of the degree to which networks are common to verbal and nonverbal perception conditions, and which show coordinated hyperactivity in hallucinations. Three functional brain networks emerged: (a) auditory-motor, (b) language processing, and (c) default-mode (DMN) networks. Combining the AO and sentence tasks allowed the auditory-motor and language networks to separately emerge, whereas they were aggregated when individual tasks were analyzed. AVH patients showed greater coordinated activity (deactivity for DMN regions) than non-AVH patients during SP in all networks, but this did not extend to VTG or AO. This suggests that the hypercoupling in AVH patients in speech-perception-related brain networks is specific to perceived speech, and does not extend to perceived nonspeech or inner verbal thought generation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Brain functional connectivity during the experience of thought blocks in schizophrenic patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulos, Elias; Koutsoukos, Elias; Maillis, Antonis; Papadimitriou, George N; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-03-01

    Thought blocks (TBs) are characterized by regular interruptions in the stream of thought. Outward signs are abrupt and repeated interruptions in the flow of conversation or actions while subjective experience is that of a total and uncontrollable emptying of the mind. In the very limited bibliography regarding TB, the phenomenon is thought to be conceptualized as a disturbance of consciousness that can be attributed to stoppages of continuous information processing due to an increase in the volume of information to be processed. In an attempt to investigate potential expression of the phenomenon on the functional properties of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, an EEG study was contacted in schizophrenic patients with persisting auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) who additionally exhibited TBs. In this case, we hypothesized that the persistent and dense AVHs could serve the role of an increased information flow that the brain is unable to process, a condition that is perceived by the person as TB. Phase synchronization analyses performed on EEG segments during the experience of TBs showed that synchrony values exhibited a long-range common mode of coupling (grouped behavior) among the left temporal area and the remaining central and frontal brain areas. These common synchrony-fluctuation schemes were observed for 0.5 to 2s and were detected in a 4-s window following the estimated initiation of the phenomenon. The observation was frequency specific and detected in the broad alpha band region (6-12Hz). The introduction of synchrony entropy (SE) analysis applied on the cumulative synchrony distribution showed that TB states were characterized by an explicit preference of the system to be functioned at low values of synchrony, while the synchrony values are broadly distributed during the recovery state. Our results indicate that during TB states, the phase locking of several brain areas were converged uniformly in a narrow band of low synchrony values and in a

  5. Auditory Hallucinations in Polyglots*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-12-18

    Dec 18, 1971 ... that they were false. Schizophrenics on ... memory. Verbal as well as non-verbal thinking is em- ployed by everyone, and probably is essential in the forma- ... qualities or emotions such as anger or joy or threats from the voice ...

  6. Superior Sagittal Sinus Thrombosis Presenting with Hallucinations in the Puerperium: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zylfije Hundozi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is an uncommon cause of stroke presenting with varied presentation patterns. We report a case of a 21-year-old woman with superior sagittal sinus (SSS thrombosis (SSST developing after childbirth, presenting with visual hallucinations, severe headache, and tonic-clonic seizures. Time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA demonstrated the presence of thrombus in SSS. She was treated with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH followed by warfarin. She had excellent recovery a few weeks after admission and was regularly followed up. Although this condition can be presented with different neurological symptoms, it does not typically present with hallucinations. We suggest that CSVT should be suspected even when a patient presents with an atypical picture in a category of patients at higher risk.

  7. Predicting compliance with command hallucinations: anger, impulsivity and appraisals of voices' power and intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Sandra; Birchwood, Max; Twist, Laura; Tarrier, Nicholas; Emsley, Richard; Haddock, Gillian

    2013-06-01

    Command hallucinations are experienced by 33-74% of people who experience voices, with varying levels of compliance reported. Compliance with command hallucinations can result in acts of aggression, violence, suicide and self-harm; the typical response however is non-compliance or appeasement. Two factors associated with such dangerous behaviours are anger and impulsivity, however few studies have examined their relationship with compliance to command hallucinations. The current study aimed to examine the roles of anger and impulsivity on compliance with command hallucinations in people diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. The study was a cross-sectional design and included individuals who reported auditory hallucinations in the past month. Subjects completed a variety of self-report questionnaire measures. Thirty-two people experiencing command hallucinations, from both in-patient and community settings, were included. The tendency to appraise the voice as powerful, to be impulsive, to experience anger and to regulate anger were significantly associated with compliance with command hallucinations to do harm. Two factors emerged as significant independent predictors of compliance with command hallucinations; omnipotence and impulsivity. An interaction between omnipotence and compliance with commands, via a link with impulsivity, is considered and important clinical factors in the assessment of risk when working with clients experiencing command hallucinations are recommended. The data is highly suggestive and warrants further investigation with a larger sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of low frequency rTMS treatment on brain networks for inner speech in patients with schizophrenia and auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Leonie; Liemburg, Edith; Vercammen, Ans; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2017-08-01

    Efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) targeting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remains under debate. We assessed the influence of a 1Hz rTMS treatment on neural networks involved in a cognitive mechanism proposed to subserve AVH. Patients with schizophrenia (N=24) experiencing medication-resistant AVH completed a 10-day 1Hz rTMS treatment. Participants were randomized to active stimulation of the left or bilateral TPJ, or sham stimulation. The effects of rTMS on neural networks were investigated with an inner speech task during fMRI. Changes within and between neural networks were analyzed using Independent Component Analysis. rTMS of the left and bilateral TPJ areas resulted in a weaker network contribution of the left supramarginal gyrus to the bilateral fronto-temporal network. Left-sided rTMS resulted in stronger network contributions of the right superior temporal gyrus to the auditory-sensorimotor network, right inferior gyrus to the left fronto-parietal network, and left middle frontal gyrus to the default mode network. Bilateral rTMS was associated with a predominant inhibitory effect on network contribution. Sham stimulation showed different patterns of change compared to active rTMS. rTMS of the left temporo-parietal region decreased the contribution of the left supramarginal gyrus to the bilateral fronto-temporal network, which may reduce the likelihood of speech intrusions. On the other hand, left rTMS appeared to increase the contribution of functionally connected regions involved in perception, cognitive control and self-referential processing. These findings hint to potential neural mechanisms underlying rTMS for hallucinations but need corroboration in larger samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clomiphene citrate-induced visual hallucinations: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, Ramesh; Gujral, Gaganjeet Singh; Gurav, Prachi; Tibrewal, Shailja; Mathur, Umang

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common cause of chronic anovulation and infertility in otherwise healthy fertile couples. Clomiphene citrate is used as a first-line ovulation induction therapy in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Clomiphene citrate can cause both systemic and ocular side effects. We report a rare side effect of illusory palinopsias in a patient with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with ovulation induction therapy with clomiphene citrate, and emphasize the n...

  10. Human-Avatar Symbiosis for the Treatment of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia through Virtual/Augmented Reality and Brain-Computer Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Sotos, Patricia; González, Pascual; Ricarte, Jorge J; Latorre, José M; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This perspective paper faces the future of alternative treatments that take advantage of a social and cognitive approach with regards to pharmacological therapy of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia. AVH are the perception of voices in the absence of auditory stimulation and represents a severe mental health symptom. Virtual/augmented reality (VR/AR) and brain computer interfaces (BCI) are technologies that are growing more and more in different medical and psychological applications. Our position is that their combined use in computer-based therapies offers still unforeseen possibilities for the treatment of physical and mental disabilities. This is why, the paper expects that researchers and clinicians undergo a pathway toward human-avatar symbiosis for AVH by taking full advantage of new technologies. This outlook supposes to address challenging issues in the understanding of non-pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia-related disorders and the exploitation of VR/AR and BCI to achieve a real human-avatar symbiosis.

  11. A questionnaire-based (UM-PDHQ study of hallucinations in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nation Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallucinations occur in 20–40% of PD patients and have been associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes (i.e., nursing home placement, increased mortality. Hallucinations, like other non-motor features of PD, are not well recognized in routine primary/secondary clinical practice. So far, there has been no instrument for uniform characterization of hallucinations in PD. To this end, we developed the University of Miami Parkinson's disease Hallucinations Questionnaire (UM-PDHQ that allows comprehensive assessment of hallucinations in clinical or research settings. Methods The UM-PDHQ is composed of 6 quantitative and 14 qualitative items. For our study PD patients of all ages and in all stages of the disease were recruited over an 18-month period. The UPDRS, MMSE, and Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories were used for comparisons. Results and Discussion Seventy consecutive PD patients were included in the analyses. Thirty-one (44.3% were classified as hallucinators and 39 as non-hallucinators. No significant group differences were observed in terms of demographics, disease characteristics, stage, education, depressive/anxiety scores or cognitive functioning (MMSE between hallucinators and non-hallucinators. Single mode hallucinations were reported in 20/31 (visual/14, auditory/4, olfactory/2 whereas multiple modalities were reported in 11/31 patients. The most common hallucinatory experience was a whole person followed by small animals, insects and reptiles. Conclusion Using the UM-PDHQ, we were able to define the key characteristics of hallucinations in PD in our cohort. Future directions include the validation of the quantitative part of the questionnaire than will serve as a rating scale for severity of hallucinations.

  12. Increased amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus activation in schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations : An fMRI study using independent component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose Escarti, Maria; de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Robles, Montserrat; Carbonell, Jose; Jose Lull, Juan; Garcia-Marti, Gracian; Vicente Manjon, Jose; Jesus Aguilar, Eduardo; Aleman, Andre; Sanjuan, Julio

    Objective: Hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia have strong emotional connotations. Functional neuroimaging techniques have been widely used to study brain activity in patients with schizophrenia with hallucinations or emotional impairments. However, few of these Studies have investigated

  13. Glutamate in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia : A (1)H MRS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curcic-Blake, Branisalava; Bais, Leonie; Sibeijn-Kuiper, Anita; Pijnenborg, Hendrika Maria; Knegtering, Henderikus; Liemburg, Edith; Aleman, André

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Glutamatergic models of psychosis propose that dysfunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and associated excess of glutamate, may underlie psychotic experiences in people with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the specific relation between glutamate and auditory

  14. Distinct pattern of cerebral blood flow alterations specific to schizophrenics experiencing auditory verbal hallucinations with and without insight: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Rixing; Huang, Jiangjie; Jiang, Deguo; Lin, Xiaodong; Ma, Xiaolei; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2018-01-23

    Schizophrenia is associated with widespread and complex cerebral blood flow (CBF) disturbance. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and insight are the core symptoms of schizophrenia. However, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies have assessed the CBF characteristics of the AVH suffered by schizophrenic patients with and without insight. Based on our previous findings, Using a 3D pseudo-continuous ASL (pcASL) technique, we investigated the differences in AVH-related CBF alterations in schizophrenia patients with and without insight. We used statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) and statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM13) to perform the fMRI analysis. We found that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight showed an increased CBF in the left temporal pole and a decreased CBF in the right middle frontal gyrus when compared to AVH-schizophrenia patients with insight. Our novel findings suggest that AVH-schizophrenia patients without insight possess a more complex CBF disturbance. Simultaneously, our findings also incline to support the idea that the CBF aberrant in some specific brain regions may be the common neural basis of insight and AVH. Our findings support the mostly current hypotheses regarding AVH to some extent. Although our findings come from a small sample, it provide the evidence that indicate us to conduct a larger study to thoroughly explore the mechanisms of schizophrenia, especially the core symptoms of AVHs and insight.

  15. Discharging the voices : Non-invasive brain stimulation as a treatment for hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuite-Koops, Sanne

    2018-01-01

    Hallucinations are a common and disturbing symptom in psychotic disorders, among which auditory hallucinations are most frequently seen; 60 to 70% of patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder experience this type of hallucinations. These hallucinations are often in the form of negative and

  16. Minds on replay: musical hallucinations and their relationship to neurological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Erin C; Josephs, Keith A

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of musical hallucinations, in which individuals perceive music in the absence of an external auditory stimulus, has been described sparingly in the literature through small case reports and series. Musical hallucinations have been linked to multiple associated conditions, including psychiatric and neurologic disease, brain lesions, drug effect, and hearing impairment. This study aimed to review the demographics of subjects with musical hallucinations and to determine the prevalence of neurological disorders, particularly neurodegenerative disease. Through the Mayo medical record, 393 subjects with musical hallucinations were identified and divided into five categories based on comorbid conditions that have been associated with musical hallucinations: neurological, psychiatric, structural, drug effect and not otherwise classifiable. Variables, including hearing impairment and the presence of visual and other auditory hallucinations, were evaluated independently in all five groups. The mean age at onset of the hallucinations was 56 years, ranging from 18 to 98 years, and 65.4% of the subjects were female. Neurological disease and focal brain lesions were found in 25% and 9% of the total subjects, respectively. Sixty-five subjects were identified with a neurodegenerative disorder, with the Lewy body disorders being the most common. Visual hallucinations were more common in the group with neurological disease compared to the psychiatric, structural, and not otherwise classifiable groups (P < 0.001), whereas auditory hallucinations were more common in the psychiatric group compared to all other groups (P < 0.001). Structural lesions associated with musical hallucinations involved both hemispheres with a preference towards the left, and all but two included the temporal lobe. Hearing impairment was common, particularly in the not otherwise classifiable category where 67.2% had documented hearing impairment, more than in any other group (P < 0.001). Those

  17. Real-time fMRI neurofeedback to down-regulate superior temporal gyrus activity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; Giampietro, Vincent; O'Daly, Owen; Lam, Sheut-Ling; Barker, Gareth J; Rubia, Katya; McGuire, Philip; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Allen, Paul

    2018-02-12

    Neurocognitive models and previous neuroimaging work posit that auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) arise due to increased activity in speech-sensitive regions of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG). Here, we examined if patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and AVH could be trained to down-regulate STG activity using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF). We also examined the effects of rtfMRI-NF training on functional connectivity between the STG and other speech and language regions. Twelve patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH were recruited to participate in the study and were trained to down-regulate STG activity using rtfMRI-NF, over four MRI scanner visits during a 2-week training period. STG activity and functional connectivity were compared pre- and post-training. Patients successfully learnt to down-regulate activity in their left STG over the rtfMRI-NF training. Post- training, patients showed increased functional connectivity between the left STG, the left inferior prefrontal gyrus (IFG) and the inferior parietal gyrus. The post-training increase in functional connectivity between the left STG and IFG was associated with a reduction in AVH symptoms over the training period. The speech-sensitive region of the left STG is a suitable target region for rtfMRI-NF in patients with SCZ and treatment-refractory AVH. Successful down-regulation of left STG activity can increase functional connectivity between speech motor and perception regions. These findings suggest that patients with AVH have the ability to alter activity and connectivity in speech and language regions, and raise the possibility that rtfMRI-NF training could present a novel therapeutic intervention in SCZ.

  18. Visual Hallucinations in a Patient with Horner's Syndrome Secondary to Internal Carotid Dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Amardeep; Mortzos, Panteleimon; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old female presented with post-ganglionic Horner's syndrome. In addition to the classical symptoms of Horner's syndrome, the patient reported experiencing frightening complex visual and auditory hallucinations on two different occasions. Magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum...

  19. A differentiating empirical linguistic analysis of dreamer activity in reports of EEG-controlled REM-dreams and hypnagogic hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Frenzel, Clemens; Voss, Ursula

    2013-09-01

    We present Activity Analysis as a new method for the quantification of subjective reports of altered states of consciousness with regard to the indicated level of simulated motor activity. Empirical linguistic activity analysis was conducted with dream reports conceived immediately after EEG-controlled periods of hypnagogic hallucinations and REM-sleep in the sleep laboratory. Reports of REM-dreams exhibited a significantly higher level of simulated physical dreamer activity, while hypnagogic hallucinations appear to be experienced mostly from the point of passive observer. This study lays the groundwork for clinical research on the level of simulated activity in pathologically altered states of subjective experience, for example in the REM-dreams of clinically depressed patients, or in intrusions and dreams of patients diagnosed with PTSD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural covariance in the hallucinating brain: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modinos, Gemma; Vercammen, Ans; Mechelli, Andrea; Knegtering, Henderikus; McGuire, Philip K.; Aleman, André

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies have indicated that a number of cortical regions express altered patterns of structural covariance in schizophrenia. The relation between these alterations and specific psychotic symptoms is yet to be investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry to examine regional grey matter volumes and structural covariance associated with severity of auditory verbal hallucinations. Methods We applied optimized voxel-based morphometry to volumetric magnetic resonance imaging data from 26 patients with medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs); statistical inferences were made at p < 0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Results Grey matter volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus was positively correlated with severity of AVHs. Hallucination severity influenced the pattern of structural covariance between this region and the left superior/middle temporal gyri, the right inferior frontal gyrus and hippocampus, and the insula bilaterally. Limitations The results are based on self-reported severity of auditory hallucinations. Complementing with a clinician-based instrument could have made the findings more compelling. Future studies would benefit from including a measure to control for other symptoms that may covary with AVHs and for the effects of antipsychotic medication. Conclusion The results revealed that overall severity of AVHs modulated cortical intercorrelations between frontotemporal regions involved in language production and verbal monitoring, supporting the critical role of this network in the pathophysiology of hallucinations. PMID:19949723

  1. Effects of low frequency repetitive transcrinail magnetic stimulation on auditory hallucination in patients with schizophrenia%低频重复经颅磁刺激治疗精神分裂症患者的顽固性幻听

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权文香; 周东丰; 王向群; 乔宏; 赵志宇; 张五芳; 任艳萍; 谭云龙; 王志仁; 田菊; 杨淑珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects and safety of low frequency repetitive transcrinail magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on obstinate auditory hallucination in schizophrenia patients. Methods: Totally 122 schizophrenia patients with obstinate hallucination who met the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-FV) from outpatient and inpatient department They were randomly allocated to receive 1 Hz (n =88,80%MT) or sham (n = 34) rTMS on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for 20 sessions (5 session per week and two weeks' break after 10 sessions). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Audi-tory Hallucination Rating Scale( AHRS) and Clinical Global Impressions Scale( CGI) were used to assess the effect of rTMS on clinical features. Subjects in lHz group were followed up in time point of 3rd, 6th and 9th month after treatment Results: Totally 108 patients finished 20 treatment sessions. There were no significant differences between two groups in scores of PANSS, AHRS, CGI at any time point of treatment ( Ps > 0. 05). Meanwhile, in patients with course of disease less than 10 years [ (16. 2 ±4. 9 vs. 20. 3 ±4. 0) ] and 10 - 20 years [ (19. 2 ± 5. 5 vs. 23. 1 ± 6. 5], the AHRS scores were significantly lower in 1 Hz group than in the sham group (Ps < 0. 05). There was no other side effect complaints, except that 4 patients reported headache in treatment Conclusion: It suggests that 1 Hz repetitive transcrinail magnetic stimulation is a safe approach showing efficacy on obstinate auditory hallucination in schizophrenic patients whose course of disease are less than 20 years.%目的:探讨左背外侧前额叶低频重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗精神分裂症患者顽固性幻听的临床疗效.方法:本研究为随机双盲对照研究.根据美国精神障碍诊断统计手册第4版( DSM-Ⅳ)的诊断标准,选取122例伴顽固性幻听的精神分裂症患者按2∶1随机分为治疗组(n=88)

  2. Feasibility and Clinical Utility of High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in the Treatment of Persistent Hallucinations in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, A; Shivakumar, V; Chhabra, H; Parlikar, R; Sreeraj, V S; Dinakaran, D; Narayanaswamy, J C; Venkatasubramanian, G

    2017-12-01

    Persistent auditory verbal hallucination is a clinically significant problem in schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest a promising role for add-on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in treatment. An optimised version of tDCS, namely high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS), uses smaller electrodes arranged in a 4x1 ring configuration and may offer more focal and predictable neuromodulation than conventional tDCS. This case report illustrates the feasibility and clinical utility of add-on HD-tDCS over the left temporoparietal junction in a 4x1 ring configuration to treat persistent auditory verbal hallucination in schizophrenia.

  3. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: pathological phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, M M; Priest, R G; Caulet, M; Guilleminault, C

    1996-10-01

    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common in narcolepsy. However, the prevalence of these phenomena in the general population is uncertain. A representative community sample of 4972 people in the UK, aged 15-100, was interviewed by telephone (79.6% of those contacted). Interviews were performed by lay interviewers using a computerised system that guided the interviewer through the interview process. Thirty-seven per cent of the sample reported experiencing hypnagogic hallucinations and 12.5% reported hypnopompic hallucinations. Both types of hallucinations were significantly more common among subjects with symptoms of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness or mental disorders. According to this study, the prevalence of narcolepsy in the UK is 0.04%. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations were much more common than expected, with a prevalence that far exceeds that which can be explained by the association with narcolepsy. Hypnopompic hallucinations may be a better indicator of narcolepsy than hypnagogic hallucinations in subjects reporting excessive daytime sleepiness.

  4. Culture and hallucinations: overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larøi, Frank; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie; Bell, Vaughan; Christian, William A; Deshpande, Smita; Fernyhough, Charles; Jenkins, Janis; Woods, Angela

    2014-07-01

    A number of studies have explored hallucinations as complex experiences involving interactions between psychological, biological, and environmental factors and mechanisms. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has focused on the role of culture in shaping hallucinations. This article reviews the published research, drawing on the expertise of both anthropologists and psychologists. We argue that the extant body of work suggests that culture does indeed have a significant impact on the experience, understanding, and labeling of hallucinations and that there may be important theoretical and clinical consequences of that observation. We find that culture can affect what is identified as a hallucination, that there are different patterns of hallucination among the clinical and nonclinical populations, that hallucinations are often culturally meaningful, that hallucinations occur at different rates in different settings; that culture affects the meaning and characteristics of hallucinations associated with psychosis, and that the cultural variations of psychotic hallucinations may have implications for the clinical outcome of those who struggle with psychosis. We conclude that a clinician should never assume that the mere report of what seems to be a hallucination is necessarily a symptom of pathology and that the patient's cultural background needs to be taken into account when assessing and treating hallucinations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  5. Culture and Hallucinations: Overview and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larøi, Frank; Luhrmann, Tanya Marie; Bell, Vaughan; Christian, William A.; Deshpande, Smita; Fernyhough, Charles; Jenkins, Janis; Woods, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored hallucinations as complex experiences involving interactions between psychological, biological, and environmental factors and mechanisms. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has focused on the role of culture in shaping hallucinations. This article reviews the published research, drawing on the expertise of both anthropologists and psychologists. We argue that the extant body of work suggests that culture does indeed have a significant impact on the experience, understanding, and labeling of hallucinations and that there may be important theoretical and clinical consequences of that observation. We find that culture can affect what is identified as a hallucination, that there are different patterns of hallucination among the clinical and nonclinical populations, that hallucinations are often culturally meaningful, that hallucinations occur at different rates in different settings; that culture affects the meaning and characteristics of hallucinations associated with psychosis, and that the cultural variations of psychotic hallucinations may have implications for the clinical outcome of those who struggle with psychosis. We conclude that a clinician should never assume that the mere report of what seems to be a hallucination is necessarily a symptom of pathology and that the patient’s cultural background needs to be taken into account when assessing and treating hallucinations. PMID:24936082

  6. Adjuvant low-frequency rTMS in treating auditory hallucinations in recent-onset schizophrenia: a randomized controlled study investigating the effect of high-frequency priming stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Prasenjit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been found to be effective in reducing frequency and duration of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). Priming stimulation, which involves high-frequency rTMS stimulation followed by low-frequency rTMS, has been shown to markedly enhance the neural response to the low-frequency stimulation train. However, this technique has not been investigated in recent onset schizophrenia patients. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate whether the effects of rTMS on AVH can be enhanced with priming rTMS in recent onset schizophrenia patients. Forty recent onset schizophrenia patients completed the study. Patients were randomized over two groups: one receiving low-frequency rTMS preceded by priming and another receiving low-frequency rTMS without priming. Both treatments were directed at the left temporo-parietal region. The severity of AVH and other psychotic symptoms were assessed with the auditory hallucination subscale (AHRS) of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI). We found that all the scores of these ratings significantly reduced over time (i.e. baseline through 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks) in both the treatment groups. We found no difference between the two groups on all measures, except for significantly greater improvement on loudness of AVH in the group with priming stimulation during the follow-ups (F = 2.72; p low-frequency rTMS alone and high-frequency priming of low-frequency rTMS do not elicit significant differences in treatment of overall psychopathology, particularly AVH when given in recent onset schizophrenia patients. Add on priming however, seems to be particularly better in faster reduction in loudness of AVH.

  7. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  8. Hallucinations, Delusions and Paranoia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hallucinations are frightening, and not all delusions are paranoid in nature. See the doctor. When helping someone ... a history of serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia, the hallucinations and/or delusions may be related ...

  9. Visual Hallucinations in a Patient with Horner's Syndrome Secondary to Internal Carotid Dissection

    OpenAIRE

    Amardeep Singh; Panteleimon Mortzos; Torben Lykke Sørensen

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old female presented with post-ganglionic Horner's syndrome. In addition to the classical symptoms of Horner's syndrome, the patient reported experiencing frightening complex visual and auditory hallucinations on two different occasions. Magnetic resonance angiography of the cerebrum, neck and upper thorax revealed internal carotid dissection. The symptoms and hallucinatory experiences resolved soon after antiplatelet therapy was commenced. We propose peduncular hallucinosis as the ...

  10. Recovering from Hallucinations: A Qualitative Study of Coping with Voices Hearing of People with Schizophrenia in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Ng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucination is a positive symptom of schizophrenia and has significant impacts on the lives of individuals. People with auditory hallucination require considerable assistance from mental health professionals. Apart from medications, they may apply different lay methods to cope with their voice hearing. Results from qualitative interviews showed that people with schizophrenia in the Chinese sociocultural context of Hong Kong were coping with auditory hallucination in different ways, including (a changing social contacts, (b manipulating the voices, and (c changing perception and meaning towards the voices. Implications for recovery from psychiatric illness of individuals with auditory hallucinations are discussed.

  11. Visual hallucinations in schizophrenia: confusion between imagination and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; Ohlsen, Ruth I; Pilowsky, Lyn S; David, Anthony S

    2008-05-01

    An association between hallucinations and reality-monitoring deficit has been repeatedly observed in patients with schizophrenia. Most data concern auditory/verbal hallucinations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between visual hallucinations and a specific type of reality-monitoring deficit, namely confusion between imagined and perceived pictures. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 43 healthy control participants completed a reality-monitoring task. Thirty-two items were presented either as written words or as pictures. After the presentation phase, participants had to recognize the target words and pictures among distractors, and then remember their mode of presentation. All groups of participants recognized the pictures better than the words, except the patients with visual hallucinations, who presented the opposite pattern. The participants with visual hallucinations made more misattributions to pictures than did the others, and higher ratings of visual hallucinations were correlated with increased tendency to remember words as pictures. No association with auditory hallucinations was revealed. Our data suggest that visual hallucinations are associated with confusion between visual mental images and perception.

  12. Electroconvulsive Therapy in Functional Hallucination: Scope and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulochana Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional hallucinations are hallucinations triggered by a stimulus in the same modality and cooccur with it. They are rare in occurrence; however, their rarity has no significance as psychopathology till date. Also, very little is known about the treatment of such hallucinations. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT has been tested for several psychiatric illnesses and has a few relative contraindications; however, it has not previously been used in treating functional hallucinations. We report on a female patient with paranoid schizophrenia who experienced functional hallucinations continuously despite the use of adequate risperidone, which controlled other symptoms. She was treated with ECT which resolved the functional hallucinations. The case highlights the need to ponder on the significance of the phenomenon as well as treatment of this psychopathology by ECT. It also underscores ECT as a treatment option for this kind of hallucination.

  13. Is Seeing Believing? The Process of Change During Cognitive-behavioural Therapy for Distressing Visual Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rea; Collerton, Daniel; Freeston, Mark; Christodoulides, Thomas; Dudley, Robert

    2016-07-01

    People with psychosis often report distressing visual hallucinations (VH). In contrast to auditory hallucinations, there is little empirical evidence on effective interventions. The effectiveness of a novel-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) intervention for VH was explored using a multiple baseline single case design with four participants. Change to individual appraisals, emotional and behavioural responses to VH were measured with daily diaries kept throughout the baseline and intervention phase lasting up to 16 sessions. Maintenance of change was tracked during a follow-up period of one month. Changes in appraisals, distress and response in accordance with the theory was evident in two out of four of the cases. However, change occurred within the baseline phase that limited the conclusions that change could be attributed to CBT alone. There was some evidence of clinically significant change and reliable change for two out of four of the cases at follow-up on one of the standardized psychiatric assessments. The research reported here has theoretical and clinical implications for refinement of the model and interventions for distressing VH. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Distressing visual hallucinations (VH) are a relatively common symptom of psychosis. Visual hallucinations seem to be associated with greater impairment and disability. We have no specific treatment for VH. The appraisal of the visual experience and the behavioural response is important in maintaining the distress. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for VH at present has limited value. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Middle components of the auditory evoked response in bilateral temporal lobe lesions. Report on a patient with auditory agnosia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, A; Salomon, G; Elberling, Claus

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the middle components of the auditory evoked response (10--50 msec post-stimulus) in a patient with auditory agnosia is reported. Bilateral temporal lobe infarctions were proved by means of brain scintigraphy, CAT scanning, and regional cerebral blood flow measurements...

  15. Source memory errors in schizophrenia, hallucinations and negative symptoms: a synthesis of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, G; Ohlsen, R I; Bressan, R A; David, A S

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has shown associations between source memory errors and hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. We bring together here findings from a broad memory investigation to specify better the type of source memory failure that is associated with auditory and visual hallucinations. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 43 healthy participants underwent a memory task involving recall and recognition of lists of words, recognition of pictures, memory for temporal and spatial context of presentation of the stimuli, and remembering whether target items were presented as words or pictures. False recognition of words and pictures was associated with hallucination scores. The extra-list intrusions in free recall were associated with verbal hallucinations whereas the intra-list intrusions were associated with a global hallucination score. Errors in discriminating the temporal context of word presentation and the spatial context of picture presentation were associated with auditory hallucinations. The tendency to remember verbal labels of items as pictures of these items was associated with visual hallucinations. Several memory errors were also inversely associated with affective flattening and anhedonia. Verbal and visual hallucinations are associated with confusion between internal verbal thoughts or internal visual images and perception. In addition, auditory hallucinations are associated with failure to process or remember the context of presentation of the events. Certain negative symptoms have an opposite effect on memory errors.

  16. Psychopathological and demographic characteristics of hallucinating patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an analysis based on AMDP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baethge, Christopher; Jänner, Michaela; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Malevani, Jaroslav

    2017-06-01

    Hallucinations are at the core of the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and many neuroscience studies focus on hallucinations. However, there is a lack of data on prevalence, subtyping, and clinical correlates of hallucinations as well as on the comparison of hallucinating schizophrenia versus hallucinating schizoaffective patients. Analysis of all psychopathology evaluations is based on the AMDP scale in a German psychiatric university hospital between 2007 and 2013 regarding patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (diagnosed according to ICD-10). Hallucinating versus non-hallucinating patients and age- and gender-matched hallucinating schizophrenic versus schizoaffective patients were compared with regard to key psychopathological and demographic characteristics. Relative to patients with schizoaffective disorder, patients with schizophrenia more often hallucinated at admission (36.6 vs. 16.2 %, RR: 2.3, p  other auditory > visual > somatic/tactile > olfactory/gustatory. Hallucinating patients of either disorder were more often affected with respect to delusions (83 vs. 62 % and 81 vs. 48 % among patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, respectively [both p schizoaffective disorder did not differ from hallucinating patients with schizophrenia. This is one of the few studies providing data on hallucinations in a routine clinical care setting. Hallucinations are a sign and likely a cause of greater illness severity. Patients with schizoaffective disorder less often experience hallucinations than patients with schizophrenia, but if they do, they seem to resemble patients with schizophrenia with regard to illness severity.

  17. Twenty year multi-follow-up of different types of hallucinations in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Harrow, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Hallucinations are a salient feature of both psychotic and mood disorders. Currently there is a call for more research on the phenomenology of different forms of hallucinations, in a broader array of disorders, to further both theoretical knowledge and clinical utility. We investigated auditory, visual, and olfactory hallucinations at index hospitalization and auditory and visual hallucinations prospectively for 20years in 150 young patients, namely 51 schizophrenia, 25 schizoaffective, 28 bipolar, and 79 unipolar depression. For the index hospitalization, the data showed schizophrenia and schizoaffective patients had a greater rate of auditory and visual hallucinations than bipolar and depression patients. However, over the longitudinal trajectory of their illness, a greater percentage of schizophrenia patients had auditory and visual hallucinations than schizoaffective patients, as well as bipolar and depression patients. Also, in contrast to the initial period, schizoaffective patients did not differentiate themselves over the follow-up period from bipolar patients. Bipolar and depression patients did not significantly differ at index hospitalization or at follow-up. We found visual hallucinations differentiated the groups to a greater degree over the 20year course than did auditory hallucinations. These findings suggest the longitudinal course is more important for differentiating schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, whereas the initial years may be more useful to differentiate schizoaffective disorder from bipolar disorder. Furthermore, we found that the early presence of auditory hallucinations was associated with a reduced likelihood for a future period of recovery. No olfactory hallucinations were present at the index hospitalization in any patients. Over the course of 20years, a minority of schizophrenia patients presented with olfactory hallucinations, and very few schizoaffective and bipolar patients presented with olfactory hallucinations. This

  18. 'The devil lay upon her and held her down'. Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis described by the Dutch physician Isbrand van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) in 1664.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompanje, E J O

    2008-12-01

    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are visual, tactile, auditory or other sensory events, usually brief but sometimes prolonged, that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnagogic) or from sleep to wakefulness (hypnopompic). Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are often associated with sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis occurs immediately prior to falling asleep (hypnagogic paralysis) or upon waking (hypnopompic paralysis). In 1664, the Dutch physician Isbrand Van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) published a collection of case histories. One history with the title 'Of the Night-Mare' describes the nightly experiences of the 50-year-old woman. This case report is subject of this article. The experiences in this case could without doubt be diagnosed as sleep paralysis accompanied by hypnagogic hallucinations. This case from 1664 should be cited as the earliest detailed account of sleep paralysis associated with hypnagogic illusions and as the first observation that sleep paralysis and hypnagogic experiences occur more often in supine position of the body.

  19. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingli; Liang, Wei; Yang, Shichang; Dai, Ping; Shen, Lijuan; Wang, Changhong

    2013-10-05

    This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of auditory hallucination of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Online literature retrieval was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from January 1985 to May 2012. Key words were "transcranial magnetic stimulation", "TMS", "repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation", and "hallucination". Selected studies were randomized controlled trials assessing therapeutic efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Experimental intervention was low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in left temporoparietal cortex for treatment of auditory hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Control groups received sham stimulation. The primary outcome was total scores of Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale, Auditory Hallucination Subscale of Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Auditory Hallucination item, and Hallucination Change Scale. Secondary outcomes included response rate, global mental state, adverse effects and cognitive function. Seventeen studies addressing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were screened, with controls receiving sham stimulation. All data were completely effective, involving 398 patients. Overall mean weighted effect size for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus sham stimulation was statistically significant (MD = -0.42, 95%CI: -0.64 to -0.20, P = 0.000 2). Patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation responded more frequently than sham stimulation (OR = 2.94, 95%CI: 1.39 to 6.24, P = 0.005). No significant differences were found between active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and sham stimulation for

  20. Action simulation in hallucination-prone adolescents

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    Tarik eDahoun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical accounts suggest that impairments in self-other discrimination processes are likely to promote the expression of hallucinations. However, our understanding of such processes during adolescence is still at an early stage. The present study thus aims 1 to delineate the neural correlates sustaining mental simulation of actions involving self-performed actions (first-person perspective; 1PP and other-performed actions (third-person perspective; 3PP during adolescence 2 to identify atypical activation patterns during 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions in hallucination-prone adolescents 3 to examine whether differential risk for schizophrenia (clinical vs genetic is also associated with differential impairments in the 1PP/3PP mental simulation of actions during adolescence. Twenty-two typically developing controls (Control group; 6 females, twelve hallucination-prone adolescents (AH group; 7 females and thirteen adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS group; 4 females were included in the study. During the fMRI task, subjects were presented with a cue (self-other priming cues indicating to perform the task using either a first person perspective (you-1PP or a third person perspective (friend-3PP and then they were asked to mentally simulate actions based on the type of cue. Our results indicated that atypical patterns of cerebral activation, particularly in the key areas of self-other distinction, were found in both groups at risk for auditory hallucinations (AH and 22q11.2DS. More precisely, adolescents in the AH and 22q11.2DS groups presented decreased activations in the parieto-occipital region BA19 during 3PP. This study characterizes the neural correlates of mental imagery for actions during adolescence, and suggests that a differential risk for hallucination-proneness (clinical vs. genetic is associated to similar patterns of atypical activations in key areas sustaining self-other discrimination

  1. Disjunctivism, hallucinations, and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Dokic; Jean-Rémy, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Perceptual experiences have been construed either as representational mental states-Representationalism-or as direct mental relations to the external world-Disjunctivism. Both conceptions are critical reactions to the so-called 'Argument from Hallucination', according to which perceptions cannot be about the external world, since they are subjectively indiscriminable from other, hallucinatory experiences, which are about sense-data or mind-dependent entities. Representationalism agrees that perceptions and hallucinations share their most specific mental kind, but accounts for hallucinations as misrepresentations of the external world. According to Disjunctivism, the phenomenal character of perceptions is exhausted by worldly objects and features, and thus must be different from the phenomenal character of hallucinations. Disjunctivism claims that subjective indiscriminability is not the result of a common experiential ground, but is because of our inability to discriminate, from the inside, hallucinations from perceptions. At first sight, Representationalism is more congenial to the way cognitive science deals with perception. However, empirically oriented revisions of Disjunctivism could be developed and tested by giving a metacognitive account of hallucinations. Two versions of this account can be formulated, depending on whether metacognition is understood as explicit metarepresentation or as implicit monitoring of first-order informational states. The first version faces serious objections, but the second is more promising, as it embodies a more realistic view of perceptual phenomenology as having both sensory and affective aspects. Affect-based phenomenology is constituted by various metacognitive feelings, such as the feeling of being perceptually confronted with the world itself, rather than with pictures or mere representations. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1190 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright

  2. [Hallucinations and borderline personality disorder: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, A; Amad, A; Thomas, P; Jardri, R

    2014-12-01

    Hallucinations constitute understudied symptoms in borderline personality disorders (BPD), which can be observed in about 30% of the patients, essentially in the auditory modality. Most of these experiences are transitory, triggered by intermittent stressors, but chronicity remains a major cause of concern. In order to better circumscribe hallucinations in BPD, we summarized the literature on this particular phenomenon. We conducted a review using Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases up to March 2013, using the following keywords combinations: "borderline personality disorder", "hallucinat*" and "psychotic symptoms". Papers were included in the review if they were published in an English or French language peer-reviewed journal; the study enrolled patients with BPD; and the diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) criteria. Fifteen studies published between 1985 and 2012, merging a total of 635 patients, were retained. The hallucinatory experiences observed in BPD appeared phenomenologically similar to those described in the schizophrenia spectrum in terms of vividness, duration, spatial localization, beliefs about malevolence or omnipotence. Conversely, the hallucinatory content appeared more negative and potentially more distressful. Crucially, this literature search also revealed that these symptoms have long been regarded as "pseudo-hallucinations" (or "hallucination-like symptoms"). This concept was judged of poor scientific validity, inducing stigma for BPD patients in that it casts doubt on the authenticity of these experiences while disqualifying the related distress. This situation points out that research should focus more on understanding hallucinations in BPD than questioning their existence. Interestingly, recent comorbidity studies reopened a 40-year debate on the potential links that may exist between BPD and psychosis. Initially considered as a para-psychotic disorder, BPD was effectively redefined as an

  3. Primary Synovial Sarcoma of External Auditory Canal: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Aarani; Jayakumar, Krishnannair L L

    2017-07-20

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin. Primary synovial sarcoma of the ear is extremely rare and to date only two cases have been published in English medical literature. Though the tumor is reported to have an aggressive nature, early diagnosis and treatment may improve the outcome. Here, we report a rare case of synovial sarcoma of the external auditory canal in an 18-year-old male who was managed by chemotherapy and referred for palliation due to tumor progression.

