WorldWideScience

Sample records for replication timing profiles

  1. Global profiling of DNA replication timing and efficiency reveals that efficient replication/firing occurs late during S-phase in S. pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Eshaghi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During S. pombe S-phase, initiation of DNA replication occurs at multiple sites (origins that are enriched with AT-rich sequences, at various times. Current studies of genome-wide DNA replication profiles have focused on the DNA replication timing and origin location. However, the replication and/or firing efficiency of the individual origins on the genomic scale remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the genome-wide ORF-specific DNA microarray analysis, we show that in S. pombe, individual origins fire with varying efficiencies and at different times during S-phase. The increase in DNA copy number plotted as a function of time is approximated to the near-sigmoidal model, when considering the replication start and end timings at individual loci in cells released from HU-arrest. Replication efficiencies differ from origin to origin, depending on the origin's firing efficiency. We have found that DNA replication is inefficient early in S-phase, due to inefficient firing at origins. Efficient replication occurs later, attributed to efficient but late-firing origins. Furthermore, profiles of replication timing in cds1Delta cells are abnormal, due to the failure in resuming replication at the collapsed forks. The majority of the inefficient origins, but not the efficient ones, are found to fire in cds1Delta cells after HU removal, owing to the firing at the remaining unused (inefficient origins during HU treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results indicate that efficient DNA replication/firing occurs late in S-phase progression in cells after HU removal, due to efficient late-firing origins. Additionally, checkpoint kinase Cds1p is required for maintaining the efficient replication/firing late in S-phase. We further propose that efficient late-firing origins are essential for ensuring completion of DNA duplication by the end of S-phase.

  2. Time-varying Entry Heating Profile Replication with a Rotating Arc Jet Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Noyes, Eric A.; Mach, Jeffrey J.; Empey, Daniel M.; White, Todd R.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach for arc jet testing of thermal protection materials at conditions approximating the time-varying conditions of atmospheric entry was developed and demonstrated. The approach relies upon the spatial variation of heat flux and pressure over a cylindrical test model. By slowly rotating a cylindrical arc jet test model during exposure to an arc jet stream, each point on the test model will experience constantly changing applied heat flux. The predicted temporal profile of heat flux at a point on a vehicle can be replicated by rotating the cylinder at a prescribed speed and direction. An electromechanical test model mechanism was designed, built, and operated during an arc jet test to demonstrate the technique.

  3. Universal Temporal Profile of Replication Origin Activation in Eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldar, Arach

    2011-03-01

    The complete and faithful transmission of eukaryotic genome to daughter cells involves the timely duplication of mother cell's DNA. DNA replication starts at multiple chromosomal positions called replication origin. From each activated replication origin two replication forks progress in opposite direction and duplicate the mother cell's DNA. While it is widely accepted that in eukaryotic organisms replication origins are activated in a stochastic manner, little is known on the sources of the observed stochasticity. It is often associated to the population variability to enter S phase. We extract from a growing Saccharomyces cerevisiae population the average rate of origin activation in a single cell by combining single molecule measurements and a numerical deconvolution technique. We show that the temporal profile of the rate of origin activation in a single cell is similar to the one extracted from a replicating cell population. Taking into account this observation we exclude the population variability as the origin of observed stochasticity in origin activation. We confirm that the rate of origin activation increases in the early stage of S phase and decreases at the latter stage. The population average activation rate extracted from single molecule analysis is in prefect accordance with the activation rate extracted from published micro-array data, confirming therefore the homogeneity and genome scale invariance of dynamic of replication process. All these observations point toward a possible role of replication fork to control the rate of origin activation.

  4. Replication timing: a fingerprint for cell identity and pluripotency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone Ryba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Many types of epigenetic profiling have been used to classify stem cells, stages of cellular differentiation, and cancer subtypes. Existing methods focus on local chromatin features such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that require extensive analysis for genome-wide coverage. Replication timing has emerged as a highly stable cell type-specific epigenetic feature that is regulated at the megabase-level and is easily and comprehensively analyzed genome-wide. Here, we describe a cell classification method using 67 individual replication profiles from 34 mouse and human cell lines and stem cell-derived tissues, including new data for mesendoderm, definitive endoderm, mesoderm and smooth muscle. Using a Monte-Carlo approach for selecting features of replication profiles conserved in each cell type, we identify "replication timing fingerprints" unique to each cell type and apply a k nearest neighbor approach to predict known and unknown cell types. Our method correctly classifies 67/67 independent replication-timing profiles, including those derived from closely related intermediate stages. We also apply this method to derive fingerprints for pluripotency in human and mouse cells. Interestingly, the mouse pluripotency fingerprint overlaps almost completely with previously identified genomic segments that switch from early to late replication as pluripotency is lost. Thereafter, replication timing and transcription within these regions become difficult to reprogram back to pluripotency, suggesting these regions highlight an epigenetic barrier to reprogramming. In addition, the major histone cluster Hist1 consistently becomes later replicating in committed cell types, and several histone H1 genes in this cluster are downregulated during differentiation, suggesting a possible instrument for the chromatin compaction observed during differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that unknown samples can be classified independently using site

  5. ReplicationDomain: a visualization tool and comparative database for genome-wide replication timing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokochi Tomoki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic DNA replication is regulated at the level of large chromosomal domains (0.5–5 megabases in mammals within which replicons are activated relatively synchronously. These domains replicate in a specific temporal order during S-phase and our genome-wide analyses of replication timing have demonstrated that this temporal order of domain replication is a stable property of specific cell types. Results We have developed ReplicationDomain http://www.replicationdomain.org as a web-based database for analysis of genome-wide replication timing maps (replication profiles from various cell lines and species. This database also provides comparative information of transcriptional expression and is configured to display any genome-wide property (for instance, ChIP-Chip or ChIP-Seq data via an interactive web interface. Our published microarray data sets are publicly available. Users may graphically display these data sets for a selected genomic region and download the data displayed as text files, or alternatively, download complete genome-wide data sets. Furthermore, we have implemented a user registration system that allows registered users to upload their own data sets. Upon uploading, registered users may choose to: (1 view their data sets privately without sharing; (2 share with other registered users; or (3 make their published or "in press" data sets publicly available, which can fulfill journal and funding agencies' requirements for data sharing. Conclusion ReplicationDomain is a novel and powerful tool to facilitate the comparative visualization of replication timing in various cell types as well as other genome-wide chromatin features and is considerably faster and more convenient than existing browsers when viewing multi-megabase segments of chromosomes. Furthermore, the data upload function with the option of private viewing or sharing of data sets between registered users should be a valuable resource for the

  6. Verifying likelihoods for low template DNA profiles using multiple replicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Christopher D.; Greenhalgh, Matthew; Balding, David J.

    2014-01-01

    To date there is no generally accepted method to test the validity of algorithms used to compute likelihood ratios (LR) evaluating forensic DNA profiles from low-template and/or degraded samples. An upper bound on the LR is provided by the inverse of the match probability, which is the usual measure of weight of evidence for standard DNA profiles not subject to the stochastic effects that are the hallmark of low-template profiles. However, even for low-template profiles the LR in favour of a true prosecution hypothesis should approach this bound as the number of profiling replicates increases, provided that the queried contributor is the major contributor. Moreover, for sufficiently many replicates the standard LR for mixtures is often surpassed by the low-template LR. It follows that multiple LTDNA replicates can provide stronger evidence for a contributor to a mixture than a standard analysis of a good-quality profile. Here, we examine the performance of the likeLTD software for up to eight replicate profiling runs. We consider simulated and laboratory-generated replicates as well as resampling replicates from a real crime case. We show that LRs generated by likeLTD usually do exceed the mixture LR given sufficient replicates, are bounded above by the inverse match probability and do approach this bound closely when this is expected. We also show good performance of likeLTD even when a large majority of alleles are designated as uncertain, and suggest that there can be advantages to using different profiling sensitivities for different replicates. Overall, our results support both the validity of the underlying mathematical model and its correct implementation in the likeLTD software. PMID:25082140

  7. Evidence for sequential and increasing activation of replication origins along replication timing gradients in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbaud, Guillaume; Rappailles, Aurélien; Baker, Antoine; Chen, Chun-Long; Arneodo, Alain; Goldar, Arach; d'Aubenton-Carafa, Yves; Thermes, Claude; Audit, Benjamin; Hyrien, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    Genome-wide replication timing studies have suggested that mammalian chromosomes consist of megabase-scale domains of coordinated origin firing separated by large originless transition regions. Here, we report a quantitative genome-wide analysis of DNA replication kinetics in several human cell types that contradicts this view. DNA combing in HeLa cells sorted into four temporal compartments of S phase shows that replication origins are spaced at 40 kb intervals and fire as small clusters whose synchrony increases during S phase and that replication fork velocity (mean 0.7 kb/min, maximum 2.0 kb/min) remains constant and narrowly distributed through S phase. However, multi-scale analysis of a genome-wide replication timing profile shows a broad distribution of replication timing gradients with practically no regions larger than 100 kb replicating at less than 2 kb/min. Therefore, HeLa cells lack large regions of unidirectional fork progression. Temporal transition regions are replicated by sequential activation of origins at a rate that increases during S phase and replication timing gradients are set by the delay and the spacing between successive origin firings rather than by the velocity of single forks. Activation of internal origins in a specific temporal transition region is directly demonstrated by DNA combing of the IGH locus in HeLa cells. Analysis of published origin maps in HeLa cells and published replication timing and DNA combing data in several other cell types corroborate these findings, with the interesting exception of embryonic stem cells where regions of unidirectional fork progression seem more abundant. These results can be explained if origins fire independently of each other but under the control of long-range chromatin structure, or if replication forks progressing from early origins stimulate initiation in nearby unreplicated DNA. These findings shed a new light on the replication timing program of mammalian genomes and provide a general

  8. High-Resolution Replication Profiles Define the Stochastic Nature of Genome Replication Initiation and Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hawkins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genome replication is stochastic, and each cell uses a different cohort of replication origins. We demonstrate that interpreting high-resolution Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome replication data with a mathematical model allows quantification of the stochastic nature of genome replication, including the efficiency of each origin and the distribution of termination events. Single-cell measurements support the inferred values for stochastic origin activation time. A strain, in which three origins were inactivated, confirmed that the distribution of termination events is primarily dictated by the stochastic activation time of origins. Cell-to-cell variability in origin activity ensures that termination events are widely distributed across virtually the whole genome. We propose that the heterogeneity in origin usage contributes to genome stability by limiting potentially deleterious events from accumulating at particular loci.

  9. A replication-time-controlling sequence element in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vishnu P; Dubey, Dharani D

    2017-08-01

    Eukaryotic replication origins are highly variable in their activity and replication timing. The nature and role of cis-acting regulatory sequences that control chromosomal replication timing is not well defined. In the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a 200-bp late-replication-enforcing element (LRE), has been shown to enforce late replication of ARS elements in plasmids. Here, we show that a short (133-bp) fragment of the LRE (shLRE) is required for causing late replication of adjoining origins in its native as well as in an ectopic early-replicating chromosomal location. Active from both sides of an early-replicating origin, the shLRE is a bona fide cis-acting regulatory element that imposes late replication timing in the chromosome.

  10. On the scattering of DNA replication completion times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilikhov, E. Z.; Farzetdinova, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    Stochasticity of Eukaryotes' DNA replication should not lead to large fluctuations of replication times, which could result in mitotic catastrophes. Fundamental problem that cells face is how to be ensured that entire genome is replicated on time. We develop analytic approach of calculating DNA replication times, that being simplified and approximate, leads, nevertheless, to results practically coincident with those that were obtained by some sophisticated methods. In the framework of that model we consider replication times' scattering and discuss the influence of repair stopping on kinetics of DNA replication. Our main explicit formulae for DNA replication time t r ∝ ( N is the total number of DNA base pairs) is of general character and explains basic features of DNA replication kinetics.

  11. Temperamental profiles and language development: a replication and an extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garello, Valentina; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen

    2012-02-01

    Individual differences in child temperament are associated with individual differences in language development. The present study examined the relationship between temperament and language ability in 109 twenty-four- to 30-month-old children. Parents and day-care teachers completed two questionnaires: the Primo Vocabolario del Bambino (Caselli & Casadio, 1995) and the Questionari Italiani del Temperamento (Axia, 2002). Researchers administered the First Language Test (Axia, 1993) to assess productive and receptive language in each child. Replicating previous research (Usai, Garello, & Viterbori, 2009), day-care teachers identified three temperamental profiles: most of the children fit into the first profile, typical of the Italian population; another profile was made up of easily distractible and not very persistent children, with a poor capacity to modulate motor activity; and the third profile of children were inhibited in new situations. A relationship was found between temperament assessed by day-care teachers and different levels of linguistic competence. In particular, the groups of "inattentive" and "inhibited" children showed poorer lexical and morphological abilities and a more immature vocabulary, characterised by the presence of more primitive components of the lexical repertory compared to the group of "typical" children. Unlike the results from day-care teachers, temperament questionnaires completed by parents revealed a 4-cluster-solution. Also, for parents, the "typical" profile is characterised by the largest vocabulary (productive and receptive) and the most mature semantic production.

  12. The Cell Cycle Timing of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinson, Tormi; Henno, Liisi; Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Ustav, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell to optimize conditions for more efficient viral genome replication. One strategy utilized by DNA viruses is to replicate their genomes non-concurrently with the host genome; in this case, the viral genome is amplified outside S phase. This phenomenon has also been described for human papillomavirus (HPV) vegetative genome replication, which occurs in G2-arrested cells; however, the precise timing of viral DNA replication during initial and stable replication phases has not been studied. We developed a new method to quantitate newly synthesized DNA levels and used this method in combination with cell cycle synchronization to show that viral DNA replication is initiated during S phase and is extended to G2 during initial amplification but follows the replication pattern of cellular DNA during S phase in the stable maintenance phase. E1 and E2 protein overexpression changes the replication time from S only to both the S and G2 phases in cells that stably maintain viral episomes. These data demonstrate that the active synthesis and replication of the HPV genome are extended into the G2 phase to amplify its copy number and the duration of HPV genome replication is controlled by the level of the viral replication proteins E1 and E2. Using the G2 phase for genome amplification may be an important adaptation that allows exploitation of changing cellular conditions during cell cycle progression. We also describe a new method to quantify newly synthesized viral DNA levels and discuss its benefits for HPV research.

  13. Timing, coordination, and rhythm: Acrobatics at the DNA replication fork

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Samir

    2010-04-09

    In DNA replication, the antiparallel nature of the parental duplex imposes certain constraints on the activity of the DNA polymerases that synthesize new DNA. The leading-strand polymerase advances in a continuous fashion, but the lagging-strand polymerase is forced to restart at short intervals. In several prokaryotic systems studied so far, this problem is solved by the formation of a loop in the lagging strand of the replication fork to reorient the lagging-strand DNA polymerase so that it advances in parallel with the leading-strand polymerase. The replication loop grows and shrinks during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The timing of Okazaki fragment synthesis and loop formation is determined by a subtle interplay of enzymatic activities at the fork. Recent developments in single-molecule techniques have enabled the direct observation of these processes and have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the replication fork. Here, we will review recent experimental advances, present the current models, and discuss some of the exciting developments in the field. 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Time averages, recurrence and transience in the stochastic replicator dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hofbauer, Josef; 10.1214/08-AAP577

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the long-run behavior of a stochastic replicator process, which describes game dynamics for a symmetric two-player game under aggregate shocks. We establish an averaging principle that relates time averages of the process and Nash equilibria of a suitably modified game. Furthermore, a sufficient condition for transience is given in terms of mixed equilibria and definiteness of the payoff matrix. We also present necessary and sufficient conditions for stochastic stability of pure equilibria.

  15. A Replication Protocol for Real Time database System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Srivastava

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Database replication protocols for real time system based on a certification approach are usually the best ones for achieving good performance. The weak voting approach achieves a slightly longer transaction completion time, but with a lower abortion rate. So, both techniques can be considered as the best ones for replication when performance is a must, and both of them take advantage of the properties provided by atomic broadcast. We propose a new database replication strategy that shares many characteristics with such previous strategies. It is also based on totally ordering the application of writesets, using only an unordered reliable broadcast, instead of an atomic broadcast. Additionally, the writesets of transactions that are aborted in the final validation phase along with verification phase incorporated in the new system are not broadcast in our strategy rather than only validation phase. Thus, this new approach certainly reducesc the communication traffic and also achieves a good transaction response time (even shorter than those previous strategies associated with only validation phase in some system configurations.

  16. Identifying significant temporal variation in time course microarray data without replicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter Weston

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of time course microarray studies is the identification of genes that demonstrate significant time-dependent variation in their expression levels. Until recently, available methods for performing such significance tests required replicates of individual time points. This paper describes a replicate-free method that was developed as part of a study of the estrous cycle in the rat mammary gland in which no replicate data was collected. Results A temporal test statistic is proposed that is based on the degree to which data are smoothed when fit by a spline function. An algorithm is presented that uses this test statistic together with a false discovery rate method to identify genes whose expression profiles exhibit significant temporal variation. The algorithm is tested on simulated data, and is compared with another recently published replicate-free method. The simulated data consists both of genes with known temporal dependencies, and genes from a null distribution. The proposed algorithm identifies a larger percentage of the time-dependent genes for a given false discovery rate. Use of the algorithm in a study of the estrous cycle in the rat mammary gland resulted in the identification of genes exhibiting distinct circadian variation. These results were confirmed in follow-up laboratory experiments. Conclusion The proposed algorithm provides a new approach for identifying expression profiles with significant temporal variation without relying on replicates. When compared with a recently published algorithm on simulated data, the proposed algorithm appears to identify a larger percentage of time-dependent genes for a given false discovery rate. The development of the algorithm was instrumental in revealing the presence of circadian variation in the virgin rat mammary gland during the estrous cycle.

  17. Rif1 Regulates Initiation Timing of Late Replication Origins throughout the S. cerevisiae Genome

    OpenAIRE

    Peace, Jared M.; Anna Ter-Zakarian; Aparicio, Oscar M

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication involves the coordinated activity of hundreds to thousands of replication origins. Individual replication origins are subject to epigenetic regulation of their activity during S-phase, resulting in differential efficiencies and timings of replication initiation during S-phase. This regulation is thought to involve chromatin structure and organization into timing domains with differential ability to recruit limiting replication factors. Rif1 has recently been identi...

  18. DNA replication origin activation in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Michalis; Ganier, Olivier; Coulombe, Philippe; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    DNA replication begins with the assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs) at thousands of DNA replication origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. At the G1-S-phase transition, pre-RCs are converted into pre-initiation complexes, in which the replicative helicase is activated, leading to DNA unwinding and initiation of DNA synthesis. However, only a subset of origins are activated during any S phase. Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying this choice reveal how flexibility in origin usage and temporal activation are linked to chromosome structure and organization, cell growth and differentiation, and replication stress.

  19. On the replication of genetic associations: timing can be everything!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky-Su, Jessica; Lyon, Helen N; Emilsson, Valur; Heid, Iris M; Molony, Cliona; Raby, Benjamin A; Lazarus, Ross; Klanderman, Barbara; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E; Avila, Lydiana; Silverman, Edwin K; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Kronenberg, Florian; Vollmert, Caren; Illig, Thomas; Fox, Caroline S; Levy, Daniel; Laird, Nan; Ding, Xiao; McQueen, Matt B; Butler, Johannah; Ardlie, Kristin; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Dedoussis, George; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Wichmann, H-Erich; Celedón, Juan C; Schadt, Eric; Hirschhorn, Joel; Weiss, Scott T; Stefansson, Kari; Lange, Christoph

    2008-04-01

    The failure of researchers to replicate genetic-association findings is most commonly attributed to insufficient statistical power, population stratification, or various forms of between-study heterogeneity or environmental influences.(1) Here, we illustrate another potential cause for nonreplications that has so far not received much attention in the literature. We illustrate that the strength of a genetic effect can vary by age, causing "age-varying associations." If not taken into account during the design and the analysis of a study, age-varying genetic associations can cause nonreplication. By using the 100K SNP scan of the Framingham Heart Study, we identified an age-varying association between a SNP in ROBO1 and obesity and hypothesized an age-gene interaction. This finding was followed up in eight independent samples comprising 13,584 individuals. The association was replicated in five of the eight studies, showing an age-dependent relationship (one-sided combined p = 3.92 x 10(-9), combined p value from pediatric cohorts = 2.21 x 10(-8), combined p value from adult cohorts = 0.00422). Furthermore, this study illustrates that it is difficult for cross-sectional study designs to detect age-varying associations. If the specifics of age- or time-varying genetic effects are not considered in the selection of both the follow-up samples and in the statistical analysis, important genetic associations may be missed.

  20. Rif1 regulates initiation timing of late replication origins throughout the S. cerevisiae genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Peace

    Full Text Available Chromosomal DNA replication involves the coordinated activity of hundreds to thousands of replication origins. Individual replication origins are subject to epigenetic regulation of their activity during S-phase, resulting in differential efficiencies and timings of replication initiation during S-phase. This regulation is thought to involve chromatin structure and organization into timing domains with differential ability to recruit limiting replication factors. Rif1 has recently been identified as a genome-wide regulator of replication timing in fission yeast and in mammalian cells. However, previous studies in budding yeast have suggested that Rif1's role in controlling replication timing may be limited to subtelomeric domains and derives from its established role in telomere length regulation. We have analyzed replication timing by analyzing BrdU incorporation genome-wide, and report that Rif1 regulates the timing of late/dormant replication origins throughout the S. cerevisiae genome. Analysis of pfa4Δ cells, which are defective in palmitoylation and membrane association of Rif1, suggests that replication timing regulation by Rif1 is independent of its role in localizing telomeres to the nuclear periphery. Intra-S checkpoint signaling is intact in rif1Δ cells, and checkpoint-defective mec1Δ cells do not comparably deregulate replication timing, together indicating that Rif1 regulates replication timing through a mechanism independent of this checkpoint. Our results indicate that the Rif1 mechanism regulates origin timing irrespective of proximity to a chromosome end, and suggest instead that telomere sequences merely provide abundant binding sites for proteins that recruit Rif1. Still, the abundance of Rif1 binding in telomeric domains may facilitate Rif1-mediated repression of non-telomeric origins that are more distal from centromeres.

  1. Temporal profiling of the chromatin proteome reveals system-wide responses to replication inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoudoli, Guennadi A; Gillespie, Peter J; Stewart, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Although the replication, expression, and maintenance of DNA are well-studied processes, the way that they are coordinated is poorly understood. Here, we report an analysis of the changing association of proteins with chromatin (the chromatin proteome) during progression through interphase...... of the cell cycle. Sperm nuclei were incubated in Xenopus egg extracts, and chromatin-associated proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry at different times. Approximately 75% of the proteins varied in abundance on chromatin by more than 15%, suggesting that the chromatin proteome is highly dynamic...... to replication inhibition (including nuclear pore proteins) coprecipitated with the Mcm2-7 licensing complex on chromatin, suggesting that Mcm2-7 play a central role in coordinating nuclear structure with DNA replication....

  2. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  3. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  4. DNA replication timing is maintained genome-wide in primary human myoblasts independent of D4Z4 contraction in FSH muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Pope

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is linked to contraction of an array of tandem 3.3-kb repeats (D4Z4 at 4q35.2 from 11-100 copies to 1-10 copies. The extent to which D4Z4 contraction at 4q35.2 affects overall 4q35.2 chromatin organization remains unclear. Because DNA replication timing is highly predictive of long-range chromatin interactions, we generated genome-wide replication-timing profiles for FSHD and control myogenic precursor cells. We compared non-immortalized myoblasts from four FSHD patients and three control individuals to each other and to a variety of other human cell types. This study also represents the first genome-wide comparison of replication timing profiles in non-immortalized human cell cultures. Myoblasts from both control and FSHD individuals all shared a myoblast-specific replication profile. In contrast, male and female individuals were readily distinguished by monoallelic differences in replication timing at DXZ4 and other regions across the X chromosome affected by X inactivation. We conclude that replication timing is a robust cell-type specific feature that is unaffected by FSHD-related D4Z4 contraction.

  5. Transcriptional profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicating in type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Ryndak

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb infection is initiated by the few bacilli inhaled into the alveolus. Studies in lungs of aerosol-infected mice provided evidence for extensive replication of M. tb in non-migrating, non-antigen-presenting cells in the alveoli during the first 2-3 weeks post-infection. Alveoli are lined by type II and type I alveolar epithelial cells (AEC which outnumber alveolar macrophages by several hundred-fold. M. tb DNA and viable M. tb have been demonstrated in AEC and other non-macrophage cells of the kidney, liver, and spleen in autopsied tissues from latently-infected subjects from TB-endemic regions indicating systemic bacterial dissemination during primary infection. M. tb have also been demonstrated to replicate rapidly in A549 cells (type II AEC line and acquire increased invasiveness for endothelial cells. Together, these results suggest that AEC could provide an important niche for bacterial expansion and development of a phenotype that promotes dissemination during primary infection. In the current studies, we have compared the transcriptional profile of M. tb replicating intracellularly in A549 cells to that of M. tb replicating in laboratory broth, by microarray analysis. Genes significantly upregulated during intracellular residence were consistent with an active, replicative, metabolic, and aerobic state, as were genes for tryptophan synthesis and for increased virulence (ESAT-6, and ESAT-6-like genes, esxH, esxJ, esxK, esxP, and esxW. In contrast, significant downregulation of the DevR (DosR regulon and several hypoxia-induced genes was observed. Stress response genes were either not differentially expressed or were downregulated with the exception of the heat shock response and those induced by low pH. The intra-type II AEC M. tb transcriptome strongly suggests that AEC could provide a safe haven in which M. tb can expand dramatically and disseminate from the lung prior to the elicitation of adaptive immune

  6. Residue profile in predivergence sequences as a guide to the origin of DNA replication

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, B K

    1999-01-01

    DNA dependent RNA polymerase core subunits abb' conserved residues at frequencies most closely matched with codons at stage 10.4-11.1 in code evolution. An excess of acidic residues (stage 2 additions) lowered this estimate, but not by more than 2.3 stages. With 1 tryptophan (stage 14 addition) in 529 conserved residues, abb' significantly under-represented this amino acid, consistent with a cut-off in its residue profile before completion of the genetic code. Residue profiles in FEN-1 homologs and DNA topoisomerase I-5' placed their origin at stage 11-13. Prokaryote septation protein, FtsZ, arose earlier, between stage 8-11. Proteolipid in an ATP-driven proton pump served as a marker for cell membrane formation. It indicated this event took place near stage 7. Cell division, DNA replication and transcription were inferred to have originated in a protocell antecedent of the last common ancestor. Late-forming residue profiles characterized RNA dependent RNA replicase, DNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase and ...

  7. Profiling Kinase Activity during Hepatitis C Virus Replication Using a Wortmannin Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, Geneviève F; Sherratt, Allison R; Blais, David R; Nasheri, Neda; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Goto, Natalie K; Pezacki, John Paul

    2015-09-11

    To complete its life cycle, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces changes to numerous aspects of its host cell. As kinases act as regulators of many pathways utilized by HCV, they are likely enzyme targets for virally induced inhibition or activation. Herein, we used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which allows for the identification of active enzymes in complex protein samples and the quantification of their activity, to identify kinases that displayed differential activity in HCV-expressing cells. We utilized an ABPP probe, wortmannin-yne, based on the kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which contains a pendant alkyne group for bioconjugation using bioorthogonal chemistry. We observed changes in the activity of kinases involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, apoptosis pathways, and cell cycle control. These results establish changes to the active kinome, as reported by wortmannin-yne, in the proteome of human hepatoma cells actively replicating HCV. The observed changes include kinase activity that affect viral entry, replication, assembly, and secretion, implying that HCV is regulating the pathways that it uses for its life cycle through modulation of the active kinome.

  8. Analysis of replication profiles reveals key role of RFC-Ctf18 in yeast replication stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbé, Laure; Thomas, Aubin; Pantesco, Véronique; De Vos, John; Pasero, Philippe; Lengronne, Armelle

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity relies on surveillance mechanisms that detect and signal arrested replication forks. Although evidence from budding yeast indicates that the DNA replication checkpoint (DRC) is primarily activated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), studies in higher eukaryotes have implicated primer ends in this process. To identify factors that signal primed ssDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have screened a collection of checkpoint mutants for their ability to activate the DRC, using the repression of late origins as readout for checkpoint activity. This quantitative analysis reveals that neither RFC(Rad24) and the 9-1-1 clamp nor the alternative clamp loader RFC(Elg1) is required to signal paused forks. In contrast, we found that RFC(Ctf18) is essential for the Mrc1-dependent activation of Rad53 and for the maintenance of paused forks. These data identify RFC(Ctf18) as a key DRC mediator, potentially bridging Mrc1 and primed ssDNA to signal paused forks.

  9. Modulation of Cell Cycle Profile by Chlorella vulgaris Prevents Replicative Senescence of Human Diploid Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyebeh Saberbaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of Chlorella vulgaris (CV on replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs were investigated. Hot water extract of CV was used to treat HDFs at passages 6, 15, and 30 which represent young, presenescence, and senescence ages, respectively. The level of DNA damage was determined by comet assay while apoptosis and cell cycle profile were determined using FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Our results showed direct correlation between increased levels of damaged DNA and apoptosis with senescence in untreated HDFs (P<0.05. Cell cycle profile showed increased population of untreated senescent cells that enter G0/G1 phase while the cell population in S phase decreased significantly (P<0.05. Treatment with CV however caused a significant reduction in the level of damaged DNA and apoptosis in all age groups of HDFs (P<0.05. Cell cycle analysis showed that treatment with CV increased significantly the percentage of senescent HDFs in S phase and G2/M phases but decreased the population of cells in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05. In conclusion, hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris effectively decreased the biomarkers of ageing, indicating its potential as an antiageing compound.

  10. Modulation of Cell Cycle Profile by Chlorella vulgaris Prevents Replicative Senescence of Human Diploid Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberbaghi, Tayyebeh; Abbasian, Firouz; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Makpol, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Chlorella vulgaris (CV) on replicative senescence of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) were investigated. Hot water extract of CV was used to treat HDFs at passages 6, 15, and 30 which represent young, presenescence, and senescence ages, respectively. The level of DNA damage was determined by comet assay while apoptosis and cell cycle profile were determined using FACSCalibur flow cytometer. Our results showed direct correlation between increased levels of damaged DNA and apoptosis with senescence in untreated HDFs (P < 0.05). Cell cycle profile showed increased population of untreated senescent cells that enter G0/G1 phase while the cell population in S phase decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Treatment with CV however caused a significant reduction in the level of damaged DNA and apoptosis in all age groups of HDFs (P < 0.05). Cell cycle analysis showed that treatment with CV increased significantly the percentage of senescent HDFs in S phase and G2/M phases but decreased the population of cells in G0/G1 phase (P < 0.05). In conclusion, hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris effectively decreased the biomarkers of ageing, indicating its potential as an antiageing compound.

  11. Multiprocessor Real-Time Locking Protocols for Replicated Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Unnecessary s- blocking can be reduced by employing a cutting-ahead mechanism [8] that sometimes allows a newly issued re- quest to be ordered before...of replicas re- quested and released, respectively, up to the current time. These counters are updated atomically using fetch&add in- structions.4 As...than blocking, pro - vided we are able to reap the benfits of rare blocking analyt- ically. In particular, if worst-case s-blocking is pessimisti- cally

  12. Time profile of the slowly extracted beam

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, M

    1997-01-01

    An important spin-off from accelerators is the use of synchrotrons for cancer therapy. For this application a precise control of the slow extraction is needed to satisfy the medical specifications for the online measurement and control of the delivered dose. This has led to a renewed interest in the basic theory of third-order resonance extraction. In the present paper, an analytic study of the time profile of the extracted beam is made by first considering the time profile of an elementary strip of monoenergetic particles from the side of the shrinking stable triangle. This basic result is then used to predict the characteristics of the spills for the most common extraction configurations. The influence of ripples whose period is comparable to the transit time of a particle in the resonance is also analyzed. Simulations of the extraction process that confirm the analytic study are included.

