WorldWideScience

Sample records for replicated field trial

  1. A cluster randomized control field trial of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention: Replication and extension of basic findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noella Angele Piquette

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports a cluster randomized control trial evaluation of teaching using ABRACADABRA (ABRA, an evidence-based and web-based literacy intervention (http://abralite.concordia.ca with 107 kindergarten and 96 grade 1 children in 24 classes (12 intervention 12 control classes from all 12 elementary schools in one school district in Canada. Children in the intervention condition received 10-12 hours of whole class instruction using ABRA between pre- and post-test. Hierarchical linear modeling of post-test results showed significant gains in letter-sound knowledge for intervention classrooms over control classrooms. In addition, medium effect sizes were evident for three of five outcome measures favoring the intervention: letter-sound knowledge (d = +.66, phonological blending (d = +.52, and word reading (d = +.52, over effect sizes for regular teaching. It is concluded that regular teaching with ABRA technology adds significantly to literacy in the early elementary years.

  2. Implementing the Bounce Back Trauma Intervention in Urban Elementary Schools: A Real-World Replication Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Raviv, Tali; Ros, Anna Maria; Brewer, Stephanie K.; Distel, Laura M. L.; Torres, Stephanie A.; Fuller, Anne K.; Lewis, Krystal M.; Coyne, Claire A.; Cicchetti, Colleen; Langley, Audra K.

    2018-01-01

    The current study provides the first replication trial of Bounce Back, a school-based intervention for elementary students exposed to trauma, in a different school district and geographical area. Participants in this study were 52 1st through 4th graders (M[subscript age] = 7.76 years; 65% male) who were predominately Latino (82%). Schools were…

  3. Field trials at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Stone, Earl L.

    1987-01-01

    Last year's report summarized the status of both the long on-going soil and plant sampling programs (initiated by LLNL in 1978) and the field experiments aimed at reducing radionuclide levels in food plants to acceptable levels. In the current report the two are combined into a single summary table, indicating for each field trial or survey the results to date, information expected by the spring of 1988, and projection, if any, for continuation beyond FY1988. This table is therefore a comprehensive survey of the program and accordingly the individual items in it have been coded to facilitate reference to them. Analytical results from field studies installed in 1985 and 1986 are now providing much new information, briefly described below. In part, these results bear out or enlarge the hypotheses that prompted the studies. They also suggest how some treatments may be modified or combined for greater effectiveness. We shall discuss here certain groups of studies of immediate interest that deal with the blocking effects of potassium and other ions on cesium-137 uptake by plants, the effect of removing topsoil (excavation), cultural studies which involve the manipulation of the subsoil, plus some others

  4. Field trials at Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Livermore, CA (United States); Stone, Earl L [University of Florida, Soil Science Department, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1987-07-01

    Last year's report summarized the status of both the long on-going soil and plant sampling programs (initiated by LLNL in 1978) and the field experiments aimed at reducing radionuclide levels in food plants to acceptable levels. In the current report the two are combined into a single summary table, indicating for each field trial or survey the results to date, information expected by the spring of 1988, and projection, if any, for continuation beyond FY1988. This table is therefore a comprehensive survey of the program and accordingly the individual items in it have been coded to facilitate reference to them. Analytical results from field studies installed in 1985 and 1986 are now providing much new information, briefly described below. In part, these results bear out or enlarge the hypotheses that prompted the studies. They also suggest how some treatments may be modified or combined for greater effectiveness. We shall discuss here certain groups of studies of immediate interest that deal with the blocking effects of potassium and other ions on cesium-137 uptake by plants, the effect of removing topsoil (excavation), cultural studies which involve the manipulation of the subsoil, plus some others.

  5. IAEA monitoring field trials workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, H.H.; Cooley, J.N.; Belew, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Recent safeguards inspections in Iraq and elsewhere by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have led to the supposition that environmental monitoring can aid in verifying declared and in detecting undeclared nuclear activities or operations. This assumption was most recently examined by the IAEA's Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI), in their reports to the IAEA Board of Governors. In their reports, SAGSI suggested that further assessment and development of environmental monitoring would be needed to fully evaluate its potential application to enhanced IAEA safeguards. Such an inquiry became part of the IAEA ''Programme 93+2'' assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards. In March, 1994, the International Safeguards Group at Oak Ridge hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for IAEA inspectors to train them in the techniques needed for effective environmental sampling. The workshop included both classroom lectures and actual field sampling exercises. The workshop was designed to emphasize the analytical infrastructure needed for an environmental program, practical sampling methods, and suggested procedures for properly planning a sampling campaign. Detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water associated sampling were covered. The overall approach to the workshop, and observed results, are described

  6. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  7. Solid oxide fuel cell field trial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.P.; Winstanley, R.; Nietsch, T.; Smith, C.; Knight, R.; Seymore, C.

    2000-07-01

    This report focuses on issues relating to a field trial of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Aspects examined include markets for SOFC systems, the choice of systems for demonstration in year 2002, the assessment of industrial interest, and evaluation and ranking of candidate systems. The identification and evaluation of interest in field trials, the estimation of the capital and running costs of a field trial, and identification of the benefits to the UK and barriers to implementation of SOFC systems are discussed. (UK)

  8. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft sections to investigate several alternative...

  9. Biochar: from laboratory mechanisms through the greenhouse to field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gao, X.; Dugan, B.; Silberg, J. J.; Zygourakis, K.; Alvarez, P. J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The biochar community is excellent at pointing to individual cases where biochar amendment has changed soil properties, with some studies showing significant improvements in crop yields, reduction in nutrient export, and remediation of pollutants. However, many studies exist which do not show improvements, and in some cases, studies clearly show detrimental outcomes. The next, crucial step in biochar science and engineering research will be to develop a process-based understanding of how biochar acts to improve soil properties. In particular, we need a better mechanistic understanding of how biochar sorbs and desorbs contaminants, how it interacts with soil water, and how it interacts with the soil microbial community. These mechanistic studies need to encompass processes that range from the nanometer to the kilometer scale. At the nanometer scale, we need a predictive model of how biochar will sorb and desorb hydrocarbons, nutrients, and toxic metals. At the micrometer scale we need models that explain biochar's effects on soil water, especially the plant-available fraction of soil water. The micrometer scale is also where mechanistic information is neeed about microbial processes. At the macroscale we need physical models to describe the landscape mobility of biochar, because biochar that washes away from fields can no longer provide crop benefits. To be most informative, biochar research should occur along a lab-greenhouse-field trial trajectory. Laboratory experiments should aim determine what mechanisms may act to control biochar-soil processes, and then greenhouse experiments can be used to test the significance of lab-derived mechanisms in short, highly replicated, controlled experiments. Once evidence of effect is determined from greenhouse experiments, field trials are merited. Field trials are the gold standard needed prior to full deployment, but results from field trials cannot be extrapolated to other field sites without the mechanistic backup provided

  10. Photovoltaic domestic field trial. Third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    An update on a photovoltaics field trial that has been running for four years is presented. The PV Domestic Field Trial was set up to use the design, construction, performance and monitoring of PV units to generate data for utilities, builders and other current and potential users of PVs. Subjects covered were appearance of the systems, architectural integration, fixing methods, cost effectiveness, opinions of users, monitoring and results. During the past 12 months, most of the human effort has gone into collation of data from 22 of the 28 projects. The study was sponsored by Great Britain's DTI.

  11. Conducting field trials for frost tolerance breeding in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattivelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Cereal species can be damaged by frost either during winter or at flowering stage. Frost tolerance per se is only a part of the mechanisms that allow the plants to survive during winter; winterhardiness also considers other biotic or physical stresses that challenge the plants during the winter season limiting their survival rate. While frost tolerance can also be tested in controlled environments, winterhardiness can be determined only with field evaluations. Post-heading frost damage occurs from radiation frost events in spring during the reproductive stages. A reliable evaluation of winterhardiness or of post-heading frost damage should be carried out with field trials replicated across years and locations to overcome the irregular occurrence of natural conditions which satisfactorily differentiate genotypes. The evaluation of post-heading frost damage requires a specific attention to plant phenology. The extent of frost damage is usually determined with a visual score at the end of the winter.

  12. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft test sections to investigate several altern...

  13. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying : the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field : trial of six 1000 ft test sections to investigate several al...

  14. Soil stabilization field trial : interim report I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Shrinkage cracks in cement-stabilized bases/subbase can be alleviated by specifying the right cement dosage, or by other additives/procedures that suppress crack susceptibility. A field trial of six 1000 ft test sections to investigate several altern...

  15. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  16. 7 CFR 1755.3 - Field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (5) Responsibility for testing, test equipment and normal operation and maintenance during the trial... Telephone Systems of RUS Borrowers,” RUS Bulletin 344-2. When new items of materials or equipment are... modifications that its suitability cannot be determined based on laboratory data and/or field experience, a...

  17. Prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses: from randomized trials to community replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, David L

    2002-09-01

    This paper summarizes a 25-year program of research that has attempted to improve the early health and development of low-income mothers and children and their future life trajectories with prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses. The program has been tested in two separate large-scale randomized controlled trials with different populations living in different contexts. The program has been successful in improving parental care of the child as reflected in fewer injuries and ingestions that may be associated with child abuse and neglect; and maternal life-course, reflected in fewer subsequent pregnancies, greater work force participation, and reduced use of public assistance and food stamps. In the first trial, the program also produced long-term effects on the number of arrests, convictions, emergent substance use, and promiscuous sexual activity of 15-year-old children whose nurse-visited mothers were low-income and unmarried when they registered in the study during pregnancy. Since 1996, the program has been offered for public investment outside of research contexts. Careful attention has been given to ensuring that the program is replicated with fidelity to the model tested in the scientifically controlled studies by working with community leaders to ensure that organization and community contexts are favorable for the program; by providing the nurses with excellent training and technical assistance and detailed visit-by-visit guidelines; and by providing organizations with a web-based clinical information system that creates a basis for monitoring program performance and continuous quality improvement.

  18. Malaria vaccines: lessons from field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Struchiner

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine candidates have already been tested and new trials are being carried out. We present a brief description of specific issues of validity that are relevant when assessing vaccine efficacy in the field and illustrate how the application of these principles might improve our interpretation of the data being gathered in actual malaria vaccine field trials. Our discussion assumes that vaccine evaluation shares the same general principles of validity with epidemiologic causal inference, i.e., the process of drawing inferences from epidemiologic data aiming at the identification of causes of diseases. Judicious exercise of these principles indicates that, for meaningful interpretation, measures of vaccine efficacy require definitions based upon arguments conditional on the amount of exposure to infection, and specification of the initial and final states in which one believes the effect of interest takes place.

  19. Implementing the Bounce Back trauma intervention in urban elementary schools: A real-world replication trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Raviv, Tali; Ros, Anna Maria; Brewer, Stephanie K; Distel, Laura M L; Torres, Stephanie A; Fuller, Anne K; Lewis, Krystal M; Coyne, Claire A; Cicchetti, Colleen; Langley, Audra K

    2018-03-01

    The current study provides the first replication trial of Bounce Back, a school-based intervention for elementary students exposed to trauma, in a different school district and geographical area. Participants in this study were 52 1st through 4th graders (Mage = 7.76 years; 65% male) who were predominately Latino (82%). Schools were randomly assigned to immediate treatment or waitlist control. Differential treatment effects (Time × Group Interaction) were found for child-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and parent-reported child coping, indicating that the immediate treatment group showed greater reductions in PTSD and improvements in coping compared with the delayed group. Differential treatment effects were not significant for depression or anxiety. Significant maintenance effects were found for both child-reported PTSD and depression as well as parent-reported PTSD and coping for the immediate treatment group at follow-up. Significant treatment effects were also found in the delayed treatment group, showing reductions in child-reported PTSD, depression, and anxiety as well as parent-reported depression and coping upon receiving treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that Bounce Back is an effective intervention for reducing PTSD symptoms and improving coping skills, even among a sample experiencing high levels of trauma and other ongoing stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Field trials results of guided wave tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van; Leden, Edwin van der

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Guided wave travel time tomography is a method capable of providing an absolute wall thickness map. This method is currently making the transition from the laboratory to the field. For this purpose a dedicated data acquisition system and special purpose EMAT sensor rings have been developed. The system can be deployed for permanent monitoring and inspections. Field trials have been conducted on various pipes with different diameters, containing either liquid or gas. The main focus has been on pipe supports. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the technology in the field. Expected corrosion damage was clearly visible on the produced results enabling asset owner to make calculated decisions on the pipelines safety, maintenance and operations

  1. Field trials results of guided wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim; van der Leden, Edwin

    2015-03-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Guided wave travel time tomography is a method capable of providing an absolute wall thickness map. This method is currently making the transition from the laboratory to the field. For this purpose a dedicated data acquisition system and special purpose EMAT sensor rings have been developed. The system can be deployed for permanent monitoring and inspections. Field trials have been conducted on various pipes with different diameters, containing either liquid or gas. The main focus has been on pipe supports. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the technology in the field. Expected corrosion damage was clearly visible on the produced results enabling asset owner to make calculated decisions on the pipelines safety, maintenance and operations.

  2. Annual technical report. PV domestic field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report describes progress at the first five sites of the UK photovoltaic (PV) domestic field trial. All five sites are generating electricity, but one has not yet been commissioned and two sites are not yet monitoring performance. The BedZED development has roof-mounted PV modules and PV cells installed in sealed double-glazing. Solar slates/tiles have been installed at the Laing Homes development in Montagu Road, where the designer has sought to minimise the visual impact of the PV system on the roofs. At Hunters Moon, PV modules have been retrofitted and some unforeseen difficulties have arisen. PV is an integral part of the roof design at the state-of-the-art low energy development by Integer Houses at Greenfields. Corn Croft uses a British mounting system to facilitate integration of the modules flush with the roof. Installation issues and the progress of the trial are discussed.

  3. Direct Observation of Field and Temperature Induced Domain Replication in Dipolar Coupled Perpendicular Anisotropy Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauet, T.; Gunther, C.M.; Pfau, B.; Eisebitt, S.; Fischer, P.; Rick, R. L.; Thiele, J.-U.; Hellwig, O.; Schabes, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]{sub 30}/Pd/[Co/Pd]{sub 20} multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

  4. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...... associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...

  5. Application of remote sensing to agricultural field trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enable quantitative information about a field trial to be obtained instantaneously and non-destructively. The aim of this study was to identify a method that can reduce inaccuracies in field trial analysis, and to identify how remote sensing can support and/or

  6. Character relations and replication identities in 2d Conformal Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantay, P. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös Loránd University,H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány P.s. 1/A (Hungary)

    2016-10-05

    We study replication identities satisfied by conformal characters of a 2D CFT, providing a natural framework for a physics interpretation of the famous Hauptmodul property of Monstrous Moonshine, and illustrate the underlying ideas in simple cases.

  7. Soil stabilization field trial : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    A five-year study was initiated seeking materials/additives and procedures that help to mitigate : crack susceptibility in cement-treated material (CTM). A field test program of six 305-m (1000-ft) test : sections was implemented in August 2000. The ...

  8. Empirical trials of plant field guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, W D; Cable, S; Marshall, C A M

    2014-06-01

    We designed 3 image-based field guides to tropical forest plant species in Ghana, Grenada, and Cameroon and tested them with 1095 local residents and 20 botanists in the United Kingdom. We compared users' identification accuracy with different image formats, including drawings, specimen photos, living plant photos, and paintings. We compared users' accuracy with the guides to their accuracy with only their prior knowledge of the flora. We asked respondents to score each format for usability, beauty, and how much they would pay for it. Prior knowledge of plant names was generally low (<22%). With a few exceptions, identification accuracy did not differ significantly among image formats. In Cameroon, users identifying sterile Cola species achieved 46-56% accuracy across formats; identification was most accurate with living plant photos. Botanists in the United Kingdom accurately identified 82-93% of the same Cameroonian species; identification was most accurate with specimens. In Grenada, users accurately identified 74-82% of plants; drawings yielded significantly less accurate identifications than paintings and photos of living plants. In Ghana, users accurately identified 85% of plants. Digital color photos of living plants ranked high for beauty, usability, and what users would pay. Black and white drawings ranked low. Our results show the potential and limitations of the use of field guides and nonspecialists to identify plants, for example, in conservation applications. We recommend authors of plant field guides use the cheapest or easiest illustration format because image type had limited bearing on accuracy; match the type of illustration to the most likely use of the guide for slight improvements in accuracy; avoid black and white formats unless the audience is experienced at interpreting illustrations or keeping costs low is imperative; discourage false-positive identifications, which were common; and encourage users to ask an expert or use a herbarium for

  9. The power of statistical tests using field trial count data of non-target organisms in enviromental risk assessment of genetically modified plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, van der H.; Goedhart, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Publications on power analyses for field trial count data comparing transgenic and conventional crops have reported widely varying requirements for the replication needed to obtain statistical tests with adequate power. These studies are critically reviewed and complemented with a new simulation

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, working memory and behavior in UK children aged 7-9: A randomized controlled trial for replication (the DOLAB II study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Spreckelsen, Thees F; Burton, Alice; Burton, Jennifer R; Richardson, Alexandra J

    2018-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are central to brain-development of children. Evidence from clinical trials and systematic reviews demonstrates the potential of long-chain Omega-3 supplementation for learning and behavior. However, findings are inconclusive and in need of robust replication studies since such work is lacking. Replication of the 2012 DOLAB 1 study findings that a dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had beneficial effects on the reading, working memory, and behavior of healthy schoolchildren. Parallel group, fixed-dose, randomized (minimization, 30% random element), double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT). Mainstream primary schools (n = 84) from five counties in the UK in 2012-2015. Healthy children aged 7-9 underperforming in reading (reading, working memory, and behavior, parent-rated and as secondary outcome teacher-rated. 376 children were randomized. Reading, working memory, and behavior change scores showed no consistent differences between intervention and placebo group. Some behavioral subscales showed minor group differences. This RCT did not replicate results of the earlier DOLAB 1 study on the effectiveness of nutritional supplementation with DHA for learning and behavior. Possible reasons are discussed, particularly regarding the replication of complex interventions. www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN48803273) and protocols.io (https://dx.doi.org/10.17504/protocols.io.k8kczuw).

  11. Contamination control and revegetation (Field trials)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, William L.; Stone, Earl L.

    1986-01-01

    The LLNL/DOE field program at Bikini Atoll began in 1977. The first few years were devoted to developing an adequate data base from which to do an updated dose assessment of Bikini and Eneu Islands. The results indicated that 137 Cs was the most significant radionuclide, actually accounting for more than 90% of the total estimated wholebody and bone marrow dose, and that the terrestrial food chain (especially coconut) was the most significant potential exposure pathway. Strontium-90 accounts for only about 507% of the total bone marrow dose and the transuranics, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am, less than 1%. Thus, if the intake of 137 Cs can be reduced to 10% or less of its current concentration in food crops the radiological dose for Bikini Island would be within federal guidelines. However, samples of vegetation and soil will be analyzed for Sr and the transuranics to ensure an adequate data for evaluation of these radionuclide. In 1980, prior to the formation of the BARC, the goals of our Marshall Island program were extended to include an initial evaluation of methods to reduce the uptake of 137 Cs by food crops and/or reduce the 137 Cs soil inventory. We expanded one of our experiments and added two more when the BARC was formed and additional funding became available for evaluating the rehabilitation of Bikini Atoll

  12. Field Trial of the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Maikael A.; Baldwin, George T.; Hymel, Ross W

    2016-05-01

    The goal of the field trial of EDAS was to demonstrate the utility of secure branching of operator instrumentation for nuclear safeguards, identify any unforeseen implementation and application issues with EDAS, and confirm whether the approach is compatible with operator concerns and constraints.

  13. Large scale photovoltaic field trials. Second technical report: monitoring phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This report provides an update on the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trials (LS-BIPV FT) programme commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry; BERR). It provides detailed profiles of the 12 projects making up this programme, which is part of the UK programme on photovoltaics and has run in parallel with the Domestic Field Trial. These field trials aim to record the experience and use the lessons learnt to raise awareness of, and confidence in, the technology and increase UK capabilities. The projects involved: the visitor centre at the Gaia Energy Centre in Cornwall; a community church hall in London; council offices in West Oxfordshire; a sports science centre at Gloucester University; the visitor centre at Cotswold Water Park; the headquarters of the Insolvency Service; a Welsh Development Agency building; an athletics centre in Birmingham; a research facility at the University of East Anglia; a primary school in Belfast; and Barnstable civic centre in Devon. The report describes the aims of the field trials, monitoring issues, performance, observations and trends, lessons learnt and the results of occupancy surveys.

  14. Does Magnetic Field Affect Malaria Parasite Replication in Human Red Blood Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturiya, Alexandr N.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Yin, Dan; Zimmerberg, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Digestion of red blood cell (RBC) hemoglobin by the malaria parasite results in the formation of paramagnetic hemazoin crystals inside the parasite body. A number of reports suggest that magnetic field interaction with hamazoin crystals significantly reduces the number of infected cells in culture, and thus magnetic field can be used to combat malaria. We studies the effects of magnetic filed on the Plasmodium falciparum asexual life cycle inside RBCs under various experimental conditions. No effect was found during prolonged exposure of infected RBCs to constant magnetic fields up to 6000 Gauss. Infected RBCs were also exposed, under temperature-controlled conditions, to oscillating magnetic fields with frequencies in the range of 500-20000 kHz, and field strength 30-600 Gauss. This exposure often changed the proportion of different parasite stages in treated culture compared to controls. However, no significant effect on parasitemia was observed in treated cultures. This result indicates that the magnetic field effect on Plasmodium falciparum is negligible, or that hypothetical negative and positive effects on different stages within one 48-hour compensate each other.

  15. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. [Univ. of Sunderland (United Kingdom). Ecology Centre

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  16. Birth Order and Field Dependence-Independence: A Failure to Replicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Gordon E.; Solla, Joseph

    1975-01-01

    The Children's Embedded Figures Test was individually administered to 116 Caucasian, middle class, second grade children. Results suggest that a child's early experience in a particular birth order position may not be related to the development of field dependence-independence in any unambiguous and simple fashion. (Author/ED)

  17. Design and Management of Field Trials of Transgenic Cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedő, Zoltán; Rakszegi, Mariann; Láng, László

    The development of gene transformation systems has allowed the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. The design and the management of field trials vary according to the purpose for which transgenic cereals are developed. Breeders study the phenotypic and genotypic stability of transgenic plants, monitor the increase in homozygosity of transgenic genotypes under field conditions, and develop backcross generations to transfer the introduced genes into secondary transgenic cereal genotypes. For practical purposes, they may also multiply seed of the transgenic lines to produce sufficient amounts of grain for the detailed analysis of trait(s) of interest, to determine the field performance of transgenic lines, and to compare them with the non-transformed parental genotypes. Prior to variety registration, the Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) tests and Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU) experiments are carried out in field trials. Field testing includes specific requirements for transgenic cereals to assess potential environmental risks. The capacity of the pollen to survive, establish and disseminate in the field test environment, the potential for gene transfer, the effects of products expressed by the introduced sequences and phenotypic and genotypic instability that might cause deleterious effects must all be specifically monitored, as required by EU Directives 2003/701/EC (1) on the release of genetically modified higher plants in the environment.

  18. Clinical trials in allied medical fields: A cross-sectional analysis of World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registry Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kannan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The number of clinical trials done in allied fields of medicine other than the allopathic system has lowered down, and furthermore focus is required regarding the methodological quality of these trials and more support from various organizations.

  19. Note on field trials of a new prototype solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, S P

    1977-01-01

    Observations on field trials of a prototype still, of modified design, with respect to the quantity and quality of the fresh water obtained are reported. An average yield of 3.6 liters/m/sup 2//day of fresh water was obtained during the post-monsoon season and winter months. Traces of dissolved copper, zinc and iron were observed in the distilled water and the causes of metallic contamination are discussed. 10 references.

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid for reading, working memory and behavior in UK children aged 7-9: A randomized controlled trial for replication (the DOLAB II study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Montgomery

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are central to brain-development of children. Evidence from clinical trials and systematic reviews demonstrates the potential of long-chain Omega-3 supplementation for learning and behavior. However, findings are inconclusive and in need of robust replication studies since such work is lacking.Replication of the 2012 DOLAB 1 study findings that a dietary supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA had beneficial effects on the reading, working memory, and behavior of healthy schoolchildren.Parallel group, fixed-dose, randomized (minimization, 30% random element, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT.Mainstream primary schools (n = 84 from five counties in the UK in 2012-2015.Healthy children aged 7-9 underperforming in reading (<20th centile. 1230 invited, 376 met study criteria.600 mg/day DHA (from algal oil, placebo: taste/color matched corn/soybean oil; for 16 weeks.Age-standardized measures of reading, working memory, and behavior, parent-rated and as secondary outcome teacher-rated.376 children were randomized. Reading, working memory, and behavior change scores showed no consistent differences between intervention and placebo group. Some behavioral subscales showed minor group differences.This RCT did not replicate results of the earlier DOLAB 1 study on the effectiveness of nutritional supplementation with DHA for learning and behavior. Possible reasons are discussed, particularly regarding the replication of complex interventions.www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN48803273 and protocols.io (https://dx.doi.org/10.17504/protocols.io.k8kczuw.

  1. Group Therapy for Repeated Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents: Failure of Replication of a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Philip L.; Martin, Graham; McGill, Katherine; Kay, Tracey; Wood, Alison; Trainor, Gemma; Harrington, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A study revealing the superiority of group therapy to routine care in preventing the recurrence of self-harming behavior among adolescents is unsuccessfully replicated. The study's findings contradicted those of the original study.

  2. The effect of antiretroviral intensification with dolutegravir on residual virus replication in HIV-infected individuals: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Thomas A; McMahon, James H; Chang, J Judy; Audsley, Jennifer; Rhodes, Ajantha; Tennakoon, Surekha; Dantanarayana, Ashanti; Spelman, Tim; Schmidt, Tina; Kent, Stephen J; Morcilla, Vincent; Palmer, Sarah; Elliott, Julian H; Lewin, Sharon R

    2018-04-06

    Whether ongoing virus replication occurs in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear; therefore, whether residual virus replication is a barrier to achieving a cure for HIV is also unknown. We aimed to establish whether ART intensification with dolutegravir would reveal or affect residual virus replication in HIV-infected individuals on suppressive treatment. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we enrolled HIV-infected adults (aged 18 years and older) receiving combination ART (at least three agents) for at least 3 years from the Alfred Hospital and Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Eligible participants had fewer than 50 copies per mL HIV-1 plasma RNA for more than 3 years and fewer than 20 copies per mL at screening and two CD4 counts higher than 350 cells per μL in the previous 24 months including screening. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 50 mg oral dolutegravir or placebo once a day for 56 days in addition to background ART. Follow-up was done at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 84. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in frequency of 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles in peripheral blood CD4 cells at day 7. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02500446. Between Sept 21, 2015, and Sept 19, 2016, 46 individuals were screened for inclusion. 40 were eligible for inclusion and were randomly assigned to the dolutegravir (n=21) or placebo group (n=19). All enrolled participants completed the study procedures and no individuals were lost to follow up. All participants were on suppressive ART with 12% receiving protease inhibitors and the others non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Median 2-LTR circles fold-change from baseline to day 7 was -0·17 (IQR -0·90 to 0·90) in the dolutegravir group and -0·26 (-1·00 to 1·17) in the placebo group (p=0·17). The addition of dolutegravir to pre-existing ART regimens was safe and

  3. Evaluation of field trials of innovative practices in science education

    OpenAIRE

    Gerloff-Gasser, C; Büchel, K

    2012-01-01

    Science and technology (S&T) education is vital to increase the science literacy in modern societies and to stimulate more young people to opt for careers in S&T. Because there are considerable differences in S&T education among and sometimes within countries, it is promising to adopt an adaptive strategy to its innovation that allows a fit to the specific conditions of each of the countries. In this report, we present first results of field trials with innovative practices in S&T educatio...

  4. US genetic regulations: bacterial field trial to go ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, S

    The National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) has approved a commercial proposal by Advanced Genetic Sciences Inc. to field-test recombinant ice-nucleating bacteria. Its decision came two weeks after a federal judge halted a similar trial by researchers from the University of California at Berkeley, and barred RAC from approving other federally-funded research that would release genetically-engineered organisms into the environment. The ruling, which resulted from an action filed by activist Jeremy Rifkin, exempted privately-funded research. RAC will continue to review commercial proposals, which are submitted voluntarily and are not legally bound by the committee decisions.

  5. PV domestic field trial. Third annual technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, F.; Davies, N.; Munzinger, M.; Pearsall, N.; Martin, C.

    2004-07-01

    This report summaries the results of a field trials investigating the design, construction and operation of photovoltaic (PV) systems installed during 2003 to provide information for utilities, building developers and those involved in PV installations and operations. Topics examined include the appearance of the systems, their architectural integration, the different fixing methods, the cost effectiveness of the systems, problems encountered, and monitoring activities. Key issues discussed include communication and co-ordination between interested bodies, siting and location, and good practice. Details are given of monitoring inspection visits, and performance analysis.