  4. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations during amitriptyline treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, R; Rafaelsen, O J

    1980-10-01

    Four cases of hypnagogic or hypnopompic visual hallucinations in patients during amitriptyline treatment are reported. The hallucinations were clearly delineated, projected to the outer objective space and were for a short time experienced as real. The patients rapidly realized the unreality of the "sights", probably because they regained the full criticism and coherent thinking of an unpsychotic awake individual. There may be a relation between the effects of amitriptyline in brain, the changed pattern of sleep and the clinical recovery. Patients should be informed about the benign character of this type of hallucinatory phenomena so that treatment is not terminated at an undue time.

  5. Impaired self-monitoring of inner speech in schizophrenia patients with verbal hallucinations and in non-clinical individuals prone to hallucinations

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    Gildas Brébion

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has shown that various memory errors reflecting failure in the self-monitoring of speech were associated with auditory/verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia patients and with proneness to hallucinations in non-clinical individuals. Method: We administered to 57 schizophrenia patients and 60 healthy participants a verbal memory task involving free recall and recognition of lists of words with different structures (high-frequency, low-frequency, and semantically-organisable words. Extra-list intrusions in free recall were tallied, and the response bias reflecting tendency to make false recognitions of non-presented words was computed for each list. Results: In the male patient subsample, extra-list intrusions were positively associated with verbal hallucinations and inversely associated with negative symptoms. In the healthy participants the extra-list intrusions were positively associated with proneness to hallucinations. A liberal response bias in the recognition of the high-frequency words was associated with verbal hallucinations in male patients and with proneness to hallucinations in healthy men. Meanwhile, a conservative response bias for these high-frequency words was associated with negative symptoms in male patients and with social anhedonia in healthy men. Conclusions: Misattribution of inner speech to an external source, reflected by false recollection of familiar material, seems to underlie both clinical and non-clinical hallucinations. Further, both clinical and non-clinical negative symptoms may exert on verbal memory errors an effect opposite to that of hallucinations.

  6. Misleading hallucinations in unrecognized narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, A; Janszky, J; Holló, A; Migléczi, G; Halász, P

    2003-10-01

    To describe psychosis-like hallucinatory states in unrecognized narcolepsy. Two patients with hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations are presented. Both patients had realistic and complex - multi-modal and scenic-daytime sexual hallucinations leading, in the first case, to a legal procedure because of false accusation, and in the second, to serious workplace conflicts. Both patients were convinced of the reality of their hallucinatory experiences but later both were able to recognize their hallucinatory character. Clinical data, a multiple sleep latency test, polysomnography, and HLA typing revealed that both patients suffered from narcolepsy. We suggest that in unrecognized narcolepsy with daytime hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations the diagnostic procedure may mistakenly incline towards delusional psychoses. Daytime realistic hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations may also have forensic consequences and mislead legal evaluation. Useful clinical features in differentiating narcolepsy from psychoses are: the presence of other narcoleptic symptoms, features of hallucinations, and response to adequate medication.

  7. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base in morphological abnormalities. Structurally, AVHs have been frequently linked to abnormal morphology of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), but only a few studies investigated the relation of hallucination presence with both whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) morphometry. Using a unified voxel-based morphometry-DARTEL approach, we investigated correlates of AVH presence in 51 schizophrenia patients (20 non-hallucinating [SZ -], 31 hallucinating [SZ +]), and included 51 age and sex matched healthy participants. Effects are reported at p frontal and right parahippocampal gyrus, and higher WM volume of the left postcentral and superior parietal lobule than controls. Finally, volume of the putamen was lower in SZ + compared to SZ -. No effects on corpus callosum morphometry were observed. Delusion severity, general positive and negative symptomatology illness duration, and medication status could not explain the results. Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  8. On “Hearing” Voices and “Seeing” Things: Probing Hallucination Predisposition in a Portuguese Nonclinical Sample with the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale-Revised

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    Paula Castiajo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience of hallucinations is a hallmark of psychotic disorders, but they are also present in other psychiatric and medical conditions, and may be reported in nonclinical individuals. Despite the increased number of studies probing the incidence of nonclinical hallucinations, the underlying phenomenological characteristics are still poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the psychometrics proprieties of the Portuguese adaptation of the 16-item Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale (LSHS, the phenomenological characteristics of nonclinical hallucinatory experiences in a Portuguese sample, and the relationship between clinical symptoms and hallucination predisposition. Three-hundred-and-fifty-four European Portuguese college students completed the LSHS. Of those, 16 participants with high LSHS scores and 14 with low LSHS scores were further screened for clinical symptoms. A three-factor solution for the LSHS Portuguese version proved to be the most adequate. Intrusive or vivid thoughts and sleep-related hallucinations were the most common. Although, fundamentally perceived as positive experiences, all types of hallucinations were described as uncontrollable and dominating. However, the more pleasant they were perceived, the more controllable they were assessed. In addition, hallucination predisposition was associated with increased clinical symptoms. These results corroborate the lower severity of hallucinations in the general population compared to psychotic individuals. Further, they support an association between clinical symptoms and increased vulnerability to hallucinations. Specifically, increased schizotypal tendencies and negative mood (anxiety and depression may be related to increased psychotic risk.

  9. 'The devil lay upon her and held her down' Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis described by the Dutch physician Isbrand van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) in 1664

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are visual, tactile, auditory or other sensory events, usually brief but sometimes prolonged, that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnagogic) or from sleep to wakefulness (hypnopompic). Hypnagogic and hypnopompic

  10. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia : The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base

  11. The proximity between hallucination and delusion dimensions: An observational, analytic, cross-sectional, multicentre study

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    Diogo Telles-correia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 5.In the current psychiatric classifications, hallucinations (mainly auditory hallucinations are one of the fundamental criteria for establishing a schizophrenia diagnosis or any of the related psychotic disorder’s diagnoses.6.Throughout the history of Psychiatry the conceptual proximity between delusions and hallucinations in the psychiatric patient was maintained until the end of the XIX century,with several supporters during the XX century. Their frontier was not yet definitely defined in terms of Descriptive Psychopathology, and much less so in terms of biochemical and anatomical models.7.In this article we aimed to analyse the dimensions of both hallucinations and delusions in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. We also intend to find the determinants of the main dimensions of hallucinations.8.One hundred patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder from both the outpatient and inpatient units of the Psychiatry Department of Hospital of Santa Maria and the Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa were assessed by means of the Psychotic Symptom Rating Scales (PSYRATS. 9.In this study we found an empirical based model, where the main dimensions of hallucinations are determined by the central dimensions of delusions. 10.Keywords: Psyrats, Hallucinations, Psychopathology, Psychosis, delusions

  12. External auditory canal leech: a rare case report of paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leeches are blood sucking organism feed on human blood. While human bites are common, they rarely cause human internal infestation. We describe a rare case of a parasitic leech infestation of the External Auditory Canal (EAC). A two month old child presented to the Emergency department with a seven day history of ...

  13. Auditory Verbal Experience and Agency in Waking, Sleep Onset, REM, and Non-REM Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Harley, Trevor A; Speth, Clemens

    2017-04-01

    We present one of the first quantitative studies on auditory verbal experiences ("hearing voices") and auditory verbal agency (inner speech, and specifically "talking to (imaginary) voices or characters") in healthy participants across states of consciousness. Tools of quantitative linguistic analysis were used to measure participants' implicit knowledge of auditory verbal experiences (VE) and auditory verbal agencies (VA), displayed in mentation reports from four different states. Analysis was conducted on a total of 569 mentation reports from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep, sleep onset, and waking. Physiology was controlled with the nightcap sleep-wake mentation monitoring system. Sleep-onset hallucinations, traditionally at the focus of scientific attention on auditory verbal hallucinations, showed the lowest degree of VE and VA, whereas REM sleep showed the highest degrees. Degrees of different linguistic-pragmatic aspects of VE and VA likewise depend on the physiological states. The quantity and pragmatics of VE and VA are a function of the physiologically distinct state of consciousness in which they are conceived. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Auditory agnosia associated with bilateral putaminal hemorrhage: A case report of clinical course of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokida, Haruki; Kanaya, Yuhei; Shimoe, Yutaka; Imagawa, Madoka; Fukunaga, Shinya; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2017-08-31

    A 45-year-old right-handed man with a past history (10 years) of putaminal hemorrage presented with auditory agnosia associated with left putaminal hemorrhage. It was suspected that the auditory agnosia was due to bilateral damage in the acoustic radiations. Generalized auditory agnosia, verbal and non-verbal (music and environmental), was diagnosed by neuropsychological examinations. It improved 4 months after the onset. However, the clinical assessment of attention remained poor. The cognition for speech sounds improved slowly, but once it started to improve, the progress of improvement was rapid. Subsequently, the cognition for music sounds also improved, while the recovery of the cognition for environmental sounds remained delayed. There was a dissociation in recovery between these cognitions. He was able to return to work a year after the onset. We also reviewed the literature for cases with auditory agnosia and discuss their course of recovery in this report.

  15. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-03-15

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment.

  16. Verbal auditory agnosia in a patient with traumatic brain injury: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Woo, Seung Beom; Lee, Zeeihn; Heo, Sung Jae; Park, Donghwi

    2018-03-01

    Verbal auditory agnosia is the selective inability to recognize verbal sounds. Patients with this disorder lose the ability to understand language, write from dictation, and repeat words with reserved ability to identify nonverbal sounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there was no report about verbal auditory agnosia in adult patient with traumatic brain injury. He was able to clearly distinguish between language and nonverbal sounds, and he did not have any difficulty in identifying the environmental sounds. However, he did not follow oral commands and could not repeat and dictate words. On the other hand, he had fluent and comprehensible speech, and was able to read and understand written words and sentences. Verbal auditory agnosia INTERVENTION:: He received speech therapy and cognitive rehabilitation during his hospitalization, and he practiced understanding of verbal language by providing written sentences together. Two months after hospitalization, he regained his ability to understand some verbal words. Six months after hospitalization, his ability to understand verbal language was improved to an understandable level when speaking slowly in front of his eyes, but his comprehension of verbal sound language was still word level, not sentence level. This case gives us the lesson that the evaluation of auditory functions as well as cognition and language functions important for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment, because the verbal auditory agnosia tends to be easily misdiagnosed as hearing impairment, cognitive dysfunction and sensory aphasia.

  17. [Complex visual hallucinations following occipital infarct and perception of optical illusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renou, P; Deltour, S; Samson, Y

    2008-05-01

    The physiopathology of visual hallucinations in the hemianopic field secondary to occipital infarct is uncertain. We report the case of a patient with a history of occipital infarct who presented nonstereotyped complex hallucinations in the quadranopic field resulting from a second controlateral occipital infarct. Based on an experience with motion optical illusions, we suggested that the association of these two occipital lesions, involving the V5 motion area on the one side and the V1 area on the other side, could have produced the complex hallucinations due to a release phenomenon. The patient experienced simultaneously a double visual consciousness, with both hallucinations and real visual perceptions. The study of perceptual illusions in patients with visual hallucinations could illustrate the innovative theory of visual consciousness as being not unified but constituted of multiple microconsciousnesses.

  18. Adult-onset juvenile xanthogranuloma of the external auditory canal: A case report

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    Hur, Joon Ho; Kim, Jae Kyun; Seo, Gi Young; Choi, Woo Sun; Byun, Jun Soo; Lee, Woong Jae; Lee, Tae Jin [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Na Ra [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign, spontaneously regressing lesion that usually occurs during the first year of life, but may also occur in adulthood. Although the most common presentation of JXG is the cutaneous lesion, it can also manifest in various visceral organs. JXG of the external auditory canal is extremely rare, and there have been only a few reports of those cases in the English literature. In this study, we present a case of pathologically proven JXG that occurred in the external auditory canal with a symptomatic clinical presentation.

  19. Neuropsychiatry of complex visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Ramon; Walterfang, Mark; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2006-09-01

    To describe the phenomenology and pathophysiology of complex visual hallucinations (CVH) in various organic states, in particular Charles Bonnet syndrome and peduncular hallucinosis. Three cases of CVH in the setting of pontine infarction, thalamic infarction and temporoparietal epileptiform activity are presented and the available psychiatric, neurological and biological literature on the structures of the central nervous system involved in producing hallucinatory states is reviewed. Complex visual hallucinations can arise from a variety of processes involving the retinogeniculocalcarine tract, or ascending brainstem modulatory structures. The cortical activity responsible for hallucinations results from altered or reduced input into these regions, or a loss of ascending inhibition of their afferent pathways. A significant degree of overlaps exists between the concepts of Charles Bonnet syndrome and peduncular hallucinosis. The fluidity of these eponymous syndromes reduces their validity and meaning, and may result in an inappropriate attribution of the underlying pathology. An understanding of how differing pathologies may produce CVH allows for the appropriate tailoring of treatment, depending on the site and nature of the lesion and content of perceptual disturbance.

  20. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas; Norton Yoshiaki Kitanishi; Patricia Motta Carvalho; Daniel Azevedo Cavalcante; Leonardo Mattiolli Marini

    2017-01-01

    Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (...

  1. [A Clinical Case of Grief Hallucination through the Mourning Work Normal Grief and Spiritual Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotori, Isaku; Kato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Auditory or visual hallucinations of a deceased person are well known in the normal course of the bereavement process. According to DSM-5, this symptom is included in the associated features supporting diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder. In Japan, however, little is known about these hallucinatory experiences during grieving, and few reports on their prevalence are available. Here, we have reported a clinical case of such experiences following the loss of a spouse. A 66-year-old patient presented to the outpatient department with insomnia after her husband's death. She was preoccupied with a sense of loss and absolute loneliness. One day, she confessed to regularly encountering her husband's ghost at night; the ghost was distinguishable from a dream and provided the bereaved wife with some degree of comfort. The appearances lasted for 15 months and occurred several times a week without disturbing her social functioning. She gradually became aware that her husband was returning from the spirit world to give her solace. Her treatment was focused on resolving her conflicting feelings concerning her grief at his death and her relief at his no longer suffering from disease. While accepting her experiences, she started to review the days they spent together and appreciated his attachment. Therefore she completed the work of mourning and the ghost no longer appeared. One year after the departure of the ghost, she still attends the hospital regularly and there has been no recurrence. A reconstruction of her internal world leads us to conclude that the support of normal grief with such hallucinations prevents the intense experience of loss from generating pathological grief. Furthermore, we suggest reconsidering the importance of the mourning work and the inclusion of both the bereaved and deceased person in the medical context.

  2. Metoprolol-induced visual hallucinations: a case series

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    Goldner Jonathan A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Metoprolol is a widely used beta-adrenergic blocker that is commonly prescribed for a variety of cardiovascular syndromes and conditions. While central nervous system adverse effects have been well-described with most beta-blockers (especially lipophilic agents such as propranolol, visual hallucinations have been only rarely described with metoprolol. Case presentations Case 1 was an 84-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of hypertension and osteoarthritis, who suffered from visual hallucinations which she described as people in her bedroom at night. They would be standing in front of the bed or sitting on chairs watching her when she slept. Numerous medications were stopped before her physician realized the metoprolol was the causative agent. The hallucinations resolved only after discontinuation of this medication. Case 2 was a 62-year-old Caucasian man with an inferior wall myocardial infarction complicated by cardiac arrest, who was successfully resuscitated and discharged from the hospital on metoprolol. About 18 months after discharge, he related to his physician that he had been seeing dead people at night. He related his belief that since he 'had died and was brought back to life', he was now seeing people from the after-life. Upon discontinuation of the metoprolol the visual disturbances resolved within several days. Case 3 was a 68 year-old Caucasian woman with a history of severe hypertension and depression, who reported visual hallucinations at night for years while taking metoprolol. These included awakening during the night with people in her bedroom and seeing objects in her room turn into animals. After a new physician switched her from metoprolol to atenolol, the visual hallucinations ceased within four days. Conclusion We suspect that metoprolol-induced visual hallucinations may be under-recognized and under-reported. Patients may frequently fail to acknowledge this adverse effect believing that they

  3. 'The devil lay upon her and held her down' Hypnagogic hallucinations and sleep paralysis described by the Dutch physician Isbrand van Diemerbroeck (1609-1674) in 1664

    OpenAIRE

    Kompanje, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are visual, tactile, auditory or other sensory events, usually brief but sometimes prolonged, that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep (hypnagogic) or from sleep to wakefulness (hypnopompic). Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are often associated with sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis occurs immediately prior to falling asleep (hypnagogic paralysis) or upon waking (hypnopompic paralysis). In 1664, the Dutch physician I...

  4. Khat-induced hypnagogic hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, M; Shalev, A; Weingarten, A M

    1988-10-01

    Khat is a plant whose leaves are chewed for their stimulating effect. This effect is attributed to cathinone, an alkaloid identical to dextroamphetamine. Khat chewing is widespread among eastern African and Yemenite populations and is believed to be innocuous. Our experience shows, however, that a substantial number of chronic khat chewers experience persistent hypnagogic hallucinations - a symptom that has not yet been described. Three vignettes illustrates this phenomena, which often interferes with psychiatric diagnosis. Different explanatory models are discussed, among them chronic suppression of REM sleep.

  5. Musical hallucinations : Review of treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coebergh, Jan A. F.; Lauw, R. F.; Bots, R.; Sommer, I. E. C.; Blom, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare. Objective: To review the

  6. Musical hallucinations : review of treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coebergh, Jan A F; Lauw, R F; Bots, R; Sommer, I E C; Blom, J D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations over the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare. OBJECTIVE: To review the

  7. Insomnia and hallucinations in the general population: Findings from the 2000 and 2007 British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaves, Bryony; Bebbington, Paul E; Goodwin, Guy M; Harrison, Paul J; Espie, Colin A; Foster, Russell G; Freeman, Daniel

    2016-07-30

    Insomnia is common in people experiencing psychosis. It has been identified as a contributory cause of paranoia, but any causal relationship with hallucinations has yet to be established. We tested the hypotheses that insomnia i) has a cross-sectional association with hallucinations ii) predicts new inceptions of hallucinations and iii) that these associations remain after controlling for depression, anxiety, and paranoia. Data from the second (2000, N=8580) and third (2007, N=7403) British Psychiatric Morbidity Surveys were used to assess cross-sectional associations between insomnia and hallucinations. The 2000 dataset included an 18 month follow up of a subsample (N=2406) used to test whether insomnia predicted new inceptions of hallucinations. Insomnia was associated with hallucinations in both cross-sectional datasets. Mild sleep problems were associated with 2-3 times greater odds of reporting hallucinations, whilst chronic insomnia was associated with four times greater odds. Insomnia was also associated with increased odds of hallucinations occurring de novo over the next 18 months. These associations remained significant, although with smaller odds ratios, after controlling for depression, anxiety and paranoia. This is the first longitudinal evidence that insomnia is associated with the development of hallucinatory experiences. Effective treatment of insomnia may lessen the occurrence of hallucinations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Bilateral External Auditory Exostoses Causing Conductive Hearing Loss: A Case Report and Literature Review of the Surfer's Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbon, Dennis A; Hegde, Rahul; Li, Shuo; Abdelbaki, Ahmed; Bajaj, Divyansh

    2017-10-30

    In patients with repeated exposure to cold water, such as cold water surfers and kayakers, the reactive exostoses can occur in the external auditory canal. The external auditory canal exostoses are multiple, benign bony growths. They can cause external auditory canal stenosis, leading to repeated otitis externa and potentially conductive hearing loss. It is vital to consider this entity in susceptible patients who report hearing loss, as timely intervention such as proper ear protection equipment can lower the risk of developing severe external auditory canal exostoses. We present a case of a 42-year-old male, cold water surfer with conductive hearing loss and bilateral external auditory canal (EAC) stenosis demonstrated on the computed tomography.

  9. Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updated by: Fred K. Berger, MD, addiction and forensic psychiatrist, Scripps Memorial Hospital, La Jolla, CA. Also ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  10. Auditory and optic neuropathy in Kjer's disease : case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksma-Schaafsma, S. C.; van Dijk, P.; Dikkers, F. G.

    Objective: Description of a female patient with diagnosed Kjer's disease and sensorineural hearing loss, who specifically complained of a progressive inability to understand speech in noisy situations. Design: Case report. Subject: A 30-year-old, Caucasian woman with Kjer's disease. Results:

  11. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Petousis, Aristotelis; Karakostas, Euthimios; Simantirakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5 × 0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy. PMID:21941560

  12. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Vasileiadis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5×0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy.

  13. Musical hallucinations: review of treatment effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eCoebergh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Despite an increased scientific interest in musical hallucinations throughout the past 25 years, treatment protocols are still lacking. This may well be due to the fact that musical hallucinations have multiple causes, and that published cases are relatively rare.Objective: To review the effects of published treatment methods for musical hallucinations.Methods: A literature search yielded 175 articles discussing a total number of 516 cases, of which 147 articles discussed treatment in 276 individuals. We analysed the treatment results in relation to the aetiological factor considered responsible for the mediation of the musical hallucinations, i.e., idiopathic/hypoacusis, psychiatric disorder, brain lesion and other pathology, epilepsy or intoxication.Results: Musical hallucinations can disappear without intervention. When hallucinations are bearable, patients can be reassured without any other treatment. However, in other patients musical hallucinations are so disturbing that treatment is indicated. Distinct aetiological groups appear to respond differently to treatment. In the hypoacusis group, treating the hearing impairment can yield significant improvement and coping strategies (e.g. more acoustic stimulation are frequently helpful. Pharmacological treatment methods can also be successful, with antidepressants being more helpful than antiepileptics (which are still better than antipsychotics. The limited use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has looked promising. Musical hallucinations occurring as part of a psychiatric disorder tend to respond well to psychopharmacological treatments targeting the underlying disorder. Musical hallucinations experienced in the context of brain injuries and epilepsy tend to respond well to antiepileptics, but their natural course is often benign, irrespective of any pharmacological treatment. When intoxication is the main aetiological factor, it is important to stop or switch the

  14. Decreased language lateralization is characteristic of psychosis, not auditory hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, Kelly M. J.; De Weijer, Antoin D.; Daalman, Kirstin; Blom, Jan Dirk; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Decreased language lateralization is a well-replicated finding in psychotic patients. It is currently unclear, however, whether this abnormality is related to a particular symptom of psychosis or to psychosis in general. It has been argued that decreased language lateralization may be related to

  15. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement, highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions.Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the

  16. Preclinical Polymodal Hallucinations for 13 Years before Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Abbate

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We describe a case of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB that presented long-lasting preclinical complex polymodal hallucinations. Background. Few studies have deeply investigated the characteristics of hallucinations in DLB, especially in the preclinical phase. Moreover, the clinical phenotype of mild cognitive impairment-(MCI- DLB is poorly understood. Methods. The patient was followed for 4 years and a selective phenomenological and cognitive study was performed at the predementia stage. Results. The phenomenological study showed the presence of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations that allowed us to make a differential diagnosis between DLB and Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS. The neuropsychological evaluation showed a multiple domain without amnesia MCI subtype with prefrontal dysexecutive, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial impairments and simultanagnosia, which has not previously been reported in MCI-DLB. Conclusions. This study extends the prognostic value of hallucinations for DLB to the preclinical phases. It supports and refines the MCI-DLB concept and identifies simultanagnosia as a possible early cognitive marker. Finally, it confirms an association between hallucinations and visuoperceptual impairments at an intermediate stage of the disease course and strongly supports the hypothesis that hallucinations in the earliest stages of DLB may reflect a narcolepsy-like REM-sleep disorder.

  17. A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of visual hallucinations in the human striate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Hina; Ahmad, Fayyaz; Lee, Soo Y; Park, Hyun W; Im, Dongmi; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Chaudhary, Safee U

    2016-11-29

    Human beings frequently experience fear, phobia, migraine and hallucinations, however, the cerebral mechanisms underpinning these conditions remain poorly understood. Towards this goal, in this work, we aim to correlate the human ocular perceptions with visual hallucinations, and map them to their cerebral origins. An fMRI study was performed to examine the visual cortical areas including the striate, parastriate and peristriate cortex in the occipital lobe of the human brain. 24 healthy subjects were enrolled and four visual patterns including hallucination circle (HCC), hallucination fan (HCF), retinotopy circle (RTC) and retinotopy cross (RTX) were used towards registering their impact in the aforementioned visual related areas. One-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate the significance of difference between induced activations. Multinomial regression and and K-means were used to cluster activation patterns in visual areas of the brain. Significant activations were observed in the visual cortex as a result of stimulus presentation. The responses induced by visual stimuli were resolved to Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19. Activation data clustered into independent and mutually exclusive clusters with HCC registering higher activations as compared to HCF, RTC and RTX. We conclude that small circular objects, in rotation, tend to leave greater hallucinating impressions in the visual region. The similarity between observed activation patterns and those reported in conditions such as epilepsy and visual hallucinations can help elucidate the cortical mechanisms underlying these conditions. Trial Registration 1121_GWJUNG.

  18. Preclinical Polymodal Hallucinations for 13 Years before Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Carlo; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Inglese, Silvia; Viti, Niccolò; Cantatore, Alessandra; De Agostini, Lisa; Pirri, Federico; Marino, Lorenza; Bagarolo, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We describe a case of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) that presented long-lasting preclinical complex polymodal hallucinations. Background. Few studies have deeply investigated the characteristics of hallucinations in DLB, especially in the preclinical phase. Moreover, the clinical phenotype of mild cognitive impairment-(MCI-) DLB is poorly understood. Methods. The patient was followed for 4 years and a selective phenomenological and cognitive study was performed at the predementia stage. Results. The phenomenological study showed the presence of hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations that allowed us to make a differential diagnosis between DLB and Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS). The neuropsychological evaluation showed a multiple domain without amnesia MCI subtype with prefrontal dysexecutive, visuoperceptual, and visuospatial impairments and simultanagnosia, which has not previously been reported in MCI-DLB. Conclusions. This study extends the prognostic value of hallucinations for DLB to the preclinical phases. It supports and refines the MCI-DLB concept and identifies simultanagnosia as a possible early cognitive marker. Finally, it confirms an association between hallucinations and visuoperceptual impairments at an intermediate stage of the disease course and strongly supports the hypothesis that hallucinations in the earliest stages of DLB may reflect a narcolepsy-like REM-sleep disorder. PMID:24868122

  19. Negative hallucinations, dreams and hallucinations: The framing structure and its representation in the analytic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelberg, Rosine Jozef

    2016-12-01

    This paper explores the meaning of a patient's hallucinatory experiences in the course of a five times a week analysis. I will locate my understanding within the context of André Green's ideas on the role of the framing structure and the negative hallucination in the structuring of the mind. The understanding of the transference and countertransference was crucial in the creation of meaning and enabling the transformations that took place in the analytic process. Through a detailed analysis of a clinical example the author examines Bion's distinction between hysterical hallucinations and psychotic hallucinations and formulates her own hypothesis about the distinctions between the two. The paper suggests that whilst psychotic hallucinations express a conflict between life and death, in the hysterical hallucination it is between love and hate. The paper also contains some reflections on the dramatic nature of the analytic encounter. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  20. [Negative hallucination, self-onsciousness and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, C; Stephan, F; Walter, M; Thomas, P

    2015-04-01

    Negative hallucinations are characterized by a defect in perception of an object or a person, or a denial of the existence of their perception. Negative hallucinations create blank spaces, due to both an impossible representation and an incapability of investment in reality. They have a close relationship with Cotard's syndrome, delusional theme of organ denial observed in melancholic syndromes in the elderly. Phenomenological approach. The phenomenology of negative hallucinations provides quite an amount of information on the origin of the psychotic symptoms when one is rather old. The connections between hallucinations, mood disorders and negative symptoms are often difficult to live with for the nearest and dearest. Negative hallucinations require a strict approach to identify their expression that is crucial because a wide heterogeneity exists within the pathological pictures, as in Cotard's syndrome. Although the negative hallucination has an anti traumatic function in elderly people fighting against mental pain, it still represents a deficiency in symbolization. The prevalence of this symptom is without doubt underestimated, although its presence often underlines thymic suffering that is more striking. These hallucinatory symptoms have an important impact on the patients' daily life, and they appear to be prisoners of a suffering, which cannot be revealed. We propose in this article to review the clinical symptoms of negative hallucinations in the elderly and the way to manage them. The medicinal approaches are not always effective. A greater place must be given to what is in connection with the body, aiming at a strong impact and thus to offer non-pharmacological approaches, such as somatic ones, which can be either invasive (electroconvulsive therapy) or not (transcranial magnetic stimulation). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. The psychopathology of hallucinations--a methodological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lothane, Z

    1982-12-01

    A psychiatry based on operational and dynamic principles requires a new definition of hallucinations which is both heuristically useful and helpful for the understanding of the phenomenon of hallucinations. The time-hallowed definition of hallucinations as 'perceptions without stimulation of the sense organs' is both incorrect and a relic of late 19th century para-physiological thinking. Heuristically it leads into a blind alley. Central to the redefinition of hallucinations is the conception of the hallucinator, the author of his hallucinations, homologous to the dreamer, the author of his dreams. This idea was held firmly by early French 19th century clinicians, who were inspired by a holistic and operational conception in philosophy. Hallucinations are a multifaceted complex human mental activity and defined by means of a number of parameters held together as an indivisible whole. Hallucinations are described phenomenologically, psychologically, dynamically, psychodynamically, emotionally, logically, nosologically, and interpersonally.

  2. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaharu Tabuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked.

  3. Top-down modulation, emotion, and hallucination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleman, A; Kahn, RS

    2002-01-01

    We argue that the pivotal role assigned by Northoff to the principle of top-down modulation in catatonia might successfully be applied to other symptoms of schizophrenia, for example, hallucinations. Second, we propose that Northoffs account would benefit from a more comprehensive analysis of the

  4. [Paroxysmal perceptual alteration in comparison with hallucination--a review of its clinical reports and discussion of its pathophysiological mechanism in the present day, when second generation antipsychotics are widely used].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken

    2009-01-01

    The syndrome of paroxysmal perceptual alteration (PPA) was first described by Yamaguchi in 1985. Since then, many PPA cases have been reported, and its pathophysiological mechanism has been proposed: a suppressed (blocked) mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic system and sequential compensatory increase of noradrenergic neuronal activity are crucial for the occurrence of PPA. PPA is characterized by hypersensitivity of perception, psychedelic experience (brightening of colors, sharpening of contrast, visual distortion, etc.), and somatic schema disorder (one feels that one is floating, one's extremities are being pulled and elongated, etc.). PPA in chronic schizophrenic patients occurs abruptly like an attack mainly in the evening, often precipitated by fatigue. During the attack, patients also suffer from mood and thought alteration (anxiety, agitation, depressive mood, and inability to distract their thoughts from one thing), but they are aware that symptoms of PPA are not real and apprehensive about them. The attack ceases gradually and spontaneously while the patient rests or sleeps. These clinical features are clearly different from those of schizophrenic hallucinations. It is believed that PPA is closely related to neuroleptic treatment by conventional antipsychotics. I reported the prevalence of PPA as 4.0% in 1991 when high potential D2 blocking agents were prevailing. The occurrence of PPA has been significantly reduced to the present, when second generation (atypical) antipsychotics are prevailing. However, in my inquiry in 2004, the prevalence of PPA was 3.6% in cases treated with risperidone (RIS), while the rates were 0 in cases treated with olanzapine (OLZ), quetiapine (QTP), and perospirone (PRS). Several cases of PPA have been reported in patients who were treated with OLZ and PRS. Until now, no cases of PPA have been reported who were treated with QTP and aripiprazole (APZ). The prevalence of PPA among cases treated with these second generation

  5. 18FDG-PET and electroencephalographic findings in a patient suffering from musical hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkwoh, R.; Ebel, H.; Kachel, F.; Reiche, W.; Ringelstein, E.B.; Buell, U.; Sass, H.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of reports on the phenomenon of musical hallucinations suggests that this abnormality is a complication of a progressive peripheral hearing deficit. The present case report and a review of the international literature would, however, indicate that this syndrome may be the result of a dysfunction of the temporal cortex. (orig.) [de

  6. Braille alexia during visual hallucination in a blind man with selective calcarine atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kengo; Yasuda, Hitoshi; Haneda, Masakazu; Kashiwagi, Atsunori

    2003-04-01

    The case of a 56-year-old man who has been blind for 25 years due to retinal degeneration is herein described. The patient complained of elementary visual hallucination, during which it was difficult for him to read Braille. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed marked atrophy of the bilateral striate cortex. Visual hallucination as a release phenomenon of the primary visual cortex has never been reported to cause alexia for Braille. The present case supports the results of recent functional imaging studies of the recruitment of striate and prestriate cortex for Braille reading.

  7. "Capgras" Delusions Involving Belongings, Not People, and Evolving Visual Hallucinations Associated with Occipital Lobe Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Brandon; Maynard, Erika; Melvin, Kelly; Holroyd, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Capgras syndrome is characterized by the delusional belief that a familiar person has been replaced by a visually similar imposter or replica. Rarely, the delusional focus may be objects rather than people. Numerous etiologies have been described for Capgras to include seizures. Similarly, visual hallucinations, both simple and complex, can occur secondary to seizure activity. We present, to our knowledge, the first reported case of visual hallucinations and Capgras delusions for objects that developed secondary to new onset occipital lobe epilepsy. We then discuss the possible underlying neurologic mechanisms responsible for the symptomatology.

  8. Religious content of hallucinations in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzystanek, Marek; Krysta, Krzysztof; Klasik, Adam; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2012-09-01

    Different environmental factors are thought to be responsible for 15-20% of schizophrenia pathogenesis. Religion has long been considered a major force in human life, regardless of economic, social or political affiliation. How the perception of religion has changed over time, especially in the context of mental illness, was the focal point of this long-term comparative study. A random selection of 100 case histories from the years 1932, 1952, 1972 and 1992 was selected. By reviewing the subject history and medical notes, information on the presence of religious hallucinations and/or delusions were collected and grouped. Religious topics were demonstrated in 46.8% of the test population. Whereas there was a clear diversity of religious-themed delusions, "God", "Christ", "Mary", "Satan/devil" and "hell" all figured prominently across all reviewed years. There is a progressive decrease in the number of religious topics in paranoid schizophrenia. The transfer of holiness from historical saints onto a subject was observed. Evil dominates over good in productive symptoms in paranoid schizophrenia. The phenomenon of apocalyptic subjects in paranoid hallucinations and delusions increased after the Second World War. Religious topics of hallucinations and delusions change over time and relate to objective historical events and reflect changes in religiosity in society.

  9. Tolerância ao fenômeno alucinatório induzido pelo zolpidem: relato de caso Tolerancia al fenómeno alucinatorio inducido por el zolpidem: relato de caso Tolerance to zolpidem-induced hallucinations: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saint-Clair Bahls

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O hipnótico zolpidem é considerado efetivo e seguro, entretanto, existem na literatura alguns relatos de caso de fenômeno alucinatório associado ao seu uso. Relataremos mais um caso de alucinações induzidas pelo zolpidem em paciente jovem do sexo feminino. DISCUSSÃO: Este caso, segundo nosso conhecimento, é o primeiro descrito na literatura que sugere a possibilidade de ocorrer, em alguns pacientes, o desenvolvimento de tolerância a esse efeito alucinatório adverso raro, porém, importante. Apresentamos uma discussão sobre algumas hipóteses farmacocinéticas e farmacodinâmicas deste fenômeno. CONCLUSÕES: Alertamos para a necessidade de atenção ao fato da indução alucinatória pelo zolpidem e sua tolerância, assim como a importância de seu melhor entendimento.INTRODUCTION: El hipnótico zolpidem es considerado efectivo y seguro. Sin embargo, hay en la literatura algunos relatos de caso de fenómeno alucinatorio asociado a su uso. Relataremos un caso más sobre alucinaciones inducidas por zolpidem en una paciente joven de sexo femenino. DISCUSIÓN: Este caso, según nuestro conocimiento, es el primero descrito en la literatura que sugiere la posibilidad de que en algunos pacientes ocurra el desarrollo de tolerancia a este efecto alucinatorio, adverso y raro, sin embargo, importante. Presentamos una discusión sobre algunas hipótesis farmacocinéticas y farmacodinámicas de este fenómeno. CONCLUSION: Por la necesidad de atención, alertamos al hecho de la inducción alucinatoria relacionada al zolpidem y a su tolerancia, así como a la importancia de comprenderla mejor.BACKGROUND: Zolpidem is reported to be a safe and effective hypnotic agent. In the literature, there are some case reports of hallucinations after zolpidem administration. We report one more case in witch zolpidem lead to hallucinations in young adult female. DISCUSSION: This case, to our knowledge, is the first to suggest the possibility of

  10. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  11. Hallucinations Experienced by Visually Impaired: Charles Bonnet Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Charles Bonnet Syndrome is a condition where visual hallucinations occur as a result of damage along the visual pathway. Patients with Charles Bonnet Syndrome maintain partial or full insight that the hallucinations are not real, absence of psychological conditions, and absence of hallucinations affecting other sensory modalities, while maintaining intact intellectual functioning. Charles Bonnet Syndrome has been well documented in neurologic, geriatric medicine, and psychiatric lite...

  12. Characteristics of Auditory Agnosia in a Child with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattiangadi, Nina; Pillion, Joseph P.; Slomine, Beth; Christensen, James; Trovato, Melissa K.; Speedie, Lynn J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a case that is unusual in many respects from other documented incidences of auditory agnosia, including the mechanism of injury, age of the individual, and location of neurological insult. The clinical presentation is one of disturbance in the perception of spoken language, music, pitch, emotional prosody, and temporal auditory…

  13. Auditory Brainstem Response to Complex Sounds Predicts Self-Reported Speech-in-Noise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) to predict subjective ratings of speech understanding in noise on the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ; Gatehouse & Noble, 2004) relative to the predictive ability of the Quick Speech-in-Noise test (QuickSIN; Killion, Niquette,…

  14. Assessment and Mitigation of the Effects of Noise on Habitability in Deep Space Environments: Report on Non-Auditory Effects of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.

    2018-01-01

    This document reviews non-auditory effects of noise relevant to habitable volume requirements in cislunar space. The non-auditory effects of noise in future long-term space habitats are likely to be impactful on team and individual performance, sleep, and cognitive well-being. This report has provided several recommendations for future standards and procedures for long-term space flight habitats, along with recommendations for NASA's Human Research Program in support of DST mission success.

  15. Visual memory errors in Parkinson's disease patient with visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J; Boubert, L

    2011-03-01

    The occurrences of visual hallucinations seem to be more prevalent in low light and hallucinators tend to be more prone to false positive type errors in memory tasks. Here we investigated whether the richness of stimuli does indeed affect recognition differently in hallucinating and nonhallucinating participants, and if so whether this difference extends to identifying spatial context. We compared 36 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with visual hallucinations, 32 Parkinson's patients without hallucinations, and 36 age-matched controls, on a visual memory task where color and black and white pictures were presented at different locations. Participants had to recognize the pictures among distracters along with the location of the stimulus. Findings revealed clear differences in performance between the groups. Both PD groups had impaired recognition compared to the controls, but those with hallucinations were significantly more impaired on black and white than on color stimuli. In addition, the group with hallucinations was significantly impaired compared to the other two groups on spatial memory. We suggest that not only do PD patients have poorer recognition of pictorial stimuli than controls, those who present with visual hallucinations appear to be more heavily reliant on bottom up sensory input and impaired on spatial ability.