  13. CIRS: A State-Conscious Concurrency Control Protocol for Replicated Real-Time Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Pathak,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replication [5] is the technique of using multiple copies of a server or a resource for better availability and performance.Each copy is called a replica. The main goal of replication is to improve availability, since a service is available even if some of its replicas are not. This helps mission critical services, such as many financial systems or reservation systems, where even a short outage can be very disruptive and expensive.A prerequisite for realizing the banefits of replication, however, is the devlopement of high erformance concurrency machenism. Current applications, such as Web-based services, electronic commerce, mobile telecommunication system, etc., are distributed in nature and manipulate time-critical databases. In order to enhance the performance and the availability of such applications, one of the main techniques is to replicate data on multiple sites of the network. Therefore, the major issue is to develop efficient replica concurrency control protocols that are able to tolerate the overload of the distributed system. In fact, if the system is not designed to handle overloads, the effects can be catastrophic and some primordial transactions of the application can miss their deadlines. In this paper we present CIRS (Concurrency control In Replicated realtime Systems a state conscious concurrency control protocol in replicated distributed environment which is specially for firm realtime database system. CIRS mechanism uses S2PL (Static Two Phase Locking for deadlock free environment.It also includes veto power given to a cohort after receiving PREPARE message from its coordinator. Also with some more assumptions like sending an extra message in execution phase but after completionof execution at local copy which is described later in this paper the proposed mechanism has a significant increased performance over O2PL and MIRROR in decreasing execution time of the current transaction and it also decreases the waiting time of

  14. Genome-wide copy number profiling of single cells in S-phase reveals DNA-replication domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Aa, Niels; Cheng, Jiqiu; Mateiu, Ligia; Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Kumar, Parveen; Dimitriadou, Eftychia; Vanneste, Evelyne; Moreau, Yves; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Voet, Thierry

    2013-04-01

    Single-cell genomics is revolutionizing basic genome research and clinical genetic diagnosis. However, none of the current research or clinical methods for single-cell analysis distinguishes between the analysis of a cell in G1-, S- or G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate by means of array comparative genomic hybridization that charting the DNA copy number landscape of a cell in S-phase requires conceptually different approaches to that of a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Remarkably, despite single-cell whole-genome amplification artifacts, the log2 intensity ratios of single S-phase cells oscillate according to early and late replication domains, which in turn leads to the detection of significantly more DNA imbalances when compared with a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Although these DNA imbalances may, on the one hand, be falsely interpreted as genuine structural aberrations in the S-phase cell's copy number profile and hence lead to misdiagnosis, on the other hand, the ability to detect replication domains genome wide in one cell has important applications in DNA-replication research. Genome-wide cell-type-specific early and late replicating domains have been identified by analyses of DNA from populations of cells, but cell-to-cell differences in DNA replication may be important in genome stability, disease aetiology and various other cellular processes.

  15. Mcm10 coordinates the timely assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Mcm10 is an essential replication factor that is required for DNA replication in eukaryotes. Two key steps in the initiation of DNA replication are the assembly and activation of Cdc45–Mcm2–7-GINS (CMG) replicative helicase. However, it is not known what coordinates helicase assembly with helicase activation. We show in this manuscript, using purified proteins from budding yeast, that Mcm10 directly interacts with the Mcm2–7 complex and Cdc45. In fact, Mcm10 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2–7 complex in vitro. To study the role of Mcm10 in more detail in vivo we used an auxin inducible degron in which Mcm10 is degraded upon addition of auxin. We show in this manuscript that Mcm10 is required for the timely recruitment of Cdc45 and GINS recruitment to the Mcm2–7 complex in vivo during early S phase. We also found that Mcm10 stimulates Mcm2 phosphorylation by DDK in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicate that Mcm10 plays a critical role in coupling replicative helicase assembly with helicase activation. Mcm10 is first involved in the recruitment of Cdc45 to the Mcm2–7 complex. After Cdc45–Mcm2–7 complex assembly, Mcm10 promotes origin melting by stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, which thereby leads to GINS attachment to Mcm2–7. PMID:26582917

  16. The replication timing of the amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes in the Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHOC 400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddle, M S; Heintz, N H

    1990-07-16

    We have examined the timing of replication of the amplified dihydrofolate reductase genes in the methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line CHOC 400 using two synchronization procedures. DNA replicated in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyuridine was collected from cells of various times during the DNA synthesis phase and the extent of replication for defined sequences was determined by Southern blotting analysis of CsCl density gradient fractions. We report that under these conditions the DHFR gene replicates throughout the course of S phase in a mode similar to the bulk of the replicated genomic DNA. This contrasts with previous data that shows the non-amplified DHFR gene replicates during the first quarter of S phase. Therefore, we conclude that gene amplification alters the replication timing of the DHFR gene in CHOC 400 cells.

  17. A New SBUV Ozone Profile Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Under NASA's MEaSUREs program for creating long term multi-instrument data sets, our group at Goddard has re-processed ozone profile data from a series of SBUV instruments. We have processed data from the Nimbus 7 SBUV instrument (1979-1990) and data from SBUV/2 instruments on NOAA-9 (1985-1998), NOAA-11 (1989-1995), NOAA-16 (2001-2010), NOAA-17 (2002-2010), and NOAA-18 (2005-2010). This reprocessing uses the version 8 ozone profile algorithm but now uses the Brion, Daumont, and Malicet (BMD) ozone cross sections instead of the Bass and Paur cross sections. The new cross sections have much better resolution, and extended wavelength range, and a more consistent temperature dependence. The re-processing also uses an improved cloud height climatology based on the Raman cloud retrievals of OMI. Finally, the instrument-to-instrument calibration is set using matched scenes so that ozone diurnal variation in the upper stratosphere does not alias into the ozone trands. Where there is no instrument overlap, SAGE and MLS are used to estimate calibration offsets. Preliminary analysis shows a more coherent time series as a function of altitude. The net effect on profile total column ozone is on average an absolute reduction of about one percent. Comparisons with ground-based systems are significantly better at high latitudes.

  18. GRB neutrino detection via time profile stacking

    CERN Document Server

    van Eijndhoven, Nick

    2007-01-01

    A method is presented for the identification of high-energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts by means of a large-scale neutrino telescope. The procedure makes use of a time profile stacking technique of observed neutrino induced signals in correlation with satellite observations. By selecting a rather wide time window, a possible difference between the arrival times of the gamma and neutrino signals may also be identified. This might provide insight in the particle production processes at the source. By means of a toy model it will be demonstrated that a statistically significant signal can be obtained with a km$^{3}$-scale neutrino telescope on a sample of 500 gamma ray bursts for a signal rate as low as 1 detectable neutrino for 3% of the bursts.

  19. Uncovering the genetic signature of quantitative trait evolution with replicated time series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franssen, S U; Kofler, R; Schlötterer, C

    2017-01-01

    The genetic architecture of adaptation in natural populations has not yet been resolved: it is not clear to what extent the spread of beneficial mutations (selective sweeps) or the response of many quantitative trait loci drive adaptation to environmental changes. Although much attention has been given to the genomic footprint of selective sweeps, the importance of selection on quantitative traits is still not well studied, as the associated genomic signature is extremely difficult to detect. We propose 'Evolve and Resequence' as a promising tool, to study polygenic adaptation of quantitative traits in evolving populations. Simulating replicated time series data we show that adaptation to a new intermediate trait optimum has three characteristic phases that are reflected on the genomic level: (1) directional frequency changes towards the new trait optimum, (2) plateauing of allele frequencies when the new trait optimum has been reached and (3) subsequent divergence between replicated trajectories ultimately leading to the loss or fixation of alleles while the trait value does not change. We explore these 3 phase characteristics for relevant population genetic parameters to provide expectations for various experimental evolution designs. Remarkably, over a broad range of parameters the trajectories of selected alleles display a pattern across replicates, which differs both from neutrality and directional selection. We conclude that replicated time series data from experimental evolution studies provide a promising framework to study polygenic adaptation from whole-genome population genetics data.

  20. Identification of an overabundant cholesterol precursor in hepatitis B virus replicating cells by untargeted lipid metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Mary A; Saghatelian, Alan; Yang, Priscilla L

    2009-04-15

    Viruses rely upon host lipid metabolic pathways for successful replication, and there is increasing interest in these pathways as novel therapeutic targets for antiviral drug discovery. Despite this, relatively little is known about the impact of viral infection on cellular lipid metabolism, and the specific lipid metabolites utilized by viruses have not yet been examined. We have applied liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) based untargeted metabolite profiling to identify lipid metabolites whose steady-state abundance is significantly altered by replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV), a major human pathogen. Untargeted metabolite profiling indicated that although major lipid classes were unaffected by HBV, an ion of 367 m/z was overabundant in HBV+ cells by 18-fold. As shown by ion fragmentation mass spectrometry and coinjection with standard, the identity of this ion is 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), an immediate dehydrogenated precursor to cholesterol. While cholesterol has previously been demonstrated to be essential in the replication of many viruses, this is the first to show that viral replication is associated with the selective accumulation of 7-DHC. Most virological studies to date have relied upon methods that deplete all sterols and preclude the observation of any selectivity in sterol utilization by viral pathogens. Our study suggests that HBV may selectively utilize 7-DHC versus other sterols and prompts experiments investigating the functional significance of this enrichment and the elucidation of the mechanism by which it is achieved. The results also highlight the value of untargeted metabolite profiling as a method for identifying critical metabolites for viral infection.

  1. Difference-based clustering of short time-course microarray data with replicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jihoon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are some limitations associated with conventional clustering methods for short time-course gene expression data. The current algorithms require prior domain knowledge and do not incorporate information from replicates. Moreover, the results are not always easy to interpret biologically. Results We propose a novel algorithm for identifying a subset of genes sharing a significant temporal expression pattern when replicates are used. Our algorithm requires no prior knowledge, instead relying on an observed statistic which is based on the first and second order differences between adjacent time-points. Here, a pattern is predefined as the sequence of symbols indicating direction and the rate of change between time-points, and each gene is assigned to a cluster whose members share a similar pattern. We evaluated the performance of our algorithm to those of K-means, Self-Organizing Map and the Short Time-series Expression Miner methods. Conclusions Assessments using simulated and real data show that our method outperformed aforementioned algorithms. Our approach is an appropriate solution for clustering short time-course microarray data with replicates.

  2. Replication timing of human telomeres is chromosome arm-specific, influenced by subtelomeric structures and connected to nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausica Arnoult

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms governing telomere replication in humans are still poorly understood. To fill this gap, we investigated the timing of replication of single telomeres in human cells. Using in situ hybridization techniques, we have found that specific telomeres have preferential time windows for replication during the S-phase and that these intervals do not depend upon telomere length and are largely conserved between homologous chromosomes and between individuals, even in the presence of large subtelomeric segmental polymorphisms. Importantly, we show that one copy of the 3.3 kb macrosatellite repeat D4Z4, present in the subtelomeric region of the late replicating 4q35 telomere, is sufficient to confer both a more peripheral localization and a later-replicating property to a de novo formed telomere. Also, the presence of beta-satellite repeats next to a newly created telomere is sufficient to delay its replication timing. Remarkably, several native, non-D4Z4-associated, late-replicating telomeres show a preferential localization toward the nuclear periphery, while several early-replicating telomeres are associated with the inner nuclear volume. We propose that, in humans, chromosome arm-specific subtelomeric sequences may influence both the spatial distribution of telomeres in the nucleus and their replication timing.

  3. Imprinted chromosomal domains revealed by allele-specific replication timing of the GABRB3 and GABRA5 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSalle, J.; Flint, A.; Lalande, M. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The GABRB3 and GABRA5 genes are organized as a cluster in chromosome 15q11-q13. The genes are separated by around 100 kb and arranged in opposite transcriptional orientations. The GABA{sub A} receptor cluster lies near the Angelman and Prader-Willi loci and displays asynchronous DNA replication, suggesting that this region is subject to parental imprinting. In order to further study the association between DNA replication and imprinting, allele-specific replication was assayed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with {lambda}-phage probes from the GABRB3/A5 region and a D15Z1 satellite probe to identify the parental origin of each chromosome. The replication kinetics of each allele was determined by using a flow sorter to fractionate mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes on the basis of cell cycle progression prior to FISH analysis. These kinetic studies reveal a 50-150 kb chromosomal domain extending from the middle of the GABRB3/A5 intergenic region into the GABRA5 5{prime}-UTR which displays maternal replication in early S with paternal replication delayed until the end of S. In contrast, genomic regions on either side of this maternal early replication domain exhibit the opposite pattern with paternal before maternal replication and both alleles replicating in the latter half of S. These results indicate that the GABRB3/A5 region is divided into domains in which replication timing is determined by parental origin. In addition to a loss of asynchronous replication, organization into replication timing domains is also lost in lymphocytes from maternal and paternal uniparental disomy 15 patients suggesting that a chromosome contribution from both parents is required for the establishment of the imprinted replication domains.

  4. Turning the hands of time again: a purely confirmatory replication study and a Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Beek, Titia F; Rotteveel, Mark; Gierholz, Alex; Matzke, Dora; Steingroever, Helen; Ly, Alexander; Verhagen, Josine; Selker, Ravi; Sasiadek, Adam; Gronau, Quentin F; Love, Jonathon; Pinto, Yair

    2015-01-01

    In a series of four experiments, Topolinski and Sparenberg (2012) found support for the conjecture that clockwise movements induce psychological states of temporal progression and an orientation toward the future and novelty. Here we report the results of a preregistered replication attempt of Experiment 2 from Topolinski and Sparenberg (2012). Participants turned kitchen rolls either clockwise or counterclockwise while answering items from a questionnaire assessing openness to experience. Data from 102 participants showed that the effect went slightly in the direction opposite to that predicted by Topolinski and Sparenberg (2012), and a preregistered Bayes factor hypothesis test revealed that the data were 10.76 times more likely under the null hypothesis than under the alternative hypothesis. Our findings illustrate the theoretical importance and practical advantages of preregistered Bayes factor replication studies, both for psychological science and for empirical work in general.

  5. Turning the Hands of Time Again: A Purely Confirmatory Replication Study and a Bayesian Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric-Jan eWagenmakers

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a series of four experiments, Topolinski and Sparenberg (2012; TS found support for the conjecture that clockwise movements induce psychological states of temporal progression and an orientation toward the future and novelty. Here we report the results of a preregistered replication attempt of Experiment 2 from TS. Participants turned kitchen rolls either clockwise or counterclockwise while answering items from a questionnaire assessing openness to experience. Data from 102 participants showed that the effect went slightly in the direction opposite to that predicted by TS, and a preregistered Bayes factor hypothesis test revealed that the data were 10.76 times more likely under the null hypothesis than under the alternative hypothesis. Our findings illustrate the theoretical importance and practical advantages of preregistered Bayes factor replication studies, both for psychological science and for empirical work in general.

  6. Multiple DNA binding proteins contribute to timing of chromosome replication in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Leise; Frimodt-Møller, Jakob; Charbon, Godefroid

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is initiated from a single origin, oriC. Initiation involves a number of DNA binding proteins, but only DnaA is essential and specific for the initiation process. DnaA is an AAA+ protein that binds both ATP and ADP with similar high affinities. Dna...... replication is initiated, or the time window in which all origins present in a single cell are initiated, i.e. initiation synchrony, or both. Overall, these DNA binding proteins modulate the initiation frequency from oriC by: (i) binding directly to oriC to affect DnaA binding, (ii) altering the DNA topology...... in or around oriC, (iii) altering the nucleotide bound status of DnaA by interacting with non-coding chromosomal sequences, distant from oriC, that are important for DnaA activity. Thus, although DnaA is the key protein for initiation of replication, other DNA-binding proteins act not only on ori...

  7. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders P.;

    2011-01-01

    . It is then possible to refactor SCJ with its three levels and RTSJ in such a way that each profile is in a separate package. This refactoring results in cleaner class hierarchies with no superfluous methods, well defined SCJ levels, elimination of SCJ annotations like @SCJAllowed, thus making the profiles easier...... to comprehend and use for application developers and students....

  8. Discovery and replication of microRNAs for breast cancer risk using genome-wide profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslim, Cenny; Weng, Daniel Y; Brasky, Theodore M; Dumitrescu, Ramona G; Huang, Kun; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Krishnan, Shiva; Llanos, Adana A; Marian, Catalin; McElroy, Joseph; Schneider, Sallie S; Spear, Scott L; Troester, Melissa A; Freudenheim, Jo L; Geyer, Susan; Shields, Peter G

    2016-12-27

    Genome-wide miRNA expression may be useful for predicting breast cancer risk and/or for the early detection of breast cancer. A 41-miRNA model distinguished breast cancer risk in the discovery study (accuracy of 83.3%), which was replicated in the independent study (accuracy = 63.4%, P=0.09). Among the 41 miRNA, 20 miRNAs were detectable in serum, and predicted breast cancer occurrence within 18 months of blood draw (accuracy 53%, P=0.06). These risk-related miRNAs were enriched for HER-2 and estrogen-dependent breast cancer signaling. MiRNAs were assessed in two cross-sectional studies of women without breast cancer and a nested case-control study of breast cancer. Using breast tissues, a multivariate analysis was used to model women with high and low breast cancer risk (based upon Gail risk model) in a discovery study of women without breast cancer (n=90), and applied to an independent replication study (n=71). The model was then assessed using serum samples from the nested case-control study (n=410). Studying breast tissues of women without breast cancer revealed miRNAs correlated with breast cancer risk, which were then found to be altered in the serum of women who later developed breast cancer. These results serve as proof-of-principle that miRNAs in women without breast cancer may be useful for predicting breast cancer risk and/or as an adjunct for breast cancer early detection. The miRNAs identified herein may be involved in breast carcinogenic pathways because they were first identified in the breast tissues of healthy women.

  9. MiRNA profile associated with replicative senescence, extended cell culture, and ectopic telomerase expression in human foreskin fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Bonifacio

    Full Text Available Senescence is a highly regulated process that limits cellular replication by enforcing a G1 arrest in response to various stimuli. Replicative senescence occurs in response to telomeric DNA erosion, and telomerase expression can offset replicative senescence leading to immortalization of many human cells. Limited data exists regarding changes of microRNA (miRNA expression during senescence in human cells and no reports correlate telomerase expression with regulation of senescence-related miRNAs. We used miRNA microarrays to provide a detailed account of miRNA profiles for early passage and senescent human foreskin (BJ fibroblasts as well as early and late passage immortalized fibroblasts (BJ-hTERT that stably express the human telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit hTERT. Selected miRNAs that were differentially expressed in senescence were assayed for expression in quiescent cells to identify miRNAs that are specifically associated with senescence-associated growth arrest. From this group of senescence-associated miRNAs, we confirmed the ability of miR-143 to induce growth arrest after ectopic expression in young fibroblasts. Remarkably, miR-143 failed to induce growth arrest in BJ-hTERT cells. Importantly, the comparison of late passage immortalized fibroblasts to senescent wild type fibroblasts reveals that miR-146a, a miRNA with a validated role in regulating the senescence associated secretory pathway, is also regulated during extended cell culture independently of senescence. The discovery that miRNA expression is impacted by expression of ectopic hTERT as well as extended passaging in immortalized fibroblasts contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the connections between telomerase expression, senescence and processes of cellular aging.

  10. ASAR15, A cis-acting locus that controls chromosome-wide replication timing and stability of human chromosome 15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Donley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication initiates at multiple sites along each mammalian chromosome at different times during each S phase, following a temporal replication program. We have used a Cre/loxP-based strategy to identify cis-acting elements that control this replication-timing program on individual human chromosomes. In this report, we show that rearrangements at a complex locus at chromosome 15q24.3 result in delayed replication and structural instability of human chromosome 15. Characterization of this locus identified long, RNA transcripts that are retained in the nucleus and form a "cloud" on one homolog of chromosome 15. We also found that this locus displays asynchronous replication that is coordinated with other random monoallelic genes on chromosome 15. We have named this locus ASynchronous replication and Autosomal RNA on chromosome 15, or ASAR15. Previously, we found that disruption of the ASAR6 lincRNA gene results in delayed replication, delayed mitotic condensation and structural instability of human chromosome 6. Previous studies in the mouse found that deletion of the Xist gene, from the X chromosome in adult somatic cells, results in a delayed replication and instability phenotype that is indistinguishable from the phenotype caused by disruption of either ASAR6 or ASAR15. In addition, delayed replication and chromosome instability were detected following structural rearrangement of many different human or mouse chromosomes. These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain similar cis-acting loci. Thus, under this scenario, all mammalian chromosomes contain four distinct types of essential cis-acting elements: origins, telomeres, centromeres and "inactivation/stability centers", all functioning to promote proper replication, segregation and structural stability of each chromosome.

  11. The profile of lysosomal exoglycosidases in replicative and stress-induced senescence in early passage human fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Knaś

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the profiles of the exoglycosidases: N-acetyl-β-hexosoaminidase, β glucuronidase and β galactosidase, α mannosidase and α fucosidase in fibroblast culture undergoing replicative and stress-induced senescence. Half of the cell culture was grown in normal conditions, without the stressor, and the other half of the cell was treated with 0.15 mM tert-butylhydroperoxide. The activities of total N-acetyl-β-hexosoaminidase as well as β glucuronidase in the cell lysate were determined in duplicates using the method of Marciniak et al. The activities of β galactosidase, α mannosidase and α fucosidase in the cell lysate were determined in duplicates using the method of Chatteriee et al. with the modification by Zwierz et al. The activities of the exoglycosidases examined, with the exception of β glucuronidase, showed a significant increase between individual days of the experiment in both non-stressed and stressed fibroblast cell culture. On each day of the experiment, in the cell lysate of stressed fibroblasts, the activities of exoglycosidases were significantly higher compared to the non-stressed cells. There were very strong correlations between SA-β-GAL staining and b galactosidase activity on individual days of the experiment in both non-stressed and stressed fibroblast cell culture. Replicative and stress-induced senescence results in significant changes to the level of lysosomal exoglycosidases, and results in enhanced lysosomal degradative capacity.

  12. HIV-1 replication in central nervous system increases over time on only protease inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Maximilian; Wolf, Timo; Stürmer, Martin; Herrmann, Eva; Bickel, Markus; Khaykin, Pavel; Göpel, Siri; Gute, Peter; Haberl, Annette; de Leuw, Philipp; Schüttfort, Gundolf; Berger, Annemarie; Stephan, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    There are concerns about central nervous system (CNS)-replication of HIV-1 in patients on boosted protease inhibitors. Purpose of this study was to compare HIV-1 viral loads (VLs) from patients treated with only boosted dual protease inhibitor (bdPI), versus combination antiretroviral therapy (cART group), containing two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and a third partner. All patients from a large German HIV-treatment cohort with available medication, clinical and demographic data, including results from simultaneous HIV-1 viral load (VL) assessments in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma, were retrospectively evaluated as controlled cross-sectional study. CSF had been obtained from patients with variable neurological symptoms during 2005-2014. Statistical analysis comprised nonparametric tests, regression and correlation techniques accounting for undetectable quantifications. Statistical analysis comprised nonparametric tests, regression and correlation techniques accounting for undetectable quantifications. Overall, 155 patients were evaluable (bdPI: 24; cART: 131). At time of CSF-collection, both groups were comparable in age, gender, CD4-cell counts, or primary HIV-transmission risks, though bdPI patients were clinically more advanced. The proportion of patients with undetectable HIV-1 (<50 copies/ml) in CSF was lower for bdPI group (25 vs 49.6 %; p = 0.026), but similar in plasma (46 vs 41 %). Median CSF-VL was higher in bdPI group (600 vs 50 copies/ml; p = 0.027) and similar in plasma. Mean VL CSF/plasma ratio was 342.91 for bdPI- and 54.48 for cART patients (p < 0.001). Pearson's regression analysis revealed a trend for an elevated VL-ratio over time within bdPI group. HIV-1 replication was higher and more frequently detectable in CSF from bdPI patients, indicating a worse CNS penetration effectiveness of used boosted PI. Within bdPI group, measured CNS-viral replication was increasing over time, suggesting an over

  13. Studying the replication history of human B lymphocytes by real-time quantitative (RQ)-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zelm, Menno C; Berkowska, Magdalena A; van Dongen, Jacques J M

    2013-01-01

    The cells of the adaptive immune system, B and T lymphocytes, each generate a unique antigen receptor through V(D)J recombination of their immunoglobulin (Ig) and T cell receptor (TCR) loci, respectively. Such rearrangements join coding elements to form a coding joint and delete the intervening DNA as circular excision products containing the signal joint. These excision circles are stable structures that cannot replicate and have no function in the cell. Since the coding joint in the genome is replicated with each cell division, the ratio between coding joints and signal joints in a population of B cells can be used as a measure for proliferation. This chapter describes a real-time quantitative (RQ-)PCR-based approach to quantify proliferation through calculating the ratio between coding joints and signal joints of the frequently occurring intronRSS-Kde rearrangements in the IGK light chain locus. The approach is useful to study basic B-cell biology as well as abnormal proliferation in human diseases.

  14. Effect of postmortem deboning time on sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of cooked boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to investigate the effect of deboning time on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked boneless skinless thigh meat (iliotibialis, iliofibularis and the femoritibialis). Carcasses (42-d old birds) were obtained from a commercial processing plant. Thighs were hot-b...

  15. Mammalian chromosomes contain cis-acting elements that control replication timing, mitotic condensation, and stability of entire chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Mathew J

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies indicate that mammalian chromosomes contain discrete cis-acting loci that control replication timing, mitotic condensation, and stability of entire chromosomes. Disruption of the large non-coding RNA gene ASAR6 results in late replication, an under-condensed appearance during mitosis, and structural instability of human chromosome 6. Similarly, disruption of the mouse Xist gene in adult somatic cells results in a late replication and instability phenotype on the X chromosome. ASAR6 shares many characteristics with Xist, including random mono-allelic expression and asynchronous replication timing. Additional "chromosome engineering" studies indicate that certain chromosome rearrangements affecting many different chromosomes display this abnormal replication and instability phenotype. These observations suggest that all mammalian chromosomes contain "inactivation/stability centers" that control proper replication, condensation, and stability of individual chromosomes. Therefore, mammalian chromosomes contain four types of cis-acting elements, origins, telomeres, centromeres, and "inactivation/stability centers", all functioning to ensure proper replication, condensation, segregation, and stability of individual chromosomes.

  16. Temperature and solids retention time control microbial population dynamics and volatile fatty acid production in replicated anaerobic digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwonterghem, Inka; Jensen, Paul D.; Rabaey, Korneel; Tyson, Gene W.

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used technology for waste stabilization and generation of biogas, and has recently emerged as a potentially important process for the production of high value volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and alcohols. Here, three reactors were seeded with inoculum from a stably performing methanogenic digester, and selective operating conditions (37°C and 55°C 12 day and 4 day solids retention time) were applied to restrict methanogenesis while maintaining hydrolysis and fermentation. Replicated experiments performed at each set of operating conditions led to reproducible VFA production profiles which could be correlated with specific changes in microbial community composition. The mesophilic reactor at short solids retention time showed accumulation of propionate and acetate (42 +/- 2% and 15 +/- 6% of CODhydrolyzed, respectively), and dominance of Fibrobacter and Bacteroidales. Acetate accumulation (>50% of CODhydrolyzed) was also observed in the thermophilic reactors, which were dominated by Clostridium. Under all tested conditions, there was a shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and a reduction in methane production by >50% of CODhydrolyzed. Our results demonstrate that shortening the SRT and increasing the temperature are effective strategies for driving microbial communities towards controlled production of high levels of specific volatile fatty acids.

  17. Genome-wide mapping of human DNA-replication origins: levels of transcription at ORC1 sites regulate origin selection and replication timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellino, Gaetano Ivan; Cittaro, Davide; Piccioni, Rossana; Luzi, Lucilla; Banfi, Stefania; Segalla, Simona; Cesaroni, Matteo; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Giacca, Mauro; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We report the genome-wide mapping of ORC1 binding sites in mammals, by chromatin immunoprecipitation and parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). ORC1 binding sites in HeLa cells were validated as active DNA replication origins (ORIs) using Repli-seq, a method that allows identification of ORI-containing regions by parallel sequencing of temporally ordered replicating DNA. ORC1 sites were universally associated with transcription start sites (TSSs) of coding or noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Transcription levels at the ORC1 sites directly correlated with replication timing, suggesting the existence of two classes of ORIs: those associated with moderate/high transcription levels (≥1 RNA copy/cell), firing in early S and mapping to the TSSs of coding RNAs; and those associated with low transcription levels (<1 RNA copy/cell), firing throughout the entire S and mapping to TSSs of ncRNAs. These findings are compatible with a scenario whereby TSS expression levels influence the efficiency of ORC1 recruitment at G(1) and the probability of firing during S.

  18. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... was established in a real-life setting. The prevalence of osteoporosis and proportion of patient's having comorbidity's associated with osteoporosis were increasing during the inclusion period (start 23.8 %, end 29.7 %). Increasing age (OR = 1.05), current smoking (OR = 1.18), estrogen deficiency (OR = 1.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...

  19. Variation of atmospheric depth profile on different time scales

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczynska, B; Homola, P; Pekala, J; Risse, M; Wilczynski, H

    2006-01-01

    The vertical profile of atmospheric depth is an important element in extensive air shower studies. The depth of shower maximum is one of the most important characteristics of the shower. In the fluorescence technique of shower detection, the geometrical reconstruction provides the altitude of shower maximum, so that an accurate profile of atmospheric depth is needed to convert this altitude to the depth of shower maximum. In this paper the temporal variation of experimentally measured profiles of atmospheric depth at different sites is studied and implications for shower reconstruction are shown. The atmospheric profiles vary on time scales from hours to years. It is shown that the daily variation of the profile is as important as its seasonal variation and should be accounted for in air shower studies. For precise shower reconstruction, the daily profiles determined locally at the site of the air shower detector are recommended.

  20. DnaA and the timing of chromosome replication in Es-cherichia coli as a function of growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Matthew AA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Escherichia coli, overlapping rounds of DNA replication allow the bacteria to double in faster times than the time required to copy the genome. The precise timing of initiation of DNA replication is determined by a regulatory circuit that depends on the binding of a critical number of ATP-bound DnaA proteins at the origin of replication, resulting in the melting of the DNA and the assembly of the replication complex. The synthesis of DnaA in the cell is controlled by a growth-rate dependent, negatively autoregulated gene found near the origin of replication. Both the regulatory and initiation activity of DnaA depend on its nucleotide bound state and its availability. Results In order to investigate the contributions of the different regulatory processes to the timing of initiation of DNA replication at varying growth rates, we formulate a minimal quantitative model of the initiator circuit that includes the key ingredients known to regulate the activity of the DnaA protein. This model describes the average-cell oscillations in DnaA-ATP/DNA during the cell cycle, for varying growth rates. We evaluate the conditions under which this ratio attains the same threshold value at the time of initiation, independently of the growth rate. Conclusions We find that a quantitative description of replication initiation by DnaA must rely on the dependency of the basic parameters on growth rate, in order to account for the timing of initiation of DNA replication at different cell doubling times. We isolate two main possible scenarios for this, depending on the roles of DnaA autoregulation and DnaA ATP-hydrolysis regulatory process. One possibility is that the basal rate of regulatory inactivation by ATP hydrolysis must vary with growth rate. Alternatively, some parameters defining promoter activity need to be a function of the growth rate. In either case, the basal rate of gene expression needs to increase with the growth rate, in

  1. A reminder on millisecond timing accuracy and potential replication failure in computer-based psychology experiments: An open letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Richard R

    2016-03-01

    There is an ongoing 'replication crisis' across the field of psychology in which researchers, funders, and members of the public are questioning the results of some scientific studies and the validity of the data they are based upon. However, few have considered that a growing proportion of research in modern psychology is conducted using a computer. Could it simply be that the hardware and software, or experiment generator, being used to run the experiment itself be a cause of millisecond timing error and subsequent replication failure? This article serves as a reminder that millisecond timing accuracy in psychology studies remains an important issue and that care needs to be taken to ensure that studies can be replicated on current computer hardware and software.

  2. Greedy scheduling of cellular self-replication leads to optimal doubling times with a log-Frechet distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugatch, Rami

    2015-02-24

    Bacterial self-replication is a complex process composed of many de novo synthesis steps catalyzed by a myriad of molecular processing units, e.g., the transcription-translation machinery, metabolic enzymes, and the replisome. Successful completion of all production tasks requires a schedule-a temporal assignment of each of the production tasks to its respective processing units that respects ordering and resource constraints. Most intracellular growth processes are well characterized. However, the manner in which they are coordinated under the control of a scheduling policy is not well understood. When fast replication is favored, a schedule that minimizes the completion time is desirable. However, if resources are scarce, it is typically computationally hard to find such a schedule, in the worst case. Here, we show that optimal scheduling naturally emerges in cellular self-replication. Optimal doubling time is obtained by maintaining a sufficiently large inventory of intermediate metabolites and processing units required for self-replication and additionally requiring that these processing units be "greedy," i.e., not idle if they can perform a production task. We calculate the distribution of doubling times of such optimally scheduled self-replicating factories, and find it has a universal form-log-Frechet, not sensitive to many microscopic details. Analyzing two recent datasets of Escherichia coli growing in a stationary medium, we find excellent agreement between the observed doubling-time distribution and the predicted universal distribution, suggesting E. coli is optimally scheduling its replication. Greedy scheduling appears as a simple generic route to optimal scheduling when speed is the optimization criterion. Other criteria such as efficiency require more elaborate scheduling policies and tighter regulation.