  6. Trial manufacture of ITER toroidal field coil radial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Katsutoshi; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Hideo; Esaki, Koichi; Nagamoto, Yoshifumi; Makino, Yoshinobu

    2012-01-01

    In an ITER toroidal field (TF) coil, tight tolerances of 1 mm in flatness and a few millimeters in profile are required to manufacture a radial plate (RP), although the height and width of the RP are 13 m and 9 m, respectively. In addition, since cover plates (CPs) should be fitted to a groove in the RP with tolerance of 0.5 mm, tight tolerances are also required for the CPs. The authors therefore performed preliminary and full-scale trials to achieve tight tolerances that meet the required RP manufacturing schedule, such as one RP every three weeks. Before the full-scale trials, preliminary trials were performed to optimize machining procedures, welding conditions and assembly procedures for the RP, and the manufacturing processes for the straight and curved CP segments. Based on these preliminary trial results, full-scale RP and CPs were fabricated. The flatness achieved for the RP is 1 mm, except at the top and bottom where gravity support is insufficient. If the gravity support is suitable, it is expected that a flatness of 1 mm is achievable. The profile of the RP was measured to be within the targeted range, better than 2 mm. In addition, most of the CPs fit the corresponding groove of the RP. Although the issue of hot-cracking in the weld still remains, the test results indicate that this problem can be prevented by improving the geometry of the welding joint. Thus, we can conclude that the manufacturing procedures for RP and CP have been demonstrated. (author)

  7. Distributional Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Beare, Brendan K.

    2009-01-01

    Suppose that X and Y are random variables. We define a replicating function to be a function f such that f(X) and Y have the same distribution. In general, the set of replicating functions for a given pair of random variables may be infinite. Suppose we have some objective function, or cost function, defined over the set of replicating functions, and we seek to estimate the replicating function with the lowest cost. We develop an approach to estimating the cheapest replicating function that i...

  8. Passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas: Australian field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dever, S.A.; Swarbrick, G.E.; Stuetz, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    In Australia a significant number of landfill waste disposal sites do not incorporate measures for the collection and treatment of landfill gas. This includes many old/former landfill sites, rural landfill sites, non-putrescible solid waste and inert waste landfill sites, where landfill gas generation is low and it is not commercially viable to extract and beneficially utilize the landfill gas. Previous research has demonstrated that biofiltration has the potential to degrade methane in landfill gas, however, the microbial processes can be affected by many local conditions and factors including moisture content, temperature, nutrient supply, including the availability of oxygen and methane, and the movement of gas (oxygen and methane) to/from the micro-organisms. A field scale trial is being undertaken at a landfill site in Sydney, Australia, to investigate passive drainage and biofiltration of landfill gas as a means of managing landfill gas emissions at low to moderate gas generation landfill sites. The design and construction of the trial is described and the experimental results will provide in-depth knowledge on the application of passive gas drainage and landfill gas biofiltration under Sydney (Australian) conditions, including the performance of recycled materials for the management of landfill gas emissions

  9. Replication Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Luis; Neelsen, Kai John; Lukas, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Proliferating cells rely on the so-called DNA replication checkpoint to ensure orderly completion of genome duplication, and its malfunction may lead to catastrophic genome disruption, including unscheduled firing of replication origins, stalling and collapse of replication forks, massive DNA...... breakage, and, ultimately, cell death. Despite many years of intensive research into the molecular underpinnings of the eukaryotic replication checkpoint, the mechanisms underlying the dismal consequences of its failure remain enigmatic. A recent development offers a unifying model in which the replication...... checkpoint guards against global exhaustion of rate-limiting replication regulators. Here we discuss how such a mechanism can prevent catastrophic genome disruption and suggest how to harness this knowledge to advance therapeutic strategies to eliminate cancer cells that inherently proliferate under...

  10. Field Trial Measurements to Validate a Stochastic Aircraft Boarding Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schultz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient boarding procedures have to consider both operational constraints and the individual passenger behavior. In contrast to the aircraft handling processes of fueling, catering and cleaning, the boarding process is more driven by passengers than by airport or airline operators. This paper delivers a comprehensive set of operational data including classification of boarding times, passenger arrival times, times to store hand luggage, and passenger interactions in the aircraft cabin as a reliable basis for calibrating models for aircraft boarding. In this paper, a microscopic approach is used to model the passenger behavior, where the passenger movement is defined as a one-dimensional, stochastic, and time/space discrete transition process. This model is used to compare measurements from field trials of boarding procedures with simulation results and demonstrates a deviation smaller than 5%.

  11. A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

  12. Field trial of a pulsed limestone diversion well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Denholm, C.; Dunn, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The use of limestone diversion wells to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) is well-known, but in many cases, acid neutralization is not as complete as would be desired. Reasons for this include channeling of the water through the limestone bed, and the slow reaction rate of the limestone gravel. A new approach to improve the performance of the diversion well was tested in the field at the Jennings Environmental Education Center, near Slippery Rock, PA. In this approach, a finer size distribution of limestone was used so as to allow fluidization of the limestone bed, thus eliminating channeling and increasing particle surface area for faster reaction rates. Also, water flow was regulated through the use of a dosing siphon, so that consistent fluidization of the limestone sand could be achieved. Testing began late in the summer of 2010, and continued through November of 2011. Initial system performance during the 2010 field season was good, with the production of net alkaline water, but hydraulic problems involving air release and limestone sand retention were observed. In the summer of 2011, a finer size of limestone sand was procured for use in the system. This material fluidized more readily, but acid neutralization tapered off after several days. Subsequent observations indicated that the hydraulics of the system was compromised by the formation of iron oxides in the pipe leading to the limestone bed, which affected water distribution and flow through the bed. Although results from the field trial were mixed, it is believed that without the formation of iron oxides and plugging of the pipe, better acid neutralization and treatment would have occurred. Further tests are being considered using a different hydraulic configuration for the limestone sand fluidized bed.

  13. Field trials on the store dressing with rock phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Hänninen

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of improving the soil phosphorus status by a store dressing with rock phosphate has been studied in two field trials of five years standing. Hyperphosphate Reno was applied to the nurse crop of a red clover-timothy ley in amounts of 0, 1000 kg/ha, or 2000 kg/ha, respectively. The split-plot technique was used to study the response of the ley to an additional annual application of 200 kg/ha of superphosphate. The soil analyses distinctly proved that, in spite of a careful working in of the hyperphosphate with a spade harrow, the fertilizer had not penetrated deeper than to the layer from 1 to 3 inches, with a large part of it remaining in the top inch. The treatment with hyperphosphate had mostly increased the fraction of the calcium-bound phosphorus, and, to a very low degree, the aluminium-bound phosphorus. The effect of superphosphate could be detected only in the fractions of aluminium- and iron-bound phosphorus of the surface inch. Although the store dressing did not produce marked responses in the yields of either trial, the statistically significant negative interaction between the effect of it and of superphosphate may be taken to indicate that hyperphosphate was able to improve the phosphorus status of these soils to some degree. The analyses of the hay samples from one of the trials in the fifth experimental year showed that the store dressing, particularly with the higher amount of hyperphosphate was able to increase the phosphorus content of hay to a satisfactory level which was equal to that produced by the annual superphosphate dressing only. Their combined effect resulted in the production of hay dry matter containing more than 0.24 % of P. In one of the experiments the residual effect of the treatments on rye was studied. The response to superphosphate was highly significant, probably owing to the high demands of phosphorus by rye, connected with the overwintering conditions, and also to the fact that ploughing in

  14. Replication Research and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…

  15. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  16. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  17. Joint remote data transmission field trial at Ahaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkarinen, J.; Meylemans, P.; Rudolf, K.; Schink, F.J.; Kuribayashi, T.; Leslie, R.F.; Neumann, G.

    2001-05-01

    The international safeguards authorities Euratom Safeguards Office and international atomic energy agency (IAEA) intend to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their inspection efforts in nuclear facilities by replacing unattended remote monitoring technology for on-site inspection activities. In order to study aspects of cost-effectiveness as well as technical feasibility and reliability, a 13-month dedicated field trial was performed at the Ahaus spent fuel storage facility testing the remote retrieval of authenticated and encrypted image data files from a digital multi-camera optical surveillance system (DMOS) with three cameras. Each image data file was released with a delay of 24 hours for remote retrieval via ISDN. Retrieval, reviewing and archiving took place at Euratom headquarters in Luxembourg. Due to the applied distributed data storage concept no loss of data took place. The data reduction principle of front end scene change detection worked reliably, i.e. it was possible to significantly reduce the amount of data to be remotely transmitted and the associated transmission costs. Under the assumption that technically mature safeguards instrumentation is available, the implementation of remote monitoring systems is technically feasible but requires cost-benefit analyses on a case-by-case basis. (orig.) [de

  18. Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabet (Garo Haroutunian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon’s Ministry of Environment initiated a project in 2009 to determine low-cost reforestation techniques for stone pine (Pinus pinea and Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani for large-scale land rehabilitation activities in the arid Middle East. Irrigation (several techniques vs. no water, planting (8- to 18-month-old seedlings, seeding, and soil preparation methods were evaluated in three sets of adaptive management field trials. The aim was to reduce reforestation costs while still achieving sufficient regeneration. A key result for management was that non-irrigated seed planting of stone pine and possibly of Lebanon cedar showed promise for cost-effective reforestation and could be competitive with seedlings, given correct seed source and planting conditions. Stone pine seeds collected from nearby mother trees and planted without irrigation on sandy soil showed 35% survival for <600 USD/ha; seedlings planted without irrigation cost about 2500 USD/ha and achieved 50–70% survival (costs based on 800 seedlings/ha. Water supplements increased establishment costs over 2 years without concomitant improvements to survival. Future studies should evaluate how soil texture and soil preparation interact with other factors to affect seed germination and survival for each species.

  19. Heat treatment trials for ITER toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kunihiro; Hemmi, Tsutomu; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nakajima, Hideo; Kimura, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors using Nb 3 Sn strands are used in ITER toroidal fields (TF) coils. Heat treatment generates thermal strain in CIC conductors because of the difference in thermal expansion between the Nb 3 Sn strands and the stainless-steel jacket. The elongation/shrinkage of the TF conductor may make it impossible to insert a wound TF conductor into the groove of a radial plate. In addition, it is expected that the deformation of the winding due to heat treatment-based release of the residual force in the jacket may also make it impossible to insert the winding in the groove, and that correcting the winding geometry to allow insertion of the winding may influence the superconducting performance of the TF conductor. The authors performed several trials using heat treatment as the part of activities in Phase II of TF coil procurement aiming to resolve the above-mentioned technical issues, and evaluated the elongations of 0.064, 0.074 and 0.072% for the straight and curved conductors and 1/3-scale double-pancake (DP) winding, respectively. It was confirmed that correction if the deformed winding did not influence the superconducting performance of the conductor. (author)

  20. A replicated field intervention study evaluating the impact of a highly adjustable chair and office ergonomics training on visual symptoms☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie Chaumont; Amick, Benjamin C.; Robertson, Michelle; Bazzani, Lianna; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Moore, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine the effects of two office ergonomics interventions in reducing visual symptoms at a private sector worksite. Methods A quasi-experimental study design evaluated the effects of a highly adjustable chair with office ergonomics training intervention (CWT group) and the training only (TO group) compared with no intervention (CO group). Data collection occurred 2 and 1 month(s) pre-intervention and 2, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. During each data collection period, a work environment and health questionnaire (covariates) and daily health diary (outcomes) were completed. Multilevel statistical models tested hypotheses. Results Both the training only intervention (p office ergonomics training alone and coupled with a highly adjustable chair reduced visual symptoms. In replicating results from a public sector worksite at a private sector worksite the external validity of the interventions is strengthened, thus broadening its generalizability. PMID:22030069

  1. A replicated field intervention study evaluating the impact of a highly adjustable chair and office ergonomics training on visual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Cammie Chaumont; Amick, Benjamin C; Robertson, Michelle; Bazzani, Lianna; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Moore, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Examine the effects of two office ergonomics interventions in reducing visual symptoms at a private sector worksite. A quasi-experimental study design evaluated the effects of a highly adjustable chair with office ergonomics training intervention (CWT group) and the training only (TO group) compared with no intervention (CO group). Data collection occurred 2 and 1 month(s) pre-intervention and 2, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. During each data collection period, a work environment and health questionnaire (covariates) and daily health diary (outcomes) were completed. Multilevel statistical models tested hypotheses. Both the training only intervention (poffice ergonomics training alone and coupled with a highly adjustable chair reduced visual symptoms. In replicating results from a public sector worksite at a private sector worksite the external validity of the interventions is strengthened, thus broadening its generalizability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Field trials of 100G and beyond: an operator's point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorbeck, S.; Schneiders, M.; Weiershausen, W.; Mayer, H.; Schippel, A.; Wagner, P.; Ehrhardt, A.; Braun, R.; Breuer, D.; Drafz, U.; Fritzsche, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a summary of the latest 100 Gbps field trials in the network of Deutsche Telekom AG with industry partners. We cover a brown field approach as alien wavelength on existing systems, a green field high speed overlay network approach and a high speed interface router-router coupling.

  3. Assessing the Effectiveness of Defensive Aid Suite Technology Using a Field Trial and Modelling and Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    ...) community that Defensive Aid Suite (DAS) technologies can improve the protection of LAVs. A prototype DAS system was developed by DRDC Valcartier and tested in field trials held in 1995 and 1999...

  4. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    Climate change impacts resulting from fossil fuel combustion and concerns about the diversity of energy supply are driving interest to find low-carbon energy alternatives. As a result bioenergy is receiving widespread scientific, political and media attention for its potential role in both supplying energy and mitigating greenhouse (GHG) emissions. It is estimated that the bioenergy contribution to EU 2020 renewable energy targets could require up to 17-21 million hectares of additional land in Europe (Don et al., 2012). There are increasing concerns that some transitions into bioenergy may not be as sustainable as first thought when GHG emissions from the crop growth and management cycle are factored into any GHG life cycle assessment (LCA). Bioenergy is complex and encapsulates a wide range of crops, varying from food crop based biofuels to dedicated second generation perennial energy crops and forestry products. The decision on the choice of crop for energy production significantly influences the GHG mitigation potential. It is recognised that GHG savings or losses are in part a function of the original land-use that has undergone change and the management intensity for the energy crop. There is therefore an urgent need to better quantify both crop and site-specific effects associated with the production of conventional and dedicated energy crops on the GHG balance. Currently, there is scarcity of GHG balance data with respect to second generation crops meaning that process based models and LCAs of GHG balances are weakly underpinned. Therefore, robust, models based on real data are urgently required. In the UK we have recently embarked on a detailed program of work to address this challenge by combining a large number of field studies with state-of-the-art process models. Through six detailed experiments, we are calculating the annual GHG balances of land use transitions into energy crops across the UK. Further, we are quantifying the total soil carbon gain or

  5. Genetic analysis without replications: Model evaluation and application in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic data collected from plant breeding and genetic studies may not be replicated in field designs even though field variation is present. In this study, we addressed this problem using spring wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) trial data collected from two locations. There were no intra-location repl...

  6. Replicating receptive fields of simple and complex cells in primary visual cortex in a neuronal network model with temporal and population sparseness and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuma; Aoyagi, Toshio; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2012-10-01

    We propose a new principle for replicating receptive field properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex. We derive a learning rule for a feedforward network, which maintains a low firing rate for the output neurons (resulting in temporal sparseness) and allows only a small subset of the neurons in the network to fire at any given time (resulting in population sparseness). Our learning rule also sets the firing rates of the output neurons at each time step to near-maximum or near-minimum levels, resulting in neuronal reliability. The learning rule is simple enough to be written in spatially and temporally local forms. After the learning stage is performed using input image patches of natural scenes, output neurons in the model network are found to exhibit simple-cell-like receptive field properties. When the output of these simple-cell-like neurons are input to another model layer using the same learning rule, the second-layer output neurons after learning become less sensitive to the phase of gratings than the simple-cell-like input neurons. In particular, some of the second-layer output neurons become completely phase invariant, owing to the convergence of the connections from first-layer neurons with similar orientation selectivity to second-layer neurons in the model network. We examine the parameter dependencies of the receptive field properties of the model neurons after learning and discuss their biological implications. We also show that the localized learning rule is consistent with experimental results concerning neuronal plasticity and can replicate the receptive fields of simple and complex cells.

  7. The influence of catch trials on the consolidation of motor memory in force field adaptation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eFocke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In computational neuroscience it is generally accepted that human motor memory contains neural representations of the physics of the musculoskeletal system and the objects in the environment. These representations are called internal models. Force field studies, in which subjects have to adapt to dynamic perturbations induced by a robotic manipulandum, are an established tool to analyze the characteristics of such internal models. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether catch trials during force field learning could influence the consolidation of motor memory in more complex tasks. Thereby, the force field was more than double the force field of previous studies (35 Ns/m. Moreover, the arm of the subjects was not supported. A total of forty-six subjects participated in this study and performed center-out movements at a robotic manipulandum in two different force fields. Two control groups learned force field A on day 1 and were retested in the same force field on day 3 (AA. Two test groups additionally learned an interfering force field B (=-A on day 2 (ABA. The difference between the two test and control groups, respectively, was the absence (0% or presence (19% of catch trials, in which the force field was turned off suddenly. The results showed consolidation of force field A on day 3 for both control groups. Test groups showed no consolidation of force field A (19% catch trials and even poorer performance on day 3 (0% catch trials. In conclusion, it can be stated that catch trials seem to have a positive effect on the performance on day 3 but do not trigger a consolidation process as shown in previous studies that used a lower force field viscosity with supported arm. These findings indicate that the results of previous studies in which less complex tasks were analyzed, cannot be fully transferred to more complex tasks. Moreover, the effects of catch trials in these situations are insufficiently understood and further research

  8. The assessment of field trials in GMO research around the world and their possible integration in field trials for variety registration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.M.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Kleter, G.A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Kok, E.J.

    2018-01-01

    Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as

  9. The Development of Replicated Optical Integral Field Spectrographs and their Application to the Study of Lyman-alpha Emission at Moderate Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonis, Taylor Steven

    In the upcoming era of extremely large ground-based astronomical telescopes, the design of wide-field spectroscopic survey instrumentation has become increasingly complex due to the linear growth of instrument pupil size with telescope diameter for a constant spectral resolving power. The upcoming Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple integral field spectrograph that will be fed by 3:36 x 104 optical fibers on the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory, represents one of the first uses of large-scale replication to break the relationship between instrument pupil size and telescope diameter. By dividing the telescope's field of view between a large number of smaller and more manageable instruments, the total information grasp of a traditional monolithic survey spectrograph can be achieved at a fraction of the cost and engineering complexity. To highlight the power of this method, VIRUS will execute the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and survey & 420 degrees2 of sky to an emission line flux limit of ˜ 10-17 erg s-1 cm -2 to detect ˜ 106 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) as probes of large-scale structure at redshifts of 1:9 production of the suite of volume phase holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings for VIRUS is presented, which highlights the challenge and success associated with producing of a very large number of highly customized optical elements whose performance is crucial to meeting the efficiency requirements of the spectrograph system. To accommodate VIRUS, the HET is undergoing a substantial wide-field upgrade to increase its field of view to 22' in diameter. The previous HET facility Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS), which was directly fed by the telescope's previous spherical aberration corrector, must be removed from the prime focus instrument package as a result of the telescope upgrades and instead be fiber-coupled to the telescope focal plane. For a

  10. Modeling inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel G Gauthier

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited.

  11. The assessment of field trials in GMO research around the world and their possible integration in field trials for variety registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, M M; van de Wiel, C C M; Kleter, G A; Visser, R G F; Kok, E J

    2018-05-04

    Most regulations worldwide stipulate that a new genetically modified (GM) crop event has to be compared to its closest non-GM counterpart as a corner stone of the pre-market risk assessment. To this end the GM crop and its comparator should be grown in field trials for a phenotypic comparison as well as for subsequent detailed analysis of the composition of the two crop varieties. A more in-depth globally harmonised approach for the conduct of these field trials is lacking. Only a few countries have formulated detailed protocols for the set-up of GM field trials. In some countries, commercial non-GM reference varieties need to be included in a field study to compile reliable data that indicate the range of natural variation for the compounds tested at the specific location. Detailed analysis of pre-market assessment reports have so far not shown the added value of including these reference varieties in the field trials. In all cases where specific values were found to be outside of the range of the reference varieties, it proved possible to draw conclusions on the part of the pre-market risk assessment that relates to the compositional analysis, on the basis of already available compositional data. With the increasing quality of several databases on compositional data of a growing number of crop species, it seems unlikely that reference varieties will become more important on future occasions. It was furthermore investigated whether this part of the risk assessment can be related to field trial requirements for variety registration with the explicit intention of reducing the data burden on producers of new GM plant varieties. Field trials for variety registration so far include an assessment of phenotypic characteristics that do not cover safety aspects, with the exception of establishment of the glycoalkaloid content in potatoes in the Netherlands and Sweden. It may, however, under certain conditions be relatively easy to exchange data from compositional

  12. Meteorology and lidar data from the URAHFREP field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    to the HF release. The instrumentation included various types of HF sensors, thermocouple arrays, a fully instrumented release rig, a passive smokemachine, a meteorological mast and a lidar backscatter system. This report deals exclusively with the meteorological data and the lidar data. The trials cover...... a range meteorological conditions. These include neutral conditions with relatively highwindspeed and low humidity as well as unstable conditions with low windspeed and high humidity, the most favorable conditions for lift-off to occur. The lidar was used to scan vertical cross-plume slices 100 meter...

  13. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  14. Establishing vegetation on Kimberlite mine tailings: 2. Field trials. | N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of field experiments were carried out on Kimberlite mine tailing located at Cullinan in the Transvaal. The most successful species in pure sward were Chloris gayana, Cynodon aethiopicus, Eragrostis curvula, E. tef, Pennisetum purpureum, Melilotus alban and Medicago sativa. Growth of grasses in the absence of ...

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FULL SCALE ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR FIELD TRIAL: PHASE I, VERIFICATION TRIAL BURN ON DIOXIN/HERBICIDE ORANGE CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This treatability study reports on the results of one of a series of field trials using various remedial action technologies that may be capable of restoring Herbicide Orange (HO)XDioxin contaminated sites. A full-scale field trial using a rotary kiln incinerator capable of pro...

  16. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  17. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD) in reindeer

    OpenAIRE

    Nordkvist, M.; Christensson, D.; Rehbinder, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983) as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females), as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females) were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD) at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly ...

  18. Field-scale multi-phase LNAPL remediation: Validating a new computational framework against sequential field pilot trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D; Rayner, John L; Davis, Greg B

    2018-03-05

    Remediation of subsurface systems, including groundwater, soil and soil gas, contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is challenging. Field-scale pilot trials of multi-phase remediation were undertaken at a site to determine the effectiveness of recovery options. Sequential LNAPL skimming and vacuum-enhanced skimming, with and without water table drawdown were trialled over 78days; in total extracting over 5m 3 of LNAPL. For the first time, a multi-component simulation framework (including the multi-phase multi-component code TMVOC-MP and processing codes) was developed and applied to simulate the broad range of multi-phase remediation and recovery methods used in the field trials. This framework was validated against the sequential pilot trials by comparing predicted and measured LNAPL mass removal rates and compositional changes. The framework was tested on both a Cray supercomputer and a cluster. Simulations mimicked trends in LNAPL recovery rates (from 0.14 to 3mL/s) across all remediation techniques each operating over periods of 4-14days over the 78day trial. The code also approximated order of magnitude compositional changes of hazardous chemical concentrations in extracted gas during vacuum-enhanced recovery. The verified framework enables longer term prediction of the effectiveness of remediation approaches allowing better determination of remediation endpoints and long-term risks. Copyright © 2017 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping Field Trials II Mendocino Volcano Field I and II (EX0905, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this field trial cruise are to test use of EX mapping sensors to characterize complex geological areas (i.e. volcanic field) and develop protocols to...

  20. Teleradiology (TELEACE) system: results of a field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Gi Bum; Seong, Yeung Soon; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kang, Duk Sik

    1993-01-01

    We report the results of field operation of TELEACE system between Kyung-Pook National University Hospital and Ul-Jin Goon Health Care Medical Center from December, 1990 to September, 1991, which had been operated as a kind of Integrated Services Digital Network projects by KOREA TELECOMMUNICATION Inc. Ul-Jin Goon Health Care Medical Center transmitted 414 plain radiographs to our hospital in speed of 9600BPS. Each image was composed of 1024X1024 pixelsX8 bits/pixel. In our hospital, the image flies were displayed on high resolution monitor (1280X1024 pixels). Text files of image interpretations were transmitted to the health care medical center. The two radiologists who had interpreted the transmitted images, went to the health care medical center and read radiographic films with blind test method. We obtained the following results: false negative rate of 6.3%, false positive rate of 2.4%, mean sensitivity of 81.4%, mean specificity of 96.3%, and mean accuracy of 91.3%. In predictive value of 0.05, there was no significant difference between results of these two types of radiographs. In conclusion, TELEACE system was valuable to the clinicians isolated from services of radiologists

  1. Insecticide effect of cyantraniliprole on tomato moth Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae larvae in field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larraín

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick, Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae has traditionally been managed in Chile with organophosphate, pyrethroid, and nereistoxin insecticides; all of these have wide action spectra and high toxicity and many of them have developed rapid resistance. It is therefore important to have new molecules which are effective in controlling this pest; how ever, these molecules must have lower toxicity and greater selectivity for beneficial fauna to produce a more sustainable tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of T. absoluta control with cyantraniliprole insecticide, which has desirable characteristics for programs of integrated pest management of tomato; we thus performed three trials in the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons in the Coquimbo Region, Chile. These trials evaluated the control of T. absoluta using different doses of two formulations: cyantraniliprole 10 OD (oil dispersion with or without surfactants (Dyne-Amic, Codacide applied to leaves and cyantraniliprole 20 SC (suspension concentrate applied to soil. Trials used a randomized complete block design with four replicates. The effect of treatments was compared with standard insecticides and a control without insecticide. The degree of control was estimated by foliar and fruit damage at harvest. Results indicate a reduction in fruit damage between 75% and 85% for foliar applications and 82% for soil applications of cyantraniliprole. It is concluded that both formulations of cyantraniliprole were effective to reduce damage caused by the tomato moth larva in both the foliage and fruit of tomato.

  2. Family in Focus: On Design and Field Trial of the Dynamic Collage [DC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    René Bakker; Koen van Turnhout; Jasper Jeurens

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and field trial of the Dynamic Collage. The Dynamic Collage was designed to facilitate and to stimulate participation of family members in the informal care of an elderly person. The Dynamic Collage enabled relatives to update their current activity by sending a

  3. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment : A field trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, P; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F. M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-01-01

    Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation

  4. A field trial on the effects of algae addition to calf feed. Project T2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Berg, van den W.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a field trial that took place between 1 July and 2 October 2015 at a Dutch rose veal farm in which a group of 30 calves was fed with formula milk of which 2% of the dry matter was substituted with concentrated freshwater algae. The control group consisted of 25 calves. The farm

  5. Looking ahead – How field trials can work in iterative and exploratory design of ubicomp systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Bødker, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    . To introduce a sophisticated version of our own prototype in the course of an iterative design process, we conducted a public field trial of the system—a new platform for mobile democratic discussions in municipal planning—that we distributed via the Android Market. However, it turned out to be surprisingly...

  6. Iterative design and field trial of an aphasia-friendly email tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Mahmud, A.; Martens, J.B.O.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe the iterative design and field trial of Amail, an email client specifically designed for people with aphasia who have problems expressing themselves verbally. We conducted a 3-month study with eight persons with aphasia to better understand how people with aphasia could

  7. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazco, Julio G.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P.; Jordan, David R.; Eilers, Paul H.C.; Malosetti, Marcos; Eeuwijk, van Fred A.

    2017-01-01

    Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Abstract: Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and

  8. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Velazco (Julio G.); M.X. Rodríguez-Álvarez (María Xosé); M.P. Boer (Martin); D.R. Jordan (David R.); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); M. Malosetti (Marcos); F. van Eeuwijk (Fred)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Key message: A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials._ __Abstract:__ Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for

  9. A deworming field trial with ivermectin (MSD in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nordkvist

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to be regarded as a follow-up under field conditions of Nordkvist et al. (1983 as far as ivermectin is concerned. 54 reindeer calves (29 males + 25 females, as far as possible of normal size, were selected November 15th, 1982 from a reindeer herd belonging to Maskaure sameby, Arvidsjaur. The calves were individually branded, by means of ear tags and weighed. 29 calves (15 males + 14 females were treated with ivermectin (Ivomec 1% MSD at a dose rate of 1 ml per calf (roughly corresponding to 200 meg ivermectin per kg body weight, subcutaneous injection. Remaining 25 calves (14 males + 11 females served as untreated controls. The entire group of calves was then returned to the herd for free grazing during winter. During the winter 3 treated calves were found dead, all three of them had been suffering from keratoconjunctivitis. If any of the control animals had succumbed during the same time is not known. On April 21st, 1983 (approx. 150 days post treatment 44 calves (24 treated + 20 controls were weighed. 5 treated and 5 controls were randomly selected for slaughter. Carcasses and organs were thoroughly examined from a parasitological and, as far as lungs were concerned, pathological point of view. The efficacy of the treatment was 100(M> or nearly 100% against Oedemagena tarandi, Cephenemyia trompe, Dictyocaulus viviparus, Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, and nematode eggs in faeces. The efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes was, probably due to date of treatment, somewhat difficult to judge (Tab 1. A statistical analysis of the weight changes, relative to initial weights, (Tab. 2 supports the statements — that all animals had lost weight — that treated males had lost significantly less of their body weights than control males — That weight change of treated females did not differ significantly from that of control females — that the average weight loss of the entire treated group was significantly less than that of the

  10. Fusion bonded epoxy mainline and field joint coatings performance from the X100 field trial – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadoon, A.N.K.; Thompson, I.