  16. Auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L Robert; Shell, Alison R

    2015-01-01

    Auditory agnosia refers to impairments in sound perception and identification despite intact hearing, cognitive functioning, and language abilities (reading, writing, and speaking). Auditory agnosia can be general, affecting all types of sound perception, or can be (relatively) specific to a particular domain. Verbal auditory agnosia (also known as (pure) word deafness) refers to deficits specific to speech processing, environmental sound agnosia refers to difficulties confined to non-speech environmental sounds, and amusia refers to deficits confined to music. These deficits can be apperceptive, affecting basic perceptual processes, or associative, affecting the relation of a perceived auditory object to its meaning. This chapter discusses what is known about the behavioral symptoms and lesion correlates of these different types of auditory agnosia (focusing especially on verbal auditory agnosia), evidence for the role of a rapid temporal processing deficit in some aspects of auditory agnosia, and the few attempts to treat the perceptual deficits associated with auditory agnosia. A clear picture of auditory agnosia has been slow to emerge, hampered by the considerable heterogeneity in behavioral deficits, associated brain damage, and variable assessments across cases. Despite this lack of clarity, these striking deficits in complex sound processing continue to inform our understanding of auditory perception and cognition. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased BOLD Signals Elicited by High Gamma Auditory Stimulation of the Left Auditory Cortex in Acute State Schizophrenia

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    Hironori Kuga, M.D.

    2016-10-01

    We acquired BOLD responses elicited by click trains of 20, 30, 40 and 80-Hz frequencies from 15 patients with acute episode schizophrenia (AESZ, 14 symptom-severity-matched patients with non-acute episode schizophrenia (NASZ, and 24 healthy controls (HC, assessed via a standard general linear-model-based analysis. The AESZ group showed significantly increased ASSR-BOLD signals to 80-Hz stimuli in the left auditory cortex compared with the HC and NASZ groups. In addition, enhanced 80-Hz ASSR-BOLD signals were associated with more severe auditory hallucination experiences in AESZ participants. The present results indicate that neural over activation occurs during 80-Hz auditory stimulation of the left auditory cortex in individuals with acute state schizophrenia. Given the possible association between abnormal gamma activity and increased glutamate levels, our data may reflect glutamate toxicity in the auditory cortex in the acute state of schizophrenia, which might lead to progressive changes in the left transverse temporal gyrus.

  18. Combined mirror visual and auditory feedback therapy for upper limb phantom pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Kun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain is a very common issue after amputations. In recent years there has been accumulating data implicating 'mirror visual feedback' or 'mirror therapy' as helpful in the treatment of phantom limb sensation and phantom limb pain. Case presentation We present the case of a 24-year-old Caucasian man, a left upper limb amputee, treated with mirror visual feedback combined with auditory feedback with improved pain relief. Conclusion This case may suggest that auditory feedback might enhance the effectiveness of mirror visual feedback and serve as a valuable addition to the complex multi-sensory processing of body perception in patients who are amputees.

  19. Auditory extinction and dichotic listening cv task in cerebral infarction preliminary report

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    Mauro Muszkat

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Six stroke patients were studied using a dichotic listening¹ CV task, 4 with left hemisphere infarction, 2 with right hemisphere infarction. It was observed a «lesion--effect», a shift of hemisphere prevalence to the side opposite a brain lesion. The authors suggest that the lesion-effect can be explained by the auditory extinction phenomenon at the linguistic level.

  20. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formisano, E; Pepino, A; Bracale, M [Department of Electronic Engineering, Biomedical Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Di Salle, F [Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Radiologucal Unit, Universita di Napoli, Federic II, Italy, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Lanfermann, H; Zanella, F E [Department of Neuroradiology, J.W. Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt/M. (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors) 17 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Different patterns of auditory cortex activation revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formisano, E.; Pepino, A.; Bracale, M.; Di Salle, F.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the last few years, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has been widely accepted as an effective tool for mapping brain activities in both the sensorimotor and the cognitive field. The present work aims to assess the possibility of using fMRI methods to study the cortical response to different acoustic stimuli. Furthermore, we refer to recent data collected at Frankfurt University on the cortical pattern of auditory hallucinations. Healthy subjects showed broad bilateral activation, mostly located in the transverse gyrus of Heschl. The analysis of the cortical activation induced by different stimuli has pointed out a remarkable difference in the spatial and temporal features of the auditory cortex response to pulsed tones and pure tones. The activated areas during episodes of auditory hallucinations match the location of primary auditory cortex as defined in control measurements with the same patients and in the experiments on healthy subjects. (authors)

  2. Synesthetic hallucinations induced by psychedelic drugs in a congenitally blind man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Erba, Sara; Brown, David J; Proulx, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    This case report offers rare insights into crossmodal responses to psychedelic drug use in a congenitally blind (CB) individual as a form of synthetic synesthesia. BP's personal experience provides us with a unique report on the psychological and sensory alterations induced by hallucinogenic drugs, including an account of the absence of visual hallucinations, and a compelling look at the relationship between LSD induced synesthesia and crossmodal correspondences. The hallucinatory experiences reported by BP are of particular interest in light of the observation that rates of psychosis within the CB population are extremely low. The phenomenology of the induced hallucinations suggests that experiences acquired through other means, might not give rise to "visual" experiences in the phenomenological sense, but instead gives rise to novel experiences in the other functioning senses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hallucinations and related concepts – their conceptual background

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    Diogo eTelles-Correia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the 17th century, the experiences we now name hallucinations or others alike were valued within a cultural context, they could bring meaning to the subject or the world. From mid-17th to 18th centuries, they acquire a medical quality in mental and organic illnesses. However, the term was only fully integrated in psychiatry by Esquirol in the 18th-19th centuries. By then, a controversy begins on whether hallucinations have a perceptual or intellectual origin. Esquirol favours the intellectual origin, describing them as an involuntary exercise of memory and imagination.By the twentieth century, some authors maintain that hallucinations are a form of delusion (Ey, while others describe them as a change in perception (Jaspers, Fish. A more integrated perspectives like those proposed by Alonso Fernandez and Luque, highlights the heterogeneity of hallucinations and the multiplicity of their types and causes.The terms pseudohallucination, illusion and hallucinosis are grafted into the concept of hallucination. Since its introduction the term pseudohallucination has been used with different meanings. The major characteristics that we found associated with pseudohallucinations were ‘lack of objectivity’ and ‘presence of insight’ (differing from hallucinations. Illusions are unanimously taken as distortions of real objects. Hallucinosis, first described in the context of alcohol consumption, is generally considered egodystonic, in which insight is preserved.These and other controversial aspects regarding the evolution of the term hallucination and all its derivative concepts are discussed in this paper.

  4. Hallucinations, loneliness, and social isolation in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Jardri, Renaud; Larøi, Frank; Antoine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and functional compromise, as frequently observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), hinders communication and social interactions. One consequence of this hindrance may be a feeling of loneliness. Moreover, emptiness and boredom, as observed in social isolation and loneliness, may thus be compensated for by creating imagined stimuli. Conditions of loneliness may be viewed as potentially generating hallucinatory experiences. To assess this assumption, the present study explored the relationship between social isolation, loneliness, and hallucinations in a sample of 22 mild AD participants and 24 elderly, healthy controls. Participants were assessed using the Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale, the UCLA Loneliness Scale, and a scale exploring contact with others and social participation. More hallucinatory experiences, social isolation, and loneliness were found in the AD group than in the healthy control group. Moreover, significant correlations were observed between hallucinations and loneliness and between hallucinations and social isolation in both groups. Finally, hallucinations were predicted by social isolation. Hallucinations may constitute a compensatory mechanism that aims to fulfil communication needs in lonely, elderly participants. Hallucinations may also be regarded as experiences that allow certain participants to escape the cycle of boredom, emptiness, and affective deprivation caused by social isolation.

  5. Increased thalamic resting-state connectivity as a core driver of LSD-induced hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P; Lang, U; Schmidt, A; Liechti, M; Borgwardt, S

    2017-12-01

    It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches. Correlation analyses were used to explore relationships between thalamic connectivity to regions involved in auditory and visual hallucinations and subjective ratings on auditory and visual drug effects. LSD caused significant alterations in all dimensions of the 5D-ASC scale and significantly increased thalamic functional connectivity to various cortical regions. Furthermore, LSD-induced functional connectivity measures between the thalamus and the right fusiform gyrus and insula correlated significantly with subjective auditory and visual drug effects. Hallucinogenic drug effects might be provoked by facilitations of cortical excitability via thalamocortical interactions. Our findings have implications for the understanding of the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic drugs and provide further insight into the role of the 5-HT 2A -receptor in altered states of consciousness. © 2017 The Authors Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations during sleep paralysis: neurological and cultural construction of the night-mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, J A; Rueffer, S D; Newby-Clark, I R

    1999-09-01

    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences (HHEs) accompanying sleep paralysis (SP) are often cited as sources of accounts of supernatural nocturnal assaults and paranormal experiences. Descriptions of such experiences are remarkably consistent across time and cultures and consistent also with known mechanisms of REM states. A three-factor structural model of HHEs based on their relations both to cultural narratives and REM neurophysiology is developed and tested with several large samples. One factor, labeled Intruder, consisting of sensed presence, fear, and auditory and visual hallucinations, is conjectured to originate in a hypervigilant state initiated in the midbrain. Another factor, Incubus, comprising pressure on the chest, breathing difficulties, and pain, is attributed to effects of hyperpolarization of motoneurons on perceptions of respiration. These two factors have in common an implied alien "other" consistent with occult narratives identified in numerous contemporary and historical cultures. A third factor, labeled Unusual Bodily Experiences, consisting of floating/flying sensations, out-of-body experiences, and feelings of bliss, is related to physically impossible experiences generated by conflicts of endogenous and exogenous activation related to body position, orientation, and movement. Implications of this last factor for understanding of orientational primacy in self-consciousness are considered. Central features of the model developed here are consistent with recent work on hallucinations associated with hypnosis and schizophrenia. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  7. IMP-SPECT at patients with hallucinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podreka, I.; Mamoli, B.; Lesch, O.; Suess, E.; Wimberger, D.; Mayr, N.; Havelec, L.; Mueller, C.; Steiner, M.; Deecke, L.

    1986-01-01

    IMP-SPECT was performed in 14 normal volunteers. A 'regional index=RI' of tracer distribution was calculated for 18 regions in each hemisphere RI=(cts/voxel ROI)/(mean cts/voxel of all ROI's). 30 seizure patients (E) and 12 patients with acoustic, partialy also visual hallucinations (H) were investigated. Regions were defined as hypo- or hyperperfused if the RI exceeded the value of the corresponding normal-RI +- 2 std. EEG was recorded in all (E). 93.3% of EEG-findings were abnormal, 50% showed a focus, 46.7% paroxysmal activity. SPECT detected in 93.3% of (E) hypoperfused regions, mostly located in the temporal lobe. All (H) had decreased rCBF, predominantly in the frontal cortex. ANOVA and t-test revealed significant RI-differences in the frontal lobe, both hippocampi, right and left inferior occipital cortex, and right anterior basal ganglia. (H) had lower RI's in frontal lobes, higher RI's in both hippocampal regions as well as inferior occipital regions and anterior basal ganglia Differences between (E) and (H) were found in the frontal lobe ((H)sub(→)), right superior temporal region ((H)sup(→)), left hippocampus ((H)sup(→)), both inferior occipital regions ((H)sup(→)) and right anterior basal ganglia ((H)sup(→)). The study shows that by means of IMP-SPECT hypo- and hyperperfused areas can be detected in the hemispheres of (E) and (H), corresponding to disturbed brain function. Higher hippocampal CBF in (E) and (H) may be related to the role of this limbic structure in generation of seizures and psychotic states. Hallucinations are associated with increased CBF in the right temporal and associative visual cortex. (Author)

  8. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. “Capgras” Delusions Involving Belongings, Not People, and Evolving Visual Hallucinations Associated with Occipital Lobe Seizures

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    Brandon Lilly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Capgras syndrome is characterized by the delusional belief that a familiar person has been replaced by a visually similar imposter or replica. Rarely, the delusional focus may be objects rather than people. Numerous etiologies have been described for Capgras to include seizures. Similarly, visual hallucinations, both simple and complex, can occur secondary to seizure activity. We present, to our knowledge, the first reported case of visual hallucinations and Capgras delusions for objects that developed secondary to new onset occipital lobe epilepsy. We then discuss the possible underlying neurologic mechanisms responsible for the symptomatology.

  10. Clinical application of 3D spiral CT of the auditory ossicular chain and labyrinth: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Wang Yisheng

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical application and limitation of 3D spiral CT of the auditory ossicular chain and labyrinth. Methods: 3D reconstruction of the auditory ossicular chain and labyrinth, including multiplanar reformation (MPR), minimum or maximum intensity projection (MinIP or MaxIP) and shaded surface display (SSD), were performed with 1 mm slice thickness, 5 cm field of view and 0.1 mm reconstruction interval spiral CT in 14 normal subjects, 15 patients with middle ear diseases. Results: With use of 3D reconstruction images in 14 normal subjects, 13 cases of ossicular chain showed that the long process of the incus was parallel to the manubrium and projected inferomedian toward the cochlear promontory, the incus-stapedial joint was like a 'L-shape' structure, and in 8 cases of labyrinth reconstruction, the cochlea and the three semicircular canals were demonstrated. 9 cholesteatomas of 13 chronic otitis media demonstrated destruction of ossicular chain of varying degrees. In 2 cases with congenital abnormality, ossicle dysplasia was seen. Conclusion: 3D CT is a useful technique for evaluating anatomic malformations and diseases of middle and inner ear, but there are still few pitfalls

  11. Ceruminous Adenoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report with Imaging and Pathologic Findings

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    George Psillas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceruminous adenomas are benign tumors that are rare in humans and present with a nonspecific symptomatology. The treatment of choice is surgical excision. We present an 87-year-old woman who presented with a reddish, tender, round, soft mass of the outer third of the inferior wall of the left external auditory canal, discharging a yellowish fluid upon pressure. Coincidentally, due to her poor general condition, this patient also showed symptoms consistent with chronic otitis media, parotitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, such as otorrhea, through a ruptured tympanic membrane and swelling of the parotid gland and cervical lymph nodes. The external auditory canal lesion was surgically excised under general anesthesia, utilizing a transmeatal approach. The pathological diagnosis was ceruminous gland adenoma. The tumor was made of tubular and cystic structures and embedded in a fibrous, focally hyalinized stroma. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of two distinct cell populations. The luminal cells expressed keratin 7, while peripheral (basal cells expressed keratins 5/6, S100 protein, and p63. The apocrine gland-related antigen GCDFP-15 was focally expressed by tumor cells. The postoperative course was uneventful and at the 2-year follow-up no recurrence of the ceruminous adenoma was noted.

  12. Musical hallucinosis: case reports and possible neurobiological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Ramon; Walterfang, Mark; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2008-04-01

    The perception of music without a stimulus, or musical hallucination, is reported in both organic and psychiatric disorders. It is most frequently described in the elderly with associated hearing loss and accompanied by some degree of insight. In this setting it is often referred to as 'musical hallucinosis'. The aim of the authors was to present examples of this syndrome and review the current understanding of its neurobiological basis. We describe three cases of persons experiencing musical hallucinosis in the context of hearing deficits with varying degrees of associated central nervous system abnormalities. Putative neurobiological mechanisms, in particular those involving de-afferentation of a complex auditory recognition system by complete or partial deafness, are discussed in the light of current information from the literature. Musical hallucinosis can be experienced in those patients with hearing impairment and is phenomenologically distinct for hallucinations described in psychiatric disorders.

  13. Visual hallucinations caused by Charles Bonnet Syndrome: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had no cognitive impairment and was fully aware of the ... eration. Ms P's main complaint was visual hallucinations. ... brother in front of her eyes. She also displayed ... her would seem to develop a full beard. .... Beta blocking agents. 4.

  14. Some observations on hallucination: clinical application of some developments of Melanie Klein's work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of a psychotic patient is used to illustrate the importance of certain developments of Melanie Klein's work. The case presentation focuses upon the formal qualities of the patient's communications, many of which were amalgamations of profoundly incompatible elements, particularly a subtle destructiveness which parasitized seemingly impartial reports about her state of mind. These communications embodied important object relationships. The patient used her communications to conjure up psychic disintegration. As a result of her involvement in 'chuntering' her preoccupations would become increasingly violent, cruel and sexualized. The patient's equivocal communications generate confusion. This is central to the patient's experience of self-destruction as persecution. A number of ideas are advanced concerning the origins of the patient's hallucinations. These include her relish at the introduction of sensory distortions. Questions are raised about the nature of certain types of hallucination, the origins and intractability of concrete thinking, about verbalization and about the typology of psychotic patients.

  15. Clinical and neurocognitive aspects of hallucinations in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Roche, Jean; Jardri, Renaud; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Gallouj, Karim; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    Due to their prevalence, hallucinations are considered as one of the most frequent psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). These psychotic manifestations reduce patients' well-being, increase the burden of caregivers, contribute to early institutionalization, and are related with the course of cognitive decline in AD. Considering their consequences, we provide a comprehensive account of the current state of knowledge about the prevalence and characteristics of hallucinations in AD. We propose a comprehensive and testable theoretical model about hallucinations in AD: the ALZHA (ALZheimer and HAllucinations) model. In this model, neurological, genetic, cognitive, affective, and iatrogenic factors associated with hallucinations in AD are highlighted. According to the ALZHA model, hallucinations in AD first involve trait markers (i.e., cognitive deficits, neurological deficits, genetic predisposition and/or sensory deficits) to which state markers that may trigger these experiences are added (e.g., psychological distress and/or iatrogenic factors). Finally, we provide recommendations for assessment and management of these psychotic manifestations in AD, with the aim to benefit patients, caregivers, and health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Auditory Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children and adults with auditory neuropathy. Cochlear implants (electronic devices that compensate for damaged or nonworking parts ... and Drug Administration: Information on Cochlear Implants Telecommunications Relay Services Your Baby's Hearing Screening News Deaf health ...

  17. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  18. Treatment with venlafaxine in six cases of children with narcolepsy and with cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Lene Ruge; Østergaard, John R

    2009-04-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder associated with inappropriate control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The main symptoms are excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and disturbed nocturnal sleep. Cataplexy is marked by episodes of muscular weakness and may cause the patient to collapse to the ground. So far, pharmacotherapy of cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations has been predominantly based on tricyclic antidepressants. Recently, new drugs that block the reuptake of norepineprine and serotonin (e.g., venlafaxine) have been suggested as first-line treatment. These drugs have become our choice in treating children with cataplexy and nightmares as a symptom in narcolepsy. We describe clinical case reports of venlafaxine treatment in 6 children aged 7-12 years old when diagnosed with narcolepsy-cataplexy. In 2 cases with up to 50 daily cataplectic attacks, an initial effect of 37.5 mg of venlafaxine was initially observed. However, during the first year, the dose had to be increased to 112.5 mg daily to avoid cataplexy. A third patient with partial cataplexy was treated with 75 mg of venlafaxine daily. In 2 cases, hypnagogic hallucinations, described by the patients as nightmares, were the most troubling symptom and were successfully treated with only 37.5 mg of venlafaxine daily. Side effects included an increase of disturbed nocturnal sleep when venlafaxine was taken after 2:00 p.m. No major aggressive or suicidal thoughts and no raised blood pressure were recorded. Venlafaxine has proven to be an effective treatment of cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations in 6 children with narcolepsy. No severe side effects were observed.

  19. The influence of hallucination proneness and social threat on time perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Abbie L; Hutton, Samuel B

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia frequently report disturbances in time perception, but the precise nature of such deficits and their relation to specific symptoms of the disorder is unclear. We sought to determine the relationship between hallucination proneness and time perception in healthy individuals, and whether this relationship is moderated by hypervigilance to threat-related stimuli. 206 participants completed the Revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS-R) and a time reproduction task in which, on each trial, participants viewed a face (happy, angry, neutral, or fearful) for between 1 and 5 s and then reproduced the time period with a spacebar press. High LSHS-R scores were associated with longer time estimates, but only during exposure to angry faces. A factor analysis of LSHS-R scores identified a factor comprising items related to reality monitoring, and this factor was most associated with the longer time estimates. During exposure to potential threat in the environment, duration estimates increase with hallucination proneness. The experience of feeling exposed to threat for longer may serve to maintain a state of hypervigilance which has been shown previously to be associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenia.

  20. Spatial localization deficits and auditory cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Megan A.; Butler, Pamela D.; DiCostanzo, Joanna; Forchelli, Gina; Silipo, Gail; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in the ability to discriminate auditory features such as pitch and duration that localize to primary cortical regions. Lesions of primary vs. secondary auditory cortex also produce differentiable effects on ability to localize and discriminate free-field sound, with primary cortical lesions affecting variability as well as accuracy of response. Variability of sound localization has not previously been studied in schizophrenia. Methods The study compared performance between patients with schizophrenia (n=21) and healthy controls (n=20) on sound localization and spatial discrimination tasks using low frequency tones generated from seven speakers concavely arranged with 30 degrees separation. Results For the sound localization task, patients showed reduced accuracy (p=0.004) and greater overall response variability (p=0.032), particularly in the right hemifield. Performance was also impaired on the spatial discrimination task (p=0.018). On both tasks, poorer accuracy in the right hemifield was associated with greater cognitive symptom severity. Better accuracy in the left hemifield was associated with greater hallucination severity on the sound localization task (p=0.026), but no significant association was found for the spatial discrimination task. Conclusion Patients show impairments in both sound localization and spatial discrimination of sounds presented free-field, with a pattern comparable to that of individuals with right superior temporal lobe lesions that include primary auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus). Right primary auditory cortex dysfunction may protect against hallucinations by influencing laterality of functioning. PMID:20619608

  1. Auditory Memory for Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Denis; Wellsted, David

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies are reported examining how the context of recent auditory stimulation may modulate the processing of new sounds. The question posed is how recent tone stimulation may affect ongoing performance in a discrimination task. In the task, two complex sounds occurred in successive intervals. A single target component of one complex…

  2. Amygdalar auditory neurons contribute to self-other distinction during ultrasonic social vocalization in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei Matsumoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although clinical studies reported hyperactivation of the auditory system and amygdala in patients with auditory hallucinations (hearing others’ but not one’s own voice, independent of any external stimulus, neural mechanisms of self/other attribution is not well understood. We recorded neuronal responses in the dorsal amygdala including the lateral amygdaloid nucleus to ultrasonic vocalization (USVs emitted by subjects and conspecifics during free social interaction in 16 adult male rats. The animals emitting the USVs were identified by EMG recordings. One-quarter of the amygdalar neurons (15/60 responded to 50 kHz calls by the subject and/or conspecifics. Among the responsive neurons, most neurons (Type-Other neurons (73%, 11/15 responded only to calls by conspecifics but not subjects. Two Type-Self neurons (13%, 2/15 responded to calls by the subject but not those by conspecifics, although their response selectivity to subjects vs. conspecifics was lower than that of Type-Other neurons. The remaining two neurons (13% responded to calls by both the subject and conspecifics. Furthermore, population coding of the amygdalar neurons represented distinction of subject vs. conspecific calls. The present results provide the first neurophysiological evidence that the amygdala discriminately represents affective social calls by subject and conspecifics. These findings suggest that the amygdala is an important brain region for self/other attribution. Furthermore, pathological activation of the amygdala, where Type-Other neurons predominate, could induce external misattribution of percepts of vocalization.

  3. Meningioma of the internal auditory vanal: case report Meningioma do meato acústico interno: relato de caso

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    Marcelo Campos Moraes Amato

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas limited to the internal auditory canal (IAC are rare. Acoustic neuroma is usually the diagnosis made when a tumor is found in this location because of its higher frequency. We report on a 58 year-old woman with a meningioma arising from the IAC and the difficulty to establish the pre-surgical diagnosis, based on clinical and radiological features. The perioperative suspicion and confirmation are very important to deal with the dura and bone infiltration in order to reduce tumor recurrence.Meningiomas restritos ao meato acústico interno são raros. O neurinoma do acústico é o principal diagnóstico diferencial feito quando um tumor é encontrado nesta região devido a sua maior freqüência. Apresentamos o caso de uma mulher de 58 anos de idade com meningioma localizado no meato acústico interno e as dificuldades na realização do diagnóstico pré-operatório considerando-se as apresentações clínica e radiológica. A suspeita e a confirmação do diagnóstico intraoperatório são importantes porque a dura subjacente e eventual osso comprometido devem ser ressecados para reduzir a possibilidade de recidiva.

  4. Prosthetic rehabilitation of intentionally malpositioned implants in a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherpour, Reza; Mirfazaelian, Ali; Mangoli, Amir A; Alikhasi, Marzieh

    2009-08-01

    This clinical report describes the rehabilitation of a patient with a compromised temporal bone anatomy caused by resection of bone due to squamous cell carcinoma of external auditory canal. Tumor resection was followed by placement of three implants. The implants were intentionally malpositioned in the anterior-posterior plane due to the lack of temporal bone. Prosthodontic treatment included customized implant bar-supported auricular prosthesis.

  5. Piracetam-induced changes on the brainstem auditory response in anesthetized juvenile rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Report of two clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Rivera, A; Gonzalez-Pina, R; Hernandez-Godinez, B; Ibanez-Contreras, A; Bueno-Nava, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, A

    2012-10-01

    We describe two clinical cases and examine the effects of piracetam on the brainstem auditory response in infantile female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We found that the interwave intervals show a greater reduction in a 3-year-old rhesus monkey compared to a 1-year-old rhesus monkey. In this report, we discuss the significance of these observations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. The prevalence of visual hallucinations in non-affective psychosis, and the role of perception and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommen, M M; van Beilen, M; Cornelissen, F W; Smid, H G O M; Knegtering, H; Aleman, A; van Laar, T

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about visual hallucinations (VH) in psychosis. We investigated the prevalence and the role of bottom-up and top-down processing in VH. The prevailing view is that VH are probably related to altered top-down processing, rather than to distorted bottom-up processing. Conversely, VH in Parkinson's disease are associated with impaired visual perception and attention, as proposed by the Perception and Attention Deficit (PAD) model. Auditory hallucinations (AH) in psychosis, however, are thought to be related to increased attention. Our retrospective database study included 1119 patients with non-affective psychosis and 586 controls. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences established the VH rate. Scores on visual perception tests [Degraded Facial Affect Recognition (DFAR), Benton Facial Recognition Task] and attention tests [Response Set-shifting Task, Continuous Performance Test-HQ (CPT-HQ)] were compared between 75 VH patients, 706 non-VH patients and 485 non-VH controls. The lifetime VH rate was 37%. The patient groups performed similarly on cognitive tasks; both groups showed worse perception (DFAR) than controls. Non-VH patients showed worse attention (CPT-HQ) than controls, whereas VH patients did not perform differently. We did not find significant VH-related impairments in bottom-up processing or direct top-down alterations. However, the results suggest a relatively spared attentional performance in VH patients, whereas face perception and processing speed were equally impaired in both patient groups relative to controls. This would match better with the increased attention hypothesis than with the PAD model. Our finding that VH frequently co-occur with AH may support an increased attention-induced 'hallucination proneness'.

  7. Default mode network links to visual hallucinations: A comparison between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciotti, Raffaella; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Perfetti, Bernardo; Tartaro, Armando; Bonanni, Laura; Thomas, Astrid; Weis, Luca; Biundo, Roberta; Antonini, Angelo; Onofrj, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Studying default mode network activity or connectivity in different parkinsonisms, with or without visual hallucinations, could highlight its roles in clinical phenotypes' expression. Multiple system atrophy is the archetype of parkinsonism without visual hallucinations, variably appearing instead in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to evaluate default mode network functions in multiple system atrophy in comparison with PD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluated default mode network activity and connectivity in 15 multiple system atrophy patients, 15 healthy controls, 15 early PD patients matched for disease duration, 30 severe PD patients (15 with and 15 without visual hallucinations), matched with multiple system atrophy for disease severity. Cortical thickness and neuropsychological evaluations were also performed. Multiple system atrophy had reduced default mode network activity compared with controls and PD with hallucinations, and no differences with PD (early or severe) without hallucinations. In PD with visual hallucinations, activity and connectivity was preserved compared with controls and higher than in other groups. In early PD, connectivity was lower than in controls but higher than in multiple system atrophy and severe PD without hallucinations. Cortical thickness was reduced in severe PD, with and without hallucinations, and correlated only with disease duration. Higher anxiety scores were found in patients without hallucinations. Default mode network activity and connectivity was higher in PD with visual hallucinations and reduced in multiple system atrophy and PD without visual hallucinations. Cortical thickness comparisons suggest that functional, rather than structural, changes underlie the activity and connectivity differences. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Prevalent hallucinations during medical internships: phantom vibration and ringing syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phantom vibration syndrome is a type of hallucination reported among mobile phone users in the general population. Another similar perception, phantom ringing syndrome, has not been previously described in the medical literature. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study of 74 medical interns (46 males, 28 females; mean age, 24.8±1.2 years was conducted using repeated investigations of the prevalence and associated factors of phantom vibration and ringing. The accompanying symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories before the internship began, and again at the third, sixth, and twelfth internship months, and two weeks after the internship ended. RESULTS: The baseline prevalence of phantom vibration was 78.1%, which increased to 95.9% and 93.2% in the third and sixth internship months. The prevalence returned to 80.8% at the twelfth month and decreased to 50.0% 2 weeks after the internship ended. The baseline prevalence of phantom ringing was 27.4%, which increased to 84.9%, 87.7%, and 86.3% in the third, sixth, and twelfth internship months, respectively. This returned to 54.2% two weeks after the internship ended. The anxiety and depression scores also increased during the internship, and returned to baseline two weeks after the internship. There was no significant correlation between phantom vibration/ringing and symptoms of anxiety or depression. The incidence of both phantom vibration and ringing syndromes significantly increased during the internship, and subsequent recovery. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that phantom vibration and ringing might be entities that are independent of anxiety or depression during evaluation of stress-associated experiences during medical internships.

  9. Case report: Using an auditory trainer with caregiver video modeling to enhance communication and socialization behaviors in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharav, Eva; Darling, Rieko

    2008-04-01

    A minimally verbal child with autism was exposed to short daily sessions of watching his parents on video in conjunction with an FM auditory trainer for a period of 4 weeks. Baseline measures of verbal and social behaviors were taken pre-treatment and repeated post treatment. Results indicate substantial gains in word productions, social orienting, and increased eye contact. Results are discussed in terms of the contributions of auditory-visual processing to establishing communication and socialization in autism and early intervention effectiveness.

  10. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  11. Relationship between self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress in individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda-Gómez, J; León-Palacios, M G; Escudero-Pérez, S; Barros-Albarrán, M D; López-Jiménez, A M; Perona-Garcelán, S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among self-focused attention, mindfulness and distress caused by the voices in psychiatric patients. Fifty-one individuals with a psychiatric diagnosis participated in this study. The Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale (PSYRATS) emotional factor was applied to measure the distress caused by the voices, the Self-Absorption Scale (SAS) was given for measuring the levels of self-focused attention, and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) was used to measure mindfulness. The results showed that distress caused by the voices correlated positively with self-focused attention (private and public) and negatively with mindfulness. A negative correlation was also found between mindfulness and self-focused attention (private and public). Finally, multiple linear regression analysis showed that public self-focus was the only factor predicting distress caused by the voices. Intervention directed at diminishing public self-focused attention and increasing mindfulness could improve distress caused by the voices.

  12. Neuropsychiatric Model of Biological and Psychological Processes in the Remission of Delusions and Auditory Hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, M.

    2006-01-01

    This selective review combines cognitive models and biological models of psychosis into a tentative integrated neuropsychiatric model. The aim of the model is to understand better, how pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavior therapy come forward as partners in the treatment of psychosis and play

  13. Hallucinations and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's disease: dream imagery intrusions and other hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Raffaele; Terzaghi, Michele; Ratti, Pietro-Luca; Repetto, Alessandra; Zangaglia, Roberta; Pacchetti, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep-related parasomnia which may be considered a "dissociated state of wakefulness and sleep", given that conflicting elements of REM sleep (dreaming) and of wakefulness (sustained muscle tone and movements) coexist during the episodes, leading to motor and behavioural manifestations reminiscent of an enacted dream. RBD has been reported in association with α-synucleinopathies: around a third of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have full-blown RBD. Recent data indicate that PD patients with RBD are more prone to hallucinations than PD patients without this parasomnia. However it is still not clear why RBD in PD is associated with an increased prevalence of VHs. Data exist which suggest that visual hallucinations in PD may be the result of untimely intrusions of REM visual imagery into wakefulness. RBD, which is characterised by a REM sleep dissociation pattern, might be a condition that particularly favours such intrusions. However, other hypotheses may be advanced. In fact, deficits in attentional, executive, visuoperceptual and visuospatial abilities have been documented in RBD and found to occur far more frequently in PD with RBD than in PD without RBD. Neuropsychological deficits involving visual perception and attentional processes are thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of VHs. On this basis, RBD in PD could be viewed as a contributory risk factor for VHs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiya, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Makoto; Baba, Toru; Iizuka, Osamu; Kanno, Shigenori; Kamimura, Naoto; Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeshita, Chieko; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test....

  15. Three Cases with Visual Hallucinations following Combined Ocular and Occipital Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Paradowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bonnet syndrome is an underrecognized disease that involves visual hallucinations in visually impaired patients. We present the cases of three patients who experienced complex visual hallucinations following various pathomechanisms. In two cases, diagnosis showed coexistence of occipital lobe damage with ocular damage, while in the third case it showed occipital lobe damage with retrobulbar optic neuritis. Theories of pathogenesis and the neuroanatomical basis of complex visual hallucinations are discussed and supported by literature review.

  16. Different cerebral metabolic features in dementia with lewy bodies with/without visual hallucination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Yang, Young Soon; Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Sang Soo; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of glucose metabolism in the occipital cortex is well known in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the different nature of FDG PET in DLB patients who had visual hallucination or not. Thirteen patients (729 yrs, m:f=6:7) with DLB participated. DLB patient were classified into two groups according to the presence of visual hallucination; seven DLB patients with visual hallucination and 6 patients without visual hallucination. No differences between patient with and without visual hallucination was found in their cognitive function measured by mini mental status exam (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. Age and gender matched 30 healthy subjects (age; 715 yrs, m: f = 13:17) served as controls for comparison purpose. Regional metabolic differences on FDG PET among the groups were tested using SPM. In DLB patients groups regardless of visual hallucination, significant regional hypometabolism were observed in the bilateral occipital cortices as well as bilateral parietotemporal and frontal association cortices when compared with healthy controls, as expected. In DLB patients with visual hallucination compared to patients without hallucination, regional hypometabolism over primary and secondary visual cortex (BA17, BA18) was more significant. Moreover, lower regional metabolism in the paracentral area (BA 6) and cerebellar vermis was also observed in DLB with visual hallucination than without hallucination. Profound hypometabolism in the visual cortex may be a feature in DLB patients with visual hallucination. Also, relative hypometabolism in the paracentral area and cerebellum could be neurobiological characteristics related with abnormal cognitive and motor process response to hallucination

  17. Compensatory shifts in visual perception are associated with hallucinations in Lewy body disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Alan Robert; Bruce, Vicki; Colbourn, Christopher J; Collerton, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Visual hallucinations are a common, distressing, and disabling symptom of Lewy body and other diseases. Current models suggest that interactions in internal cognitive processes generate hallucinations. However, these neglect external factors. Pareidolic illusions are an experimental analogue of hallucinations. They are easily induced in Lewy body disease, have similar content to spontaneous hallucinations, and respond to cholinesterase inhibitors in the same way. We used a primed pareidolia task with hallucinating participants with Lewy body disorders (n = 16), non-hallucinating participants with Lewy body disorders (n = 19), and healthy controls (n = 20). Participants were presented with visual "noise" that sometimes contained degraded visual objects and were required to indicate what they saw. Some perceptions were cued in advance by a visual prime. Results showed that hallucinating participants were impaired in discerning visual signals from noise, with a relaxed criterion threshold for perception compared to both other groups. After the presentation of a visual prime, the criterion was comparable to the other groups. The results suggest that participants with hallucinations compensate for perceptual deficits by relaxing perceptual criteria, at a cost of seeing things that are not there, and that visual cues regularize perception. This latter finding may provide a mechanism for understanding the interaction between environments and hallucinations.

  18. Face Hallucination with Linear Regression Model in Semi-Orthogonal Multilinear PCA Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asavaskulkiet, Krissada

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new face hallucination technique, face images reconstruction in HSV color space with a semi-orthogonal multilinear principal component analysis method. This novel hallucination technique can perform directly from tensors via tensor-to-vector projection by imposing the orthogonality constraint in only one mode. In our experiments, we use facial images from FERET database to test our hallucination approach which is demonstrated by extensive experiments with high-quality hallucinated color faces. The experimental results assure clearly demonstrated that we can generate photorealistic color face images by using the SO-MPCA subspace with a linear regression model.

  19. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Sung Kyu; Koo, Ja-Won

    2007-01-01

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  20. Vertically transmitted HPV-dependent squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Case report of a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snietura, Miroslaw; Pakulo, Slawomir; Kopec, Agnieszka; Piglowski, Wojciech; Stanek-Widera, Agata; Chelmecka-Wiktorczyk, Liliana; Drabik, Grazyna; Kosowski, Bogdan; Wyrobek, Lukasz; Balwierz, Walentyna

    2017-01-01

    There is much evidence that high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a causative role in a subset of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in adults. HPV-positive tumors behave differently even in their response to treatment and are therefore a distinct subset. Both HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors of the head and neck region are usually in the domain of adults and cases in children are rare; thus when a 2-year-old child was diagnosed with this cancer in the external auditory canal, an in-depth assessment of the tumor was considered necessary. A 2-year-old girl was born to a HPV-positive mother who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during pregnancy. The child was delivered by caesarean section and the mother died of her cancer 7 months after delivery. After the diagnosis of locally invasive HPV-positive squamous cell cancer of the external auditory canal, the child was treated surgically, and with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Full remission was obtained lasting up to 325 weeks since treatment was started, resulting in over 6 years of disease-free survival. This is the first case of advanced, HPV-related HNSCC in a 2-year-old child, in whom the tumor was located in the external auditory canal and who made a dramatic recovery after treatment with nonradical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The child has currently been disease free for 6 years. This case supports the observation that HPV-related HNSCC tumors appear to respond favorably to treatment despite the patient's young age and the clinically advanced stage of the tumor. (orig.) [de

  1. Musical Brains. A study of evoked musical sensations without external auditory stimuli. Preliminary report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goycoolea, Marcos V; Mena, Ismael; Neubauer, Sonia G; Levy, Raquel G.; Fernandez Grez, Margarita; Berger, Claudia G

    2006-01-01

    Background: There are individuals, usually musicians, who are seemingly able to evoke musical sensations without external auditory stimuli. However, to date there is no available evidence to determine if it is feasible to have musical sensations without using external sensory receptors nor if there is a biological substrate to these sensations. Study design: Two single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) evaluations with [99mTc]-HMPAO were conducted in each of three female musicians. One was done under basal conditions (without evoking) and the other one while evoking these sensations. Results: In the NeuroSPECT studies of the musicians who were tested while evoking a musical composition, there was a significant increase in perfusion above the normal mean in the right and left hemispheres in Brodmann's areas 9 and 8 (frontal executive area) and in areas 40 on the left side (auditory center). However, under basal conditions there was no hyper perfusion of areas 9, 8, 39 and 40. In one case hyper perfusion was found under basal conditions in area 45, however it was less than when she was evoking. Conclusions: These findings are suggestive of a biological substrate to the process of evoking musical sensations (au)

  2. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic-Hypnopompic Experiences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Thien Thanh Dang-Vu,; Cheyne, Allan J.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for

  3. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic–Hypnopompic Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Cheyne, Allan J.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before. In the current article, we make detailed comparisons between sleep-related experiences and hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia and eye disease, at the levels of phenomenology (content, sensory modalities involved, perceptual attributes) and of brain function (brain activations, resting-state networks, neurotransmitter action). Findings show that sleep-related experiences share considerable overlap with hallucinations at the level of subjective descriptions and underlying brain mechanisms. Key differences remain however: (1) Sleep-related perceptions are immersive and largely cut off from reality, whereas hallucinations are discrete and overlaid on veridical perceptions; and (2) Sleep-related perceptions involve only a subset of neural networks implicated in hallucinations, reflecting perceptual signals processed in a functionally and cognitively closed-loop circuit. In summary, both phenomena are non-veridical perceptions that share some phenomenological and neural similarities, but insufficient evidence exists to fully support the notion that the majority of hallucinations depend on REM processes or REM intrusions into waking consciousness. PMID:27358492

  4. Auditory Perspective Taking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinson, Eric; Brock, Derek

    2006-01-01

    .... From this knowledge of another's auditory perspective, a conversational partner can then adapt his or her auditory output to overcome a variety of environmental challenges and insure that what is said is intelligible...