  3. Polycomb Mediated Epigenetic Silencing and Replication Timing at the INK4a/ARF Locus during Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verthuy, Christophe; Chasson, Lionel; Serrano, Manuel; Djabali, Malek

    2009-01-01

    Background The INK4/ARF locus encodes three tumor suppressor genes (p15Ink4b, Arf and p16Ink4a) and is frequently inactivated in a large number of human cancers. Mechanisms regulating INK4/ARF expression are not fully characterized. Principal Findings Here we show that in young proliferating embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) member EZH2 together with PRC1 members BMI1 and M33 are strongly expressed and localized at the INK4/ARF regulatory domain (RD) identified as a DNA replication origin. When cells enter senescence the binding to RD of both PRC1 and PRC2 complexes is lost leading to a decreased level of histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). This loss is accompanied with an increased expression of the histone demethylase Jmjd3 and with the recruitment of the MLL1 protein, and correlates with the expression of the Ink4a/Arf genes. Moreover, we show that the Polycomb protein BMI1 interacts with CDC6, an essential regulator of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Polycomb proteins and associated epigenetic marks are crucial for the control of the replication timing of the INK4a/ARF locus during senescence. Conclusions We identified the replication licencing factor CDC6 as a new partner of the Polycomb group member BMI1. Our results suggest that in young cells Polycomb proteins are recruited to the INK4/ARF locus through CDC6 and the resulting silent locus is replicated during late S-phase. Upon senescence, Jmjd3 is overexpressed and the MLL1 protein is recruited to the locus provoking the dissociation of Polycomb from the INK4/ARF locus, its transcriptional activation and its replication during early S-phase. Together, these results provide a unified model that integrates replication, transcription and epigenetics at the INK4/ARF locus. PMID:19462008

  4. Polycomb mediated epigenetic silencing and replication timing at the INK4a/ARF locus during senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Agherbi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The INK4/ARF locus encodes three tumor suppressor genes (p15(Ink4b, Arf and p16(Ink4a and is frequently inactivated in a large number of human cancers. Mechanisms regulating INK4/ARF expression are not fully characterized. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that in young proliferating embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 member EZH2 together with PRC1 members BMI1 and M33 are strongly expressed and localized at the INK4/ARF regulatory domain (RD identified as a DNA replication origin. When cells enter senescence the binding to RD of both PRC1 and PRC2 complexes is lost leading to a decreased level of histone H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3. This loss is accompanied with an increased expression of the histone demethylase Jmjd3 and with the recruitment of the MLL1 protein, and correlates with the expression of the Ink4a/Arf genes. Moreover, we show that the Polycomb protein BMI1 interacts with CDC6, an essential regulator of DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Finally, we demonstrate that Polycomb proteins and associated epigenetic marks are crucial for the control of the replication timing of the INK4a/ARF locus during senescence. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the replication licencing factor CDC6 as a new partner of the Polycomb group member BMI1. Our results suggest that in young cells Polycomb proteins are recruited to the INK4/ARF locus through CDC6 and the resulting silent locus is replicated during late S-phase. Upon senescence, Jmjd3 is overexpressed and the MLL1 protein is recruited to the locus provoking the dissociation of Polycomb from the INK4/ARF locus, its transcriptional activation and its replication during early S-phase. Together, these results provide a unified model that integrates replication, transcription and epigenetics at the INK4/ARF locus.

  5. Design Optimization of Time- and Cost-Constrained Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems with Checkpointing and Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Eles, Petru;

    2009-01-01

    We present an approach to the synthesis of fault-tolerant hard real-time systems for safety-critical applications. We use checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication for tolerating transient faults. Processes and communications are statically scheduled. Our synthesis approach deci...

  6. Therapeutic Assessment for Preadolescent Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Replicated Single-Case Time-Series Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.; Handler, Leonard; Nash, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model is a relatively new treatment approach that fuses assessment and psychotherapy. The study examines the efficacy of this model with preadolescent boys with oppositional defiant disorder and their families. A replicated single-case time-series design with daily measures is used to assess the effects of TA and to…

  7. Proteomics profiling of chikungunya-infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells reveal important mosquito cell factors in virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Ching Hua Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is the only causative agent of CHIKV fever with persistent arthralgia, and in some cases may lead to neurological complications which can be highly fatal, therefore it poses severe health issues in many parts of the world. CHIKV transmission can be mediated via the Aedes albopictus mosquito; however, very little is currently known about the involvement of mosquito cellular factors during CHIKV-infection within the mosquito cells. Unravelling the neglected aspects of mosquito proteome changes in CHIKV-infected mosquito cells may increase our understanding on the differences in the host factors between arthropod and mammalian cells for successful replication of CHIKV. In this study, the CHIKV-infected C6/36 cells with differential cellular proteins expression were profiled using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE coupled with the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. 2DE analysis on CHIKV-infected C6/36 cells has shown 23 mosquito cellular proteins that are differentially regulated, and which are involved diverse biological pathways, such as protein folding and metabolic processes. Among those identified mosquito proteins, spermatogenesis-associated factor, enolase phosphatase e-1 and chaperonin-60kD have been found to regulate CHIKV infection. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated gene knockdown of these proteins has demonstrated the biological importance of these host proteins that mediate CHIKV infection. These findings have provided an insight to the importance of mosquito host factors in the replication of CHIKV, thus providing a potential channel for developing novel antiviral strategies against CHIKV transmission.

  8. YAP controls retinal stem cell DNA replication timing and genomic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabochette, Pauline; Vega-Lopez, Guillermo; Bitard, Juliette; Parain, Karine; Chemouny, Romain; Masson, Christel; Borday, Caroline; Hedderich, Marie; Henningfeld, Kristine A; Locker, Morgane; Bronchain, Odile; Perron, Muriel

    2015-09-22

    The adult frog retina retains a reservoir of active neural stem cells that contribute to continuous eye growth throughout life. We found that Yap, a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, is specifically expressed in these stem cells. Yap knock-down leads to an accelerated S-phase and an abnormal progression of DNA replication, a phenotype likely mediated by upregulation of c-Myc. This is associated with an increased occurrence of DNA damage and eventually p53-p21 pathway-mediated cell death. Finally, we identified PKNOX1, a transcription factor involved in the maintenance of genomic stability, as a functional and physical interactant of YAP. Altogether, we propose that YAP is required in adult retinal stem cells to regulate the temporal firing of replication origins and quality control of replicated DNA. Our data reinforce the view that specific mechanisms dedicated to S-phase control are at work in stem cells to protect them from genomic instability.

  9. High-Resolution Profiling of Drosophila Replication Start Sites Reveals a DNA Shape and Chromatin Signature of Metazoan Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Comoglio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At every cell cycle, faithful inheritance of metazoan genomes requires the concerted activation of thousands of DNA replication origins. However, the genetic and chromatin features defining metazoan replication start sites remain largely unknown. Here, we delineate the origin repertoire of the Drosophila genome at high resolution. We address the role of origin-proximal G-quadruplexes and suggest that they transiently stall replication forks in vivo. We dissect the chromatin configuration of replication origins and identify a rich spatial organization of chromatin features at initiation sites. DNA shape and chromatin configurations, not strict sequence motifs, mark and predict origins in higher eukaryotes. We further examine the link between transcription and origin firing and reveal that modulation of origin activity across cell types is intimately linked to cell-type-specific transcriptional programs. Our study unravels conserved origin features and provides unique insights into the relationship among DNA topology, chromatin, transcription, and replication initiation across metazoa.

  10. High-resolution profiling of Drosophila replication start sites reveals a DNA shape and chromatin signature of metazoan origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoglio, Federico; Schlumpf, Tommy; Schmid, Virginia; Rohs, Remo; Beisel, Christian; Paro, Renato

    2015-05-05

    At every cell cycle, faithful inheritance of metazoan genomes requires the concerted activation of thousands of DNA replication origins. However, the genetic and chromatin features defining metazoan replication start sites remain largely unknown. Here, we delineate the origin repertoire of the Drosophila genome at high resolution. We address the role of origin-proximal G-quadruplexes and suggest that they transiently stall replication forks in vivo. We dissect the chromatin configuration of replication origins and identify a rich spatial organization of chromatin features at initiation sites. DNA shape and chromatin configurations, not strict sequence motifs, mark and predict origins in higher eukaryotes. We further examine the link between transcription and origin firing and reveal that modulation of origin activity across cell types is intimately linked to cell-type-specific transcriptional programs. Our study unravels conserved origin features and provides unique insights into the relationship among DNA topology, chromatin, transcription, and replication initiation across metazoa.

  11. Prime Time Television: A Profile of Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the manner in which prosocial behaviors are currently presented on entertainment television, including various categories of prosocial behavior in a detailed profile of a sample week of prime-time television, and seeks to determine positive behaviors performed, frequency, program types, time slot, which networks, and by what character…

  12. Turning the hands of time again: a purely confirmatory replication study and a Bayesian analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.-J. Wagenmakers; T.F. Beek; M. Rotteveel; A. Gierholz; D. Matzke; H. Steingroever; A. Ly; J. Verhagen; R. Selker; A. Sasiadek; Q.F. Gronau; J. Love; Y. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    In a series of four experiments, Topolinski and Sparenberg (2012) found support for the conjecture that clockwise movements induce psychological states of temporal progression and an orientation toward the future and novelty. Here we report the results of a preregistered replication attempt of Exper

  13. miRNA profiling of human naive CD4 T cells links miR-34c-5p to cell activation and HIV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Andreia J; Andrade, Jorge; Foxall, Russell B; Matoso, Paula; Matos, Ana M; Soares, Rui S; Rocha, Cheila; Ramos, Christian G; Tendeiro, Rita; Serra-Caetano, Ana; Guerra-Assunção, José A; Santa-Marta, Mariana; Gonçalves, João; Gama-Carvalho, Margarida; Sousa, Ana E

    2017-02-01

    Cell activation is a vital step for T-cell memory/effector differentiation as well as for productive HIV infection. To identify novel regulators of this process, we used next-generation sequencing to profile changes in microRNA expression occurring in purified human naive CD4 T cells in response to TCR stimulation and/or HIV infection. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the transcriptional up-regulation of miR-34c-5p in response to TCR stimulation in naive CD4 T cells. The induction of this miR was further consistently found to be reduced by both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Overexpression of miR-34c-5p led to changes in the expression of several genes involved in TCR signaling and cell activation, confirming its role as a novel regulator of naive CD4 T-cell activation. We additionally show that miR-34c-5p promotes HIV-1 replication, suggesting that its down-regulation during HIV infection may be part of an anti-viral host response. © 2016 The Authors.

  14. Exon level transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T cells reveals virus-induced genes and host environment favorable for viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Imbeault

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is extremely specialized since, even amongst CD4(+ T lymphocytes (its major natural reservoir in peripheral blood, the virus productively infects only a small proportion of cells under an activated state. As the percentage of HIV-1-infected cells is very low, most studies have so far failed to capture the precise transcriptomic profile at the whole-genome scale of cells highly susceptible to virus infection. Using Affymetrix Exon array technology and a reporter virus allowing the magnetic isolation of HIV-1-infected cells, we describe the host cell factors most favorable for virus establishment and replication along with an overview of virus-induced changes in host gene expression occurring exclusively in target cells productively infected with HIV-1. We also establish that within a population of activated CD4(+ T cells, HIV-1 has no detectable effect on the transcriptome of uninfected bystander cells at early time points following infection. The data gathered in this study provides unique insights into the biology of HIV-1-infected CD4(+ T cells and identifies genes thought to play a determinant role in the interplay between the virus and its host. Furthermore, it provides the first catalogue of alternative splicing events found in primary human CD4(+ T cells productively infected with HIV-1.

  15. Laser-induced heating integrated with a microfluidic platform for real-time DNA replication and detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Min-Sheng; Ho, Chia-Chin; Chen, Chih-Pin

    2016-08-01

    This study developed a microfluidic platform for replicating and detecting DNA in real time by integrating a laser and a microfluidic device composed of polydimethylsiloxane. The design of the microchannels consisted of a laser-heating area and a detection area. An infrared laser was used as the heating source for DNA replication, and the laser power was adjusted to heat the solutions directly. In addition, strong biotin-avidin binding was used to capture and detect the replicated products. The biotin on one end was bound to avidin and anchored to the surface of the microchannels, whereas the biotin on the other end was bound to the quantum dots (Qdots). The results showed that the fluorescent intensity of the Qdots bound to the replicated products in the detection area increased with the number of thermal cycles created by the laser. When the number of thermal cycles was ≥10, the fluorescent intensity of the Qdots was directly detectable on the surface of the microchannels. The proposed method is more sensitive than detection methods entailing gel electrophoresis.

  16. Wide-band profile domain pulsar timing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentati, L.; Kerr, M.; Dai, S.; Hobson, M. P.; Shannon, R. M.; Hobbs, G.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Coles, W.; Dempsey, J.; Lasky, P. D.; Levin, Y.; Manchester, R. N.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D. J.; Rosado, P. A.; Spiewak, R.; van Straten, W.; Toomey, L.; Wang, J.; Wen, L.; You, X.; Zhu, X.

    2017-04-01

    We extend profile domain pulsar timing to incorporate wide-band effects such as frequency-dependent profile evolution and broad-band shape variation in the pulse profile. We also incorporate models for temporal variations in both pulse width and in the separation in phase of the main pulse and interpulse. We perform the analysis with both nested sampling and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo methods. In the latter case, we introduce a new parametrization of the posterior that is extremely efficient in the low signal-to-noise regime and can be readily applied to a wide range of scientific problems. We apply this methodology to a series of simulations, and to between seven and nine years of observations for PSRs J1713+0747, J1744-1134 and J1909-3744 with frequency coverage that spans 700-3600 Mhz. We use a smooth model for profile evolution across the full frequency range, and compare smooth and piecewise models for the temporal variations in dispersion measure (DM). We find that the profile domain framework consistently results in improved timing precision compared to the standard analysis paradigm by as much as 40 per cent for timing parameters. Incorporating smoothness in the DM variations into the model further improves timing precision by as much as 30 per cent. For PSR J1713+0747, we also detect pulse shape variation uncorrelated between epochs, which we attribute to variation intrinsic to the pulsar at a level consistent with previously published analyses. Not accounting for this shape variation biases the measured arrival times at the level of ∼30 ns, the same order of magnitude as the expected shift due to gravitational waves in the pulsar timing band.

  17. Substrate size rather than heterogeneity controls downstream travel time distributions in replicate small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubeneau, A. F.; Hanrahan, B.; Tank, J. L.; Bolster, D.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved solutes are exported from watersheds with water flow and fluxes are therefore influenced by advection, that carries them further, but also retention processes, that delay their travel. It is especially important to understand the factors controlling network solute retention for biogeoreactive species that can be processed if afforded extended residence. In alluvial systems, substrate characteristics play a crucial role in slowing downstream transport. The roughness size (i.e., grain size relative to water depth) is associated with the distortion of the velocity profile and therefore is related to short term delays from additional dispersion. Surface and subsurface water also continually turn over, creating longer delays in the slow-flowing hyporheic region below the water/sediment interface. Sediment structure could also control transport, as pockets of slower hydraulic conductivity may influence the longest travel times. We present results from multiple solute injection experiments testing the influence of sediment size (pea gravel vs. coarse gravel) and heterogeneity (alternating sections vs. well mixed) on solute transport dynamics in four experimental streams located at the Notre Dame Linked Experimental Ecosystem Facility (ND-LEEF). We show that the stream with homogeneously coarse gravel induced more short-term delays but less long-term retention than the stream with smaller pea gravel. Inverse modeling suggested that the short-term delays were exponentially distributed while the long-term retention followed a truncated power-law behavior. Even though transport in all four streams was anomalous, the scaling truncation time was influenced by sediment size, with the smaller pea gravel exhibiting scaling longer than the coarse gravel. Streams with heterogeneous substrate had an intermediate cut-off. These results uniquely associate transport scaling in fluvial systems and substrate characteristics. The streams revealed truncation timescales that had

  18. Real-time Wind Profile Estimation using Airborne Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    In 't Veld, A.C.; De Jong, P.M.A.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Wind is one of the major contributors to uncertainty in continuous descent approach operations. Especially when aircraft that are flying low or idle thrust approaches are issued a required time of arrival over the runway threshold, as is foreseen in some of the future ATC scenarios, the on-board availability of both dependable and accurate wind estimates becomes a necessity. This paper presents a method for real-time estimation of a wind profile in the terminal maneuvering area, based on data...

  19. Statistical inference of transcriptional module-based gene networks from time course gene expression profiles by using state space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Osamu; Yoshida, Ryo; Imoto, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Rui; Higuchi, Tomoyuki; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Print, Cristin; Miyano, Satoru

    2008-04-01

    Statistical inference of gene networks by using time-course microarray gene expression profiles is an essential step towards understanding the temporal structure of gene regulatory mechanisms. Unfortunately, most of the current studies have been limited to analysing a small number of genes because the length of time-course gene expression profiles is fairly short. One promising approach to overcome such a limitation is to infer gene networks by exploring the potential transcriptional modules which are sets of genes sharing a common function or involved in the same pathway. In this article, we present a novel approach based on the state space model to identify the transcriptional modules and module-based gene networks simultaneously. The state space model has the potential to infer large-scale gene networks, e.g. of order 10(3), from time-course gene expression profiles. Particularly, we succeeded in the identification of a cell cycle system by using the gene expression profiles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which the length of the time-course and number of genes were 24 and 4382, respectively. However, when analysing shorter time-course data, e.g. of length 10 or less, the parameter estimations of the state space model often fail due to overfitting. To extend the applicability of the state space model, we provide an approach to use the technical replicates of gene expression profiles, which are often measured in duplicate or triplicate. The use of technical replicates is important for achieving highly-efficient inferences of gene networks with short time-course data. The potential of the proposed method has been demonstrated through the time-course analysis of the gene expression profiles of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) undergoing growth factor deprivation-induced apoptosis. Supplementary Information and the software (TRANS-MNET) are available at http://daweb.ism.ac.jp/~yoshidar/software/ssm/.

  20. A model for quantification of temperature profiles via germination times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipper, Christian Bressen; Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Current methodology to quantify temperature characteristics in germination of seeds is predominantly based on analysis of the time to reach a given germination fraction, that is, the quantiles in the distribution of the germination time of a seed. In practice interpolation between observed...... time and a specific type of accelerated failure time models is provided. As a consequence the observed number of germinated seeds at given monitoring times may be analysed directly by a grouped time-to-event model from which characteristics of the temperature profile may be identified and estimated...... germination fractions at given monitoring times is used to obtain the time to reach a given germination fraction. As a consequence the obtained value will be highly dependent on the actual monitoring scheme used in the experiment. In this paper a link between currently used quantile models for the germination...

  1. List and Text Recall Differ in Their Predictors: Replication Over Samples and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kayan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that latent list and text recall invoke somewhat different processes. A bivariate outcome path model of latent list and text recall evaluated the effects of age, latent speed, working memory, and vocabulary as their predictors. Independent of age, working memory reliably predicted both recall variables, whereas speed reliably predicted list recall only. The relationship between vocabulary and recall was mediated by age, working memory, and speed. The generalizability of this model, based on data from the 1994 testing of the Long Beach Longitudinal Study, was evaluated across samples by testing its invariance on baseline data from an additional panel and for eventual attrition at baseline and at a subsequent testing of retested participants and dropouts. Results showed that the model was invariant over all groups, supporting a replicable distinction between list and text recall. PMID:20498454

  2. Transduction and oncolytic profile of a potent replication-competent adenovirus 11p vector (RCAd11pGFP in colon carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Silver

    Full Text Available Replication-competent adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 vectors promise to be more efficient gene delivery vehicles than their replication-deficient counterparts, and chimeric Ad5 vectors that are capable of targeting CD46 are more effective than Ad5 vectors with native fibers. Although several strategies have been used to improve gene transduction and oncolysis, either by modifying their tropism or enhancing their replication capacity, some tumor cells are still relatively refractory to infection by chimeric Ad5. The oncolytic effects of the vectors are apparent in certain tumors but not in others. Here, we report the biological and oncolytic profiles of a replication-competent adenovirus 11p vector (RCAd11pGFP in colon carcinoma cells. CD46 was abundantly expressed in all cells studied; however, the transduction efficiency of RCAd11pGFP varied. RCAd11pGFP efficiently transduced HT-29, HCT-8, and LS174T cells, but it transduced T84 cells, derived from a colon cancer metastasis in the lung, less efficiently. Interestingly, RCAd11p replicated more rapidly in the T84 cells than in HCT-8 and LS174T cells and as rapidly as in HT-29 cells. Cell toxicity and proliferation assays indicated that RCAd11pGFP had the highest cell-killing activities in HT29 and T84 cells, the latter of which also expressed the highest levels of glycoproteins of the carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA family. In vivo experiments showed significant growth inhibition of T84 and HT-29 tumors in xenograft mice treated with either RCAd11pGFP or Ad11pwt compared to untreated controls. Thus, RCAd11pGFP has a potent cytotoxic effect on colon carcinoma cells.

  3. Questions of time and affect: a person's affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "balanced" time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals' experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual's type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a "balanced" time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time perspective

  4. Criticality: static profiling for real-time programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandner, Florian; Hepp, Stefan; Jordan, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing performance demand in real-time systems it becomes more and more important to provide feedback to programmers and software development tools on the performance-relevant code parts of a real-time program. So far, this information was limited to an estimation of the worst...... with respect to dominance in control-flow graphs. Exploiting some of those properties, we propose an algorithm that reduces the overhead of computing the metric to cover complete programs. We also investigate ways to efficiently find only those code parts whose criticality is above a given threshold...... view covering the entire code base, tools in the spirit of program profiling are required. This work proposes an efficient approach to compute worst-case timing information for all code parts of a program using a complementary metric, called criticality. Every statement of a program is assigned...

  5. EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC STIMULATION ON BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE TESTING TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourissa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Biophysical profile (BPP test is the most commonly used antenatal test of fetal well-being. Purpose of this study is determining the influence of acoustic stimulation (AS on BPP testing time. About 55 pregnant women at 35 to 42 weeks who referred to department of Obstetric & Gynecology at university of medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran, were selected randomly. We used abdominal ultrasound guidance to place buzzer like device with power of 110 dB at the skin surface of the maternal abdomen, close to the fetal head. BPP test performed and BPP mean testing time calculated before and after AS. Data compared and analyzed by paired t-test. The results showed that fetal AS reduces the overall mean testing time from 24 minutes to 5 minutes. This clinical application can be helpful in busy clinics when rapid assessment of fetal health is required.

  6. In Vitro Dosing Performance of the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler Using Asthma and COPD Patient Inhalation Profiles Replicated with the Electronic Lung (eLung™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melanie; Leggett, Richard; Pang, Cheng; Charles, Stephen; Gillett, Ben; Prime, David

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the in vitro dose delivery characteristics of approved asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA(®) dry powder inhaler across inhalation endpoints representative of the target patient population, using the Electronic Lung (eLung™) to replicate inhaler-specific patient inhalation profiles that were previously recorded in vivo. Selected profiles, representative of the range of inhalation endpoints achieved by patients with all severities of asthma and COPD, were replicated using the eLung breathing simulator in conjunction with an oropharyngeal cast. A Next Generation Impactor was coupled to the eLung to determine the aerodynamic particle size distribution of the ex-throat dose (ETD) of asthma and COPD therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA inhaler. Delivered dose (DD), ETD, and fine particle dose (FPD; defined as a mass of active substance less than 5 μm) were determined for fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) 100/25 μg and 200/25 μg (asthma and COPD), umeclidinium (UMEC)/VI 62.5/25 μg (COPD only), FF 100 μg and 200μg monotherapy (asthma only), and UMEC 62.5 μg monotherapy (COPD only). Inhalation profiles replicated by eLung covered a wide range of peak inspiratory flow rates (41.6-136.9 L/min), pressure drops (1.2-13.8 kPa), and inhaled volumes through the inhaler (0.7-4.2L). DD was consistent across the range of patient representative inhalation parameters for all components (FF, VI, and UMEC) of each therapy assessed; although ETD and FPD were also generally consistent, some small variation was observed. Dose delivery was consistent for each of the components, whether delivered as mono- or combination therapy. The in vitro performance of the ELLIPTA inhaler has been demonstrated for the delivery of FF/VI, UMEC/VI, FF monotherapy, and UMEC monotherapy. Across a range of inspiratory profiles, DD was consistent, while ETD and FPD showed little flow dependency.

  7. Quantitative Time Profiling of Children's Activity and Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Claire M; Clark, Cain C T; Holton, Mark D; Stratton, Gareth; Summers, Huw D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish children's mechanical movement patterns during a standardized assessment of fitness by using an accelerometer. Further to this, our objective was to use the information from the accelerometer to profile individual time courses of exercise, across the cohort. A multistage fitness test study was performed with 103 children (mean ± SD age = 10.3 ± 0.6 yr). Children wore an ankle-mounted accelerometer, and gait data were collected on radial acceleration traces obtained at a frequency of 40 Hz. Time-resolved metrics of foot impact force, maximum leg lift angle, and stride frequency were used to profile children's performance across the test duration. A whole-history metric of stride quality, based on the changing ratio of stride length to stride frequency, was used in bivariate analyses of physical performance and body metrics. Stride angle derived by our protocol was found to have a strong positive correlation with integrated acceleration, synonymous with counts, widely used in the sport science community (r = 0.81, 0.79, and 0.80 across different stages of the multistage fitness test). Accelerometer data show that differing performance in the test is related to the children's ability to accurately control their gait, with high performers displaying a linearly increasing speed, delivered through stride extension and well matched to the demand level of the test. A negative correlation was found between stride quality and body measures of body mass index (r = -0.61) and body mass (r = -0.60). Profiles of the gait parameters provide information on the mechanics of child's motion, allowing detailed assessment of multiple parameter during increasing intensities of exercise.

  8. The Alleged Crisis and the Illusion of Exact Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; Strack, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing criticism of the way psychologists conduct and analyze studies. These critiques as well as failures to replicate several high-profile studies have been used as justification to proclaim a "replication crisis" in psychology. Psychologists are encouraged to conduct more "exact" replications of published studies to assess the reproducibility of psychological research. This article argues that the alleged "crisis of replicability" is primarily due to an epistemological misunderstanding that emphasizes the phenomenon instead of its underlying mechanisms. As a consequence, a replicated phenomenon may not serve as a rigorous test of a theoretical hypothesis because identical operationalizations of variables in studies conducted at different times and with different subject populations might test different theoretical constructs. Therefore, we propose that for meaningful replications, attempts at reinstating the original circumstances are not sufficient. Instead, replicators must ascertain that conditions are realized that reflect the theoretical variable(s) manipulated (and/or measured) in the original study.

  9. Interest Profile Elevation, Big Five Personality Traits, and Secondary Constructs on the Self-Directed Search: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Emily E.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The study used the Self-Directed Search (SDS) and the NEO-FFI to explore profile elevation, four secondary constructs, and the Big Five personality factors in a sample of college students in a career course. Regression model results showed that openness, conscientiousness, differentiation high-low, differentiation Iachan, and consistency accounted…

  10. The sense, landscape and image. How the tourist destination is replicated in postmodernist times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers, practitioners and analysts have focused on the psychology to induce consumers to new products. These new eye-catching packaging products in tourism and hospitality industries and beyond are commercialized to thousands of home thanks to the media. We are living in times, digital times where organic image plays a pivotal role in arousing emotions and experiences, although these experiences were not authentic. Following this discussion, initialized some time ago by D. Maccannell and other sociologists, the present paper explores the philosophical roots of image to expand the current understanding about our ocular-centrism. At time, tourists select a destination, they are moved by “the wish of majority”, but once destination is maturated, its attractiveness declines. What seems to be interesting to discuss here is the connection between perceived safety (risk and attraction (organic image. Following I. Kant’s contributions, we present a conceptual model to understand how the dilemma of safety leads consumers to visual pollution.

  11. The sense, landscape and image. How the tourist destination is replicated in postmodernist times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano E. Korstanje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers, practitioners and analysts have focused on the psychology to induce consumers to new products. These new eye-catching packaging products in tourism and hospitality industries and beyond are commercialized to thousands of home thanks to the media. We are living in times, digital times where organic image plays a pivotal role in arousing emotions and experiences, although these experiences were not authentic. Following this discussion, initialized some time ago by D. Maccannell and other sociologists, the present paper explores the philosophical roots of image to expand the current understanding about our ocular-centrism. At time, tourists select a destination, they are moved by “the wish of majority”, but once destination is maturated, its attractiveness declines. What seems to be inter- esting to discuss here is the connection between perceived safety (risk and attraction (organic image. Following I. Kant’s contributions, we present a conceptual model to understand how the dilemma of safety leads consumers to visual pollution.

  12. Negative Correlates of Part-Time Employment during Adolescence: Replication and Elaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    This study examined the relation between part-time employment and adolescent behavior and development in a multi-ethnic, multi-class sample of approximately 4,000 15- through 18-year-olds. The results indicated that long work hours during the school year were associated with diminished investment in schooling and lowered school performance,…

  13. Diversity and dynamics of dominant and rare bacterial taxa in replicate sequencing batch reactors operated under different solids retention time

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik

    2014-10-19

    In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was applied in order to provide a better insight on the diversity and dynamics of total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa in replicate lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at different solids retention time (SRT). Rank-abundance curves showed few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a long tail of rare OTUs in all reactors. Results revealed that there was no detectable effect of SRT (2 vs. 10 days) on Shannon diversity index and OTU richness of both dominant and rare taxa. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa were highly dynamic during the entire period of stable reactor performance. Also, the rare taxa were more dynamic than the dominant taxa despite expected low invasion rates because of the use of sterile synthetic media.

  14. Activity-based protein profiling of the hepatitis C virus replication in Huh-7 hepatoma cells using a non-directed active site probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay Craig S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV poses a growing threat to global health as it often leads to serious liver diseases and is one of the primary causes for liver transplantation. Currently, no vaccines are available to prevent HCV infection and clinical treatments have limited success. Since HCV has a small proteome, it relies on many host cell proteins to complete its life cycle. In this study, we used a non-directed phenyl sulfonate ester probe (PS4≡ to selectively target a broad range of enzyme families that show differential activity during HCV replication in Huh-7 cells. Results The PS4≡ probe successfully targeted 19 active proteins in nine distinct protein families, some that were predominantly labeled in situ compared to the in vitro labeled cell homogenate. Nine proteins revealed altered activity levels during HCV replication. Some candidates identified, such as heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 (or HSP70 cognate, have been shown to influence viral release and abundance of cellular lipid droplets. Other differentially active PS4≡ targets, such as electron transfer flavoprotein alpha, protein disulfide isomerase A5, and nuclear distribution gene C homolog, constitute novel proteins that potentially mediate HCV propagation. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the practicality and versatility of non-directed activity-based protein profiling (ABPP to complement directed methods and accelerate the discovery of altered protein activities associated with pathological states such as HCV replication. Collectively, these results highlight the ability of in situ ABPP approaches to facilitate the identification of enzymes that are either predominantly or exclusively labeled in living cells. Several of these differentially active enzymes represent possible HCV-host interactions that could be targeted for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

  15. Local flow management/profile descent algorithm. Fuel-efficient, time-controlled profiles for the NASA TSRV airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, J. L.; Izumi, K. H.; Markham, C. H.; Schwab, R. W.; Thompson, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Local Flow Management/Profile Descent (LFM/PD) algorithm designed for the NASA Transport System Research Vehicle program is described. The algorithm provides fuel-efficient altitude and airspeed profiles consistent with ATC restrictions in a time-based metering environment over a fixed ground track. The model design constraints include accommodation of both published profile descent procedures and unpublished profile descents, incorporation of fuel efficiency as a flight profile criterion, operation within the performance capabilities of the Boeing 737-100 airplane with JT8D-7 engines, and conformity to standard air traffic navigation and control procedures. Holding and path stretching capabilities are included for long delay situations.