    2012-01-01

    Operating and distribution companies are potentially interested in the use of high and ultra-high strength steels for the transportation of high pressure gas. The ultra-high strength X100 grade steel was commercially developed as a potential option to meet this. However, there has been limited industry wide use of X100 to date. BP carried out a 2 year field trial to demonstrate the operational capacity and integrity of a large diameter (48 inch/1219 mm) high pressure pipeline constructed from X100 grade steel. The 800 m pipeline was buried in a clay backfill and exposed to wet ground conditions associated with the North of England. Flow pressure cycling was carried out, using water, to simulate 40 years of operational service. A 200 m section of the pipeline was exposed to three different potential (cathodic protection) zones for the duration of the trial: zero potential, intermediate potential (−850 to −950 mV) and high potential (−1200 to −1300 mV). This section also had damage and defects induced which are typically associated with bad installation and commissioning. An area of potential concern is the degradation of the mechanical properties (strain ageing) due to the external coating application temperature. Thus, a low coating application temperature is deemed desirable. The mainline and field joint coatings employed for the trial were fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). Both of these have been used in other BP projects, with a good track record. They were applied at a lower application temperature of 220 °C, compared to the more typical 230–240 °C. The lower application temperature was within the manufacturers approved application and curing temperature range. The lower temperature was used to assess the ultimate performance properties of the mainline and field joint FBE coatings. Mainline and field joint coating samples were taken from the three different potential zones and extensive testing and characterisation carried out. This paper presents and

  11. Fusion bonded epoxy mainline and field joint coatings performance from the X100 field trial - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadoon, A.N.K., E-mail: ammer.jadoon@bp.com [BP Exploration and Production Technology, Chertsey Road, Sunbury TW16-7LN (United Kingdom); Thompson, I. [GL Industrial Services UK, Holywell Park, Loughborough LE11-3GR (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Operating and distribution companies are potentially interested in the use of high and ultra-high strength steels for the transportation of high pressure gas. The ultra-high strength X100 grade steel was commercially developed as a potential option to meet this. However, there has been limited industry wide use of X100 to date. BP carried out a 2 year field trial to demonstrate the operational capacity and integrity of a large diameter (48 inch/1219 mm) high pressure pipeline constructed from X100 grade steel. The 800 m pipeline was buried in a clay backfill and exposed to wet ground conditions associated with the North of England. Flow pressure cycling was carried out, using water, to simulate 40 years of operational service. A 200 m section of the pipeline was exposed to three different potential (cathodic protection) zones for the duration of the trial: zero potential, intermediate potential (-850 to -950 mV) and high potential (-1200 to -1300 mV). This section also had damage and defects induced which are typically associated with bad installation and commissioning. An area of potential concern is the degradation of the mechanical properties (strain ageing) due to the external coating application temperature. Thus, a low coating application temperature is deemed desirable. The mainline and field joint coatings employed for the trial were fusion bonded epoxy (FBE). Both of these have been used in other BP projects, with a good track record. They were applied at a lower application temperature of 220 Degree-Sign C, compared to the more typical 230-240 Degree-Sign C. The lower application temperature was within the manufacturers approved application and curing temperature range. The lower temperature was used to assess the ultimate performance properties of the mainline and field joint FBE coatings. Mainline and field joint coating samples were taken from the three different potential zones and extensive testing and characterisation carried out. This paper

  12. Pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy: current state of the field, review of the literature and clinical trial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A S; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Gross, A C; Ryder, J R

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of medications recently approved to treat obesity among adults, few agents have been formally evaluated in children or adolescents for this indication. Moreover, there is a paucity of guidance in the literature addressing best practices with regard to pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trial design, and only general recommendations have been offered by regulatory agencies on this topic. The purposes of this article are to (1) offer a background of the current state of the field of pediatric obesity medicine, (2) provide a brief review of the literature summarizing pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trials, and (3) highlight and discuss some of the unique aspects that should be considered when designing and conducting high-quality clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of obesity medications in children and adolescents. Suggestions are offered in the areas of target population and eligibility criteria, clinical trial end-point selection, trial duration, implementation of lifestyle modification therapy and recruitment and retention of participants. Efforts should be made to design and conduct trials appropriately to ensure that high-quality evidence is generated on the safety and efficacy of various medications used to treat pediatric obesity.

  13. DSSHerbicide: Herbicide field trials in winter wheat. How to come to a decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefzat, David

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide decision support systems can calculate efficient, economically optimized herbicide mixtures with reduced dosages, if field specific weed data are given. Thus, they can be a sensible tool for integrated weed control. However, advises of decision support systems have to be tested before introducing them into practical farming. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern two herbicide field trials were installed with four different prototypes of decision support systems. An untreated plot and three expert advices, private advisors, official advisory service and a farmer decision, were included as additional test variables. Herbicide efficacies in autumn, weed dry matter after spring applications, herbicide costs and wheat yield were measured to evaluate the decision support system prototypes. In one field trial with low weed density before treatments efficacies were at least 85%. In two prototypes efficacies were lower than in the expert plots. No significant differences between decision variables were found regarding weed dry matter after spraying in spring. On this site, herbicide costs were higher when expert advises were used compared to decision support system advises. No significant differences were detected in yield. Even yield in “untreated” was not significantly different. The second field trial carried higher weed densities. Here herbicide efficacies were lower in all treatments. Poa annua and Matricaria recutita were significantly affected by the treatments resulting from the decision tools. However, these differences did not result in statistically different weed dry matter or wheat yield. Three of the prototypes advised solutions with very low herbicide costs in autumn, but high costs in spring. As a result, total weed costs in these plots were higher than in the plots advised by experts. It is concluded from the field trials, that different prototypes of decision support systems are giving sensible herbicide advice. In fields with low

  14. Database Replication Prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewall, R.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Replication Framework that facilitates the implementation and com-parison of database replication techniques. Furthermore, it discusses the implementation of a Database Replication Prototype and compares the performance measurements of two replication techniques based on the Atomic Broadcast communication primitive: pessimistic active replication and optimistic active replication. The main contributions of this report can be split into four parts....

  15. Variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units collected from a field trial and marketplaces in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, Mohammad Dalower Hossain; Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2018-04-01

    Variability of pesticide residues among food items is very important when assessing the risks and food safety for the consumers. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to estimate the unit-to-unit residue variability factors for eggplant. In total, 120 samples from a trial field and 142 samples from different marketplaces in Thessaloniki, Greece, were collected to estimate the variability of pesticide residues in eggplant units. They were extracted by the QuEChERS method and the residues were determined by LC-MS/MS. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) obtained for cypermethrin and deltamethrin residues were 2.54 and 2.51, respectively. The mean residue levels of both pesticides were higher in the composite samples than in the individual samples. The average VFs for the marketplace samples was 3.89. The eggplant units exposed to pesticides were higher in residues than the non-exposed units. The variability factors obtained in the marketplace samples were higher than those in the samples collected from the field trial. A default VF value of 3 for field trials is appropriate for use when assessing the acute dietary intake but a VF for the marketplace samples should be reconsidered with a larger data. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The Sandia/Arzamas-16 Magazine-to-Magazine Remote Monitoring Field Trial Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkanov, Boris; Blagin, Sergei; Croessmann, Dennis; Damico, Joe; Ehle, Steve; Nilsen, Curt

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Russian Federal Nuclear Center-All Russian Research Institute for Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) (also known as Arzamas-16) are collaborating on ways to assure the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability of fissile material. For these collaborations, sensors and information technologies have been identified as important in reaching these standards in a cost-effective manner. Specifically, Sandia and VNIIEF have established a series of remote monitoring field trials to provide a mechanism for joint research and development on storage monitoring systems. These efforts consist of the ''Container-to-Container'', ''Magazine-to-Magazine'', and ''Facility-to-Facility'' field trials. This paper will describe the evaluation exercise Sandia and VNIIEF conducted on the Magazine-to-Magazine systems. Topics covered will include a description of the evaluation philosophy, how the various sensors and system features were tested, evaluation results, and lessons learned

  17. Evaluation of Supercritical Extracts of Algae as Biostimulants of Plant Growth in Field Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Wilk, Rados?aw; Gramza, Mateusz; R?j, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed – Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant...

  18. Technical results of Y-12/IAEA field trial of remote monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbell, B.H.; Whitaker, J.M.; Welch, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Remote Monitoring System (RMS) field trial has been conducted with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The RMS included a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies which provide containment seals, video monitoring, radiation asset measurements, and container identification data to the on-site DAS (Data Acquisition System) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LonWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information was transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines. The technologies tested in the remote monitoring environment are the RadCouple, RadSiP, and SmartShelf sensors from the ORSENS (Oak Ridge Sensors for Enhancing Nuclear Safeguards) technologies; the AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System) motion sensor (AMS), AIMS fiber-optic seal (AFOS), ICAM (Image Compression and Authentication Module) video surveillance system, DAS (Data Acquisition System), and DIRS (Data and Image Review Station) from Sandia; and the AssetLAN identification tag, VACOSS-S seal, and Gemini digital surveillance system from Aquila. The field trial was conducted from October 1996 through May 1997. Tests were conducted during the monthly IAEA Interim Inventory Verification (IIV) inspections for evaluation of the equipment. Experience gained through the field trials will allow the technologies to be applied to various monitoring scenarios

  19. Prelife catalysts and replicators

    OpenAIRE

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Life is based on replication and evolution. But replication cannot be taken for granted. We must ask what there was prior to replication and evolution. How does evolution begin? We have proposed prelife as a generative system that produces information and diversity in the absence of replication. We model prelife as a binary soup of active monomers that form random polymers. ‘Prevolutionary’ dynamics can have mutation and selection prior to replication. Some sequences might have catalytic acti...

  20. Balancing ballistic protection against physiological strain: evidence from laboratory and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Burdon, Catriona A; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Fogarty, Alison L; Notley, Sean R; Hunt, Andrew P; Billing, Daniel C; Drain, Jace R; Silk, Aaron J; Patterson, Mark J; Peoples, Gregory E

    2016-02-01

    This project was based on the premise that decisions concerning the ballistic protection provided to defence personnel should derive from an evaluation of the balance between protection level and its impact on physiological function, mobility, and operational capability. Civilians and soldiers participated in laboratory- and field-based studies in which ensembles providing five levels of ballistic protection were evaluated, each with progressive increases in protection, mass (3.4-11.0 kg), and surface-area coverage (0.25-0.52 m(2)). Physiological trials were conducted on volunteers (N = 8) in a laboratory, under hot-dry conditions simulating an urban patrol: walking at 4 km·h(-1) (90 min) and 6 km·h(-1) (30 min or to fatigue). Field-based trials were used to evaluate tactical battlefield movements (mobility) of soldiers (N = 31) under tropical conditions, and across functional tests of power, speed, agility, endurance, and balance. Finally, trials were conducted at a jungle training centre, with soldiers (N = 32) patrolling under tropical conditions (averaging 5 h). In the laboratory, work tolerance was reduced as protection increased, with deep-body temperature climbing relentlessly. However, the protective ensembles could be grouped into two equally stressful categories, each providing a different level of ballistic protection. This outcome was supported during the mobility trials, with the greatest performance decrement evident during fire and movement simulations, as the ensemble mass was increased (-2.12%·kg(-1)). The jungle patrol trials similarly supported this outcome. Therefore, although ballistic protection does increase physiological strain, this research has provided a basis on which to determine how that strain can be balanced against the mission-specific level of required personal protection.

  1. Mapping Field Trial IV Habitat Characterization (EX0907, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Cordell Bank & Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this field trial cruise are more operational than exploratory. Like other field trials, this cruise has primary and secondary goals and objectives....

  2. Individual energy use and feedback in an office setting: A field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtagh, Niamh; Nati, Michele; Headley, William R.; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Gluhak, Alexander; Imran, Muhammad Ali; Uzzell, David

    2013-01-01

    Despite national plans to deploy smart meters in small and medium businesses in the UK, there is little knowledge of occupant energy use in offices. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of individual feedback on energy use at the workdesk, and to test the relationship between individual determinants, energy use and energy reduction. A field trial is presented, which monitored occupant energy use and provided individual feedback to 83 office workers in a university. The trial comprised pre- and post-intervention surveys, energy measurement and provision of feedback for 18 weeks post-baseline, and two participant focus groups. The main findings were: statistically significant energy reduction was found, but not for the entire measurement period; engagement with feedback diminished over time; no measured individual variables were related to energy reduction and only attitudes to energy conservation were related to energy use; an absence of motivation to undertake energy reduction actions was in evidence. The implications for energy use in offices are considered, including the need for motivations beyond energy reduction to be harnessed to realise the clear potential for reduced energy use at workdesks. -- Highlights: •First study on individual energy use and feedback in offices. •Field trial with 83 office workers, measuring plug load at desks over 18 weeks. •Feedback resulted in energy reduction although not consistently. •Sizeable minority did not engage with the feedback. •Lack of motivation to conserve energy evident in focus groups

  3. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cogmed Working Memory Training in School-Age Children with ADHD: A Replication in a Diverse Sample Using a Control Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, A.; Bedard, A. C.; Marks, D. J.; Feirsen, N.; Uderman, J. Z.; Chimiklis, A.; Rajwan, E.; Cornwell, M.; Anderson, L.; Zwilling, A.; Ramon, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) has received considerable attention as a promising intervention for the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children. At the same time, methodological weaknesses in previous clinical trials call into question reported efficacy of CWMT. In particular, lack of equivalence…

  4. Initial Field Trial of a Coach-Supported Web-Based Depression Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller, Stephen M; Mohr, David C

    2015-08-01

    Early web-based depression treatments were often self-guided and included few interactive elements, instead focusing mostly on delivering informational content online. Newer programs include many more types of features. As such, trials should analyze the ways in which people use these sites in order to inform the design of subsequent sites and models of support. The current study describes of a field trial consisting of 9 patients with major depressive disorder who completed a 12-week program including weekly coach calls. Patients usage varied widely, however, patients who formed regular patterns tended to persist with the program for the longest. Future sites might be able to facilitate user engagement by designing features to support regular use and to use coaches to help establish patterns to increase long-term use and benefit.

  5. Not a load of rubbish: simulated field trials in large-scale containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, M; Stahl, A; Rudloff, J; Wittkop, B; Snowdon, R J

    2016-09-01

    Assessment of yield performance under fluctuating environmental conditions is a major aim of crop breeders. Unfortunately, results from controlled-environment evaluations of complex agronomic traits rarely translate to field performance. A major cause is that crops grown over their complete lifecycle in a greenhouse or growth chamber are generally constricted in their root growth, which influences their response to important abiotic constraints like water or nutrient availability. To overcome this poor transferability, we established a plant growth system comprising large refuse containers (120 L 'wheelie bins') that allow detailed phenotyping of small field-crop populations under semi-controlled growth conditions. Diverse winter oilseed rape cultivars were grown at field densities throughout the crop lifecycle, in different experiments over 2 years, to compare seed yields from individual containers to plot yields from multi-environment field trials. We found that we were able to predict yields in the field with high accuracy from container-grown plants. The container system proved suitable for detailed studies of stress response physiology and performance in pre-breeding populations. Investment in automated large-container systems may help breeders improve field transferability of greenhouse experiments, enabling screening of pre-breeding materials for abiotic stress response traits with a positive influence on yield. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelliher, F.M.; Cox, N.; Weerden, T.J. van der; Klein, C.A.M. de; Luo, J.; Cameron, K.C.; Di, H.J.; Giltrap, D.; Rys, G.

    2014-01-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  7. Large-scale building integrated photovoltaics field trial. First technical report - installation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the results of the first eighteen months of the Large-Scale Building Integrated Photovoltaic Field Trial focussing on technical aspects. The project aims included increasing awareness and application of the technology, raising the UK capabilities in application of the technology, and assessing the potential for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Details are given of technology choices; project organisation, cost, and status; and the evaluation criteria. Installations of BIPV described include University buildings, commercial centres, and a sports stadium, wildlife park, church hall, and district council building. Lessons learnt are discussed, and a further report covering monitoring aspects is planned.

  8. Demonstration and field trial of a resilient hybrid NG-PON test-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Josep; Polo, Victor; Schrenk, Bernhard; Lazaro, Jose A.; Bonada, Francesc; Lopez, Eduardo T.; Omella, Mireia; Saliou, Fabienne; Le, Quang T.; Chanclou, Philippe; Leino, Dmitri; Soila, Risto; Spirou, Spiros; Costa, Liliana; Teixeira, Antonio; Tosi-Beleffi, Giorgio M.; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2014-10-01

    A multi-layer next generation PON prototype has been built and tested, to show the feasibility of extended hybrid DWDM/TDM-XGPON FTTH networks with resilient optically-integrated ring-trees architecture, supporting broadband multimedia services. It constitutes a transparent common platform for the coexistence of multiple operators sharing the optical infrastructure of the central metro ring, passively combining the access and the metropolitan network sections. It features 32 wavelength connections at 10 Gbps, up to 1000 users distributed in 16 independent resilient sub-PONs over 100 km. This paper summarizes the network operation, demonstration and field trial results.

  9. Distributed acoustic sensing technique and its field trial in SAGD well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; He, Xiangge; Pan, Yong; Liu, Fei; Yi, Duo; Hu, Chengjun; Zhang, Min; Gu, Lijuan

    2017-10-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a very promising way for the development of heavy oil, extra heavy oil and tight oil reservoirs. Proper monitoring of the SAGD operations is essential to avoid operational issues and improve efficiency. Among all the monitoring techniques, micro-seismic monitoring and related interpretation method can give useful information about the steam chamber development and has been extensively studied. Distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) based on Rayleigh backscattering is a newly developed technique that can measure acoustic signal at all points along the sensing fiber. In this paper, we demonstrate a DAS system based on dual-pulse heterodyne demodulation technique and did field trial in SAGD well located in Xinjiang Oilfield, China. The field trail results validated the performance of the DAS system and indicated its applicability in steam-chamber monitoring and hydraulic monitoring.

  10. First field trial of a transmissible recombinant vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J M; Sánchez, C; Ramírez, M A; Morales, M; Bárcena, J; Ferrer, J; Espuña, E; Pagès-Manté, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2001-08-14

    As a novel approach for immunisation of wild rabbits, we have recently developed a transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) based on a recombinant myxoma virus (MV) expressing the RHDV capsid protein [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1114]. The efficacy and safety of the vaccine have been extensively evaluated under laboratory conditions. In this study, we report the first limited field trial of the candidate vaccine that was undertaken in an island of 34 Has containing a population of around 300 rabbits. Following administration by the subcutaneous route to 76 rabbits, the vaccine induced specific antibody responses against both myxomatosis and RHDV in all the inoculated rabbits. Furthermore, the recombinant virus exhibited a limited horizontal transmission capacity, promoting seroconversion of around 50% of the uninoculated rabbit population. No evidence of undesirable effects due to the recombinant virus field release was detected.

  11. Field trials of the phenomena of concern for psychiatric/mental health nursing: proposed methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H S

    1989-10-01

    An important step in the development of the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Task Force's Classification of Phenomena of Concern for Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing is a plan for conducting field trials to determine interrater diagnostic reliability using the classification system. The ANA Task Force identified field testing as stage two in a three-stage process for completion of our work. In this article, we identify methodologic directions that will allow us to answer two important questions. First, what is the interrater reliability of the system of psychiatric nursing diagnoses when applied to clients by psychiatric/mental health nurse clinicians in their practice, and second, how do the clinicians who use this system view its usefulness for planning and evaluating nursing care?

  12. Field trials of aquifer protection in longwall mining of shallow coal seams in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D.S.; Fan, G.W.; Liu, Y.D.; Ma, L.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resource & Mine Safety, Xuzhou (China)

    2010-09-15

    The large-scale mining of shallow coal seams has a significant impact on the overlying aquifers and surface ecological environment. To protect the aquifers and maximize the coal resource recovery, field trials were undertaken during the operation of the LW32201 in Bulianta coal mine, Shendong, China. With a severely weathered rock (SWR) layer and two key strata (KS) in the overlying strata, aquifer protection in longwall mining (APLM) relies mainly on the rapid advance. In some localized zones, special measures should be taken to achieve the APLM, including lowering mining height, backfill and slurry injection. To further understand the mechanism and applicable conditions of the APLM and validate the effectiveness of the APLM, variation of the water table in the aquifer was observed as the longwall face passed through the zone. This paper also discusses the mechanism and basic requirements of the APLM and the relationship between the fall of the water table and the surface subsidence. The results of the field trials indicated that APLM in shallow coal seams could be successful under suitable conditions.

  13. An unattended verification station for UF6 cylinders: Field trial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. E.; Miller, K. A.; McDonald, B. S.; Webster, J. B.; Zalavadia, M. A.; Garner, J. R.; Stewart, S. L.; Branney, S. J.; Todd, L. C.; Deshmukh, N. S.; Nordquist, H. A.; Kulisek, J. A.; Swinhoe, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has pursued innovative techniques and an integrated suite of safeguards measures to address the verification challenges posed by the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the unattended instruments currently being explored by the IAEA is an Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS), which could provide automated, independent verification of the declared relative enrichment, 235U mass, total uranium mass, and identification for all declared uranium hexafluoride cylinders in a facility (e.g., uranium enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants). Under the auspices of the United States and European Commission Support Programs to the IAEA, a project was undertaken to assess the technical and practical viability of the UCVS concept. The first phase of the UCVS viability study was centered on a long-term field trial of a prototype UCVS system at a fuel fabrication facility. A key outcome of the study was a quantitative performance evaluation of two nondestructive assay (NDA) methods being considered for inclusion in a UCVS: Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA), and Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM). This paper provides a description of the UCVS prototype design and an overview of the long-term field trial. Analysis results and interpretation are presented with a focus on the performance of PNEM and HEVA for the assay of over 200 "typical" Type 30B cylinders, and the viability of an "NDA Fingerprint" concept as a high-fidelity means to periodically verify that material diversion has not occurred.

  14. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervaeke, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G.; Lust, N.

    2003-01-01

    A field trial indicated increased degradation of mineral oil in sediments planted with willow. - Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the biomass was determined. After 1.5 years, a significant decrease of 57% in the mineral oil concentration in the sediment planted with willow was observed. Degradation of mineral oil in sediment which was left fallow, was only 15%. The mineral oil degradation under willow was most pronounced (79%) in the root zone of the stand. In the sediment which was left fallow there was a significant reduction of the total PAH content by 32% compared with a 23% reduction in the planted sediment. The moderate and selective metal uptake, measured in this study, limits the prospects for phytoextraction of metals from dredged sediment

  15. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervaeke, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-11-01

    A field trial indicated increased degradation of mineral oil in sediments planted with willow. - Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the biomass was determined. After 1.5 years, a significant decrease of 57% in the mineral oil concentration in the sediment planted with willow was observed. Degradation of mineral oil in sediment which was left fallow, was only 15%. The mineral oil degradation under willow was most pronounced (79%) in the root zone of the stand. In the sediment which was left fallow there was a significant reduction of the total PAH content by 32% compared with a 23% reduction in the planted sediment. The moderate and selective metal uptake, measured in this study, limits the prospects for phytoextraction of metals from dredged sediment.

  16. Effects of feedback on residential electricity demand—Findings from a field trial in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Klobasa, Marian; Gölz, Sebastian; Brunner, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of providing feedback on electricity consumption in a field trial involving more than 1500 households in Linz, Austria. About half of these households received feedback together with information about electricity-saving measures (pilot group), while the remaining households served as a control group. Participation in the pilot group was random, but households were able to choose between two types of feedback: access to a web portal or written feedback by post. Results from cross section OLS regression suggest that feedback provided to the pilot group corresponds with electricity savings of around 4.5% for the average household. Our results from quantile regressions imply that for households in the 30th to the 70th percentile of electricity consumption, feedback on electricity consumption is statistically significant and effects are highest in absolute terms and as a share of electricity consumption. For percentiles below or above this range, feedback appears to have no effect. Finally, controlling for a potential endogeneity bias induced by non random participation in the feedback type groups, we find no difference in the effects of feedback provided via the web portal and by post. - Highlights: • We estimate the effects of feedback on household electricity use in a field trial in Linz, Austria. • Providing feedback on electricity use corresponds with average savings of around 4.5%. • Effects of feedback are most pronounced in the 30th to the 70th percentile. • Feedback provided via a web portal and by post appears equally effective

  17. A comparison of the intrasubject variation in drug exposure between generic and brand-name drugs: a retrospective analysis of replicate design trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Teerenstra, Steven; Neef, Cees; Burger, David; Maliepaard, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether differences in total and peak drug exposure upon generic substitution are due to differences between formulations or to intrasubject pharmacokinetic variability of the active substance. The study was designed as a retrospective reanalysis of existing studies. Nine replicate design bioequivalence studies representing six drug classes - i.e. for alendronate, atorvastatin, cyclosporin, ebastine, exemestane, mycophenolate mofetil, and ropinirole - were retrieved from the Dutch Medicines Regulatory Authority. In most studies, the intrasubject variability in total and peak drug exposure was comparable for the brand-name [in the range 0.01-0.24 for area under the concentration-time curve (AUCt ) and 0.02-0.29 for peak plasma concentration (Cmax ) on a log scale] and generic (0.01-0.23 for AUCt and 0.08-0.33 for Cmax ) drugs, and was comparable with the intrasubject variability upon switching between those drugs (0.01-0.23 for AUCt and 0.06-0.33 for Cmax ). The variance related to subject-by-formulation interaction could be considered negligible (-0.069 to 0.047 for AUCt and -0.091 to 0.02 for Cmax ). In the investigated studies, the variation in total and peak exposure seen when a patient is switched from a brand-name to a generic drug is comparable with that seen following repeated administration of the brand-name drug in the patient. Only the intrasubject variability seems to play a crucial and decisive role in the variation in drug exposure seen; no additional formulation-dependent variation in exposure is observed upon switching. Thus, our data support that, for the medicines that were included in the present investigation, from a clinical pharmacological perspective, the benefit-risk balance of a generic drug is comparable with that of the brand-name drug. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  19. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ''Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards

  20. Public demonstration projects and field trials: Accelerating commercialisation of sustainable technology in solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, James; Hendry, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers the role of government funded demonstration projects and field trials (DTs) in accelerating the commercialisation of new energy technologies that meet a public good but do not have immediate market appeal [Sagar, A.D., van der Zwaan, B., 2006. Technological innovation in the energy sector: R and D, deployment, and learning-by-doing. Energy Policy 34, 2601-2608]. Drawing on an original database of DTs in the EU, Japan and USA from 1973 to 2004, we review the history of DTs in photovoltaic technology for electricity generation, and its subsequent take up as a commercial energy source. We find that DTs that are aimed purely at discovering suitable market opportunities are less successful in achieving diffusion than projects that target a particular application and concentrate resources on it. The former nevertheless have a vital role to play in the learning process, while a targeted focus is often dependent on national industrial and institutional factors.

  1. Bone metastasis: review and critical analysis of random allocation trials of local field treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Powers, William E.; Moss, William T.; Perez, Carlos A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Compare and contrast reports of random allocation clinical trials of local field radiation therapy of metastases to bone to determine the techniques producing the best results (frequency, magnitude, and duration of benefit), and relate these to the goals of complete relief of pain and prevention of disability for the remaining life of the patient. Methods and Materials: Review all published reports of random allocation clinical trials, and perform a systematic analysis of the processes and outcomes of the several trial reports. Results: All trials were performed on selected populations of patients with symptomatic metastases and most studies included widely diverse groups with regard to: (a) site of primary tumor, (b) location, extent, size, and nature of metastases, (c) duration of survival after treatment. All trial reports lack sufficient detail for full and complete analysis. Much collected information is not now available for reanalysis and many important data sets were apparently never collected. Several of the variations in patient and tumor characteristics were found to be much more important than treatment dose in the outcome results. Treatment planning and delivery techniques were unsophisticated and probably resulted in a systematic delivery of less than the assigned dose to some metastases. In general the use and benefit of retreatment was greater in those patients who initially received lower doses but the basis and dose of retreatment was not documented. Follow-up of patients was varied with a large proportion of surviving patients lost to follow-up in several studies. The greatest difference in the reports is the method of calculation of results. The applicability of Kaplan-Meier actuarial analysis, censoring the lost and dead patients, as used in studies with loss to follow-up of a large number of patients is questionable. The censoring involved is 'informative' (the processes of loss relate to the outcome) and not acceptable since it

  2. Who Needs Replication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the editor of a recent Cambridge University Press book on research methods discusses replicating previous key studies to throw more light on their reliability and generalizability. Replication research is presented as an accepted method of validating previous research by providing comparability between the original and replicated…

  3. Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress.

  4. Characterization of a new fertilizer during field trials by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia; Trella, Agata; Garcia Izquierdo, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the LIFE RESAFE Project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/000356) "Innovative fertilizer from urban waste, bio-char and farm residues as substitute of chemical fertilizers". The aim of RESAFE project is the production of a new fertilizer from waste for agricultural practices. The new fertilizer was tested on 5 different crops during field trials carried out in Spain: barley, corn, tomato, potato and melon. For each crop six different treatments were applied and compared to verify the quality of RESAFE fertilizer. Soil samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. The possibility to apply hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to perform soil evolution monitoring and characterization in respect to the fertilizer utilization and quality of the resulting crops was investigated. Soil samples were acquired by HSI in the near infrared field (1000-1700 nm) and on the same samples classical chemical analyses were carried out with reference to total nitrogen, total organic carbon, C/N ratio, total organic matter. Hyperspectral data were analyzed adopting a chemometric approach through application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for exploratory purposes and Partial Least Squares Analysis (PLS) for estimation of chemical parameters. The results showed as the proposed hardware and software integrated architecture allows to implement low cost and easy to use analytical procedures able to quantitatively assess soil chemical-physical attributes according to different fertilization strategies, in respect of different environmental conditions and selected crops.