  5. Acquired auditory agnosia in childhood and normal sleep electroencephalography subsequently diagnosed as Landau-Kleffner syndrome: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bogaert, Patrick; King, Mary D; Paquier, Philippe; Wetzburger, Catherine; Labasse, Catherine; Dubru, Jean-Marie; Deonna, Thierry

    2013-06-01

      We report three cases of Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) in children (two females, one male) in whom diagnosis was delayed because the sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was initially normal.   Case histories including EEG, positron emission tomography findings, and long-term outcome were reviewed.   Auditory agnosia occurred between the age of 2 years and 3 years 6 months, after a period of normal language development. Initial awake and sleep EEG, recorded weeks to months after the onset of language regression, during a nap period in two cases and during a full night of sleep in the third case, was normal. Repeat EEG between 2 months and 2 years later showed epileptiform discharges during wakefulness and strongly activated by sleep, with a pattern of continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep in two patients. Patients were diagnosed with LKS and treated with various antiepileptic regimens, including corticosteroids. One patient in whom EEG became normal on hydrocortisone is making significant recovery. The other two patients did not exhibit a sustained response to treatment and remained severely impaired.   Sleep EEG may be normal in the early phase of acquired auditory agnosia. EEG should be repeated frequently in individuals in whom a firm clinical diagnosis is made to facilitate early treatment. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  6. Neurofeedback-Based Enhancement of Single Trial Auditory Evoked Potentials: Feasibility in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kathryn; Rarra, Marie-Helene; Moor, Nicolas; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Baenninger, Anja; Razavi, Nadja; Dierks, Thomas; Hubl, Daniela; Koenig, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies showed a global reduction of the event-related potential component N100 in patients with schizophrenia, a phenomenon that is even more pronounced during auditory verbal hallucinations. This reduction assumingly results from dysfunctional activation of the primary auditory cortex by inner speech, which reduces its responsiveness to external stimuli. With this study, we tested the feasibility of enhancing the responsiveness of the primary auditory cortex to external stimuli with an upregulation of the event-related potential component N100 in healthy control subjects. A total of 15 healthy subjects performed 8 double-sessions of EEG-neurofeedback training over 2 weeks. The results of the used linear mixed effect model showed a significant active learning effect within sessions ( t = 5.99, P < .001) against an unspecific habituation effect that lowered the N100 amplitude over time. Across sessions, a significant increase in the passive condition ( t = 2.42, P = .03), named as carry-over effect, was observed. Given that the carry-over effect is one of the ultimate aims of neurofeedback, it seems reasonable to apply this neurofeedback training protocol to influence the N100 amplitude in patients with schizophrenia. This intervention could provide an alternative treatment option for auditory verbal hallucinations in these patients.

  7. Visual Hallucinations as Incidental Negative Effects of Virtual Reality on Parkinson’s Disease Patients: A Link with Neurodegeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Albani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We followed up a series of 23 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients who had performed an immersive virtual reality (VR protocol eight years before. On that occasion, six patients incidentally described visual hallucinations (VH with occurrences of images not included in the virtual environment. Curiously, in the following years, only these patients reported the appearance of VH later in their clinical history, while the rest of the group did not. Even considering the limited sample size, we may argue that VR immersive systems can induce unpleasant effects in PD patients who are predisposed to a cognitive impairment.

  8. Vertically transmitted HPV-dependent squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Case report of a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snietura, Miroslaw; Pakulo, Slawomir; Kopec, Agnieszka; Piglowski, Wojciech; Stanek-Widera, Agata [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Tumor Pathology Department, Gliwice (Poland); Chelmecka-Wiktorczyk, Liliana [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Drabik, Grazyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Pathology Department, Cracow (Poland); Kosowski, Bogdan [NZOZ Prosmed, Cracow (Poland); Wyrobek, Lukasz [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Radiology, Cracow (Poland); Balwierz, Walentyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Clinic of Oncology and Hematology, Polish-American Pediatric Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    There is much evidence that high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a causative role in a subset of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in adults. HPV-positive tumors behave differently even in their response to treatment and are therefore a distinct subset. Both HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors of the head and neck region are usually in the domain of adults and cases in children are rare; thus when a 2-year-old child was diagnosed with this cancer in the external auditory canal, an in-depth assessment of the tumor was considered necessary. A 2-year-old girl was born to a HPV-positive mother who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during pregnancy. The child was delivered by caesarean section and the mother died of her cancer 7 months after delivery. After the diagnosis of locally invasive HPV-positive squamous cell cancer of the external auditory canal, the child was treated surgically, and with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Full remission was obtained lasting up to 325 weeks since treatment was started, resulting in over 6 years of disease-free survival. This is the first case of advanced, HPV-related HNSCC in a 2-year-old child, in whom the tumor was located in the external auditory canal and who made a dramatic recovery after treatment with nonradical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The child has currently been disease free for 6 years. This case supports the observation that HPV-related HNSCC tumors appear to respond favorably to treatment despite the patient's young age and the clinically advanced stage of the tumor. (orig.) [German] Es gibt reichlich Belege dafuer, dass das menschliche Papillomavirus vom Hochrisikotyp (HR-HPV) in einigen Faellen von Plattenepithelkarzinomen des Kopf- und Halsbereichs (HNSCC) eine Schluesselrolle spielt. HPV-positive Tumoren verhalten sich anders, auch bezueglich des Ansprechens auf die Behandlung. Deswegen stellen sie eine separate biologische Gruppe dar. Sowohl HPV-positive als auch HPV

  9. From Hallucination to Fiction: The Invention of Meaning in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Silvia; Lehaire, Célia; Petit, Laetitia

    2016-12-01

    Taking their inspiration from a case history, the authors explore the effects of a writing workshop led by a professional writer for patients in a psychiatric hospital. This workshop allowed different modes of transference to unfold: transference to the analyst-therapist, transference to the writer who led the workshop, and transference to the other members of the group. The writing activity created conditions in which there could be a movement from hallucination to delusion-a delusion expressed in fiction through the act of writing. Psychotic patients "invent" a writing that remains unfinished and that relates to the experiences of persecution. Writing thus makes it possible for them to tolerate language, through its transformation into writing.

  10. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014. To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile-feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject’s forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal-feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no-feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially coherent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  11. Eye-related visual hallucinations: Consider ′Charles Bonnet syndrome′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Cinar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS is typically characterized by visual hallucinations in elderly people without cognitive defects. This article presents the case of an 80-year-old male patient with a one-year history of visual hallucinations, secondary to glaucoma, in both eyes. Neither a dopamine agonist nor cholinesterase inhibitor therapy improved his symptoms. In this case, the hallucinations were gradually improved after administration of a GABAergic drug, pregabalin, for diabetic polyneuropathy. Placebo-controlled clinical trials would be needed to support this effect of pregabalin, as suggested by this association.

  12. Attending to auditory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jacqueline F; Moscovitch, Morris; Alain, Claude

    2016-06-01

    Attention to memory describes the process of attending to memory traces when the object is no longer present. It has been studied primarily for representations of visual stimuli with only few studies examining attention to sound object representations in short-term memory. Here, we review the interplay of attention and auditory memory with an emphasis on 1) attending to auditory memory in the absence of related external stimuli (i.e., reflective attention) and 2) effects of existing memory on guiding attention. Attention to auditory memory is discussed in the context of change deafness, and we argue that failures to detect changes in our auditory environments are most likely the result of a faulty comparison system of incoming and stored information. Also, objects are the primary building blocks of auditory attention, but attention can also be directed to individual features (e.g., pitch). We review short-term and long-term memory guided modulation of attention based on characteristic features, location, and/or semantic properties of auditory objects, and propose that auditory attention to memory pathways emerge after sensory memory. A neural model for auditory attention to memory is developed, which comprises two separate pathways in the parietal cortex, one involved in attention to higher-order features and the other involved in attention to sensory information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Visual hallucinations and pontine demyelination in a child: possible REM dissociation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Stefanini, Maria Chiara; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo; Mariotti, Paolo

    2008-12-15

    An 11 year-old-boy acutely developed complex visual and acoustic hallucinations. Hallucinations, consisting of visions of a threatening, evil character of the Harry Potter saga, persisted for 3 days. Neurological and psychiatric examinations were normal. Ictal EEG was negative. MRI documented 3 small areas of hyperintense signal in the brainstem, along the paramedian and lateral portions of pontine tegmentum, one of which showed post-contrast enhancement. These lesions were likely of inflammatory origin, and treatment with immunoglobulins was started. Polysomnography was normal, multiple sleep latency test showed a mean sleep latency of 8 minutes, with one sleep-onset REM period. The pontine tegmentum is responsible for REM sleep regulation, and contains definite "REM-on" and "REM-off" regions. The anatomical distribution of the lesions permits us to hypothesize that hallucinations in this boy were consequent to a transient impairment of REM sleep inhibitory mechanisms, with the appearance of dream-like hallucinations during wake.

  14. Auditory Processing Disorder (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role. Auditory cohesion problems: This is when higher-level listening tasks are difficult. Auditory cohesion skills — drawing inferences from conversations, understanding riddles, or comprehending verbal math problems — require heightened auditory processing and language levels. ...

  15. What Is the Link Between Hallucinations, Dreams, and Hypnagogic-Hypnopompic Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Flavie; Blom, Jan Dirk; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Cheyne, Allan J; Alderson-Day, Ben; Woodruff, Peter; Collerton, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    By definition, hallucinations occur only in the full waking state. Yet similarities to sleep-related experiences such as hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, dreams and parasomnias, have been noted since antiquity. These observations have prompted researchers to suggest a common aetiology for these phenomena based on the neurobiology of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. With our recent understanding of hallucinations in different population groups and at the neurobiological, cognitive and interpersonal levels, it is now possible to draw comparisons between the 2 sets of experiences as never before. In the current article, we make detailed comparisons between sleep-related experiences and hallucinations in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and eye disease, at the levels of phenomenology (content, sensory modalities involved, perceptual attributes) and of brain function (brain activations, resting-state networks, neurotransmitter action). Findings show that sleep-related experiences share considerable overlap with hallucinations at the level of subjective descriptions and underlying brain mechanisms. Key differences remain however: (1) Sleep-related perceptions are immersive and largely cut off from reality, whereas hallucinations are discrete and overlaid on veridical perceptions; and (2) Sleep-related perceptions involve only a subset of neural networks implicated in hallucinations, reflecting perceptual signals processed in a functionally and cognitively closed-loop circuit. In summary, both phenomena are non-veridical perceptions that share some phenomenological and neural similarities, but insufficient evidence exists to fully support the notion that the majority of hallucinations depend on REM processes or REM intrusions into waking consciousness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiya, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Makoto; Baba, Toru; Iizuka, Osamu; Kanno, Shigenori; Kamimura, Naoto; Kazui, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ikeda, Manabu; Takeshita, Chieko; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-01-01

    Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test. The pareidolia test was administered to 52 patients with DLB, 52 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 20 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed the test-retest/inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the concurrent validity using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) hallucinations score as a reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the pareidolia test to differentiate DLB from AD and HCs. The pareidolia test required approximately 15 minutes to administer, exhibited good test-retest/inter-rater reliability (ICC of 0.82), and moderately correlated with the NPI hallucinations score (rs = 0.42). Using an optimal cut-off score set according to the ROC analysis, and the pareidolia test differentiated DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%. Our study suggests that the simplified version of the pareidolia test is a valid and reliable surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB.

  17. Hallucinators find meaning in noises: pareidolic illusions in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Kayoko; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Uchiyama, Makoto; Shimomura, Tatsuo; Iizuka, Osamu; Mori, Etsuro

    2014-04-01

    By definition, visual illusions and hallucinations differ in whether the perceived objects exist in reality. A recent study challenged this dichotomy, in which pareidolias, a type of complex visual illusion involving ambiguous forms being perceived as meaningful objects, are very common and phenomenologically similar to visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We hypothesise that a common psychological mechanism exists between pareidolias and visual hallucinations in DLB that confers meaning upon meaningless visual information. Furthermore, we believe that these two types of visual misperceptions have a common underlying neural mechanism, namely, cholinergic insufficiency. The current study investigated pareidolic illusions using meaningless visual noise stimuli (the noise pareidolia test) in 34 patients with DLB, 34 patients with Alzheimer׳s disease and 28 healthy controls. Fifteen patients with DLB were administered the noise pareidolia test twice, before and after donepezil treatment. Three major findings were discovered: (1) DLB patients saw meaningful illusory images (pareidolias) in meaningless visual stimuli, (2) the number of pareidolic responses correlated with the severity of visual hallucinations, and (3) cholinergic enhancement reduced both the number of pareidolias and the severity of visual hallucinations in patients with DLB. These findings suggest that a common underlying psychological and neural mechanism exists between pareidolias and visual hallucinations in DLB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Mamiya

    Full Text Available Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test.The pareidolia test was administered to 52 patients with DLB, 52 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and 20 healthy controls (HCs. We assessed the test-retest/inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and the concurrent validity using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI hallucinations score as a reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the pareidolia test to differentiate DLB from AD and HCs.The pareidolia test required approximately 15 minutes to administer, exhibited good test-retest/inter-rater reliability (ICC of 0.82, and moderately correlated with the NPI hallucinations score (rs = 0.42. Using an optimal cut-off score set according to the ROC analysis, and the pareidolia test differentiated DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%.Our study suggests that the simplified version of the pareidolia test is a valid and reliable surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB.

  19. Suicidality in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: the relationship to hallucinations and persecutory delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelby, E; Sinkeviciute, I; Gjestad, R; Kroken, R A; Løberg, E-M; Jørgensen, H A; Hugdahl, K; Johnsen, E

    2015-10-01

    Assessment of suicide risk is crucial in schizophrenia and results concerning risk contributed by hallucinations and persecutory delusions are inconsistent. We aimed to determine factors associated with suicidal ideation and plans at the time of acute admission in patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders. One hundred and twenty-four patients older than 18 years admitted to an acute psychiatric ward due to psychosis were consecutively included. Predictors of suicidal ideation and suicide plans at the time of admission were examined with multinominal logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). The study design was pragmatic, thus entailing a clinically relevant representation. Depression Odds Ratio (OR) 12.9, Drug use OR 4.07, Hallucinations OR 2.55 and Negative symptoms OR 0.88 significantly predicted Suicidal ideation. Suspiciousness/ Persecution did not. Only Depression and Hallucinations significantly predicted Suicide plans. In the SEM-model Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness connected Suspiciousness/Persecution, Hallucinations and Lack of insight with Suicidal ideation and Suicide plans. The study contributes to an increasing evidence base supporting an association between hallucinations and suicide risk. We want to emphasise the importance of treating depression and hallucinations in psychotic disorders, reducing hopelessness while working with insight and reducing drug abuse in order to lower suicide risk. ClinicalTrials.gov ID; URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/NCT00932529. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Palmer, Caroline

    2012-05-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how auditory-motor learning influences performers' memory for music. Skilled pianists learned novel melodies in four conditions: auditory only (listening), motor only (performing without sound), strongly coupled auditory-motor (normal performance), and weakly coupled auditory-motor (performing along with auditory recordings). Pianists' recognition of the learned melodies was better following auditory-only or auditory-motor (weakly coupled and strongly coupled) learning than following motor-only learning, and better following strongly coupled auditory-motor learning than following auditory-only learning. Auditory and motor imagery abilities modulated the learning effects: Pianists with high auditory imagery scores had better recognition following motor-only learning, suggesting that auditory imagery compensated for missing auditory feedback at the learning stage. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 with melodies that contained greater variation in acoustic features. Melodies that were slower and less variable in tempo and intensity were remembered better following weakly coupled auditory-motor learning. These findings suggest that motor learning can aid performers' auditory recognition of music beyond auditory learning alone, and that motor learning is influenced by individual abilities in mental imagery and by variation in acoustic features.

  1. Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depressin, and hyperacute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of The Sound of a Moracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  2. Review: Auditory Integration Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ja'fari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory integration training (AIT is a hearing enhancement training process for sensory input anomalies found in individuals with autism, attention deficit hyperactive disorder, dyslexia, hyperactivity, learning disability, language impairments, pervasive developmental disorder, central auditory processing disorder, attention deficit disorder, depression, and hyper acute hearing. AIT, recently introduced in the United States, and has received much notice of late following the release of the sound of a miracle, by Annabel Stehli. In her book, Mrs. Stehli describes before and after auditory integration training experiences with her daughter, who was diagnosed at age four as having autism.

  3. Acute auditory agnosia as the presenting hearing disorder in MELAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Gabriele; Conti, Guido; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Zampetti, Patrizia; Servidei, Serenella

    2008-12-01

    MELAS is commonly associated with peripheral hearing loss. Auditory agnosia is a rare cortical auditory impairment, usually due to bilateral temporal damage. We document, for the first time, auditory agnosia as the presenting hearing disorder in MELAS. A young woman with MELAS (A3243G mtDNA mutation) suffered from acute cortical hearing damage following a single stroke-like episode, in the absence of previous hearing deficits. Audiometric testing showed marked central hearing impairment and very mild sensorineural hearing loss. MRI documented bilateral, acute lesions to superior temporal regions. Neuropsychological tests demonstrated auditory agnosia without aphasia. Our data and a review of published reports show that cortical auditory disorders are relatively frequent in MELAS, probably due to the strikingly high incidence of bilateral and symmetric damage following stroke-like episodes. Acute auditory agnosia can be the presenting hearing deficit in MELAS and, conversely, MELAS should be suspected in young adults with sudden hearing loss.

  4. Neuronal Correlates of Auditory Streaming in Monkey Auditory Cortex for Tone Sequences without Spectral Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Knyazeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study finds a neuronal correlate of auditory perceptual streaming in the primary auditory cortex for sequences of tone complexes that have the same amplitude spectrum but a different phase spectrum. Our finding is based on microelectrode recordings of multiunit activity from 270 cortical sites in three awake macaque monkeys. The monkeys were presented with repeated sequences of a tone triplet that consisted of an A tone, a B tone, another A tone and then a pause. The A and B tones were composed of unresolved harmonics formed by adding the harmonics in cosine phase, in alternating phase, or in random phase. A previous psychophysical study on humans revealed that when the A and B tones are similar, humans integrate them into a single auditory stream; when the A and B tones are dissimilar, humans segregate them into separate auditory streams. We found that the similarity of neuronal rate responses to the triplets was highest when all A and B tones had cosine phase. Similarity was intermediate when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had alternating phase. Similarity was lowest when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had random phase. The present study corroborates and extends previous reports, showing similar correspondences between neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex and auditory streaming of sound sequences. It also is consistent with Fishman’s population separation model of auditory streaming.

  5. Neuronal Correlates of Auditory Streaming in Monkey Auditory Cortex for Tone Sequences without Spectral Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazeva, Stanislava; Selezneva, Elena; Gorkin, Alexander; Aggelopoulos, Nikolaos C; Brosch, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This study finds a neuronal correlate of auditory perceptual streaming in the primary auditory cortex for sequences of tone complexes that have the same amplitude spectrum but a different phase spectrum. Our finding is based on microelectrode recordings of multiunit activity from 270 cortical sites in three awake macaque monkeys. The monkeys were presented with repeated sequences of a tone triplet that consisted of an A tone, a B tone, another A tone and then a pause. The A and B tones were composed of unresolved harmonics formed by adding the harmonics in cosine phase, in alternating phase, or in random phase. A previous psychophysical study on humans revealed that when the A and B tones are similar, humans integrate them into a single auditory stream; when the A and B tones are dissimilar, humans segregate them into separate auditory streams. We found that the similarity of neuronal rate responses to the triplets was highest when all A and B tones had cosine phase. Similarity was intermediate when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had alternating phase. Similarity was lowest when the A tones had cosine phase and the B tones had random phase. The present study corroborates and extends previous reports, showing similar correspondences between neuronal activity in the primary auditory cortex and auditory streaming of sound sequences. It also is consistent with Fishman's population separation model of auditory streaming.

  6. Breaking Bad Delirium: Methamphetamine and Boric Acid Toxicity with Hallucinations and Pseudosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kayla; Stollings, Joanna L; Ely, E Wesley

    2017-02-01

    A 30-year-old patient presented with hallucinations and profound shock. He was initially misdiagnosed as having severe sepsis; once ingestions were considered, he was diagnosed as potentially having arsenic toxicity. The clinical story reveals many instructional lessons that could aid in the evaluation and management of future patients. This man presented with large amounts of blue crystals around his nose and lips from inhaling and eating boric acid (an ant poison) so he could, as he put it, kill the ants "pouring into my mouth and nose and up into my brain." His profound pseudosepsis and sustained delirium were induced by co-ingestion of methamphetamine and a large quantity of boric acid. Delirium is a form of acute brain dysfunction that often is multifactorial in critical illness and, when seen in septic shock, is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, increased length of hospital stay, medical costs, higher mortality, and long-term cognitive impairment resembling dementia. Pseudosepsis is a noninfectious condition most commonly seen with ingestions such as salicylate (aspirin) toxicity. This report emphasizes the need to recognize agents that contain boric acid as an etiology of unexplained delirium and profound shock.

  7. Auditory Spatial Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Jenison, Rick

    1995-01-01

    All auditory sensory information is packaged in a pair of acoustical pressure waveforms, one at each ear. While there is obvious structure in these waveforms, that structure (temporal and spectral patterns) bears no simple relationship to the structure of the environmental objects that produced them. The properties of auditory objects and their layout in space must be derived completely from higher level processing of the peripheral input. This chapter begins with a discussion of the peculiarities of acoustical stimuli and how they are received by the human auditory system. A distinction is made between the ambient sound field and the effective stimulus to differentiate the perceptual distinctions among various simple classes of sound sources (ambient field) from the known perceptual consequences of the linear transformations of the sound wave from source to receiver (effective stimulus). Next, the definition of an auditory object is dealt with, specifically the question of how the various components of a sound stream become segregated into distinct auditory objects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on issues related to the spatial layout of auditory objects, both stationary and moving.

  8. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors (AChEI's for the treatment of visual hallucinations in schizophrenia: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sachin S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual hallucinations occur in various neurological diseases, but are most prominent in Lewy body dementia, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. The lifetime prevalence of visual hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia is much more common than conventionally thought and ranges from 24% to 72%. Cortical acetylcholine (ACh depletion has been associated with visual hallucinations; the level of depletion being related directly to the severity of the symptoms. Current understanding of neurobiological visual processing and research in diseases with reduced cholinergic function, suggests that AChEI's may prove beneficial in treating visual hallucinations. This offers the potential for targeted drug therapy of clinically symptomatic visual hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia using acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Methods A systematic review was carried out investigating the evidence for the effects of AChEI's in treating visual hallucinations in Schizophrenia. Results No evidence was found relating to the specific role of AChEI's in treating visual hallucinations in this patient group. Discussion Given the use of AChEI's in targeted, symptom specific treatment in other neuropsychiatric disorders, it is surprising to find no related literature in schizophrenia patients. The use of AChEI's in schizophrenia has investigated effects on cognition primarily with non cognitive effects measured more broadly. Conclusions We would suggest that more focused research into the effects of AChEI's on positive symptoms of schizophrenia, specifically visual hallucinations, is needed.

  9. [Influencing factors of visual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease and its relationship with sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D D; Li, S H; Jin, L Y; Jin, Y; Cui, Y Y; Zhao, H; Liu, H J; Ma, X X; Su, W; Chen, H B

    2016-04-05

    To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of visual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease(PD), and to analyze the relationship between visual hallucinations and sleep disorders. We recruited 187 patients with PD(H-Y Ⅰ-Ⅲ) from outpatient department in Beijing Hospital. The patients were investigated for general information and the use of medicine. The patients were divided into visual hallucination(VH) group and non-hallucination(non-VH) group. A comparison study was conducted between two groups. We investigated the sleep disorders of PD patients according to Non Motor Symptom Quest(NMSquest) and Parkinson's disease sleep scale(PDSS). Logistic stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to determine the best predictive model of visual hallucinations in patients with PD. (1) 42 cases(22.5%) of PD patients were accompanied by visual hallucinations; (2) the VH group and non-VH group had no difference in age, sex, duration of illness, the scores of Minimum Mental State Examination(MMSE) and levodopa equivalent doses (LED). The scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale(UPDRS) Ⅰ, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety(HAMA) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression(HAMD) in VH group were significantly higher than those in non-VH group[3.5(2, 5) vs 2 (1, 3); 10(6.75, 15) vs 8(5, 11); 11(7.75, 17) vs 9(5, 13); Psleep behavior disorder(RBD) in VH group were significantly higher than those in non-VH group(61.9% vs 40.7%, 71.4% vs 47.6%, P0.05). The score of PDSS in VH group was significantly lower than that in non-VH group[111(92.75, 128.25) vs 123(109, 135), Psleep disorder are independently associated with VH in PD.

  10. Effects of Auditory Stimuli on Visual Velocity Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiaki Shibata

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of auditory stimuli on the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus. Previous studies have reported that the duration of visual events is perceived as being longer for events filled with auditory stimuli than for events not filled with auditory stimuli, ie, the so-called “filled-duration illusion.” In this study, we have shown that auditory stimuli also affect the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus. In Experiment 1, a moving comparison stimulus (4.2∼5.8 deg/s was presented together with filled (or unfilled white-noise bursts or with no sound. The standard stimulus was a moving visual stimulus (5 deg/s presented before or after the comparison stimulus. The participants had to judge which stimulus was moving faster. The results showed that the perceived velocity in the auditory-filled condition was lower than that in the auditory-unfilled and no-sound conditions. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effects of auditory stimuli on velocity adaptation. The results showed that the effects of velocity adaptation in the auditory-filled condition were weaker than those in the no-sound condition. These results indicate that auditory stimuli tend to decrease the perceived velocity of a moving visual stimulus.

  11. Integration of auditory and visual speech information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, M.; Smeele, P.M.T.; Kuhl, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of auditory and visual speech is observed when modes specify different places of articulation. Influences of auditory variation on integration were examined using consonant identifi-cation, plus quality and similarity ratings. Auditory identification predicted auditory-visual

  12. Daily Stress, Hearing-Specific Stress and Coping: Self-Reports from Deaf or Hard of Hearing Children and Children with Auditory Processing Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbeck, Heike; Gillé, Vera; Heim-Dreger, Uwe; Schock, Alexandra; Schott, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated stressors and coping strategies in 70 children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) or with auditory processing disorder (APD) attending Grades 5 and 6 of a school for deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Everyday general stressors and more hearing-specific stressors were examined in a hearing-specific modified stress and…

  13. A Rare Case Report and Literature Review of External Auditory Canal Cholesteatoma with Circumferential Destruction of Canal Wall Exposing Facial Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leison Maharjan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available External auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC is a rare condition with an estimated incidence of 1.2 per 1000 new otological patients. It is often mistaken with keratosis obturans. We discuss an extensive primary EACC with an aural polyp in a male which was managed by modified radical mastoidectomy.

  14. The Relation of Visual and Auditory Aptitudes to First Grade Low Readers' Achievement under Sight-Word and Systematic Phonic Instructions. Research Report #36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, Elizabeth; And Others

    Ten auditory and ten visual aptitude measures were administered in the middle of first grade to a sample of 58 low readers. More than half of this low reader sample had scored more than a year below expected grade level on two or more aptitudes. Word recognition measures were administered after four months of sight word instruction and again after…

  15. Multisensory stimuli improve relative localisation judgments compared to unisensory auditory or visual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bizley, Jennifer; Wood, Katherine; Freeman, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Observers performed a relative localisation task in which they reported whether the second of two sequentially presented signals occurred to the left or right of the first. Stimuli were detectability-matched auditory, visual, or auditory-visual signals and the goal was to compare changes in performance with eccentricity across modalities. Visual performance was superior to auditory at the midline, but inferior in the periphery, while auditory-visual performance exceeded both at all locations....

  16. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  17. Concordance of child self-reported psychotic experiences with interview- and observer-based psychotic experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Steffie V; Goodman, Robert; Clemmensen, Lars

    2018-01-01

    the online PE-section of DAWBA and the following face-to-face interview and assessment of PE. The DAWBA-PE-section asks the child 10 questions covering auditory and visual hallucinations, delusional ideas and subjective thought disturbances ever in life; and attributions to sleep, fever, illness or drug....... The current study aimed to investigate the concurrent validity of DAWBA-based self-reported PE (PE-S) with regard to interview-based measures of PE (PE-I). METHODS: Participants were 1571 (47.8% male) children of age 11 to 12 years from the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 (CCC2000) with complete data from both...... intake. The interview-based assessment of PE was performed by trained professionals using 22 items from The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). The two assessments were completed independently. RESULTS: The prevalence of PE...

  18. Predictors of auditory performance in hearing-aid users: The role of cognitive function and auditory lifestyle (A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2006-01-01

    no objective benefit can be measured. It has been suggested that lack of agreement between various hearing-aid outcome components can be explained by individual differences in cognitive function and auditory lifestyle. We measured speech identification, self-report outcome, spectral and temporal resolution...... of hearing, cognitive skills, and auditory lifestyle in 25 new hearing-aid users. The purpose was to assess the predictive power of the nonauditory measures while looking at the relationships between measures from various auditory-performance domains. The results showed that only moderate correlation exists...... between objective and subjective hearing-aid outcome. Different self-report outcome measures showed a different amount of correlation with objective auditory performance. Cognitive skills were found to play a role in explaining speech performance and spectral and temporal abilities, and auditory lifestyle...

  19. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  20. Auditory processing in autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaskamp, Chantal; Oranje, Bob; Madsen, Gitte Falcher

    2017-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often show changes in (automatic) auditory processing. Electrophysiology provides a method to study auditory processing, by investigating event-related potentials such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a-amplitude. However, findings on MMN in autism...... a hyper-responsivity at the attentional level. In addition, as similar MMN deficits are found in schizophrenia, these MMN results may explain some of the frequently reported increased risk of children with ASD to develop schizophrenia later in life. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1857–1865....

  1. Cross-modal attention influences auditory contrast sensitivity: Decreasing visual load improves auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramitaro, Vivian M; Chow, Hiu Mei; Eglington, Luke G

    2017-03-01

    We used a cross-modal dual task to examine how changing visual-task demands influenced auditory processing, namely auditory thresholds for amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds. Observers had to attend to two consecutive intervals of sounds and report which interval contained the auditory stimulus that was modulated in amplitude (Experiment 1) or frequency (Experiment 2). During auditory-stimulus presentation, observers simultaneously attended to a rapid sequential visual presentation-two consecutive intervals of streams of visual letters-and had to report which interval contained a particular color (low load, demanding less attentional resources) or, in separate blocks of trials, which interval contained more of a target letter (high load, demanding more attentional resources). We hypothesized that if attention is a shared resource across vision and audition, an easier visual task should free up more attentional resources for auditory processing on an unrelated task, hence improving auditory thresholds. Auditory detection thresholds were lower-that is, auditory sensitivity was improved-for both amplitude- and frequency-modulated sounds when observers engaged in a less demanding (compared to a more demanding) visual task. In accord with previous work, our findings suggest that visual-task demands can influence the processing of auditory information on an unrelated concurrent task, providing support for shared attentional resources. More importantly, our results suggest that attending to information in a different modality, cross-modal attention, can influence basic auditory contrast sensitivity functions, highlighting potential similarities between basic mechanisms for visual and auditory attention.

  2. Clinico-Epidemiological Comparison of Delusion-Prominent and Hallucination-Prominent Clinical Subgroups of Paranoid Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Krishtul, Vladimir; Kirsh, Zvi; Menuchin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Though hallucinations and delusions are prominent basic impairments in schizophrenia, reports of the relationship between hallucinatory and delusional symptoms among schizophrenia patients are scant. To examine the epidemiological and clinical differences between mainly hallucinatory and mainly delusional subgroups of paranoid schizophrenia patients. One hundred schizophrenia patients, paranoid type, were recruited. In a cross-sectional study, participants were divided into Mainly Hallucinatory (H) and Mainly Delusional (D) subgroups. Demographic variables were compared and clinical characteristics were evaluated using the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. The Quality-of-Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 was used to assess quality of life. Clinically, the H group was more heterogeneous as expressed by the broader range of scores that described the clinical picture of patients in that subgroup (in 43 of 78 variables, 55.13%) and similar ranges of scores (31 of 78 variables, 39.74%) for patients in the D group. Duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in group H than in group D (p=0.047). There was no statistically significant difference between the H and D subgroups in demographic characteristics. There are distinct epidemiological and clinical differences between the H and D subgroups, with more severe positive and negative symptoms and greater functional impairment in the H group. Paranoid schizophrenia patients with prominent hallucinations have poorer prognosis and need intensive therapeutic rehabilitation beginning with onset-of-illness. Further genetic studies and comparisons of fMRI and/or PET findings are warranted to investigate additional distinctive characteristics of these subgroups.

  3. Auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia: topographic evaluation with a high-density recording montage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayasu, Y; Potts, G F; O'Donnell, B F; Kwon, J S; Arakaki, H; Akdag, S J; Levitt, J J; Shenton, M E; McCarley, R W

    1998-09-01

    The mismatch negativity, a negative component in the auditory event-related potential, is thought to index automatic processes involved in sensory or echoic memory. The authors' goal in this study was to examine the topography of auditory mismatch negativity in schizophrenia with a high-density, 64-channel recording montage. Mismatch negativity topography was evaluated in 23 right-handed male patients with schizophrenia who were receiving medication and in 23 nonschizophrenic comparison subjects who were matched in age, handedness, and parental socioeconomic status. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale was used to measure psychiatric symptoms. Mismatch negativity amplitude was reduced in the patients with schizophrenia. They showed a greater left-less-than-right asymmetry than comparison subjects at homotopic electrode pairs near the parietotemporal junction. There were correlations between mismatch negativity amplitude and hallucinations at left frontal electrodes and between mismatch negativity amplitude and passive-apathetic social withdrawal at left and right frontal electrodes. Mismatch negativity was reduced in schizophrenia, especially in the left hemisphere. This finding is consistent with abnormalities of primary or adjacent auditory cortex involved in auditory sensory or echoic memory.

  4. [Nursing Experience of Using Mirror Visual Feedback for a Schizophrenia Patient With Visual Hallucinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shu-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chi; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the nursing application of mirror visual feedback in a patient suffering from long-term visual hallucinations. The intervention period was from May 15th to October 19th, 2015. Using the five facets of psychiatric nursing assessment, several health problems were observed, including disturbed sensory perceptions (prominent visual hallucinations) and poor self-care (e.g. limited abilities to self-bathe and put on clothing). Furthermore, "caregiver role strain" due to the related intense care burden was noted. After building up a therapeutic interpersonal relationship, the technique of brain plasticity and mirror visual feedback were performed using multiple nursing care methods in order to help the patient suppress her visual hallucinations by enhancing a different visual stimulus. We also taught her how to cope with visual hallucinations in a proper manner. The frequency and content of visual hallucinations were recorded to evaluate the effects of management. The therapeutic plan was formulated together with the patient in order to boost her self-confidence, and a behavior contract was implemented in order to improve her personal hygiene. In addition, psychoeducation on disease-related topics was provided to the patient's family, and they were encouraged to attend relevant therapeutic activities. As a result, her family became less passive and negative and more engaged in and positive about her future. The crisis of "caregiver role strain" was successfully resolved. The current experience is hoped to serve as a model for enhancing communication and cooperation between family and staff in similar medical settings.

  5. Auditory evacuation beacons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Bronkhorst, A.W.; Boer, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    Auditory evacuation beacons can be used to guide people to safe exits, even when vision is totally obscured by smoke. Conventional beacons make use of modulated noise signals. Controlled evacuation experiments show that such signals require explicit instructions and are often misunderstood. A new

  6. Strategy choice mediates the link between auditory processing and spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Tru E; Brachman, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    Relations among linguistic auditory processing, nonlinguistic auditory processing, spelling ability, and spelling strategy choice were examined. Sixty-three undergraduate students completed measures of auditory processing (one involving distinguishing similar tones, one involving distinguishing similar phonemes, and one involving selecting appropriate spellings for individual phonemes). Participants also completed a modified version of a standardized spelling test, and a secondary spelling test with retrospective strategy reports. Once testing was completed, participants were divided into phonological versus nonphonological spellers on the basis of the number of words they spelled using phonological strategies only. Results indicated a) moderate to strong positive correlations among the different auditory processing tasks in terms of reaction time, but not accuracy levels, and b) weak to moderate positive correlations between measures of linguistic auditory processing (phoneme distinction and phoneme spelling choice in the presence of foils) and spelling ability for phonological spellers, but not for nonphonological spellers. These results suggest a possible explanation for past contradictory research on auditory processing and spelling, which has been divided in terms of whether or not disabled spellers seemed to have poorer auditory processing than did typically developing spellers, and suggest implications for teaching spelling to children with good versus poor auditory processing abilities.

  7. Auditory and visual spatial impression: Recent studies of three auditoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andy; Cabrera, Densil

    2004-10-01

    Auditory spatial impression is widely studied for its contribution to auditorium acoustical quality. By contrast, visual spatial impression in auditoria has received relatively little attention in formal studies. This paper reports results from a series of experiments investigating the auditory and visual spatial impression of concert auditoria. For auditory stimuli, a fragment of an anechoic recording of orchestral music was convolved with calibrated binaural impulse responses, which had been made with the dummy head microphone at a wide range of positions in three auditoria and the sound source on the stage. For visual stimuli, greyscale photographs were used, taken at the same positions in the three auditoria, with a visual target on the stage. Subjective experiments were conducted with auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, and visual and auditory stimuli combined. In these experiments, subjects rated apparent source width, listener envelopment, intimacy and source distance (auditory stimuli), and spaciousness, envelopment, stage dominance, intimacy and target distance (visual stimuli). Results show target distance to be of primary importance in auditory and visual spatial impression-thereby providing a basis for covariance between some attributes of auditory and visual spatial impression. Nevertheless, some attributes of spatial impression diverge between the senses.

  8. Distraction by deviance: comparing the effects of auditory and visual deviant stimuli on auditory and visual target processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Alicia; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of oddball experiments in which an irrelevant stimulus (standard, deviant) was presented before a target stimulus and the modality of these stimuli was manipulated orthogonally (visual/auditory). Experiment 1 showed that auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality while visual deviants did not impact on performance. When participants were forced to attend the distractors in order to detect a rare target ("target-distractor"), auditory deviants yielded distraction irrespective of the target's modality and visual deviants yielded a small distraction effect when targets were auditory (Experiments 2 & 3). Visual deviants only produced distraction for visual targets when deviant stimuli were not visually distinct from the other distractors (Experiment 4). Our results indicate that while auditory deviants yield distraction irrespective of the targets' modality, visual deviants only do so when attended and under selective conditions, at least when irrelevant and target stimuli are temporally and perceptually decoupled.