  16. Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) replication in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) exposed for different time periods to susceptible water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Vinay, Tharabenahalli-Nagaraju; Lee, Jehee; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-09-15

    Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) is a member of the Megalocytivirus genus that causes severe mortality to rock bream. Water temperature is known to affect the immune system and susceptibility of fish to RBIV infection. In this study, we evaluated the time dependent virus replication pattern and time required to completely eliminate virus from the rock bream body against RBIV infection at different water temperature conditions. The rock bream was exposed to the virus and held at 7 (group A1), 4 (group A2) and 2 days (group A3) at 23 °C before the water temperature was reduced to 17 °C. A total of 28% mortality was observed 24-35 days post infection (dpi) in only the 7 day exposure group at 23 °C. In all 23 °C exposure groups, virus replication peaked at 20 to 22 dpi (10(6)-10(7)/μl). In recovery stages (30-100 dpi), the virus copy number was gradually reduced, from 10(6) to 10(1) with faster decreases in the shorter exposure period group at 23 °C. When the water temperature was increased in surviving fish from 17 to 26 °C at 70 dpi, they did not show any mortality or signs of disease and had low virus copy numbers (below 10(2)/μl). Thus, fish need at least 50 days from peaked RBIV levels (approximately 20-25 dpi) to inhibit the virus. This indicates that maintaining the fish at low water temperature (17 °C) for 70 days is sufficient to eradicate RBIV from fish body. Thus, RBIV could be eliminated slowly from the fish body and the virus may be completely eliminated under the threshold of causing mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis elicits a reduced infectivity profile with corresponding modifications to the cell wall and extracellular matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bacon

    Full Text Available A key feature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is its ability to become dormant in the host. Little is known of the mechanisms by which these bacilli are able to persist in this state. Therefore, the focus of this study was to emulate environmental conditions encountered by M. tuberculosis in the granuloma, and determine the effect of such conditions on the physiology and infectivity of the organism. Non-replicating persistent (NRP M. tuberculosis was established by the gradual depletion of nutrients in an oxygen-replete and controlled environment. In contrast to rapidly dividing bacilli, NRP bacteria exhibited a distinct phenotype by accumulating an extracellular matrix rich in free mycolate and lipoglycans, with increased arabinosylation. Microarray studies demonstrated a substantial down-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism in NRP bacteria. Despite this reduction in metabolic activity, cells were still able to infect guinea pigs, but with a delay in the development of disease when compared to exponential phase bacilli. Using these approaches to investigate the interplay between the changing environment of the host and altered physiology of NRP bacteria, this study sheds new light on the conditions that are pertinent to M. tuberculosis dormancy and how this organism could be establishing latent disease.

  18. A personal reflection on the replicon theory: from R1 plasmid to replication timing regulation in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masai, Hisao

    2013-11-29

    Fifty years after the Replicon Theory was originally presented, detailed mechanistic insight into prokaryotic replicons has been obtained and rapid progress is being made to elucidate the more complex regulatory mechanisms of replicon regulation in eukaryotic cells. Here, I present my personal perspectives on how studies of model replicons have contributed to our understanding of the basic mechanisms of DNA replication as well as the evolution of replication regulation in human cells. I will also discuss how replication regulation contributes to the stable maintenance of the genome and how disruption of replication regulation leads to human diseases.

  19. Genome-wide alterations of the DNA replication program during tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, A.; Goldar, A.; Argoul, F.; Hyrien, O.; Audit, B.

    2016-08-01

    Oncogenic stress is a major driving force in the early stages of cancer development. Recent experimental findings reveal that, in precancerous lesions and cancers, activated oncogenes may induce stalling and dissociation of DNA replication forks resulting in DNA damage. Replication timing is emerging as an important epigenetic feature that recapitulates several genomic, epigenetic and functional specificities of even closely related cell types. There is increasing evidence that chromosome rearrangements, the hallmark of many cancer genomes, are intimately associated with the DNA replication program and that epigenetic replication timing changes often precede chromosomic rearrangements. The recent development of a novel methodology to map replication fork polarity using deep sequencing of Okazaki fragments has provided new and complementary genome-wide replication profiling data. We review the results of a wavelet-based multi-scale analysis of genomic and epigenetic data including replication profiles along human chromosomes. These results provide new insight into the spatio-temporal replication program and its dynamics during differentiation. Here our goal is to bring to cancer research, the experimental protocols and computational methodologies for replication program profiling, and also the modeling of the spatio-temporal replication program. To illustrate our purpose, we report very preliminary results obtained for the chronic myelogeneous leukemia, the archetype model of cancer. Finally, we discuss promising perspectives on using genome-wide DNA replication profiling as a novel efficient tool for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and personalized treatment.

  20. Endothelial cell culture model for replication of physiological profiles of pressure, flow, stretch, and shear stress in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Rosendo; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Nguyen, Mai-Dung; Roussel, Thomas J; Shakeri, Mostafa; Parichehreh, Vahidreza; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2011-04-15

    The phenotype and function of vascular cells in vivo are influenced by complex mechanical signals generated by pulsatile hemodynamic loading. Physiologically relevant in vitro studies of vascular cells therefore require realistic environments where in vivo mechanical loading conditions can be accurately reproduced. To accomplish a realistic in vivo-like loading environment, we designed and fabricated an Endothelial Cell Culture Model (ECCM) to generate physiological pressure, stretch, and shear stress profiles associated with normal and pathological cardiac flow states. Cells within this system were cultured on a stretchable, thin (∼500 μm) planar membrane within a rectangular flow channel and subject to constant fluid flow. Under pressure, the thin planar membrane assumed a concave shape, representing a segment of the blood vessel wall. Pulsatility was introduced using a programmable pneumatically controlled collapsible chamber. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were cultured within this system under normal conditions and compared to HAECs cultured under static and "flow only" (13 dyn/cm(2)) control conditions using microscopy. Cells cultured within the ECCM were larger than both controls and assumed an ellipsoidal shape. In contrast to static control control cells, ECCM-cultured cells exhibited alignment of cytoskeletal actin filaments and high and continuous expression levels of β-catenin indicating an in vivo-like phenotype. In conclusion, design, fabrication, testing, and validation of the ECCM for culture of ECs under realistic pressure, flow, strain, and shear loading seen in normal and pathological conditions was accomplished. The ECCM therefore is an enabling technology that allows for study of ECs under physiologically relevant biomechanical loading conditions in vitro. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. A novel immuno-competitive capture mass spectrometry strategy for protein-protein interaction profiling reveals that LATS kinases regulate HCV replication through NS5A phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meistermann, Hélène; Gao, Junjun; Golling, Sabrina; Lamerz, Jens; Le Pogam, Sophie; Tzouros, Manuel; Sankabathula, Sailaja; Gruenbaum, Lore; Nájera, Isabel; Langen, Hanno; Klumpp, Klaus; Augustin, Angélique

    2014-11-01

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is essential to fully characterize the biological function of a protein and improve our understanding of diseases. Affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) using selective antibodies against a target protein has been commonly applied to study protein complexes. However, one major limitation is a lack of specificity as a substantial part of the proposed binders is due to nonspecific interactions. Here, we describe an innovative immuno-competitive capture mass spectrometry (ICC-MS) method to allow systematic investigation of protein-protein interactions. ICC-MS markedly increases the specificity of classical immunoprecipitation (IP) by introducing a competition step between free and capturing antibody prior to IP. Instead of comparing only one experimental sample with a control, the methodology generates a 12-concentration antibody competition profile. Label-free quantitation followed by a robust statistical analysis of the data is then used to extract the cellular interactome of a protein of interest and to filter out background proteins. We applied this new approach to specifically map the interactome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) in a cellular HCV replication system and uncovered eight new NS5A-interacting protein candidates along with two previously validated binding partners. Follow-up biological validation experiments revealed that large tumor suppressor homolog 1 and 2 (LATS1 and LATS2, respectively), two closely related human protein kinases, are novel host kinases responsible for NS5A phosphorylation at a highly conserved position required for optimal HCV genome replication. These results are the first illustration of the value of ICC-MS for the analysis of endogenous protein complexes to identify biologically relevant protein-protein interactions with high specificity.

  2. Visualization of feline calicivirus replication in real-time with recombinant viruses engineered to express fluorescent reporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abente, Eugenio J; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Bok, Karin; Green, Kim Y

    2010-04-25

    Caliciviruses are non-enveloped, icosahedral viruses with a single-stranded, positive sense RNA genome. Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis was used to insert a transprimer sequence into random sites of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of the feline calicivirus (FCV) genome. A site in the LC gene (encoding the capsid leader protein) of the FCV genome was identified that could tolerate foreign insertions, and two viable recombinant FCV variants expressing LC fused either to AcGFP, or DsRedFP were recovered. The effects of the insertions on LC processing, RNA replication, and stability of the viral genome were analyzed, and the progression of a calicivirus single infection and co-infection were captured by real-time imaging fluorescent microscopy. The ability to engineer viable recombinant caliciviruses expressing foreign markers enables new approaches to investigate virus and host cell interactions, as well as studies of viral recombination, one of the driving forces of calicivirus evolution. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. 连续时间动态复制定理的推广与证明%Extension and Proof of the Continuous-Time Dynamic Replication Theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙; 吴冲锋

    2002-01-01

    This paper extends the continuous-time dynamic replication theorem for incomplete Markets, which is proposed by Bertsimas, Kogan and Lo (1997)[1]. Then this extended dynamic replication theorem is proved using the theory of the stochastic optimal control.%推广了由Bertsimas,Kogan andLo(1997)[1]提出的非完全市场中的连续时间动态复制定理,然后,我们运用随机最优控制理论证明了这个定理.

  4. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  5. Deciphering DNA replication dynamics in eukaryotic cell populations in relation with their averaged chromatin conformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldar, A.; Arneodo, A.; Audit, B.; Argoul, F.; Rappailles, A.; Guilbaud, G.; Petryk, N.; Kahli, M.; Hyrien, O.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a non-local model of DNA replication that takes into account the observed uncertainty on the position and time of replication initiation in eukaryote cell populations. By picturing replication initiation as a two-state system and considering all possible transition configurations, and by taking into account the chromatin’s fractal dimension, we derive an analytical expression for the rate of replication initiation. This model predicts with no free parameter the temporal profiles of initiation rate, replication fork density and fraction of replicated DNA, in quantitative agreement with corresponding experimental data from both S. cerevisiae and human cells and provides a quantitative estimate of initiation site redundancy. This study shows that, to a large extent, the program that regulates the dynamics of eukaryotic DNA replication is a collective phenomenon that emerges from the stochastic nature of replication origins initiation.

  6. The Ctf18 RFC-like complex positions yeast telomeres but does not specify their replication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Shin-ichiro; Robertson, E Douglas; Donaldson, Anne D

    2006-04-05

    Chromosome ends in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are positioned in clusters at the nuclear rim. We report that Ctf18, Ctf8, and Dcc1, the subunits of a Replication Factor C (RFC)-like complex, are essential for the perinuclear positioning of telomeres. In both yeast and mammalian cells, peripheral nuclear positioning of chromatin during G1 phase correlates with late DNA replication. We find that the mislocalized telomeres of ctf18 cells still replicate late, showing that late DNA replication does not require peripheral positioning during G1. The Ku and Sir complexes have been shown to act through separate pathways to position telomeres, but in the absence of Ctf18 neither pathway can act fully to maintain telomere position. Surprisingly CTF18 is not required for Ku or Sir4-mediated peripheral tethering of a nontelomeric chromosome locus. Our results suggest that the Ctf18 RFC-like complex modifies telomeric chromatin to make it competent for normal localization to the nuclear periphery.

  7. Effects of solution chemistry and aging time on prion protein adsorption and replication of soil-bound prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E Saunders

    Full Text Available Prion interactions with soil may play an important role in the transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD and scrapie. Prions are known to bind to a wide range of soil surfaces, but the effects of adsorption solution chemistry and long-term soil binding on prion fate and transmission risk are unknown. We investigated HY TME prion protein (PrP(Sc adsorption to soil minerals in aqueous solutions of phosphate buffered saline (PBS, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and deionized water using western blotting. The replication efficiency of bound prions following adsorption in these solutions was also evaluated by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA. Aging studies investigated PrP(Sc desorption and replication efficiency up to one year following adsorption in PBS or DI water. Results indicate that adsorption solution chemistry can affect subsequent prion replication or desorption ability, especially after incubation periods of 30 d or longer. Observed effects were minor over the short-term (7 d or less. Results of long-term aging experiments demonstrate that unbound prions or prions bound to a diverse range of soil surfaces can readily replicate after one year. Our results suggest that while prion-soil interactions can vary with solution chemistry, prions bound to soil could remain a risk for transmitting prion diseases after months in the environment.

  8. Development and Applications of Time of Flight Neutron Depth Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham Cady; Kenan Unlu

    2005-03-17

    The depth profiles of intentional or intrinsic constituents of a sample provide valuable information for the characterization of materials. For example, the subtle differences in spatial distribution and composition of many chemical species in the near surface region and across interfacial boundaries can significantly alter the electronic and optical properties of materials. A number of analytical techniques for depth profiling have been developed during the last two decades. neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) is one of the leading analytical techniques. The NDP is a nondestructive near surface technique that utilizes thermal/cold neutron beam to measure the concentration of specific light elements versus their depth in materials. The depth is obtained from the energy loss of protons, alphas or recoil atoms in substrate materials. Since the charged particle energy determination using surface barrier detector is used for NDP, the depth resolution is highly dependent on the detectors an d detection instruments. The depth resolutions of a few tens of nm are achieved with available NDP facilities in the world. However, the performance of NDP needs to be improved in order to obtain a few A depth resolutions.

  9. NACSA Charter School Replication Guide: The Spectrum of Replication Options. Authorizing Matters. Replication Brief 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and high-profile issues in public education reform today is the replication of successful public charter school programs. With more than 5,000 failing public schools in the United States, there is a tremendous need for strong alternatives for parents and students. Replicating successful charter school models is an…

  10. Latent Profiles of Perceived Time Adequacy for Paid Work, Parenting, and Partner Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.; King, Rosalind B.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined feelings of having enough time (i.e., perceived time adequacy) in a sample of employed parents (N=880) in information technology and extended-care industries. Adapting a person-centered latent profile approach, we identified three profiles of perceived time adequacy for paid work, parenting, and partner roles: Family Time Protected, Family Time Sacrificed, and Time Balanced. Drawing upon the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfòll, 1989), we examined the associations of stressors and resources with the time adequacy profiles. Parents in the Family Time Sacrificed profile were more likely to be younger, women, have younger children, work in the extended-care industry, and have nonstandard work schedules compared to those in the Family Time Protected profile. Results from multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that, with the Time Balanced profile as the reference group, having fewer stressors and more resources in the family context (less parent-child conflict and more partner support), work context (longer company tenure, higher schedule control and job satisfaction), and work-family interface (lower work-to-family conflict) was linked to a higher probability of membership in the Family Time Protected profile. By contrast, having more stressors and fewer resources, in the forms of less partner support and higher work-to-family conflict, predicted a higher likelihood of being in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. Our findings suggest that low work-to-family conflict is the most critical predictor of membership in the Family Time Protected profile, whereas lack of partner support is the most important factor to be included in the Family Time Sacrificed profile. PMID:26075739

  11. Deciphering DNA replication dynamics in eukaryotic cell populations in relation with their averaged chromatin conformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldar, A.; Arneodo, A.; Audit, B.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a non-local model of DNA replication that takes into account the observed uncertainty on the position and time of replication initiation in eukaryote cell populations. By picturing replication initiation as a two-state system and considering all possible transition configurations......, and by taking into account the chromatin's fractal dimension, we derive an analytical expression for the rate of replication initiation. This model predicts with no free parameter the temporal profiles of initiation rate, replication fork density and fraction of replicated DNA, in quantitative agreement...... with corresponding experimental data from both S. cerevisiae and human cells and provides a quantitative estimate of initiation site redundancy. This study shows that, to a large extent, the program that regulates the dynamics of eukaryotic DNA replication is a collective phenomenon that emerges from the stochastic...

  12. University Instructors' Ratings Profiles: Stability Over Time, and Disciplinary Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hativa, Nira; Raviv, Alona

    1996-01-01

    A study compared the teaching behaviors of University of Tel Aviv (Israel) physics and chemistry faculty over two consecutive years, at mid- and end-semester. Findings indicate a high degree of stability in behaviors over time, with no clear-cut improvement during a semester except for faculty undertaking special instructional improvement…

  13. Real-time Wind Profile Estimation using Airborne Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    In 't Veld, A.C.; De Jong, P.M.A.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Wind is one of the major contributors to uncertainty in continuous descent approach operations. Especially when aircraft that are flying low or idle thrust approaches are issued a required time of arrival over the runway threshold, as is foreseen in some of the future ATC scenarios, the on-board

  14. Sinusoidal phase-modulating laser diode interferometer for real-time surface profile measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guotian He; Xiangzhao Wang; Aijun Zeng; Feng Tang

    2007-01-01

    A sinusoidal phase-modulating (SPM) laser diode (LD) interferometer for real-time surface profile measurement is proposed and its principle is analyzed. The phase signal of the surface profile is detected from the sinusoidal phase-modulating interference signal using a real-time phase detection circuit. For 60 × 60 measurement points of the surface profile, the measuring time is 10 ms. A root mean square (RMS) measurement repeatability of 3.93 nm is realized, and the measurement resolution reaches 0.19 nm.

  15. Deboning time effect on sensory descriptive flavor profiles of cooked broiler pectoralis major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profiling sensory texture characteristics of cooked chicken pectoralis major (breast fillets) deboned at different postmortem (PM) times has been research interests for decades. However, there is lack of peer-reviewed studies to compare sensory descriptive flavor profiles of hot-deboned versus 2-h c...

  16. Replication domains are self-interacting structural chromatin units of human chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, Alain

    2011-03-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the absence of specific sequence motifs marking the origins of replication has been a serious hindrance to the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the initiation and the maintenance of the replication program in different cell types. In silico analysis of nucleotide compositional skew has predicted the existence, in the germline, of replication N-domains bordered by putative replication origins and where the skew decreases rather linearly as the signature of a progressive inversion of the average fork polarity. Here, from the demonstration that the average fork polarity can be directly extracted from the derivative of replication timing profiles, we develop a wavelet-based pattern recognition methodology to delineate replication U-domains where the replication timing profile is shaped as a U and its derivative as a N. Replication U-domains are robustly found in seven cell lines as covering a significant portion (40-50%) of the human genome where the replication timing data actually displays some plasticity between cell lines. The early replication initiation zones at U-domains borders are found to be hypersensitive to DNase I cleavage, to be associated with transcriptional activity and to present a significant enrichment in insular-binding proteins CTCF, the hallmark of an open chromatin structure. A comparative analysis of genome-wide chromatin interaction (HiC) data shows that replication-U domains correspond to self-interacting structural high order chromatin units of megabase characteristic size. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that the epigenetic compartmentalization of the human genome into autonomous replication U-domains comes along with an extensive remodelling of the threedimensional chromosome architecture during development or in specific diseases. The observed cell specific conservation of the replication timing between the human and mouse genomes strongly suggests that this chromosome organization into

  17. Questions of time and affect: a person’s affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Uta; Nima, Ali Al; Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Background. A “balanced” time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive), a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative), the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic), a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic), and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future). We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity) to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual’s type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720) answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM) were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect) were characterized by a “balanced” time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect). However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative time

  18. Time Profile of Three Semi-Arid Ecosystems in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, A.; Damoah, R.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the spatio-temporal variability of rainfall and satellite derived-vegetation index of three endorheic semi-arid ecosystems in Africa: Lake Chad (in the Sahel region), Okavango and Etosha (Southern Africa) to infer the nature and trends of the variability during the satellite data instrumental record. We utilize African Rainfall Climatology Precipitation Estimates (1983-2014) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR: 1981-2014) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: 2001:2014) to examine the aspects of the annual cycle and interannual variability using both time series plots and time-space diagrams. With respect to Lake Chad region, the first two decades of the series (1981-2000) show predominantly dryer than long-term average conditions with the periods 1989, 1992 and 1996/1997 as the signature drought periods coinciding with the desiccation of the Sahel region during the 1980s to early 1990s decades. The period 2000 to present is dominated by above average rainfall and NDVI with 2003, 2007 and 2012 being the most pronounced wet/greener years. The southern African ecosystems (Okavango and Etosha) show more or less a similar temporal pattern to that of Lake Chad basin, however, the wet periods are more amplified and persistent especially 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2014, with corresponding above average NDVI departures. The amplified nature of wet and dry periods present in the southern African ecosystem time series are consistent with the El Niño Southern Oscillation teleconnection patterns. Overall these three ecosystems serve as detectable fingerprints of changing climate conditions and ecosystems in these arid regions.

  19. Estimation of dynamic flux profiles from metabolic time series data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou I-Chun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in modern high-throughput techniques of molecular biology have enabled top-down approaches for the estimation of parameter values in metabolic systems, based on time series data. Special among them is the recent method of dynamic flux estimation (DFE, which uses such data not only for parameter estimation but also for the identification of functional forms of the processes governing a metabolic system. DFE furthermore provides diagnostic tools for the evaluation of model validity and of the quality of a model fit beyond residual errors. Unfortunately, DFE works only when the data are more or less complete and the system contains as many independent fluxes as metabolites. These drawbacks may be ameliorated with other types of estimation and information. However, such supplementations incur their own limitations. In particular, assumptions must be made regarding the functional forms of some processes and detailed kinetic information must be available, in addition to the time series data. Results The authors propose here a systematic approach that supplements DFE and overcomes some of its shortcomings. Like DFE, the approach is model-free and requires only minimal assumptions. If sufficient time series data are available, the approach allows the determination of a subset of fluxes that enables the subsequent applicability of DFE to the rest of the flux system. The authors demonstrate the procedure with three artificial pathway systems exhibiting distinct characteristics and with actual data of the trehalose pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the proposed method successfully complements DFE under various situations and without a priori assumptions regarding the model representation. The proposed method also permits an examination of whether at all, to what degree, or within what range the available time series data can be validly represented in a particular functional format of

  20. Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 4 replicates in two phases that correlate with chromatin state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Jin; Pascuzzi, Pete E; Settlage, Sharon B; Shultz, Randall W; Tanurdzic, Milos; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Menges, Margit; Zheng, Ping; Main, Dorrie; Murray, James A H; Sosinski, Bryon; Allen, George C; Martienssen, Robert A; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda; Vaughn, Matthew W; Thompson, William F

    2010-06-10

    DNA replication programs have been studied extensively in yeast and animal systems, where they have been shown to correlate with gene expression and certain epigenetic modifications. Despite the conservation of core DNA replication proteins, little is known about replication programs in plants. We used flow cytometry and tiling microarrays to profile DNA replication of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 4 (chr4) during early, mid, and late S phase. Replication profiles for early and mid S phase were similar and encompassed the majority of the euchromatin. Late S phase exhibited a distinctly different profile that includes the remaining euchromatin and essentially all of the heterochromatin. Termination zones were consistent between experiments, allowing us to define 163 putative replicons on chr4 that clustered into larger domains of predominately early or late replication. Early-replicating sequences, especially the initiation zones of early replicons, displayed a pattern of epigenetic modifications specifying an open chromatin conformation. Late replicons, and the termination zones of early replicons, showed an opposite pattern. Histone H3 acetylated on lysine 56 (H3K56ac) was enriched in early replicons, as well as the initiation zones of both early and late replicons. H3K56ac was also associated with expressed genes, but this effect was local whereas replication time correlated with H3K56ac over broad regions. The similarity of the replication profiles for early and mid S phase cells indicates that replication origin activation in euchromatin is stochastic. Replicon organization in Arabidopsis is strongly influenced by epigenetic modifications to histones and DNA. The domain organization of Arabidopsis is more similar to that in Drosophila than that in mammals, which may reflect genome size and complexity. The distinct patterns of association of H3K56ac with gene expression and early replication provide evidence that H3K56ac may be associated with initiation zones

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 4 replicates in two phases that correlate with chromatin state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Jin Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication programs have been studied extensively in yeast and animal systems, where they have been shown to correlate with gene expression and certain epigenetic modifications. Despite the conservation of core DNA replication proteins, little is known about replication programs in plants. We used flow cytometry and tiling microarrays to profile DNA replication of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 4 (chr4 during early, mid, and late S phase. Replication profiles for early and mid S phase were similar and encompassed the majority of the euchromatin. Late S phase exhibited a distinctly different profile that includes the remaining euchromatin and essentially all of the heterochromatin. Termination zones were consistent between experiments, allowing us to define 163 putative replicons on chr4 that clustered into larger domains of predominately early or late replication. Early-replicating sequences, especially the initiation zones of early replicons, displayed a pattern of epigenetic modifications specifying an open chromatin conformation. Late replicons, and the termination zones of early replicons, showed an opposite pattern. Histone H3 acetylated on lysine 56 (H3K56ac was enriched in early replicons, as well as the initiation zones of both early and late replicons. H3K56ac was also associated with expressed genes, but this effect was local whereas replication time correlated with H3K56ac over broad regions. The similarity of the replication profiles for early and mid S phase cells indicates that replication origin activation in euchromatin is stochastic. Replicon organization in Arabidopsis is strongly influenced by epigenetic modifications to histones and DNA. The domain organization of Arabidopsis is more similar to that in Drosophila than that in mammals, which may reflect genome size and complexity. The distinct patterns of association of H3K56ac with gene expression and early replication provide evidence that H3K56ac may be associated

  2. Chlamydia psittaci reference genes for normalisation of expression data differ depending on the culture conditions and selected time points during the chlamydial replication cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Lent Sarah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia psittaci is a gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen of birds. Poultry infections lead to economic losses and can be transmitted to humans. No vaccine is available and the bacterium-host cell interaction is not completely understood. Replicating bacteria cause pneumonia, but C. psittaci can also be non-replicating and persistent inside the cytoplasm of avian cells. RT-qPCR provides insight into the molecular pathogenesis of both active replicating and persistent Chlamydia psittaci in birds, but requires identification of stably expressed reference genes to avoid biases. Material and Methods: We investigated the expression stability of 10 C. psittaci candidate reference genes for gene expression analysis during normal growth and penicillin-induced persistence. C. psittaci Cal10 was cultured in HeLa229 and RNA was extracted. The expression level of each candidate was examined by RT-qPCR and Cq values were analysed using geNorm. Results: The genes tyrS, gidA, radA, and 16S rRNA ranked among the most stably expressed. The final selected reference genes differed according to the bacterial growth status (normal growth versus persistent status, and the time points selected during the duration of the normal chlamydial developmental cycle. Conclusion: The study data show the importance of systematic validation of reference genes to confirm their stability within the strains and under the conditions selected.

  3. Time-course profiling of molecular stress responses to silver nanoparticles in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Simonsen, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) toxicity, particularly its temporal aspect, is currently limited in the literature. This study seeks to identify and profile changes in molecular response patterns over time during soil exposure of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to AgNPs (82±27 nm......) with reference to dissolved silver salt (AgNO3). Principal component analysis of selected gene and enzyme response profiles revealed dissimilar patterns between AgNO3 and AgNP treatments and also over time. Despite the observed difference in molecular profiles, the body burdens of total Ag were within the same...

  4. Real-time convolution method for generating light diffusion profiles of layered turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoe-Min; Ko, Kwang Hee; Lee, Kwan H

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present a technique to obtain a diffusion profile of layered turbid media in real time by using the quasi fast Hankel transform (QFHT) and the latest graphics processing unit technique. We apply the QFHT to convolve the diffusion profiles of each layer so as to dramatically reduce the time for the convolution step while maintaining the accuracy. In addition, we also introduce an accelerated technique to generate individual discrete diffusion profiles for each layer through parallel processing. The proposed method is 2 orders of magnitude faster than the existing method, and we validate its efficiency by comparing it with Monte Carlo simulation and another relevant methods.

  5. Semantic and Time-Dependent Expertise Profiling Models in Community-Driven Knowledge Curation Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Hunter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Online collaboration and web-based knowledge sharing have gained momentum as major components of the Web 2.0 movement. Consequently, knowledge embedded in such platforms is no longer static and continuously evolves through experts’ micro-contributions. Traditional Information Retrieval and Social Network Analysis techniques take a document-centric approach to expertise modeling by creating a macro-perspective of knowledge embedded in large corpus of static documents. However, as knowledge in collaboration platforms changes dynamically, the traditional macro-perspective is insufficient for tracking the evolution of knowledge and expertise. Hence, Expertise Profiling is presented with major challenges in the context of dynamic and evolving knowledge. In our previous study, we proposed a comprehensive, domain-independent model for expertise profiling in the context of evolving knowledge. In this paper, we incorporate Language Modeling into our methodology to enhance the accuracy of resulting profiles. Evaluation results indicate a significant improvement in the accuracy of profiles generated by this approach. In addition, we present our profile visualization tool, Profile Explorer, which serves as a paradigm for exploring and analyzing time-dependent expertise profiles in knowledge-bases where content evolves overtime. Profile Explorer facilitates comparative analysis of evolving expertise, independent of the domain and the methodology used in creating profiles.

  6. Efficient reconstruction of dispersive dielectric profiles using time domain reflectometry (TDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Leidenberger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical model for time domain reflectometry (TDR signal propagation in dispersive dielectric materials. The numerical probe model is terminated with a parallel circuit, consisting of an ohmic resistor and an ideal capacitance. We derive analytical approximations for the capacitance, the inductance and the conductance of three-wire probes. We couple the time domain model with global optimization in order to reconstruct water content profiles from TDR traces. For efficiently solving the inverse problem we use genetic algorithms combined with a hierarchical parameterization. We investigate the performance of the method by reconstructing synthetically generated profiles. The algorithm is then applied to retrieve dielectric profiles from TDR traces measured in the field. We succeed in reconstructing dielectric and ohmic profiles where conventional methods, based on travel time extraction, fail.

  7. A quantitative measure of the structure of gamma-ray burst time profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestrade, John P.; Fishman, G.; Horack, J.; Meegan, C.; Moore, P.; Paciesas, W.; Wilson, R.

    1992-01-01

    A cursory examination of cosmic gamma-ray burst time profiles indicates an inhomogeneous distribution of structure. In the first approximation, there seem to be two types of profiles; smooth ones with little structure and highly variable ones with lots of structure. To put this observation to the test, we have examined the statistical nature of the profile derivative to choose which parameter might best be called the burst 'spikiness'. We have found that a good estimator is given by a count of the number of 'spikes' (defined by a specific numerical recipe) and not by the rms deviations from either a pre-burst background or any type of moving average background. The application of this parameter to 30 burst time histories shows it to be consistent over a wide range of profile types. The analysis also reveals a preferred average time between spikes of approximately 1.5 seconds.

  8. Modeling inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel G Gauthier

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited.

  9. Replication-Fork Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duderstadt, Karl E.; Reyes-Lamothe, Rodrigo; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Sherratt, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of all organisms depends on the coordination of enzymatic events within large multiprotein replisomes that duplicate chromosomes. Whereas the structure and function of many core replisome components have been clarified, the timing and order of molecular events during replication re

  10. Hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA,ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones;moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids.This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV),now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cellfree systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately,not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the s RNA element such information is emerging,raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal,will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

  11. Predicting Educational Outcomes and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescents Using Time Attitude Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.; Mello, Zena R.

    2014-01-01

    Using cluster analysis of Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (ATAS) scores in a sample of 300 adolescents ("M" age = 16 years; "SD" = 1.25; 60% male; 41% European American; 25.3% Asian American; 11% African American; 10.3% Latino), the authors identified five time attitude profiles based on positive and negative attitudes toward…

  12. Questions of time and affect: a person’s affectivity profile, time perspective, and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. A “balanced” time perspective has been suggested to have a positive influence on well-being: a sentimental and positive view of the past (high Past Positive, a less pessimistic attitude toward the past (low Past Negative, the desire of experiencing pleasure with slight concern for future consequences (high Present Hedonistic, a less fatalistic and hopeless view of the future (low Present Fatalistic, and the ability to find reward in achieving specific long-term goals (high Future. We used the affective profiles model (i.e., combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive/negative affectivity to investigate differences between individuals in time perspective dimensions and to investigate if the influence of time perspective dimensions on well-being was moderated by the individual’s type of profile. Method. Participants (N = 720 answered to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and two measures of well-being: the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being-short version. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA was conducted to identify differences in time perspective dimensions and well-being among individuals with distinct affective profiles. Four structural equation models (SEM were used to investigate which time perspective dimensions predicted well-being for individuals in each profile. Results. Comparisons between individuals at the extreme of the affective profiles model suggested that individuals with a self-fulfilling profile (high positive/low negative affect were characterized by a “balanced” time perspective and higher well-being compared to individuals with a self-destructive profile (low positive/high negative affect. However, a different pattern emerged when individuals who differed in one affect dimension but matched in the other were compared to each other. For instance, decreases in the past negative

  13. The impact of sampling, PCR, and sequencing replication on discerning changes in drinking water bacterial community over diurnal time-scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-de Los Santos, Quyen Melina; Schroeder, Joanna L; Blakemore, Oliver; Moses, Jonathan; Haffey, Mark; Sloan, William; Pinto, Ameet J

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput and deep DNA sequencing, particularly amplicon sequencing, is being increasingly utilized to reveal spatial and temporal dynamics of bacterial communities in drinking water systems. Whilst the sampling and methodological biases associated with PCR and sequencing have been studied in other environments, they have not been quantified for drinking water. These biases are likely to have the greatest effect on the ability to characterize subtle spatio-temporal patterns influenced by process/environmental conditions. In such cases, intra-sample variability may swamp any underlying small, systematic variation. To evaluate this, we undertook a study with replication at multiple levels including sampling sites, sample collection, PCR amplification, and high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. The variability inherent to the PCR amplification and sequencing steps is significant enough to mask differences between bacterial communities from replicate samples. This was largely driven by greater variability in detection of rare bacteria (relative abundance water use. This suggests hydraulic changes (driven by changes in water demand) contribute to shaping the bacterial community in bulk drinking water over diurnal time-scales.