  5. Trial of Engineer Educating of Manufacturing Field in Kagoshima National College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itaru; Hombu, Mitsuyuki; Kusuhara, Yoshito; Kashine, Kenji; Sakasegawa, Eiichi; Tashima, Daisuke; Fukidome, Hiromi

    In Kagoshima National College of Technology, based on investigation with “the job boost measure investigation work in a power supply area” undertaken in the 2005 fiscal year, we accepted the trust from Kyushu Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry, and undertook “the small-and-medium-sized-enterprises personnel educating work which utilized the technical college etc.” for three years from the 2006 fiscal year to the 2008 fiscal year. As the trial of engineer educating according to the electrical engineering concept to the manufacturing field based on a conventional result, we act as a professor of the base technique for applying alternative energy (a fuel cell and a solar cell) in which social needs are powerful these days, and aim at aiming at cultivation of the problem-solving type engineer who can contribute to a low carbon society through manufacturing, we undertook this work according to the manufacturing bearer educating work (personnel educating and secured work of the manufacturing field) in the 2009 fiscal year of National Federation of Small Business Associations.

  6. Successful field trial of a multi-process phytoremediation system for remediation of petroleum impacted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, N. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Greenberg, B.M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)]|[Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation described a field trial of a new phytoremediation technology. The multi process phytoremediation system (MPPS) was designed for use in physical soil treatment and used seeds inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The technology aerated the soil and photo-oxidized petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) by exposing them to the light. In this study, 2 natural non-pathogenic strains of Pseudomonas putida were applied to seeds prior to planting. PGPR was used to create conditions suitable for the biodegradation of PHC, while also preserving natural soil structure and texture. High levels of microbial biomass in the soil were achieved. The presentation also provided details of a field study conducted in Hinton, Alberta which established vegetation in the treatment area in order to reduce PHC levels. The area was contaminated with compost invert drilling mud (CIDM) that had previously and unsuccessfully been treated with a biopile. The treatment plan consisted of aeration, soil sampling, and seeding. Soil and vegetation sampling was also conducted. Results of the study showed the vegetation was well established using the technique, and reduced hydrocarbon levels by between 17 and 53 per cent. It was concluded that continued hydrocarbon reduction levels are anticipated using the technology. tabs., figs.

  7. Expression of endogenous proteins in maize hybrids in a multi-location field trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R; Purushottam, Divakar; Veeramachaneni, Aruna; Tigulla, Sarita; Kodappully, Vikas; Enjala, Chandana; Rajput, Hitendrasinh; Anderson, Jennifer; Hong, Bonnie; Schmidt, Jean; Bagga, Shveta

    2018-05-17

    Genetically modified (GM) crops undergo large scale multi-location field trials to characterize agronomics, composition, and the concentration of newly expressed protein(s) [herein referred to as transgenic protein(s)]. The concentration of transgenic proteins in different plant tissues and across the developmental stages of the plant is considered in the safety assessment of GM crops. Reference or housekeeping proteins are expected to maintain a relatively stable expression pattern in healthy plants given their role in cellular functions. Understanding the effects of genotype, growth stage and location on the concentration of endogenous housekeeping proteins may provide insight into the contribution these factors could have on transgenic protein concentrations in GM crops. The concentrations of three endogenous proteins (actin, elongation factor 1-alpha, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were measured in several different maize hybrids grown across multiple field locations over 2 years. Leaf samples were collected from healthy plants at three developmental stages across the growing seasons, and protein concentrations were quantified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for each protein. In general, the concentrations of these three endogenous proteins were relatively consistent across hybrid backgrounds, when compared within one growth stage and location (2-26%CV), whereas the concentrations of proteins in the same hybrid and growth stage across different locations were more variable (12-64%CV). In general, the protein concentrations in 2013 and 2014 show similar trends in variability. Some degree of variability in protein concentrations should be expected for both transgenic and endogenous plant-expressed proteins. In the case of GM crops, the potential variation in protein concentrations due to location effects is captured in the current model of multi-location field testing.

  8. Impact of weed control strategies on resistance evolution in Alopecurus myosuroides – a long-term field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulber, Lena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of various herbicide strategies on populations of Alopecurus myosuroides is investigated in a longterm field trial situated in Wendhausen (Germany since 2009. In the initial years of the field experiment, resistant populations were selected by means of repeated application of the same herbicide active ingredients. For the selection of different resistance profiles, herbicides with actives from different HRAC groups were used. The herbicide actives flupyrsulfuron, isoproturon und fenoxaprop-P were applied for two years on large plots. In a succeeding field trial starting in 2011, it was investigated if the now existing resistant field populations could be controlled by various herbicide strategies. Eight different strategies consisting of various herbicide combinations were tested. Resistance evolution was investigated by means of plant counts and molecular genetic analysis.

  9. Registered Replication Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwmeester, S.; Verkoeijen, P. P.J.L.; Aczel, B.

    2017-01-01

    and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed...... the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned...

  10. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E; Wilcox, Holly C; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H; Newcomer, Alison; McKitty, Mellisha V; Regier, Darrel A; Narrow, William E

    2014-06-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients' experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies. Copyright © 2013, American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Cucumber cultivars for container gardening and the value of field trials for predicting Cucumber performance in containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most popular vegetable crops grown in U.S. home and urban gardens. The objectives of this study were to identify cultivars and planting densities for high yield of container-grown cucumbers. Additional objectives were to determine the value of field trials...

  12. First Field Trial of Optical Label-Based Switching and Packet Drop on a 477km NTON/Sprint Link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, V J; Pan, Z; Cao, J; Tsui, V K; Bansal, Y; Fong, S K H; Zhang, Y; Jeon, M Y; Yoo, S J B; Bodtker, B; Bond, S; Lennon, W J; Higashi, H; Lyles, B; McDonald, R

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate the first field trial of optical label-based wavelength switching and packet drop on 476.8km of the National Transparent Optical Network. Subcarrier multiplexed labels control a switch fabric that includes a tunable wavelength converter and arrayed waveguide grating router

  13. Mindfulness Training and Reductions in Teacher Stress and Burnout: Results from Two Randomized, Waitlist-Control Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Robert W.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Jha, Amishi; Cullen, Margaret; Wallace, Linda; Wilensky, Rona; Oberle, Eva; Thomson, Kimberly; Taylor, Cynthia; Harrison, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers' occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were…

  14. Feasibility and acceptability of the DSM-5 Field Trial procedures in the Johns Hopkins Community Psychiatry Programs†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Diana E.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Miller, Leslie; Cullen, Bernadette; Gerring, Joan; Greiner, Lisa H.; Newcomer, Alison; Mckitty, Mellisha V.; Regier, Darrel A.; Narrow, William E.

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) contains criteria for psychiatric diagnoses that reflect advances in the science and conceptualization of mental disorders and address the needs of clinicians. DSM-5 also recommends research on dimensional measures of cross-cutting symptoms and diagnostic severity, which are expected to better capture patients’ experiences with mental disorders. Prior to its May 2013 release, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) conducted field trials to examine the feasibility, clinical utility, reliability, and where possible, the validity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and dimensional measures. The methods and measures proposed for the DSM-5 field trials were pilot tested in adult and child/adolescent clinical samples, with the goal to identify and correct design and procedural problems with the proposed methods before resources were expended for the larger DSM-5 Field Trials. Results allowed for the refinement of the protocols, procedures, and measures, which facilitated recruitment, implementation, and completion of the DSM-5 Field Trials. These results highlight the benefits of pilot studies in planning large multisite studies. PMID:24615761

  15. The replication recipe : What makes for a convincing replication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; IJzerman, H.; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Farach, Frank J.; Geller, Jason; Giner-Sorolla, Roger; Grange, James A.; Perugini, Marco; Spies, Jeffrey R.; van 't Veer, Anna

    Psychological scientists have recently started to reconsider the importance of close replications in building a cumulative knowledge base; however, there is no consensus about what constitutes a convincing close replication study. To facilitate convincing close replication attempts we have developed

  16. The Replication Recipe: What makes for a convincing replication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, M.J.; IJzerman, H.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Farach, F.J.; Geller, J.; Giner-Sorolla, R.; Grange, J.A.; Perugini, M.; Spies, J.R.; Veer, A. van 't

    2014-01-01

    Psychological scientists have recently started to reconsider the importance of close replications in building a cumulative knowledge base; however, there is no consensus about what constitutes a convincing close replication study. To facilitate convincing close replication attempts we have developed

  17. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  18. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  19. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation of Replication Factors Moving with the Replication Fork

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, Jordan B.; Ansbach, Alison B.; Noguchi, Chiaki; Noguchi, Eishi

    2009-01-01

    Replication of chromosomes involves a variety of replication proteins including DNA polymerases, DNA helicases, and other accessory factors. Many of these proteins are known to localize at replication forks and travel with them as components of the replisome complex. Other proteins do not move with replication forks but still play an essential role in DNA replication. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms of DNA replication and its controls, it is important to examine localization ...

  20. The Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Field Trial Results and Future Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoerger, D. R.; Bradley, A. M.; Martin, S. C.; Whitcomb, L. L.

    2006-12-01

    The Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle combines an efficient long range survey capability with the ability to maneuver at low speeds. These attributes will permit Sentry to perform a variety of conventional and unconventional surveys including long range sonar surveys, hydrothermal plume surveys and near-bottom photo surveys. Sentry's streamlined body and fore and aft tilting planes, each possessing an independently controlled thruster, enable efficient operation in both near-bottom and cruising operations. Sentry is capable of being configured in two modes: hover mode, which commands Sentry's control surfaces to be aligned vertically, and forward flight mode, which allows Sentry's control surfaces to actuate between plus or minus 45 degrees. Sentry is equipped for full 6-Degrees of freedom position measurement. Vehicle heading, roll, and pitch are instrumented with a TCM2 PNI heading and attitude sensor. A Systron Donner yaw rate sensor instrumented heading rate. Depth is instrumented by a Paroscientific depth sensor. A 300kHz RD Instruments Doppler Sonar provides altitude and XYZ velocity measurements. In April 2006, we conducted our first deep water field trials of Sentry in Bermuda. These trials enabled us to examine a variety of issues, including the control software, vehicle safety systems, launch and recovery procedures, operation at depth, heading and depth controllers over a range of speeds, and power consumption. Sentry employ's a control system based upon the Jason 2 control system for low-level control, which has proven effective and reliable over several hundred deep-water dives. The Jason 2 control system, developed jointly at Johns Hopkins University and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, was augmented to manage Sentry-specific devices (sensors, actuators, and power storage) and to employ a high-level mission controller that supported autonomous mission scripting and error detection and response. This control suite will also support the Nereus

  1. Predicting plant invasions under climate change: are species distribution models validated by field trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Christine S; Burns, Bruce R; Stanley, Margaret C

    2014-09-01

    Climate change may facilitate alien species invasion into new areas, particularly for species from warm native ranges introduced into areas currently marginal for temperature. Although conclusions from modelling approaches and experimental studies are generally similar, combining the two approaches has rarely occurred. The aim of this study was to validate species distribution models by conducting field trials in sites of differing suitability as predicted by the models, thus increasing confidence in their ability to assess invasion risk. Three recently naturalized alien plants in New Zealand were used as study species (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Psidium guajava and Schefflera actinophylla): they originate from warm native ranges, are woody bird-dispersed species and of concern as potential weeds. Seedlings were grown in six sites across the country, differing both in climate and suitability (as predicted by the species distribution models). Seedling growth and survival were recorded over two summers and one or two winter seasons, and temperature and precipitation were monitored hourly at each site. Additionally, alien seedling performances were compared to those of closely related native species (Rhopalostylis sapida, Lophomyrtus bullata and Schefflera digitata). Furthermore, half of the seedlings were sprayed with pesticide, to investigate whether enemy release may influence performance. The results showed large differences in growth and survival of the alien species among the six sites. In the more suitable sites, performance was frequently higher compared to the native species. Leaf damage from invertebrate herbivory was low for both alien and native seedlings, with little evidence that the alien species should have an advantage over the native species because of enemy release. Correlations between performance in the field and predicted suitability of species distribution models were generally high. The projected increase in minimum temperature and reduced

  2. Restoration of a Mediterranean forest after a fire: bioremediation and rhizoremediation field-scale trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Fernández, Matilde; Niqui, José Luis; Solano, Jennifer; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Roca, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires pose a serious threat to countries in the Mediterranean basin, often razing large areas of land each year. After fires, soils are more likely to erode and resilience is inhibited in part by the toxic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during the combustion of cellulose and lignins. In this study, we explored the use of bioremediation and rhizoremediation techniques for soil restoration in a field-scale trial in a protected Mediterranean ecosystem after a controlled fire. Our bioremediation strategy combined the use of Pseudomonas putida strains, indigenous culturable microbes and annual grasses. After 8 months of monitoring soil quality parameters, including the removal of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as vegetation cover, we found that the site had returned to pre-fire status. Microbial population analysis revealed that fires induced changes in the indigenous microbiota and that rhizoremediation favours the recovery of soil microbiota in time. The results obtained in this study indicate that the rhizoremediation strategy could be presented as a viable and cost-effective alternative for the treatment of ecosystems affected by fires. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Field trials show the fertilizer value of nitrogen in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased regulatory activity designed to protect groundwater from degradation by nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N is focusing attention on the efficiency of agricultural use of nitrogen (N. One area drawing scrutiny is the way in which growers consider the NO3-N concentration of irrigation water when determining N fertilizer rates. Four drip-irrigated field studies were conducted in the Salinas Valley evaluating the impact of irrigation water NO3-N concentration and irrigation efficiency on the N uptake efficiency of lettuce and broccoli crops. Irrigation with water NO3-N concentrations from 2 to 45 milligrams per liter were compared with periodic fertigation of N fertilizer. The effect of irrigation efficiency was determined by comparing an efficient (110% to 120% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc and an inefficient (160% to 200% of ETc irrigation treatment. Across these trials, NO3-N from irrigation water was at least as efficiently used as fertilizer N; the uptake efficiency of irrigation water NO3-N averaged approximately 80%, and it was not affected by NO3-N concentration or irrigation efficiency.

  4. Combining auctions and performance-based payments in a forest enrichment field trial in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalumba, Mercelyne; Wünscher, Tobias; Wunder, Sven; Büdenbender, Mirjam; Holm-Müller, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important aspect in the assessment of payments for environmental services (PES) initiatives. In participatory field trials with communities in Western Kenya, we combined procurement auctions for forest enrichment contracts with performance-based payments and compared the outcomes with a baseline scenario currently used by the Kenyan Forest Service. Procurement auctions were the most cost-effective. The competitive nature of the auction reduced contracting expenses (provision costs), and the result-oriented payments provided additional incentives to care for the planted seedlings, resulting in their improved survival rates (service quantity). These gains clearly exceeded increases in transaction costs associated with conducting an auction. The number of income-poor auction participants and winners was disproportionately high and local institutional buy-in was remarkably strong. Our participatory approach may, however, require adaptations when conducted at a larger scale. Although the number of contracts we monitored was limited and prohibited the use of statistical tests, our study is one of the first to reveal the benefits of using auctions for PES in developing countries. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Field efficacy of expanded polystyrene and shredded waste polystyrene beads for mosquito control in artificial pools and field trials, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, A; Vatandoost, H; Jabbari, H; Mesdaghinia, A R; Mahvi, A H; Younesian, M; Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Bozorgzadeh, S

    2012-10-01

    Concerns about traditional chemical pesticides has led to increasing research into novel mosquito control methods. This study compared the effectiveness of 2 different types of polystyrene beads for control of mosquito larvae in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran. Simulated field trials were done in artificial pools and field trials were carried out in 2 villages in an indigenous malaria area using WHO-recommended methods. Application of expanded polystyrene beads or shredded, waste polystyrene chips to pool surfaces produced a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment density of mosquitoes (86% and 78% reduction respectively 2 weeks after treatment). There was no significant difference between the efficacy of the 2 types of material. The use of polystyrene beads as a component of integrated vector management with other supportive measures could assist in the control of mosquito-borne diseases in the Islamic Republic of Iran and neighbouring countries.

  6. Screening of willow species for resistance to heavy metals: comparison of performance in a hydroponics system and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C; Pulford, I D; Riddell-Black, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether metal resistance in willow (Salix) clones grown in a hydroponics screening test correlated with data from the same clones grown independently in a field trial. If so, results from a short-term, glasshouse-based system could be extrapolated to the field, allowing rapid identification of willows suitable for planting in metal-contaminated substrates without necessitating longterm field trials. Principal Components Analysis was used to show groups of clones and to assess the relative importance of the parameters measured in both the hydroponics system and the field; including plant response factors such as increase in stem height, as well as metal concentrations in plant tissues. The clones tested fell into two distinct groups. Salix viminalis clones and the basket willow Black Maul (S. triandra) were less resistant to elevated concentrations of heavy metals than a group of hardier clones, including S. burjatica 'Germany,' S.x dasyclados, S. candida and S. spaethii. The more resistant clones produced more biomass in the glasshouse and field, and had higher metal concentrations in the wood. The less resistant clones had greater concentrations of Cu and Ni in the bark, and produced less biomass in the glasshouse and field. Significant relationships were found between the response of the same clones grown the in short-term glasshouse hydroponics system and in the field.

  7. U.S. laboratory and field trials of metofluthrin (SumiOne) emanators for reducing mosquito biting outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J R; Shono, Y; Iwasaki, T; Ishiwatari, T; Spero, N; Benzon, G

    2007-03-01

    Metofluthrin (SumiOne is a novel, vapor-active pyrethroid that is highly effective against mosquitoes. Laboratory and field trials were conducted in the United States to evaluate the mosquito repellent activity of metofluthrin-treated paper substrates ("emanators"). Initial studies were conducted to evaluate the field performance of 900-cm(2) paper fan emanators impregnated with 160 mg metofluthrin, where Aedes canadensis was the predominant species. Emanators reduced landing rates on human volunteers by between 85% and 100% compared to untreated controls. Subsequent tests with 4,000-cm(2) paper strip emanators impregnated with 200 mg metofluthrin were conducted in a wind tunnel as a precursor to conducting field trials using human bait and laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti. Paper strips, which were pre-aged in a fume hood to determine duration of protection, gave 89-91% reductions in landing rates compared with controls. Similar reductions in biting activity were also noted. Following these tests, field trials to assess effect on landing rates were conducted with emanators positioned 1.22 m on either side of volunteers protected from biting by Tyvek suits, with pre- and posttreatment counts being made. In Florida (predominantly Ochlerotatus spp.) 91-95% reductions were noted 10-30 min after emanators were deployed, while in Washington State (mostly Aedes vexans) 95-97% reductions were observed. These results demonstrate that metofluthrin-treated emanators are highly effective at repelling mosquitoes.

  8. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Prommer

    Full Text Available Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  9. Biochar decelerates soil organic nitrogen cycling but stimulates soil nitrification in a temperate arable field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50-80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies.

  10. Biochar Decelerates Soil Organic Nitrogen Cycling but Stimulates Soil Nitrification in a Temperate Arable Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Judith; Wanek, Wolfgang; Hofhansl, Florian; Trojan, Daniela; Offre, Pierre; Urich, Tim; Schleper, Christa; Sassmann, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Soja, Gerhard; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca Clare

    2014-01-01

    Biochar production and subsequent soil incorporation could provide carbon farming solutions to global climate change and escalating food demand. There is evidence that biochar amendment causes fundamental changes in soil nutrient cycles, often resulting in marked increases in crop production, particularly in acidic and in infertile soils with low soil organic matter contents, although comparable outcomes in temperate soils are variable. We offer insight into the mechanisms underlying these findings by focusing attention on the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, specifically on hitherto unmeasured processes of organic N cycling in arable soils. We here investigated the impacts of biochar addition on soil organic and inorganic N pools and on gross transformation rates of both pools in a biochar field trial on arable land (Chernozem) in Traismauer, Lower Austria. We found that biochar increased total soil organic carbon but decreased the extractable organic C pool and soil nitrate. While gross rates of organic N transformation processes were reduced by 50–80%, gross N mineralization of organic N was not affected. In contrast, biochar promoted soil ammonia-oxidizer populations (bacterial and archaeal nitrifiers) and accelerated gross nitrification rates more than two-fold. Our findings indicate a de-coupling of the soil organic and inorganic N cycles, with a build-up of organic N, and deceleration of inorganic N release from this pool. The results therefore suggest that addition of inorganic fertilizer-N in combination with biochar could compensate for the reduction in organic N mineralization, with plants and microbes drawing on fertilizer-N for growth, in turn fuelling the belowground build-up of organic N. We conclude that combined addition of biochar with fertilizer-N may increase soil organic N in turn enhancing soil carbon sequestration and thereby could play a fundamental role in future soil management strategies. PMID:24497947

  11. Evaluation of Visual Field and Imaging Outcomes for Glaucoma Clinical Trials (An American Ophthalomological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garway-Heath, David F; Quartilho, Ana; Prah, Philip; Crabb, David P; Cheng, Qian; Zhu, Haogang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of various visual field (VF) analysis methods to discriminate treatment groups in glaucoma clinical trials and establish the value of time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD OCT) imaging as an additional outcome. VFs and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) measurements (acquired by TD OCT) from 373 glaucoma patients in the UK Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) at up to 11 scheduled visits over a 2 year interval formed the cohort to assess the sensitivity of progression analysis methods. Specificity was assessed in 78 glaucoma patients with up to 11 repeated VF and OCT RNFLT measurements over a 3 month interval. Growth curve models assessed the difference in VF and RNFLT rate of change between treatment groups. Incident progression was identified by 3 VF-based methods: Guided Progression Analysis (GPA), 'ANSWERS' and 'PoPLR', and one based on VFs and RNFLT: 'sANSWERS'. Sensitivity, specificity and discrimination between treatment groups were evaluated. The rate of VF change was significantly faster in the placebo, compared to active treatment, group (-0.29 vs +0.03 dB/year, P <.001); the rate of RNFLT change was not different (-1.7 vs -1.1 dB/year, P =.14). After 18 months and at 95% specificity, the sensitivity of ANSWERS and PoPLR was similar (35%); sANSWERS achieved a sensitivity of 70%. GPA, ANSWERS and PoPLR discriminated treatment groups with similar statistical significance; sANSWERS did not discriminate treatment groups. Although the VF progression-detection method including VF and RNFLT measurements is more sensitive, it does not improve discrimination between treatment arms.

  12. Evaluation of Supercritical Extracts of Algae as Biostimulants of Plant Growth in Field Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Rój, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur ). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis , brown seaweed - Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear, and shank length. The ear number per m 2 was the highest in the group where the Baltic macroalgae extract was applied in the dose 1.0 L/ha (statistically significant differences). Number of grains in ear (statistically significant differences) and shank length was the highest in the group treated with Spirulina at the dose 1.5 L/ha. In the group with Ascophyllum at the dose 1.0 L/ha, the highest length of ear was observed. The yield was comparable in all the experimental groups (lack of statistically significant differences). Among the tested supercritical extracts, the best results were obtained for Spirulina (1.5 L/ha). The mass of 1000 grains was the highest for extract from Baltic macroalgae and was 3.5% higher than for Asahi, 4.0% higher than for Forthial and 18.5% higher than for the control group (statistically significant differences). Future work is needed to fully characterize the chemical composition of the applied algal extracts. A special attention should be paid to the extracts obtained from Baltic algae because they are inexpensive source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, which can be used in sustainable agriculture and horticulture.

  13. Evaluation of supercritical extracts of algae as biostimulants of plant growth in field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur. As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed – Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant height, length of ear and shank length. The ear number per square meter was the highest in the group where the Baltic macroalgae extract was applied in the dose 1.0 L/ha (statistically significant differences. Number of grains in ear (statistically significant differences and shank length was the highest in the group treated with Spirulina at the dose 1.5 L/ha. In the group with Ascophyllum at the dose 1.0 L/ha, the highest length of ear was observed. The yield was comparable in all the experimental groups (lack of statistically significant differences.Among the tested supercritical extracts, the best results were obtained for Spirulina (1.5 L/ha. The mass of 1000 grains was the highest for extract from Baltic macroalgae and was 3.5% higher than for Asahi, 4.0% higher than for Forthial and 18.5% higher than for the control group (statistically significant differences. Future work is needed to fully characterize the chemical composition of the applied algal extracts. A special attention should be paid to the extracts obtained from Baltic algae because they are inexpensive source of naturally occurring bioactive compounds, which can be used in sustainable agriculture and horticulture.

  14. Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, James [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States); Winschel, Richard [CONSOL Energy Inc., South Park, PA (United States)

    2012-05-21

    CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230°F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energy's R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230°F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

  15. Research and field trials with a blend of ethanol in diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egebaeck, K.E. [Autoemission K-E E Consultant, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this report is to summarize the experiences acquired and data generated during the project named `The mixed fuel project` which was carried out during the years 1993 to 1997. The project was initiated after that some information had been collected in Australia, where a similar project was underway. The Australian project showed some interesting data and within that project an emulsifier had been developed - an emulsifier which has also been used in the Swedish project. In order to avoid a costly development of a method for blending ethanol in diesel oil, a form of co-operation was established between the people involved in Australia and those involved in Sweden. The content of ethanol in diesel oil used in Australia was 15 % and the investigations in Sweden reported further down in this report the ratio 15 % ethanol in MK 1 (an environmentally classified diesel fuel in Sweden) was the best alternative to be used also in Sweden. Twelve reports have been studied and used as references in order to summarize the results and experiences from the project. In order to fulfil the obligations of the project many institutions, private and community companies, consultants and universities in Sweden were involved. In the report presents the main results from the different investigations and field trials with ethanol-diesel fueled vehicles. It can be said that there are no technical problems connected to the use of ethanol-diesel fuel but the most serious drawback is the cost of the fuel. There is also a need for further development of the technology of making a homogenous emulsion of ethanol in diesel oil at a reasonable cost. The main advantage of using the mixed fuel is that the emission of particles is considerably reduced. The emission of CO{sub 2} is also reduced when the ethanol is produced from biomass using an environmentally friendly method 17 refs, 22 figs, 22 tabs

  16. Use of a multi-process phytoremediation system for decontamination of petroleum impacted soils : results of successful field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, B.M.; Gurska, J.; Huang, X.D.; Gerhardt, K.E.; Yu, X.M.; Nykamp, J.; MacNeill, G.; Yang, S.; Lu, X.; Glick, B.; Wang, W.; Knezevich, N.; Reid, N.

    2008-01-01

    The multi-process phytoremediation system (MPPS) was developed to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in impacted soils. Phytoremediation of persistent contaminants in soils holds significant promise for rapid remediation kinetics. MPPS effectively removes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) from soils. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria interaction is the main element for success as it mitigates stress ethylene effects in plants, leading to high root biomass which, in turn, promotes growth of rhizosphere organisms. Field tests of the MPPS were initiated at a farm site in Sarnia, Ontario in the summer of 2004. The field was contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from refinery oil sludge. The second field trial was performed for 3 consecutive years at a petroleum contaminated biopile in Turner Valley, Alberta. The paper presented the results of the successful field tests of the MPPS. It was concluded that increased root biomass is achieved in the contaminated soils, which leads to more efficient and complete removal of TPHs in the field. Three years of field trials of the MPPS showed that remediation continues with successive seasons. 28 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  17. Respiratory alkalosis and primary hypocapnia in Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials in high-ambient-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiss, Janet E; Wright, James C

    2008-10-01

    To determine whether Labrador Retrievers participating in field trials develop respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia primarily in conditions of high ambient temperatures. 16 Labrador Retrievers. At each of 5 field trials, 5 to 10 dogs were monitored during a test (retrieval of birds over a variable distance on land [1,076 to 2,200 m]; 36 assessments); ambient temperatures ranged from 2.2 degrees to 29.4 degrees C. For each dog, rectal temperature was measured and a venous blood sample was collected in a heparinized syringe within 5 minutes of test completion. Blood samples were analyzed on site for Hct; pH; sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, bicarbonate, and total CO2 concentrations; and values of PvO2 and PvCO2. Scatterplots of each variable versus ambient temperature were reviewed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature ( 21 degrees C) on each variable. Compared with findings at ambient temperatures 21 degrees C; rectal temperature did not differ. Two dogs developed signs of heat stress in 1 test at an ambient temperature of 29 degrees C; their rectal temperatures were higher and PvCO2 values were lower than findings in other dogs. When running distances frequently encountered at field trials, healthy Labrador Retrievers developed hyperthermia regardless of ambient temperature. Dogs developed respiratory alkalosis and hypocapnia at ambient temperatures > 21 degrees C.

  18. Technical implementation in support of the IAEA's remote monitoring field trial at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbell, B.H.; Moran, B.W.; Pickett, C.A.; Whitaker, J.M.; Resnik, W.; Landreth, D.

    1996-01-01

    A remote monitoring system (RMS) field trial will be conducted for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Remote monitoring technologies are being evaluated to verify their capability to enhance the effectiveness and timeliness of IAEA safeguards in storage facilities while reducing the costs of inspections and burdens on the operator. Phase one of the field trial, which involved proving the satellite transmission of sensor data and safeguards images from a video camera activated by seals and motion sensors installed in the vault, was completed in September 1995. Phase two involves formal testing of the RMS as a tool for use by the IAEA during their tasks of monitoring the storage of nuclear material. The field trial to be completed during early 1997 includes access and item monitoring of nuclear materials in two storage trays. The RMS includes a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies that provide video monitoring, radiation attribute measurements, and container identification to the on-site data acquisition system (DAS) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LONWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information will be transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines

  19. Evolution of Replication Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nina Y.; O'Donnell, Mike E.

    2016-01-01

    The machines that decode and regulate genetic information require the translation, transcription and replication pathways essential to all living cells. Thus, it might be expected that all cells share the same basic machinery for these pathways that were inherited from the primordial ancestor cell from which they evolved. A clear example of this is found in the translation machinery that converts RNA sequence to protein. The translation process requires numerous structural and catalytic RNAs and proteins, the central factors of which are homologous in all three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Likewise, the central actor in transcription, RNA polymerase, shows homology among the catalytic subunits in bacteria, archaea and eukarya. In contrast, while some “gears” of the genome replication machinery are homologous in all domains of life, most components of the replication machine appear to be unrelated between bacteria and those of archaea and eukarya. This review will compare and contrast the central proteins of the “replisome” machines that duplicate DNA in bacteria, archaea and eukarya, with an eye to understanding the issues surrounding the evolution of the DNA replication apparatus. PMID:27160337

  20. Replication studies in longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varcasia, O; Garasto, S; Rizza, T

    2001-01-01

    In Danes we replicated the 3'APOB-VNTR gene/longevity association study previously carried out in Italians, by which the Small alleles (less than 35 repeats) had been identified as frailty alleles for longevity. In Danes, neither genotype nor allele frequencies differed between centenarians and 20...