  9. The importance of laughing in your face: influences of visual laughter on auditory laughter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Timothy R; Abedipour, Lily

    2010-01-01

    Hearing the sound of laughter is important for social communication, but processes contributing to the audibility of laughter remain to be determined. Production of laughter resembles production of speech in that both involve visible facial movements accompanying socially significant auditory signals. However, while it is known that speech is more audible when the facial movements producing the speech sound can be seen, similar visual enhancement of the audibility of laughter remains unknown. To address this issue, spontaneously occurring laughter was edited to produce stimuli comprising visual laughter, auditory laughter, visual and auditory laughter combined, and no laughter at all (either visual or auditory), all presented in four levels of background noise. Visual laughter and no-laughter stimuli produced very few reports of auditory laughter. However, visual laughter consistently made auditory laughter more audible, compared to the same auditory signal presented without visual laughter, resembling findings reported previously for speech.

  10. Formal auditory training in adult hearing aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds. Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB self-report scale. RESULTS: The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05. No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments.

  11. Development of the auditory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litovsky, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Auditory development involves changes in the peripheral and central nervous system along the auditory pathways, and these occur naturally, and in response to stimulation. Human development occurs along a trajectory that can last decades, and is studied using behavioral psychophysics, as well as physiologic measurements with neural imaging. The auditory system constructs a perceptual space that takes information from objects and groups, segregates sounds, and provides meaning and access to communication tools such as language. Auditory signals are processed in a series of analysis stages, from peripheral to central. Coding of information has been studied for features of sound, including frequency, intensity, loudness, and location, in quiet and in the presence of maskers. In the latter case, the ability of the auditory system to perform an analysis of the scene becomes highly relevant. While some basic abilities are well developed at birth, there is a clear prolonged maturation of auditory development well into the teenage years. Maturation involves auditory pathways. However, non-auditory changes (attention, memory, cognition) play an important role in auditory development. The ability of the auditory system to adapt in response to novel stimuli is a key feature of development throughout the nervous system, known as neural plasticity. PMID:25726262

  12. Animal models for auditory streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itatani, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in the natural environment need to be assigned to acoustic sources to evaluate complex auditory scenes. Separating sources will affect the analysis of auditory features of sounds. As the benefits of assigning sounds to specific sources accrue to all species communicating acoustically, the ability for auditory scene analysis is widespread among different animals. Animal studies allow for a deeper insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying auditory scene analysis. Here, we will review the paradigms applied in the study of auditory scene analysis and streaming of sequential sounds in animal models. We will compare the psychophysical results from the animal studies to the evidence obtained in human psychophysics of auditory streaming, i.e. in a task commonly used for measuring the capability for auditory scene analysis. Furthermore, the neuronal correlates of auditory streaming will be reviewed in different animal models and the observations of the neurons’ response measures will be related to perception. The across-species comparison will reveal whether similar demands in the analysis of acoustic scenes have resulted in similar perceptual and neuronal processing mechanisms in the wide range of species being capable of auditory scene analysis. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044022

  13. Hallucinations and delusions: the price we pay for our creative brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    there is no difference in principle between perceptions and beliefs: both depend upon a process of updating models of the world on the basis of new evidence with Bayes’ theorem providing the underlying computational mechanism. Many hallucinations and delusions can be explained as the consequence of faulty evidence being...... used to generate models of the world. The mechanism by which we use evidence to discover about the physical world of objects can also be used to discover about the mental world of ideas in the minds of others. However, when modelling other people’s minds the process becomes more complex, since......, in a true interaction, each person in the dialogue is trying to model the mind of the other. For success in such interactions it is not sufficient to model what is in the other’s mind. We must also model what the other thinks is in our mind (closing the loop). The hallucinations and delusions associated...

  14. Heterogeneous iris image hallucination using sparse representation on a learned heterogeneous patch dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yung-Hui; Zheng, Bo-Ren; Ji, Dai-Yan; Tien, Chung-Hao; Liu, Po-Tsun

    2014-09-01

    Cross sensor iris matching may seriously degrade the recognition performance because of the sensor mis-match problem of iris images between the enrollment and test stage. In this paper, we propose two novel patch-based heterogeneous dictionary learning method to attack this problem. The first method applies the latest sparse representation theory while the second method tries to learn the correspondence relationship through PCA in heterogeneous patch space. Both methods learn the basic atoms in iris textures across different image sensors and build connections between them. After such connections are built, at test stage, it is possible to hallucinate (synthesize) iris images across different sensors. By matching training images with hallucinated images, the recognition rate can be successfully enhanced. The experimental results showed the satisfied results both visually and in terms of recognition rate. Experimenting with an iris database consisting of 3015 images, we show that the EER is decreased 39.4% relatively by the proposed method.

  15. Evolução do comportamento auditivo após meningite bacteriana: relato de caso Auditory behaviour monitoring after bacterial meningitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lichtig

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência auditiva adquirida tem nas meningites bacterianas a sua principal etiologia e pouco tem-se dito a respeito da evolução para melhora ou piora do comportamento auditivo após a alta hospitalar. O presente estudo descreve o caso de um menino que teve meningite por Haemophilus influenzae aos 5 meses de vida e que entre outras complicações apresentou diminuição da acuidade auditiva detectada na evolução imediata, com melhora significativa posteriormente, confirmada por testes qualitativos e quantitativos. Discute-se a importância e a necessidade do seguimento fonoaudiológico de tais indivíduos para estabelecer orientação adequada.Bacterial meningitis is the main cause for acquired hearing loss. Nevertheless very little has been written about the development of the auditory behaviour either for improvement or for deterioration, after hospital release. The present study describes the case of a five month old boy with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Amongst various complications, a decrement in the auditory acuity was detected in the immediate evolution, with significant improvement later on by qualitative and quantitative tests.

  16. Integration of Visual Information in Auditory Cortex Promotes Auditory Scene Analysis through Multisensory Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Huriye; Town, Stephen M; Wood, Katherine C; Jones, Gareth P; Maddox, Ross K; Lee, Adrian K C; Bizley, Jennifer K

    2018-02-07

    How and where in the brain audio-visual signals are bound to create multimodal objects remains unknown. One hypothesis is that temporal coherence between dynamic multisensory signals provides a mechanism for binding stimulus features across sensory modalities. Here, we report that when the luminance of a visual stimulus is temporally coherent with the amplitude fluctuations of one sound in a mixture, the representation of that sound is enhanced in auditory cortex. Critically, this enhancement extends to include both binding and non-binding features of the sound. We demonstrate that visual information conveyed from visual cortex via the phase of the local field potential is combined with auditory information within auditory cortex. These data provide evidence that early cross-sensory binding provides a bottom-up mechanism for the formation of cross-sensory objects and that one role for multisensory binding in auditory cortex is to support auditory scene analysis. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Visual Hallucinations in PD and Lewy Body Dementias: Old and New Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Onofrj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visual Hallucinations (VH are a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s Disease (PD and the Lewy body dementias (LBD of Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB. The origin of VH in PD and LBD is debated: earlier studies considered a number of different possible mechanisms underlying VH including visual disorders, Rapid Eye Movement (REM Sleep Intrusions, dysfunctions of top down or bottom up visual pathways, and neurotransmitter imbalance.

  18. Exploring the visual hallucinations of migraine aura: the tacit contribution of illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, G D

    2007-06-01

    The visual aura of migraine is a subjective phenomenon, and what the migraineur experiences is necessarily inaccessible to others. Fortunately, however, the sufferer can occasionally reveal what is being seen by means of graphic representation, enabling an otherwise closed 'window' to be opened on the transiently dysfunctioning brain. This article explores the unique contribution that illustration has made to understanding mechanisms subserving the visual aura. The most revealing illustrations are those made by the very few scientists who have recorded and analysed the scotomas, and in particular the expanding fortification spectra, experienced during their migraine attacks. It is solely through illustrations such as these that the uniform nature of many of these hallucinations has been demonstrated. As a result, it follows that there is likely to be a similarly uniform repertoire of processes that generate the hallucinations in the occipital cortex. The precise form of the zigzags that comprise the fortification spectrum, their shimmering appearance, and in particular the speed of the peripheral spread, all of which are entirely dependent on graphic display for their elucidation, enable conclusions to be reached about a number of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including the involvement of spreading cortical depression, that likely occur. Illustration has been pivotal too in revealing uncommon and sometimes curious, if not bizarre, visual hallucinations, the forms of which suggest that extrastriate and temporal lobe involvement contributes to migraine aura in some instances. Illustration can also be valuable in differential diagnosis, depicting other forms of visual hallucination which result from a variety of non-migrainous causes. Illustration, particularly when made during the attack, provides an unusual, little used but powerful tool which uniquely allows the sufferer's subjective visual experiences to inform objective analysis. In turn, this

  19. Auditory interfaces: The human perceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, H. Steven

    1991-01-01

    A brief introduction to the basic auditory abilities of the human perceiver with particular attention toward issues that may be important for the design of auditory interfaces is presented. The importance of appropriate auditory inputs to observers with normal hearing is probably related to the role of hearing as an omnidirectional, early warning system and to its role as the primary vehicle for communication of strong personal feelings.

  20. Auditory Perceptual Abilities Are Associated with Specific Auditory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Zaltz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which auditory experience can shape general auditory perceptual abilities is still under constant debate. Some studies show that specific auditory expertise may have a general effect on auditory perceptual abilities, while others show a more limited influence, exhibited only in a relatively narrow range associated with the area of expertise. The current study addresses this issue by examining experience-dependent enhancement in perceptual abilities in the auditory domain. Three experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 12 pop and rock musicians and 15 non-musicians were tested in frequency discrimination (DLF, intensity discrimination, spectrum discrimination (DLS, and time discrimination (DLT. Results showed significant superiority of the musician group only for the DLF and DLT tasks, illuminating enhanced perceptual skills in the key features of pop music, in which miniscule changes in amplitude and spectrum are not critical to performance. The next two experiments attempted to differentiate between generalization and specificity in the influence of auditory experience, by comparing subgroups of specialists. First, seven guitar players and eight percussionists were tested in the DLF and DLT tasks that were found superior for musicians. Results showed superior abilities on the DLF task for guitar players, though no difference between the groups in DLT, demonstrating some dependency of auditory learning on the specific area of expertise. Subsequently, a third experiment was conducted, testing a possible influence of vowel density in native language on auditory perceptual abilities. Ten native speakers of German (a language characterized by a dense vowel system of 14 vowels, and 10 native speakers of Hebrew (characterized by a sparse vowel system of five vowels, were tested in a formant discrimination task. This is the linguistic equivalent of a DLS task. Results showed that German speakers had superior formant

  1. The Central Auditory Processing Kit[TM]. Book 1: Auditory Memory [and] Book 2: Auditory Discrimination, Auditory Closure, and Auditory Synthesis [and] Book 3: Auditory Figure-Ground, Auditory Cohesion, Auditory Binaural Integration, and Compensatory Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhemar, Mary Ann

    This kit for assessing central auditory processing disorders (CAPD), in children in grades 1 through 8 includes 3 books, 14 full-color cards with picture scenes, and a card depicting a phone key pad, all contained in a sturdy carrying case. The units in each of the three books correspond with auditory skill areas most commonly addressed in…

  2. Auditory preferences of young children with and without hearing loss for meaningful auditory-visual compound stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Barbra; Sussman, Joan E

    2009-01-01

    Experiment 1 examined modality preferences in children and adults with normal hearing to combined auditory-visual stimuli. Experiment 2 compared modality preferences in children using cochlear implants participating in an auditory emphasized therapy approach to the children with normal hearing from Experiment 1. A second objective in both experiments was to evaluate the role of familiarity in these preferences. Participants were exposed to randomized blocks of photographs and sounds of ten familiar and ten unfamiliar animals in auditory-only, visual-only and auditory-visual trials. Results indicated an overall auditory preference in children, regardless of hearing status, and a visual preference in adults. Familiarity only affected modality preferences in adults who showed a strong visual preference to unfamiliar stimuli only. The similar degree of auditory responses in children with hearing loss to those from children with normal hearing is an original finding and lends support to an auditory emphasis for habilitation. Readers will be able to (1) Describe the pattern of modality preferences reported in young children without hearing loss; (2) Recognize that differences in communication mode may affect modality preferences in young children with hearing loss; and (3) Understand the role of familiarity in modality preferences in children with and without hearing loss.

  3. Does dissociation mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and hallucinations, delusions in first episode psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pamela; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Simpson, Katrina; Lawrence, Katherine; Peach, Natalie; Bendall, Sarah

    2018-04-11

    Childhood trauma has been linked to the presence of delusions and hallucinations in psychosis, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship require elucidation. Dissociation, characterized by disruptions to the integrative functioning of several core mental domains, has emerged as a potential mechanism. There is a paucity of research using a clinician-rated measure of dissociation to test the indirect effect of dissociation on the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to investigate whether dissociation mediated both the relationships between childhood trauma and hallucinations, and childhood trauma and delusions utilizing a clinician-administered measure of dissociation, namely the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders - Revised (SCID-D-R). Sixty-six first-episode psychosis (FEP) participants completed a research interview and questionnaires. Information about experiences of childhood trauma, psychosis, dissociation, general psychopathology and demographics were collected. When using the SCID-D-R, childhood trauma positively correlated with dissociation. Further, dissociation mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and delusions. Contrary to previous findings, we found no relationship between dissociation and hallucinations and no mediating effect of dissociation on the association between childhood trauma and hallucinations. The results of the SCID-D-R differed significantly from those of the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) which were consistent with previous research. Our findings are the first to use a clinician-rated measure to test the mediating effect of dissociation on the relationship between childhood trauma and positive symptoms (i.e., hallucinations and delusions). Given the discrepancies in results between the SCID-D-R and DES-II, how dissociation is measured in future research is an important consideration. The results add to a body of work that

  4. Caution and Warning Alarm Design and Evaluation for NASA CEV Auditory Displays: SHFE Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRPP) report 12.07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Godfroy, Martine; Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina

    2008-01-01

    The design of caution-warning signals for NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and other future spacecraft will be based on both best practices based on current research and evaluation of current alarms. A design approach is presented based upon cross-disciplinary examination of psychoacoustic research, human factors experience, aerospace practices, and acoustical engineering requirements. A listening test with thirteen participants was performed involving ranking and grading of current and newly developed caution-warning stimuli under three conditions: (1) alarm levels adjusted for compliance with ISO 7731, "Danger signals for work places - Auditory Danger Signals", (2) alarm levels adjusted to an overall 15 dBA s/n ratio and (3) simulated codec low-pass filtering. Questionnaire data yielded useful insights regarding cognitive associations with the sounds.

  5. Congenital abnormality of the inner ear and internal auditory canal in a patient with deep sensorineural hearing loss: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Diego; Saab, Said; Cordoba, Claudia; Montes, Guillermo; Barreto, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    CT and MRI are complementary studies that have proven to be the best radiological tools in screening of children with unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Only about a 20% of the patients with congenital sensor neural hearing loss have manifestations in images. Due to the fact that most of these manifestations initiate in the bone, the CT is the first line of image study. MRI is indicated in the evaluation of suspected agenesis, neuropathy, aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve, often associated with this type of hearing loss. We present a case of a 6 year old patient with deep bilateral sensor neural hearing loss, with radiological studies to determine a potential candidate for a cochlear or auditory brainstem implant as hearing rehabilitation.

  6. Auditory Reserve and the Legacy of Auditory Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Skoe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Musical training during childhood has been linked to more robust encoding of sound later in life. We take this as evidence for an auditory reserve: a mechanism by which individuals capitalize on earlier life experiences to promote auditory processing. We assert that early auditory experiences guide how the reserve develops and is maintained over the lifetime. Experiences that occur after childhood, or which are limited in nature, are theorized to affect the reserve, although their influence on sensory processing may be less long-lasting and may potentially fade over time if not repeated. This auditory reserve may help to explain individual differences in how individuals cope with auditory impoverishment or loss of sensorineural function.

  7. Auditory changes in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabur, S; Korkmaz, H; Baysal, E; Hatipoglu, E; Aytac, I; Akarsu, E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the changes involving auditory system in cases with acromegaly. Otological examinations of 41 cases with acromegaly (uncontrolled n = 22, controlled n = 19) were compared with those of age and gender-matched 24 healthy subjects. Whereas the cases with acromegaly underwent examination with pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech audiometry for speech discrimination (SD), tympanometry, stapedius reflex evaluation and otoacoustic emission tests, the control group did only have otological examination and PTA. Additionally, previously performed paranasal sinus-computed tomography of all cases with acromegaly and control subjects were obtained to measure the length of internal acoustic canal (IAC). PTA values were higher (p acromegaly group was narrower compared to that in control group (p = 0.03 for right ears and p = 0.02 for left ears). When only cases with acromegaly were taken into consideration, PTA values in left ears had positive correlation with growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (r = 0.4, p = 0.02 and r = 0.3, p = 0.03). Of all cases with acromegaly 13 (32%) had hearing loss in at least one ear, 7 (54%) had sensorineural type and 6 (46%) had conductive type hearing loss. Acromegaly may cause certain changes in the auditory system in cases with acromegaly. The changes in the auditory system may be multifactorial causing both conductive and sensorioneural defects.

  8. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  9. Neuromechanistic Model of Auditory Bistability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rankin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of higher frequency A and lower frequency B tones repeating in an ABA- triplet pattern are widely used to study auditory streaming. One may experience either an integrated percept, a single ABA-ABA- stream, or a segregated percept, separate but simultaneous streams A-A-A-A- and -B---B--. During minutes-long presentations, subjects may report irregular alternations between these interpretations. We combine neuromechanistic modeling and psychoacoustic experiments to study these persistent alternations and to characterize the effects of manipulating stimulus parameters. Unlike many phenomenological models with abstract, percept-specific competition and fixed inputs, our network model comprises neuronal units with sensory feature dependent inputs that mimic the pulsatile-like A1 responses to tones in the ABA- triplets. It embodies a neuronal computation for percept competition thought to occur beyond primary auditory cortex (A1. Mutual inhibition, adaptation and noise are implemented. We include slow NDMA recurrent excitation for local temporal memory that enables linkage across sound gaps from one triplet to the next. Percepts in our model are identified in the firing patterns of the neuronal units. We predict with the model that manipulations of the frequency difference between tones A and B should affect the dominance durations of the stronger percept, the one dominant a larger fraction of time, more than those of the weaker percept-a property that has been previously established and generalized across several visual bistable paradigms. We confirm the qualitative prediction with our psychoacoustic experiments and use the behavioral data to further constrain and improve the model, achieving quantitative agreement between experimental and modeling results. Our work and model provide a platform that can be extended to consider other stimulus conditions, including the effects of context and volition.

  10. Visually Evoked Visual-Auditory Changes Associated with Auditory Performance in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maojin Liang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the auditory cortex by visual stimuli has been reported in deaf children. In cochlear implant (CI patients, a residual, more intense cortical activation in the frontotemporal areas in response to photo stimuli was found to be positively associated with poor auditory performance. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which visual processing in CI users activates the auditory-associated cortex during the period after cochlear implantation as well as its relation to CI outcomes. Twenty prelingually deaf children with CI were recruited. Ten children were good CI performers (GCP and ten were poor (PCP. Ten age- and sex- matched normal-hearing children were recruited as controls, and visual evoked potentials (VEPs were recorded. The characteristics of the right frontotemporal N1 component were analyzed. In the prelingually deaf children, higher N1 amplitude was observed compared to normal controls. While the GCP group showed significant decreases in N1 amplitude, and source analysis showed the most significant decrease in brain activity was observed in the primary visual cortex (PVC, with a downward trend in the primary auditory cortex (PAC activity, but these did not occur in the PCP group. Meanwhile, higher PVC activation (comparing to controls before CI use (0M and a significant decrease in source energy after CI use were found to be related to good CI outcomes. In the GCP group, source energy decreased in the visual-auditory cortex with CI use. However, no significant cerebral hemispheric dominance was found. We supposed that intra- or cross-modal reorganization and higher PVC activation in prelingually deaf children may reflect a stronger potential ability of cortical plasticity. Brain activity evolution appears to be related to CI auditory outcomes.

  11. Visually Evoked Visual-Auditory Changes Associated with Auditory Performance in Children with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Maojin; Zhang, Junpeng; Liu, Jiahao; Chen, Yuebo; Cai, Yuexin; Wang, Xianjun; Wang, Junbo; Zhang, Xueyuan; Chen, Suijun; Li, Xianghui; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Yiqing

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the auditory cortex by visual stimuli has been reported in deaf children. In cochlear implant (CI) patients, a residual, more intense cortical activation in the frontotemporal areas in response to photo stimuli was found to be positively associated with poor auditory performance. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which visual processing in CI users activates the auditory-associated cortex during the period after cochlear implantation as well as its relation to CI outcomes. Twenty prelingually deaf children with CI were recruited. Ten children were good CI performers (GCP) and ten were poor (PCP). Ten age- and sex- matched normal-hearing children were recruited as controls, and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded. The characteristics of the right frontotemporal N1 component were analyzed. In the prelingually deaf children, higher N1 amplitude was observed compared to normal controls. While the GCP group showed significant decreases in N1 amplitude, and source analysis showed the most significant decrease in brain activity was observed in the primary visual cortex (PVC), with a downward trend in the primary auditory cortex (PAC) activity, but these did not occur in the PCP group. Meanwhile, higher PVC activation (comparing to controls) before CI use (0M) and a significant decrease in source energy after CI use were found to be related to good CI outcomes. In the GCP group, source energy decreased in the visual-auditory cortex with CI use. However, no significant cerebral hemispheric dominance was found. We supposed that intra- or cross-modal reorganization and higher PVC activation in prelingually deaf children may reflect a stronger potential ability of cortical plasticity. Brain activity evolution appears to be related to CI auditory outcomes.

  12. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  13. Anteverted internal auditory canal as an inner ear anomaly in patients with craniofacial microsomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux-Lebeau, Bénédicte; Saliba, Issam

    2014-09-01

    Craniofacial microsomia involves structure of the first and second branchial arches. A wide range of ear anomalies, affecting external, middle and inner ear, has been described in association with this condition. We report three cases of anteverted internal auditory canal in patients presenting craniofacial microsomia. This unique internal auditory canal orientation was found on high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones. This internal auditory canal anomaly is yet unreported in craniofacial anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Event-related potential response to auditory social stimuli, parent-reported social communicative deficits and autism risk in school-aged children with congenital visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Bathelt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve. Early-latency event-related potential responses showed no difference between the VI and control group, suggesting similar initial auditory processing. However, the mean amplitude over central and right frontal channels between 280 and 320 ms was reduced in response to own-name stimuli, but not control stimuli, in children with VI suggesting differences in social processing. Children with VI also showed an increased rate of autistic-related behaviours, pragmatic language deficits, as well as peer relationship and emotional problems on standard parent questionnaires. These findings suggest that vision may be necessary for the typical development of social processing across modalities.

  15. Event-related potential response to auditory social stimuli, parent-reported social communicative deficits and autism risk in school-aged children with congenital visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathelt, Joe; Dale, Naomi; de Haan, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve). Early-latency event-related potential responses showed no difference between the VI and control group, suggesting similar initial auditory processing. However, the mean amplitude over central and right frontal channels between 280 and 320ms was reduced in response to own-name stimuli, but not control stimuli, in children with VI suggesting differences in social processing. Children with VI also showed an increased rate of autistic-related behaviours, pragmatic language deficits, as well as peer relationship and emotional problems on standard parent questionnaires. These findings suggest that vision may be necessary for the typical development of social processing across modalities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental programming of auditory learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Puddu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic structures involved in the development of auditory function and consequently in language acquisition are directed by genetic code, but the expression of individual genes may be altered by exposure to environmental factors, which if favorable, orient it in the proper direction, leading its development towards normality, if unfavorable, they deviate it from its physiological course. Early sensorial experience during the foetal period (i.e. intrauterine noise floor, sounds coming from the outside and attenuated by the uterine filter, particularly mother’s voice and modifications induced by it at the cochlear level represent the first example of programming in one of the earliest critical periods in development of the auditory system. This review will examine the factors that influence the developmental programming of auditory learning from the womb to the infancy. In particular it focuses on the following points: the prenatal auditory experience and the plastic phenomena presumably induced by it in the auditory system from the basilar membrane to the cortex;the involvement of these phenomena on language acquisition and on the perception of language communicative intention after birth;the consequences of auditory deprivation in critical periods of auditory development (i.e. premature interruption of foetal life.

  17. Possible role of biochemiluminescent photons for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced phosphenes and visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapócs, Gábor; Scholkmann, Felix; Salari, Vahid; Császár, Noémi; Szőke, Henrik; Bókkon, István

    2017-01-01

    Today, there is an increased interest in research on lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) because it may offer new opportunities in psychotherapy under controlled settings. The more we know about how a drug works in the brain, the more opportunities there will be to exploit it in medicine. Here, based on our previously published papers and investigations, we suggest that LSD-induced visual hallucinations/phosphenes may be due to the transient enhancement of bioluminescent photons in the early retinotopic visual system in blind as well as healthy people.

  18. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback.

  19. Aging increases distraction by auditory oddballs in visual, but not auditory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Alicia; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Andrés, Pilar

    2015-05-01

    Aging is typically considered to bring a reduction of the ability to resist distraction by task-irrelevant stimuli. Yet recent work suggests that this conclusion must be qualified and that the effect of aging is mitigated by whether irrelevant and target stimuli emanate from the same modalities or from distinct ones. Some studies suggest that aging is especially sensitive to distraction within-modality while others suggest it is greater across modalities. Here we report the first study to measure the effect of aging on deviance distraction in cross-modal (auditory-visual) and uni-modal (auditory-auditory) oddball tasks. Young and older adults were asked to judge the parity of target digits (auditory or visual in distinct blocks of trials), each preceded by a task-irrelevant sound (the same tone on most trials-the standard sound-or, on rare and unpredictable trials, a burst of white noise-the deviant sound). Deviant sounds yielded distraction (longer response times relative to standard sounds) in both tasks and age groups. However, an age-related increase in distraction was observed in the cross-modal task and not in the uni-modal task. We argue that aging might affect processes involved in the switching of attention across modalities and speculate that this may due to the slowing of this type of attentional shift or a reduction in cognitive control required to re-orient attention toward the target's modality.

  20. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brian H.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ���working memory��� bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive sho...

  2. Temporal Sequence of Visuo-Auditory Interaction in Multiple Areas of the Guinea Pig Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masataka; Song, Wen-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies in humans and monkeys have reported that acoustic stimulation influences visual responses in the primary visual cortex (V1). Such influences can be generated in V1, either by direct auditory projections or by feedback projections from extrastriate cortices. To test these hypotheses, cortical activities were recorded using optical imaging at a high spatiotemporal resolution from multiple areas of the guinea pig visual cortex, to visual and/or acoustic stimulations. Visuo-auditory interactions were evaluated according to differences between responses evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation, and the sum of responses evoked by separate visual and auditory stimulations. Simultaneous presentation of visual and acoustic stimulations resulted in significant interactions in V1, which occurred earlier than in other visual areas. When acoustic stimulation preceded visual stimulation, significant visuo-auditory interactions were detected only in V1. These results suggest that V1 is a cortical origin of visuo-auditory interaction. PMID:23029483

  3. Dislocation of the incus into the external auditory canal after mountain-biking accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T; Kono, Y; Fukuoka, Y; Yamamoto, H; Saito, H

    2001-01-01

    We report a rare case of incus dislocation to the external auditory canal after a mountain-biking accident. Otoscopy showed ossicular protrusion in the upper part of the left external auditory canal. CT indicated the disappearance of the incus, and an incus-like bone was found in the left external auditory canal. There was another bony and board-like structure in the attic. During the surgery, a square-shaped bony plate (1 x 1 cm) was found in the attic. It was determined that the bony plate had fallen from the tegmen of the attic. The fracture line in the posterosuperior auditory canal extending to the fossa incudis was identified. According to these findings, it was considered that the incus was pushed into the external auditory canal by the impact of skull injury through the fractured posterosuperior auditory canal, which opened widely enough for incus dislocation. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Nodular Fasciitis of External Auditory Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Ahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nodular fasciitis is a pseudosarcomatous reactive process composed of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, and it is most common in the upper extremities. Nodular fasciitis of the external auditory canal is rare. To the best of our knowledge, less than 20 cases have been reported to date. We present a case of nodular fasciitis arising in the cartilaginous part of the external auditory canal. A 19-year-old man complained of an auricular mass with pruritus. Computed tomography showed a 1.7 cm sized soft tissue mass in the right external auditory canal, and total excision was performed. Histologic examination revealed spindle or stellate cells proliferation in a fascicular and storiform pattern. Lymphoid cells and erythrocytes were intermixed with tumor cells. The stroma was myxoid to hyalinized with a few microcysts. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for smooth muscle actin, but not for desmin, caldesmon, CD34, S-100, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and cytokeratin. The patient has been doing well during the 1 year follow-up period.

  5. Maps of the Auditory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Alyssa A; Barton, Brian

    2016-07-08

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration.

  6. Demodulation Processes in Auditory Perception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feth, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    The long range goal of this project was the understanding of human auditory processing of information conveyed by complex, time varying signals such as speech, music or important environmental sounds...

  7. Delayed Mismatch Field Latencies in Autism Spectrum Disorder with Abnormal Auditory Sensitivity: A Magnetoencephalographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Sugata, Hisato; Hanaie, Ryuzo; Nagatani, Fumiyo; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Tachibana, Masaya; Tominaga, Koji; Hirata, Masayuki; Mohri, Ikuko; Taniike, Masako

    2017-01-01

    Although abnormal auditory sensitivity is the most common sensory impairment associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. In previous studies, we reported that this abnormal sensitivity in patients with ASD is associated with delayed and prolonged responses in the auditory cortex. In the present study, we investigated alterations in residual M100 and MMFs in children with ASD who experience abnormal auditory sensitivity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure MMF elicited by an auditory oddball paradigm (standard tones: 300 Hz, deviant tones: 700 Hz) in 20 boys with ASD (11 with abnormal auditory sensitivity: mean age, 9.62 ± 1.82 years, 9 without: mean age, 9.07 ± 1.31 years) and 13 typically developing boys (mean age, 9.45 ± 1.51 years). We found that temporal and frontal residual M100/MMF latencies were significantly longer only in children with ASD who have abnormal auditory sensitivity. In addition, prolonged residual M100/MMF latencies were correlated with the severity of abnormal auditory sensitivity in temporal and frontal areas of both hemispheres. Therefore, our findings suggest that children with ASD and abnormal auditory sensitivity may have atypical neural networks in the primary auditory area, as well as in brain areas associated with attention switching and inhibitory control processing. This is the first report of an MEG study demonstrating altered MMFs to an auditory oddball paradigm in patients with ASD and abnormal auditory sensitivity. These findings contribute to knowledge of the mechanisms for abnormal auditory sensitivity in ASD, and may therefore facilitate development of novel clinical interventions.

  8. Delayed Mismatch Field Latencies in Autism Spectrum Disorder with Abnormal Auditory Sensitivity: A Magnetoencephalographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuzaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although abnormal auditory sensitivity is the most common sensory impairment associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. In previous studies, we reported that this abnormal sensitivity in patients with ASD is associated with delayed and prolonged responses in the auditory cortex. In the present study, we investigated alterations in residual M100 and MMFs in children with ASD who experience abnormal auditory sensitivity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to measure MMF elicited by an auditory oddball paradigm (standard tones: 300 Hz, deviant tones: 700 Hz in 20 boys with ASD (11 with abnormal auditory sensitivity: mean age, 9.62 ± 1.82 years, 9 without: mean age, 9.07 ± 1.31 years and 13 typically developing boys (mean age, 9.45 ± 1.51 years. We found that temporal and frontal residual M100/MMF latencies were significantly longer only in children with ASD who have abnormal auditory sensitivity. In addition, prolonged residual M100/MMF latencies were correlated with the severity of abnormal auditory sensitivity in temporal and frontal areas of both hemispheres. Therefore, our findings suggest that children with ASD and abnormal auditory sensitivity may have atypical neural networks in the primary auditory area, as well as in brain areas associated with attention switching and inhibitory control processing. This is the first report of an MEG study demonstrating altered MMFs to an auditory oddball paradigm in patients with ASD and abnormal auditory sensitivity. These findings contribute to knowledge of the mechanisms for abnormal auditory sensitivity in ASD, and may therefore facilitate development of novel clinical interventions.

  9. An evoked auditory response fMRI study of the effects of rTMS on putative AVH pathways in healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracy, D K

    2010-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are the most prevalent symptom in schizophrenia. They are associated with increased activation within the temporoparietal cortices and are refractory to pharmacological and psychological treatment in approximately 25% of patients. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporoparietal cortex has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AVH in some patients, although results have varied. The cortical mechanism by which rTMS exerts its effects remain unknown, although data from the motor system is suggestive of a local cortical inhibitory effect. We explored neuroimaging differences in healthy volunteers between application of a clinically utilized rTMS protocol and a sham rTMS equivalent when undertaking a prosodic auditory task.

  10. From local pixel structure to global image super-resolution: a new face hallucination framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu; Lam, Kin-Man; Qiu, Guoping; Shen, Tingzhi

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a new face hallucination framework termed from local pixel structure to global image super-resolution (LPS-GIS). Based on the assumption that two similar face images should have similar local pixel structures, the new framework first uses the input low-resolution (LR) face image to search a face database for similar example high-resolution (HR) faces in order to learn the local pixel structures for the target HR face. It then uses the input LR face and the learned pixel structures as priors to estimate the target HR face. We present a three-step implementation procedure for the framework. Step 1 searches the database for K example faces that are the most similar to the input, and then warps the K example images to the input using optical flow. Step 2 uses the warped HR version of the K example faces to learn the local pixel structures for the target HR face. An effective method for learning local pixel structures from an individual face, and an adaptive procedure for fusing the local pixel structures of different example faces to reduce the influence of warping errors, have been developed. Step 3 estimates the target HR face by solving a constrained optimization problem by means of an iterative procedure. Experimental results show that our new method can provide good performances for face hallucination, both in terms of reconstruction error and visual quality; and that it is competitive with existing state-of-the-art methods.

  11. The Multidimensional Spectrum of Imagination: Images, Dreams, Hallucinations, and Active, Imaginative Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J.T. Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A theory of the structure and cognitive function of the human imagination that attempts to do justice to traditional intuitions about its psychological centrality is developed, largely through a detailed critique of the theory propounded by Colin McGinn. Like McGinn, I eschew the highly deflationary views of imagination, common amongst analytical philosophers, that treat it either as a conceptually incoherent notion, or as psychologically trivial. However, McGinn fails to develop his alternative account satisfactorily because (following Reid, Wittgenstein and Sartre he draws an excessively sharp, qualitative distinction between imagination and perception, and because of his flawed, empirically ungrounded conception of hallucination. His arguments in defense of these views are rebutted in detail, and the traditional, passive, Cartesian view of visual perception, upon which several of them implicitly rely, is criticized in the light of findings from recent cognitive science and neuroscience. It is also argued that the apparent intuitiveness of the passive view of visual perception is a result of mere historical contingency. An understanding of perception (informed by modern visual science as an inherently active process enables us to unify our accounts of perception, mental imagery, dreaming, hallucination, creativity, and other aspects of imagination within a single coherent theoretical framework.

  12. Charles Bonnet syndrome: characteristics of its visual hallucinations and differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Cardoso Vale

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present an eight-case serie of patients with Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS. Method: All patients were initially evaluated by an ophthalmologist and then submitted to a neurologic evaluation with exclusion of alternative psychiatric and neurologic diagnoses. Results: Five patients were male (62.5% and the mean age was 52.3+16.0 years. Two patients suffered from severe myopia and glaucoma, three had retinitis pigmentosa, one had anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, one had age-related macular degeneration and one had toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Mean visual acuity in the right eye was 1,12 logMAR and in the left eye 0.57 logMAR. A mean delay of 41.7 months occurred until diagnosis. All hallucinations were complexes and mostly ocurred on a weekly-basis (62.5% and lasted for seconds (87.5%. Conclusions: Physicians who care for low vision patients should be aware of CBS and appropriately diagnose its hallucinations after exclusion of psychiatric and neurologic diseases.

  13. [A case of transient auditory agnosia and schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Jin; Harada, Tatsuhiko; Kanzaki, Sho

    2011-03-01

    We report a case of transient functional auditory agnosia and schizophrenia and discuss their relationship. A 30-year-old woman with schizophrenia reporting bilateral hearing loss was found in history taking to be able to hear but could neither understand speech nor discriminate among environmental sounds. Audiometry clarified normal but low speech discrimination. Otoacoustic emission and auditory brainstem response were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) elsewhere evidenced no abnormal findings. We assumed that taking care of her grandparents who had been discharged from the hospital had unduly stressed her, and her condition improved shortly after she stopped caring for them, returned home and started taking a minor tranquilizer.

  14. Leftward lateralization of auditory cortex underlies holistic sound perception in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenroth, Martina; Blatow, Maria; Bendszus, Martin; Schneider, Peter

    2010-08-23

    Individuals with the rare genetic disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS) are known for their characteristic auditory phenotype including strong affinity to music and sounds. In this work we attempted to pinpoint a neural substrate for the characteristic musicality in WS individuals by studying the structure-function relationship of their auditory cortex. Since WS subjects had only minor musical training due to psychomotor constraints we hypothesized that any changes compared to the control group would reflect the contribution of genetic factors to auditory processing and musicality. Using psychoacoustics, magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging, we show that WS individuals exhibit extreme and almost exclusive holistic sound perception, which stands in marked contrast to the even distribution of this trait in the general population. Functionally, this was reflected by increased amplitudes of left auditory evoked fields. On the structural level, volume of the left auditory cortex was 2.2-fold increased in WS subjects as compared to control subjects. Equivalent volumes of the auditory cortex have been previously reported for professional musicians. There has been an ongoing debate in the neuroscience community as to whether increased gray matter of the auditory cortex in musicians is attributable to the amount of training or innate disposition. In this study musical education of WS subjects was negligible and control subjects were carefully matched for this parameter. Therefore our results not only unravel the neural substrate for this particular auditory phenotype, but in addition propose WS as a unique genetic model for training-independent auditory system properties.

  15. The Effects of Apomorphine on Visual Perception in Patients With Parkinson Disease and Visual Hallucinations : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, Linda; Meppelink, Anne Marthe; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; van Laar, Teus

    2009-01-01

    Visual hallucinations (VHs) often occur in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). Overstimulation of dopamine receptors has been considered as one of the causes for VHs in PD. However, several clinical studies suggested that apomorphine infusion did not worsen existing VHs in PD, but could

  16. The prevalence of visual hallucinations in non-affective psychosis, and the role of perception and attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, van Marouska; van Beilen, M; Cornelissen, F W; Smid, H.G.O.M.; Knegtering, H; Aleman, A; van Laar, T

    Background. Little is known about visual hallucinations (VH) in psychosis. We investigated the prevalence and the role of bottom-up and top-down processing in VH. The prevailing view is that VH are probably related to altered top-down processing, rather than to distorted bottom-up processing.