  14. Untargeted metabolomic analysis using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for non-volatile profiling of wines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbulu, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Sampedro, M.C. [Central Service of Analysis, SGIker, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Gómez-Caballero, A.; Goicolea, M.A. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Barrio, R.J., E-mail: r.barrio@ehu.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)

    2015-02-09

    Highlights: • An untargeted metabolomic method for the non-volatile profile of the Graciano wine was developed. • 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified. • 15 compounds could serve to differentiate Graciano and Tempranillo wines. • An enological database (WinMet) with 2080 compounds was constructed. - Abstract: The current study presents a method for comprehensive untargeted metabolomic fingerprinting of the non-volatile profile of the Graciano Vitis vinifera wine variety, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-QTOF). Pre-treatment of samples, chromatographic columns, mobile phases, elution gradients and ionization sources, were evaluated for the extraction of the maximum number of metabolites in red wine. Putative compounds were extracted from the raw data using the extraction algorithm, molecular feature extractor (MFE). For the metabolite identification the WinMet database was designed based on electronic databases and literature research and includes only the putative metabolites reported to be present in oenological matrices. The results from WinMet were compared with those in the METLIN database to evaluate how much the databases overlap for performing identifications. The reproducibility of the analysis was assessed using manual processing following replicate injections of Vitis vinifera cv. Graciano wine spiked with external standards. In the present work, 411 different metabolites in Graciano Vitis vinifera red wine were identified, including primary wine metabolites such as sugars (4%), amino acids (23%), biogenic amines (4%), fatty acids (2%), and organic acids (32%) and secondary metabolites such as phenols (27%) and esters (8%). Significant differences between varieties Tempranillo and Graciano were related to the presence of fifteen specific compounds.

  15. DATABASE REPLICATION IN HETEROGENOUS PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Nindito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of diverse database technologies in enterprises today is increasingly a common practice. To provide high availability and survavibality of real-time information, a database replication technology that has capability to replicate databases under heterogenous platforms is required. The purpose of this research is to find the technology with such capability. In this research, the data source is stored in MSSQL database server running on Windows. The data will be replicated to MySQL running on Linux as the destination. The method applied in this research is prototyping in which the processes of development and testing can be done interactively and repeatedly. The key result of this research is that the replication technology applied, which is called Oracle GoldenGate, can successfully manage to do its task in replicating data in real-time and heterogeneous platforms.

  16. Inverse methods for estimating primary input signals from time-averaged isotope profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.; Schuster, Gerard T.; Robinson, Todd F.; Roeder, Beverly L.; Krueger, Stephen K.

    2005-08-01

    Mammalian teeth are invaluable archives of ancient seasonality because they record along their growth axes an isotopic record of temporal change in environment, plant diet, and animal behavior. A major problem with the intra-tooth method is that intra-tooth isotope profiles can be extremely time-averaged compared to the actual pattern of isotopic variation experienced by the animal during tooth formation. This time-averaging is a result of the temporal and spatial characteristics of amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation), and also results from laboratory sampling. This paper develops and evaluates an inverse method for reconstructing original input signals from time-averaged intra-tooth isotope profiles. The method requires that the temporal and spatial patterns of amelogenesis are known for the specific tooth and uses a minimum length solution of the linear system Am = d, where d is the measured isotopic profile, A is a matrix describing temporal and spatial averaging during amelogenesis and sampling, and m is the input vector that is sought. Accuracy is dependent on several factors, including the total measurement error and the isotopic structure of the measured profile. The method is shown to accurately reconstruct known input signals for synthetic tooth enamel profiles and the known input signal for a rabbit that underwent controlled dietary changes. Application to carbon isotope profiles of modern hippopotamus canines reveals detailed dietary histories that are not apparent from the measured data alone. Inverse methods show promise as an effective means of dealing with the time-averaging problem in studies of intra-tooth isotopic variation.

  17. Systematic determination of replication activity type highlights interconnections between replication, chromatin structure and nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomit Farkash-Amar

    Full Text Available DNA replication is a highly regulated process, with each genomic locus replicating at a distinct time of replication (ToR. Advances in ToR measurement technology enabled several genome-wide profiling studies that revealed tight associations between ToR and general genomic features and a remarkable ToR conservation in mammals. Genome wide studies further showed that at the hundreds kb-to-megabase scale the genome can be divided into constant ToR regions (CTRs in which the replication process propagates at a faster pace due to the activation of multiple origins and temporal transition regions (TTRs in which the replication process propagates at a slower pace. We developed a computational tool that assigns a ToR to every measured locus and determines its replication activity type (CTR versus TTR. Our algorithm, ARTO (Analysis of Replication Timing and Organization, uses signal processing methods to fit a constant piece-wise linear curve to the measured raw data. We tested our algorithm and provide performance and usability results. A Matlab implementation of ARTO is available at http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/ARTO/. Applying our algorithm to ToR data measured in multiple mouse and human samples allowed precise genome-wide ToR determination and replication activity type characterization. Analysis of the results highlighted the plasticity of the replication program. For example, we observed significant ToR differences in 10-25% of the genome when comparing different tissue types. Our analyses also provide evidence for activity type differences in up to 30% of the probes. Integration of the ToR data with multiple aspects of chromosome organization characteristics suggests that ToR plays a role in shaping the regional chromatin structure. Namely, repressive chromatin marks, are associated with late ToR both in TTRs and CTRs. Finally, characterization of the differences between TTRs and CTRs, with matching ToR, revealed that TTRs are

  18. The new real-time measurement capabilities of the profiling TARA radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, C.M.H.; Dufournet, Y.; Otto, T.; Russchenberg, H.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past 10 years, the S-band FM-CW TARA (Transportable Atmospheric RAdar), placed at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR), provided in real-time vertical profiles of the Doppler moments. Classical spectral processing was carried out. The polarimetric and multi-beam measu

  19. Identifying arsenic trioxide (ATO) functions in leukemia cells by using time series gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Lin, Shan; Cui, Jingru

    2014-02-10

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is presently the most active single agent in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In order to explore the molecular mechanism of ATO in leukemia cells with time series, we adopted bioinformatics strategy to analyze expression changing patterns and changes in transcription regulation modules of time series genes filtered from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE24946). We totally screened out 1847 time series genes for subsequent analysis. The KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathways enrichment analysis of these genes showed that oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome were the top 2 significantly enriched pathways. STEM software was employed to compare changing patterns of gene expression with assigned 50 expression patterns. We screened out 7 significantly enriched patterns and 4 tendency charts of time series genes. The result of Gene Ontology showed that functions of times series genes mainly distributed in profiles 41, 40, 39 and 38. Seven genes with positive regulation of cell adhesion function were enriched in profile 40, and presented the same first increased model then decreased model as profile 40. The transcription module analysis showed that they mainly involved in oxidative phosphorylation pathway and ribosome pathway. Overall, our data summarized the gene expression changes in ATO treated K562-r cell lines with time and suggested that time series genes mainly regulated cell adhesive. Furthermore, our result may provide theoretical basis of molecular biology in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Results from Application of Time Series Concepts to Vehicle Gamma Count Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopresti, Charles A.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Hartley-McBride, Stacey A.

    2007-05-01

    Algorithms based on time-series analysis techniques were explored for maximizing the effectiveness of pass-through radiation portal monitors for detection of special nuclear material (SNM). Time-series properties of vehicle count profiles such as stationarity and autocorrelation within energy windows were characterized. Vehicle count profiles were nonstationary but were found to be made stationary by first-differencing. Autocorrelation functions showed consistent differences between NORM alarm and non-alarm vehicles. Injection studies were performed to assess the performance of time-domain detection algorithms based on stationarity tests and on the CUSUM change-point detection test. Results indicated possible roles for detection algorithms based on statistical process control and on time series concepts.

  1. Control of nanoparticle agglomeration through variation of the time-temperature profile in chemical vapor synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenadic, Ruzica; Winterer, Markus

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the time-temperature history on the characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, degree of agglomeration, or crystallinity is investigated for chemical vapor synthesis (CVS). A simple reaction-coagulation-sintering model is used to describe the CVS process, and the results of the model are compared to experimental data. Nanocrystalline titania is used as model material. Titania nanoparticles are generated from titanium-tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in a hot-wall reactor. Pure anatase particles and mixtures of anatase, rutile (up to 11 vol.%), and brookite (up to 29 vol.%) with primary particle sizes from 1.7 nm to 10.5 nm and agglomerate particle sizes from 24.3 nm to 55.6 nm are formed depending on the particle time-temperature history. An inductively heated furnace with variable inductor geometry is used as a novel system to control the time-temperature profile in the reactor externally covering a large wall temperature range from 873 K to 2023 K. An appropriate choice of inductor geometry, i.e. time-temperature profile, can significantly reduce the degree of agglomeration. Other particle characteristics such as crystallinity are also substantially influenced by the time-temperature profile.

  2. Archaeal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  3. Analyzing the gene expression profile of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with real-time PCR arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Tao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Real-time PCR Array System is the ideal tool for analyzing the expression of a focused panel of genes. In this study, we will analyze the gene expression profile of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with real-time PCR arrays. Methods Real-time PCR array was designed and tested firstly. Then gene expression profile of 11 pediatric AML and 10 normal controls was analyzed with real-time PCR arrays. We analyzed the expression data with MEV (Multi Experiment View cluster software. Datasets representing genes with altered expression profile derived from cluster analyses were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool. Results We designed and tested 88 real-time PCR primer pairs for a quantitative gene expression analysis of key genes involved in pediatric AML. The gene expression profile of pediatric AML is significantly different from normal control; there are 19 genes up-regulated and 25 genes down-regulated in pediatric AML. To investigate possible biological interactions of differently regulated genes, datasets representing genes with altered expression profile were imported into the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool. The results revealed 12 significant networks. Of these networks, Cellular Development, Cellular Growth and Proliferation, Tumor Morphology was the highest rated network with 36 focus molecules and the significance score of 41. The IPA analysis also groups the differentially expressed genes into biological mechanisms that are related to hematological disease, cell death, cell growth and hematological system development. In the top canonical pathways, p53 and Huntington’s disease signaling came out to be the top two most significant pathways with a p value of 1.5E-8 and2.95E-7, respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the gene expression profile of pediatric AML is significantly different from normal control; there are 19 genes up-regulated and 25 genes down-regulated in pediatric AML. We

  4. Real time n/γ discrimination for the JET neutron profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M., E-mail: marco.riva@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Roma (Italy); Esposito, B.; Marocco, D.; Belli, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Roma (Italy); Syme, B. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Giacomelli, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, 20100 Milano (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Development of a pulse oriented acquisition system able for the JET neutron profile monitor to separate neutron and gamma pulses. ► Description of the FPGA hardware architecture. ► Comparison between the off-line and real time neutron count rates from the last JET experimental campaign. ► Estimate of the maximum sustainable count rate of the system. ► Statistical analysis of neutron measurements from JET neutron profile monitor and neutron monitors. -- Abstract: The JET neutron profile monitor provides the measurement of the neutron flux along 19 collimated lines of sight from which the neutron emissivity profile can be obtained through reconstruction based on inversion methods. The neutron detectors are liquid organic scintillators featuring n/γ pulse shape discrimination. A recent digital upgrade of the neutron profile monitor acquisition system (200 MSamples/s sampling rate per channel, 14 bit resolution) offers new real-time capabilities. An algorithm performing real-time n/γ discrimination by means of the charge comparison method is implemented in the acquisition system FPGA. The algorithm produces two distinct count rates (n and γ) that are sent to the JET real time network ready for control applications and are simultaneously stored into the JET archive together with all the samples of each pulse. The paper describes the architecture of the FPGA implementation and reports the analysis of data collected during the 2011–2012 JET campaigns. The comparison between the real-time and post-processed (off-line) neutron count rates shows an agreement within 5% for all 19 detectors. Moreover, it is shown that the maximum count rate sustainable by the acquisition system when storing raw data (∼900 kHz as evaluated in laboratory tests) can be extended up to 5 MHz when using the real-time implementation with no local data storage. Finally, a statistical analysis of the ratio between the line-integrated measurements from the neutron profile

  5. Evaluation of vapor profiles of explosives over time using ATASS (Automated Training Aid Simulation using SPME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie; Maccrehan, William; Schantz, Michele

    2011-10-10

    Despite numerous instrumental achievements, canines are still considered the most effective field method for explosive detection. However, due to strict explosive regulations and safety requirements, it can be a challenge for agencies with "bomb dogs" to train using neat explosive materials. This establishes a need for non-explosive canine training aids with the same volatile component profiles as the explosives that they represent. In order to compare mimic materials to their explosive counterparts, a technique must be established that not only allows for identification of volatile compounds but also can monitor changes in the headspace profile over time with respect to time and temperature. The Automated Training Aid Simulation using SPME (or ATASS) was developed for that purpose. As described, ATASS was used to observe changes in the volatile profile of three explosives (Composition C-4, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), and triacetone triperoxide (TATP)) and respective prototype training materials (0.1% by mass C-4, 1% by mass 2,4-DNT, and 1% by mass TATP). Samples were prepared in vials and metal tins within a gallon (≈ 3785 mL) paint can to simulate common field techniques for canine training. Monitoring these materials in real time provides a better understanding of the major volatile components present and how the relative abundances of these components can change over time. The results presented indicate that ATASS successfully allows for a sufficient comparison between explosive and non-explosive training materials. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Experimental estimation of the photons visiting probability profiles in time-resolved diffuse reflectance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, P; Kacprzak, M; Weigl, W; Borowska-Solonynko, A; Krajewski, P; Zolek, N; Ciszek, B; Maniewski, R; Liebert, A

    2012-12-07

    A time-gated intensified CCD camera was applied for time-resolved imaging of light penetrating in an optically turbid medium. Spatial distributions of light penetration probability in the plane perpendicular to the axes of the source and the detector were determined at different source positions. Furthermore, visiting probability profiles of diffuse reflectance measurement were obtained by the convolution of the light penetration distributions recorded at different source positions. Experiments were carried out on homogeneous phantoms, more realistic two-layered tissue phantoms based on the human skull filled with Intralipid-ink solution and on cadavers. It was noted that the photons visiting probability profiles depend strongly on the source-detector separation, the delay between the laser pulse and the photons collection window and the complex tissue composition of the human head.

  7. Identification of imprinted genes using a novel screening method based on asynchronous DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawame, H.; Hansen, R.S.; Gartler, S.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to the process of epigenetic change that occurs during germ cell development that results in either maternal- or paternal-specific gene expression. Identification of imprinted genes is of primary importance to the understanding of imprinting mechanisms and the role of specific imprinted genes in human disease. Recently, it has been established that chromosomal regions known to contain imprinted genes replicate asynchronously. We propose a novel screening method to identify imprinted genes based on replication asynchrony as a marker for imprinted domains. Dividing human cells were pulse-labeled with BrdU and separated into different fractions of S-phase by flow cytometry. A library of late-replicating inter-Alu sequences should be enriched in gene-associated sequences that replicate early on one chromosome and late on the other homologue. Clones were analyzed for replication timing by hybridization to inter-Alu replication profiles. Candidates for replication asynchrony exhibited broad or biphasic replication timing, and these were analyzed for chromosomal location by hybridizations to inter-Alu products from a hybrid mapping panel. Initial screening of 123 clones resulted in 3 asynchronously-replicating clones that localized to single chromosomes. Chromosome 17 and chromosome 19 candidates might be located in regions thought to be imprinted by synteny with mouse chromosomes. A chromosome 15 clone was further characterized because of its possible localization to the Prader-Willi/Angelman locus. This sequence was localized outside the region deleted in Prader-Willi patients, and was found to be expressed in human cell lines. Replication asynchrony for this sequence appears to be polymorphic because cells derived from some individuals indicated synchronous replication. This appears to be the first example of a polymorphism in replication asynchrony.

  8. A quantitative model of DNA replication in Xenopus embryos: reliable replication despite stochasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Hsin Yang, Scott; Bechhoefer, John

    2008-03-01

    DNA synthesis in Xenopus frog embryos initiates stochastically in time at many sites (origins) along the chromosome. Stochastic initiation implies fluctuations in the replication time and may lead to cell death if replication takes longer than the cell cycle time (˜ 25 min.). Surprisingly, although the typical replication time is about 20 min., in vivo experiments show that replication fails to complete only about 1 in 250 times. How is replication timing accurately controlled despite the stochasticity? Biologists have proposed two mechanisms: the first uses a regular spatial distribution of origins, while the second uses randomly located origins but increases their probability of initiation as the cell cycle proceeds. Here, we show that both mechanisms yield similar end-time distributions, implying that regular origin spacing is not needed for control of replication time. Moreover, we show that the experimentally inferred time-dependent initiation rate satisfies the observed low failure probability and nearly optimizes the use of replicative proteins.

  9. Real-time control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Alexander

    2010-07-20

    The tokamak concept currently is the most promising approach to future power generation by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The spatial distribution of the particle density in the toroidally confined fusion plasma is of particular importance. This thesis work therefore focuses on the question as to what extent the shape of the density profile can be actively controlled by a feedback loop in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. There are basically two essential requirements for such feedback control of the density profile, which has been experimentally demonstrated within the scope of this thesis work: On the one hand, for this purpose the density profile must be continuously calculated under real-time constraints during a plasma discharge. The calculation of the density profile is based on the measurements of a sub-millimeter interferometer, which provides the line-integrated electron density along 5 chords through the plasma. Interferometric density measurements can suffer from counting errors by integer multiples of 2{pi} when detecting the phase difference between a probing and a reference beam. As such measurement errors have severe impact on the reconstructed density profile, one major part of this work consists in the development of new readout electronics for the interferometer, which allows for detection of such measurement errors in real-time with high reliability. A further part of this work is the design of a computer algorithm which reconstructs the spatial distribution of the plasma density from the line-integrated measurements. This algorithm has to be implemented on a computer which communicates the measured data to other computers in real-time, especially to the tokamak control system. On the other hand, a second fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of a feedback controller is the identification of at least one actuator which enables a modification of the density profile. Here, electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has

  10. Thermonuclear Supernovae: Probing Magnetic Fields by Late-Time IR Line Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Penney, R

    2014-01-01

    We study the imprint of magnetic fields B on late-time IR line profiles and light curves of Type Ia Supernovae. As a benchmark, we use the explosion of a Chandrasekhar mass M_{Ch White Dwarf (WD) and, specifically, a delayed detonation model. We assume WDs with initial magnetic surface fields between 1 and 1E9G. We discuss large-scale dipole and small-scale magnetic fields. We find that the [Fe II] line at 1.644 mu can be used to analyze the overall chemical and density structure of the exploding WD up to day 200 without considering B. Subsequently, positron transport and magnetic field effects become important. By day 500, the profile becomes sensitive to the morphology of B and directional dependent for dipole fields. Small or no directional dependence of the spectra is found for small-scale B. After about 200 days, persistent broad-line, flat-topped or stumpy profiles require high density burning which is the signature of a WD close to M_Ch. Narrow peaked profiles are a signature of chemical mixing or sub-...

  11. Time-lapse ultrashort pulse microscopy of infection in three-dimensional versus two-dimensional culture environments reveals enhanced extra-chromosomal virus replication compartment formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly C.; Sing, Garwin; Armas, Juan Carlos González; Campbell, Colin J.; Ghazal, Peter; Yeh, Alvin T.

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms that enable viruses to harness cellular machinery for their own survival are primarily studied in cell lines cultured in two-dimensional (2-D) environments. However, there are increasing reports of biological differences between cells cultured in 2-D versus three-dimensional (3-D) environments. Here we report differences in host-virus interactions based on differences in culture environment. Using ultrashort pulse microscopy (UPM), a form of two-photon microscopy that utilizes sub-10-fs pulses to efficiently excite fluorophores, we have shown that de novo development of extra-chromosomal virus replication compartments (VRCs) upon murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) infection is markedly enhanced when host cells are cultured in 3-D collagen gels versus 2-D monolayers. In addition, time-lapse imaging revealed that mCMV-induced VRCs have the capacity to grow by coalescence. This work supports the future potential of 3-D culture as a useful bridge between traditional monolayer cultures and animal models to study host-virus interactions in a more physiologically relevant environment for the development of effective anti-viral therapeutics. These advances will require broader adoption of modalities, such as UPM, to image deep within scattering tissues.

  12. Selecting the most appropriate time points to profile in high-throughput studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyman, Michael; Sefer, Emre; Nicola, Teodora; Espinoza, Celia; Chhabra, Divya; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems are increasingly being studied by high throughput profiling of molecular data over time. Determining the set of time points to sample in studies that profile several different types of molecular data is still challenging. Here we present the Time Point Selection (TPS) method that solves this combinatorial problem in a principled and practical way. TPS utilizes expression data from a small set of genes sampled at a high rate. As we show by applying TPS to study mouse lung development, the points selected by TPS can be used to reconstruct an accurate representation for the expression values of the non selected points. Further, even though the selection is only based on gene expression, these points are also appropriate for representing a much larger set of protein, miRNA and DNA methylation changes over time. TPS can thus serve as a key design strategy for high throughput time series experiments. Supporting Website: www.sb.cs.cmu.edu/TPS DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18541.001 PMID:28124972

  13. Metabolic profile at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Köhler-Forsberg, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia and/or antipsychotic drug use are associated with metabolic abnormalities; however, knowledge regarding metabolic status and physician’s monitoring of metabolic status at first schizophrenia diagnosis is sparse. We assessed the prevalence of monitoring for metabolic blood abnormalities and characterized the metabolic profiles in people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis. Methods This is a population-based cross-sectional study including all adults born in Denmark after January 1, 1955, with their first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2000 and 2012 in the Central Denmark Region. Information on metabolic parameters was obtained from a clinical laboratory information system. Associations were calculated using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, chi-square tests, logistic regression, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results A total of 2,452 people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis were identified, of whom 1,040 (42.4%) were monitored for metabolic abnormalities. Among those monitored, 58.4% had an abnormal lipid profile and 13.8% had an abnormal glucose profile. People who had previously filled prescription(s) for antipsychotic drugs were more likely to present an abnormal lipid measure (65.7% vs 46.8%, Pmanagement. PMID:28280344

  14. Depth profile of a time-reversal focus in an elastic solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillieux, Marcel C; Anderson, Brian E; Ulrich, T J; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Payan, Cedric

    2015-04-01

    The out-of-plane velocity component is focused on the flat surface of an isotropic solid sample using the principle of time reversal. This experiment is often reproduced in the context of nondestructive testing for imaging features near the surface of the sample. However, it is not clear how deep the focus extends into the bulk of the sample and what its profile is. In this paper, this question is answered using both numerical simulations and experimental data. The profiles of the foci are expressed in terms of the wavelengths of the dominant waves, based on the interpretation of the Lamb's problem and the use of the diffraction limit. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Time Dependent Coupled Cluster Approach to Resonance Raman Excitation Profiles from General Anharmonic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Durga Prasad

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A time dependent coupled cluster approach to the calculation of Resonance Raman excitation profiles on general anharmonic surfaces is presented. The vibrational wave functions on the ground electronic surface are obtained by the coupled cluster method (CCM. It is shown that the propagation of the vibrational ground state on the upper surface is equivalent to propagation of the vacuum state by an effective hamiltonian generated by the similarity transformation of the vibrational hamiltonian of that surface by the CCM wave operator of the lower surface up to a normalization constant. This time propagation is carried out by the time-dependent coupled cluster method in a time dependent frame. Numerical studies are presented to asses the validity of the approach.

  16. Source profile derivation for an arc welding shop using time sequenced sampling and PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P.; Van Den Heever, D. J.; Annegarn, H. J.

    1998-03-01

    Samples of particulate concentration inside a welding shop in Bloemfontein (South Africa) were collected for two weeks during August 1995 using a single stage time sequenced sampler (streaker sampler). Inorganic elemental concentrations (μg/m 3) for 12 metallic rods are melted through electric arc welding to join steel plates. The absence of proper ventilation in the building, due to the closing of doors and windows during winter conditions, results in accumulation of pollutants and in enhanced hazardous conditions for the workers. Analysis of temporal coincidences of elemental concentrations time series formed the basis for extracting the arc welding source profile. Major periodical and episodic contributors to the indoor pollution were qualitatively observed during the sampling period. Due to the hourly time resolution of the sampling, their different time dependence could be identified and isolated. The welding shop activities were found to be characterised by high metal concentrations ([Fe] up to 95 μg/m 3) and variations in the Cu-to-Fe and Mn-to-Fe ratios within 30% over a week period. Cr concentrations up to 7 μg/m 3 were detected over 8-h shift periods. A profile for soil dust in the welding shop air was extracted, and was found to be enriched in Cr, Mn and Fe. This identifies the existence of a secondary source of heavy metal particulate exposure, to which all the workers, not only welders during their shifts, are exposed.

  17. Volatile compound profile of sous-vide cooked lamb loins at different temperature-time combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Ruiz, Jorge; Del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Antequera, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60 and 80°C) and time (6 and 24h) to assess the effect on the volatile compound profile. Major chemical families in cooked samples were aliphatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes. The volatile compound profile in sous-vide cooked lamb loin was affected by the cooking temperature and time. Volatile compounds arising from lipid oxidation presented a high abundance in samples cooked at low or moderate cooking conditions (60°C for 6 and 24h, 80°C for 6h), while a more intense time and temperature combination (80°C for 24h) resulted on a higher concentration of volatile compounds arising from Strecker degradations of amino acids, as 2-methylpropanal and 3-methylbutanal. Therefore, sous-vide cooking at moderately high temperatures for long times would result in the formation of a stronger meaty flavor and roast notes in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Variability of the vertical profile of wind speed: characterization at various time scales and analytical approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdier, Bénédicte; Plougonven, Riwal; Drobinski, Philippe; Dupont, Jean-Charles

    2014-05-01

    Wind measurements are key for the wind resource assessment. But as wind turbines get higher, wind measurement masts are often lower than the future wind turbine hub height. Therefore one of the first steps in the energy yield assessment is the vertical extrapolation of wind measurements. Such extrapolation is often done by approximating the vertical profile of wind speed with an analytical expression: either a logarithmic law which has a theoretical basis in Monin-Obukhov similarity theory; or a power law which is empirical. The present study analyzes the variability of the wind profile and how this variability affects the results of the vertical extrapolation methods. The study is conducted with data from the SIRTA observatory, 20km south of Paris (France). A large set of instrumentation is available, including sonic anemometers at 10 and 30 meters, a LIDAR measuring wind speeds from 40 to 200 meters and a SODAR measuring wind speeds starting from 100m up to 1km. The comparison between the instruments enables to characterize the measurements uncertainties. The observations show that close to the ground the wind is stronger during daytime and weaker at night while higher, around 150 m, the wind is weaker during daytime and stronger at night. Indeed the wind shear has a pronounced diurnal cycle. The vertical extrapolation methods currently used in the industry do not usually take into account the strong variability of the wind profile. The often fit the parameters of the extrapolation law, not on each time step, but on time-averaged profiles. The averaging period may be the whole measurement period or some part of it: there may be one constant parameter computed on the wind profile that was averaged on the whole year of measures, or the year of measures may be divided into a small number of cases (for example into night or daytime data, or into 4 seasons) and the parameter is adjusted for each case. The study analyzes thoroughly the errors generated by both

  19. Development of new punch shape to replicate scale-up issues in laboratory tablet press II: a new design of punch head to emulate consolidation and dwell times in commercial tablet press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Ito, Manabu

    2014-06-01

    Differences between laboratory and commercial tablet presses are frequently observed during scale-up of tableting process. These scale-up issues result from the differences in total compression time that is the sum of consolidation and dwell times. When a lubricated blend is compressed into tablets, the tablet thickness produced by the commercial tablet press is often thicker than that by a laboratory tablet press. A new punch shape design, designated as shape adjusted for scale-up (SAS), was developed and used to demonstrate the ability to replicate scale-up issues in commercial-scale tableting processes. It was found that the consolidation time can be slightly shortened by changing the vertical curvature of the conventional punch head rim. However, this approach is not enough to replicate the consolidation time. A secondary two-stage SAS punch design and an embossed punch head was designed to replicate the consolidation and dwell times on a laboratory tablet press to match those of a commercial tablet press. The resulting tablet thickness using this second SAS punch on a laboratory tablet press was thicker than when using a conventional punch in the same laboratory tablet press. The secondary SAS punches are more useful tools for replicating and understanding potential scale-up issues. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. Ruminal bacteria and protozoa composition, digestibility, and amino acid profile determined by multiple hydrolysis times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessenden, S W; Hackmann, T J; Ross, D A; Foskolos, A; Van Amburgh, M E

    2017-09-01

    Microbial samples from 4 independent experiments in lactating dairy cattle were obtained and analyzed for nutrient composition, AA digestibility, and AA profile after multiple hydrolysis times ranging from 2 to 168 h. Similar bacterial and protozoal isolation techniques were used for all isolations. Omasal bacteria and protozoa samples were analyzed for AA digestibility using a new in vitro technique. Multiple time point hydrolysis and least squares nonlinear regression were used to determine the AA content of omasal bacteria and protozoa, and equivalency comparisons were made against single time point hydrolysis. Formalin was used in 1 experiment, which negatively affected AA digestibility and likely limited the complete release of AA during acid hydrolysis. The mean AA digestibility was 87.8 and 81.6% for non-formalin-treated bacteria and protozoa, respectively. Preservation of microbe samples in formalin likely decreased recovery of several individual AA. Results from the multiple time point hydrolysis indicated that Ile, Val, and Met hydrolyzed at a slower rate compared with other essential AA. Singe time point hydrolysis was found to be nonequivalent to multiple time point hydrolysis when considering biologically important changes in estimated microbial AA profiles. Several AA, including Met, Ile, and Val, were underpredicted using AA determination after a single 24-h hydrolysis. Models for predicting postruminal supply of AA might need to consider potential bias present in postruminal AA flow literature when AA determinations are performed after single time point hydrolysis and when using formalin as a preservative for microbial samples. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Replication of prions in differentiated muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Allen; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that prions accumulate to high levels in non-proliferative C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 cells replicate as myoblasts but can be differentiated into myotubes. Earlier studies indicated that C2C12 myoblasts are not competent for prion replication. (1) We confirmed that observation and demonstrated, for the first time, that while replicative myoblasts do not accumulate PrP(Sc), differentiated post-mitotic myotube cultures replicate prions robustly. Here we extend our observations and describe the implication and utility of this system for replicating prions.

  2. Time place learning and activity profile under constant light and constant dark in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Clarissa de Almeida; Lima, Jéssica Polyana da Silva; Silveira, Vanessa Augusta Magalhães; Miguel, Mário André Leocadio; Luchiari, Ana Carolina

    2017-02-20

    The ability to learn about the signs of variability in space and time is known as time place learning (TPL). To adjust their circadian rhythms, animals use stimuli that change regularly, such as the light-dark cycle, temperature, food availability or even social stimuli. Because light-dark cycle is the most important environmental temporal cue, we asked how a diurnal animal would perform TPL if this cue was removed. Zebrafish has been extensively studied in the chronobiology area due to it diurnal chronotype, thus, we studied the effects of constant light and constant dark on the time-place learning and activity profile in zebrafish. Our data show that while under constant light and dark condition zebrafish was not able of TPL, after 30days under the constant conditions, constant light led to higher activity level and less significant (robust) 24h rhythm.