  1. Molecular and risk-based approach to nutrient development for a proposed sub-surface biogasification field trial in a biogenic gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambo, Adewale J.; Strapoc, Dariusz; Pittenger, Michelle; Huizinga, Bradley [ConocoPhillips (Canada); Wood, Ladonna; Ashby, Matt [Taxon Biosciences (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the molecular and risk-based approach to nutrient development for a proposed sub-surface biogasification field trial in a biogenic gas field. From field sampling, variability was seen in water chemistry and environmental parameters across the field; DNA yield also varied across the field and showed distinct spatial variation. The composition of microbial populations and relative distribution of archaea populations in the Cooks Inlet water is represented using pie and bar charts. The nutrient recipe was developed using known information on nutrient requirements of mathematically correlated microbial associations. The process of on-site nutrient injection is explained. Some of the mitigation plans for the risks involved during the process include, among others, limiting biofilm prevalence and avoiding bio-plugging and bio-corrosion. Biofilm is likely to develop in the injection line but less likely in nutrient mixing due to the high nutrient concentration. From the study, it can be concluded that community composition correlates with field geochemical parameters and methane pathways.

  2. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  3. Replication and robustness in developmental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J

    2014-11-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key results are robust across estimation methods, data sets, and demographic subgroups. This article makes the case for prioritizing both explicit replications and, especially, within-study robustness checks in developmental psychology. It provides evidence on variation in effect sizes in developmental studies and documents strikingly different replication and robustness-checking practices in a sample of journals in developmental psychology and a sister behavioral science-applied economics. Our goal is not to show that any one behavioral science has a monopoly on best practices, but rather to show how journals from a related discipline address vital concerns of replication and generalizability shared by all social and behavioral sciences. We provide recommendations for promoting graduate training in replication and robustness-checking methods and for editorial policies that encourage these practices. Although some of our recommendations may shift the form and substance of developmental research articles, we argue that they would generate considerable scientific benefits for the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D; Trafimow, David

    2015-01-01

    The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt "fails"-does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should "failed" replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing "failed" replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings.

  5. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D.; Trafimow, David

    2015-01-01

    The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt “fails”—does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should “failed” replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing “failed” replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings. PMID:26042061

  6. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  7. Water Column Exploration Field Trial I (EX0904, EM302) aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gorda Ridge, off the coasts of Oregon and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise is a water column exploration field trial cruise, designed to test and refine operations for conducting water column exploration using NOAA Ship Okeanos...

  8. Electromagnetic soil properties variability in a mine-field trial site in Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Rañada-Shaw, A.; Schoolderman, A.J.; Rhebergen, J.B.; Slob, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the characterization of the electromagnetic soil properties of a blind lane used in a trial for a dual-sensor mine detector is presented. Several techniques are used and are compared here; Time Domain Reflectometry, gravimetric techniques and Frequency Domain Reflection and

  9. Explaining Feast or Famine in Randomized Field Trials: Medical Science and Criminology Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the contrast between the frequency of randomized clinical trials in the health sciences and the relative famine of such studies in criminology. Attributes this difference to the contexts in which research is done and the difference in the status of situational research in the two disciplines. (SLD)

  10. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  11. A field-trial of two restorative materials used with atraumatic restorative treatment in rural Turkey: 24-month results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Ercan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical performance of high-strength glass ionomer cement (HSGIC and resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC in single and multiple surface carious cavities in the field conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A split-mouth design, including ninety-one fillings placed on contra lateral molar pairs of 37 children, was used in permanent dentition. As filling materials, a HSGIC (Ketac Molar/3M ESPE and a RMGIC (Vitremer/ 3M ESPE were used with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART. Baseline and 6, 12 and 24-month evaluations of the fillings were made with standard-ART and USPHS criteria by two examiners with kappa values of 0.92 and 0.87 for both criteria. RESULTS: According to the USPHS criteria, the retention rates of RMGIC and HSGIC restorations were 100% and 80.9% for single surface, and 100% and 41.2% for multiple surface restorations after 24 months, respectively. Irrespective of surface number, RMGIC was significantly superior to HSGIC (p= 0.004, according to both standard-ART and USPHS criteria. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that RMGIC may be an alternative restorative technique in comparison to high-strength GIC applications in ART-field-trials. However, further clinical and field trials are needed to support this conclusion.

  12. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  13. Therapeutic effects of antimicrobial treatment during lactation of recently acquired bovine subclinical mastitis: two linked randomized field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Borne, B H P; van Schaik, G; Lam, T J G M; Nielen, M

    2010-01-01

    Two linked randomized field trials were performed on 39 herds in the Netherlands to 1) determine therapeutic effects of antimicrobial treatment of recently acquired subclinical mastitis (RASCM) during lactation, 2) evaluate the effect of duration of subclinical mastitis on therapeutic outcome, and 3) identify factors related to the therapeutic success of RASCM. Cows with a first elevated composite somatic cell count (CSCC) after 2 consecutive low CSCC measurements were eligible for enrollment in trial 1 (treatment at the first elevated CSCC). Quarter milk samples were collected to determine bacteriological status for major pathogens and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Cows with one or more culture-positive quarters with a quarter somatic cell count (QSCC) >or=100,000 cells/mL were defined to have RASCM and were randomly assigned treatment or control (no treatment). Untreated cows from trial 1 that had a second elevated CSCC at the next milk recording were eligible for enrollment in trial 2 (treatment at the second elevated CSCC). In trial 2, staphylococci-positive cows (Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci) were randomly assigned to treatment or control. Farmers used their own treatment protocols to treat quarters in both trials. Bacteriological cure was defined as absence of the pathogen identified pre-intervention in 2 samples post-intervention; QSCC, CSCC, and milk yield were also analyzed. Hierarchical logistic and linear models were used to determine therapeutic effects and to identify factors related to therapy outcome. Treated quarters had a higher bacteriological cure rate than control quarters for all pathogens in both trials. Treatment resulted in lower QSCC and CSCC, whereas milk yield was not affected by treatment. Bacteriological cure of RASCM was better in quarters with a low QSCC pre-intervention and in coagulase-negative staphylococci-positive quarters. Control quarters with a single culture-positive sample pre

  14. Chromatin replication and epigenome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Groth, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Stability and function of eukaryotic genomes are closely linked to chromatin structure and organization. During cell division the entire genome must be accurately replicated and the chromatin landscape reproduced on new DNA. Chromatin and nuclear structure influence where and when DNA replication...... initiates, whereas the replication process itself disrupts chromatin and challenges established patterns of genome regulation. Specialized replication-coupled mechanisms assemble new DNA into chromatin, but epigenome maintenance is a continuous process taking place throughout the cell cycle. If DNA...

  15. Field trial using bone meal amendments to remediate mine waste derived soil contaminated with zinc, lead and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneddon, I.R.; Orueetxebarria, M.; Hodson, M.E.; Schofield, P.F.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2008-01-01

    Bone meal amendments are being considered as a remediation method for metal-contaminated wastes. In various forms (biogenic, geogenic or synthetic), apatite, the principal mineral constituent of bone, has shown promise as an amendment to remediate metal-contaminated soils via the formation of insoluble phosphates of Pb and possibly other metals. The efficacy of commercially available bovine bone meal in this role was investigated in a field trial at Nenthead, Cumbria with a mine waste derived soil contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd. Two 5 m 2 plots were set up; the first as a control and the second, a treatment plot where the soil was thoroughly mixed with bone meal to a depth of 50 cm at a soil to amendment ratio of 25:1 by weight. An array of soil solution samplers (Rhizon SMS TM ) were installed in both plots and the soil pore water was collected and analysed for Ca, Cd, Zn and Pb regularly over a period of 2 a. Concurrently with the field trial, a laboratory trial with 800 mm high and 100 mm wide leaching columns was conducted using identical samplers and with soil from the field site. A substantial release of Zn, Pb, Cd and Ca was observed associated with the bone meal treatment. This release was transient in the case of the leaching columns, and showed seasonal variation in the case of the field trial. It is proposed that this effect resulted from metal complexation with organic acids released during breakdown of the bone meal organic fraction and was facilitated by the relatively high soil pH of 7.6-8.0. Even after this transient release effect had subsided or when incinerated bone meal was substituted in order to eliminate the organic fraction, no detectable decrease in dissolved metals was observed and no P was detected in solution, in contrast with an earlier small column laboratory study. It is concluded that due to the relative insolubility of apatite at above-neutral pH, the rate of supply of phosphate to soil solution was insufficient to result in

  16. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) following forward planned field-in field IMRT: Results from the Cambridge Breast IMRT trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukesh, Mukesh B.; Qian, Wendi; Wilkinson, Jennifer S.; Dorling, Leila; Barnett, Gillian C.; Moody, Anne M.; Wilson, Charles; Twyman, Nicola; Burnet, Neil G.; Wishart, Gordon C.; Coles, Charlotte E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in breast cancer reduces clinician-assessed breast tissue toxicity including fibrosis, telangectasia and sub-optimal cosmesis. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) are also important as they provide the patient’s perspective. This longitudinal study reports on (a) the effect of forward planned field-in-field IMRT (∼simple IMRT) on PROMs compared to standard RT at 5 years after RT, (b) factors affecting PROMs at 5 years after RT and (c) the trend of PROMs over 5 years of follow up. Methods: PROMs were assessed at baseline (pre-RT), 6, 24 and 60 months after completion of RT using global health (EORTC QLQ C30) and 4 breast symptom questions (BR23). Also, 4 breast RT-specific questions were included at 6, 24 and 60 months: change in skin appearance, firmness to touch, reduction in breast size and overall change in breast appearance since RT. The benefits of simple IMRT over standard RT at 5 years after RT were assessed using standard t-test for global health and logistic regression analysis for breast symptom questions and breast RT-specific questions. Clinical factors affecting PROMs at 5 years were investigated using a multivariate analysis. A repeated mixed model was applied to explore the trend over time for each of PROMs. Results: (89%) 727/815, 84%, 81% and 61% patients completed questionnaires at baseline, 6, 24 and 60 months respectively. Patients reported worse toxicity for all four BR23 breast symptoms at 6 months, which then improved over time (p < 0.0001). They also reported improvement in skin appearance and breast hardness over time (p < 0.0001), with no significant change for breast shrinkage (p = 0.47) and overall breast appearance (p = 0.13). At 5 years, PROMs assessments did not demonstrate a benefit for simple IMRT over standard radiotherapy. Large breast volume, young age, baseline surgical cosmesis and post-operative infection were the most important variables to affect PROMs

  17. Trial study on design of irradiated fields of radiotherapy in cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hui; Zeng Zhifan; Cui Nianji; He Zhichun; Huang Shaomin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare three kinds of irradiation treatment plans for cervical and upper thoracic esophageal cancer, in order to arrived at proper decision for the patient. Methods: From February 2001 to June 2004, 43 such patients were studied with three different simulated treatment plans made including conformal plan, conventional four-field plan and conventional two-field plan for every one. All plans were evaluated with iso- dose curve and dose-volume histogram. Results: GTV on 95% isodose curve was 99.5%, 98.2% and 87.4% in conformal plan, conventional four-field plan and conventional two-field plan, respectively; PTV 1 and PTV 2 on 95% isodose with 97.8%, 97.2%, 94.8% and 95.8%, 86.6%, 73.7%. The volume of > 20 Gy dose of left lung accepted was 18.6%, 17.2% and 32.3%, in conformal plan, conventional four-field plan and conventional two-field plan, respectively; the right lung received 20.5% ,19.9% and 35.5%. Conclusions: Conformal plan is the best in radiotherapy, as it can provide ideal dose distribution of irradiated target with adequate protection of the normal tissues. Conventional four-field plan, being easy to carry, out, can replace the conformal plan in most situations. Conventional two-field has the most uneven dose distribution and largest lung volume irradiated. (authors)

  18. The Study of Indoor and Field Trials on 2×8 MIMO Architecture in TD-LTE Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    the networks are based on frequency division duplexing (FDD. In this paper, measurement methods of four MIMO transmission modes (TMs in time division-LTE (TD-LTE are studied and analyzed. Link level simulation is carried out to evaluate the downlink throughput for different signal-to-noise ratios and parameter settings. Furthermore, indoor and field tests are also presented in the paper to investigate how real-world propagation affects the capacity and the error performance of MIMO transmission scheme. For the indoor test, radio channel emulators are applied to generate realistic wireless fading channel, while in the field trials, a live TD-LTE experiment cellular network is built, which contains several evolved nodeBs (eNBs and a precommercial user equipment (UE. It is shown from both simulation and tests results that MIMO deployment gives a substantial performance improvement compared with the third generation wireless networks.

  19. The evolutionary ecology of molecular replicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2016-08-01

    By reasonable criteria, life on the Earth consists mainly of molecular replicators. These include viruses, transposons, transpovirons, coviruses and many more, with continuous new discoveries like Sputnik Virophage. Their study is inherently multidisciplinary, spanning microbiology, genetics, immunology and evolutionary theory, and the current view is that taking a unified approach has great power and promise. We support this with a new, unified, model of their evolutionary ecology, using contemporary evolutionary theory coupling the Price equation with game theory, studying the consequences of the molecular replicators' promiscuous use of each others' gene products for their natural history and evolutionary ecology. Even at this simple expository level, we can make a firm prediction of a new class of replicators exploiting viruses such as lentiviruses like SIVs, a family which includes HIV: these have been explicitly stated in the primary literature to be non-existent. Closely connected to this departure is the view that multicellular organism immunology is more about the management of chronic infections rather than the elimination of acute ones and new understandings emerging are changing our view of the kind of theatre we ourselves provide for the evolutionary play of molecular replicators. This study adds molecular replicators to bacteria in the emerging field of sociomicrobiology.

  20. Structure of replicating intermediates of human herpesvirus type 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severini, Alberto; Sevenhuysen, Claire; Garbutt, Michael; Tipples, Graham A.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the structure of the replicative intermediates of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, partial digestion, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and sedimentation centrifugation. The results show that DNA replication of HHV-6 produces head-to-tail concatemeric intermediates as well as approximately equal amounts of circular monomers or oligomers. Unlike the situation in herpes simplex virus, the intermediates of human herpesvirus 6 replication are not highly branched, suggesting a difference in the mechanism of replication or a lower frequency of homologous recombination in human herpesvirus 6 compared to herpes simplex virus

  1. International Expansion through Flexible Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Anna; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    Business organizations may expand internationally by replicating a part of their value chain, such as a sales and marketing format, in other countries. However, little is known regarding how such “international replicators” build a format for replication, or how they can adjust it in order to ada......, etc.) are replicated in a uniform manner across stores, and change only very slowly (if at all) in response to learning (“flexible replication”). We conclude by discussing the factors that influence the approach to replication adopted by an international replicator.......Business organizations may expand internationally by replicating a part of their value chain, such as a sales and marketing format, in other countries. However, little is known regarding how such “international replicators” build a format for replication, or how they can adjust it in order to adapt...

  2. Field trials to evaluate effects of continuously planted transgenic insect-resistant cottons on soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Biao; Wang, Xingxiang; Han, Zhengmin; Cui, Jinjie; Luo, Junyu

    2012-03-01

    Impacts on soil invertebrates are an important aspect of environmental risk assessment and post-release monitoring of transgenic insect-resistant plants. The purpose of this study was to research and survey the effects of transgenic insect-resistant cottons that had been planted over 10 years on the abundance and community structure of soil invertebrates under field conditions. During 3 consecutive years (2006-2008), eight common taxa (orders) of soil invertebrates belonging to the phylum Arthropoda were investigated in two different transgenic cotton fields and one non-transgenic cotton field (control). Each year, soil samples were taken at four different growth stages of cotton (seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening). Animals were extracted from the samples using the improved Tullgren method, counted and determined to the order level. The diversity of the soil fauna communities in the different fields was compared using the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. The results showed a significant sampling time variation in the abundance of soil invertebrates monitored in the different fields. However, no difference in soil invertebrate abundance was found between the transgenic cotton fields and the control field. Both sampling time and cotton treatment had a significant effect on the Simpson's, Shannon's diversity indices and evenness index. They were higher in the transgenic fields than the control field at the growth stages of cotton. Long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cottons had no significant effect on the abundance of soil invertebrates. Collembola, Acarina and Araneae could act as the indicators of soil invertebrate in this region to monitor the environmental impacts of transgenic plants in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  3. Exploratory field trial of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB): Considerations on the acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Giovanni; Pierini, Marco; Thompson, Jason; Fitzharris, Michael; Lenné, Michael G

    2016-11-16

    Autonomous emergency braking (AEB) acts to slow down a vehicle when an unavoidable impending collision is detected. In addition to documented benefits when applied to passenger cars, AEB has also shown potential when applied to motorcycles (MAEB). However, the feasibility of MAEB as practically applied to motorcycles in the real world is not well understood. In this study we performed a field trial involving 16 riders on a test motorcycle subjected to automatic decelerations, thus simulating MAEB activation. The tests were conducted along a rectilinear path at nominal speed of 40 km/h and with mean deceleration of 0.15 g (15% of full braking) deployed at random times. Riders were also exposed to one final undeclared brake activation with the aim of providing genuinely unexpected automatic braking events. Participants were consistently able to manage automatic decelerations of the vehicle with minor to moderate effort. Results of undeclared activations were consistent with those of standard runs. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a moderate automatic deceleration in a scenario of motorcycle travelling in a straight path, supporting the notion that the application of AEB on motorcycles is practicable. Furthermore, the proposed field trial can be used as a reference for future regulation or consumer tests in order to address safety and acceptability of unexpected automatic decelerations on a motorcycle.

  4. Phytostabilization of a Pb-contaminated mine tailing by various tree species in pot and field trial experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeinkuirt, Weeradej; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Chaiyarat, Rattanawat

    2012-10-01

    The potential of 6 tree species (Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Lagerstroemia floribunda, Eucalyptus camaldulensis) for phytoremediation of Pb in sand tailings (total Pb >9850 mg kg(-1)) from KEMCO Pb mine in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand, were investigated employing a pot experiment (3 months) and field trial experiment (12 months). In pot study E. camaldulensis treated with Osmocote fertilizer attained the highest total biomass (15.3 g plant(-1)) followed by P. pterocarpum (12.6 g plant(-1)) and A. mangium (10.8 g plant(-1)) both treated with cow manure. Cow manure application resulted in the highest root Pb accumulation (>10000 mg kg(-1)) in L. floribunda and P. macrocarpus. These two species also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (85-88 mg plant(-1)). Results from field trial also showed that Osmocote promoted the best growth performance in E. camaldulensis (biomass 385.7 g plant(-1), height 141.7 cm) followed by A. mangium (biomass 215.9 g plant(-1), height 102.7 cm), and they also exhibited the highest Pb uptake (600-800 microg plant(-1)). A. mangium with the addition of organic fertilizer was the best option for phytostabilization of Pb-contaminated mine tailing because it retained higher Pb concentration in the roots.

  5. Grain yield increase in cereal variety mixtures: A meta-analysis of field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    on grain yield. To investigate the prevalence and preconditions for positive mixing effects, reported grain yields of variety mixtures and pure variety stands were obtained from previously published variety trials, converted into relative mixing effects and combined using meta-analysis. Furthermore...... as meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis; on the other hand, nearly 200 studies were discarded. The accepted studies reported results on both winter and spring types of each crop species. Relative mixing effects ranged from 30% to 100% with an overall meta-estimate of at least 2.7% (p

  6. Field Efficiency Trial of 72% Streptomycin against Konjac Bacterial Soft Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Yongsheng; Li; Xiaojun; Zhu; Shijin; Ma; Yongsheng; Wang; Li

    2014-01-01

    72% Streptomycin soluble powder was used to control konjac bacterial soft rot in the study. The control efficiency and yield of different treatments were investigated,and the benefit was analyzed. The control scheme against konjac bacterial soft rot was as follows: spraying 72% atreptomycinon twice on rotation fields after all the seedlings were strong and uniform,or irrigating roots with 72% atreptomycinon once and spraying twice on continuous cropping fields.

  7. Field Trial of LANL On-Line Advanced Enrichment Monitor for UF6 GCEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lombardi, Marcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacArthur, Duncan W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Robert F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Morag K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keller, Clifford [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Friend, Peter [URENCO; Dunford, Andrew [URENCO

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation is: (1) Technology basis of on-line enrichment monitoring; (2) Timescale of trial; (3) Description of installed equipment; (4) Photographs; (5) Results; (6) Possible further development; and (7) Conclusions. Summary of the good things about the Advanced Enrichment Monitor (AEM) performance is: (1) High accuracy - normally better than 1% relative, (2) Active system as accurate as passive system, (3) Fast and accurate detection of enrichment changes, (4) Physics is well understood, (5) Elegant method for capturing pressure signal, and (6) Data capture is automatic, low cost and fast. A couple of negative things are: (1) Some jumps in measured passive enrichment - of around +2% relative (due to clock errors?); and (2) Data handling and evaluation is off-line, expensive and very slow. Conclusions are: (1) LANL AEM is being tested on E23 plant at Capenhurst; (2) The trial is going very well; (3) AEM could detect production of HEU at potentially much lower cost than existing CEMO; (4) AEM can measure {sup 235}U assay accurately; (5) Active system using X-Ray source would avoid need for pressure measurement; (6) Substantial work lies ahead to go from current prototype to a production instrument.

  8. Pyrolysis of attapulgite clay blended with yak dung enhances pasture growth and soil health: Characterization and initial field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Joseph, Stephen D; Li, Fei; Bai, Yanfu; Shang, Zhanhuan; Rawal, Aditya; Hook, James M; Munroe, Paul R; Donne, Scott; Taherymoosavi, Sara; Mitchell, David R G; Pace, Ben; Mohammed, Mohanad; Horvat, Joseph; Marjo, Christopher E; Wagner, Avital; Wang, Yanlong; Ye, Jun; Long, Rui-Jun

    2017-12-31

    Recent studies have shown that the pyrolysis of biomass combined with clay can result in both lower cost and increase in plant yields. One of the major sources of nutrients for pasture growth, as well as fuel and building materials in Tibet is yak dung. This paper reports on the initial field testing in a pasture setting in Tibet using yak dung, biochar, and attapulgite clay/yak dung biochars produced at ratios of 10/90 and 50/50 clay to dung. We found that the treatment with attapulgite clay/yak dung (50/50) biochar resulted in the highest pasture yields and grass nutrition quality. We also measured the properties and yields of mixtures of clay/yak dung biochar used in the field trials produced at 400°C and 500°C to help determine a possible optimum final pyrolysis temperature and dung/clay ratio. It was observed that increasing clay content increased carbon stability, overall biochar yield, pore size, carboxyl and ketone/aldehyde functional groups, hematite and ferrous/ferric sulphate/thiosulphate concentration, surface area and magnetic moment. Decreasing clay content resulted in higher pH, CEC, N content and an enhanced ability to accept and donate electrons. The resulting properties were a complex function of both processing temperature and the percentage of clay for the biochars processed at both 400°C and 500°C. It is possible that the increase in yield and nutrient uptake in the field trial is related to the higher concentration of C/O functional groups, higher surface area and pore volume and higher content of Fe/O/S nanoparticles of multiple oxidation state in the 50/50 clay/dung. These properties have been found to significantly increase the abundance of beneficial microorganisms and hence improve the nutrient cycling and availability in soil. Further field trials are required to determine the optimum pyrolysis production conditions and application rate on the abundance of beneficial microorganisms, yields and nutrient quality. Copyright © 2017

  9. SUMO and KSHV Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Pei-Ching [Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Kung, Hsing-Jien, E-mail: hkung@nhri.org.tw [Institute for Translational Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); UC Davis Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-29

    Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier (SUMO) modification was initially identified as a reversible post-translational modification that affects the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein trafficking, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair. Increasing evidence suggests that the SUMO system also plays an important role in regulating chromatin organization and transcription. It is thus not surprising that double-stranded DNA viruses, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), have exploited SUMO modification as a means of modulating viral chromatin remodeling during the latent-lytic switch. In addition, SUMO regulation allows the disassembly and assembly of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), an intrinsic antiviral host defense, during the viral replication cycle. Overcoming PML-NB-mediated cellular intrinsic immunity is essential to allow the initial transcription and replication of the herpesvirus genome after de novo infection. As a consequence, KSHV has evolved a way as to produce multiple SUMO regulatory viral proteins to modulate the cellular SUMO environment in a dynamic way during its life cycle. Remarkably, KSHV encodes one gene product (K-bZIP) with SUMO-ligase activities and one gene product (K-Rta) that exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) activity. In addition, at least two viral products are sumoylated that have functional importance. Furthermore, sumoylation can be modulated by other viral gene products, such as the viral protein kinase Orf36. Interference with the sumoylation of specific viral targets represents a potential therapeutic strategy when treating KSHV, as well as other oncogenic herpesviruses. Here, we summarize the different ways KSHV exploits and manipulates the cellular SUMO system and explore the multi-faceted functions of SUMO during KSHV’s life cycle and pathogenesis.

  10. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poeze Martijn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation

  11. DNA Replication Profiling Using Deep Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saayman, Xanita; Ramos-Pérez, Cristina; Brown, Grant W

    2018-01-01

    Profiling of DNA replication during progression through S phase allows a quantitative snap-shot of replication origin usage and DNA replication fork progression. We present a method for using deep sequencing data to profile DNA replication in S. cerevisiae.

  12. Hydroxyurea-Induced Replication Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Lahkim Bennani-Belhaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloom's syndrome (BS displays one of the strongest known correlations between chromosomal instability and a high risk of cancer at an early age. BS cells combine a reduced average fork velocity with constitutive endogenous replication stress. However, the response of BS cells to replication stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU, which strongly slows the progression of replication forks, remains unclear due to publication of conflicting results. Using two different cellular models of BS, we showed that BLM deficiency is not associated with sensitivity to HU, in terms of clonogenic survival, DSB generation, and SCE induction. We suggest that surviving BLM-deficient cells are selected on the basis of their ability to deal with an endogenous replication stress induced by replication fork slowing, resulting in insensitivity to HU-induced replication stress.

  13. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  14. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf

  15. Anatomy of a field trial: Wood-based biochar and compost influences a Pacific Northwest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar land application research in elevated rainfall areas (980 millimeters of annual rainfall) of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is lacking. A proof-of-concept field study examined the effects of spruce-pine-fir wood chip biochar (slow pyrolysis; 450-500 degrees Celsius; 35 megagrams per hectare), d...

  16. Trial Application of Pulse-Field Magnetization to Magnetically Levitated Conveyor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihito Miyatake

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically levitated conveyor system using superconductors is discussed. The system is composed of a levitated conveyor, magnetic rails, a linear induction motor, and some power supplies. In the paper, pulse-field magnetization is applied to the system. Then, the levitation height and the dynamics of the conveyor are controlled. The static and dynamic characteristics of the levitated conveyor are discussed.

  17. Field trial of 160 Gb/s all-optical packet switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Herrera Llorente, J.; Raz, O.; Tangdiongga, E.; Marti, J.; Ramos, F.; Maxwell, G.D.; Poustie, A.; Mulvad, H.C.H.; Hill, M.T.; Waardt, de H.; Khoe, G.D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Nakano, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a transmission experiment, over 110 km of field installed fiber, for an all-optical 160 Gb/s packet switching system. The system uses in-band optical labels which are processed entirely in the optical domain using a narrow-band all-optical filter. The label decision

  18. DATABASE REPLICATION IN HETEROGENOUS PLATFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Hendro Nindito; Evaristus Didik Madyatmadja; Albert Verasius Dian Sano

    2014-01-01

    The application of diverse database technologies in enterprises today is increasingly a common practice. To provide high availability and survavibality of real-time information, a database replication technology that has capability to replicate databases under heterogenous platforms is required. The purpose of this research is to find the technology with such capability. In this research, the data source is stored in MSSQL database server running on Windows. The data will be replicated to MyS...

  19. Field trial of GABA-fortified rice plants and oral administration of milled rice in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaka, Emi; Shimajiri, Yasuka; Kawakami, Kouhei; Tongu, Miki; Akama, Kazuhito

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the most critical risk factors accompanying cardiovascular diseases. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that functions as a major neurotransmitter in mammals and also as a blood-pressure lowering agent. We previously produced GABA-fortified rice lines of a popular Japonica rice cultivar 'Koshihikari' by genetic manipulation of GABA shunt-related genes. In the study reported here, we grew these same novel rice lines in a field trial and administered the milled rice orally to rats. The yield parameters of the transgenic rice plants were almost unchanged compared to those of untransformed cv. 'Koshihikari' plants, while the rice grains of the transgenic plants contained a high GABA content (3.5 g GABA/kg brown rice; 0.75-0.85 GABA g/kg milled rice) in a greenhouse trial. Oral administration of a diet containing 2.5% GABA-fortified rice, with a daily intake for 8 weeks, had an approximately 20 mmHg anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. These results suggest that GABA-fortified rice may be applicable as a staple food to control or prevent hypertension.