  17. [A study of relationships among solvent inhalation, personality and expectancy; especially on affinity to hallucination, sensation seeking and neurotic tendency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, N; Satoh, S; Oda, S; Tomita, H; Shoji, M; Seno, E; Abe, K; Konishi, T

    1994-10-01

    94 delinquents in two homes for resocialization were surveyed to elucidate the relationship among the status of volatile solvent inhalation, expectancy and personality. The subjects were classified into solvent-inhalation group and non-solvent-inhalation group, and the former was divided into solvent dependence group and abuse group according to DSM-III-R. Each group was given personality tests; general health questionnaire (GHQ), sensation seeking scale (SSS), the vividness of visual imagery (VVIQ), test of visual imagery control (TVIC) and Yatabe-Guilford test (YG). In addition we investigated expectancy and mental symptoms caused by inhalation in it. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Inhalation group scored higher on SSS than non-inhalation group. 2. Compared with abuse group, dependence group presented with 1) higher GHQ score meaning neurotic tendency; 2) higher TVIC score meaning imagery-control-ability; 3) a higher incidence of day-dream and hallucination, especially egosyntonic type; 4) higher expectancy of "enhancement of positive affection", "reduction of negative affection" and "hallucination seeking"; 5) lower expectancy of "association with friends". 3. Higher scored inhalers on TVIC showed visual hallucinations, especially egosyntonic type more frequently than lower ones. 4. Significant correlations were recognized between GHQ score and expectancy of "reduction of negative affection", and between lack of objectiveness score of YG subscale and "hallucination seeking" expectancy. These results suggested that 1) beginning of inhalation is associated with sensation seeking trait, 2) progression to solvent dependence is correlated with three expectancies, i.e., seeking egosyntonic hallucinations paralleling high imagery-control-ability and subjectivity, reducing negative affection paralleling neurotic tendency, and enhancing positive affection. According to the findings, indulgence to drug induced positive imagery led delinquents into splitting of

  18. Widespread auditory deficits in tune deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Lucker, Jay; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate auditory function in individuals with deficits in musical pitch perception. We hypothesized that such individuals have deficits in nonspeech areas of auditory processing. We screened 865 randomly selected individuals to identify those who scored poorly on the Distorted Tunes test (DTT), a measure of musical pitch recognition ability. Those who scored poorly were given a comprehensive audiologic examination, and those with hearing loss or other confounding audiologic factors were excluded from further testing. Thirty-five individuals with tune deafness constituted the experimental group. Thirty-four individuals with normal hearing and normal DTT scores, matched for age, gender, handedness, and education, and without overt or reported psychiatric disorders made up the normal control group. Individual and group performance for pure-tone frequency discrimination at 1000 Hz was determined by measuring the difference limen for frequency (DLF). Auditory processing abilities were assessed using tests of pitch pattern recognition, duration pattern recognition, and auditory gap detection. In addition, we evaluated both attention and short- and long-term memory as variables that might influence performance on our experimental measures. Differences between groups were evaluated statistically using Wilcoxon nonparametric tests and t-tests as appropriate. The DLF at 1000 Hz in the group with tune deafness was significantly larger than that of the normal control group. However, approximately one-third of participants with tune deafness had DLFs within the range of performance observed in the control group. Many individuals with tune deafness also displayed a high degree of variability in their intertrial frequency discrimination performance that could not be explained by deficits in memory or attention. Pitch and duration pattern discrimination and auditory gap-detection ability were significantly poorer in the group with tune deafness

  19. Distúrbio de voz em professores: autorreferência, avaliação perceptiva da voz e das pregas vocais Voice disorders in teachers: self-report, auditory-perceptive assessment of voice and vocal fold assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fabiana Bonfim de Lima-Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a presença do distúrbio de voz em professores na concordância entre autorreferência, avaliação perceptiva da voz e das pregas vocais. MÉTODOS: Deste estudo transversal, participaram 60 professores de duas escolas públicas de ensino fundamental e médio. Após responderem questionário de autopercepção (Condição de Produção Vocal do Professor - CPV-P para caracterização da amostra e levantamento de dados sobre autorreferência ao distúrbio de voz, foram submetidos à coleta de amostra de fala e exame nasofibrolaringoscópico. Para classificar as vozes, três juízes fonoaudiólogos utilizaram à escala GRBASI e, para pregas vocais (PPVV, um otorrinolaringologista descreveu as alterações encontradas. Os dados foram analisados descritivamente, e a seguir submetidos a testes de associação. RESULTADOS: No questionário, 63,3% dos participantes referiram ter ou ter tido distúrbio de voz. Do total, 43,3% foram diagnosticados com alteração em voz e 46,7%, em prega vocal. Não houve associação entre autorreferência e avaliação da voz, nem entre autorreferência e avaliação de PPVV, com registro de concordância baixa entre as três avaliações. Porém, houve associação entre a avaliação da voz e de PPVV, com concordância intermediária entre elas. CONCLUSÃO: Há maior autorreferência a distúrbio de voz do que o constatado pela avaliação perceptiva da voz e das pregas vocais. A concordância intermediária entre as duas avaliações prediz a necessidade da realização de pelo menos uma delas por ocasião da triagem em professores.PURPOSE: To analyze the presence of voice disorders in teachers in agreement between self-report, auditory-perceptive assessment of voice quality and vocal fold assessment. METHODS: The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 60 public elementary, middle and high-school teachers. After answering a self-awareness questionnaire (Voice Production Conditions of

  20. Hallucination chez Flaubert : poétique de la perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Hashimoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Notre étude vise à montrer dans le cadre d’une poétique du discours réaliste la manière dont l’« hallucination » fonctionne, se construit et trouve sa signification chez Flaubert. Par quels procédés fait-il surgir des mots le caractère éphémère des images et l’intensité de leur perception ?Notre étude se développera en une forme de triptyque, où le contexte, l’avant-texte et le texte seront examinés. Mais, ces trois points constituant ensemble l’œuvre de Flaubert, nous ne les séparerons pas à...

  1. Prevalence of auditory changes in newborns in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães, Valeriana de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The precocious diagnosis and the intervention in the deafness are of basic importance in the infantile development. The loss auditory and more prevalent than other joined riots to the birth. Objective: Esteem the prevalence of auditory alterations in just-born in a hospital school. Method: Prospective transversal study that evaluated 226 just-been born, been born in a public hospital, between May of 2008 the May of 2009. Results: Of the 226 screened, 46 (20.4% had presented absence of emissions, having been directed for the second emission. Of the 26 (56.5% children who had appeared in the retest, 8 (30.8% had remained with absence and had been directed to the Otolaryngologist. Five (55.5% had appeared and had been examined by the doctor. Of these, 3 (75.0% had presented normal otoscopy, being directed for evaluation of the Evoked Potential Auditory of Brainstem (PEATE. Of the total of studied children, 198 (87.6% had had presence of emissions in one of the tests and, 2 (0.9% with deafness diagnosis. Conclusion: The prevalence of auditory alterations in the studied population was of 0,9%. The study it offers given excellent epidemiologists and it presents the first report on the subject, supplying resulted preliminary future implantation and development of a program of neonatal auditory selection.

  2. Further evidence of interference between lipreading and auditory recency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J M; Gathercole, S E; Gregg, V H

    1983-04-01

    In both free and backward recall, it is shown that auditory but not visual recency is greatly disrupted when subjects have to lipread, rather than read, a series of numbers in a distractor task interpolated between list presentation and recall. This selective interference effect extends the generality of a finding reported by Spoehr and Corin (1978) and adds to an accumulating body of evidence that seems inconsistent with acoustic or echoic memory interpretations of the enhanced recency recall typically observed in comparing auditory with visual presentation. Alternative interpretations are briefly considered.

  3. Formant compensation for auditory feedback with English vowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsuya, Takashi; MacDonald, Ewen N; Munhall, Kevin G

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have shown that speakers spontaneously adjust their speech acoustics in response to their auditory feedback perturbed in real time. In the case of formant perturbation, the majority of studies have examined speaker's compensatory production using the English vowel /ɛ/ as in the word...... "head." Consistent behavioral observations have been reported, and there is lively discussion as to how the production system integrates auditory versus somatosensory feedback to control vowel production. However, different vowels have different oral sensation and proprioceptive information due...... to differences in the degree of lingual contact or jaw openness. This may in turn influence the ways in which speakers compensate for auditory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine speakers' compensatory behavior with six English monophthongs. Specifically, the current study tested to see...

  4. Pre-Attentive Auditory Processing of Lexicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Horvath, Janos; Schroger, Erich; Lattner, Sonja; Widmann, Andreas; Winkler, Istvan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of lexicality on auditory change detection based on auditory sensory memory representations were investigated by presenting oddball sequences of repeatedly presented stimuli, while participants ignored the auditory stimuli. In a cross-linguistic study of Hungarian and German participants, stimulus sequences were composed of words that…

  5. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  6. Clinical Report of a 17q12 Microdeletion with Additionally Unreported Clinical Features

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jennifer L.; Gandomi, Stephanie K.; Parra, Melissa; Lu, Ira; Gau, Chia-Ling; Dasouki, Majed; Butler, Merlin G.

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations involving the 17q12 region have been associated with developmental and speech delay, autism, aggression, self-injury, biting and hitting, oppositional defiance, inappropriate language, and auditory hallucinations. We present a tall-appearing 17-year-old boy with marfanoid habitus, hypermobile joints, mild scoliosis, pectus deformity, widely spaced nipples, pes cavus, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and psychiatric manifestations including physical and...

  7. Auditory-visual integration in fields of the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Michinori; Sugimoto, Shunji; Hosokawa, Yutaka; Ojima, Hisayuki; Horikawa, Junsei

    2017-03-01

    While multimodal interactions have been known to exist in the early sensory cortices, the response properties and spatiotemporal organization of these interactions are poorly understood. To elucidate the characteristics of multimodal sensory interactions in the cerebral cortex, neuronal responses to visual stimuli with or without auditory stimuli were investigated in core and belt fields of guinea pig auditory cortex using real-time optical imaging with a voltage-sensitive dye. On average, visual responses consisted of short excitation followed by long inhibition. Although visual responses were observed in core and belt fields, there were regional and temporal differences in responses. The most salient visual responses were observed in the caudal belt fields, especially posterior (P) and dorsocaudal belt (DCB) fields. Visual responses emerged first in fields P and DCB and then spread rostroventrally to core and ventrocaudal belt (VCB) fields. Absolute values of positive and negative peak amplitudes of visual responses were both larger in fields P and DCB than in core and VCB fields. When combined visual and auditory stimuli were applied, fields P and DCB were more inhibited than core and VCB fields beginning approximately 110 ms after stimuli. Correspondingly, differences between responses to auditory stimuli alone and combined audiovisual stimuli became larger in fields P and DCB than in core and VCB fields after approximately 110 ms after stimuli. These data indicate that visual influences are most salient in fields P and DCB, which manifest mainly as inhibition, and that they enhance differences in auditory responses among fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliance on auditory feedback in children with childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Hogan, Tiffany P; Guarino, Anthony J; Green, Jordan R

    2015-01-01

    Children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) have been hypothesized to continuously monitor their speech through auditory feedback to minimize speech errors. We used an auditory masking paradigm to determine the effect of attenuating auditory feedback on speech in 30 children: 9 with CAS, 10 with speech delay, and 11 with typical development. The masking only affected the speech of children with CAS as measured by voice onset time and vowel space area. These findings provide preliminary support for greater reliance on auditory feedback among children with CAS. Readers of this article should be able to (i) describe the motivation for investigating the role of auditory feedback in children with CAS; (ii) report the effects of feedback attenuation on speech production in children with CAS, speech delay, and typical development, and (iii) understand how the current findings may support a feedforward program deficit in children with CAS. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of predictive coding of auditory location in the perception of natural audiovisual events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In many natural audiovisual events (e.g., a clap of the two hands), the visual signal precedes the sound and thus allows observers to predict when, where, and which sound will occur. Previous studies have reported that there are distinct neural correlates of temporal (when) versus phonetic/semantic (which) content on audiovisual integration. Here we examined the effect of visual prediction of auditory location (where) in audiovisual biological motion stimuli by varying the spatial congruency between the auditory and visual parts. Visual stimuli were presented centrally, whereas auditory stimuli were presented either centrally or at 90° azimuth. Typical sub-additive amplitude reductions (AV - V audiovisual interaction was also found at 40-60 ms (P50) in the spatially congruent condition, while no effect of congruency was found on the suppression of the P2. This indicates that visual prediction of auditory location can be coded very early in auditory processing.

  10. Auditory and audio-visual processing in patients with cochlear, auditory brainstem, and auditory midbrain implants: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierholz, Irina; Finke, Mareike; Kral, Andrej; Büchner, Andreas; Rach, Stefan; Lenarz, Thomas; Dengler, Reinhard; Sandmann, Pascale

    2017-04-01

    There is substantial variability in speech recognition ability across patients with cochlear implants (CIs), auditory brainstem implants (ABIs), and auditory midbrain implants (AMIs). To better understand how this variability is related to central processing differences, the current electroencephalography (EEG) study compared hearing abilities and auditory-cortex activation in patients with electrical stimulation at different sites of the auditory pathway. Three different groups of patients with auditory implants (Hannover Medical School; ABI: n = 6, CI: n = 6; AMI: n = 2) performed a speeded response task and a speech recognition test with auditory, visual, and audio-visual stimuli. Behavioral performance and cortical processing of auditory and audio-visual stimuli were compared between groups. ABI and AMI patients showed prolonged response times on auditory and audio-visual stimuli compared with NH listeners and CI patients. This was confirmed by prolonged N1 latencies and reduced N1 amplitudes in ABI and AMI patients. However, patients with central auditory implants showed a remarkable gain in performance when visual and auditory input was combined, in both speech and non-speech conditions, which was reflected by a strong visual modulation of auditory-cortex activation in these individuals. In sum, the results suggest that the behavioral improvement for audio-visual conditions in central auditory implant patients is based on enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex. Their findings may provide important implications for the optimization of electrical stimulation and rehabilitation strategies in patients with central auditory prostheses. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2206-2225, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  12. Molecular approach of auditory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Magali Aparecida Orate Menezes da; Piatto, Vânia Belintani; Maniglia, Jose Victor

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the otoferlin gene are responsible for auditory neuropathy. To investigate the prevalence of mutations in the mutations in the otoferlin gene in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. This original cross-sectional case study evaluated 16 index cases with auditory neuropathy, 13 patients with sensorineural hearing loss, and 20 normal-hearing subjects. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and the mutations in the otoferlin gene sites were amplified by polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism. The 16 index cases included nine (56%) females and seven (44%) males. The 13 deaf patients comprised seven (54%) males and six (46%) females. Among the 20 normal-hearing subjects, 13 (65%) were males and seven were (35%) females. Thirteen (81%) index cases had wild-type genotype (AA) and three (19%) had the heterozygous AG genotype for IVS8-2A-G (intron 8) mutation. The 5473C-G (exon 44) mutation was found in a heterozygous state (CG) in seven (44%) index cases and nine (56%) had the wild-type allele (CC). Of these mutants, two (25%) were compound heterozygotes for the mutations found in intron 8 and exon 44. All patients with sensorineural hearing loss and normal-hearing individuals did not have mutations (100%). There are differences at the molecular level in patients with and without auditory neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics of auditory working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eKaiser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory denotes the ability to retain stimuli in mind that are no longer physically present and to perform mental operations on them. Electro- and magnetoencephalography allow investigating the short-term maintenance of acoustic stimuli at a high temporal resolution. Studies investigating working memory for non-spatial and spatial auditory information have suggested differential roles of regions along the putative auditory ventral and dorsal streams, respectively, in the processing of the different sound properties. Analyses of event-related potentials have shown sustained, memory load-dependent deflections over the retention periods. The topography of these waves suggested an involvement of modality-specific sensory storage regions. Spectral analysis has yielded information about the temporal dynamics of auditory working memory processing of individual stimuli, showing activation peaks during the delay phase whose timing was related to task performance. Coherence at different frequencies was enhanced between frontal and sensory cortex. In summary, auditory working memory seems to rely on the dynamic interplay between frontal executive systems and sensory representation regions.

  14. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement. PMID:26132703

  15. Comparison of congruence judgment and auditory localization tasks for assessing the spatial limits of visual capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosen, Adam K; Fleming, Justin T; Brown, Sarah E; Allen, Paul D; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2016-12-01

    Vision typically has better spatial accuracy and precision than audition and as a result often captures auditory spatial perception when visual and auditory cues are presented together. One determinant of visual capture is the amount of spatial disparity between auditory and visual cues: when disparity is small, visual capture is likely to occur, and when disparity is large, visual capture is unlikely. Previous experiments have used two methods to probe how visual capture varies with spatial disparity. First, congruence judgment assesses perceived unity between cues by having subjects report whether or not auditory and visual targets came from the same location. Second, auditory localization assesses the graded influence of vision on auditory spatial perception by having subjects point to the remembered location of an auditory target presented with a visual target. Previous research has shown that when both tasks are performed concurrently they produce similar measures of visual capture, but this may not hold when tasks are performed independently. Here, subjects alternated between tasks independently across three sessions. A Bayesian inference model of visual capture was used to estimate perceptual parameters for each session, which were compared across tasks. Results demonstrated that the range of audiovisual disparities over which visual capture was likely to occur was narrower in auditory localization than in congruence judgment, which the model indicates was caused by subjects adjusting their prior expectation that targets originated from the same location in a task-dependent manner.

  16. Deviance-Related Responses along the Auditory Hierarchy: Combined FFR, MLR and MMN Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Tetsuya; Althen, Heike; Cornella, Miriam; Zarnowiec, Katarzyna; Yabe, Hirooki; Escera, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) provides a correlate of automatic auditory discrimination in human auditory cortex that is elicited in response to violation of any acoustic regularity. Recently, deviance-related responses were found at much earlier cortical processing stages as reflected by the middle latency response (MLR) of the auditory evoked potential, and even at the level of the auditory brainstem as reflected by the frequency following response (FFR). However, no study has reported deviance-related responses in the FFR, MLR and long latency response (LLR) concurrently in a single recording protocol. Amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds were presented to healthy human participants in a frequency oddball paradigm to investigate deviance-related responses along the auditory hierarchy in the ranges of FFR, MLR and LLR. AM frequency deviants modulated the FFR, the Na and Nb components of the MLR, and the LLR eliciting the MMN. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to elicit deviance-related responses at three different levels (FFR, MLR and LLR) in one single recording protocol, highlight the involvement of the whole auditory hierarchy in deviance detection and have implications for cognitive and clinical auditory neuroscience. Moreover, the present protocol provides a new research tool into clinical neuroscience so that the functional integrity of the auditory novelty system can now be tested as a whole in a range of clinical populations where the MMN was previously shown to be defective. PMID:26348628

  17. Comparison of Congruence Judgment and Auditory Localization Tasks for Assessing the Spatial Limits of Visual Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosen, Adam K.; Fleming, Justin T.; Brown, Sarah E.; Allen, Paul D.; O'Neill, William E.; Paige, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Vision typically has better spatial accuracy and precision than audition, and as a result often captures auditory spatial perception when visual and auditory cues are presented together. One determinant of visual capture is the amount of spatial disparity between auditory and visual cues: when disparity is small visual capture is likely to occur, and when disparity is large visual capture is unlikely. Previous experiments have used two methods to probe how visual capture varies with spatial disparity. First, congruence judgment assesses perceived unity between cues by having subjects report whether or not auditory and visual targets came from the same location. Second, auditory localization assesses the graded influence of vision on auditory spatial perception by having subjects point to the remembered location of an auditory target presented with a visual target. Previous research has shown that when both tasks are performed concurrently they produce similar measures of visual capture, but this may not hold when tasks are performed independently. Here, subjects alternated between tasks independently across three sessions. A Bayesian inference model of visual capture was used to estimate perceptual parameters for each session, which were compared across tasks. Results demonstrated that the range of audio-visual disparities over which visual capture was likely to occur were narrower in auditory localization than in congruence judgment, which the model indicates was caused by subjects adjusting their prior expectation that targets originated from the same location in a task-dependent manner. PMID:27815630

  18. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hattori

    Full Text Available Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking. Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse, suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  19. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  20. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi fakhim, Shahin; Naderpoor, Masoud; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoosh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal. Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection. Conclusion: It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear. PMID:25320705

  1. Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Demonstrating the potential for dynamic auditory stimulation to contribute to motion sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrang Keshavarz

    Full Text Available Auditory cues can create the illusion of self-motion (vection in the absence of visual or physical stimulation. The present study aimed to determine whether auditory cues alone can also elicit motion sickness and how auditory cues contribute to motion sickness when added to visual motion stimuli. Twenty participants were seated in front of a curved projection display and were exposed to a virtual scene that constantly rotated around the participant's vertical axis. The virtual scene contained either visual-only, auditory-only, or a combination of corresponding visual and auditory cues. All participants performed all three conditions in a counterbalanced order. Participants tilted their heads alternately towards the right or left shoulder in all conditions during stimulus exposure in order to create pseudo-Coriolis effects and to maximize the likelihood for motion sickness. Measurements of motion sickness (onset, severity, vection (latency, strength, duration, and postural steadiness (center of pressure were recorded. Results showed that adding auditory cues to the visual stimuli did not, on average, affect motion sickness and postural steadiness, but it did reduce vection onset times and increased vection strength compared to pure visual or pure auditory stimulation. Eighteen of the 20 participants reported at least slight motion sickness in the two conditions including visual stimuli. More interestingly, six participants also reported slight motion sickness during pure auditory stimulation and two of the six participants stopped the pure auditory test session due to motion sickness. The present study is the first to demonstrate that motion sickness may be caused by pure auditory stimulation, which we refer to as "auditorily induced motion sickness".

  3. Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2007-12-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that auditory system short-term plasticity can enable several perceptual and cognitive functions that have been previously considered as relatively distinct phenomena. Here we review recent findings suggesting that auditory stimulation, auditory selective attention and cross-modal effects of visual stimulation each cause transient excitatory and (surround) inhibitory modulations in the auditory cortex. These modulations might adaptively tune hierarchically organized sound feature maps of the auditory cortex (e.g. tonotopy), thus filtering relevant sounds during rapidly changing environmental and task demands. This could support auditory sensory memory, pre-attentive detection of sound novelty, enhanced perception during selective attention, influence of visual processing on auditory perception and longer-term plastic changes associated with perceptual learning.

  4. The Effects of an Auditory Versus a Visual Presentation of Information on Soldier Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glumm, Monica

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a field study designed to measure the effects of an auditory versus a visual presentation of position information on soldier performance of land navigation and target acquisition tasks...

  5. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on the auditory mismatch negativity response and working memory performance in schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; Baddeley, Ashley; Nelson, Renee; Labelle, Alain; Knott, Verner

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive impairment has been proposed to be the core feature of schizophrenia (Sz). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which can improve cognitive function in healthy participants and in psychiatric patients with cognitive deficits. tDCS has been shown to improve cognition and hallucination symptoms in Sz, a disorder also associated with marked sensory processing deficits. Recent findings in healthy controls demonstrate that anodal tDCS increases auditory deviance detection, as measured by the brain-based event-related potential, mismatch negativity (MMN), which is a putative biomarker of Sz that has been proposed as a target for treatment of Sz cognition. This pilot study conducted a randomized, double-blind assessment of the effects of pre- and post-tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory discrimination in 12 Sz patients, moderated by auditory hallucination (AH) presence, as well as working memory performance. Assessments were conducted in three sessions involving temporal and frontal lobe anodal stimulation (to transiently excite local brain activity), and one control session involving 'sham' stimulation (meaning with the device turned off, i.e., no stimulation). Results demonstrated a trend for pitch MMN amplitude to increase with anodal temporal tDCS, which was significant in a subgroup of Sz individuals with AHs. Anodal frontal tDCS significantly increased WM performance on the 2-back task, which was found to positively correlate with MMN-tDCS effects. The findings contribute to our understanding of tDCS effects for sensory processing deficits and working memory performance in Sz and may have implications for psychiatric disorders with sensory deficits.

  6. A lightning strike to the head causing a visual cortex defect with simple and complex visual hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiter, Ingo; Luerding, Ralf; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Rek, Helga; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schalke, Berthold

    2009-01-01

    The case of a 23-year-old mountaineer who was hit by a lightning strike to the occiput causing a large central visual field defect and bilateral tympanic membrane ruptures is described. Owing to extreme agitation, the patient was sent into a drug-induced coma for 3 days. After extubation, she experienced simple and complex visual hallucinations for several days, but otherwise largely recovered. Neuropsychological tests revealed deficits in fast visual detection tasks and non-verbal learning and indicated a right temporal lobe dysfunction, consistent with a right temporal focus on electroencephalography. At 4 months after the accident, she developed a psychological reaction consisting of nightmares, with reappearance of the complex visual hallucinations and a depressive syndrome. Using the European Cooperation for Lightning Detection network, a meteorological system for lightning surveillance, the exact geographical location and nature of the lightning strike were retrospectively retraced PMID:21734915

  7. The development of in vivo tracer methods to obtain new information about human disease: a study of the hallucinating brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.; Silbersweig, D.A.; Stern, E.; Schnorr, L.; Seaward, J.; Clark, J.C.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Grootoonk, S.

    1996-01-01

    An outline is provided of the development of methodological strategies to address the question of focal cerebral activation during hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. In so doing, the innovation and diligence required to tailor in vivo tracer procedures to specific clinical research issues are highlighted. Attention is drawn to the complexity of methodological advances and the way in which they are based upon close scientific and technical collaboration between clinical scientists, and non-clinical scientists and research support staff. (orig.). With 1 fig

  8. The 5-HT2A/1A agonist psilocybin disrupts modal object completion associated with visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Cahn, B Rael; Andel, David; Carter, Olivia L; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Recent findings suggest that the serotonergic system and particularly the 5-HT2A/1A receptors are implicated in visual processing and possibly the pathophysiology of visual disturbances including hallucinations in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. To investigate the role of 5-HT2A/1A receptors in visual processing the effect of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/1A agonist psilocybin (125 and 250 μg/kg vs. placebo) on the spatiotemporal dynamics of modal object completion was assessed in normal volunteers (n = 17) using visual evoked potential recordings in conjunction with topographic-mapping and source analysis. These effects were then considered in relation to the subjective intensity of psilocybin-induced visual hallucinations quantified by psychometric measurement. Psilocybin dose-dependently decreased the N170 and, in contrast, slightly enhanced the P1 component selectively over occipital electrode sites. The decrease of the N170 was most apparent during the processing of incomplete object figures. Moreover, during the time period of the N170, the overall reduction of the activation in the right extrastriate and posterior parietal areas correlated positively with the intensity of visual hallucinations. These results suggest a central role of the 5-HT2A/1A-receptors in the modulation of visual processing. Specifically, a reduced N170 component was identified as potentially reflecting a key process of 5-HT2A/1A receptor-mediated visual hallucinations and aberrant modal object completion potential. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hallucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders A meta-analysis***

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingli Zhang; Wei Liang; Shichang Yang; Ping Dai; Lijuan Shen; Changhong Wang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of auditory hal ucination of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. DATA SOURCES: Online literature retrieval was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Control ed Trials databases from January 1985 to May 2012. Key words were “transcranial magnetic stimulation”, “TMS”, “repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation”, and “hal ucination”. STUDY SELECTION: Selected studies were randomized control ed trials assessing therapeutic ef-ficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for hal ucination in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Experimental intervention was low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in left temporoparietal cortex for treatment of auditory hal ucination in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Control groups received sham stimulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was total scores of Auditory Hal ucinations Rating Scale, Auditory Hal ucination Subscale of Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale-Auditory Hal ucination item, and Hal ucination Change Scale. Secondary outcomes included response rate, global mental state, adverse effects and cognitive function. RESULTS: Seventeen studies addressing repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders were screened, with controls receiving sham stimulation. Al data were completely effective, involving 398 patients. Overal mean weighted effect size for repeti-tive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus sham stimulation was statistical y significant (MD =-0.42, 95%CI: -0.64 to -0.20, P = 0.000 2). Patients receiving repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation responded more frequently than sham stimulation (OR = 2.94, 95%CI: 1.39 to 6.24, P =0.005). No significant differences were found

  10. Rapid Auditory System Adaptation Using a Virtual Auditory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Parseihian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have highlighted plasticity of the auditory system from visual stimuli, limiting the trained field of perception. The aim of the present study is to investigate auditory system adaptation using an audio-kinesthetic platform. Participants were placed in a Virtual Auditory Environment allowing the association of the physical position of a virtual sound source with an alternate set of acoustic spectral cues or Head-Related Transfer Function (HRTF through the use of a tracked ball manipulated by the subject. This set-up has the advantage to be not being limited to the visual field while also offering a natural perception-action coupling through the constant awareness of one's hand position. Adaptation process to non-individualized HRTF was realized through a spatial search game application. A total of 25 subjects participated, consisting of subjects presented with modified cues using non-individualized HRTF and a control group using individual measured HRTFs to account for any learning effect due to the game itself. The training game lasted 12 minutes and was repeated over 3 consecutive days. Adaptation effects were measured with repeated localization tests. Results showed a significant performance improvement for vertical localization and a significant reduction in the front/back confusion rate after 3 sessions.

  11. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously.

  12. The impact of auditory working memory training on the fronto-parietal working memory network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Julia A.; Opitz, Bertram; Tang, Huijun; Deng, Yuan; Xie, Chaoxiang; Li, Hong; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously. PMID:22701418

  13. The Impact of Auditory Working Memory Training on the Fronto-Parietal Working Memory Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSchneiders

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal working memory task or whether it generalizes to an (across-modal visual working memory task. We used an adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal auditory but not for the (across-modal visual 2-back task. Training-induced activation changes in the auditory 2-back task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extends intra-modal effects to the auditory modality. These results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes as in the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information. By this, these effects are analogical to the activation decreases in the right middle frontal gyrus for the visual modality in our previous study. Furthermore, task-unspecific (across-modal activation decreases in the visual and auditory 2-back task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demands on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with across-modal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual 2-back task reported previously.

  14. Changes of Retina Are Not Involved in the Genesis of Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Kopal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include primarily visual hallucinations (VH. The aim of our study was to establish whether patients with PD and visual hallucinations (PDH+ have structural changes of retina detected by an optical coherence tomography (OCT in comparison with PD patients without visual hallucinations (PDH−. We examined 52 PD patients (18 with VH, 34 without VH and 15 age and sex matched healthy controls. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and macular thickness and volume were assessed by OCT. Functional impairment of retina was assessed using 2.5% contrast sensitivity test. For OCT outcomes we analyzed 15 PDH+ and 15 PDH− subjects matched for age, gender, and PD duration. For contrast sensitivity we analyzed 8 pairs of patients matched for age, gender, and visual acuity. There was no significant difference in RNFL thickness and macular thickness and macular volume between 15 PDH+ and 15 PDH− subjects, and also between a group of 44 PD patients (both PDH+ and PDH− and 15 age and gender matched healthy controls. No significant difference was found for 2.5% contrast sensitivity test values between PDH+ and PDH− subjects. Therefore we conclude that functional and structural changes in retina play no role in genesis of VH in PD.

  15. Adaptation in the auditory system: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePérez-González

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.

  16. Adapting the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to model auditory attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Andersen, Tobias; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    Mathematical and computational models have provided useful insights into normal and impaired visual attention, but less progress has been made in modelling auditory attention. We are developing a Theory of Auditory Attention (TAA), based on an influential visual model, the Theory of Visual...... Attention (TVA). We report that TVA provides a good fit to auditory data when the stimuli are closely matched to those used in visual studies. In the basic visual TVA task, participants view a brief display of letters and are asked to report either all of the letters (whole report) or a subset of letters (e...... the auditory data, producing good estimates of the rate at which information is encoded (C), the minimum exposure duration required for processing to begin (t0), and the relative attentional weight to targets versus distractors (α). Future work will address the issue of target-distractor confusion, and extend...

  17. Nicotine, auditory sensory memory and attention in a human ketamine model of schizophrenia: moderating influence of a hallucinatory trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verner eKnott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The procognitive actions of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR agonist nicotine are believed, in part, to motivate the excessive cigarette smoking in schizophrenia, a disorder associated with deficits in multiple cognitive domains, including low level auditory sensory processes and higher order attention-dependent operations. Objectives: As N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR hypofunction has been shown to contribute to these cognitive impairments, the primary aims of this healthy volunteer study were to: a to shed light on the separate and interactive roles of nAChR and NMDAR systems in the modulation of auditory sensory memory (and sustained attention, as indexed by the auditory event-related brain potential (ERP – mismatch negativity (MMN, and b to examine how these effects are moderated by a predisposition to auditory hallucinations/delusions (HD. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design involving a low intravenous dose of ketamine (.04 mg/kg and a 4 mg dose of nicotine gum, MMN and performance on a rapid visual information processing (RVIP task of sustained attention were examined in 24 healthy controls psychometrically stratified as being lower (L-HD, n = 12 or higher (H-HD for HD propensity. Results: Ketamine significantly slowed MMN, and reduced MMN in H-HD, with amplitude attenuation being blocked by the co-administration of nicotine. Nicotine significantly enhanced response speed (reaction time and accuracy (increased % hits and d΄ and reduced false alarms on the RIVIP, with improved performance accuracy being prevented when nicotine was administered with ketamine. Both % hits and d΄, as well as reaction time were poorer in H-HD (vs. L-HD and while hit rate and d΄ was increased by nicotine in H-HD, reaction time was slowed by ketamine in L-HD. Conclusions: Nicotine alleviated ketamine-induced sensory memory impairments and improved attention, particularly in individuals prone to HD.

  18. Effect of delayed auditory feedback on stuttering with and without central auditory processing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoloto, Luana Altran; Cardoso, Ana Cláudia Vieira; Cerqueira, Amanda Venuti; Oliveira, Cristiane Moço Canhetti de

    2017-12-07

    To verify the effect of delayed auditory feedback on speech fluency of individuals who stutter with and without central auditory processing disorders. The participants were twenty individuals with stuttering from 7 to 17 years old and were divided into two groups: Stuttering Group with Auditory Processing Disorders (SGAPD): 10 individuals with central auditory processing disorders, and Stuttering Group (SG): 10 individuals without central auditory processing disorders. Procedures were: fluency assessment with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF), assessment of the stuttering severity and central auditory processing (CAP). Phono Tools software was used to cause a delay of 100 milliseconds in the auditory feedback. The "Wilcoxon Signal Post" test was used in the intragroup analysis and "Mann-Whitney" test in the intergroup analysis. The DAF caused a statistically significant reduction in SG: in the frequency score of stuttering-like disfluencies in the analysis of the Stuttering Severity Instrument, in the amount of blocks and repetitions of monosyllabic words, and in the frequency of stuttering-like disfluencies of duration. Delayed auditory feedback did not cause statistically significant effects on SGAPD fluency, individuals with stuttering with auditory processing disorders. The effect of delayed auditory feedback in speech fluency of individuals who stutter was different in individuals of both groups, because there was an improvement in fluency only in individuals without auditory processing disorder.

  19. Auditory and Non-Auditory Contributions for Unaided Speech Recognition in Noise as a Function of Hearing Aid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseler, Anja; Tahden, Maike A S; Thiel, Christiane M; Wagener, Kirsten C; Meis, Markus; Colonius, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Differences in understanding speech in noise among hearing-impaired individuals cannot be explained entirely by hearing thresholds alone, suggesting the contribution of other factors beyond standard auditory ones as derived from the audiogram. This paper reports two analyses addressing individual differences in the explanation of unaided speech-in-noise performance among n = 438 elderly hearing-impaired listeners ( mean = 71.1 ± 5.8 years). The main analysis was designed to identify clinically relevant auditory and non-auditory measures for speech-in-noise prediction using auditory (audiogram, categorical loudness scaling) and cognitive tests (verbal-intelligence test, screening test of dementia), as well as questionnaires assessing various self-reported measures (health status, socio-economic status, and subjective hearing problems). Using stepwise linear regression analysis, 62% of the variance in unaided speech-in-noise performance was explained, with measures Pure-tone average (PTA), Age , and Verbal intelligence emerging as the three most important predictors. In the complementary analysis, those individuals with the same hearing loss profile were separated into hearing aid users (HAU) and non-users (NU), and were then compared regarding potential differences in the test measures and in explaining unaided speech-in-noise recognition. The groupwise comparisons revealed significant differences in auditory measures and self-reported subjective hearing problems, while no differences in the cognitive domain were found. Furthermore, groupwise regression analyses revealed that Verbal intelligence had a predictive value in both groups, whereas Age and PTA only emerged significant in the group of hearing aid NU.

  20. First branchial cleft fistula associated with external auditory canal stenosis and middle ear cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi Fakhim, Shahin; Naderpoor, Masoud; Mousaviagdas, Mehrnoosh

    2014-10-01

    First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal. This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection. It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  1. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  2. Clinical and cognitive correlates of visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnin, Annachiara; Gnoato, Francesca; Jelcic, Nela; Favaretto, Silvia; Zarantonello, Giulia; Ermani, Mario; Dam, Mauro

    2013-05-01

    The presence of recurrent complex visual hallucinations (VHs) is a core feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The aim of this study was to investigate which clinical and neuropsychological characteristics are associated with VHs and their predictive value over a 1 year follow-up. 81 DLB patients, 41 with (VH+) and 36 without (VH-) VHs, and 45 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), were enrolled. All participants underwent extensive neuropsychological testing. Visual-spatial and perceptual abilities were evaluated with the Visual and Object Space Perception (VOSP) battery. Fluctuations in attention, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) symptoms, extrapyramidal signs and behavioural disturbances were studied with dedicated clinical scales. The presence of VHs was associated with older age and later disease onset, but not with disease duration or with fluctuations, RBD or parkinsonism severity. Cognitive correlates of VHs were deficits in visual attention (digit cancellation: pspan forward: pVisual-perceptual and visual-spatial deficits were significantly worse in DLB than in AD patients (VOSP subtests scores 1, 6, 7 and 8) but were not different in DLB VH+ and VH-, except for subtest 6. Poor performance in the visual attention task was an independent predictor of VHs. Impairment of visual-spatial and perceptual abilities in DLB represents a disease related cognitive signature, independent of the presence of VHs, for which it may represent a predisposing condition. Visual attention, instead, is the main cognitive determinant for the genesis of VHs.

  3. Scent of aura? Clinical features of olfactory hallucinations during a migraine attack (OHM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Federico; Rapoport, Alan; Zanchin, Giorgio; Maggioni, Ferdinando

    2017-02-01

    Introduction Olfactory hallucination during a migraine attack (OHM) is a rare phenomenon. At present, it is not considered a manifestation of migraine aura. Material and methods The clinical features of OHM were collected in 11 patients. Results Of the 11 patients, 10 had migraine without aura and one migraine with aura associated with OHM. Mean age at onset of headache and at appearance of OHM were respectively 17.8 and 32.3 years. Migraine average frequency was 3.9 attacks/month, 19% of them being associated with OHM. The temporal pattern of OHM maintained the same characteristics in the different attacks. OHM onset was described as sudden ( n = 5), gradual ( n = 3), initially sudden and then gradual ( n = 2), or developing in a few seconds ( n = 1). In most of the cases ( n = 8) OHM lasted from 3 to 10 minutes; it persisted during the pain phase (2-24 hours) in only three patients. The type of the perceived smell was invariably constant in nine patients. Conclusion OHM features fulfilled the ICHD-III beta criteria for typical aura.