  3. Real-time identification of the current density profile in the JET Tokamak: method and validation

    CERN Document Server

    Mazon, Didier; Boulbe, Cédric; Faugeras, Blaise; Boboc, A; Brix, M; De Vries, P; Sharapov, S; Zabeo, L

    2009-01-01

    The real-time reconstruction of the plasma magnetic equilibrium in a Tokamak is a key point to access high performance regimes. Indeed, the shape of the plasma current density profile is a direct output of the reconstruction and has a leading effect for reaching a steady-state high performance regime of operation. In this paper we present the methodology followed to identify numerically the plasma current density in a Tokamak and its equilibrium. In order to meet the real-time requirements a C++ software has been developed using the combination of a finite element method, a nonlinear fixed point algorithm associated to a least square optimization procedure. The experimental measurements that enable the identification are the magnetics on the vacuum vessel, the interferometric and polarimetric measurements on several chords and the motional Stark effect. Details are given about the validation of the reconstruction on the JET tokamak, either by comparison with ?off-line' equilibrium codes or real time software ...

  4. Pharmaceutical metabolite profiling using quadrupole/ion mobility spectrometry/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric C Y; New, Lee Sun; Yap, Chun Wei; Goh, Lin Tang

    2009-02-01

    The use of hybrid quadrupole ion mobility spectrometry time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/IMS/TOFMS) in the metabolite profiling of leflunomide (LEF) and acetaminophen (APAP) is presented. The IMS drift times (T(d)) of the drugs and their metabolites were determined in the IMS/TOFMS experiments and correlated with their exact monoisotopic masses and other in silico generated structural properties, such as connolly molecular area (CMA), connolly solvent-excluded volume (CSEV), principal moments of inertia along the X, Y and Z Cartesian coordinates (MI-X, MI-Y and MI-Z), inverse mobility and collision cross-section (CCS). The correlation of T(d) with these parameters is presented and discussed. IMS/TOF tandem mass spectrometry experiments (MS(2) and MS(3)) were successfully performed on the N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine glutathione (NAPQI-GSH) adduct derived from the in vitro microsomal metabolism of APAP. As comparison, similar experiments were also performed using hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (QTRAPMS) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). The abilities to resolve the product ions of the metabolite within the drift tube and fragment the ion mobility resolved product ions in the transfer travelling wave-enabled stacked ring ion guide (TWIG) demonstrated the potential applicability of the Q/IMS/TOFMS technique in pharmaceutical metabolite profiling.

  5. Neural Networks-Based Real-Time Determination of the Laser Beam Spatial Profile and Vibrational-to-Translational Relaxation Time Within Pulsed Photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, M.; Ćojbašić, Ž.; Rabasović, M. D.; Markushev, D. D.; Todorović, D. M.

    2013-09-01

    This paper concerns with the possibilities of computational intelligence application for simultaneous determination of the laser beam spatial profile and vibrational-to-translational relaxation time of the polyatomic molecules in gases by pulsed photoacoustics. Results regarding the application of neural computing through the use of feed-forward multilayer perception networks are presented. Feed-forward multilayer perception networks are trained in an offline batch training regime to estimate simultaneously, and in real-time, the laser beam spatial profile (profile shape class) and the vibrational-to-translational relaxation time from given (theoretical) photoacoustic signals. The proposed method significantly shortens the time required for the simultaneous determination of the laser beam spatial profile and relaxation time and has the advantage of accurately calculating the aforementioned quantities.

  6. Time-Domain Techniques for Computation and Reconstruction of One-Dimensional Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a time-domain technique to compute the electromagnetic fields and to reconstruct the permittivity profile within a one-dimensional medium of finite length. The medium is characterized by a permittivity as well as conductivity profile which vary only with depth. The discussed scattering problem is thus one-dimensional. The modeling tool is divided into two different schemes which are named as the forward solver and the inverse solver. The task of the forward solver is to compute the internal fields of the specimen which is performed by Green’s function approach. When a known electromagnetic wave is incident normally on the media, the resulting electromagnetic field within the media can be calculated by constructing a Green’s operator. This operator maps the incident field on either side of the medium to the field at an arbitrary observation point. It is nothing but a matrix of integral operators with kernels satisfying known partial differential equations. The reflection and transmission behavior of the medium is also determined from the boundary values of the Green's operator. The inverse solver is responsible for solving an inverse scattering problem by reconstructing the permittivity profile of the medium. Though it is possible to use several algorithms to solve this problem, the invariant embedding method, also known as the layer-stripping method, has been implemented here due to the advantage that it requires a finite time trace of reflection data. Here only one round trip of reflection data is used, where one round trip is defined by the time required by the pulse to propagate through the medium and back again. The inversion process begins by retrieving the reflection kernel from the reflected wave data by simply using a deconvolution technique. The rest of the task can easily be performed by applying a numerical approach to determine different profile parameters. Both the solvers have been found to have the

  7. Bayesian detection of periodic mRNA time profiles without use of training examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Mats G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of periodically expressed genes from microarray data without use of known periodic and non-periodic training examples is an important problem, e.g. for identifying genes regulated by the cell-cycle in poorly characterised organisms. Commonly the investigator is only interested in genes expressed at a particular frequency that characterizes the process under study but this frequency is seldom exactly known. Previously proposed detector designs require access to labelled training examples and do not allow systematic incorporation of diffuse prior knowledge available about the period time. Results A learning-free Bayesian detector that does not rely on labelled training examples and allows incorporation of prior knowledge about the period time is introduced. It is shown to outperform two recently proposed alternative learning-free detectors on simulated data generated with models that are different from the one used for detector design. Results from applying the detector to mRNA expression time profiles from S. cerevisiae showsthat the genes detected as periodically expressed only contain a small fraction of the cell-cycle genes inferred from mutant phenotype. For example, when the probability of false alarm was equal to 7%, only 12% of the cell-cycle genes were detected. The genes detected as periodically expressed were found to have a statistically significant overrepresentation of known cell-cycle regulated sequence motifs. One known sequence motif and 18 putative motifs, previously not associated with periodic expression, were also over represented. Conclusion In comparison with recently proposed alternative learning-free detectors for periodic gene expression, Bayesian inference allows systematic incorporation of diffuse a priori knowledge about, e.g. the period time. This results in relative performance improvements due to increased robustness against errors in the underlying assumptions. Results from applying

  8. [THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL CARE OF POPULATION IN CONDITIONS OF SPECIALIZED DAY-TIME HOSPITALS OF NEUROLOGICAL PROFILE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, N K; Solovieva, N B; Abdulsalamova, Z A

    2015-01-01

    The article considers issues concerning increasing of quality and accessibility of medical care in Moscow neurological profile included at the expense of wide-spread implementation of specialized day-time hospitals in health care practice. The analysis applied was based on average Moscow indicators of functioning of public health institutions and characteristics of clinical course of diseases of the mentioned profile.

  9. Clustering Finnish Gambler Profiles Based on the Money and Time Consumed in Gambling Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Maria; Toikka, Arho

    2016-06-01

    Gambling involves consumption of gamblers' money and time. Gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and in addition to grouping gamblers based on personality factors, it is also important to find different gambler profiles with respect to their gambling behavior. Using the nationally representative survey 'Finnish Gambling 2011' (N = 4484), this article studies the subtypes of Finnish gamblers based on the frequency of gambling and the amounts of money and time used in different gambling forms. Cluster analysis reveals six profiles of gamblers, from infrequent gamblers to omnivorous gamblers. In the further analysis of the clusters, it was found that the highest problem gambling prevalence was in the groups of sport betting + electronic gaming machine gamblers and omnivorous gamblers, which were also both dominated by men. Certain gambling consumption patterns and risk factors for problem gambling are related to both socio-demographic backgrounds of the gamblers as well as the structural and situational characteristics of the games. The results have implications for the prevention of problem gambling, as some consumption patterns may be connected with the probability of developing gambling problems.

  10. Replication Restart in Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Bénédicte; Sandler, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    In bacteria, replication forks assembled at a replication origin travel to the terminus, often a few megabases away. They may encounter obstacles that trigger replisome disassembly, rendering replication restart from abandoned forks crucial for cell viability. During the past 25 years, the genes that encode replication restart proteins have been identified and genetically characterized. In parallel, the enzymes were purified and analyzed in vitro, where they can catalyze replication initiation in a sequence-independent manner from fork-like DNA structures. This work also revealed a close link between replication and homologous recombination, as replication restart from recombination intermediates is an essential step of DNA double-strand break repair in bacteria and, conversely, arrested replication forks can be acted upon by recombination proteins and converted into various recombination substrates. In this review, we summarize this intense period of research that led to the characterization of the ubiquitous replication restart protein PriA and its partners, to the definition of several replication restart pathways in vivo, and to the description of tight links between replication and homologous recombination, responsible for the importance of replication restart in the maintenance of genome stability. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Impact of roasting time on the sensory profile of arabica and robusta coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicho, Natalina Cavaco; Leitão, António Eduardo; Ramalho, José Cochicho; de Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Lidon, Fernando Cebola

    2013-01-01

    Roasted coffee samples of the two major trade species (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) were studied to identify sensory descriptors that might be used to determine blends production and evaluation, following the expectations of consumers. Coffee beans were roasted at 220 + 10 °C, for 7, 9, and 11 min, and the sensory profiles of the beverages were assessed. From descriptive analysis the eigenvalues allowed the identification of two principal components (PCs), being the variance between samples 68.9% and 21.1%. In the first PC the characteristic odor, astringency, body, bitter flavor, burned aroma, and residual, typical, and burned tastes prevailed. The correlation coefficient between the second PC and citric acid flavor and aroma reached 0.96 and 0.78, respectively. It was concluded that in beverages of these species, the descriptors of both components can be separated according to bean roasting time. Considering roasting time, the overall quality was also rated.

  12. The Validation of Version 8 Ozone Profiles: Is SBUV Ready for Prime Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, R. D.; Wellemeyer, C. G.; Ahn, C.

    2004-01-01

    Ozone profile data are now available from a series of BUV instruments - SBUV on Nimbus 7 and SBW/2 instruments on NOAA 9, NOAA 11, and NOAA 16. The data have been processed through the new version 8 algorithm, which is designed to be more accurate and, more importantly, to reduce the influence of the a priori on ozone trends. As a part of the version 8 reprocessing we have attempted to apply a consistent calibration to the individual instruments so that their data records can be used together in a time series analysis. Validation consists of examining not only the mean difference from external datasets (i.e trends) but also consistency in the interannual variability of the data. Here we validate the v8 BUV data through comparison with ECC sondes, lidar and microwave measurements, and with SAGE II and HALOE satellite data records. We find that individual profiles generally agree with external data sets within +/-10% between 30 hPa and 1 hPa (approx. 24 - 50 km) and frequently agree within +/-5%. The interannual variability of the BUV ozone time series agrees well with that of SAGE II . On the average, different B W instruments usually agree within +/-5% with each other, though the relative error increases near the ends of the Nimbus 7 and NOAA 16 data records as a result of instrument problems. The combined v8 BUV data sets cover the 1979-2003 time period giving daily global coverage of the ozone vertical distribution to better accuracy than has ever been possible before.

  13. Monitoring of Time-Dependent System Profiles by Multiplex Gas Chromatography with Maximum Entropy Demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joseph F.; Valentin, Jose

    1996-01-01

    The maximum entropy technique was successfully applied to the deconvolution of overlapped chromatographic peaks. An algorithm was written in which the chromatogram was represented as a vector of sample concentrations multiplied by a peak shape matrix. Simulation results demonstrated that there is a trade off between the detector noise and peak resolution in the sense that an increase of the noise level reduced the peak separation that could be recovered by the maximum entropy method. Real data originated from a sample storage column was also deconvoluted using maximum entropy. Deconvolution is useful in this type of system because the conservation of time dependent profiles depends on the band spreading processes in the chromatographic column, which might smooth out the finer details in the concentration profile. The method was also applied to the deconvolution of previously interpretted Pioneer Venus chromatograms. It was found in this case that the correct choice of peak shape function was critical to the sensitivity of maximum entropy in the reconstruction of these chromatograms.

  14. A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for profiling inhibitors of four dengue serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Edwin Yunhao; Smets, Alexandra; Verheyen, Nick; Clynhens, Marleen; Gustin, Emmanuel; Lory, Pedro; Kraus, Guenter

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for profiling antiviral inhibitors of four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes. In this assay, the primers and the probe for amplifying DENV were designed in the conserved regions of the genome after aligned more than 300 nucleotide sequences of four dengue serotypes deposited in the GeneBank. To discriminate the antiviral activity from the cytotoxicity of compounds, a housekeeping gene of the Vero cells, β-actin, was used to design the primers and the probe for the second set of PCR as an internal control, which is used to normalize the RNA levels of dengue-specific PCR due to the cellular toxicity of test compounds. For compound profiling, the duplex PCR is performed using LightCycler(®) in a single tube to simultaneously amplify both the dengue target gene and the Vero cell housekeeping gene from the compound-treated Vero cell lysates. This assay was validated against a panel of reference compounds. The results show that the universal primers and probe in this duplex RT-PCR assay can efficiently amplify all four dengue serotypes and that the PCR efficiency for both the dengue target gene and the Vero cells β-actin gene is 100%.

  15. Development of an ion time-of-flight spectrometer for neutron depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit

    Ion time-of-flight spectrometry techniques are investigated for applicability to neutron depth profiling. Time-of-flight techniques are used extensively in a wide range of scientific and technological applications including energy and mass spectroscopy. Neutron depth profiling is a near-surface analysis technique that gives concentration distribution versus depth for certain technologically important light elements. The technique uses thermal or sub-thermal neutrons to initiate (n, p) or (n, alpha) reactions. Concentration versus depth distribution is obtained by the transformation of the energy spectrum into depth distribution by using stopping force tables of the projectiles in the substrate, and by converting the number of counts into concentration using a standard sample of known dose value. Conventionally, neutron depth profiling measurements are based on charged particle spectrometry, which employs semiconductor detectors such as a surface barrier detector (SBD) and the associated electronics. Measurements with semiconductor detectors are affected by a number of broadening mechanisms, which result from the interactions between the projectile ion and the detector material as well as fluctuations in the signal generation process. These are inherent features of the detection mechanism that involve the semiconductor detectors and cannot be avoided. Ion time-of-flight spectrometry offers highly precise measurement capabilities, particularly for slow particles. For high-energy low-mass particles, measurement resolution tends to degrade with all other parameters fixed. The threshold for more precise ion energy measurements with respect to conventional techniques, such as direct energy measurement by a surface barrier detector, is directly related to the design and operating parameters of the device. Time-of-flight spectrometry involves correlated detection of two signals by a coincidence unit. In ion time-of-flight spectroscopy, the ion generates the primary input

  16. A method for real-time profiling of organic trace gases in the planetary boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schnitzhofer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A method for real time profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs was developed combining the advantages of a tethered balloon as a research platform and of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS as an analytical technique for fast and highly sensitive VOC measurements. A 200 m Teflon tube was used to draw sampling air from a tethered aerodynamic balloon to the PTR-MS instrument. Potential positive and negative VOC artifacts of the inlet line were characterized in the laboratory and in the field and were found to be insignificant for most compounds. The method was successfully deployed during a winter field campaign to determine the small scale spatial and temporal pattern of air pollutants under winter inversion conditions.

  17. Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Madhusudanan, K P

    2010-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betle. In this paper we have attempted to profile eight locally available betel cultivars using the recently developed mass spectral ionization technique of direct analysis in real time (DART). Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART MS data of these betel cultivars. The results show that the cultivars of Piper betle could be differentiated using DART MS data.

  18. Dynamic Agricultural Land Unit Profile Database Generation using Landsat Time Series Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    government efforts for a given occurrence at the land unit level, and affecting the potential economic trade-off level in the area. In this study a framework is proposed to create and continuously update a land unit profile database using historical Landsat satellite imagery records. An experimental test is implemented for the agricultural lands in Central Utah. This location was selected because of their success in increasing the efficiency of water use and control along the entire irrigation system. A set of crop health metrics from the literature (NDVI, LAI, NDWI) is calculated and evaluated to measure crop response to farm management for its evaluation in time. The resulting land unit profile database is then tested to determine land unit profile groups based on land unit management characteristics. Comparison with essential inputs (water availability and climate conditions) and crop type (outputs) on a year basis is provided.

  19. RAPTOR: Optimization, real-time simulation and control of the tokamak q profile evolution using a simplified transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, Federico; Sauter, Olivier; Goodman, Timothy; Paley, James

    2010-11-01

    Control of the plasma current density and safety factor profile evolution in a tokamak is crucial for accessing advanced regimes. The evolution of the current density profile is steered by a combination of inductive voltage and auxiliary current drive actuators, and is nonlinearly coupled to the evolution of the (ion/electron) temperature and density profiles. Using appropriate simplifications, a model has been obtained which can be simulated on time scales faster than the tokamak discharge itself, but still retains the essential physics describing the nonlinear coupling between the profiles. This model, dubbed RAPTOR (Rapid Plasma Transport simulatOR) has been implemented in the new real-time control system on the TCV tokamak at CRPP, and can be used for real-time reconstruction and model-based control of the q profile. It can also be used off-line to determine optimal actuator trajectories in open loop simulations to steer the plasma profiles towards their required steady-state shapes while remaining within a constrained set of allowable profiles.

  20. Risk profiles and peer violence in the context of school and leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Valero, Rosa; Martín Seoane, Gema; Lucas Molina, Beatriz

    2011-11-01

    Though violence at school is by no means a new phenomenon, there has been growing social and scientific concern about this issue in recent years. The present study builds on prior analysis of the roles adolescents play in peer harassment, and the relationship between violence occurring at school and during free time. A representative sample of students between the ages of 14 and 18 was selected in the Community of Madrid (N = 1622) through random cluster sampling (school was the unit of analysis). Participants completed the C.E.V.E.O. questionnaire, which presents fifteen situations involving peer violence. The results reveal a relationship between violent situations occurring at school and during free time, and between the roles of aggressor and victim during free time. A profile analysis yielded three different categories: the "minimal violence exposure" type (1126 adolescents), the "psychological violence exposure" type (413 adolescents), and the "high risk of violence" type (83 adolescents). Judging from these results, we posit that interventions must be designed which tailor to each group and their respective risk situations.

  1. A dynamic stochastic model for DNA replication initiation in early embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arach Goldar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic cells seem unable to monitor replication completion during normal S phase, yet must ensure a reliable replication completion time. This is an acute problem in early Xenopus embryos since DNA replication origins are located and activated stochastically, leading to the random completion problem. DNA combing, kinetic modelling and other studies using Xenopus egg extracts have suggested that potential origins are much more abundant than actual initiation events and that the time-dependent rate of initiation, I(t, markedly increases through S phase to ensure the rapid completion of unreplicated gaps and a narrow distribution of completion times. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies this increase has remained obscure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using both previous and novel DNA combing data we have confirmed that I(t increases through S phase but have also established that it progressively decreases before the end of S phase. To explore plausible biochemical scenarios that might explain these features, we have performed comparisons between numerical simulations and DNA combing data. Several simple models were tested: i recycling of a limiting replication fork component from completed replicons; ii time-dependent increase in origin efficiency; iii time-dependent increase in availability of an initially limiting factor, e.g. by nuclear import. None of these potential mechanisms could on its own account for the data. We propose a model that combines time-dependent changes in availability of a replication factor and a fork-density dependent affinity of this factor for potential origins. This novel model quantitatively and robustly accounted for the observed changes in initiation rate and fork density. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work provides a refined temporal profile of replication initiation rates and a robust, dynamic model that quantitatively explains replication origin usage during early embryonic S phase

  2. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  3. Spatial regulation and organization of DNA replication within the nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Duplication of chromosomal DNA is a temporally and spatially regulated process. The timing of DNA replication initiation at various origins is highly coordinated; some origins fire early and others late during S phase. Moreover, inside the nuclei, the bulk of DNA replication is physically organized in replication factories, consisting of DNA polymerases and other replication proteins. In this review article, we discuss how DNA replication is organized and regulated spatially within the nucleu...

  4. Gene expression profiling of canine osteosarcoma reveals genes associated with short and long survival times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Nagesha AS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling of spontaneous tumors in the dog offers a unique translational opportunity to identify prognostic biomarkers and signaling pathways that are common to both canine and human. Osteosarcoma (OS accounts for approximately 80% of all malignant bone tumors in the dog. Canine OS are highly comparable with their human counterpart with respect to histology, high metastatic rate and poor long-term survival. This study investigates the prognostic gene profile among thirty-two primary canine OS using canine specific cDNA microarrays representing 20,313 genes to identify genes and cellular signaling pathways associated with survival. This, the first report of its kind in dogs with OS, also demonstrates the advantages of cross-species comparison with human OS. Results The 32 tumors were classified into two prognostic groups based on survival time (ST. They were defined as short survivors (dogs with poor prognosis: surviving fewer than 6 months and long survivors (dogs with better prognosis: surviving 6 months or longer. Fifty-one transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, with common upregulation of these genes in the short survivors. The overexpressed genes in short survivors are associated with possible roles in proliferation, drug resistance or metastasis. Several deregulated pathways identified in the present study, including Wnt signaling, Integrin signaling and Chemokine/cytokine signaling are comparable to the pathway analysis conducted on human OS gene profiles, emphasizing the value of the dog as an excellent model for humans. Conclusion A molecular-based method for discrimination of outcome for short and long survivors is useful for future prognostic stratification at initial diagnosis, where genes and pathways associated with cell cycle/proliferation, drug resistance and metastasis could be potential targets for diagnosis and therapy. The similarities between human and canine OS makes the

  5. Spatial regulation and organization of DNA replication within the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U

    2010-01-01

    Duplication of chromosomal DNA is a temporally and spatially regulated process. The timing of DNA replication initiation at various origins is highly coordinated; some origins fire early and others late during S phase. Moreover, inside the nuclei, the bulk of DNA replication is physically organized in replication factories, consisting of DNA polymerases and other replication proteins. In this review article, we discuss how DNA replication is organized and regulated spatially within the nucleus and how this spatial organization is linked to temporal regulation. We focus on DNA replication in budding yeast and fission yeast and, where applicable, compare yeast DNA replication with that in bacteria and metazoans.

  6. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  7. Expression profiles of penaeidin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis in response to WSSV and vibrio infection by real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bo; LIU Fengsong; XIANG Jianhai; LI Fuhua; GAO Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    Penaeidin from Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) has proved to be one of the most important antimicrobial peptides in the bodies of animals. The relative quantitative real-time PCR method is developed to study through time, the mRNA expression profile of penaeidin in the muscle and haemocyte tissue of Chinese shrimp infected with vibrio (Vibrio anguillarum) and WSSV (white spot syndrome virus). Research results showed that the same pathogens infection experiments produced similar gene expression profile in different tissues while different expression profiles appeared in the same tissues infected by different exterior pathogens. In vibrio infection experiments, a "U" like expression profile resulted. Expression levels of penaeidin increased and surpassed the non-stimulated level, indicating that penaeidin from Chinese shrimp has noticeable antimicrobial activities. In WSSV infection experiments, the expression profile appeared as an inverse "U" with the expression ofpenaeidin gradually decreasing to below baseline level afier 24 h.The expression of antimicrobial peptides gene in mRNA level in response to virus infection in shrimp showed that international mechanisms of virus to haemocytes and microbial to haemocytes are completely different. Decline of penaeidins expression levels may be due to haemocytes being destroyed by WSSV or that the virus can inhibit the expression of penaeidins by yet undiscovered modes. The expression profiles of penaeidin in response to exterior pathogen and the difference of expression profiles between vibrio and WSSV infection provided some clues to further understanding the complex innate immune mechanism in shrimp.

  8. Chromosome replication and segregation in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Lamothe, Rodrigo; Nicolas, Emilien; Sherratt, David J

    2012-01-01

    In dividing cells, chromosome duplication once per generation must be coordinated with faithful segregation of newly replicated chromosomes and with cell growth and division. Many of the mechanistic details of bacterial replication elongation are well established. However, an understanding of the complexities of how replication initiation is controlled and coordinated with other cellular processes is emerging only slowly. In contrast to eukaryotes, in which replication and segregation are separate in time, the segregation of most newly replicated bacterial genetic loci occurs sequentially soon after replication. We compare the strategies used by chromosomes and plasmids to ensure their accurate duplication and segregation and discuss how these processes are coordinated spatially and temporally with growth and cell division. We also describe what is known about the three conserved families of ATP-binding proteins that contribute to chromosome segregation and discuss their inter-relationships in a range of disparate bacteria.

  9. REPLICATION TOOL AND METHOD OF PROVIDING A REPLICATION TOOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    structured master surface (3a, 3b, 3c, 3d) having a lateral master pattern and a vertical master profile. The microscale structured master surface (3a, 3b, 3c, 3d) has been provided by localized pulsed laser treatment to generate microscale phase explosions. A method for producing a part with microscale......The invention relates to a replication tool (1, 1a, 1b) for producing a part (4) with a microscale textured replica surface (5a, 5b, 5c, 5d). The replication tool (1, 1a, 1b) comprises a tool surface (2a, 2b) defining a general shape of the item. The tool surface (2a, 2b) comprises a microscale...... energy directors on flange portions thereof uses the replication tool (1, 1a, 1b) to form an item (4) with a general shape as defined by the tool surface (2a, 2b). The formed item (4) comprises a microscale textured replica surface (5a, 5b, 5c, 5d) with a lateral arrangement of polydisperse microscale...

  10. Real-Time Gene Expression Profiling of Live Shewanella Oneidensis Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoliang Sunney Xie

    2009-03-30

    The overall objective of this proposal is to make real-time observations of gene expression in live Shewanella oneidensis cells with high sensitivity and high throughput. Gene expression, a central process to all life, is stochastic because most genes often exist in one or two copies per cell. Although the central dogma of molecular biology has been proven beyond doubt, due to insufficient sensitivity, stochastic protein production has not been visualized in real time in an individual cell at the single-molecule level. We report the first direct observation of single protein molecules as they are generated, one at a time in a single live E. coli cell, yielding quantitative information about gene expression [Science 2006; 311: 1600-1603]. We demonstrated a general strategy for live-cell single-molecule measurements: detection by localization. It is difficult to detect single fluorescence protein molecules inside cytoplasm - their fluorescence is spread by fast diffusion to the entire cell and overwhelmed by the strong autofluorescence. We achieved single-molecule sensitivity by immobilizing the fluorescence protein on the cell membrane, where the diffusion is much slowed. We learned that under the repressed condition protein molecules are produced in bursts, with each burst originating from a stochastically-transcribed single messenger RNA molecule, and that protein copy numbers in the bursts follow a geometric distribution. We also simultaneously published a paper reporting a different method using β-glactosidase as a reporter [Nature 440, 358 (2006)]. Many important proteins are expressed at low levels, inaccessible by previous proteomic techniques. Both papers allowed quantification of protein expression with unprecedented sensitivity and received overwhelming acclaim from the scientific community. The Nature paper has been identified as one of the most-cited papers in the past year [http://esi-topics.com/]. We have also an analytical framework describing the

  11. Real-time ultrawide-band group delay profile monitoring through low-noise incoherent temporal interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongwoo; Malacarne, Antonio; Azaña, José

    2011-02-28

    A simple, highly accurate measurement technique for real-time monitoring of the group delay (GD) profiles of photonic dispersive devices over ultra-broad spectral bandwidths (e.g. an entire communication wavelength band) is demonstrated. The technique is based on time-domain self-interference of an incoherent light pulse after linear propagation through the device under test, providing a measurement wavelength range as wide as the source spectral bandwidth. Significant enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the self-interference signal has been observed by use of a relatively low-noise incoherent light source as compared with the theoretical estimate for a white-noise light source. This fact combined with the use of balanced photo-detection has allowed us to significantly reduce the number of profiles that need to be averaged to reach a targeted GD measurement accuracy, thus achieving reconstruction of the device GD profile in real time. We report highly-accurate monitoring of (i) the group-delay ripple (GDR) profile of a 10-m long chirped fiber Bragg grating over the full C band (~42 nm), and (ii) the group velocity dispersion (GVD) and dispersion slope (DS) profiles of a ~2-km long dispersion compensating fiber module over an ~72-nm wavelength range, both captured at a 15 frames/s video rate update, with demonstrated standard deviations in the captured GD profiles as low as ~1.6 ps.

  12. Membrane fluidity profiles as deduced by saturation-recovery EPR measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times of spin labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Laxman; Feix, Jimmy B; Hyde, James S; Subczynski, Witold K

    2011-10-01

    There are no easily obtainable EPR spectral parameters for lipid spin labels that describe profiles of membrane fluidity. The order parameter, which is most often used as a measure of membrane fluidity, describes the amplitude of wobbling motion of alkyl chains relative to the membrane normal and does not contain explicitly time or velocity. Thus, this parameter can be considered as nondynamic. The spin-lattice relaxation rate (T(1)(-1)) obtained from saturation-recovery EPR measurements of lipid spin labels in deoxygenated samples depends primarily on the rotational correlation time of the nitroxide moiety within the lipid bilayer. Thus, T(1)(-1) can be used as a convenient quantitative measure of membrane fluidity that reflects local membrane dynamics. T(1)(-1) profiles obtained for 1-palmitoyl-2-(n-doxylstearoyl)phosphatidylcholine (n-PC) spin labels in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes with and without 50 mol% cholesterol are presented in parallel with profiles of the rotational diffusion coefficient, R(⊥), obtained from simulation of EPR spectra using Freed's model. These profiles are compared with profiles of the order parameter obtained directly from EPR spectra and with profiles of the order parameter obtained from simulation of EPR spectra. It is shown that T(1)(-1) and R(⊥) profiles reveal changes in membrane fluidity that depend on the motional properties of the lipid alkyl chain. We find that cholesterol has a rigidifying effect only to the depth occupied by the rigid steroid ring structure and a fluidizing effect at deeper locations. These effects cannot be differentiated by profiles of the order parameter. All profiles in this study were obtained at X-band (9.5 GHz).

  13. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  14. Concurrent validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory profiles: A secondary analysis of data from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Frank C; McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R

    2015-07-01

    This paper examined the association between membership in profiles based on a shortened form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-S; McKay, Andretta, McGee, & Worrell, 2014) and other temporal and psychosocial variables. Participants consisted of 1620 adolescents attending high school in Northern Ireland. ZTPI-S scores had correlations with other temporal and psychosocial variables that were similar to those reported for ZTPI scores in previous studies. Four ZTPI-S profiles were identified-Balanced, Past Negative, Present Hedonistic, and Future-and results indicated that these profiles had theoretically meaningful relationships with self-esteem, self-efficacy, aggression, parental attachment, consideration of future consequences, and future temporal focus. Unlike studies of college students where the Balanced profile was related to more adaptive functioning, the Future profile was related to more adaptive functioning. Future studies are needed to establish the generalizability of these profiles and to determine if there are developmental differences in which profiles are more adaptive.

  15. Meloidogyne javanica Chorismate Mutase Transcript Expression Profile Using Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Janet E; Lambert, Kris N

    2003-03-01

    A developmental expression profile of the Meloidodgyne javanica esophageal gland gene chorismate mutase-1 (Mj-cm-1) could suggest when in the lifecycle of the nematode the Mj-cm-1 product is functional. This study used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to examine the variation in Mj-cm-1 transcript levels over six timepoints in the nematode lifecycle: egg, infective second-stage juveniles (Inf-J2), 2-day post-inoculation (pi), 7-day pi, 14-day pi, and adult. The Mj-cm-1 mRNA levels peaked at 2-day pi, about 100-fold above levels expressed at the egg and Inf-J2 stages. Some expression of Mj-cm-1 remained during the 7-day pi, 14-day pi, and adult stages. High transcript levels of the beta-actin control gene M. javanica Beta-actin-1 (Mj-ba-1) demonstrated the presence of cDNA at all timepoints. The peak in Mj-cm-1 transcript expression at 2-day pi as well as the previously shown esophageal gland localization of Mj-cm-1 mRNA suggest that the product of this gene may be involved early in the establishment of parasitism.

  16. Time-resolved wave-profile measurements at impact velocities of 10 km/s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Reinhart, W.D.

    1998-06-01

    Development of well-controlled hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step to understand material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not available using conventional gun technology. In this paper, techniques used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light-gas gun to 10 km/s and their use to determine material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock loading and release characteristics of materials impacted by titanium and aluminum fliers launched by the only developed three-stage light-gas gun at 10 km/s. In particular, the Sandia three stage light gas gun, also referred to as the hypervelocity launcher, HVL, which is capable of launching 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm thick by 6 mm to 19 mm diameter plates to velocities approaching 16 km/s has been used to obtain the necessary impact velocities. The VISAR, interferometric particle-velocity techniques has been used to determine shock loading and release profiles in aluminum and titanium at impact velocities of 10 km/s.