  20. Differentiation of organic and non-organic winter wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Busscher, Nicolaas; Mergardt, Gaby; Mäder, Paul; Torp, Torfinn; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well-documented sample origin. The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non-organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k-nearest-neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non-organic origin using cross-validation. Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non-organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Are rapid population estimates accurate? A field trial of two different assessment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Coulombier, Denis; Ampuero, Julia; Lucas, Marcelino E S; Barretto, Avertino T; Jacquier, Guy; Diaz, Francisco; Balandine, Serge; Mahoudeau, Claude; Brown, Vincent

    2006-09-01

    Emergencies resulting in large-scale displacement often lead to populations resettling in areas where basic health services and sanitation are unavailable. To plan relief-related activities quickly, rapid population size estimates are needed. The currently recommended Quadrat method estimates total population by extrapolating the average population size living in square blocks of known area to the total site surface. An alternative approach, the T-Square, provides a population estimate based on analysis of the spatial distribution of housing units taken throughout a site. We field tested both methods and validated the results against a census in Esturro Bairro, Beira, Mozambique. Compared to the census (population: 9,479), the T-Square yielded a better population estimate (9,523) than the Quadrat method (7,681; 95% confidence interval: 6,160-9,201), but was more difficult for field survey teams to implement. Although applicable only to similar sites, several general conclusions can be drawn for emergency planning.

  2. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to understanding how homes use energy. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, NREL researchers investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. This report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to 10 end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. NREL concludes that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  3. Agronomic behavior of phosphoric rock from Bahia Inglesa using isotopic techniques. 1. Field trial with concentrated and non concentrated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, I.; Casa G, L.

    1989-01-01

    With the aim to assess the agronomic behaviour of the phosphoric rock from Bahia Inglesa, a field trial was carried out with concentrated and non concentrated 100 mesh sieved rock. The method of isotopic dilution was used with TSP labeled P32 (TSP-P32) as standard fertilizer. Total dry matter, total P by colorimetry and P32 by liquid scintillation using the Cerenkov effect were measured. Both agronomic and isotope parameters were analyzed. The concentrated phosphoric rock was 3.7 times better than the same non concentrated rock. These also was a positive effect from non concentrated at 400 kg P205/ha dose. This effect was attributed to a higher saturation in the points of P sorption. The TSP showed a better behaviour than the phosphoric rock under study. (author)

  4. Precision analysis of 15N-labelled samples with the emission spectrometer NOI-5 for nitrogen balance in field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.

    1984-01-01

    A technique was adapted for the preparation of samples with 15 N to be analyzed with the emission spectrometer NOI-5. This technique is based on methods of analyzing 15 N labelled gas samples in denitrification experiments. Nitrogen released from ammonium compounds by using hypobromite is injected into a repeatedly usable gaseous discharge tube where it is freed from water traces by means of the molecular sieve 5A. The described procedure of activating the molecular sieve allows to record spectra of reproducible quality thus promising an accuracy of analysis of +- 0.003 at% in the range of natural isotope frequency and the possibility of soil nitrogen analysis in field trials with fertilizers of low nitrogen content (3 to 6.5 at%; corresponding with 0.055 to 0.14% N/sub t/ of soils) without being dependent on mass spectrometers. (author)

  5. Exploring and reducing stress in young restaurant workers: results of a randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petree, Robyn D; Broome, Kirk M; Bennett, Joel B

    2012-01-01

    Young adult restaurant workers face the dual stressors of work adjustment and managing personal responsibilities. We assessed a new psychosocial/health promotion training designed to reduce these stressors in the context of restaurant work. DESIGN . A cluster-randomized trial of a training program, with surveys administered approximately 2 weeks before training and both 6 and 12 months after training. A national restaurant chain. A total of 947 restaurant workers in 28 restaurants. Personal stress, exposure to problem coworkers, and personal and job characteristics. Team Resilience (TR) is an interactive program for stress management, teamwork, and work-life balance. TR focuses on "five Cs" of resilience: compassion, commitment, centering, community, and confidence. ANALYSIS . Mixed-model (multilevel) analysis of covariances. Compared with workers in control stores, workers in TR-trained stores showed significant reductions over time in exposure to problem coworkers (F[2, 80.60]  =  4.48; p  =  .01) and in personal stress (F[2, 75.28]  =  6.12; p  =  .003). The TR program may help young workers who face the challenges of emerging adulthood and work-life balance.

  6. Explaining feast or famine in randomized field trials. Medical science and criminology compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P

    2003-06-01

    A feast of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in medical science and comparative famine in criminology can be explained in terms of cultural and structural factors. Of central importance is the context in which the evaluation of interventions is done and the difference in status of situational research in the two disciplines. Evaluation of medical interventions has traditionally been led by practitioner (clinical) academics. This is not the case in criminal justice, where theory has had higher status than intervention research. Medical science has advanced in, or closely associated with, university teaching hospitals, but links between criminology and criminal justice services are far more tenuous. The late development of situational crime prevention seems extraordinary from a medical perspective, as does the absence of university police schools in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. These structural and cultural factors explain concentration of expectation, resource, and RCT productivity in medical science. The Campbell Collaboration and the Academy of Experimental Criminology are forces which are reducing this polarization of feast and famine in RCTs. But unless scientific criminology is embedded in university schools which are responsible for the education and training of law, probation, and police practitioners, convergence in terms of RCTs and implementation of findings in practice seems unlikely.

  7. The impact of farmers’ participation in field trials in creating awareness and stimulating compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amponsah, Owusu; Vigre, Håkan; Schou, Torben Wilde

    2016-01-01

    -barrier approach field trials. The results of the study show that participation in the field trials has statistically significant effects on farmers’ awareness of the farm-based multiple-barrier approach. Compliance has, however, been undermined by the farmers’ perception that the cost of compliance is more......The results of a study aimed as assessing the extent to which urban vegetable farmers’ participation in field trials can impact on their awareness and engender compliance with the World Health Organization’s farm-based multiple-barrier approach are presented in this paper. Both qualitative...... and quantitative approaches have been used in this paper. One hundred vegetable farmers and four vegetable farmers’ associations in the Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana were covered. The individual farmers were grouped into two, namely: (1) participants and (2) non-participants of the farm-based multiple...

  8. Adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of Croatian and Austrian Quercus robur L. populations at a drought prone field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Provenance trials, where populations of different geographical origin are tested in a common environment (common garden test, are a tool suited to allow the study of intraspecific adaptive genetic variation. Research of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L. adaptive genetic variability through analyses of populations in common garden tests has a long tradition. However, pedunculated oak populations originating south-eastern from the Alps have been scarcely studied in this way. This study addresses the adaptive genetic variability and differentiation of pedunculate oak populations originating from Austria and Croatia in a provenance/progeny field trial. Studied plants were six years old and were growing at the trial for three years. After two years of unusually low precipitations height and survival were analysed. The total mean height of all plants in the trial was 137.8 cm and ranged from 123.0 cm to 151.8 cm. The overall mean survival rate was rather high (0.85. Mean population survival ranged from 0.64 to 0.94. Individual narrow-sense heritabilities (hi2, family mean heritabilities (hf2, the coefficients of additive genetic variation (CVA and quantitative genetic differentiation coefficients (QST were calculated. A multivariate regression tree (MRT analysis was used to determine the pattern of genetic differentiation of the populations. Individual heritabilities for height ranged between 0.00 and 0.39. Family mean heritabilities for height were rather low in most populations as well (<0.5. Family mean heritabilities for survival were higher than for height (ranging between 0.00 and 0.77. Calculated QST coefficients (0.25 for height and 0.14 for survival indicated between-population genetic differentiation. The populations were separated into two clusters by MRT analysis regarding a climatic variable, namely Hargreaves’ reference evapotranspiration. Populations originating from comparatively more humid habitats were grouped in the first

  9. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchter, B. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ahl, D. [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to our understanding of how homes use energy, and we cannot control what we do not understand. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, we have investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. The scope of this report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to ten end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. We conclude that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  10. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2011-05-06

    The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional

  11. Three-day Field Treatment with Ingenol Disoxate (LEO 43204) for Actinic Keratosis: A Phase II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Daniel M; Tyring, Stephen; Nahm, Walter K; Østerdal, Marie Louise; Petersen, Astrid H; Berman, Brian

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ingenol disoxate gel using a once-daily, three-day field treatment regimen in patients with actinic keratosis. DESIGN: This was a Phase II, multicenter, open-label trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02305888). SETTING: The study was conducted in 20 trial sites in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included patients with 5 to 20 clinically typical actinic keratosis lesions on the full face/chest (250cm 2 ), scalp (25-250cm 2 ), or the trunk/extremities (250cm 2 ). MEASUREMENTS: We measured incidence of dose-limiting events based on local skin responses. Percentage reduction in actinic keratosis lesion count from baseline, complete clearance, and partial clearance (≥75%) of actinic keratosis lesions were assessed at Week 8. RESULTS: Nine of 63 (14.3%) patients in the face/chest group reported dose-limiting events; zero of 63 patients in the scalp group reported dose-limiting events; and 11 of 62 (17.7%) patients in the trunk/extremities group reported dose-limiting events. Mean composite local skin response scores peaked at Day 4, then rapidly declined, reaching or approaching baseline levels by Week 4. Less than five percent of patients reported severe adverse events; the most common treatment-related adverse events were application site pain and pruritus. The reduction in actinic keratosis lesion count was 78.9, 76.3, and 69.1 percent for the face/chest, scalp, and trunk/extremities groups, respectively. Complete clearance was achieved in 36.5, 39.7, and 22.6 percent of patients in the face/chest, scalp, and trunk/extremities groups, respectively. Partial clearance was achieved in 71.4, 65.1, and 50.0 percent of patients in the face/chest, scalp, and trunk/extremities groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Ingenol disoxate demonstrated adverse events and local skin reaction profiles similar to results seen in trials evaluating shorter two-day regimens and was effective in patients

  12. Replication of bacteriophage lambda DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurimoto, T.; Matsubara, K.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper results of studies on the mechanism of bacteriophage lambda replication using molecular biological and biochemical approaches are reported. The purification of the initiator proteins, O and P, and the role of the O and P proteins in the initiation of lambda DNA replication through interactions with specific DNA sequences are described. 47 references, 15 figures

  13. Pattern replication by confined dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkema, S.; Schäffer, E.; Morariu, M.D.; Steiner, U

    2003-01-01

    The dewetting of a polymer film in a confined geometry was employed in a pattern-replication process. The instability of dewetting films is pinned by a structured confining surface, thereby replicating its topographic pattern. Depending on the surface energy of the confining surface, two different

  14. Charter School Replication. Policy Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Lauren Morando

    2009-01-01

    "Replication" is the practice of a single charter school board or management organization opening several more schools that are each based on the same school model. The most rapid strategy to increase the number of new high-quality charter schools available to children is to encourage the replication of existing quality schools. This policy guide…

  15. LHCb experience with LFC replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifazi, F; Carbone, A; D'Apice, A; Dell'Agnello, L; Re, G L; Martelli, B; Ricci, P P; Sapunenko, V; Vitlacil, D; Perez, E D; Duellmann, D; Girone, M; Peco, G; Vagnoni, V

    2008-01-01

    Database replication is a key topic in the framework of the LHC Computing Grid to allow processing of data in a distributed environment. In particular, the LHCb computing model relies on the LHC File Catalog, i.e. a database which stores information about files spread across the GRID, their logical names and the physical locations of all the replicas. The LHCb computing model requires the LFC to be replicated at Tier-1s. The LCG 3D project deals with the database replication issue and provides a replication service based on Oracle Streams technology. This paper describes the deployment of the LHC File Catalog replication to the INFN National Center for Telematics and Informatics (CNAF) and to other LHCb Tier-1 sites. We performed stress tests designed to evaluate any delay in the propagation of the streams and the scalability of the system. The tests show the robustness of the replica implementation with performance going much beyond the LHCb requirements

  16. LHCb experience with LFC replication

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifazi, F; Perez, E D; D'Apice, A; dell'Agnello, L; Düllmann, D; Girone, M; Re, G L; Martelli, B; Peco, G; Ricci, P P; Sapunenko, V; Vagnoni, V; Vitlacil, D

    2008-01-01

    Database replication is a key topic in the framework of the LHC Computing Grid to allow processing of data in a distributed environment. In particular, the LHCb computing model relies on the LHC File Catalog, i.e. a database which stores information about files spread across the GRID, their logical names and the physical locations of all the replicas. The LHCb computing model requires the LFC to be replicated at Tier-1s. The LCG 3D project deals with the database replication issue and provides a replication service based on Oracle Streams technology. This paper describes the deployment of the LHC File Catalog replication to the INFN National Center for Telematics and Informatics (CNAF) and to other LHCb Tier-1 sites. We performed stress tests designed to evaluate any delay in the propagation of the streams and the scalability of the system. The tests show the robustness of the replica implementation with performance going much beyond the LHCb requirements.

  17. Estudo comparativo entre espécies de agave Field trial on agave species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Ciaramello

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Agave sisalana e A. fourcroydes, responsáveis pela produção de praticamente 90% das fibras duras consumidas no mundo, foram estudadas comparativamente em relação a A. amaniensis, A. letonae, A. zapupe e A. sisalana f. marginata, de 1965 a 1974, em experimento conduzido na E.E. de Tatui, do Instituto Agronômico. Ao completar nove anos de plantio no campo, a espécie A. fourcroydes ainda se encontrava com todas as plantas em produção, tendo as demais espécies concluído o ciclo vegetativo em períodos que variaram de quatro a oito anos. A. fourcroydes produziu a maior quantidade total de fibras por planta, com 5.044 gramas, enquanto A. sisalana apresentou a maior produção média anual, com 582 gramas de fibras secas por planta. Agave sisalana, tanto em sua forma normal como na variegada, deu, aproximadamente, o mesmo número de folhas que o obtido, até ao presente, para A. fourcroydes; as demais espécies produziram menor número de folhas.A trial designed to compare the fiber production of Agave sisalana, A. fourcroydes, A. amaniensis, A. letonae, A. zapupe, and A. sisalana f. marginatawas conducted from 1966 to 1974, at the Tatui Experimental Station, of the Instituto Agronômico, S. Paulo State, Brazil. A. zapupe was the first to pole, at the fourth year, being followed by A. letonae, A. amaniensis, A. sisalana, and A. sisalana f. marginata. A. fourcroydesdid not pole until the ninth year. The spacing adopted was 3 m x 1 m and each species produced per plant respectively: 2 kg for A. zapupe, 3 kg for A. amaniensis and A. letonae, 4 kg for A. sisalana and A. sisalana f. marginata, and 5 kg for A. fourcroydes of dried fiber. Considering the poling age A. sisalana gave the highest production, with the average of 582 g of dried fibers per year by plant.

  18. Assessing the Consequences of Microbial Infection in Field Trials: Seen, Unseen, Beneficial, Parasitic and Pathogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Looseley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections of crop plants present an ongoing threat to agricultural production. However, in recent years, we have developed a more nuanced understanding of the ecological role of microbes and how they interact with plants. This includes an appreciation of the influence of crop physiology and environmental conditions on the expression of disease symptoms, the importance of non-pathogenic microbes on host plants and pathogens, and the capacity for plants to act as hosts for human pathogens. Alongside this we now have a variety of tools available for the identification and quantification of microbial infections on crops grown under field conditions. This review summarises some of the consequences of microbial infections in crop plants, and discusses how new and established assessment tools can be used to understand these processes. It challenges our current assumptions in yield loss relationships and offers understanding of the potential for more resilient crops.

  19. Activated carbon amendment to sequester PAHs in contaminated soil: a lysimeter field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sarah E; Elmquist, Marie; Brändli, Rahel; Hartnik, Thomas; Jakob, Lena; Henriksen, Thomas; Werner, David; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2012-04-01

    Activated carbon (AC) amendment is an innovative method for the in situ remediation of contaminated soils. A field-scale AC amendment of either 2% powder or granular AC (PAC and GAC) to a PAH contaminated soil was carried out in Norway. The PAH concentration in drainage water from the field plot was measured with a direct solvent extraction and by deploying polyoxymethylene (POM) passive samplers. In addition, POM samplers were dug directly in the AC amended and unamended soil in order to monitor the reduction in free aqueous PAH concentrations in the soil pore water. The total PAH concentration in the drainage water, measured by direct solvent extraction of the water, was reduced by 14% for the PAC amendment and by 59% for GAC, 12 months after amendment. Measurements carried out with POM showed a reduction of 93% for PAC and 56% for GAC. The free aqueous PAH concentration in soil pore water was reduced 93% and 76%, 17 and 28 months after PAC amendment, compared to 84% and 69% for GAC. PAC, in contrast to GAC, was more effective for reducing freely dissolved concentrations than total dissolved ones. This could tentatively be explained by leaching of microscopic AC particles from PAC. Secondary chemical effects of the AC amendment were monitored by considering concentration changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients. DOC was bound by AC, while the concentrations of nutrients (NO(3), NO(2), NH(4), PO(4), P-total, K, Ca and Mg) were variable and likely affected by external environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on development of experimental system for trial manufacture of semi-field scale lysimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Masae; Watabe, Teruhisa; Tanaka, Hirobumi; Ohwaku, Keiichi

    1978-01-01

    Because of difficulties in conduct of in situ experiments using the radiotracer method for this purpose, it is necessary to develope the technique on utilization of the results obtained by the laboratory works to resolve phenomenon in the actual environment. For this kind of extrapolation, optimum size of experimental model, designed as large as reasonable in scale to simulate the actual environment (defined as the term, 'semi-field scale experimental model' for convenience) was investigated. For this kind of extrapolation, optimum size of experimental model, designed as large as reasonable in scale to simulate the actual environment (defined as the term, 'semi-field scale experimental model' for convenience) was investigated. For this object, following experiments are especially conducted. The effects of vegetation to the mobility of transition elements in the surface layer of soil was studied by Wagner pot experiment. The vertical movement pattern of radionuclides in the deeper layer in the ground, especially transfer of long-lived-nuclides from soil into water, was investigated using radioactivity survey data of fallout. These results indicated the importance of information on the behaviour of contaminants in 'surface soil', 'Intermediate zone', 'capillary zone' and 'aquifer'. Therefore, an experimental mode, consisted of above four parts, was designed. The apparatus would include several substructures; an artificial rainfall apparatus, the Lysimeter, and receptive basin and so on. A regulation system for the fluctuation of hydraulic gradient in the aquifer would be also required. In order to get information on the above four parts of ground constitutions altogether, approximately 4 - 12 m depth was recommended for the model. (author)

  1. Field trial of a fast single-pass transmit-receive probe during Gentilly II steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Cantin, M.; Renaud, J.; Cecco, V.; Lakhan, R.; Sullivan, S.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of transmit-receive single-pass probes, denoted as C6 or X probe, was field tested during the Gentilly II, 2000 steam generator tube inspection. This probe has a performance equivalent to rotating probes and can be used for tubesheet and full-length inspection at an inspection speed equivalent to that of bobbin probes. Existing C3 transmit-receive probes have been demonstrated to be effective in detecting circumferential cracks. The C5 probe can detect both circumferential and axial cracks and volumetric defects but cannot discriminate between them. The C6 probe expands on the capabilities of both probes in a single probe head. It can simultaneously detect and discriminate between circumferential and axial cracks to satisfy different plugging criteria. It has excellent coverage, good defect detectability, and improved sizing and characterization. Probe data is displayed in C-scan format so that the amount of data to be analyzed is similar to rotating probes. The C6 probe will significantly decrease inspection time and the need for re-inspection and tube pulling. This paper describes the advantages of the probe and demonstrates its capabilities employing signals from tube samples with calibration flaws and laboratory induced cracks. It shows the results from the field trial of the probe at Gentilly II and describes the instrumentation, hardware and software used for the inspection. (author)

  2. Reliability of kinetic visual field testing in children with mutation-proven retinal dystrophies: Implications for therapeutic clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedania, Vaidehi S; Liu, Jerry Y; Schlegel, Dana; Andrews, Chris A; Branham, Kari; Khan, Naheed W; Musch, David C; Heckenlively, John R; Jayasundera, K Thiran

    2018-01-01

    Kinetic visual field testing is used to monitor disease course in retinal dystrophy clinical care and treatment response in treatment trials, which are increasingly recruiting children. This study investigates Goldmann visual field (GVF) changes in young children with mutation-proven retinal dystrophies as they age and with progression of the retinal degeneration. Retrospective review of children ≤ 17 years old with a mutation-proven retinal dystrophy. Objective clinical disease activity was assessed by a retinal degeneration specialist masked to GVF results. Digital quantification of GVF area was performed. Twenty-nine children (58 eyes), ages 5-16, were identified. GVF area increased with age despite progression in 20 children and clinical stability in nine children. Mean ± standard error increase in GVF area/year was 333 ± 130 mm 2 (I4e, p = 0.012), 720 ± 155 mm 2 (III4e, p children with mutation-proven retinal dystrophies, there is a significant increase in GVF area with age, particularly those children with retinal dystrophies can be an unreliable measure of response to treatment and on which to base appropriate counseling about visual impairment.

  3. Field trial of a fast single-pass transmit-receive probe during Gentilly II steam generator tube inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.; Cantin, M.; Renaud, J.; Cecco, V.; Lakhan, R.; Sullivan, S.

    2000-01-01

    A new generation of transmit-receive single-pass probes, denoted as C6 or X probe, was field-tested during the Gentilly II, 2000 steam generator tube inspection. This probe has a performance equivalent to rotating probes and can be used for tubesheet and full-length inspection at an inspection speed equivalent to that of bobbin probes. Existing C3 transmit-receive probes have been demonstrated to be effective in detecting circumferential cracks. The C5 probe can detect both circumferential and axial cracks and volumetric defects but cannot discriminate between them. The C6 probe expands on the capabilities of both probes in a single probe head. It can simultaneously detect and discriminate between circumferential and axial cracks to satisfy different plugging criteria. It has excellent coverage, good defect detectability, and improved sizing and characterization. Probe data is displayed in C-scan format so that the amount of data to be analyzed is similar to rotating probes. The C6 probe will significantly decrease inspection time and the need for re-inspection and tube pulling. This paper describes the advantages of the probe and demonstrates its capabilities employing signals from tube samples with calibration flaws and laboratory induced cracks. It shows the results from the field trial of the probe at Gentilly II and describes the instrumentation, hardware and software used for the inspection. (author)

  4. A Replication of the Internal Validity Structure of Three Major Teaching Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Scott J.; Pereira, Nielsen

    2017-01-01

    Even as the importance of replication research has become more widely understood, the field of gifted education is almost completely devoid of replication studies. An area in which replication is a particular problem is in student identification research, since instrument validity is a necessary prerequisite for any sound psychometric decision. To…

  5. Termination of DNA replication forks: "Breaking up is hard to do".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachael; Priego Moreno, Sara; Gambus, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    To ensure duplication of the entire genome, eukaryotic DNA replication initiates from thousands of replication origins. The replication forks move through the chromatin until they encounter forks from neighboring origins. During replication fork termination forks converge, the replisomes disassemble and topoisomerase II resolves the daughter DNA molecules. If not resolved efficiently, terminating forks result in genomic instability through the formation of pathogenic structures. Our recent findings shed light onto the mechanism of replisome disassembly upon replication fork termination. We have shown that termination-specific polyubiquitylation of the replicative helicase component - Mcm7, leads to dissolution of the active helicase in a process dependent on the p97/VCP/Cdc48 segregase. The inhibition of terminating helicase disassembly resulted in a replication termination defect. In this extended view we present hypothetical models of replication fork termination and discuss remaining and emerging questions in the DNA replication termination field.

  6. NACSA Charter School Replication Guide: The Spectrum of Replication Options. Authorizing Matters. Replication Brief 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important and high-profile issues in public education reform today is the replication of successful public charter school programs. With more than 5,000 failing public schools in the United States, there is a tremendous need for strong alternatives for parents and students. Replicating successful charter school models is an…

  7. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, E.; Alvarez, B. J.; Patiño, H.; Telenti, A.; Barreiro, J.

    2016-05-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed.

  8. Field trials of a novel toolkit for evaluating 'intangible' values-related dimensions of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Gemma; Velasco, Ismael; Janoušková, Svatava; Zahradnik, Martin; Hak, Tomas; Podger, Dimity; Piggot, Georgia; Harder, Marie K

    2013-02-01

    A novel toolkit has been developed, using an original approach to develop its components, for the purpose of evaluating 'soft' outcomes and processes that have previously been generally considered 'intangible': those which are specifically values based. This represents a step-wise, significant, change in provision for the assessment of values-based achievements that are of absolutely key importance to most civil society organisations (CSOs) and values-based businesses, and fills a known gap in evaluation practice. In this paper, we demonstrate the significance and rigour of the toolkit by presenting an evaluation of it in three diverse scenarios where different CSOs use it to co-evaluate locally relevant outcomes and processes to obtain results which are both meaningful to them and potentially comparable across organisations. A key strength of the toolkit is its original use of a prior generated, peer-elicited 'menu' of values-based indicators which provides a framework for user CSOs to localise. Principles of participatory, process-based and utilisation-focused evaluation are embedded in this toolkit and shown to be critical to its success, achieving high face-validity and wide applicability. The emerging contribution of this next-generation evaluation tool to other fields, such as environmental values, development and environmental sustainable development, shared values, business, education and organisational change is outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neonicotinoid-Coated Zea mays Seeds Indirectly Affect Honeybee Performance and Pathogen Susceptibility in Field Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alburaki

    Full Text Available Thirty-two honeybee (Apis mellifera colonies were studied in order to detect and measure potential in vivo effects of neonicotinoid pesticides used in cornfields (Zea mays spp on honeybee health. Honeybee colonies were randomly split on four different agricultural cornfield areas located near Quebec City, Canada. Two locations contained cornfields treated with a seed-coated systemic neonicotinoid insecticide while the two others were organic cornfields used as control treatments. Hives were extensively monitored for their performance and health traits over a period of two years. Honeybee viruses (brood queen cell virus BQCV, deformed wing virus DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus IAPV and the brain specific expression of a biomarker of host physiological stress, the Acetylcholinesterase gene AChE, were investigated using RT-qPCR. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS was performed to detect pesticide residues in adult bees, honey, pollen, and corn flowers collected from the studied hives in each location. In addition, general hive conditions were assessed by monitoring colony weight and brood development. Neonicotinoids were only identified in corn flowers at low concentrations. However, honeybee colonies located in neonicotinoid treated cornfields expressed significantly higher pathogen infection than those located in untreated cornfields. AChE levels showed elevated levels among honeybees that collected corn pollen from treated fields. Positive correlations were recorded between pathogens and the treated locations. Our data suggests that neonicotinoids indirectly weaken honeybee health by inducing physiological stress and increasing pathogen loads.

  10. Testing coordinate measuring arms with a geometric feature-based gauge: in situ field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta, E; Alvarez, B J; Patiño, H; Telenti, A; Barreiro, J

    2016-01-01

    This work describes in detail the definition of a procedure for calibrating and evaluating coordinate measuring arms (AACMMs or CMAs). CMAs are portable coordinate measuring machines that have been widely accepted in industry despite their sensitivity to the skill and experience of the operator in charge of the inspection task. The procedure proposed here is based on the use of a dimensional gauge that incorporates multiple geometric features, specifically designed for evaluating the measuring technique when CMAs are used, at company facilities (workshops or laboratories) and by the usual operators who handle these devices in their daily work. After establishing the procedure and manufacturing the feature-based gauge, the research project was complemented with diverse in situ field tests performed with the collaboration of companies that use these devices in their inspection tasks. Some of the results are presented here, not only comparing different operators but also comparing different companies. The knowledge extracted from these experiments has allowed the procedure to be validated, the defects of the methodologies currently used for in situ inspections to be detected, and substantial improvements for increasing the reliability of these portable instruments to be proposed. (paper)

  11. Field Trial and Molecular Characterization of RNAi-Transgenic Tomato Plants That Exhibit Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Geminivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Alejandro; Carlos, Natacha; Ruiz, Yoslaine; Callard, Danay; Sánchez, Yadira; Ochagavía, María Elena; Seguin, Jonathan; Malpica-López, Nachelli; Hohn, Thomas; Lecca, Maria Rita; Pérez, Rosabel; Doreste, Vivian; Rehrauer, Hubert; Farinelli, Laurent; Pujol, Merardo; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used approach to generate virus-resistant transgenic crops. However, issues of agricultural importance like the long-term durability of RNAi-mediated resistance under field conditions and the potential side effects provoked in the plant by the stable RNAi expression remain poorly investigated. Here, we performed field trials and molecular characterization studies of two homozygous transgenic tomato lines, with different selection markers, expressing an intron-hairpin RNA cognate to the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) C1 gene. The tested F6 and F4 progenies of the respective kanamycin- and basta-resistant plants exhibited unchanged field resistance to TYLCV and stably expressed the transgene-derived short interfering RNA (siRNAs) to represent 6 to 8% of the total plant small RNAs. This value outnumbered the average percentage of viral siRNAs in the nontransformed plants exposed to TYLCV-infested whiteflies. As a result of the RNAi transgene expression, a common set of up- and downregulated genes was revealed in the transcriptome profile of the plants selected from either of the two transgenic events. A previously unidentified geminivirus causing no symptoms of viral disease was detected in some of the transgenic plants. The novel virus acquired V1 and V2 genes from TYLCV and C1, C2, C3, and C4 genes from a distantly related geminivirus and, thereby, it could evade the repressive sequence-specific action of transgene-derived siRNAs. Our findings shed light on the mechanisms of siRNA-directed antiviral silencing in transgenic plants and highlight the applicability limitations of this technology as it may alter the transcriptional pattern of nontarget genes.