  4. Experiments on Auditory-Visual Perception of Sentences by Users of Unilateral, Bimodal, and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Michael F.; Liss, Julie; Wang, Shuai; Berisha, Visar; Ludwig, Cimarron; Natale, Sarah Cook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Five experiments probed auditory-visual (AV) understanding of sentences by users of cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Sentence material was presented in auditory (A), visual (V), and AV test conditions to listeners with normal hearing and CI users. Results: (a) Most CI users report that most of the time, they have access to both A and V…

  5. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  6. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  7. Biases in Visual, Auditory, and Audiovisual Perception of Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Odegaard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization of objects and events in the environment is critical for survival, as many perceptual and motor tasks rely on estimation of spatial location. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that spatial localizations should generally be accurate. Curiously, some previous studies have reported biases in visual and auditory localizations, but these studies have used small sample sizes and the results have been mixed. Therefore, it is not clear (1 if the reported biases in localization responses are real (or due to outliers, sampling bias, or other factors, and (2 whether these putative biases reflect a bias in sensory representations of space or a priori expectations (which may be due to the experimental setup, instructions, or distribution of stimuli. Here, to address these questions, a dataset of unprecedented size (obtained from 384 observers was analyzed to examine presence, direction, and magnitude of sensory biases, and quantitative computational modeling was used to probe the underlying mechanism(s driving these effects. Data revealed that, on average, observers were biased towards the center when localizing visual stimuli, and biased towards the periphery when localizing auditory stimuli. Moreover, quantitative analysis using a Bayesian Causal Inference framework suggests that while pre-existing spatial biases for central locations exert some influence, biases in the sensory representations of both visual and auditory space are necessary to fully explain the behavioral data. How are these opposing visual and auditory biases reconciled in conditions in which both auditory and visual stimuli are produced by a single event? Potentially, the bias in one modality could dominate, or the biases could interact/cancel out. The data revealed that when integration occurred in these conditions, the visual bias dominated, but the magnitude of this bias was reduced compared to unisensory conditions. Therefore, multisensory integration not only

  8. Biases in Visual, Auditory, and Audiovisual Perception of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Brian; Wozny, David R.; Shams, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Localization of objects and events in the environment is critical for survival, as many perceptual and motor tasks rely on estimation of spatial location. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that spatial localizations should generally be accurate. Curiously, some previous studies have reported biases in visual and auditory localizations, but these studies have used small sample sizes and the results have been mixed. Therefore, it is not clear (1) if the reported biases in localization responses are real (or due to outliers, sampling bias, or other factors), and (2) whether these putative biases reflect a bias in sensory representations of space or a priori expectations (which may be due to the experimental setup, instructions, or distribution of stimuli). Here, to address these questions, a dataset of unprecedented size (obtained from 384 observers) was analyzed to examine presence, direction, and magnitude of sensory biases, and quantitative computational modeling was used to probe the underlying mechanism(s) driving these effects. Data revealed that, on average, observers were biased towards the center when localizing visual stimuli, and biased towards the periphery when localizing auditory stimuli. Moreover, quantitative analysis using a Bayesian Causal Inference framework suggests that while pre-existing spatial biases for central locations exert some influence, biases in the sensory representations of both visual and auditory space are necessary to fully explain the behavioral data. How are these opposing visual and auditory biases reconciled in conditions in which both auditory and visual stimuli are produced by a single event? Potentially, the bias in one modality could dominate, or the biases could interact/cancel out. The data revealed that when integration occurred in these conditions, the visual bias dominated, but the magnitude of this bias was reduced compared to unisensory conditions. Therefore, multisensory integration not only improves the

  9. Changes in otoacoustic emissions during selective auditory and visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) measured during behavioral tasks can have different magnitudes when subjects are attending selectively or not attending. The implication is that the cognitive and perceptual demands of a task can affect the first neural stage of auditory processing-the sensory receptors themselves. However, the directions of the reported attentional effects have been inconsistent, the magnitudes of the observed differences typically have been small, and comparisons across studies have been made difficult by significant procedural differences. In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring selective auditory attention (dichotic or diotic listening), selective visual attention, or relative inattention. Within subjects, the differences in nSFOAE magnitude between inattention and attention conditions were about 2-3 dB for both auditory and visual modalities, and the effect sizes for the differences typically were large for both nSFOAE magnitude and phase. These results reveal that the cochlear efferent reflex is differentially active during selective attention and inattention, for both auditory and visual tasks, although they do not reveal how attention is improved when efferent activity is greater.

  10. Nonverbal auditory agnosia with lesion to Wernicke's area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Leech, Robert; Dick, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of patient M, who suffered unilateral left posterior temporal and parietal damage, brain regions typically associated with language processing. Language function largely recovered since the infarct, with no measurable speech comprehension impairments. However, the patient exhibited a severe impairment in nonverbal auditory comprehension. We carried out extensive audiological and behavioral testing in order to characterize M's unusual neuropsychological profile. We also examined the patient's and controls' neural responses to verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We verified that the patient exhibited persistent and severe auditory agnosia for nonverbal sounds in the absence of verbal comprehension deficits or peripheral hearing problems. Acoustical analyses suggested that his residual processing of a minority of environmental sounds might rely on his speech processing abilities. In the patient's brain, contralateral (right) temporal cortex as well as perilesional (left) anterior temporal cortex were strongly responsive to verbal, but not to nonverbal sounds, a pattern that stands in marked contrast to the controls' data. This substantial reorganization of auditory processing likely supported the recovery of M's speech processing.

  11. Changes in otoacoustic emissions during selective auditory and visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) measured during behavioral tasks can have different magnitudes when subjects are attending selectively or not attending. The implication is that the cognitive and perceptual demands of a task can affect the first neural stage of auditory processing—the sensory receptors themselves. However, the directions of the reported attentional effects have been inconsistent, the magnitudes of the observed differences typically have been small, and comparisons across studies have been made difficult by significant procedural differences. In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring selective auditory attention (dichotic or diotic listening), selective visual attention, or relative inattention. Within subjects, the differences in nSFOAE magnitude between inattention and attention conditions were about 2–3 dB for both auditory and visual modalities, and the effect sizes for the differences typically were large for both nSFOAE magnitude and phase. These results reveal that the cochlear efferent reflex is differentially active during selective attention and inattention, for both auditory and visual tasks, although they do not reveal how attention is improved when efferent activity is greater. PMID:25994703

  12. Effect of handedness on auditory attentional performance in ADHD students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt SL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sergio L Schmidt,1,2 Ana Lucia Novais Carvaho,3 Eunice N Simoes2 1Department of Neurophysiology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Neurology Department, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Department of Psychology, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Brazil Abstract: The relationship between handedness and attentional performance is poorly understood. Continuous performance tests (CPTs using visual stimuli are commonly used to assess subjects suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, auditory CPTs are considered more useful than visual ones to evaluate classroom attentional problems. A previous study reported that there was a significant effect of handedness on students’ performance on a visual CPT. Here, we examined whether handedness would also affect CPT performance using only auditory stimuli. From an initial sample of 337 students, 11 matched pairs were selected. Repeated ANOVAs showed a significant effect of handedness on attentional performance that was exhibited even in the control group. Left-handers made more commission errors than right-handers. The results were interpreted considering that the association between ADHD and handedness reflects that consistent left-handers are less lateralized and have decreased interhemispheric connections. Auditory attentional data suggest that left-handers have problems in the impulsive/hyperactivity domain. In ADHD, clinical therapeutics and rehabilitation must take handedness into account because consistent sinistrals are more impulsive than dextrals. Keywords: attention, ADHD, consistent left-handers, auditory attention, continuous performance test

  13. Binaural auditory beats affect vigilance performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J D; Kasian, S J; Owens, J E; Marsh, G R

    1998-01-01

    When two tones of slightly different frequency are presented separately to the left and right ears the listener perceives a single tone that varies in amplitude at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between the two tones, a perceptual phenomenon known as the binaural auditory beat. Anecdotal reports suggest that binaural auditory beats within the electroencephalograph frequency range can entrain EEG activity and may affect states of consciousness, although few scientific studies have been published. This study compared the effects of binaural auditory beats in the EEG beta and EEG theta/delta frequency ranges on mood and on performance of a vigilance task to investigate their effects on subjective and objective measures of arousal. Participants (n = 29) performed a 30-min visual vigilance task on three different days while listening to pink noise containing simple tones or binaural beats either in the beta range (16 and 24 Hz) or the theta/delta range (1.5 and 4 Hz). However, participants were kept blind to the presence of binaural beats to control expectation effects. Presentation of beta-frequency binaural beats yielded more correct target detections and fewer false alarms than presentation of theta/delta frequency binaural beats. In addition, the beta-frequency beats were associated with less negative mood. Results suggest that the presentation of binaural auditory beats can affect psychomotor performance and mood. This technology may have applications for the control of attention and arousal and the enhancement of human performance.

  14. The Effect of Working Memory Training on Auditory Stream Segregation in Auditory Processing Disorders Children

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Moossavi; Saeideh Mehrkian; Yones Lotfi; Soghrat Faghih zadeh; Hamed Adjedi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the efficacy of working memory training for improving working memory capacity and related auditory stream segregation in auditory processing disorders children. Methods: Fifteen subjects (9-11 years), clinically diagnosed with auditory processing disorder participated in this non-randomized case-controlled trial. Working memory abilities and auditory stream segregation were evaluated prior to beginning and six weeks after completing the training program...

  15. Functional mapping of the primate auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremba, Amy; Saunders, Richard C; Crane, Alison M; Cook, Michelle; Sokoloff, Louis; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-01-24

    Cerebral auditory areas were delineated in the awake, passively listening, rhesus monkey by comparing the rates of glucose utilization in an intact hemisphere and in an acoustically isolated contralateral hemisphere of the same animal. The auditory system defined in this way occupied large portions of cerebral tissue, an extent probably second only to that of the visual system. Cortically, the activated areas included the entire superior temporal gyrus and large portions of the parietal, prefrontal, and limbic lobes. Several auditory areas overlapped with previously identified visual areas, suggesting that the auditory system, like the visual system, contains separate pathways for processing stimulus quality, location, and motion.

  16. Auditory Modeling for Noisy Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... digital filtering for noise cancellation which interfaces to speech recognition software. It uses auditory features in speech recognition training, and provides applications to multilingual spoken language translation...

  17. Auditory prediction during speaking and listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Shiller, Douglas M

    2018-02-02

    In the present EEG study, the role of auditory prediction in speech was explored through the comparison of auditory cortical responses during active speaking and passive listening to the same acoustic speech signals. Two manipulations of sensory prediction accuracy were used during the speaking task: (1) a real-time change in vowel F1 feedback (reducing prediction accuracy relative to unaltered feedback) and (2) presenting a stable auditory target rather than a visual cue to speak (enhancing auditory prediction accuracy during baseline productions, and potentially enhancing the perturbing effect of altered feedback). While subjects compensated for the F1 manipulation, no difference between the auditory-cue and visual-cue conditions were found. Under visually-cued conditions, reduced N1/P2 amplitude was observed during speaking vs. listening, reflecting a motor-to-sensory prediction. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of behavioral compensatory F1 response and the magnitude of this speaking induced suppression (SIS) for P2 during the altered auditory feedback phase, where a stronger compensatory decrease in F1 was associated with a stronger the SIS effect. Finally, under the auditory-cued condition, an auditory repetition-suppression effect was observed in N1/P2 amplitude during the listening task but not active speaking, suggesting that auditory predictive processes during speaking and passive listening are functionally distinct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  19. Auditory, visual and auditory-visual memory and sequencing performance in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha

    2017-09-01

    The study evaluated whether there exists a difference/relation in the way four different memory skills (memory score, sequencing score, memory span, & sequencing span) are processed through the auditory modality, visual modality and combined modalities. Four memory skills were evaluated on 30 typically developing children aged 7 years and 8 years across three modality conditions (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual). Analogous auditory and visual stimuli were presented to evaluate the three modality conditions across the two age groups. The children obtained significantly higher memory scores through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Likewise, their memory scores were significantly higher through the auditory-visual modality condition than through the visual modality. However, no effect of modality was observed on the sequencing scores as well as for the memory and the sequencing span. A good agreement was seen between the different modality conditions that were studied (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual) for the different memory skills measures (memory scores, sequencing scores, memory span, & sequencing span). A relatively lower agreement was noted only between the auditory and visual modalities as well as between the visual and auditory-visual modality conditions for the memory scores, measured using Bland-Altman plots. The study highlights the efficacy of using analogous stimuli to assess the auditory, visual as well as combined modalities. The study supports the view that the performance of children on different memory skills was better through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of blood antioxidants status with visual and auditory sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraseb, Farideh; Siassi, Fereydoun; Sotoudeh, Gity; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rostami, Reza; Sadeghi-Firoozabadi, Vahid; Narmaki, Elham

    2015-01-01

    A low antioxidants status has been shown to result in oxidative stress and cognitive impairment. Because antioxidants can protect the nervous system, it is expected that a better blood antioxidant status might be related to sustained attention. However, the relationship between the blood antioxidant status and visual and auditory sustained attention has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of fruits and vegetables intake and the blood antioxidant status with visual and auditory sustained attention in women. This cross-sectional study was performed on 400 healthy women (20-50 years) who attended the sports clubs of Tehran Municipality. Sustained attention was evaluated based on the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test using the Integrated Visual and Auditory (IVA) software. The 24-hour food recall questionnaire was used for estimating fruits and vegetables intake. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured in 90 participants. After adjusting for energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), years of education and physical activity, higher reported fruits, and vegetables intake was associated with better visual and auditory sustained attention (P attention (P visual and auditory sustained attention after adjusting for age, years of education, physical activity, energy, BMI, and caffeine intake (P visual and auditory sustained attention is associated with a better blood antioxidant status. Therefore, improvement of the antioxidant status through an appropriate dietary intake can possibly enhance sustained attention.

  1. Acoustic Trauma Changes the Parvalbumin-Positive Neurons in Rat Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congli Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic trauma is being reported to damage the auditory periphery and central system, and the compromised cortical inhibition is involved in auditory disorders, such as hyperacusis and tinnitus. Parvalbumin-containing neurons (PV neurons, a subset of GABAergic neurons, greatly shape and synchronize neural network activities. However, the change of PV neurons following acoustic trauma remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated how auditory cortical PV neurons change following unilateral 1 hour noise exposure (left ear, one octave band noise centered at 16 kHz, 116 dB SPL. Noise exposure elevated the auditory brainstem response threshold of the exposed ear when examined 7 days later. More detectable PV neurons were observed in both sides of the auditory cortex of noise-exposed rats when compared to control. The detectable PV neurons of the left auditory cortex (ipsilateral to the exposed ear to noise exposure outnumbered those of the right auditory cortex (contralateral to the exposed ear. Quantification of Western blotted bands revealed higher expression level of PV protein in the left cortex. These findings of more active PV neurons in noise-exposed rats suggested that a compensatory mechanism might be initiated to maintain a stable state of the brain.

  2. Using neuroplasticity-based auditory training to improve verbal memory in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Melissa; Holland, Christine; Merzenich, Michael M; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2009-07-01

    Impaired verbal memory in schizophrenia is a key rate-limiting factor for functional outcome, does not respond to currently available medications, and shows only modest improvement after conventional behavioral remediation. The authors investigated an innovative approach to the remediation of verbal memory in schizophrenia, based on principles derived from the basic neuroscience of learning-induced neuroplasticity. The authors report interim findings in this ongoing study. Fifty-five clinically stable schizophrenia subjects were randomly assigned to either 50 hours of computerized auditory training or a control condition using computer games. Those receiving auditory training engaged in daily computerized exercises that placed implicit, increasing demands on auditory perception through progressively more difficult auditory-verbal working memory and verbal learning tasks. Relative to the control group, subjects who received active training showed significant gains in global cognition, verbal working memory, and verbal learning and memory. They also showed reliable and significant improvement in auditory psychophysical performance; this improvement was significantly correlated with gains in verbal working memory and global cognition. Intensive training in early auditory processes and auditory-verbal learning results in substantial gains in verbal cognitive processes relevant to psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. These gains may be due to a training method that addresses the early perceptual impairments in the illness, that exploits intact mechanisms of repetitive practice in schizophrenia, and that uses an intensive, adaptive training approach.

  3. Stuttering adults' lack of pre-speech auditory modulation normalizes when speaking with delayed auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ayoub; Max, Ludo

    2018-02-01

    Auditory modulation during speech movement planning is limited in adults who stutter (AWS), but the functional relevance of the phenomenon itself remains unknown. We investigated for AWS and adults who do not stutter (AWNS) (a) a potential relationship between pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory feedback contributions to speech motor learning and (b) the effect on pre-speech auditory modulation of real-time versus delayed auditory feedback. Experiment I used a sensorimotor adaptation paradigm to estimate auditory-motor speech learning. Using acoustic speech recordings, we quantified subjects' formant frequency adjustments across trials when continually exposed to formant-shifted auditory feedback. In Experiment II, we used electroencephalography to determine the same subjects' extent of pre-speech auditory modulation (reductions in auditory evoked potential N1 amplitude) when probe tones were delivered prior to speaking versus not speaking. To manipulate subjects' ability to monitor real-time feedback, we included speaking conditions with non-altered auditory feedback (NAF) and delayed auditory feedback (DAF). Experiment I showed that auditory-motor learning was limited for AWS versus AWNS, and the extent of learning was negatively correlated with stuttering frequency. Experiment II yielded several key findings: (a) our prior finding of limited pre-speech auditory modulation in AWS was replicated; (b) DAF caused a decrease in auditory modulation for most AWNS but an increase for most AWS; and (c) for AWS, the amount of auditory modulation when speaking with DAF was positively correlated with stuttering frequency. Lastly, AWNS showed no correlation between pre-speech auditory modulation (Experiment II) and extent of auditory-motor learning (Experiment I) whereas AWS showed a negative correlation between these measures. Thus, findings suggest that AWS show deficits in both pre-speech auditory modulation and auditory-motor learning; however, limited pre

  4. The effect of synesthetic associations between the visual and auditory modalities on the Colavita effect

    OpenAIRE

    Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.; Keetels, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    The Colavita effect refers to the phenomenon that when confronted with an audiovisual stimulus, observers report more often to have perceived the visual than the auditory component. The Colavita effect depends on low-level stimulus factors such as spatial and temporal proximity between the unimodal signals. Here, we examined whether the Colavita effect is modulated by synesthetic congruency between visual size and auditory pitch. If the Colavita effect depends on synesthetic congruency, we ex...

  5. Behavioral and EEG evidence for auditory memory suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Elizabeth Cano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The neural basis of motivated forgetting using the Think/No-Think (TNT paradigm is receiving increased attention with a particular focus on the mechanisms that enable memory suppression. However, most TNT studies have been limited to the visual domain. To assess whether and to what extent direct memory suppression extends across sensory modalities, we examined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG effects of auditory Think/No-Think in healthy young adults by adapting the TNT paradigm to the auditory modality. Behaviorally, suppression of memory strength was indexed by prolonged response times during the retrieval of subsequently remembered No-Think words. We examined task-related EEG activity of both attempted memory retrieval and inhibition of a previously learned target word during the presentation of its paired associate. Event-related EEG responses revealed two main findings: 1 a centralized Think > No-Think positivity during auditory word presentation (from approximately 0-500ms, and 2 a sustained Think positivity over parietal electrodes beginning at approximately 600ms reflecting the memory retrieval effect which was significantly reduced for No-Think words. In addition, word-locked theta (4-8 Hz power was initially greater for No-Think compared to Think during auditory word presentation over fronto-central electrodes. This was followed by a posterior theta increase indexing successful memory retrieval in the Think condition.The observed event-related potential pattern and theta power analysis are similar to that reported in visual Think/No-Think studies and support a modality non-specific mechanism for memory inhibition. The EEG data also provide evidence supporting differing roles and time courses of frontal and parietal regions in the flexible control of auditory memory.

  6. Quadri-stability of a spatially ambiguous auditory illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance May Bainbridge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to vision, audition plays an important role in sound localization in our world. One way we estimate the motion of an auditory object moving towards or away from us is from changes in volume intensity. However, the human auditory system has unequally distributed spatial resolution, including difficulty distinguishing sounds in front versus behind the listener. Here, we introduce a novel quadri-stable illusion, the Transverse-and-Bounce Auditory Illusion, which combines front-back confusion with changes in volume levels of a nonspatial sound to create ambiguous percepts of an object approaching and withdrawing from the listener. The sound can be perceived as traveling transversely from front to back or back to front, or bouncing to remain exclusively in front of or behind the observer. Here we demonstrate how human listeners experience this illusory phenomenon by comparing ambiguous and unambiguous stimuli for each of the four possible motion percepts. When asked to rate their confidence in perceiving each sound’s motion, participants reported equal confidence for the illusory and unambiguous stimuli. Participants perceived all four illusory motion percepts, and could not distinguish the illusion from the unambiguous stimuli. These results show that this illusion is effectively quadri-stable. In a second experiment, the illusory stimulus was looped continuously in headphones while participants identified its perceived path of motion to test properties of perceptual switching, locking, and biases. Participants were biased towards perceiving transverse compared to bouncing paths, and they became perceptually locked into alternating between front-to-back and back-to-front percepts, perhaps reflecting how auditory objects commonly move in the real world. This multi-stable auditory illusion opens opportunities for studying the perceptual, cognitive, and neural representation of objects in motion, as well as exploring multimodal perceptual

  7. Behavioral and EEG Evidence for Auditory Memory Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Maya E; Knight, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of motivated forgetting using the Think/No-Think (TNT) paradigm is receiving increased attention with a particular focus on the mechanisms that enable memory suppression. However, most TNT studies have been limited to the visual domain. To assess whether and to what extent direct memory suppression extends across sensory modalities, we examined behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of auditory TNT in healthy young adults by adapting the TNT paradigm to the auditory modality. Behaviorally, suppression of memory strength was indexed by prolonged response time (RTs) during the retrieval of subsequently remembered No-Think words. We examined task-related EEG activity of both attempted memory retrieval and inhibition of a previously learned target word during the presentation of its paired associate. Event-related EEG responses revealed two main findings: (1) a centralized Think > No-Think positivity during auditory word presentation (from approximately 0-500 ms); and (2) a sustained Think positivity over parietal electrodes beginning at approximately 600 ms reflecting the memory retrieval effect which was significantly reduced for No-Think words. In addition, word-locked theta (4-8 Hz) power was initially greater for No-Think compared to Think during auditory word presentation over fronto-central electrodes. This was followed by a posterior theta increase indexing successful memory retrieval in the Think condition. The observed event-related potential pattern and theta power analysis are similar to that reported in visual TNT studies and support a modality non-specific mechanism for memory inhibition. The EEG data also provide evidence supporting differing roles and time courses of frontal and parietal regions in the flexible control of auditory memory.

  8. Leftward lateralization of auditory cortex underlies holistic sound perception in Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Wengenroth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals with the rare genetic disorder Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS are known for their characteristic auditory phenotype including strong affinity to music and sounds. In this work we attempted to pinpoint a neural substrate for the characteristic musicality in WS individuals by studying the structure-function relationship of their auditory cortex. Since WS subjects had only minor musical training due to psychomotor constraints we hypothesized that any changes compared to the control group would reflect the contribution of genetic factors to auditory processing and musicality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using psychoacoustics, magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging, we show that WS individuals exhibit extreme and almost exclusive holistic sound perception, which stands in marked contrast to the even distribution of this trait in the general population. Functionally, this was reflected by increased amplitudes of left auditory evoked fields. On the structural level, volume of the left auditory cortex was 2.2-fold increased in WS subjects as compared to control subjects. Equivalent volumes of the auditory cortex have been previously reported for professional musicians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There has been an ongoing debate in the neuroscience community as to whether increased gray matter of the auditory cortex in musicians is attributable to the amount of training or innate disposition. In this study musical education of WS subjects was negligible and control subjects were carefully matched for this parameter. Therefore our results not only unravel the neural substrate for this particular auditory phenotype, but in addition propose WS as a unique genetic model for training-independent auditory system properties.

  9. Gender differences in binaural speech-evoked auditory brainstem response: are they clinically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaei, Bahram; Azmi, Mohd Hafiz Afifi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2018-05-17

    Binaurally evoked auditory evoked potentials have good diagnostic values when testing subjects with central auditory deficits. The literature on speech-evoked auditory brainstem response evoked by binaural stimulation is in fact limited. Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results have been consistently noted but the magnitude of gender difference has not been reported. The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of gender difference in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results between monaural and binaural stimulations. A total of 34 healthy Asian adults aged 19-30 years participated in this comparative study. Eighteen of them were females (mean age=23.6±2.3 years) and the remaining sixteen were males (mean age=22.0±2.3 years). For each subject, speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded with the synthesized syllable /da/ presented monaurally and binaurally. While latencies were not affected (p>0.05), the binaural stimulation produced statistically higher speech-evoked auditory brainstem response amplitudes than the monaural stimulation (p0.80), substantive gender differences were noted in most of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response peaks for both stimulation modes. The magnitude of gender difference between the two stimulation modes revealed some distinct patterns. Based on these clinically significant results, gender-specific normative data are highly recommended when using speech-evoked auditory brainstem response for clinical and future applications. The preliminary normative data provided in the present study can serve as the reference for future studies on this test among Asian adults. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  11. Baseline vestibular and auditory findings in a trial of post-concussive syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Anna; Searing, Elizabeth; Weaver, Lindell; Lewandowski, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported high rates of auditory and vestibular-balance deficits immediately following head injury. This study uses a comprehensive battery of assessments to characterize auditory and vestibular function in 71 U.S. military service members with chronic symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury that did not resolve with traditional interventions. The majority of the study population reported hearing loss (70%) and recent vestibular symptoms (83%). Central auditory deficits were most prevalent, with 58% of participants failing the SCAN3:A screening test and 45% showing abnormal responses on auditory steady-state response testing presented at a suprathreshold intensity. Only 17% of the participants had abnormal hearing (⟩25 dB hearing loss) based on the pure-tone average. Objective vestibular testing supported significant deficits in this population, regardless of whether the participant self-reported active symptoms. Composite score on the Sensory Organization Test was lower than expected from normative data (mean 69.6 ±vestibular tests, vestibulo-ocular reflex, central auditory dysfunction, mild traumatic brain injury, post-concussive symptoms, hearing15.6). High abnormality rates were found in funduscopy torsion (58%), oculomotor assessments (49%), ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (46% and 33%, respectively), and monothermal calorics (40%). It is recommended that a full peripheral and central auditory, oculomotor, and vestibular-balance evaluation be completed on military service members who have sustained head trauma.

  12. Effectiveness of auditory and tactile crossmodal cues in a dual-task visual and auditory scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kevin; Kass, Steven J; Blalock, Lisa Durrance; Brill, J Christopher

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we examined how spatially informative auditory and tactile cues affected participants' performance on a visual search task while they simultaneously performed a secondary auditory task. Visual search task performance was assessed via reaction time and accuracy. Tactile and auditory cues provided the approximate location of the visual target within the search display. The inclusion of tactile and auditory cues improved performance in comparison to the no-cue baseline conditions. In comparison to the no-cue conditions, both tactile and auditory cues resulted in faster response times in the visual search only (single task) and visual-auditory (dual-task) conditions. However, the effectiveness of auditory and tactile cueing for visual task accuracy was shown to be dependent on task-type condition. Crossmodal cueing remains a viable strategy for improving task performance without increasing attentional load within a singular sensory modality. Practitioner Summary: Crossmodal cueing with dual-task performance has not been widely explored, yet has practical applications. We examined the effects of auditory and tactile crossmodal cues on visual search performance, with and without a secondary auditory task. Tactile cues aided visual search accuracy when also engaged in a secondary auditory task, whereas auditory cues did not.

  13. Auditory Ossicles in Archaeological Skeletal Material from Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, M; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    Auditory ossicles were collected from two skeletal materials from early medieval Denmark. A total of 147 and 1,162 ossicles were obtained from the 2 materials, constituting 23% and 55% of the possible in vivo ossicles. The numbers and percentages found are among the highest reported from studies...... of archaeological skeletal material. Archaeological ossicles may be used in palaeopathological evaluation of chronic otitis media and otosclerosis, and morphometric studies of the ossicles might be valuable in analysis of population genetics and taxonomy....

  14. Further Evidence of Auditory Extinction in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rebecca Shisler; Basilakos, Alexandra; Love-Myers, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Preliminary research ( Shisler, 2005) suggests that auditory extinction in individuals with aphasia (IWA) may be connected to binding and attention. In this study, the authors expanded on previous findings on auditory extinction to determine the source of extinction deficits in IWA. Method: Seventeen IWA (M[subscript age] = 53.19 years)…

  15. Auditory and visual evoked potentials during hyperoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. B. D.; Strawbridge, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental study of the auditory and visual averaged evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded during hyperoxia, and investigation of the effect of hyperoxia on the so-called contingent negative variation (CNV). No effect of hyperoxia was found on the auditory AEP, the visual AEP, or the CNV. Comparisons with previous studies are discussed.

  16. Auditory Processing Disorder and Foreign Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovska, Ganna

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at exploring various strategies for coping with the auditory processing disorder in the light of foreign language acquisition. The techniques relevant to dealing with the auditory processing disorder can be attributed to environmental and compensatory approaches. The environmental one involves actions directed at creating a…

  17. Neural circuits in auditory and audiovisual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, B; Romanski, L M

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is the ability to employ recently seen or heard stimuli and apply them to changing cognitive context. Although much is known about language processing and visual working memory, the neurobiological basis of auditory working memory is less clear. Historically, part of the problem has been the difficulty in obtaining a robust animal model to study auditory short-term memory. In recent years there has been neurophysiological and lesion studies indicating a cortical network involving both temporal and frontal cortices. Studies specifically targeting the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in auditory working memory have suggested that dorsal and ventral prefrontal regions perform different roles during the processing of auditory mnemonic information, with the dorsolateral PFC performing similar functions for both auditory and visual working memory. In contrast, the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC), which contains cells that respond robustly to auditory stimuli and that process both face and vocal stimuli may be an essential locus for both auditory and audiovisual working memory. These findings suggest a critical role for the VLPFC in the processing, integrating, and retaining of communication information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  19. Graph theory reveals dysconnected hubs in 22q11DS and altered nodal efficiency in patients with hallucinations

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    Marie-Christine eOttet

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is postulated to be the prototypical dysconnection disorder, in which hallucinations are the core symptom. Due to high heterogeneity in methodology across studies and the clinical phenotype, it remains unclear whether the structural brain dysconnection is global or focal and if clinical symptoms result from this dysconnection. In the present work, we attempt to clarify this issue by studying a population considered as a homogeneous genetic sub-type of schizophrenia, namely the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS. Cerebral MRIs were acquired for 46 patients and 48 age and gender matched controls (aged 6 to 26, respectively mean age = 15.20 ± 4.53 and 15.28 ± 4.35 years old. Using the Connectome mapper pipeline (connectomics.org that combines structural and diffusion MRI, we created a whole brain network for each individual. The graph theory was used to quantify the global and local properties in the brain network organization for each participant. A global degree loss of 6% was found in patients’ network along with an increased Characteristic Path Length. After identifying and comparing hubs, a significant loss of degree in patients’ hubs was found in 58% of them. Based on Allen’s brain network model for hallucinations, we explored the association between local efficiency and symptom severity. Negative correlations were found in the Broca’s area (p<0.004, the Wernicke area (p<0.023 and a positive correlation was found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC (p<0.014. In line with the dysconnection findings in schizophrenia, our results provide preliminary evidence for a targeted alteration in the brain network hubs’organisation in individuals with a genetic risk for schizophrenia. The study of specific disorganization in language, speech and thought regulation networks sharing similar network properties may help to understand their role in the hallucination mechanism.

  20. Why people see things that are not there: a novel Perception and Attention Deficit model for recurrent complex visual hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collerton, Daniel; Perry, Elaine; McKeith, Ian

    2005-12-01

    As many as two million people in the United Kingdom repeatedly see people, animals, and objects that have no objective reality. Hallucinations on the border of sleep, dementing illnesses, delirium, eye disease, and schizophrenia account for 90% of these. The remainder have rarer disorders. We review existing models of recurrent complex visual hallucinations (RCVH) in the awake person, including cortical irritation, cortical hyperexcitability and cortical release, top-down activation, misperception, dream intrusion, and interactive models. We provide evidence that these can neither fully account for the phenomenology of RCVH, nor for variations in the frequency of RCVH in different disorders. We propose a novel Perception and Attention Deficit (PAD) model for RCVH. A combination of impaired attentional binding and poor sensory activation of a correct proto-object, in conjunction with a relatively intact scene representation, bias perception to allow the intrusion of a hallucinatory proto-object into a scene perception. Incorporation of this image into a context-specific hallucinatory scene representation accounts for repetitive hallucinations. We suggest that these impairments are underpinned by disturbances in a lateral frontal cortex-ventral visual stream system. We show how the frequency of RCVH in different diseases is related to the coexistence of attentional and visual perceptual impairments; how attentional and perceptual processes can account for their phenomenology; and that diseases and other states with high rates of RCVH have cholinergic dysfunction in both frontal cortex and the ventral visual stream. Several tests of the model are indicated, together with a number of treatment options that it generates.

  1. Transcanal endoscopic resection for leiomyoma of the external auditory canal and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Ryoukichi; Tateda, Masaru; Okoshi, Akira; Morita, Shinkichi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Hashimoto, Sho

    2016-02-01

    Leiomyoma usually originates from the uterus and alimentary tract, but in extremely rare cases leiomyoma can appear in the external auditory canal. Here we present a 37-year-old man with right auricular fullness. Preoperative findings suggested benign tumor or cholesteatoma in the right external auditory canal. We performed total resection using an endoauricular approach with transcanal endoscopic ear surgery. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyoma of external auditory canal. Leiomyoma arising from soft tissue, including that in the external auditory canal, is classified into two types: that from the arrectores pilorum muscles and that from the muscle coats of blood vessels. Only four cases of leiomyoma of external auditor canal have been published in the English literature. The other four cases demonstrated vascular leiomyomas. This is the first report of leiomyoma of the EAC arising from arrectores pilorum muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Transient charles bonnet syndrome after excision of a right occipital meningioma: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takao; Hasegawa, Yuzuru; Tanaka, Toshihide; Kato, Naoki; Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi; Nakamura, Aya; Murayama, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome is a condition characterized by visual hallucinations. These simple or complex visual hallucinations are more common in elderly individuals with impaired peripheral vision. The current report describes a case of transient Charles Bonnet syndrome appearing after the removal of a meningioma. The patient was a 61-year-old man who already had impaired visual acuity due to diabetic retinopathy. Brain MRI revealed a cystic tumor severely compressing the right occipital lobe. Starting on day 2 postoperatively, the patient was troubled by recurring visual hallucinations involving people, flowers, pictures, and familiar settings(the train and a coffee shop). These continued for 3.5 months. This period roughly coincided with the time for the occipital lobe to recover from the compression caused by the tumor, a fact that was confirmed by several MRI scans. ¹²³I-IMP SPECT performed 1 month after the surgical operation showed an area of hypoperfusion in the right parieto-occipital lobe. Based on the patient's clinical course and MRI findings, the mechanism of onset of visual hallucinations in this patient was put forward. The release of pressure in the brain by tumor removal and subsequent recovery changed the blood flow to the brain. This triggered visual hallucinations in the patient, who was already predisposed to developing Charles Bonnet syndrome because of diabetic retinopathy. This case is interesting since it indicates that central neurological factors, as well as visual deficits, may induce the appearance of visual hallucinations in Charles Bonnet syndrome.

  3. Auditory and Non-Auditory Contributions for Unaided Speech Recognition in Noise as a Function of Hearing Aid Use

    OpenAIRE

    Gieseler, Anja; Tahden, Maike A. S.; Thiel, Christiane M.; Wagener, Kirsten C.; Meis, Markus; Colonius, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Differences in understanding speech in noise among hearing-impaired individuals cannot be explained entirely by hearing thresholds alone, suggesting the contribution of other factors beyond standard auditory ones as derived from the audiogram. This paper reports two analyses addressing individual differences in the explanation of unaided speech-in-noise performance among n = 438 elderly hearing-impaired listeners (mean = 71.1 ± 5.8 years). The main analysis was designed to identify clinically...

  4. Temporal auditory processing in elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzolini, Vanuza Conceição

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the trial of aging all the structures of the organism are modified, generating intercurrences in the quality of the hearing and of the comprehension. The hearing loss that occurs in consequence of this trial occasion a reduction of the communicative function, causing, also, a distance of the social relationship. Objective: Comparing the performance of the temporal auditory processing between elderly individuals with and without hearing loss. Method: The present study is characterized for to be a prospective, transversal and of diagnosis character field work. They were analyzed 21 elders (16 women and 5 men, with ages between 60 to 81 years divided in two groups, a group "without hearing loss"; (n = 13 with normal auditive thresholds or restricted hearing loss to the isolated frequencies and a group "with hearing loss" (n = 8 with neurosensory hearing loss of variable degree between light to moderately severe. Both the groups performed the tests of frequency (PPS and duration (DPS, for evaluate the ability of temporal sequencing, and the test Randon Gap Detection Test (RGDT, for evaluate the temporal resolution ability. Results: It had not difference statistically significant between the groups, evaluated by the tests DPS and RGDT. The ability of temporal sequencing was significantly major in the group without hearing loss, when evaluated by the test PPS in the condition "muttering". This result presented a growing one significant in parallel with the increase of the age group. Conclusion: It had not difference in the temporal auditory processing in the comparison between the groups.

  5. A Brain System for Auditory Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sukhbinder; Joseph, Sabine; Gander, Phillip E; Barascud, Nicolas; Halpern, Andrea R; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-04-20

    The brain basis for auditory working memory, the process of actively maintaining sounds in memory over short periods of time, is controversial. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we demonstrate that the maintenance of single tones in memory is associated with activation in auditory cortex. In addition, sustained activation was observed in hippocampus and inferior frontal gyrus. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that patterns of activity in auditory cortex and left inferior frontal gyrus distinguished the tone that was maintained in memory. Functional connectivity during maintenance was demonstrated between auditory cortex and both the hippocampus and inferior frontal cortex. The data support a system for auditory working memory based on the maintenance of sound-specific representations in auditory cortex by projections from higher-order areas, including the hippocampus and frontal cortex. In this work, we demonstrate a system for maintaining sound in working memory based on activity in auditory cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex, and functional connectivity among them. Specifically, our work makes three advances from the previous work. First, we robustly demonstrate hippocampal involvement in all phases of auditory working memory (encoding, maintenance, and retrieval): the role of hippocampus in working memory is controversial. Second, using a pattern classification technique, we show that activity in the auditory cortex and inferior frontal gyrus is specific to the maintained tones in working memory. Third, we show long-range connectivity of auditory cortex to hippocampus and frontal cortex, which may be responsible for keeping such representations active during working memory maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Kumar et al.

  6. A Detection-Theoretic Analysis of Auditory Streaming and Its Relation to Auditory Masking

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    An-Chieh Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on hearing has long been challenged with understanding our exceptional ability to hear out individual sounds in a mixture (the so-called cocktail party problem. Two general approaches to the problem have been taken using sequences of tones as stimuli. The first has focused on our tendency to hear sequences, sufficiently separated in frequency, split into separate cohesive streams (auditory streaming. The second has focused on our ability to detect a change in one sequence, ignoring all others (auditory masking. The two phenomena are clearly related, but that relation has never been evaluated analytically. This article offers a detection-theoretic analysis of the relation between multitone streaming and masking that underscores the expected similarities and differences between these phenomena and the predicted outcome of experiments in each case. The key to establishing this relation is the function linking performance to the information divergence of the tone sequences, DKL (a measure of the statistical separation of their parameters. A strong prediction is that streaming and masking of tones will be a common function of DKL provided that the statistical properties of sequences are symmetric. Results of experiments are reported supporting this prediction.