  17. Prediction of pharmacological and xenobiotic responses to drugs based on time course gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    Full Text Available More and more people are concerned by the risk of unexpected side effects observed in the later steps of the development of new drugs, either in late clinical development or after marketing approval. In order to reduce the risk of the side effects, it is important to look out for the possible xenobiotic responses at an early stage. We attempt such an effort through a prediction by assuming that similarities in microarray profiles indicate shared mechanisms of action and/or toxicological responses among the chemicals being compared. A large time course microarray database derived from livers of compound-treated rats with thirty-four distinct pharmacological and toxicological responses were studied. The mRMR (Minimum-Redundancy-Maximum-Relevance method and IFS (Incremental Feature Selection were used to select a compact feature set (141 features for the reduction of feature dimension and improvement of prediction performance. With these 141 features, the Leave-one-out cross-validation prediction accuracy of first order response using NNA (Nearest Neighbor Algorithm was 63.9%. Our method can be used for pharmacological and xenobiotic responses prediction of new compounds and accelerate drug development.

  18. A New Profile Shape Matching Stereovision Algorithm for Real-time Human Pose and Hand Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new profile shape matching stereovision algorithm that is designed to extract 3D information in real time. This algorithm obtains 3D information by matching profile intensity shapes of each corresponding row of the stereo image pair. It detects the corresponding matching patterns of the intensity profile rather than the intensity values of individual pixels or pixels in a small neighbourhood. This approach reduces the effect of the intensity and colour variations caused by lighting differences. As with all real-time vision algorithms, there is always a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed. This algorithm achieves a balance between the two to produce accurate results for real-time applications. To demonstrate its performance, the proposed algorithm is tested for human pose and hand gesture recognition to control a smart phone and an entertainment system.

  19. High intensity profile monitor for time resolved spectrometry at the CLIC Test Facility 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvegård, M.; Adli, E.; Braun, H. H.; Bravin, E.; Chritin, N.; Corsini, R.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Döbert, S.; Dutriat, C.; Egger, D.; Lefèvre, T.; Mete, O.; Skowronski, P. K.; Tecker, F.

    2012-08-01

    The power source of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) relies on the generation and deceleration of a high-intensity electron drive beam. In order to provide the best radio-frequency (RF) to beam-energy transfer efficiency, the electron beam is accelerated using fully loaded RF cavities, which leads to strong beam loading effects resulting in a high-energy transient. The stability of the RF power produced by the drive beam depends on the stability of the drive beam energy and energy spread along the pulse. The control and the monitoring of the time evolution of the beam energy distribution are therefore crucial for the accelerator performance. For this purpose segmented beam dumps, which are simple and robust devices, have been designed and installed at the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). These devices are located at the end of spectrometer lines and provide horizontal beam profiles with a time resolution better than 10 ns. The segmented dumps are composed of parallel, vertical, metallic plates, and are based on the same principle as a Faraday cup: the impinging beam current is read by a fast acquisition channel. Both FLUKA and Geant4 simulations were performed to define the optimum detector geometry for beam energies ranging from 5 MeV to 150 MeV. This paper presents a detailed description of the different steps of the design: the optimization of the detector spatial resolution, the minimization of the thermal load and the long-term damage resulting from high radiation doses. Four segmented dumps are currently used in the CTF3 complex. Their measured performance and limitations are presented in this paper. Typical beam spectra as measured in the CTF3 linac are also presented along with a description of the RF manipulations needed for tuning the beam energy spectrum.

  20. Chill-coma recovery time, age and sex determine lipid profiles in Ceratitis capitata tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Fagali, Natalia Soledad; Rabossi, Alejandro; Catalá, Ángel; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The remodeling of membrane composition by changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acids (FA) degree of unsaturation has been associated with the maintenance of membrane homeostasis under stress conditions. Overall lipid levels and the composition of cuticle lipids also influence insect stress resistance and tissue protection. In a previous study, we demonstrated differences in survival, behavior and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene expression between subgroups of Ceratitis capitata flies that had a reversible recovery from chill-coma and those that developed chilling-injury. Here, we analyzed lipid profiles from comparable subgroups of 15 and 30-day-old flies separated according to their recovery time after a chill-coma treatment. Neutral and polar lipid classes of chill-coma subgroups were separated by thin layer chromatography and quantified by densitometry. FA composition of polar lipids of chill-coma subgroups and non-stressed flies was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Higher amounts of neutral lipids such as triglycerides, diacylglycerol, wax esters, sterol esters and free esters were found in male flies that recovered faster from chill-coma compared to slower flies. A multivariate analysis revealed changes in patterns of storage and cuticle lipids among subgroups both in males and females. FA unsaturation increased after cold exposure, and was higher in thorax of slower subgroups compared to faster subgroups. The changes in neutral lipid patterns and FA composition depended on recovery time, sex, age and body-part, and were not specifically associated with the development of chilling-injury. An analysis of phospholipid classes showed that the phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine ratio (PC/LPC) was significantly higher, or showed a tendency, in subgroups that may have developed chilling-injury compared to those with a reversible recovery from coma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. REAL-TIME STABILITY AND PROFILE COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT LTPS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    QIAN, S.; WANG, D.J.

    2005-07-31

    The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) is a precise angle measurement instrument, with a sensitivity and accuracy that can be in the sub-micron radian range. LTP characteristics depend on the particular LTP system schematic design, and the quality of components and assembly. The conditions of temperature, alignment, and mirror support during the measurement process vary between different laboratories, which influences significantly the test repeatability and accuracy. In this paper we introduce a direct comparison method to test the same object at the same point in the same environment at the same time by using two LTPs, which significantly increases the reliability of the comparison. A compact, portable LTP (PTLTP), which can be carried to different laboratories around the world, is used for comparison testing. Stability Comparison experiments between the LTP II at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), and the PTLTP of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) reveal significant differences in performance between the instruments. The experiment is set up so that each optical head simultaneously records both its own sample probe beam and also the probe beam from the other optical head. The two probe beams are reflected from same point on the mirror. Tests show that the stability of the PTLTP with a monolithic beam splitter is 10 times better than the stability of the LTP II which has a separated beam splitter unit. A scheme for comparing scanning measurements of a mirror is introduced. Experimental results show a significant difference between the two LTPs due mainly to distortions in the optical components inside the optical head. A new scheme is proposed for further mirror comparison scanning tests.

  2. Nucleosome occupancy as a novel chromatin parameter for replication origin functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jairo; Lee, Laura; Lynch, Bryony; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA replication initiates from multiple discrete sites in the genome, termed origins of replication (origins). Prior to S phase, multiple origins are poised to initiate replication by recruitment of the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC). For proper replication to occur, origin activation must be tightly regulated. At the population level, each origin has a distinct firing time and frequency of activation within S phase. Many studies have shown that chromatin can strongly influence initiation of DNA replication. However, the chromatin parameters that affect properties of origins have not been thoroughly established. We found that nucleosome occupancy in G1 varies greatly around origins across the S. cerevisiae genome, and nucleosome occupancy around origins significantly correlates with the activation time and efficiency of origins, as well as pre-RC formation. We further demonstrate that nucleosome occupancy around origins in G1 is established during transition from G2/M to G1 in a pre-RC-dependent manner. Importantly, the diminished cell-cycle changes in nucleosome occupancy around origins in the orc1-161 mutant are associated with an abnormal global origin usage profile, suggesting that proper establishment of nucleosome occupancy around origins is a critical step for regulation of global origin activities. Our work thus establishes nucleosome occupancy as a novel and key chromatin parameter for proper origin regulation. PMID:27895110

  3. Direct evaluation of the position dependent diffusion coefficient and persistence time from the equilibrium density profile in anisotropic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Rivas, Wilmer; Colmenares, Pedro J; López, Floralba

    2013-08-21

    We derive expressions for the transverse diffusion coefficient D(z) and the average persistence time τ(z; L) within a layer of width L, for particles of a non-homogeneous fluid enclosed in a planar nanopore. The method allows the direct evaluation of these position-dependent dynamical quantities from the equilibrium local particle density profile. We use results for the density and persistence time profiles from the virtual layer molecular dynamics method to numerically assess the significance of the Smoluchowski approximation.

  4. Integrated inertial sensors and mobile computing for real-time cycling performance guidance via pedaling profile classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, James Y; Nan, Xiaomeng; Ebken, Victor; Wang, Yan; Pottie, Greg J; Kaiser, William J

    2015-03-01

    Today, the bicycle is utilized as a daily commute tool, a physical rehabilitation asset, and sporting equipment, prompting studies into the biomechanics of cycling. Of the number of important parameters that affect cycling efficiency, the foot angle profile is one of the most important as it correlates directly with the effective force applied to the bike. However, there has been no compact and portable solution for measuring the foot angle and for providing the cyclist with real-time feedback due to a number of difficulties of the current tracking and sensing technologies and the myriad types of bikes available. This paper presents a novel sensing and mobile computing system for classifying the foot angle profiles during cycling and for providing real-time guidance to the user to achieve the correct profile. Continuous foot angle tracking is firstly converted into a discrete problem requiring only recognition of acceleration profiles of the foot using a single shoe mounted tri-axial accelerometer during each pedaling cycle. A classification method is then applied to identify the pedaling profile. Finally, a mobile solution is presented to provide real-time signal processing and guidance.

  5. Integrated pathway modules using time-course metabolic profiles and EST data from Milnesium tardigradum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisser, Daniela; Grohme, Markus A; Kopka, Joachim; Frohme, Marcus; Schill, Ralph O; Hengherr, Steffen; Dandekar, Thomas; Klau, Gunnar W; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias

    2012-06-19

    Tardigrades are multicellular organisms, resistant to extreme environmental changes such as heat, drought, radiation and freezing. They outlast these conditions in an inactive form (tun) to escape damage to cellular structures and cell death. Tardigrades are apparently able to prevent or repair such damage and are therefore a crucial model organism for stress tolerance. Cultures of the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum were dehydrated by removing the surrounding water to induce tun formation. During this process and the subsequent rehydration, metabolites were measured in a time series by GC-MS. Additionally expressed sequence tags are available, especially libraries generated from the active and inactive state. The aim of this integrated analysis is to trace changes in tardigrade metabolism and identify pathways responsible for their extreme resistance against physical stress. In this study we propose a novel integrative approach for the analysis of metabolic networks to identify modules of joint shifts on the transcriptomic and metabolic levels. We derive a tardigrade-specific metabolic network represented as an undirected graph with 3,658 nodes (metabolites) and 4,378 edges (reactions). Time course metabolite profiles are used to score the network nodes showing a significant change over time. The edges are scored according to information on enzymes from the EST data. Using this combined information, we identify a key subnetwork (functional module) of concerted changes in metabolic pathways, specific for de- and rehydration. The module is enriched in reactions showing significant changes in metabolite levels and enzyme abundance during the transition. It resembles the cessation of a measurable metabolism (e.g. glycolysis and amino acid anabolism) during the tun formation, the production of storage metabolites and bioprotectants, such as DNA stabilizers, and the generation of amino acids and cellular components from monosaccharides as carbon and energy source

  6. Integrated pathway modules using time-course metabolic profiles and EST data from Milnesium tardigradum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisser Daniela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tardigrades are multicellular organisms, resistant to extreme environmental changes such as heat, drought, radiation and freezing. They outlast these conditions in an inactive form (tun to escape damage to cellular structures and cell death. Tardigrades are apparently able to prevent or repair such damage and are therefore a crucial model organism for stress tolerance. Cultures of the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum were dehydrated by removing the surrounding water to induce tun formation. During this process and the subsequent rehydration, metabolites were measured in a time series by GC-MS. Additionally expressed sequence tags are available, especially libraries generated from the active and inactive state. The aim of this integrated analysis is to trace changes in tardigrade metabolism and identify pathways responsible for their extreme resistance against physical stress. Results In this study we propose a novel integrative approach for the analysis of metabolic networks to identify modules of joint shifts on the transcriptomic and metabolic levels. We derive a tardigrade-specific metabolic network represented as an undirected graph with 3,658 nodes (metabolites and 4,378 edges (reactions. Time course metabolite profiles are used to score the network nodes showing a significant change over time. The edges are scored according to information on enzymes from the EST data. Using this combined information, we identify a key subnetwork (functional module of concerted changes in metabolic pathways, specific for de- and rehydration. The module is enriched in reactions showing significant changes in metabolite levels and enzyme abundance during the transition. It resembles the cessation of a measurable metabolism (e.g. glycolysis and amino acid anabolism during the tun formation, the production of storage metabolites and bioprotectants, such as DNA stabilizers, and the generation of amino acids and cellular components from

  7. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Hisashi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Hosui, Atsushi; Nawa, Takatoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Hayashi, Norio [Kansai Rosai Hospital, 3-1-69, Inabaso, Amagasaki 660-8511 (Japan); Takehara, Tetsuo, E-mail: takehara@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. {yields} Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. {yields} Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. {yields} Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. The Replication Recipe: What makes for a convincing replication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; IJzerman, H.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Farach, F.J.; Geller, J.; Giner-Sorolla, R.; Grange, J.A.; Perugini, M.; Spies, J.R.; Veer, A. van 't

    2014-01-01

    Psychological scientists have recently started to reconsider the importance of close replications in building a cumulative knowledge base; however, there is no consensus about what constitutes a convincing close replication study. To facilitate convincing close replication attempts we have developed

  9. How frog embryos replicate their DNA reliably

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechhoefer, John; Marshall, Brandon

    2007-03-01

    Frog embryos contain three billion base pairs of DNA. In early embryos (cycles 2-12), DNA replication is extremely rapid, about 20 min., and the entire cell cycle lasts only 25 min., meaning that mitosis (cell division) takes place in about 5 min. In this stripped-down cell cycle, there are no efficient checkpoints to prevent the cell from dividing before its DNA has finished replication - a disastrous scenario. Even worse, the many origins of replication are laid down stochastically and are also initiated stochastically throughout the replication process. Despite the very tight time constraints and despite the randomness introduced by origin stochasticity, replication is extremely reliable, with cell division failing no more than once in 10,000 tries. We discuss a recent model of DNA replication that is drawn from condensed-matter theories of 1d nucleation and growth. Using our model, we discuss different strategies of replication: should one initiate all origins as early as possible, or is it better to hold back and initiate some later on? Using concepts from extreme-value statistics, we derive the distribution of replication times given a particular scenario for the initiation of origins. We show that the experimentally observed initiation strategy for frog embryos meets the reliability constraint and is close to the one that requires the fewest resources of a cell.

  10. Time course effects of fermentation on fatty acid and volatile compound profiles of Cheonggukjang using new soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye Man Cho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of the potential probiotic Bacillus subtilis CSY191 on the fatty acid profiles of Cheonggukjang, a fermented soybean paste, prepared using new Korean brown soybean cultivars, protein-rich cultivar (Saedanbaek, and oil-rich cultivar (Neulchan. Twelve fatty acids were identified in the sample set—myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, vaccenic, linoleic, α-linolenic, arachidic, gondoic, behenic, and lignoceric acids—yet, no specific changes driven by fermentation were noted in the fatty acid profiles. To further explore the effects of fermentation of B. subtilis CSY191, complete profiles of volatiles were monitored. In total, 121, 136, and 127 volatile compounds were detected in the Saedanbaek, Daewon (control cultivar, and Neulchan samples, respectively. Interestingly, the content of pyrazines—compounds responsible for pungent and unpleasant Cheonggukjang flavors—was significantly higher in Neulchan compared to that in Saedanbaek. Although the fermentation period was not a strong factor affecting the observed changes in fatty acid profiles, we noted that profiles of volatiles in Cheonggukjang changed significantly over time, and different cultivars represented specific volatile profiles. Thus, further sensory evaluation might be needed to determine if such differences influence consumers' preferences. Furthermore, additional studies to elucidate the associations between B. subtilis CSY191 fermentation and other nutritional components (e.g., amino acids and their health-promoting potential are warranted.

  11. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  12. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  13. Abiotic self-replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Adam J; Ellefson, Jared W; Ellington, Andrew D

    2012-12-18

    The key to the origins of life is the replication of information. Linear polymers such as nucleic acids that both carry information and can be replicated are currently what we consider to be the basis of living systems. However, these two properties are not necessarily coupled. The ability to mutate in a discrete or quantized way, without frequent reversion, may be an additional requirement for Darwinian evolution, in which case the notion that Darwinian evolution defines life may be less of a tautology than previously thought. In this Account, we examine a variety of in vitro systems of increasing complexity, from simple chemical replicators up to complex systems based on in vitro transcription and translation. Comparing and contrasting these systems provides an interesting window onto the molecular origins of life. For nucleic acids, the story likely begins with simple chemical replication, perhaps of the form A + B → T, in which T serves as a template for the joining of A and B. Molecular variants capable of faster replication would come to dominate a population, and the development of cycles in which templates could foster one another's replication would have led to increasingly complex replicators and from thence to the initial genomes. The initial genomes may have been propagated by RNA replicases, ribozymes capable of joining oligonucleotides and eventually polymerizing mononucleotide substrates. As ribozymes were added to the genome to fill gaps in the chemistry necessary for replication, the backbone of a putative RNA world would have emerged. It is likely that such replicators would have been plagued by molecular parasites, which would have been passively replicated by the RNA world machinery without contributing to it. These molecular parasites would have been a major driver for the development of compartmentalization/cellularization, as more robust compartments could have outcompeted parasite-ridden compartments. The eventual outsourcing of metabolic

  14. Adenovirus DNA Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeben, Rob C.; Uil, Taco G.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses have attracted much attention as probes to study biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and cellular transformation. More recently these viruses have been used as gene-transfer vectors and oncolytic agents. On the other hand, adenoviruses are notorious pathogens in people with compromised immune functions. This article will briefly summarize the basic replication strategy of adenoviruses and the key proteins involved and will deal with the new deve...

  15. The Alleged Crisis and the Illusion of Exact Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; Strack, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing criticism of the way psychologists conduct and analyze studies. These critiques as well as failures to replicate several high-profile studies have been used as justification to proclaim a replication crisis in psychology. Psychologists are encouraged to conduct more exact r

  16. The Alleged Crisis and the Illusion of Exact Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Wolfgang; Strack, Fritz

    There has been increasing criticism of the way psychologists conduct and analyze studies. These critiques as well as failures to replicate several high-profile studies have been used as justification to proclaim a replication crisis in psychology. Psychologists are encouraged to conduct more exact

  17. A transcription and translation-coupled DNA replication system using rolling-circle replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatani, Yoshihiro; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-05-27

    All living organisms have a genome replication system in which genomic DNA is replicated by a DNA polymerase translated from mRNA transcribed from the genome. The artificial reconstitution of this genome replication system is a great challenge in in vitro synthetic biology. In this study, we attempted to construct a transcription- and translation-coupled DNA replication (TTcDR) system using circular genomic DNA encoding phi29 DNA polymerase and a reconstituted transcription and translation system. In this system, phi29 DNA polymerase was translated from the genome and replicated the genome in a rolling-circle manner. When using a traditional translation system composition, almost no DNA replication was observed, because the tRNA and nucleoside triphosphates included in the translation system significantly inhibited DNA replication. To minimize these inhibitory effects, we optimized the composition of the TTcDR system and improved replication by approximately 100-fold. Using our system, genomic DNA was replicated up to 10 times in 12 hours at 30 °C. This system provides a step toward the in vitro construction of an artificial genome replication system, which is a prerequisite for the construction of an artificial cell.

  18. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage.

  19. Minichromosome replication in vitro: inhibition of re-replication by replicatively assembled nucleosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krude, T; Knippers, R

    1994-08-19

    Single-stranded circular DNA, containing the SV40 origin sequence, was used as a template for complementary DNA strand synthesis in cytosolic extracts from HeLa cells. In the presence of the replication-dependent chromatin assembly factor CAF-1, defined numbers of nucleosomes were assembled during complementary DNA strand synthesis. These minichromosomes were then induced to semiconservatively replicate by the addition of the SV40 initiator protein T antigen (re-replication). The results indicate that re-replication of minichromosomes appears to be inhibited by two independent mechanisms. One acts at the initiation of minichromosome re-replication, and the other affects replicative chain elongation. To directly demonstrate the inhibitory effect of replicatively assembled nucleosomes, two types of minichromosomes were prepared: (i) post-replicative minichromosomes were assembled in a reaction coupled to replication as above; (ii) pre-replicative minichromosomes were assembled independently of replication on double-stranded DNA. Both types of minichromosomes were used as templates for DNA replication under identical conditions. Replicative fork movement was found to be impeded only on post-replicative minichromosome templates. In contrast, pre-replicative minichromosomes allowed one unconstrained replication cycle, but re-replication was inhibited due to a block in fork movement. Thus, replicatively assembled chromatin may have a profound influence on the re-replication of DNA.

  20. Mechanism of chromosomal DNA replication initiation and replication fork stabilization in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, LiHong; Liu, Yang; Kong, DaoChun

    2014-05-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication is one of the central biological events occurring inside cells. Due to its large size, the replication of genomic DNA in eukaryotes initiates at hundreds to tens of thousands of sites called DNA origins so that the replication could be completed in a limited time. Further, eukaryotic DNA replication is sophisticatedly regulated, and this regulation guarantees that each origin fires once per S phase and each segment of DNA gets duplication also once per cell cycle. The first step of replication initiation is the assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC). Since 1973, four proteins, Cdc6/Cdc18, MCM, ORC and Cdt1, have been extensively studied and proved to be pre-RC components. Recently, a novel pre-RC component called Sap1/Girdin was identified. Sap1/Girdin is required for loading Cdc18/Cdc6 to origins for pre-RC assembly in the fission yeast and human cells, respectively. At the transition of G1 to S phase, pre-RC is activated by the two kinases, cyclindependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), and subsequently, RPA, primase-polα, PCNA, topoisomerase, Cdc45, polδ, and polɛ are recruited to DNA origins for creating two bi-directional replication forks and initiating DNA replication. As replication forks move along chromatin DNA, they frequently stall due to the presence of a great number of replication barriers on chromatin DNA, such as secondary DNA structures, protein/DNA complexes, DNA lesions, gene transcription. Stalled forks must require checkpoint regulation for their stabilization. Otherwise, stalled forks will collapse, which results in incomplete DNA replication and genomic instability. This short review gives a concise introduction regarding the current understanding of replication initiation and replication fork stabilization.

  1. Innovative real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement under large beam current irradiation for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, M., E-mail: m_takada@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kamada, S.; Suda, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M. [Cancer Intelligence Care Systems, Inc., 3-5-7 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0063 (Japan); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sato, H. [Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences, 4669-2, Ami Ami-Cho, Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki 300-0394 (Japan); Endo, S. [Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Hamano, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Arai, S.; Higashimata, A. [Sanki Industry Co., 318-6, Sannoh, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0002 (Japan)

    2012-10-11

    We developed a real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement on a target under large beam current irradiation, and without any complex radiation detectors or electrical circuits. We measured the beam profiles on a target by observing the target temperature using an infrared-radiation thermometer camera. The target temperatures were increased and decreased quickly by starting and stopping the beam irradiation within 1 s in response speed. Our method could trace beam movements rapidly. The beam size and position were calibrated by measuring O-ring heat on the target. Our method has the potential to measure beam profiles at beam current over 1 mA for proton and deuteron with the energy around 3 MeV and allows accelerator operators to adjust the beam location during beam irradiation experiments without decreasing the beam current.

  2. Derivation of the Fano profile from time-dependent density-functional theory for local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Shuji

    2007-04-01

    We give the derivation of the Fano profile (the resonance energy position, the resonance width Γ , and q value) from the time-dependent nonrelativistic density-functional theory (DFT) and propose a scheme for calculating the photoabsorption cross section of hot dense plasmas. As a consequence of this derivation, we show the line profile is obtained as a superposition of Fano and Lorentz profiles when the competition of two optically allowed bound-bound and bound-free transitions occurs. We also show the results of the photoabsorption cross section by applying our scheme to an Fe plasma (density is 7.85g/cm3 , temperature is 100eV ), where the calculation is carried out without numerical divergence for any photon energy. The calculated results are in good agreement with those of Grimaldi.

  3. Schmallenberg virus circulation in culicoides in Belgium in 2012: field validation of a real time RT-PCR approach to assess virus replication and dissemination in midges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick De Regge

    Full Text Available Indigenous Culicoides biting midges are suggested to be putative vectors for the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV based on SBV RNA detection in field-caught midges. Furthermore, SBV replication and dissemination has been evidenced in C. sonorensis under laboratory conditions. After SBV had been detected in Culicoides biting midges from Belgium in August 2011, it spread all over the country by the end of 2011, as evidenced by very high between-herd seroprevalence rates in sheep and cattle. This study investigated if a renewed SBV circulation in midges occurred in 2012 in the context of high seroprevalence in the animal host population and evaluated if a recently proposed realtime RT-PCR approach that is meant to allow assessing the vector competence of Culicoides for SBV and bluetongue virus under laboratory conditions was applicable to field-caught midges. Therefore midges caught with 12 OVI traps in four different regions in Belgium between May and November 2012, were morphologically identified, age graded, pooled and tested for the presence of SBV RNA by realtime RT-PCR. The results demonstrate that although no SBV could be detected in nulliparous midges caught in May 2012, a renewed but short lived circulation of SBV in parous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia occured in August 2012 at all four regions. The infection prevalence reached up to 2.86% in the south of Belgium, the region where a lower seroprevalence was found at the end of 2011 than in the rest of the country. Furthermore, a frequency analysis of the Ct values obtained for 31 SBV-S segment positive pools of Avaritia midges showed a clear bimodal distribution with peaks of Ct values between 21-24 and 33-36. This closely resembles the laboratory results obtained for SBV infection of C. sonorensis and implicates indigenous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia as competent vectors for SBV.

  4. Schmallenberg virus circulation in culicoides in Belgium in 2012: field validation of a real time RT-PCR approach to assess virus replication and dissemination in midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Regge, Nick; Madder, Maxime; Deblauwe, Isra; Losson, Bertrand; Fassotte, Christiane; Demeulemeester, Julie; Smeets, François; Tomme, Marie; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Culicoides biting midges are suggested to be putative vectors for the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) based on SBV RNA detection in field-caught midges. Furthermore, SBV replication and dissemination has been evidenced in C. sonorensis under laboratory conditions. After SBV had been detected in Culicoides biting midges from Belgium in August 2011, it spread all over the country by the end of 2011, as evidenced by very high between-herd seroprevalence rates in sheep and cattle. This study investigated if a renewed SBV circulation in midges occurred in 2012 in the context of high seroprevalence in the animal host population and evaluated if a recently proposed realtime RT-PCR approach that is meant to allow assessing the vector competence of Culicoides for SBV and bluetongue virus under laboratory conditions was applicable to field-caught midges. Therefore midges caught with 12 OVI traps in four different regions in Belgium between May and November 2012, were morphologically identified, age graded, pooled and tested for the presence of SBV RNA by realtime RT-PCR. The results demonstrate that although no SBV could be detected in nulliparous midges caught in May 2012, a renewed but short lived circulation of SBV in parous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia occured in August 2012 at all four regions. The infection prevalence reached up to 2.86% in the south of Belgium, the region where a lower seroprevalence was found at the end of 2011 than in the rest of the country. Furthermore, a frequency analysis of the Ct values obtained for 31 SBV-S segment positive pools of Avaritia midges showed a clear bimodal distribution with peaks of Ct values between 21-24 and 33-36. This closely resembles the laboratory results obtained for SBV infection of C. sonorensis and implicates indigenous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia as competent vectors for SBV.

  5. Load and weather profile, and time simulation impacts for the PEPITE PV/H{sub 2} project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, C.; Thibault, C.; Muselli, M.; Poggi, P. [University of Corsica, UMR CNRS SPE 6134, Route des Sanguinaires, F-20000 Ajaccio (France); Melscoet, S.; Hoguet, J.C. [HELION Hydrogen Power, Domaine du Petit Arbois - Batiment Jules Verne, BP 71, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Pinton, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA/LITEN), 17 rue des Martyrs, 38 054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gailly, F.; Turpin, C. [Universite de Toulouse, INP, UPS, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), ENSEEIHT, 2 rue Charles Camichel, BP 7122, F-31071 Toulouse cedex 7 (France)

    2010-10-15

    This paper concerns the impacts of the meteorological data, the choice of the load profile, and the time simulation (1-11 years) on the energy flows and on the H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O storage sizing in a photovoltaic/fuel cell/electrolyzer hybrid system (PEPITE project). The simulations were computed with the ORIENTE software. 4 load profiles have been investigated (3 diurnal and one nocturnal) with an identical daily consumption (26 kWh). According to load profiles, the gap observed between the most favorable and the most disadvantageous years induces H{sub 2} storage variations rates between 45.5% and 55.3%. Furthermore, if we compare the most penalizing meteorological year with the sizing when we simulate several successive years, we also obtain variation rates (ration between the standard deviation and the corresponding averaged value) ranges from 24.4 to 37.9% for the 3 diurnal profiles. The nocturnal profile presents specific results because it is unsustainable. The main conclusion of this work is the great importance to consider several consecutive years of tilted irradiation data, 7 in our case, to size the H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O storages. (author)

  6. Dynamic replication of Web contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenal growth of the World Wide Web has brought huge increase in the traffic to the popular web sites.Long delays and denial of service experienced by the end-users,especially during the peak hours,continues to be the common problem while accessing popular sites.Replicating some of the objects at multiple sites in a distributed web-server environment is one of the possible solutions to improve the response time/Iatency. The decision of what and where to replicate requires solving a constraint optimization problem,which is NP-complete in general.In this paper, we consider the problem of placing copies of objects in a distributed web server system to minimize the cost of serving read and write requests when the web servers have Iimited storage capacity.We formulate the problem as a 0-1 optimization problem and present a polynomial time greedy algorithm with backtracking to dynamically replicate objects at the appropriate sites to minimize a cost function.To reduce the solution search space,we present necessary condi tions for a site to have a replica of an object jn order to minimize the cost function We present simulation resuIts for a variety of problems to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithms and compare them with those of some well-known algorithms.The simulation resuIts demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithms.

  7. Investigating variation in replicability: A "Many Labs" replication project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, R.A.; Ratliff, K.A.; Vianello, M.; Adams, R.B.; Bahnik, S.; Bernstein, M.J.; Bocian, K.; Brandt, M.J.; Brooks, B.; Brumbaugh, C.C.; Cemalcilar, Z.; Chandler, J.; Cheong, W.; Davis, W.E.; Devos, T.; Eisner, M.; Frankowska, N.; Furrow, D.; Galliani, E.M.; Hasselman, F.W.; Hicks, J.A.; Hovermale, J.F.; Hunt, S.J.; Huntsinger, J.R.; IJzerman, H.; John, M.S.; Joy-Gaba, J.A.; Kappes, H.B.; Krueger, L.E.; Kurtz, J.; Levitan, C.A.; Mallett, R.K.; Morris, W.L.; Nelson, A.J.; Nier, J.A.; Packard, G.; Pilati, R.; Rutchick, A.M.; Schmidt, K.; Skorinko, J.L.M.; Smith, R.; Steiner, T.G.; Storbeck, J.; Van Swol, L.M.; Thompson, D.; Veer, A.E. van 't; Vaughn, L.A.; Vranka, M.; Wichman, A.L.; Woodzicka, J.A.; Nosek, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Although replication is a central tenet of science, direct replications are rare in psychology. This research tested variation in the replicability of 13 classic and contemporary effects across 36 independent samples totaling 6,344 participants. In the aggregate, 10 effects replicated consistently.

  8. Visualizing Single-molecule DNA Replication with Fluorescence Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple fluorescence microscopy-based real-time method for observing DNA replication at the single-molecule level. A circular, forked DNA template is attached to a functionalized glass coverslip and replicated extensively after introduction of replication proteins and nucleotides. The

  9. Visualizing Single-molecule DNA Replication with Fluorescence Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanner, Nathan A.; Loparo, Joseph J.; Oijen, Antoine M. van

    2009-01-01

    We describe a simple fluorescence microscopy-based real-time method for observing DNA replication at the single-molecule level. A circular, forked DNA template is attached to a functionalized glass coverslip and replicated extensively after introduction of replication proteins and nucleotides. The g

  10. Mathematical Framework for A Novel Database Replication Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divakar Singh Yadav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the detailed overview of the database replication is presented. Thereafter, PDDRA (Pre-fetching based dynamic data replication algorithm algorithm as recently published is detailed. In this algorithm, further, modifications are suggested to minimize the delay in data replication. Finally a mathematical framework is presented to evaluate mean waiting time before a data can be replicated on the requested site.