  12. Field trial of a synthetic tsetse-repellent technology developed for the control of bovine trypanosomosis in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, B; Randolph, T F; Irungu, P; Nyamwaro, S O; Kitala, P; Gathuma, J; Grace, D; Vale, G; Hargrove, J; McDermott, J

    2010-12-01

    We conducted a field trial among Maasai cattle-keepers in Nkuruman and Nkineji areas of Kenya to evaluate the effectiveness of a synthetic tsetse-repellent technology developed for the control of trypanosomosis in cattle. The technology was a repellent (2-methoxy 4-methylphenol) emitted from dispensers attached to collars worn by cattle. Treatment was allocated at the herd level to ensure adequate protection of all the animals in a herd, with measurements of effectiveness conducted at the individual-animal level. The trial began in April 2005 and ran for 16 months including a baseline phase of 4 months. We recruited 12 herds in each area using a restricted random-sampling technique and distributed them equally into intervention (repellent) and control groups. Sample size was determined using a formal power calculation. Effectiveness or minimal worthwhile difference was defined as a 50% reduction in the incidence of trypanosome infection in the treated versus control group (effectiveness below which the technology was considered by experts as not viable compared to existing control techniques). All the animals in the recruited herds were screened monthly (buffy-coat technique) for trypanosome infections. The analysis followed the principle of intention-to-treat by which subjects are analysed according to their initial treatment assignment, regardless of the mechanical performance of the device. Crude and adjusted effects of the technology were 23% (ptechnology estimated in this study did not achieve the threshold of 50% reduction in the trypanosome infection incidence set a priori to indicate effectiveness (ptechnology package was not sufficiently effective in reducing trypanosome infection incidence under natural tsetse challenge to merit commercial development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soil by carambola (Averrhoa carambola) in field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J T; Liao, B; Dai, Z Y; Zhu, R; Shu, W S

    2009-08-01

    Use of metal-accumulating woody species to extract metals from heavy metal contaminated soil has received more attention. While considerable studies have focused on the phytoextraction potential of willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.), similar information is rare for other woody species. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) is a high-biomass tree and has been identified as a new Cd-accumulating species. The present study aimed to evaluate the Cd phytoextraction potential of carambola under field condition. After growing in a slightly Cd-contaminated site for about 170 d, the carambola stand initiated by seed-seedling with high planting density (encoded with "HD-1yr") attained a high shoot biomass yield of 18.6 t ha(-1) and extracted 213 g Cdha(-1), resulting in a 1.6-fold higher Cd removal efficiency than that of a contrasting stand established by grafted-seedling with low planting density (5.3% vs. 2%). That is, "HD-1yr" would remove 50% of the total soil Cd with 13yr, assuming that the Cd removal efficiency would not change over time. Further, one crop of "HD-1yr" significantly decreased (63-69%) the Cd uptake by subsequent vegetables. Among the four carambola stands established using grafted-seedling, the 2-yr-old stand exhibited the highest annual Cd removal efficiency (3.7%), which was yet lower than that of "HD-1yr". These results suggested that phytoextraction of Cd by carambola (especially for "HD-1yr" stand) presented a feasible option to clean up agricultural soils slightly contaminated by Cd.

  14. Pink bollworm integrated management using sterile insects under field trial conditions, Imperial Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, M.L.; Staten, R.T.; Roberson, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The pink bollworm moth (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) feeds almost exclusively on cotton (Gossypium spp.) and causes economic loss (Pfadt 1978). The pink bollworm (PBW) is often the key pest of cotton in Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico. The larvae (immature stages) bore into the developing cotton fruit, where they feed on the cotton lint and seeds, causing significant damage and dramatically reducing the yield of cotton lint (Pfadt 1978). The PBW is difficult to control with conventional means (insecticides) because it spends the destructive larval phase inside the cotton boll where it is well protected from control measures. Cultural controls, such as a short growing season, have successfully decreased the population in the Imperial Valley (Chu et al. 1992) to the point where eradication may be possible using sterile insects and genetically engineered cotton. Because the PBW is an introduced insect, with few plant hosts other than cultivated cotton, its eradication from continental USA is a desirable and economically attractive alternative to the continued use of pesticides and/or further loss to the pest. Mass releases of sterile insects began in earnest in 1970 in the San Joaquin Valley, California, in order to inhibit normal reproduction and to eradicate the pest in an environmentally responsible manner. Sterile release involves mass production and sexual sterilisation using irradiation (20 krad for PBW adults). This was accomplished by building a rearing facility in Phoenix, AZ. The facility has 6,410 square metres of permanent laboratories, rearing and irradiation chambers and insect packing rooms. The facility operates the year round but with a variable production rate, that is, maximal during the cotton growing season (May through September). Sterile insect technology is based on the monitoring of the native and sterile populations in the field and the subsequent release of appropriate numbers of sterile insects in order to

  15. Formulations of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape and improve plant vigor in field trials conducted at separate locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes serious yield losses in crops in The People’s Republic of China. Two formulations of oilseed rape seed containing the endophytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis Tu-100 were evaluated for suppression of this pathogen in field trials conducted at two independent locations....

  16. Optimising and Evaluating the Characteristics of a Multiple Antigen ELISA for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis Infection in a Badger Vaccine Field Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aznar, I.; Frankena, K.; More, S.J.; Whelan, C.; Martin, W.; Gormley, E.; Corner, L.A.L.; Murphy, D.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis) control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination

  17. Testing the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention: A Conceptual Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doabler, Christian T.; Clarke, Ben; Kosty, Derek B.; Kurtz-Nelson, Evangeline; Fien, Hank; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this closely aligned conceptual replication study was to investigate the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention. The replication study differed from the initial randomized controlled trial on three important elements: geographical region, timing of the intervention, and instructional context of the…

  18. Chemical and microbiological water quality of subsurface agricultural drains during a field trial of liquid dairy manure effluent application rate and varying tillage practices, Upper Tiffin Watershed, southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Duris, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    -water-quality single-sample criterion of 235 colony forming units per 100 milliliters in only 3 of 56 samples. Of these three samples, two were collected within 1 day post-LDME application from the treatment receiving 8,000 gal/acre LDME with no tillage (NT8000). The third sample was from the rolling-tine aerator treatment with 4,000 gal/acre LDME application rate after the first significant rainfall. Two wastewater chemicals and two bacterial genes (eaeA and stx1) detected in the LDME, but absent in field blank or pre-application samples, were detected in the 4-hour or 1-day postapplication NT8000 samples. No LDME-associated chemicals were detected in later samples from the NT8000 treatment, and none were detected in samples from other treatments after the first significant rainfall. Results of this field trial were somewhat equivocal with respect to the influence of LDME concentration and tillage practices on subsurface-drain water quality, both immediately after LDME application and in the longer term, after significant rainfall. Interpretation of study findings is limited by the fact that treatments were not replicated, and flow rate or discharge from the subsurface drains was not measured. Nevertheless, study results provide useful information about nutrient and bacteria concentrations in subsurface drains during the non-growing season. In addition, study results demonstrate some potential for the use of chemical and microbiological indicators of LDME transport to subsurface drains.

  19. Approval procedures for clinical trials in the field of radiation oncology; Genehmigungsverfahren klinischer Studien im Bereich der Radioonkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Monique; Buettner, Daniel [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Habeck, Matthias; Habeck, Uta; Brix, Gunnar [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Fachbereich Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit, Neuherberg (Germany); Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael [Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Medizinische Fakultaet und Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institut fuer Radioonkologie und OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Onkologie, Dresden (Germany); Willich, Normann [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Muenster (Germany); Wenz, Frederik [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultaet Mannheim, Universitaet Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Mannheim (Germany); Schmidberger, Heinz [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Mainz (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Noelling, Torsten

    2015-12-15

    Application of ionizing radiation for the purpose of medical research in Germany needs to be approved by the national authority for radiation protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, BfS). For studies in the field of radiation oncology, differentiation between use of radiation for ''medical care (Heilkunde)'' versus ''medical research'' frequently leads to contradictions. The aim of this article is to provide principle investigators, individuals, and institutions involved in the process, as well as institutional review or ethics committees, with the necessary information for this assessment. Information on the legal frame and the approval procedures are also provided. A workshop was co-organized by the German Society for Radiation Oncology (DEGRO), the Working Party for Radiation Oncology (ARO) of the German Cancer Society (DKG), the German Society for Medical Physics (DGMP), and the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) in October 2013. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop and the follow-up discussions between the organizers and the BfS. Differentiating between ''Heilkunde'' which does not need to be approved by the BfS and ''medical research'' is whether the specific application of radiation (beam quality, dose, schedule, target volume, etc.) is a clinically established and recognized procedure. This must be answered by the qualified physician(s) (''fachkundiger Arzt'' according to German radiation protection law) in charge of the study and the treatments of the patients within the study, taking into consideration of the best available evidence from clinical studies, guidelines and consensus papers. Among the important parameters for assessment are indication, total dose, and fractionation. Radiation treatments applied outside clinical trials do not require approval by the BfS, even if they are applied within a randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial

  20. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in field and laboratory trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, D; Addison, M F; Malan, A P

    2016-09-01

    Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S. feltiae to be the most virulent (67%), followed by S. yirgalemense (58%). A laboratory comparison of the infection and penetration rate of the different strains showed that, at 14°C, all EPN strains resulted in slower codling moth mortality than they did at 25°C. After 48 h, 98% mortality was recorded for all species involved. However, the washed codling moth larvae, cool-treated (at 14°C) with S. feltiae or S. yirgalemense, resulted in 100% mortality 24 h later at room temperature, whereas codling moth larvae treated with the two H. bacteriophora strains resulted in 68% and 54% control, respectively. At 14°C, S. feltiae had the highest average penetration rate of 20 IJs/larva, followed by S. yirgalemense, with 14 IJs/larva. At 25°C, S. yirgalemense had the highest penetration rate, with 39 IJs/larva, followed by S. feltiae, with 9 IJs/larva. This study highlights the biocontrol potential of S. jeffreyense, as well as confirming that S. feltiae is a cold-active nematode, whereas the other three EPN isolates tested prefer warmer temperatures.

  1. Formation of macroscopic surface layers on Fe(0) electrocoagulation electrodes during an extended field trial of arsenic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, Case M; Bandaru, Siva R S; Surorova, Elena; Amrose, Susan E; Gadgil, Ashok J; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-06-01

    Extended field trials to remove arsenic (As) via Fe(0) electrocoagulation (EC) have demonstrated consistent As removal from groundwater to concentrations below 10 μg L(-1). However, the coulombic performance of long-term EC field operation is lower than that of laboratory-based systems. Although EC electrodes used over prolonged periods show distinct passivation layers, which have been linked to decreased treatment efficiency, the spatial distribution and mineralogy of such surface layers have not been investigated. In this work, we combine wet chemical measurements with sub-micron-scale chemical maps and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine the chemical composition and mineral phase of surface layers formed during long-term Fe(0) EC treatment. We analyzed Fe(0) EC electrodes used for 3.5 months of daily treatment of As-contaminated groundwater in rural West Bengal, India. We found that the several mm thick layer that formed on cathodes and anodes consisted of primarily magnetite, with minor fractions of goethite. Spatially-resolved SAED patterns also revealed small quantities of CaCO3, Mn oxides, and SiO2, the source of which was the groundwater electrolyte. We propose that the formation of the surface layer contributes to decreased treatment performance by preventing the migration of EC-generated Fe(II) to the bulk electrolyte, where As removal occurs. The trapped Fe(II) subsequently increases the surface layer size at the expense of treatment efficiency. Based on these findings, we discuss several simple and affordable methods to prevent the efficiency loss due to the surface layer, including alternating polarity cycles and cleaning the Fe(0) surface mechanically or via electrolyte scouring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Variability of pesticide residues in cauliflower units collected from a field trial and market places in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, M D H; Papadakis, Emmanouil-N; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the variability of pesticide residue levels present in cauliflower units, a total of 142 samples were collected from a field trial of a cooperative farmer, and 120 samples were collected from different market places in Thessaloniki, Greece. The collected samples were extracted using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction technique, and the residues were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated by evaluating the accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). The average recoveries for all the analytes, derived from the data of control samples fortified at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg, ranged from 74 to 110% with a relative standard deviation of ≤8%. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was ≥0.997 for all the analytes using matrix-matched calibration standards. The LOD values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 mg/kg, and the LOQ was determined at 0.01 mg/kg for all the sought analytes. The matrix effect was found to be at a considerable level, especially for cypermethrin and deltamethrin, amounting to +90% and +145%, respectively. For the field samples, the unit-to-unit variability factors (VFs) calculated for cypermethrin and deltamethrin were 2.38 and 2.32, respectively, while the average VF for the market basket samples was 5.11. In the market basket samples, residues of cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, and indoxacarb were found at levels ≥LOQ and their respective VFs were 7.12, 5.67, 5.28, and 2.40.

  3. The psychometric properties of the personality inventory for DSM-5 in an APA DSM-5 field trial sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Ayearst, Lindsay; Chmielewski, Michael; Pollock, Bruce G; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-06-01

    Section 3 of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a hybrid model of personality pathology, in which dimensional personality traits are used to derive one of seven categorical personality disorder diagnoses. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup and their consultants to produce a freely available instrument to assess the personality traits within this new system. To date, the psychometric properties of the PID-5 have been evaluated primarily in undergraduate student and community adult samples. In the current investigation, we extend this line of research to a psychiatric patient sample who participated in the APA DSM-5 Field Trial (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health site). A total of 201 psychiatric patients (102 men, 99 women) completed the PID-5 and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The internal consistencies of the PID-5 domain and facet trait scales were acceptable. Results supported the unidimensional structure of all trait scales but one, and the convergence between the PID-5 and analogous NEO PI-R scales. Evidence for discriminant validity was mixed. Overall, the current investigation provides support for the psychometric properties of this diagnostic instrument in psychiatric samples.

  4. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J; Darling, Samuel T; Sihuincha, Moisés; Padilla, Norma; Devine, Gregor J

    2007-08-01

    The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD) and lemongrass oil (LG). To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p < 0.0001). In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  5. Perspectives of family members participating in cultural assessment of psychiatric disorders: findings from the DSM-5 International Field Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Ladson; Aggarwal, Neil; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Weiss, Mitchell; Paralikar, Vasudeo; Deshpande, Smita; Jadhav, Sushrut; Ndetei, David; Nicasio, Andel; Boiler, Marit; Lam, Peter; Avelar, Yesi; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Despite the important roles families play in the lives of many individuals with mental illness across cultures, there is a dearth of data worldwide on how family members perceive the process of cultural assessment as well as to how to best include them. This study addresses this gap in our knowledge through analysis of data collected across six countries as part of a DSM-5 Field Trial of the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI). At clinician discretion, individuals who accompanied patients to the clinic visit (i.e. patient companions) at the time the CFI was conducted were invited to participate in the cultural assessment and answer questions about their experience. The specific aims of this paper are (1) to describe patterns of participation of patient companions in the CFI across the six countries, and (2) to examine the comparative feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility of the CFI from companion perspectives through analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data. Among the 321 patient interviews, only 86 (at four of 12 sites) included companions, all of whom were family members or other relatives. The utility, feasibility and acceptability of the CFI were rated favourably by relatives, supported by qualitative analyses of debriefing interviews. Cross-site differences in frequency of accompaniment merit further study.

  6. A low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the Americas: results of two field trials in Guatemala and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihuincha Moisés

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cost of mosquito repellents in Latin America has discouraged their wider use among the poor. To address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. The chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (PMD and lemongrass oil (LG. Methods To test the efficacy of the repellent, field trials were staged in Guatemala and Peru. Repellent efficacy was determined by human-landing catches on volunteers who wore the experimental repellents, control, or 15% DEET. The studies were conducted using a balanced Latin Square design with volunteers, treatments, and locations rotated each night. Results In Guatemala, collections were performed for two hours, commencing three hours after repellent application. The repellent provided >98% protection for five hours after application, with a biting pressure of >100 landings per person/hour. The 15% DEET control provided lower protection at 92% (p 46 landings per person/hour. The 20% DEET control provided significantly lower protection at 64% (p Conclusion In both locations, the PMD/LG repellent provided excellent protection up to six hours after application against a wide range of disease vectors including Anopheles darlingi. The addition of fixatives to the repellent extended its longevity while enhancing efficacy and significantly reducing its cost to malaria-endemic communities.

  7. REPLICATION TOOL AND METHOD OF PROVIDING A REPLICATION TOOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to a replication tool (1, 1a, 1b) for producing a part (4) with a microscale textured replica surface (5a, 5b, 5c, 5d). The replication tool (1, 1a, 1b) comprises a tool surface (2a, 2b) defining a general shape of the item. The tool surface (2a, 2b) comprises a microscale...... energy directors on flange portions thereof uses the replication tool (1, 1a, 1b) to form an item (4) with a general shape as defined by the tool surface (2a, 2b). The formed item (4) comprises a microscale textured replica surface (5a, 5b, 5c, 5d) with a lateral arrangement of polydisperse microscale...

  8. Sustainable gasification–biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement, economic assessment and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackley, Simon; Carter, Sarah; Knowles, Tony; Middelink, Erik; Haefele, Stephan; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In part I we described the gasification technology and characterised the physio-chemical properties and environmental impacts of the rice husk char (RHC) by-product. In part II we present summary results from field trials using the RHC, and provide an estimate of the carbon abatement and economic evaluation of the system. Statistically significant yield increases are demonstrated for RHC addition in irrigated rice cultivation (33% increase in paddy rice yield for a 41.5 t (dry weight) RHC application per hectare). The carbon abatement from the RHC addition is approximately 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk; including energy generation from gasification this increases to ca. 0.86 tCO 2 t −1 . Assuming a carbon value of $5 t CO 2 t −1 , and agronomic value of $3 t −1 RHC based on the field trials, the economic value of the RHC varies from $9 t −1 (including only recalcitrant carbon) to $15 t −1 (including avoided emissions from energy production). We summarise results from parts I and II, concluding that the gasification–biochar system meets many of the criteria of sustainability, but requires better waste water management and more field trials to demonstrate repeatable agronomic efficacy of RHC application. - Highlights: ► Field trials show statistically significant rice yield increases using rice husk char (RHC). ► Carbon abatement of 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk from RHC production. ► Bioenergy generation via gasification gives carbon abatement of 0.44 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Total carbon abatement is therefore ca. 0.86 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Agronomic value from trials is $3 t −1 char; assuming $5 CO 2 t −1 , the total value of RHC is $9–$15 t −1 .

  9. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  10. Experimenter gender and replicability in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2018-01-01

    There is a replication crisis spreading through the annals of scientific inquiry. Although some work has been carried out to uncover the roots of this issue, much remains unanswered. With this in mind, this paper investigates how the gender of the experimenter may affect experimental findings. Clinical trials are regularly carried out without any report of the experimenter's gender and with dubious knowledge of its influence. Consequently, significant biases caused by the experimenter's gender may lead researchers to conclude that therapeutics or other interventions are either overtreating or undertreating a variety of conditions. Bearing this in mind, this policy paper emphasizes the importance of reporting and controlling for experimenter gender in future research. As backdrop, it explores what we know about the role of experimenter gender in influencing laboratory results, suggests possible mechanisms, and suggests future areas of inquiry.

  11. Field Trial Results of a 14-channel GPR Integrated with a U.S. Program for 3-D Utility Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspach, James H.

    2013-04-01

    Existing underground utilities continue to be a leading cause of highway construction delay claims in the United States. Although 80-90% of existing utilities can typically be discovered and mapped using a wide range of geophysical tools, there is a recognizable need to improve the process. Existing shortcomings to the utility mapping process include a lack of viable depth attributes, long field occupation times, low experience level of the field technicians, and separate survey / geophysics functions. The U.S. National Academies and its Transportation Research Board recently concluded a project on alleviating the existing utility mapping shortcomings through the development of enhanced GPR. An existing commercial 400MHz 14-channel towed array was enhanced with positioning and interpretation hardware and software over a 3-year US 2M program. Field trials for effectiveness were conducted in a city suburb commercialized environment where the relative permittivity values averaged 9.4. The effectiveness of enhanced GPR was compared to traditional utility mapping techniques (Single Channel GPR, FDEM, Acoustic, Sondes, Gradiometric Magnetometers) during the project. The project area utilities included natural gas, water, electric, telephone, cable, storm, sanitary, traffic control, and several unknown function lines. Depths for these utilities were mostly unknown. 81% of known (from records and field appurtenance visual observation) utilities were detected via traditional geophysical means. These traditional geophysical means also detected 14% additional and previously "unknown" utilities. The enhanced GPR detected approximately 40% of the known and unknown utilities, and found an additional 6% of utilities that were previously undetected. These additional utilities were subsequently determined to be small diameter abandoned water and gas systems in very poor and broken condition. Although it did well with metallic water and gas lines, communication and electric

  12. Biomarkers of replicative senescence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers of replicative senescence can be defined as those ultrastructural and physiological variations as well as molecules whose changes in expression, activity or function correlate with aging, as a result of the gradual exhaustion of replicative potential and a state of permanent cell cycle...... arrest. The biomarkers that characterize the path to an irreversible state of cell cycle arrest due to proliferative exhaustion may also be shared by other forms of senescence-inducing mechanisms. Validation of senescence markers is crucial in circumstances where quiescence or temporary growth arrest may...... be triggered or is thought to be induced. Pre-senescence biomarkers are also important to consider as their presence indicate that induction of aging processes is taking place. The bona fide pathway leading to replicative senescence that has been extensively characterized is a consequence of gradual reduction...

  13. Regulation of beta cell replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Ying C; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2008-01-01

    Beta cell mass, at any given time, is governed by cell differentiation, neogenesis, increased or decreased cell size (cell hypertrophy or atrophy), cell death (apoptosis), and beta cell proliferation. Nutrients, hormones and growth factors coupled with their signalling intermediates have been...... suggested to play a role in beta cell mass regulation. In addition, genetic mouse model studies have indicated that cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases that determine cell cycle progression are involved in beta cell replication, and more recently, menin in association with cyclin-dependent kinase...... inhibitors has been demonstrated to be important in beta cell growth. In this review, we consider and highlight some aspects of cell cycle regulation in relation to beta cell replication. The role of cell cycle regulation in beta cell replication is mostly from studies in rodent models, but whether...

  14. Understanding the fate of black (pyrogenic) carbon in soil: Preliminary results from a long term field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Will; Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Large, David; Shen, Licheng; Snape, Colin

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC, also known as pyrogenic carbon) is an 'inert' form of carbon and has been proposed as a means of long-term carbon sequestration, particularly by amending soils and sediments with BC known as biochar. While there is abundant anecdotal evidence of biochar stability over extended timescales it is essential to gain a greater understanding of the degree and mechanisms of biochar degradation in the environment. This study aims to quantitatively assess the stability of biochar by investigating samples from field degradation trials first buried during 2009 in a tropical soil, and recovered after 12 and 36 month intervals. Catalytic hydropyrolysis (HyPy) is a novel analytical tool for the isolation of BC [1] in which high hydrogen pressure (150 bar) and a sulphided Mo catalyst reductively remove the non-BC fraction of the chars, and so isolate the most stable portion of the biochar, defined as BC(HyPy). This method also allows for the non-BC(HyPy) fraction of a sample, which from charcoal is known to include small ring PAHs (soil depth and pH to be investigated. Char stability (as measured by BC(HyPy) content) is dependent on both the feedstock and temperature of formation. HyPy is known to discriminate (in terms of BC isolation) against low temperature chars, composed of relatively small aromatic clusters [1], resulting in the low BC(HyPy) contents reported for the 305°C chars. Fresh charcoals, and those not subject to environmental degradation have display a similar distribution of aromatic clusters in the non-BC(HyPy) fraction, with 2 to 7 ring PAHs abundant [2]. However, environmentally degraded charcoals such as that from a Chinese river sediment, and an Australian river estuary [3] show a more restricted distribution with markedly fewer 2- and 3- ring PAH structures apparent. This may be evidence for the partial solubilisation of the charcoal as observed for a forest soil [4] and suggested as a mechanism for the transport of BC to the oceans [5

  15. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Bradyrhizobium elkanii populations recovered from inoculated and non-inoculated Acacia mangium field trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrineau, M M; Le Roux, C; de Faria, S M; de Carvalho Balieiro, F; Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Béna, G

    2011-07-01

    Acacia mangium is a legume tree native to Australasia. Since the eighties, it has been introduced into many tropical countries, especially in a context of industrial plantations. Many field trials have been set up to test the effects of controlled inoculation with selected symbiotic bacteria versus natural colonization with indigenous strains. In the introduction areas, A. mangium trees spontaneously nodulate with local and often ineffective bacteria. When inoculated, the persistence of inoculants and possible genetic recombination with local strains remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to describe the genetic diversity of bacteria spontaneously nodulating A. mangium in Brazil and to evaluate the persistence of selected strains used as inoculants. Three different sites, several hundred kilometers apart, were studied, with inoculated and non-inoculated plots in two of them. Seventy-nine strains were isolated from nodules and sequenced on three housekeeping genes (glnII, dnaK and recA) and one symbiotic gene (nodA). All but one of the strains belonged to the Bradyrhizobium elkanii species. A single case of housekeeping gene transfer was detected among the 79 strains, suggesting an extremely low rate of recombination within B. elkanii, whereas the nodulation gene nodA was found to be frequently transferred. The fate of the inoculant strains varied depending on the site, with a complete disappearance in one case, and persistence in another. We compared our results with the sister species Bradyrhizobium japonicum, both in terms of population genetics and inoculant strain destiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Routine programs of health care systems as an opportunity toward communication skills training for family physicians: A randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Ahmad Reza; Motamedi, Narges; Farajzadegan, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    To have high-quality primary health care services, an adequate doctor-patient communication is necessary. Because of time restrictions and limited budget in health system, an effective, feasible, and continuous training approach is important. The aim of this study is to assess the appropriateness of a communication skills training program simultaneously with routine programs of health care system. It was a randomized field trial in two health network settings during 2013. Twenty-eight family physicians through simple random sampling and 140 patients through convenience sampling participated as intervention and control group. The physicians in the intervention group (n = 14) attended six educational sessions, simultaneous organization meeting, with case discussion and peer education method. In both the groups, physicians completed communication skills knowledge and attitude questionnaires, and patients completed patient satisfaction of medical interview questionnaire at baseline, immediately after intervention, and four months postintervention. Physicians and health network administrators (stakeholders), completed a set of program evaluation forms. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test, t-test, and repeated measure analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Use of routine program as a strategy of training was rated by stakeholders highly on "feasibility" (80.5%), "acceptability" (93.5%), "educational content and method appropriateness" (80.75%), and "ability to integrating in the health system programs" (approximate 60%). Significant improvements were found in physicians' knowledge (P Communication skills training program, simultaneous organization meeting was successfully implemented and well received by stakeholders, without considering extra time and manpower. Therefore it can be a valuable opportunity toward communication skills training.

  17. Personality and Academic Motivation: Replication, Extension, and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; McMichael, Stephanie N.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work examines the relationships between personality traits and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. We replicate and extend previous work to examine how personality may relate to achievement goals, efficacious beliefs, and mindset about intelligence. Approximately 200 undergraduates responded to the survey with a 150 participants replicating…

  18. A literature review of applied adaptive design methodology within the field of oncology in randomised controlled trials and a proposed extension to the CONSORT guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pankaj; Dunn, Janet A; Marshall, Andrea

    2017-07-18

    The application of adaptive design methodology within a clinical trial setting is becoming increasingly popular. However the application of these methods within trials is not being reported as adaptive designs hence making it more difficult to capture the emerging use of these designs. Within this review, we aim to understand how adaptive design methodology is being reported, whether these methods are explicitly stated as an 'adaptive design' or if it has to be inferred and to identify whether these methods are applied prospectively or concurrently. Three databases; Embase, Ovid and PubMed were chosen to conduct the literature search. The inclusion criteria for the review were phase II, phase III and phase II/III randomised controlled trials within the field of Oncology that published trial results in 2015. A variety of search terms related to adaptive designs were used. A total of 734 results were identified, after screening 54 were eligible. Adaptive designs were more commonly applied in phase III confirmatory trials. The majority of the papers performed an interim analysis, which included some sort of stopping criteria. Additionally only two papers explicitly stated the term 'adaptive design' and therefore for most of the papers, it had to be inferred that adaptive methods was applied. Sixty-five applications of adaptive design methods were applied, from which the most common method was an adaptation using group sequential methods. This review indicated that the reporting of adaptive design methodology within clinical trials needs improving. The proposed extension to the current CONSORT 2010 guidelines could help capture adaptive design methods. Furthermore provide an essential aid to those involved with clinical trials.

  19. Remote monitoring field trial. Application to automated air sampling. Report on Task FIN-E935 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.; Ilander, T.; Lehtinen, J.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Toivonen, H.; Ylaetalo, S.; Smartt, H.; Garcia, R.; Martinez, R.; Glidewell, D.; Krantz, K.

    1999-01-01

    An automated air sampling station has recently been developed by Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). The station is furnished with equipment that allows comprehensive remote monitoring of the station and the data. Under the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards, STUK and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) established a field trial to demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies. STUK provided means for real-lime radiation monitoring and sample authentication whereas SNL delivered means for authenticated surveillance of the equipment and its location. The field trial showed that remote monitoring can be carried out using simple means although advanced facilities are needed for comprehensive surveillance. Authenticated measurement data could be reliably transferred from the monitoring site to the headquarters without the presence of authorized personnel in the monitoring site. The operation of the station and the remote monitoring system were reliable. (orig.)