  7. Acquired auditory-visual synesthesia: A window to early cross-modal sensory interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Afra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pegah Afra, Michael Funke, Fumisuke MatsuoDepartment of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Synesthesia is experienced when sensory stimulation of one sensory modality elicits an involuntary sensation in another sensory modality. Auditory-visual synesthesia occurs when auditory stimuli elicit visual sensations. It has developmental, induced and acquired varieties. The acquired variety has been reported in association with deafferentation of the visual system as well as temporal lobe pathology with intact visual pathways. The induced variety has been reported in experimental and post-surgical blindfolding, as well as intake of hallucinogenic or psychedelics. Although in humans there is no known anatomical pathway connecting auditory areas to primary and/or early visual association areas, there is imaging and neurophysiologic evidence to the presence of early cross modal interactions between the auditory and visual sensory pathways. Synesthesia may be a window of opportunity to study these cross modal interactions. Here we review the existing literature in the acquired and induced auditory-visual synesthesias and discuss the possible neural mechanisms.Keywords: synesthesia, auditory-visual, cross modal

  8. Reversible induction of phantom auditory sensations through simulated unilateral hearing loss.

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    Roland Schaette

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, a phantom auditory sensation, is associated with hearing loss in most cases, but it is unclear if hearing loss causes tinnitus. Phantom auditory sensations can be induced in normal hearing listeners when they experience severe auditory deprivation such as confinement in an anechoic chamber, which can be regarded as somewhat analogous to a profound bilateral hearing loss. As this condition is relatively uncommon among tinnitus patients, induction of phantom sounds by a lesser degree of auditory deprivation could advance our understanding of the mechanisms of tinnitus. In this study, we therefore investigated the reporting of phantom sounds after continuous use of an earplug. 18 healthy volunteers with normal hearing wore a silicone earplug continuously in one ear for 7 days. The attenuation provided by the earplugs simulated a mild high-frequency hearing loss, mean attenuation increased from 30 dB at 3 and 4 kHz. 14 out of 18 participants reported phantom sounds during earplug use. 11 participants presented with stable phantom sounds on day 7 and underwent tinnitus spectrum characterization with the earplug still in place. The spectra showed that the phantom sounds were perceived predominantly as high-pitched, corresponding to the frequency range most affected by the earplug. In all cases, the auditory phantom disappeared when the earplug was removed, indicating a causal relation between auditory deprivation and phantom sounds. This relation matches the predictions of our computational model of tinnitus development, which proposes a possible mechanism by which a stabilization of neuronal activity through homeostatic plasticity in the central auditory system could lead to the development of a neuronal correlate of tinnitus when auditory nerve activity is reduced due to the earplug.

  9. Auditory agnosia due to long-term severe hydrocephalus caused by spina bifida - specific auditory pathway versus nonspecific auditory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Kaga, Kimitaka; Hayashi, Akimasa

    2011-07-01

    A 27-year-old female showed auditory agnosia after long-term severe hydrocephalus due to congenital spina bifida. After years of hydrocephalus, she gradually suffered from hearing loss in her right ear at 19 years of age, followed by her left ear. During the time when she retained some ability to hear, she experienced severe difficulty in distinguishing verbal, environmental, and musical instrumental sounds. However, her auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were largely intact in the left ear. Her bilateral auditory cortices were preserved, as shown by neuroimaging, whereas her auditory radiations were severely damaged owing to progressive hydrocephalus. Although she had a complete bilateral hearing loss, she felt great pleasure when exposed to music. After years of self-training to read lips, she regained fluent ability to communicate. Clinical manifestations of this patient indicate that auditory agnosia can occur after long-term hydrocephalus due to spina bifida; the secondary auditory pathway may play a role in both auditory perception and hearing rehabilitation.

  10. Auditory midbrain processing is differentially modulated by auditory and visual cortices: An auditory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Patrick P; Zhang, Jevin W; Fan, Shu-Juan; Sanes, Dan H; Wu, Ed X

    2015-12-01

    The cortex contains extensive descending projections, yet the impact of cortical input on brainstem processing remains poorly understood. In the central auditory system, the auditory cortex contains direct and indirect pathways (via brainstem cholinergic cells) to nuclei of the auditory midbrain, called the inferior colliculus (IC). While these projections modulate auditory processing throughout the IC, single neuron recordings have samples from only a small fraction of cells during stimulation of the corticofugal pathway. Furthermore, assessments of cortical feedback have not been extended to sensory modalities other than audition. To address these issues, we devised blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms to measure the sound-evoked responses throughout the rat IC and investigated the effects of bilateral ablation of either auditory or visual cortices. Auditory cortex ablation increased the gain of IC responses to noise stimuli (primarily in the central nucleus of the IC) and decreased response selectivity to forward species-specific vocalizations (versus temporally reversed ones, most prominently in the external cortex of the IC). In contrast, visual cortex ablation decreased the gain and induced a much smaller effect on response selectivity. The results suggest that auditory cortical projections normally exert a large-scale and net suppressive influence on specific IC subnuclei, while visual cortical projections provide a facilitatory influence. Meanwhile, auditory cortical projections enhance the midbrain response selectivity to species-specific vocalizations. We also probed the role of the indirect cholinergic projections in the auditory system in the descending modulation process by pharmacologically blocking muscarinic cholinergic receptors. This manipulation did not affect the gain of IC responses but significantly reduced the response selectivity to vocalizations. The results imply that auditory cortical

  11. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ee Wei; Yip, Chun Wai

    2017-07-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (Anti-NMDAR) encephalitis can present with and without tumor. Tumor associations are less common in older patients. We report a 65-year-old gentleman who presented with one week history of cough, chills, rigor and altered behavior, followed by florid visual and auditory hallucinations. Mini mental status examination score was 16/30. Both cerebrospinal fluid and plasma anti-NMDA receptor antibodies were detected. A course of intravenous methylprednisolone was given with partial symptom improvement. A hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma was detected and confirmed on biopsy. Unfortunately, he developed several medical complications: non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, infected foot gangrene and peripheral vascular disease, which made him unsuitable for both surgery and chemotherapy. He passed away 6months later due to the progression of the malignancy. This case illustrated that NMDAR encephalitis may be associated with an uncommon hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in an older person, which is responsive to early treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical report of a 17q12 microdeletion with additionally unreported clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jennifer L; Gandomi, Stephanie K; Parra, Melissa; Lu, Ira; Gau, Chia-Ling; Dasouki, Majed; Butler, Merlin G

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations involving the 17q12 region have been associated with developmental and speech delay, autism, aggression, self-injury, biting and hitting, oppositional defiance, inappropriate language, and auditory hallucinations. We present a tall-appearing 17-year-old boy with marfanoid habitus, hypermobile joints, mild scoliosis, pectus deformity, widely spaced nipples, pes cavus, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and psychiatric manifestations including physical and verbal aggression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and oppositional defiance. An echocardiogram showed borderline increased aortic root size. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a small pancreas, mild splenomegaly with a 1.3 cm accessory splenule, and normal kidneys and liver. A testing panel for Marfan, aneurysm, and related disorders was negative. Subsequently, a 400 K array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) + SNP analysis was performed which identified a de novo suspected pathogenic deletion on chromosome 17q12 encompassing 28 genes. Despite the limited number of cases described in the literature with 17q12 rearrangements, our proband's phenotypic features both overlap and expand on previously reported cases. Since syndrome-specific DNA sequencing studies failed to provide an explanation for this patient's unusual habitus, we postulate that this case represents an expansion of the 17q12 microdeletion phenotype. Further analysis of the deleted interval is recommended for new genotype-phenotype correlations.

  13. Clinical Report of a 17q12 Microdeletion with Additionally Unreported Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variations involving the 17q12 region have been associated with developmental and speech delay, autism, aggression, self-injury, biting and hitting, oppositional defiance, inappropriate language, and auditory hallucinations. We present a tall-appearing 17-year-old boy with marfanoid habitus, hypermobile joints, mild scoliosis, pectus deformity, widely spaced nipples, pes cavus, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and psychiatric manifestations including physical and verbal aggression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and oppositional defiance. An echocardiogram showed borderline increased aortic root size. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a small pancreas, mild splenomegaly with a 1.3 cm accessory splenule, and normal kidneys and liver. A testing panel for Marfan, aneurysm, and related disorders was negative. Subsequently, a 400 K array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH + SNP analysis was performed which identified a de novo suspected pathogenic deletion on chromosome 17q12 encompassing 28 genes. Despite the limited number of cases described in the literature with 17q12 rearrangements, our proband’s phenotypic features both overlap and expand on previously reported cases. Since syndrome-specific DNA sequencing studies failed to provide an explanation for this patient’s unusual habitus, we postulate that this case represents an expansion of the 17q12 microdeletion phenotype. Further analysis of the deleted interval is recommended for new genotype-phenotype correlations.

  14. Management of Patients Who Make Threats Against Elected Officials: A Case Report

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    Paulina Riess

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Federal law makes it a crime to threaten the President of the United States. The Secret Service conducts thousands of violence risk assessments each year. Literature suggests that 75% of individuals who make threats have been diagnosed with a mental illness (1. Studies show that prominent symptoms in presidential assassins include persecutory and grandiose delusions, hence falling into the category of psychotic disorders. We present a case of a patient diagnosed with Schizoaffective Disorder brought to CPEP (Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Program by the Secret Service for repeatedly dialing 911 and making threats to the President. In the past year the patient had been hospitalized three times for similar behavior. Initial presentation included acute symptoms of psychosis and mania including persecutory delusions, command auditory hallucinations, grandiosity, and thought disorder. Clinicians were faced with unique challenges and consulted the forensic service to navigate the role of the Secret Service and develop a plan to prevent future episodes. The patient was discharged with a court order for treatment, long acting medication, as well as an outpatient appointment. The treatment plan has been effective and the Secret Service has ceased their investigation. We aim to explore issues in patient confidentiality, duty to both report and protect. We will also provide strategies and recommendations for such patients on the inpatient unit.

  15. Linking topography to tonotopy in the mouse auditory thalamocortical circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Troy A; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; O'Brien, Barbara M J

    2011-01-01

    The mouse sensory neocortex is reported to lack several hallmark features of topographic organization such as ocular dominance and orientation columns in primary visual cortex or fine-scale tonotopy in primary auditory cortex (AI). Here, we re-examined the question of auditory functional topography...... the tonotopic axis in the slice produced an orderly shift of voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) signals along the AI tonotopic axis, demonstrating topography in the mouse thalamocortical circuit that is preserved in the slice. However, compared with BF maps of neuronal spiking activity, the topographic order...... of subthreshold VSD maps was reduced in layer IV and even further degraded in layer II/III. Therefore, the precision of AI topography varies according to the source and layer of the mapping signal. Our findings further bridge the gap between in vivo and in vitro approaches for the detailed cellular study...

  16. A model of auditory nerve responses to electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Suyash Narendra; Dau, Torsten; Epp, Bastian

    Cochlear implants (CI) stimulate the auditory nerve (AN) with a train of symmetric biphasic current pulses comprising of a cathodic and an anodic phase. The cathodic phase is intended to depolarize the membrane of the neuron and to initiate an action potential (AP) and the anodic phase to neutral......Cochlear implants (CI) stimulate the auditory nerve (AN) with a train of symmetric biphasic current pulses comprising of a cathodic and an anodic phase. The cathodic phase is intended to depolarize the membrane of the neuron and to initiate an action potential (AP) and the anodic phase......-and-fire neuron with two partitions responding individually to anodic and cathodic stimulation. Membrane noise was parameterized based on reported relative spread of AN neurons. Firing efficiency curves and spike-latency distributions were simulated for monophasic and symmetric biphasic stimulation...

  17. A diagnostic dilemma between psychosis and post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report and review of the literature

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    Coentre Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-traumatic stress disorder is defined as a mental disorder that arises from the experience of traumatic life events. Research has shown a high incidence of co-morbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Case presentation We report the case of a 32-year-old black African woman with a history of both post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. Two years ago she presented to mental health services with auditory and visual hallucinations, persecutory delusions, suicidal ideation, recurring nightmares, hyper-arousal, and initial and middle insomnia. She was prescribed trifluoperazine (5 mg/day and began cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis. Her psychotic symptoms gradually resolved over a period of three weeks; however, she continues to experience ongoing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In our case report, we review both the diagnostic and treatment issues regarding post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic symptoms. Conclusions There are many factors responsible for the symptoms that occur in response to a traumatic event, including cognitive, affective and environmental factors. These factors may predispose both to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or psychotic disorders. The independent diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder with psychotic features remains an open issue. A psychological formulation is essential regarding the appropriate treatment in a clinical setting.

  18. Auditory phonological priming in children and adults during word repetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Miranda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2004-05-01

    Short-term auditory phonological priming effects involve changes in the speed with which words are processed by a listener as a function of recent exposure to other similar-sounding words. Activation of phonological/lexical representations appears to persist beyond the immediate offset of a word, influencing subsequent processing. Priming effects are commonly cited as demonstrating concurrent activation of word/phonological candidates during word identification. Phonological priming is controversial, the direction of effects (facilitating versus slowing) varying with the prime-target relationship. In adults, it has repeatedly been demonstrated, however, that hearing a prime word that rhymes with the following target word (ISI=50 ms) decreases the time necessary to initiate repetition of the target, relative to when the prime and target have no phonemic overlap. Activation of phonological representations in children has not typically been studied using this paradigm, auditory-word + picture-naming tasks being used instead. The present study employed an auditory phonological priming paradigm being developed for use with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. Initial results from normal-hearing adults replicate previous reports of faster naming times for targets following a rhyming prime word than for targets following a prime having no phonemes in common. Results from normal-hearing children will also be reported. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD T32DC000039.

  19. A stroke patient with impairment of auditory sensory (echoic) memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Karino, S; Yumoto, M; Funayama, M

    2014-04-01

    A 42-year-old man suffered damage to the left supra-sylvian areas due to a stroke and presented with verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits. He occasionally could not recall even a single syllable that he had heard one second before. A study of mismatch negativity using magnetoencephalography suggested that the duration of auditory sensory (echoic) memory traces was reduced on the affected side of the brain. His maximum digit span was four with auditory presentation (equivalent to the 1st percentile for normal subjects), whereas it was up to six with visual presentation (almost within the normal range). He simply showed partial recall in the digit span task, and there was no self correction or incorrect reproduction. From these findings, reduced echoic memory was thought to have affected his verbal short-term retention. Thus, the impairment of verbal short-term memory observed in this patient was "pure auditory" unlike previously reported patients with deficits of the phonological short-term store (STS), which is the next higher-order memory system. We report this case to present physiological and behavioral data suggesting impaired short-term storage of verbal information, and to demonstrate the influence of deterioration of echoic memory on verbal STM.

  20. Auditory memory function in expert chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Fariba; Geshani, Ahmad; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh; Salman Mahini, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Chess is a game that involves many aspects of high level cognition such as memory, attention, focus and problem solving. Long term practice of chess can improve cognition performances and behavioral skills. Auditory memory, as a kind of memory, can be influenced by strengthening processes following long term chess playing like other behavioral skills because of common processing pathways in the brain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the auditory memory function of expert chess players using the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test. The Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test was performed for 30 expert chess players aged 20-35 years and 30 non chess players who were matched by different conditions; the participants in both groups were randomly selected. The performance of the two groups was compared by independent samples t-test using SPSS version 21. The mean score of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test between the two groups, expert chess players and non-chess players, revealed a significant difference (p≤ 0.001). The difference between the ears scores for expert chess players (p= 0.023) and non-chess players (p= 0.013) was significant. Gender had no effect on the test results. Auditory memory function in expert chess players was significantly better compared to non-chess players. It seems that increased auditory memory function is related to strengthening cognitive performances due to playing chess for a long time.

  1. Auditory attention activates peripheral visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D Cate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that putatively unimodal regions of visual cortex can be activated during auditory tasks in sighted as well as in blind subjects. However, the task determinants and functional significance of auditory occipital activations (AOAs remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined AOAs in an intermodal selective attention task to distinguish whether they were stimulus-bound or recruited by higher-level cognitive operations associated with auditory attention. Cortical surface mapping showed that auditory occipital activations were localized to retinotopic visual cortex subserving the far peripheral visual field. AOAs depended strictly on the sustained engagement of auditory attention and were enhanced in more difficult listening conditions. In contrast, unattended sounds produced no AOAs regardless of their intensity, spatial location, or frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Auditory attention, but not passive exposure to sounds, routinely activated peripheral regions of visual cortex when subjects attended to sound sources outside the visual field. Functional connections between auditory cortex and visual cortex subserving the peripheral visual field appear to underlie the generation of AOAs, which may reflect the priming of visual regions to process soon-to-appear objects associated with unseen sound sources.

  2. Auditory conflict and congruence in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Agustus, Jennifer L; Hardy, Christopher J D; Russell, Lucy L; Brotherhood, Emilie V; Dick, Katrina M; Marshall, Charles R; Mummery, Catherine J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Warren, Jason D

    2017-09-01

    Impaired analysis of signal conflict and congruence may contribute to diverse socio-emotional symptoms in frontotemporal dementias, however the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Here we addressed this issue in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 19) and semantic dementia (SD; n = 10) relative to healthy older individuals (n = 20). We created auditory scenes in which semantic and emotional congruity of constituent sounds were independently probed; associated tasks controlled for auditory perceptual similarity, scene parsing and semantic competence. Neuroanatomical correlates of auditory congruity processing were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. Relative to healthy controls, both the bvFTD and SD groups had impaired semantic and emotional congruity processing (after taking auditory control task performance into account) and reduced affective integration of sounds into scenes. Grey matter correlates of auditory semantic congruity processing were identified in distributed regions encompassing prefrontal, parieto-temporal and insular areas and correlates of auditory emotional congruity in partly overlapping temporal, insular and striatal regions. Our findings suggest that decoding of auditory signal relatedness may probe a generic cognitive mechanism and neural architecture underpinning frontotemporal dementia syndromes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Auditory Connections and Functions of Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany ePlakke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC. In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition.

  4. Auditory connections and functions of prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    The functional auditory system extends from the ears to the frontal lobes with successively more complex functions occurring as one ascends the hierarchy of the nervous system. Several areas of the frontal lobe receive afferents from both early and late auditory processing regions within the temporal lobe. Afferents from the early part of the cortical auditory system, the auditory belt cortex, which are presumed to carry information regarding auditory features of sounds, project to only a few prefrontal regions and are most dense in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). In contrast, projections from the parabelt and the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STG) most likely convey more complex information and target a larger, widespread region of the prefrontal cortex. Neuronal responses reflect these anatomical projections as some prefrontal neurons exhibit responses to features in acoustic stimuli, while other neurons display task-related responses. For example, recording studies in non-human primates indicate that VLPFC is responsive to complex sounds including vocalizations and that VLPFC neurons in area 12/47 respond to sounds with similar acoustic morphology. In contrast, neuronal responses during auditory working memory involve a wider region of the prefrontal cortex. In humans, the frontal lobe is involved in auditory detection, discrimination, and working memory. Past research suggests that dorsal and ventral subregions of the prefrontal cortex process different types of information with dorsal cortex processing spatial/visual information and ventral cortex processing non-spatial/auditory information. While this is apparent in the non-human primate and in some neuroimaging studies, most research in humans indicates that specific task conditions, stimuli or previous experience may bias the recruitment of specific prefrontal regions, suggesting a more flexible role for the frontal lobe during auditory cognition. PMID:25100931

  5. Association of religion with delusions and hallucinations in the context of schizophrenia: implications for engagement and adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Robin Edward; Alonzo, Dana; Smolak, Alex; McHugh, Katie; Harmon, Sherelle; Baldwin, Susanna

    2011-03-01

    The relationship of religion and schizophrenia is widely acknowledged, but often minimized by practitioners and under investigated by researchers. In striving to help fill this gap, this paper focuses on examining four aims: 1) how research has investigated the association between religiosity and schizophrenia; 2) how is religiosity associated with delusions and hallucinations; 3) what are the risk and protective factors associated with religiosity and schizophrenia; and 4) does religion influence treatment adherence with individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. A systematic literature search of PsycINFO and MEDLINE databases from January 1, 1980 through January 1, 2010 was conducted using the terms schizophrenia, schizoaffective, schizophreniform, psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) and religion, religiosity, spirituality, or faith. Seventy (n=70) original research studies were identified. Religion can act as both a risk and protective factor as it interacts with the schizophrenia symptoms of hallucination and delusions. Cultural influences tend to confound the association of religion and schizophrenia. Adherence to treatment has a mixed association with religiosity. The relationship between religion and schizophrenia may be of benefit to both clinicians and researchers through enhancing adherence to treatment, and enhancement of the protective aspects while minimizing associated risk. The relationship of religion and schizophrenia needs further research that is more nuanced and methodologically rigorous, specifically concerning its influence on engagement and adherence to treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrophysiological correlates of predictive coding of auditory location in the perception of natural audiovisual events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen eStekelenburg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In many natural audiovisual events (e.g., a clap of the two hands, the visual signal precedes the sound and thus allows observers to predict when, where, and which sound will occur. Previous studies have already reported that there are distinct neural correlates of temporal (when versus phonetic/semantic (which content on audiovisual integration. Here we examined the effect of visual prediction of auditory location (where in audiovisual biological motion stimuli by varying the spatial congruency between the auditory and visual part of the audiovisual stimulus. Visual stimuli were presented centrally, whereas auditory stimuli were presented either centrally or at 90° azimuth. Typical subadditive amplitude reductions (AV – V < A were found for the auditory N1 and P2 for spatially congruent and incongruent conditions. The new finding is that the N1 suppression was larger for spatially congruent stimuli. A very early audiovisual interaction was also found at 30-50 ms in the spatially congruent condition, while no effect of congruency was found on the suppression of the P2. This indicates that visual prediction of auditory location can be coded very early in auditory processing.

  7. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em usuários de crack e múltiplas drogas Auditory brainstem evoked potentials in crack and multiple drugs addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Fabianni Nigri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em usuários de crack e múltiplas drogas, bem como levantar as possíveis queixas auditivas e de equilíbrio nesta população. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 40 usuários de drogas (20 com uso há mais de cinco anos e 20 há menos de cinco anos e 20 não usuários, do sexo masculino, com idades entre 19 e 46 anos, com limiares auditivos dentro da normalidade. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas dos potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico dos usuários de drogas quando comparados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Os potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico dos usuários de drogas não diferiram significantemente do grupo controle. As queixas apresentadas pelos usuários de drogas foram hiperacusia, alucinação auditiva, zumbido e alteração de equilíbrio.PURPOSE: To study the findings of auditory brainstem evoked potentials in crack and multiple drugs users, as well as to raise possible auditory and balance complaints in this population. METHODS: A total of 40 drugs addicts (20 who had been using drugs for over five years and 20 for less than five years and 20 non-users were evaluated. Subjects were all male, with ages ranging from 19 to 46 years, and had auditory thresholds within normal. RESULTS: No significant statistical differences were found regarding the auditory brainstem evoked potentials findings of the addicts group, when compared to the non-users. CONCLUSION: Auditory brainstem evoked potentials in crack and multiple drugs users did not differ significantly from the control group. Complaints presented by drugs addicts were hyperacusis, auditory hallucination, tinnitus and altered balance.

  8. Assessing the aging effect on auditory-verbal memory by Persian version of dichotic auditory verbal memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shahidipour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, significant reduction in auditory memory was seen in aged group and the Persian version of dichotic auditory-verbal memory test, like many other auditory verbal memory tests, showed the aging effects on auditory verbal memory performance.

  9. Competition and convergence between auditory and cross-modal visual inputs to primary auditory cortical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu-Ting; Hua, Tian-Miao

    2011-01-01

    Sensory neocortex is capable of considerable plasticity after sensory deprivation or damage to input pathways, especially early in development. Although plasticity can often be restorative, sometimes novel, ectopic inputs invade the affected cortical area. Invading inputs from other sensory modalities may compromise the original function or even take over, imposing a new function and preventing recovery. Using ferrets whose retinal axons were rerouted into auditory thalamus at birth, we were able to examine the effect of varying the degree of ectopic, cross-modal input on reorganization of developing auditory cortex. In particular, we assayed whether the invading visual inputs and the existing auditory inputs competed for or shared postsynaptic targets and whether the convergence of input modalities would induce multisensory processing. We demonstrate that although the cross-modal inputs create new visual neurons in auditory cortex, some auditory processing remains. The degree of damage to auditory input to the medial geniculate nucleus was directly related to the proportion of visual neurons in auditory cortex, suggesting that the visual and residual auditory inputs compete for cortical territory. Visual neurons were not segregated from auditory neurons but shared target space even on individual target cells, substantially increasing the proportion of multisensory neurons. Thus spatial convergence of visual and auditory input modalities may be sufficient to expand multisensory representations. Together these findings argue that early, patterned visual activity does not drive segregation of visual and auditory afferents and suggest that auditory function might be compromised by converging visual inputs. These results indicate possible ways in which multisensory cortical areas may form during development and evolution. They also suggest that rehabilitative strategies designed to promote recovery of function after sensory deprivation or damage need to take into

  10. Auditory processing in absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKetton, Larissa; Schneider, Keith A.

    2018-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is a rare ability in classifying a musical pitch without a reference standard. It has been of great interest to researchers studying auditory processing and music cognition since it is seldom expressed and sheds light on influences pertaining to neurodevelopmental biological predispositions and the onset of musical training. We investigated the smallest frequency that could be detected or just noticeable difference (JND) between two pitches. Here, we report significant differences in JND thresholds in AP musicians and non-AP musicians compared to non-musician control groups at both 1000 Hz and 987.76 Hz testing frequencies. Although the AP-musicians did better than non-AP musicians, the difference was not significant. In addition, we looked at neuro-anatomical correlates of musicianship and AP using structural MRI. We report increased cortical thickness of the left Heschl's Gyrus (HG) and decreased cortical thickness of the inferior frontal opercular gyrus (IFO) and circular insular sulcus volume (CIS) in AP compared to non-AP musicians and controls. These structures may therefore be optimally enhanced and reduced to form the most efficient network for AP to emerge.

  11. [Assessment of the efficiency of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and auditory processing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Szkiełkowska, Agata; Skarżyński, Henryk; Piłka, Adam

    2011-01-01

    To assess effectiveness of the auditory training in children with dyslalia and central auditory processing disorders. Material consisted of 50 children aged 7-9-years-old. Children with articulation disorders stayed under long-term speech therapy care in the Auditory and Phoniatrics Clinic. All children were examined by a laryngologist and a phoniatrician. Assessment included tonal and impedance audiometry and speech therapists' and psychologist's consultations. Additionally, a set of electrophysiological examinations was performed - registration of N2, P2, N2, P2, P300 waves and psychoacoustic test of central auditory functions: FPT - frequency pattern test. Next children took part in the regular auditory training and attended speech therapy. Speech assessment followed treatment and therapy, again psychoacoustic tests were performed and P300 cortical potentials were recorded. After that statistical analyses were performed. Analyses revealed that application of auditory training in patients with dyslalia and other central auditory disorders is very efficient. Auditory training may be a very efficient therapy supporting speech therapy in children suffering from dyslalia coexisting with articulation and central auditory disorders and in children with educational problems of audiogenic origin. Copyright © 2011 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner (Poland). All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal Integration of Auditory Stimulation and Binocular Disparity Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zannoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies using visual objects defined by luminance have reported that the auditory event must be presented 30 to 40 ms after the visual stimulus to perceive audiovisual synchrony. In the present study, we used visual objects defined only by their binocular disparity. We measured the optimal latency between visual and auditory stimuli for the perception of synchrony using a method introduced by Moutoussis & Zeki (1997. Visual stimuli were defined either by luminance and disparity or by disparity only. They moved either back and forth between 6 and 12 arcmin or from left to right at a constant disparity of 9 arcmin. This visual modulation was presented together with an amplitude-modulated 500 Hz tone. Both modulations were sinusoidal (frequency: 0.7 Hz. We found no difference between 2D and 3D motion for luminance stimuli: a 40 ms auditory lag was necessary for perceived synchrony. Surprisingly, even though stereopsis is often thought to be slow, we found a similar optimal latency in the disparity 3D motion condition (55 ms. However, when participants had to judge simultaneity for disparity 2D motion stimuli, it led to larger latencies (170 ms, suggesting that stereo motion detectors are poorly suited to track 2D motion.

  13. Superior pre-attentive auditory processing in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, S; Schröger, E; Tervaniemi, M

    1999-04-26

    The present study focuses on influences of long-term experience on auditory processing, providing the first evidence for pre-attentively superior auditory processing in musicians. This was revealed by the brain's automatic change-detection response, which is reflected electrically as the mismatch negativity (MMN) and generated by the operation of sensoric (echoic) memory, the earliest cognitive memory system. Major chords and single tones were presented to both professional violinists and non-musicians under ignore and attend conditions. Slightly impure chords, presented among perfect major chords elicited a distinct MMN in professional musicians, but not in non-musicians. This demonstrates that compared to non-musicians, musicians are superior in pre-attentively extracting more information out of musically relevant stimuli. Since effects of long-term experience on pre-attentive auditory processing have so far been reported for language-specific phonemes only, results indicate that sensory memory mechanisms can be modulated by training on a more general level.

  14. Auditory Pattern Memory and Group Signal Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorkin, Robert

    1997-01-01

    .... The experiments with temporally-coded auditory patterns showed how listeners' attention is influenced by the position and the amount of information carried by different segments of the pattern...

  15. Auditory Peripheral Processing of Degraded Speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghitza, Oded

    2003-01-01

    ...". The underlying thesis is that the auditory periphery contributes to the robust performance of humans in speech reception in noise through a concerted contribution of the efferent feedback system...

  16. Robotic Discovery of the Auditory Scene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinson, E; Schultz, A

    2007-01-01

    .... Motivated by the large negative effect of ambient noise sources on robot audition, the long-term goal is to provide awareness of the auditory scene to a robot, so that it may more effectively act...

  17. Effect of omega-3 on auditory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Omega-3 fatty acid have structural and biological roles in the body 's various systems . Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory system is affected a s well. The aim of this article was to review the researches about the effect of omega-3 on auditory system.Methods: We searched Medline , Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane Library and SID search engines with the "auditory" and "omega-3" keywords and read textbooks about this subject between 19 70 and 20 13.Conclusion: Both excess and deficient amounts of dietary omega-3 fatty acid can cause harmful effects on fetal and infant growth and development of brain and central nervous system esspesially auditory system. It is important to determine the adequate dosage of omega-3.

  18. Presbycusis and auditory brainstem responses: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Khullar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss or presbycusis is a complex phenomenon consisting of elevation of hearing levels as well as changes in the auditory processing. It is commonly classified into four categories depending on the cause. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs are a type of early evoked potentials recorded within the first 10 ms of stimulation. They represent the synchronized activity of the auditory nerve and the brainstem. Some of the changes that occur in the aging auditory system may significantly influence the interpretation of the ABRs in comparison with the ABRs of the young adults. The waves of ABRs are described in terms of amplitude, latencies and interpeak latency of the different waves. There is a tendency of the amplitude to decrease and the absolute latencies to increase with advancing age but these trends are not always clear due to increase in threshold with advancing age that act a major confounding factor in the interpretation of ABRs.

  19. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  20. Auditory-vocal mirroring in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory-vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory-vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory-vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain.

  1. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  2. Automatic phoneme category selectivity in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillet, Mark A; Jiang, Xiong; Rauschecker, Josef P; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2013-03-20

    Debates about motor theories of speech perception have recently been reignited by a burst of reports implicating premotor cortex (PMC) in speech perception. Often, however, these debates conflate perceptual and decision processes. Evidence that PMC activity correlates with task difficulty and subject performance suggests that PMC might be recruited, in certain cases, to facilitate category judgments about speech sounds (rather than speech perception, which involves decoding of sounds). However, it remains unclear whether PMC does, indeed, exhibit neural selectivity that is relevant for speech decisions. Further, it is unknown whether PMC activity in such cases reflects input via the dorsal or ventral auditory pathway, and whether PMC processing of speech is automatic or task-dependent. In a novel modified categorization paradigm, we presented human subjects with paired speech sounds from a phonetic continuum but diverted their attention from phoneme category using a challenging dichotic listening task. Using fMRI rapid adaptation to probe neural selectivity, we observed acoustic-phonetic selectivity in left anterior and left posterior auditory cortical regions. Conversely, we observed phoneme-category selectivity in left PMC that correlated with explicit phoneme-categorization performance measured after scanning, suggesting that PMC recruitment can account for performance on phoneme-categorization tasks. Structural equation modeling revealed connectivity from posterior, but not anterior, auditory cortex to PMC, suggesting a dorsal route for auditory input to PMC. Our results provide evidence for an account of speech processing in which the dorsal stream mediates automatic sensorimotor integration of speech and may be recruited to support speech decision tasks.

  3. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Winkler, István

    2016-11-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased - i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Sparse representation of sounds in the unanesthetized auditory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Hromádka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available How do neuronal populations in the auditory cortex represent acoustic stimuli? Although sound-evoked neural responses in the anesthetized auditory cortex are mainly transient, recent experiments in the unanesthetized preparation have emphasized subpopulations with other response properties. To quantify the relative contributions of these different subpopulations in the awake preparation, we have estimated the representation of sounds across the neuronal population using a representative ensemble of stimuli. We used cell-attached recording with a glass electrode, a method for which single-unit isolation does not depend on neuronal activity, to quantify the fraction of neurons engaged by acoustic stimuli (tones, frequency modulated sweeps, white-noise bursts, and natural stimuli in the primary auditory cortex of awake head-fixed rats. We find that the population response is sparse, with stimuli typically eliciting high firing rates (>20 spikes/second in less than 5% of neurons at any instant. Some neurons had very low spontaneous firing rates (<0.01 spikes/second. At the other extreme, some neurons had driven rates in excess of 50 spikes/second. Interestingly, the overall population response was well described by a lognormal distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is often reported. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first quantitative evidence for sparse representations of sounds in the unanesthetized auditory cortex. Our results are compatible with a model in which most neurons are silent much of the time, and in which representations are composed of small dynamic subsets of highly active neurons.

  5. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P.; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Winkler, István

    2017-01-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased – i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object. PMID:27421185

  6. In search of an auditory engram

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Jonathan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C.

    2005-01-01

    Monkeys trained preoperatively on a task designed to assess auditory recognition memory were impaired after removal of either the rostral superior temporal gyrus or the medial temporal lobe but were unaffected by lesions of the rhinal cortex. Behavioral analysis indicated that this result occurred because the monkeys did not or could not use long-term auditory recognition, and so depended instead on short-term working memory, which is unaffected by rhinal lesions. The findings suggest that mo...

  7. Neural oscillations in auditory working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Wilsch, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis investigated memory load and memory decay in auditory working memory. Alpha power as a marker for memory load served as the primary indicator for load and decay fluctuations hypothetically reflecting functional inhibition of irrelevant information. Memory load was induced by presenting auditory signals (syllables and pure-tone sequences) in noise because speech-in-noise has been shown before to increase memory load. The aim of the thesis was to assess with magnetoencephalog...

  8. Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Kong, Ying-Yee; Michalewski, Henry J; Starr, Arnold

    2005-06-01

    Perceptual consequences of disrupted auditory nerve activity were systematically studied in 21 subjects who had been clinically diagnosed with auditory neuropathy (AN), a recently defined disorder characterized by normal outer hair cell function but disrupted auditory nerve function. Neurological and electrophysical evidence suggests that disrupted auditory nerve activity is due to desynchronized or reduced neural activity or both. Psychophysical measures showed that the disrupted neural activity has minimal effects on intensity-related perception, such as loudness discrimination, pitch discrimination at high frequencies, and sound localization using interaural level differences. In contrast, the disrupted neural activity significantly impairs timing related perception, such as pitch discrimination at low frequencies, temporal integration, gap detection, temporal modulation detection, backward and forward masking, signal detection in noise, binaural beats, and sound localization using interaural time differences. These perceptual consequences are the opposite of what is typically observed in cochlear-impaired subjects who have impaired intensity perception but relatively normal temporal processing after taking their impaired intensity perception into account. These differences in perceptual consequences between auditory neuropathy and cochlear damage suggest the use of different neural codes in auditory perception: a suboptimal spike count code for intensity processing, a synchronized spike code for temporal processing, and a duplex code for frequency processing. We also proposed two underlying physiological models based on desynchronized and reduced discharge in the auditory nerve to successfully account for the observed neurological and behavioral data. These methods and measures cannot differentiate between these two AN models, but future studies using electric stimulation of the auditory nerve via a cochlear implant might. These results not only show the unique

  9. Efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training for people with hearing loss: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Henshaw

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auditory training involves active listening to auditory stimuli and aims to improve performance in auditory tasks. As such, auditory training is a potential intervention for the management of people with hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review (PROSPERO 2011: CRD42011001406 evaluated the published evidence-base for the efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training to improve speech intelligibility, cognition and communication abilities in adults with hearing loss, with or without hearing aids or cochlear implants. METHODS: A systematic search of eight databases and key journals identified 229 articles published since 1996, 13 of which met the inclusion criteria. Data were independently extracted and reviewed by the two authors. Study quality was assessed using ten pre-defined scientific and intervention-specific measures. RESULTS: Auditory training resulted in improved performance for trained tasks in 9/10 articles that reported on-task outcomes. Although significant generalisation of learning was shown to untrained measures of speech intelligibility (11/13 articles, cognition (1/1 articles and self-reported hearing abilities (1/2 articles, improvements were small and not robust. Where reported, compliance with computer-based auditory training was high, and retention of learning was shown at post-training follow-ups. Published evidence was of very-low to moderate study quality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that published evidence for the efficacy of individual computer-based auditory training for adults with hearing loss is not robust and therefore cannot be reliably used to guide intervention at this time. We identify a need for high-quality evidence to further examine the efficacy of computer-based auditory training for people with hearing loss.

  10. Procedures for central auditory processing screening in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nádia Giulian de; Ubiali, Thalita; Amaral, Maria Isabel Ramos do; Santos, Maria Francisca Colella

    2018-03-22

    Central auditory processing screening in schoolchildren has led to debates in literature, both regarding the protocol to be used and the importance of actions aimed at prevention and promotion of auditory health. Defining effective screening procedures for central auditory processing is a challenge in Audiology. This study aimed to analyze the scientific research on central auditory processing screening and discuss the effectiveness of the procedures utilized. A search was performed in the SciELO and PUBMed databases by two researchers. The descriptors used in Portuguese and English were: auditory processing, screening, hearing, auditory perception, children, auditory tests and their respective terms in Portuguese. original articles involving schoolchildren, auditory screening of central auditory skills and articles in Portuguese or English. studies with adult and/or neonatal populations, peripheral auditory screening only, and duplicate articles. After applying the described criteria, 11 articles were included. At the international level, central auditory processing screening methods used were: screening test for auditory processing disorder and its revised version, screening test for auditory processing, scale of auditory behaviors, children's auditory performance scale and Feather Squadron. In the Brazilian scenario, the procedures used were the simplified auditory processing assessment and Zaidan's battery of tests. At the international level, the screening test for auditory processing and Feather Squadron batteries stand out as the most comprehensive evaluation of hearing skills. At the national level, there is a paucity of studies that use methods evaluating more than four skills, and are normalized by age group. The use of simplified auditory processing assessment and questionnaires can be complementary in the search for an easy access and low-cost alternative in the auditory screening of Brazilian schoolchildren. Interactive tools should be proposed, that

  11. Self-Inflicted Needle Injuries to the Eye: A Curing Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Amiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports of severe self-injury to eyes in patients with schizophrenia. We report on a 41-year-old woman, primarily visiting for symptoms of endophthalmitis resulting from self-inflicted needles. Further evaluations established the diagnosis of schizophrenia because of arguing and commenting on auditory hallucinations and negative symptoms including social isolation, decreased self-care, blunt affect, and a monotone voice. The patient had been suffering from auditory hallucinations for several years and found relief in bodily pain caused by needles. The patient received 6 mg of risperidone. Hallucinations were resolved and self-injury behaviour was not repeated.

  12. Speech Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response in Stuttering