  11. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M., E-mail: yoshida.masafumi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Grisham, L.R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5792 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile.

  12. A New Replication Norm for Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne P LeBel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding the replicability of findings in psychology, including a mounting number of prominent findings that have failed to replicate via high-powered independent replication attempts. In the face of this replicability “crisis of confidence”, several initiatives have been implemented to increase the reliability of empirical findings. In the current article, I propose a new replication norm that aims to further boost the dependability of findings in psychology. Paralleling the extant social norm that researchers should peer review about three times as many articles that they themselves publish per year, the new replication norm states that researchers should aim to independently replicate important findings in their own research areas in proportion to the number of original studies they themselves publish per year (e.g., a 4:1 original-to-replication studies ratio. I argue this simple approach could significantly advance our science by increasing the reliability and cumulative nature of our empirical knowledge base, accelerating our theoretical understanding of psychological phenomena, instilling a focus on quality rather than quantity, and by facilitating our transformation toward a research culture where executing and reporting independent direct replications is viewed as an ordinary part of the research process. To help promote the new norm, I delineate (1 how each of the major constituencies of the research process (i.e., funders, journals, professional societies, departments, and individual researchers can incentivize replications and promote the new norm and (2 any obstacles each constituency faces in supporting the new norm.

  13. A sensitive real-time PCR based assay to estimate the impact of amino acid substitutions on the competitive replication fitness of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Holte, Sarah; Rao, Ushnal; McClure, Jan; Konopa, Philip; Swain, J Victor; Lanxon-Cookson, Erinn; Kim, Moon; Chen, Lennie; Mullins, James I

    2013-04-01

    Fixation of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), such as those conferring drug resistance and immune escape, can result in a change in replication fitness. To assess these changes, a real-time TaqMan PCR detection assay and statistical methods for data analysis were developed to estimate sensitively relative viral fitness in competitive viral replication experiments in cell culture. Chimeric viruses with the gene of interest in an HIV-1NL4-3 backbone were constructed in two forms, vifA (native vif gene in NL4-3) and vifB (vif gene with six synonymous nucleotide differences from vifA). Subsequently, mutations of interest were introduced into the chimeric viruses in NL4-3VifA backbones, and the mutants were competed against the chimera with the isogenic viral sequence in the NL4-3VifB backbone in cell culture. In order to assess subtle fitness differences, culture supernatants were sampled longitudinally, and the viruses differentially quantified using vifA- and vifB-specific primers in real-time PCR assays. Based on an exponential net growth model, the growth rate of each virus was determined and the fitness cost of the mutation(s) distinguishing the two viruses represented as the net growth rate difference between the mutant and the native variants. Using this assay, the fitness impact of eight amino acid substitutions was quantitated at highly conserved sites in HIV-1 Gag and Env.

  14. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  15. A 3D profile function suitable for integration of neutron time-of-flight single crystal diffraction peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Matthias J.

    2017-03-01

    A 3D profile function is presented suitable to integrate reflections arising in time-of-flight (TOF) single crystal neutron diffraction experiments. In order to account for the large asymmetry of the peak shape in the TOF direction, a 3D Gaussian ellipsoid in the pixel (x, z) and time-of-flight coordinates is convoluted with a rising and falling exponential along the time-of-flight direction. An analytic expression is derived, making it suitable for least-squares fitting. The application of this function in detector space or reciprocal space is straightforward.

  16. Sleeping Beauty transposon-based system for rapid generation of HBV-replicating stable cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Zhang, Tian-Ying; Fang, Lin-Lin; Chen, Zi-Xuan; Song, Liu-Wei; Cao, Jia-Li; Yang, Lin; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2016-08-01

    The stable HBV-replicating cell lines, which carry replication-competent HBV genome stably integrated into the genome of host cell, are widely used to evaluate the effects of antiviral agents. However, current methods to generate HBV-replicating cell lines, which are mostly dependent on random integration of foreign DNA via plasmid transfection, are less-efficient and time-consuming. To address this issue, we constructed an all-in-one Sleeping Beauty transposon system (denoted pTSMP-HBV vector) for robust generation of stable cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of different genotype. This vector contains a Sleeping Beauty transposon containing HBV 1.3-copy genome with an expression cassette of the SV40 promoter driving red fluorescent protein (mCherry) and self-cleaving P2A peptide linked puromycin resistance gene (PuroR). In addition, a PGK promoter-driven SB100X hyperactive transposase cassette is placed in the outside of the transposon in the same plasmid.The HBV-replicating stable cells could be obtained from pTSMP-HBV transfected HepG2 cells by red fluorescence-activated cell sorting and puromycin resistant cell selection within 4-week. Using this system, we successfully constructed four cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of genotypes A-D. The replication and viral protein expression profiles of these cells were systematically characterized. In conclusion, our study provides a high-efficiency strategy to generate HBV-replicating stable cell lines, which may facilitate HBV-related virological study.

  17. DNA replication origins in archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenfang eWu; Jingfang eLiu; Haibo eYang; Hua eXiang

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication initiation, which starts at specific chromosomal site (known as replication origins), is the key regulatory stage of chromosome replication. Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several conserved repeats (origin recognition box, ORB) that are located adjacent to ...

  18. Replicative intermediates of maize streak virus found during leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Julia B; Shepherd, Dionne N; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind; Rybicki, Edward P; Jeske, Holger

    2010-04-01

    Geminiviruses of the genera Begomovirus and Curtovirus utilize three replication modes: complementary-strand replication (CSR), rolling-circle replication (RCR) and recombination-dependent replication (RDR). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we now show for the first time that maize streak virus (MSV), the type member of the most divergent geminivirus genus, Mastrevirus, does the same. Although mastreviruses have fewer regulatory genes than other geminiviruses and uniquely express their replication-associated protein (Rep) from a spliced transcript, the replicative intermediates of CSR, RCR and RDR could be detected unequivocally within infected maize tissues. All replicative intermediates accumulated early and, to varying degrees, were already present in the shoot apex and leaves at different maturation stages. Relative to other replicative intermediates, those associated with RCR increased in prevalence during leaf maturation. Interestingly, in addition to RCR-associated DNA forms seen in other geminiviruses, MSV also apparently uses dimeric open circular DNA as a template for RCR.

  19. Giving English Language Learners the Time They Need to Succeed: Profiles of Three Expanded Learning Time Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, David A.

    2015-01-01

    With the number of students who are English language learners (ELLs) likely to double in coming years, it is more important than ever for schools across the U.S. to design and implement educational practices and strategies that best meet ELLs' learning needs, says the report, "Giving English Language Learners the Time They Need to…

  20. Replication studies in longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varcasia, O; Garasto, S; Rizza, T

    2001-01-01

    In Danes we replicated the 3'APOB-VNTR gene/longevity association study previously carried out in Italians, by which the Small alleles (less than 35 repeats) had been identified as frailty alleles for longevity. In Danes, neither genotype nor allele frequencies differed between centenarians and 20...

  1. Coronavirus Attachment and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-28

    synthesis during RNA replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 49:303-309. Pedersen, N.C. 1976a. Feline infectious peritonitis: Something old...receptors on intestinal brush border membranes from normal host species were developed for canine (CCV), feline (FIPV), porcine (TGEV), human (HCV...gastroenteritis receptor on pig BBMs ...... ................. ... 114 Feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor on cat BBMs ... .............. 117 Human

  2. Continuous Time Series of Water Vapor Profiles from a Combination of Raman Lidar and Microwave Radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foth Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method to retrieve continuous water vapor profiles from a combination of a Raman lidar and a microwave radiometer. The integrated water vapor from the microwave radiometer is used to calibrate the Raman lidar operationally resulting in small biases compared to radiosondes. The height limitations for Raman lidars (cloud base and daylight contamination can be well compensated by the application of a two–step algorithm combining the Raman lidars mass mixing ratio and the microwave radiometers brightness temperatures.

  3. Time-resolved diffraction profiles and structural dynamics of Ni film under short laser pulse irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhibin; Zhigilei, Leonid V [University of Virginia, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 116 Engineer' s Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4745 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The evolution of the diffraction profiles during the fast thermoelastic deformation and structural transformations induced in a thin Ni film by short pulse laser irradiation is investigated in molecular dynamics simulations. Fast disappearance of the diffraction peaks characteristic for the initial crystal structure is related to the homogeneous nucleation and growth of liquid regions inside the overheated crystal. Transient thermoelastic deformation of the film prior to melting is reflected in shifts and splittings of the diffraction peaks, providing an opportunity for experimental probing of the ultrafast deformations.

  4. Acute Lethality of Inhaled Hydrogen Cyanide in the Laboratory Rat: Impact of Concentration x Time Profile and Evaluation of the Predictivity of Toxic Load Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton Acute Lethality of Inhaled Hydrogen Cyanide in the Laboratory Rat : Impact of Concentration × Time Profile and...Cyanide in the Laboratory Rat : Impact of Concentration x Time Profile and Evaluation of the Predictivity of “Toxic Load” Models. 5a. Contract

  5. Systematic evaluation of three microRNA profiling platforms: microarray, beads array, and quantitative real-time PCR array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Howel, Paul; Bruheim, Skjalg; Ju, Jingfang; Owen, Laurie B; Fodstad, Oystein; Xi, Yaguang

    2011-02-11

    A number of gene-profiling methodologies have been applied to microRNA research. The diversity of the platforms and analytical methods makes the comparison and integration of cross-platform microRNA profiling data challenging. In this study, we systematically analyze three representative microRNA profiling platforms: Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) microarray, beads array, and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR Low Density Array (TLDA). The microRNA profiles of 40 human osteosarcoma xenograft samples were generated by LNA array, beads array, and TLDA. Results show that each of the three platforms perform similarly regarding intra-platform reproducibility or reproducibility of data within one platform while LNA array and TLDA had the best inter-platform reproducibility or reproducibility of data across platforms. The endogenous controls/probes contained in each platform have been observed for their stability under different treatments/environments; those included in TLDA have the best performance with minimal coefficients of variation. Importantly, we identify that the proper selection of normalization methods is critical for improving the inter-platform reproducibility, which is evidenced by the application of two non-linear normalization methods (loess and quantile) that substantially elevated the sensitivity and specificity of the statistical data assessment. Each platform is relatively stable in terms of its own microRNA profiling intra-reproducibility; however, the inter-platform reproducibility among different platforms is low. More microRNA specific normalization methods are in demand for cross-platform microRNA microarray data integration and comparison, which will improve the reproducibility and consistency between platforms.

  6. A meta-analysis of profile and time-course of symptom change in acute schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Megan; Thornton, Allen E; Honer, William G

    2006-06-01

    The profile and time-course of symptom response in acute schizophrenia is unclear. For the present study, we hypothesized that the time-course would be nonlinear. A meta-analysis was performed using randomized, controlled clinical trials of five atypical antipsychotics reported in nine electronic databases. Studies were of subjects experiencing an acute exacerbation of illness, with multiple BPRS or PANSS data-points as outcome measures. A mixed factorial repeated-measures ANOVA was used. Twenty-one published clinical trials were identified. Reduction in total symptoms from baseline to 4 wk was associated with a linear decline in symptomatology (F=23.4, d.f.=1, 7, p=0.002) without attenuation of effect. In contrast, from baseline to 6 wk the linear symptom reduction (F=76.5, d.f.=1, 12, pdata altered the results at 4 wk, but not 6 wk; completion rates had no effect on results. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirms our hypothesis for 6-wk data. The profile of symptom change is one of linear symptom reduction until 4 wk, with a flattening of treatment effects by 6 wk. A curvilinear profile of schizophrenia symptom reduction has possible implications with respect to trial design and clinical decision-making.

  7. A Systematic Approach to Time-series Metabolite Profiling and RNA-seq Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Han-Hsiu; Araki, Michihiro; Mochizuki, Masao; Hori, Yoshimi; Murata, Masahiro; Kahar, Prihardi; Yoshida, Takanobu; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the primary host used for biopharmaceutical protein production. The engineering of CHO cells to produce higher amounts of biopharmaceuticals has been highly dependent on empirical approaches, but recent high-throughput “omics” methods are changing the situation in a rational manner. Omics data analyses using gene expression or metabolite profiling make it possible to identify key genes and metabolites in antibody production. Systematic omics approaches using different types of time-series data are expected to further enhance understanding of cellular behaviours and molecular networks for rational design of CHO cells. This study developed a systematic method for obtaining and analysing time-dependent intracellular and extracellular metabolite profiles, RNA-seq data (enzymatic mRNA levels) and cell counts from CHO cell cultures to capture an overall view of the CHO central metabolic pathway (CMP). We then calculated correlation coefficients among all the profiles and visualised the whole CMP by heatmap analysis and metabolic pathway mapping, to classify genes and metabolites together. This approach provides an efficient platform to identify key genes and metabolites in CHO cell culture. PMID:28252038

  8. Determination of the action modes of cellulases from hydrolytic profiles over a time course using fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Peipei; Li, Dandan; Chen, Guanjun; Gao, Peiji; Wang, Lushan

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) is a sensitive and simple method for the separation of oligosaccharides. It relies on labeling the reducing ends of oligosaccharides with a fluorophore, followed by PAGE. Concentration changes of oligosaccharides following hydrolysis of a carbohydrate polymer could be quantitatively measured continuously over time using the FACE method. Based on the quantitative analysis, we suggested that FACE was a relatively high-throughput, repeatable, and suitable method for the analysis of the action modes of cellulases. On account of the time courses of their hydrolytic profiles, the apparent processivity was used to show the different action modes of cellulases. Cellulases could be easily differentiated as exoglucanases, β-glucosidases, or endoglucanases. Moreover, endoglucanases from the same glycoside hydrolases family had a variety of apparent processivity, indicating the different modes of action. Endoglucanases with the same binding capacities and hydrolytic activities had similar oligosaccharide profiles, which aided in their classification. The hydrolytic profile of Trichoderma reesei Cel12A, an endoglucanases from T. reesei, contained glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose, which revealed that it may have a new glucosidase activity, corresponding to that of EC 3.2.1.74. A hydrolysate study of a T. reesei Cel12A-N20A mutant demonstrated that the FACE method was sufficiently sensitive to detect the influence of a single-site mutation on enzymatic activity.

  9. Longitudinal associations between personality profile stability and adjustment in college students: distinguishing among overall stability, distinctive stability, and within-time normativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A; Luyckx, Koen; Hale, William W; Goossens, Luc; Meeus, Wim H J

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, longitudinal associations of 3 aspects of personality profile stability (i.e., overall stability, distinctive stability, and within-time normativeness) with 3 adjustment measures (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and delinquency) were examined, using 4 waves of longitudinal data on a Belgian college sample (N=565). Longitudinal path models revealed strong longitudinal associations between adjustment and overall stability. Subsequent analyses showed that it is not the degree to which one's personality profile consistently diverges from the average personality profile within a population (i.e., distinctive stability) that is related to adjustment but the degree to which a personality profile of an individual matches the average personality profile within the sample at a certain point in time (i.e., within-time normativeness). The current study thereby underscores the importance of distinguishing normativeness and distinctiveness when examining personality profile stability.

  10. Time-course investigation of the gene expression profile during Fasciola hepatica infection: A microarray-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rojas-Caraballo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is listed as one of the most important neglected tropical diseases according with the World Health Organization and is also considered as a reemerging disease in the human beings. Despite there are several studies describing the immune response induced by Fasciola hepatica in the mammalian host, investigations aimed at identifying the expression profile of genes involved in inducing hepatic injury are currently scarce. Data presented here belong to a time-course investigation of the gene expression profile in the liver of BALB/c mice infected with F. hepatica metacercariae at 7 and 21 days after experimental infection. The data published here have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE69588, previously published by Rojas-Caraballo et al. (2015 in PLoS One [1].

  11. Control of DNA replication by anomalous reaction-diffusion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechhoefer, John; Gauthier, Michel

    2010-03-01

    DNA replication requires two distinct processes: the initiation of pre-licensed replication origins and the propagation of replication forks away from the fired origins. Experiments indicate that these origins are triggered over the whole genome at a rate I(t) (the number of initiations per unreplicated length per time) that increases throughout most of the synthesis (S) phase, before rapidly decreasing to zero at the end of the replication process. We propose a simple model for the control of DNA replication in which the rate of initiation of replication origins is controlled by protein-DNA interactions. Analyzing recent data from Xenopus frog embryos, we find that the initiation rate is reaction limited until nearly the end of replication, when it becomes diffusion limited. Initiation of origins is suppressed when the diffusion-limited search time dominates. To fit the experimental data, we find that the interaction between DNA and the rate-limiting protein must be subdiffusive.

  12. Effect of different between-match recovery times on the activity profiles and injury rates of national rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Nick B; Gabbett, Tim J; Chamari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Professional rugby league competition does not coincide with a standardized amount of recovery between matches; matches can be separated by as many as 10 days and as few as 5 days. These variations in recovery time could influence the match activity profiles and injury rates of players. This study investigated the effect of different between-match recovery times on the activity profiles and injury rates of National Rugby League (NRL) players. Forty-three elite male rugby league players participated in this study. Between-match recovery cycles were defined as short (separated by 5 or 6 days), medium (separated by 7 or 8 days), and long (separated by 9 or 10 days) recovery. Movement was recorded using a commercially available microtechnology unit, which provided information on speed, distance, and repeated high-intensity effort activity. Injuries sustained in either training or match play, which resulted in a missed match, were recorded. Significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) relative total distance was covered after matches involving short recovery than those involving medium (effect size [ES] = 1.13) or long (ES = 1.08) recovery periods. This difference was because of greater low-speed activity. Injury rates for the adjustables positional group were the highest after short between-match recovery cycles, whereas the injury rates of hit-up forwards and outside backs positional groups were the highest after long between-match recovery cycles. These findings suggest that the activity profiles of NRL match play and the injury rates of specific playing positions are influenced by the amount of recovery between matches. The differences in the activity profiles and injury rates between short, medium, and long between-match recovery cycles should be considered when developing recovery strategies for professional rugby league players.

  13. Reversible Switching of Cooperating Replicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtel, Georg C.; Rind, Thomas; Braun, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    How can molecules with short lifetimes preserve their information over millions of years? For evolution to occur, information-carrying molecules have to replicate before they degrade. Our experiments reveal a robust, reversible cooperation mechanism in oligonucleotide replication. Two inherently slow replicating hairpin molecules can transfer their information to fast crossbreed replicators that outgrow the hairpins. The reverse is also possible. When one replication initiation site is missing, single hairpins reemerge from the crossbreed. With this mechanism, interacting replicators can switch between the hairpin and crossbreed mode, revealing a flexible adaptation to different boundary conditions.

  14. Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR to Detect MicroRNA Expression Profile During Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoping; Murashov, Alexander K; Stellwag, Edmund J; Zhang, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a reliable method to determine and monitor microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in different cells, tissues, and organisms. Although there are several different strategies in performing qRT-PCR to determine miRNA expression, all of them have two steps in common: reverse transcription for obtaining cDNA from mature miRNA sequencing and standard real-time PCR for amplification of cDNA. This chapter demonstrates the application of quantitative real-time PCR for determining miRNA expression profiles during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation. In this method, a mature miRNA sequence is first reverse transcribed into a long cDNA with a 40-50 nt miRNA-specific stem-loop primer; then, a standard real-time PCR reaction is performed for determining miRNA expression using a forward miRNA-specific primer and a universal reverse primer.

  15. Static Profiling of the Worst-Case in Real-Time Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandner, Florian; Hepp, Stefan; Jordan, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing performance demand in real-time systems it becomes more and more relevant to provide feedback to engineers and programmers, but also software development tools, on the performance-relevant code parts of a real-time program. So far, the information provided to programmers throu...

  16. Time Management Profiles of Cypriot School Principals: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouali, Georgia; Pashiardis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a piece of research concerning the time management of Cypriot primary school principals. Time management refers to the interrelation of five independent variables: the various tasks principals perform, their frequency, the degree of accomplishment of those tasks, the use of time…

  17. Time Management Profiles of Cypriot School Principals: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouali, Georgia; Pashiardis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a piece of research concerning the time management of Cypriot primary school principals. Time management refers to the interrelation of five independent variables: the various tasks principals perform, their frequency, the degree of accomplishment of those tasks, the use of time…

  18. Using areas of known occupancy to identify sources of variation in detection probability of raptors: taking time lowers replication effort for surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murn, Campbell; Holloway, Graham J

    2016-10-01

    Species occurring at low density can be difficult to detect and if not properly accounted for, imperfect detection will lead to inaccurate estimates of occupancy. Understanding sources of variation in detection probability and how they can be managed is a key part of monitoring. We used sightings data of a low-density and elusive raptor (white-headed vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis) in areas of known occupancy (breeding territories) in a likelihood-based modelling approach to calculate detection probability and the factors affecting it. Because occupancy was known a priori to be 100%, we fixed the model occupancy parameter to 1.0 and focused on identifying sources of variation in detection probability. Using detection histories from 359 territory visits, we assessed nine covariates in 29 candidate models. The model with the highest support indicated that observer speed during a survey, combined with temporal covariates such as time of year and length of time within a territory, had the highest influence on the detection probability. Averaged detection probability was 0.207 (s.e. 0.033) and based on this the mean number of visits required to determine within 95% confidence that white-headed vultures are absent from a breeding area is 13 (95% CI: 9-20). Topographical and habitat covariates contributed little to the best models and had little effect on detection probability. We highlight that low detection probabilities of some species means that emphasizing habitat covariates could lead to spurious results in occupancy models that do not also incorporate temporal components. While variation in detection probability is complex and influenced by effects at both temporal and spatial scales, temporal covariates can and should be controlled as part of robust survey methods. Our results emphasize the importance of accounting for detection probability in occupancy studies, particularly during presence/absence studies for species such as raptors that are widespread and

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-01-21 (NCEI Accession 0140981)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 12/3/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 8/3/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002311)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 7/11/2006 (NCEI Accession 0002744)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 9/28/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001730)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 10/11/2010 (NODC Accession 0067730)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 06/08/2009 (NODC Accession 0054377)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 12/13/2010 (NODC Accession 0069176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 9/26/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 10/19/2009 (NODC Accession 0058810)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2/20/2004 (NODC Accession 0001350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 3/21/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 10/06/2008 (NODC Accession 0046157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-10-14 (NODC Accession 0122631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-04-13 (NODC Accession 0127356)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-07-29 (NODC Accession 0120700)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/28/2013 (NODC Accession 0107920)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2013-10-29 (NODC Accession 0113945)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2013-11-04 (NODC Accession 0114206)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 5/23/2006 (NCEI Accession 0002685)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the month of June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 8/5/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001653)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 10/26/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001872)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 03/29/2010 (NODC Accession 0062858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 3/20/2006 (NCEI Accession 0002604)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/20/2011 (NCEI Accession 0073739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 6/17/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 5/18/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001463)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 12/11/2006 (NCEI Accession 0011381)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 12/19/2011 (NCEI Accession 0082521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-10-15 (NODC Accession 0122657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/24/2011 (NCEI Accession 0081523)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/14/2013 (NODC Accession 0106486)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2013-11-25 (NODC Accession 0114474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0152443)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0143330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-11-03 (NCEI Accession 0137721)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-04-08 (NODC Accession 0127319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-02-05 (NODC Accession 0125585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/04/2012 (NCEI Accession 0090245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 01/03/2012 (NCEI Accession 0083185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-11-10 (NCEI Accession 0137872)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-01-14 (NODC Accession 0115713)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 07/12/2011 (NCEI Accession 0074224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/01/2012 (NCEI Accession 0088995)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 04/05/2012 (NCEI Accession 0087850)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 04/28/2011 (NCEI Accession 0072314)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 02/21/2013 (NODC Accession 0103930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0150387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-02-12 (NODC Accession 0125691)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 3/10/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-01-07 (NODC Accession 0115675)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/23/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001907)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0137413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-10-27 (NCEI Accession 0137365)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2013-11-22 (NODC Accession 0114468)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2013-11-22 (NODC Accession 0114469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 07/30/2012 (NODC Accession 0093315)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-11-04 (NODC Accession 0123116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-08-11 (NCEI Accession 0156298)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 09/06/2011 (NCEI Accession 0075738)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-07-16 (NCEI Accession 0129889)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-07-24 (NODC Accession 0120617)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-06-04 (NCEI Accession 0152501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-09-01 (NCEI Accession 0131205)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/08/2011 (NCEI Accession 0074849)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 12/23/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001950)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-08-11 (NODC Accession 0121226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0139495)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 09/03/2013 (NODC Accession 0112666)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-06-21 (NCEI Accession 0154379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-11-10 (NODC Accession 0123219)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/31/2012 (NCEI Accession 0090162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/02/2013 (NODC Accession 0105587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-10-20 (NODC Accession 0123052)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-06-03 (NODC Accession 0119095)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 09/09/2013 (NODC Accession 0112846)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-11-28 (NCEI Accession 0138418)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 03/28/2013 (NODC Accession 0104323)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-06-16 (NCEI Accession 0153599)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-09-15 (NCEI Accession 0156592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 07/30/2013 (NODC Accession 0111329)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 11/03/2008 (NODC Accession 0047057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 08/23/2010 (NODC Accession 0066655)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-08-03 (NCEI Accession 0156218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-04-23 (NODC Accession 0117711)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/19/2012 (NCEI Accession 0092081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/26/2011 (NCEI Accession 0073157)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-05-22 (NODC Accession 0118681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0137473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 12/05/2011 (NCEI Accession 0082167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 3/12/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 10/23/2003 (NCEI Accession 0001205)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 5/13/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001457)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 6/8/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001490)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 3/30/2006 (NCEI Accession 0002617)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 09/12/2013 (NODC Accession 0112888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/14/2011 (NCEI Accession 0073606)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2013-11-22 (NODC Accession 0114458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/18/2013 (NODC Accession 0108922)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 09/27/2012 (NODC Accession 0097970)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 10/10/2012 (NODC Accession 0098462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-02-19 (NCEI Accession 0143634)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/03/2011 (NCEI Accession 0079428)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-04-20 (NODC Accession 0127384)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/28/2012 (NODC Accession 0094270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-04-09 (NODC Accession 0127324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/13/2011 (NCEI Accession 0073534)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 10/24/2011 (NCEI Accession 0078568)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-06-02 (NODC Accession 0118841)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-11-24 (NCEI Accession 0138229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 07/04/2012 (NCEI Accession 0092436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-03-31 (NODC Accession 0126983)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-04-15 (NODC Accession 0117492)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/17/2012 (NCEI Accession 0089504)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/02/2012 (NODC Accession 0093348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 03/22/2012 (NCEI Accession 0086954)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 07/05/2012 (NCEI Accession 0092437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/11/2012 (NCEI Accession 0090697)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-12-08 (NODC Accession 0123605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-02-19 (NODC Accession 0125957)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 09/10/2013 (NODC Accession 0112847)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 09/20/2011 (NCEI Accession 0077559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-06-09 (NCEI Accession 0129353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-04-23 (NCEI Accession 0127394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-05-10 (NCEI Accession 0150536)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 09/25/2012 (NODC Accession 0097922)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 02/02/2012 (NCEI Accession 0084727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 12/24/2012 (NODC Accession 0100549)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/11/2013 (NODC Accession 0108245)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/02/2011 (NCEI Accession 0074612)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-03-03 (NCEI Accession 0145015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-05-05 (NODC Accession 0118275)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-02-03 (NODC Accession 0116172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 04/19/2012 (NCEI Accession 0088777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-05-26 (NCEI Accession 0151816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 07/25/2011 (NCEI Accession 0074471)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-08-23 (NCEI Accession 0156391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 04/25/2013 (NODC Accession 0104695)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-03-12 (NODC Accession 0126657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0143274)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-09-18 (NODC Accession 0122128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 10/30/2012 (NODC Accession 0099077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-03-16 (NODC Accession 0126675)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-07-15 (NODC Accession 0120330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/21/2012 (NCEI Accession 0092103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-08-11 (NCEI Accession 0130928)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-01-30 (NCEI Accession 0141243)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/08/2013 (NODC Accession 0111840)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-03-05 (NODC Accession 0126592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 5/10/2006 (NCEI Accession 0002668)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/1/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002422)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 5/5/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002145)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-08-26 (NODC Accession 0121512)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2/15/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/23/2012 (NCEI Accession 0089670)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/16/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001900)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-07-22 (NODC Accession 0120530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 10/18/2010 (NODC Accession 0067963)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-09-22 (NCEI Accession 0156633)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-06-16 (NODC Accession 0119490)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 04/18/2011 (NODC Accession 0072198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/28/2011 (NCEI Accession 0081692)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-07-02 (NODC Accession 0119796)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-07-29 (NCEI Accession 0130006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/29/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001912)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 5/16/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-12-10 (NCEI Accession 0139004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 1/6/2004 (NODC Accession 0001296)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-10-17 (NCEI Accession 0136994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/14/2012 (NODC Accession 0093752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-05-25 (NCEI Accession 0128444)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2013-12-12 (NODC Accession 0115397)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-04-14 (NODC Accession 0127357)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-09-09 (NCEI Accession 0131450)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-03-30 (NODC Accession 0126913)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-06-09 (NODC Accession 0119337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0129886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-06-17 (NODC Accession 0119608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/21/2011 (NCEI Accession 0081306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 10/20/2011 (NCEI Accession 0078566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 6/20/2006 (NCEI Accession 0002721)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 04/09/2013 (NODC Accession 0104407)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 6/28/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002255)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-10-15 (NCEI Accession 0136937)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-09-19 (NCEI Accession 0131933)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 01/21/2013 (NODC Accession 0101530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 8/25/2008 (NCEI Accession 0044925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/21/2013 (NODC Accession 0107264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 04/16/2012 (NCEI Accession 0088416)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-07-17 (NODC Accession 0120405)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-07-14 (NODC Accession 0120316)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-07-21 (NODC Accession 0120510)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-07-28 (NODC Accession 0120678)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-09-09 (NCEI Accession 0156559)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 1/20/2005 (NCEI Accession 0001991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 12/22/2011 (NCEI Accession 0082601)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 9/29/2003 (NCEI Accession 0001181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0156647)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 6/10/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001491)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-02-16 (NODC Accession 0125774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/17/2011 (NCEI Accession 0072885)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-03-10 (NODC Accession 0116975)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 05/09/2011 (NCEI Accession 0072669)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2013-11-05 (NODC Accession 0114226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 11/07/2011 (NCEI Accession 0080665)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 1/18/2005 (NCEI Accession 0001980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-11-13 (NCEI Accession 0137926)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-11-20 (NODC Accession 0123301)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-03-19 (NODC Accession 0126709)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 12/16/2004 (NCEI Accession 0001944)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/19/2013 (NODC Accession 0112162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/12/2013 (NODC Accession 0111917)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/15/2013 (NODC Accession 0111972)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/13/2013 (NODC Accession 0111941)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 08/07/2013 (NODC Accession 0111785)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 02/14/2011 (NODC Accession 0070778)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 07/07/2008 (NODC Accession 0043251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 5/16/2006 (NCEI Accession 0002678)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 07/15/2013 (NODC Accession 0110495)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 9/9/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002366)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 1/28/2005 (NCEI Accession 0002002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  1. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 1/6/2005 (NCEI Accession 0001961)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  2. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted the week of 02/22/2010 (NODC Accession 0062276)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  3. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-09-03 (NCEI Accession 0156486)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  4. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-02-23 (NODC Accession 0126372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  5. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 04/26/2012 (NCEI Accession 0088897)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  6. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 07/16/2012 (NODC Accession 0093015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  7. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-09-11 (NODC Accession 0122094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  8. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-09-24 (NCEI Accession 0131977)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  9. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-05-29 (NODC Accession 0118732)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  10. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/20/2013 (NODC Accession 0109116)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  11. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-03-13 (NODC Accession 0117057)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  12. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 09/30/2013 (NODC Accession 0113483)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  13. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 10/04/2011 (NCEI Accession 0077948)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  14. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 02/14/2012 (NCEI Accession 0085124)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  15. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2015-01-29 (NODC Accession 0125565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  16. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2014-03-11 (NODC Accession 0117042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  17. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 03/07/2013 (NODC Accession 0104192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  18. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 06/27/2013 (NODC Accession 0109835)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  19. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 01/16/2012 (NCEI Accession 0084006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...

  20. Real-time profile data assembled by Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) for the Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program (GTSPP) and submitted on 2016-06-18 (NCEI Accession 0153620)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Integrated Science Data Management (ISDM) office processes oceanographic profiles reported for the world oceans in near real-time from the Global...