  20. Reduction of diabetes risk in routine clinical practice: are physical activity and nutrition interventions feasible and are the outcomes from reference trials replicable? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrell Stephen L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical effectiveness of intensive lifestyle interventions in preventing or delaying diabetes in people at high risk has been established from randomised trials of structured, intensive interventions conducted in several countries over the past two decades. The challenge is to translate them into routine clinical settings. The objective of this review is to determine whether lifestyle interventions delivered to high-risk adult patients in routine clinical care settings are feasible and effective in achieving reductions in risk factors for diabetes. Methods Data sources: MEDLINE (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and grey literature were searched for English-language articles published from January 1990 to August 2009. The reference lists of all articles collected were checked to ensure that no relevant suitable studies were missed. Study selection: We included RCTs, before/after evaluations, cohort studies with or without a control group and interrupted time series analyses of lifestyle interventions with the stated aim of diabetes risk reduction or diabetes prevention, conducted in routine clinical settings and delivered by healthcare providers such as family physicians, practice nurses, allied health personnel, or other healthcare staff associated with a health service. Outcomes of interest were weight loss, reduction in waist circumference, improvement of impaired fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT results, improvements in fat and fibre intakes, increased level of engagement in physical activity and reduction in diabetes incidence. Results Twelve from 41 potentially relevant studies were included in the review. Four studies were suitable for meta-analysis. A significant positive effect of the interventions on weight was reported by all study types. The meta-analysis showed that lifestyle interventions achieved weight and waist circumference reductions after one year

  1. Reduction of diabetes risk in routine clinical practice: are physical activity and nutrition interventions feasible and are the outcomes from reference trials replicable? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Rychetnik, Lucie; Morrell, Stephen L; Espinel, Paola T; Bauman, Adrian

    2010-10-29

    The clinical effectiveness of intensive lifestyle interventions in preventing or delaying diabetes in people at high risk has been established from randomised trials of structured, intensive interventions conducted in several countries over the past two decades. The challenge is to translate them into routine clinical settings. The objective of this review is to determine whether lifestyle interventions delivered to high-risk adult patients in routine clinical care settings are feasible and effective in achieving reductions in risk factors for diabetes. MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and grey literature were searched for English-language articles published from January 1990 to August 2009. The reference lists of all articles collected were checked to ensure that no relevant suitable studies were missed. We included RCTs, before/after evaluations, cohort studies with or without a control group and interrupted time series analyses of lifestyle interventions with the stated aim of diabetes risk reduction or diabetes prevention, conducted in routine clinical settings and delivered by healthcare providers such as family physicians, practice nurses, allied health personnel, or other healthcare staff associated with a health service. Outcomes of interest were weight loss, reduction in waist circumference, improvement of impaired fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results, improvements in fat and fibre intakes, increased level of engagement in physical activity and reduction in diabetes incidence. Twelve from 41 potentially relevant studies were included in the review. Four studies were suitable for meta-analysis. A significant positive effect of the interventions on weight was reported by all study types. The meta-analysis showed that lifestyle interventions achieved weight and waist circumference reductions after one year. However, no clear effects on biochemical or clinical parameters were observed, possibly

  2. Chameleon Chasing II: A Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Doug A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Replicates a 1972 survey of students, educators, and Public Relations Society of America members regarding who the public relations counselor really serves. Finds that, in 1992, most respondents thought primary responsibility was to the client, then to the client's relevant publics, then to self, then to society, and finally to media. Compares…

  3. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  4. Adressing Replication and Model Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersberger, Bernd; Galia, Fabrice; Laursen, Keld

    innovation survey data for France, Germany and the UK, we conduct a ‘large-scale’ replication using the Bayesian averaging approach of classical estimators. Our method tests a wide range of determinants of innovation suggested in the prior literature, and establishes a robust set of findings on the variables...

  5. Replication of kinetoplast minicircle DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheline, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    These studies describe the isolation and characterization of early minicircle replication intermediates from Crithidia fasciculata, and Leishmania tarentolae, the mitochondrial localization of a type II topoisomerase (TIImt) in C. fasciculata, and the implication of the aforementioned TIImt in minicircle replication in L. tarentolae. Early minicircle replication intermediates from C. fasciculata were identified and characterized using isolated kinetoplasts to incorporate radiolabeled nucleotides into its DNA. The pulse-label in an apparent theta-type intermediate chase into two daughter molecules. A uniquely gapped, ribonucleotide primed, knotted molecule represents the leading strand in the model proposed, and a highly gapped molecule represents the lagging strand. This theta intermediate is repaired in vitro to a doubly nicked catenated dimer which was shown to result from the replication of a single parental molecule. Very similar intermediates were found in the heterogeneous population of minicircles of L. tarentolae. The sites of the Leishmania specific discontinuities were mapped and shown to lie within the universally conserved sequence blocks in identical positions as compared to C. fasciculata and Trypanosoma equiperdum

  6. Manual of Cupule Replication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriraj Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world, iconic rock art is preceded by non-iconic rock art. Cupules (manmade, roughly semi-hemispherical depressions on rocks form the major bulk of the early non-iconic rock art globally. The antiquity of cupules extends back to the Lower Paleolithic in Asia and Africa, hundreds of thousand years ago. When one observes these cupules, the inquisitive mind poses so many questions with regard to understanding their technology, reasons for selecting the site, which rocks were used to make the hammer stones used, the skill and cognitive abilities employed to create the different types of cupules, the objective of their creation, their age, and so on. Replication of the cupules can provide satisfactory answers to some of these questions. Comparison of the hammer stones and cupules produced by the replication process with those obtained from excavation can provide support to observations. This paper presents a manual of cupule replication technology based on our experience of cupule replication on hard quartzite rock near Daraki-Chattan in the Chambal Basin, India.

  7. Crinivirus replication and host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsofia A Kiss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Criniviruses comprise one of the genera within the family Closteroviridae. Members in this family are restricted to the phloem and rely on whitefly vectors of the genera Bemisia and/or Trialeurodes for plant-to-plant transmission. All criniviruses have bipartite, positive-sense ssRNA genomes, although there is an unconfirmed report of one having a tripartite genome. Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV is the type species of the genus, the best studied so far of the criniviruses and the first for which a reverse genetics system was available. LIYV RNA 1 encodes for proteins predicted to be involved in replication, and alone is competent for replication in protoplasts. Replication results in accumulation of cytoplasmic vesiculated membranous structures which are characteristic of most studied members of the Closteroviridae. These membranous structures, often referred to as BYV-type vesicles, are likely sites of RNA replication. LIYV RNA 2 is replicated in trans when co-infecting cells with RNA 1, but is temporally delayed relative to RNA1. Efficient RNA 2 replication also is dependent on the RNA 1-encoded RNA binding protein, P34. No LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins have been shown to affect RNA replication, but at least four, CP, CPm, Hsp70h, and p59 are virion structural components and CPm is a determinant of whitefly transmissibility. Roles of other LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins are largely as yet unknown, but P26 is a non-virion protein that accumulates in cells as characteristic plasmalemma deposits which in plants are localized within phloem parenchyma and companion cells over plasmodesmata connections to sieve elements. The two remaining crinivirus-conserved RNA 2-encoded proteins are P5 and P9. P5 is 39 amino acid protein and is encoded at the 5’ end of RNA 2 as ORF1 and is part of the hallmark closterovirus gene array. The orthologous gene in BYV has been shown to play a role in cell-to-cell movement and indicated to be localized to the

  8. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Hou, Du-Jie [China Univ. of Geosciences, Beijing (China). The Key Lab. of Marine Reservoir Evolution and Hydrocarbon Accumulation Mechanism; She, Yue-Hui [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology; Li, Hua-Min [Beijing Bioscience Research Center (China); Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang [Yangtze Univ., Jingzhou, Hubei (China). College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering; Yu, Long-Jiang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). College of Life Science and Technology

    2012-08-15

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes. (orig.)

  9. Impact of an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery field trial on microbial community structure in a high pour-point oil reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Li, Hua-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on preliminary investigation of microbial populations in a high pour-point oil reservoir, an indigenous microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) field trial was carried out. The purpose of the study is to reveal the impact of the indigenous MEOR process on microbial community structure in the oil reservoir using 16Sr DNA clone library technique. The detailed monitoring results showed significant response of microbial communities during the field trial and large discrepancies of stimulated microorganisms in the laboratory and in the natural oil reservoir. More specifically, after nutrients injection, the original dominant populations of Petrobacter and Alishewanella in the production wells almost disappeared. The expected desirable population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, determined by enrichment experiments in laboratory, was stimulated successfully in two wells of the five monitored wells. Unexpectedly, another potential population of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which were not detected in the enrichment culture in laboratory was stimulated in the other three monitored production wells. In this study, monitoring of microbial community displayed a comprehensive alteration of microbial populations during the field trial to remedy the deficiency of culture-dependent monitoring methods. The results would help to develop and apply more MEOR processes.

  10. Oncolytic Replication of E1b-Deleted Adenoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsin Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Various viruses have been studied and developed for oncolytic virotherapies. In virotherapy, a relatively small amount of viruses used in an intratumoral injection preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, leading to the release of amplified viral particles that spread the infection to the surrounding tumor cells and reduce the tumor mass. Adenoviruses (Ads are most commonly used for oncolytic virotherapy due to their infection efficacy, high titer production, safety, easy genetic modification, and well-studied replication characteristics. Ads with deletion of E1b55K preferentially replicate in and destroy cancer cells and have been used in multiple clinical trials. H101, one of the E1b55K-deleted Ads, has been used for the treatment of late-stage cancers as the first approved virotherapy agent. However, the mechanism of selective replication of E1b-deleted Ads in cancer cells is still not well characterized. This review will focus on three potential molecular mechanisms of oncolytic replication of E1b55K-deleted Ads. These mechanisms are based upon the functions of the viral E1B55K protein that are associated with p53 inhibition, late viralmRNAexport, and cell cycle disruption.

  11. Trials on the Timing of Chemical Control of Lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Frӧlich (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae in Lentil Field in Gachsaran Region (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saeidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Frӧlich, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae is the most serious pest of lentil in Iran. Economic losses due to this pest reach up to 40% of the lentil crop. Over a two-year study (2012 and 2013 in Agricultural Research Station of Gachsaran Region, best timing of chemical control of B. lentis was determined. A field experiment with cultivation of lentil Sina variety Lens culinaris Medik was conducted in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of spraying four times (respectively, during the early flowering, 10 days after the first spraying, 10 days after the second spraying; 10 days after the third spraying and control (without spraying. For the spraying from Endosulfan insecticide EC50% at ratio one liter per hectare was used. Three samples were taken from the pods and totally 150 pods from each replicate for contaminations of seeds were investigated. After the determination of the percent of seeds contamination, results were statistically analysed. Based on the results obtained, first spray treatment, with the mean contamination of 15.45% and second spray treatment with the mean contamination of 12.25% had the highest impact on reducing contamination lentil seeds to B. lentis and between them there was no statistically significant difference and were in one group. Therefore, spraying one time during the early flowering until 15 days after it was the best time to control of B. lentis.

  12. TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH AN ORGANICALLY CERTIFIED YEAST–BASED PROTEIN IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP (Litopenaeus Vannamei DIETS: LABORATORY AND FIELD TRIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of totally replacing the fishmeal component of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei diets was examined both in the laboratory setting and during a full–scale commercial trial. Animals were fed either a traditional fishmeal–based diet or one in which complete replacement of fishmeal, on a per protein basis, was manufactured using a yeast–based product, NuPro®. Laboratory studies determined that irrespective of diet fed, no difference in shrimp performance (weight gain, survival and SGR occurred. A field trial was thus activated to determine whether lab–scale studies were transferable to the commercial setting. Trials were conducted in earthen ponds from mid–June to early November 2005. Ponds were initially stocked with PL12–16 shrimp at a rate of 100,000 per hectare. At trial end, ponds receiving the NuPro®–based feed had equivalent growth to that of shrimp fed the traditional, fishmeal–based diet. Percent increase in weight from initial values and survival for the NuPro® ponds was 296, 269 and 275%, and 78, 76 and 85% respectively, whereas that for the fishmeal–based diet was 305% and 80% respectively. Noteworthy was that within pond size variation of L. vannamei was lower in NuPro® fed animals (±2.3 g when compared against animals receiving the traditional feed (±4.1 g. Overall observations from the field trial indicate the importance of the »bioreactor« pond with respect to the supply of energy to sustain shrimp growth potential.

  13. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Rauber, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS), Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC) were randomized into intervention (n = 9) and control (n = 11) groups. The health professionals (n = 200) at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38), second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53), and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03). The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80), chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83), petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98) and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85) in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  14. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vitolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. METHODS: Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS, Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC were randomized into intervention (n = 9 and control (n = 11 groups. The health professionals (n = 200 at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. RESULTS: 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38, second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53, and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56 was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03. The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80, chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83, petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98 and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85 in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  15. Effect of Expedited Microneedle-Assisted Photodynamic Therapy for Field Treatment of Actinic Keratoses: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhova, Tatyana A; Hassoun, Lauren A; Foolad, Negar; Barath, Mayanka; Sivamani, Raja K

    2017-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective and cosmetically favorable treatment modality for actinic keratoses (AKs). However, prolonged incubation times and pain associated with treatment are burdensome to the patient and a hindrance to widespread use of PDT as standard field therapy for AK. To evaluate efficacy and pain associated with microneedle expedited PDT. The Microneedle Photodynamic Therapy II (MNPDT-II) study was a randomized, single-blinded, split-face controlled, 2-arm clinical trial. Thirty-three participants with AK on the face were recruited in a university dermatology outpatient clinic from 2015 to 2016, and 32 participants completed the study. Participants were randomized into 2 incubations arms, either 10-minute or 20-minute aminolevulinic acid (ALA) incubation times, after pretreatment with a microneedle roller (200 um) vs a sham roller. They were blinded to the laterality of microneedle and sham roller assignments. After incubation, they were exposed to blue light (Blu-U, Dusa Pharmaceuticals) for 1000 seconds for a total fluence of 10 J/cm2. The primary outcome was to quantitatively measure AK resolution, and the secondary outcome was to assess pain associated with microneedle pretreatment. Thirty-three individuals were recruited and randomized to either the 20-minute or the 10-minute incubation arm. Thirty-two participants completed the study with a mean follow-up time of 34.5 days in the 20-minute group, and 30.2 days in the 10-minute group. For the 20-minute incubation arm, average AK clearance was 76% vs 58% on the sham side (P microneedle and sham sides (0.7 and 0.4; P = .28), respectively. For the 10-minute incubation arm AK clearance for the microneedle pretreated side was 43% compared with 38% on the sham side (P = .66). Pain during the blue light exposure was not significantly different between the microneedle and sham sides, 4.5 mm and 3.4 mm (P = .21), respectively. Photodynamic therapy with microneedle pretreatment at

  16. Mechanisms of bacterial DNA replication restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windgassen, Tricia A; Wessel, Sarah R; Bhattacharyya, Basudeb

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Multi-protein DNA replication complexes called replisomes perform the essential process of copying cellular genetic information prior to cell division. Under ideal conditions, replisomes dissociate only after the entire genome has been duplicated. However, DNA replication rarely occurs without interruptions that can dislodge replisomes from DNA. Such events produce incompletely replicated chromosomes that, if left unrepaired, prevent the segregation of full genomes to daughter cells. To mitigate this threat, cells have evolved ‘DNA replication restart’ pathways that have been best defined in bacteria. Replication restart requires recognition and remodeling of abandoned replication forks by DNA replication restart proteins followed by reloading of the replicative DNA helicase, which subsequently directs assembly of the remaining replisome subunits. This review summarizes our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying replication restart and the proteins that drive the process in Escherichia coli (PriA, PriB, PriC and DnaT). PMID:29202195

  17. USP7/HAUSP: A SUMO deubiquitinase at the heart of DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Veronique A J; Freire, Raimundo

    2016-09-01

    DNA replication is both highly conserved and controlled. Problematic DNA replication can lead to genomic instability and therefore carcinogenesis. Numerous mechanisms work together to achieve this tight control and increasing evidence suggests that post-translational modifications (phosphorylation, ubiquitination, SUMOylation) of DNA replication proteins play a pivotal role in this process. Here we discuss such modifications in the light of a recent article that describes a novel role for the deubiquitinase (DUB) USP7/HAUSP in the control of DNA replication. USP7 achieves this function by an unusual and novel mechanism, namely deubiquitination of SUMOylated proteins at the replication fork, making USP7 also a SUMO DUB (SDUB). This work extends previous observations of increased levels of SUMO and low levels of ubiquitin at the on-going replication fork. Here, we discuss this novel study, its contribution to the DNA replication and genomic stability field and what questions arise from this work. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The yeast replicative aging model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chong; Zhou, Chuankai; Kennedy, Brian K

    2018-03-08

    It has been nearly three decades since the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became a significant model organism for aging research and it has emerged as both simple and powerful. The replicative aging assay, which interrogates the number of times a "mother" cell can divide and produce "daughters", has been a stalwart in these studies, and genetic approaches have led to the identification of hundreds of genes impacting lifespan. More recently, cell biological and biochemical approaches have been developed to determine how cellular processes become altered with age. Together, the tools are in place to develop a holistic view of aging in this single-celled organism. Here, we summarize the current state of understanding of yeast replicative aging with a focus on the recent studies that shed new light on how aging pathways interact to modulate lifespan in yeast. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Replicator dynamics in value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Savin, Ivan; Vannuccini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The pure model of replicator dynamics though providing important insights in the evolution of markets has not found much of empirical support. This paper extends the model to the case of firms vertically integrated in value chains. We show that i) by taking value chains into account, the replicator...... dynamics may revert its effect. In these regressive developments of market selection, firms with low fitness expand because of being integrated with highly fit partners, and the other way around; ii) allowing partner's switching within a value chain illustrates that periods of instability in the early...... stage of industry life-cycle may be the result of an 'optimization' of partners within a value chain providing a novel and simple explanation to the evidence discussed by Mazzucato (1998); iii) there are distinct differences in the contribution to market selection between the layers of a value chain...

  20. Replication confers β cell immaturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Sapna; Roy, Nilotpal; Russ, Holger A; Leonhardt, Laura; French, Esra K; Roy, Ritu; Bengtsson, Henrik; Scott, Donald K; Stewart, Andrew F; Hebrok, Matthias

    2018-02-02

    Pancreatic β cells are highly specialized to regulate systemic glucose levels by secreting insulin. In adults, increase in β-cell mass is limited due to brakes on cell replication. In contrast, proliferation is robust in neonatal β cells that are functionally immature as defined by a lower set point for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Here we show that β-cell proliferation and immaturity are linked by tuning expression of physiologically relevant, non-oncogenic levels of c-Myc. Adult β cells induced to replicate adopt gene expression and metabolic profiles resembling those of immature neonatal β that proliferate readily. We directly demonstrate that priming insulin-producing cells to enter the cell cycle promotes a functionally immature phenotype. We suggest that there exists a balance between mature functionality and the ability to expand, as the phenotypic state of the β cell reverts to a less functional one in response to proliferative cues.

  1. Chromatin replication and histone dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Groth, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Inheritance of the DNA sequence and its proper organization into chromatin is fundamental for genome stability and function. Therefore, how specific chromatin structures are restored on newly synthesized DNA and transmitted through cell division remains a central question to understand cell fate...... choices and self-renewal. Propagation of genetic information and chromatin-based information in cycling cells entails genome-wide disruption and restoration of chromatin, coupled with faithful replication of DNA. In this chapter, we describe how cells duplicate the genome while maintaining its proper...... organization into chromatin. We reveal how specialized replication-coupled mechanisms rapidly assemble newly synthesized DNA into nucleosomes, while the complete restoration of chromatin organization including histone marks is a continuous process taking place throughout the cell cycle. Because failure...

  2. Live Replication of Paravirtual Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Stodden, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Virtual machines offer a fair degree of system state encapsulation, which promotes practical advances in fault tolerance, system debugging, profiling and security applications. This work investigates deterministic replay and semi-active replication for system paravirtualization, a software discipline trading guest kernel binar compatibility for reduced dependency on costly trap-and-emulate techniques. A primary contribution is evidence that trace capturing under a piecewise deterministic exec...

  3. Commentary: Randomized controlled trials in autism spectrum disorder: state of the field and challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily

    2018-04-01

    This issue of the Journal includes two articles summarizing the evidence from clinical trials aimed at improving symptoms of autism. French and Kennedy (Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2018, xx, xxxx) systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed at an "early intervention" and focus on trials including children with or at risk of autism under age 6 years. Although no type of intervention were excluded from their review, none of the included 48 RCTs employed pharmacological modalities and the overwhelming majority tested psychological/behavioural interventions aimed at modifying aspects of observed behaviours that are abnormal in children with autism. Using the standard Cochrane tool for evaluating risk of bias, French and Kennedy conclude that many RCTs are of low quality, which throws into question the reliance that should be placed on the findings. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. In vitro replication of poliovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubinski, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Poliovirus is a member of the Picornaviridae whose genome is a single stranded RNA molecule of positive polarity surrounded by a proteinaceous capsid. Replication of poliovirus occurs via negative strand intermediates in infected cells using a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and host cell proteins. The authors have exploited the fact that complete cDNA copies of the viral genome when transfected onto susceptible cells generate virus. Utilizing the bacteriophage SP6 DNA dependent RNA polymerase system to synthesize negative strands in vitro and using these in an in vitro reaction the authors have generated full length infectious plus strands. Mutagenesis of the 5' and 3' ends of the negative and positive strands demonstrated that replication could occur either de novo or be extensions of the templates from their 3' ends or from nicks occurring during replication. The appearance of dimeric RNA molecules generated in these reactions was not dependent upon the same protein required for de novo initiation. Full length dimeric RNA molecules using a 5' 32 P end-labelled oligo uridylic acid primer and positive strand template were demonstrated in vitro containing only the 35,000 Mr host protein and the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A model for generating positive strands without protein priming by cleavage of dimeric RNA molecules was proposed

  5. Reproducibility and replicability of rodent phenotyping in preclinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kafkafi, Neri; Agassi, Joseph; Chesler, Elissa J.; Crabbe, John C.; Crusio, Wim E.; Eilam, David; Gerlai, Robert; Golani, Ilan; Gomez-Marin, Alex; Heller, Ruth; Iraqi, Fuad; Jaljuli, Iman; Karp, Natasha A.; Morgan, Hugh; Nicholson, George; Pfaff, Donald W.; Richter, S. Helene; Stark, Philip B.; Stiedl, Oliver; Stodden, Victoria; Tarantino, Lisa M.; Tucci, Valter; Valdar, William; Williams, Robert W.; Würbel, Hanno; Benjamini, Yoav

    The scientific community is increasingly concerned with the proportion of published “discoveries” that are not replicated in subsequent studies. The field of rodent behavioral phenotyping was one of the first to raise this concern, and to relate it to other methodological issues: the complex

  6. Why threefold-replication of families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Gerald L.

    1998-04-01

    In spite of the many successes of the standard model of particle physics, the observed proliferation of matter-fields, in the form of ``replicated'' generations or families, is a major unsolved problem. In this paper, I explore some of the algebraic, geometric and physical consequences of a new organizing principle for fundamental fermions (quarks and leptons)(Gerald L. Fitzpatrick, phThe Family Problem--New Internal Algebraic and Geometric Regularities), Nova Scientific Press, Issaquah, Washington, 1997. Read more about this book (ISBN 0--9655695--0--0) and its subject matter at: http://www.tp.umu.se/TIPTOP and/or amazon.com>http://www.amazon.com.. The essence of the new organizing principle is the idea that the standard-model concept of scalar fermion numbers f can be generalized. In particular, a ``generalized fermion number,'' which consists of a 2× 2 matrix F that ``acts'' on an internal 2-space, instead of spacetime, is taken to describe certain internal properties of fundamental fermions. This generalization automatically introduces internal degrees of freedom that ``explain,'' among other things, family replication and the number (three) of families observed in nature.

  7. Field trial evaluation of the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in transgenic Camelina sativa: Making fish oil substitutes in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Usher

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the most complex example of plant genetic engineering to undergo environmental release and field evaluation. Keywords: Plant metabolic engineering, GM field trials, Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, Fish oils, Camelina, Oilseeds

  8. Pulsed magnetic field versus ultrasound in the treatment of postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled trial in the women of an Egyptian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia M. Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field versus pulsed ultrasound in treating patients with postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome. The study was a randomized, double-blinded trial. Forty postnatal female patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were divided randomly into two equal groups. One group received pulsed electromagnetic field, with nerve and tendon gliding exercises for the wrist, three times per week for four weeks. The other group received pulsed ultrasound and the same wrist exercises. Pain level, sensory and motor distal latencies and conduction velocities of the median nerve, functional status scale and hand grip strength were assessed pre- and post-treatment. There was a significant decrease (P  0.05. In conclusion, while the symptoms were alleviated in both groups, pulsed electromagnetic field was more effective than pulsed ultrasound in treating postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome.

  9. Optimising and evaluating the characteristics of a multiple antigen ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in a badger vaccine field trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Aznar

    Full Text Available A long-term research programme has been underway in Ireland to evaluate the usefulness of badger vaccination as part of the national bTB (bovine tuberculosis control strategy. This culminated in a field trial which commenced in county Kilkenny in 2009 to determine the effects of badger vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers under field conditions. In the present study, we sought to optimise the characteristics of a multiplex chemiluminescent assay for detection of M. bovis infection in live badgers. Our goal was to maximise specificity, and therefore statistical power, during evaluation of the badger vaccine trial data. In addition, we also aimed to explore the effects of vaccination on test characteristics. For the test optimisation, we ran a stepwise logistic regression with analytical weights on the converted Relative Light Units (RLU obtained from testing blood samples from 215 badgers captured as part of culling operations by the national Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine (DAFM. The optimised test was applied to two other datasets obtained from two captive badger studies (Study 1 and Study 2, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test was attained separately for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. During optimisation, test sensitivity was maximised (30.77%, while retaining specificity at 99.99%. When the optimised test was then applied to the captive badger studies data, we observed that test characteristics did not vary greatly between vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. However, a different time lag between infection and a positive test result was observed in vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers. We propose that the optimized multiplex immunoassay be used to analyse the vaccine trial data. In relation to the difference in the time lag observed for vaccinated and non-vaccinated badgers, we also present a strategy to enable the test to be used during trial evaluation.

  10. Replication of micro and nano surface geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Hocken, R.J.; Tosello, Guido

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the state-of-the-art in replication of surface texture and topography at micro and nano scale. The description includes replication of surfaces in polymers, metals and glass. Three different main technological areas enabled by surface replication processes are presented......: manufacture of net-shape micro/nano surfaces, tooling (i.e. master making), and surface quality control (metrology, inspection). Replication processes and methods as well as the metrology of surfaces to determine the degree of replication are presented and classified. Examples from various application areas...... are given including replication for surface texture measurements, surface roughness standards, manufacture of micro and nano structured functional surfaces, replicated surfaces for optical applications (e.g. optical gratings), and process chains based on combinations of repeated surface replication steps....

  11. Adenovirus sequences required for replication in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, K; Pearson, G D

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the in vivo replication properties of plasmids carrying deletion mutations within cloned adenovirus terminal sequences. Deletion mapping located the adenovirus DNA replication origin entirely within the first 67 bp of the adenovirus inverted terminal repeat. This region could be further subdivided into two functional domains: a minimal replication origin and an adjacent auxillary region which boosted the efficiency of replication by more than 100-fold. The minimal origin occup...

  12. Parametrised Constants and Replication for Spatial Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Haagensen, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Parametrised replication and replication are common ways of expressing infinite computation in process calculi. While parametrised constants can be encoded using replication in the π-calculus, this changes in the presence of spatial mobility as found in e.g. the distributed π- calculus...... of the distributed π-calculus with parametrised constants and replication are incomparable. On the other hand, we shall see that there exists a simple encoding of recursion in mobile ambients....

  13. Entanglement replication in driven dissipative many-body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippilli, S; Paternostro, M; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F

    2013-01-25

    We study the dissipative dynamics of two independent arrays of many-body systems, locally driven by a common entangled field. We show that in the steady state the entanglement of the driving field is reproduced in an arbitrarily large series of inter-array entangled pairs over all distances. Local nonclassical driving thus realizes a scale-free entanglement replication and long-distance entanglement distribution mechanism that has immediate bearing on the implementation of quantum communication networks.

  14. 36 CFR 910.64 - Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replication. 910.64 Section 910.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION GENERAL... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.64 Replication. Replication means the process of using modern methods...

  15. Exploiting replicative stress to treat cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobbelstein, Matthias; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication in cancer cells is accompanied by stalling and collapse of the replication fork and signalling in response to DNA damage and/or premature mitosis; these processes are collectively known as 'replicative stress'. Progress is being made to increase our understanding of the mechanisms...

  16. Variance Swap Replication: Discrete or Continuous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Le Floc’h

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The popular replication formula to price variance swaps assumes continuity of traded option strikes. In practice, however, there is only a discrete set of option strikes traded on the market. We present here different discrete replication strategies and explain why the continuous replication price is more relevant.

  17. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2014-01-01

    increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu......Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly...

  18. Field trial of the spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strip against mosquitoes in shelters without walls (Beruga) in Lombok, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Takagi, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    Field trials on the spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips for mosquitoes present in shelters without walls (beruga) were carried out in Lombok, Indonesia. A major reduction in the incidence of human biting by Culex quinquefasciatus was achieved, and the use of two strips per beruga repelled >60% of the mosquitoes for at least 11 wk while four strips repelled >60% of the mosquitoes for more than 15 weeks. The technique was found to be a practical long-term solution for ...

  19. Field trial on the spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips for mosquitoes in shelters without walls (beruga) in Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Takagi, Masahiro

    2005-12-01

    Field trials on the spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips for mosquitoes present in shelters without walls (beruga) were carried out in Lombok, Indonesia. A major reduction in the incidence of human biting by Culex quinquefasciatus was achieved, and the use of two strips per beruga repelled >60% of the mosquitoes for at least 11 wk while four strips repelled >60% of the mosquitoes for more than 15 weeks. The technique was found to be a practical long-term solution for the prevention of mosquito bites without using electricity or heat to evaporate the metofluthrin.

  20. Randomized trial for superiority of high field strength intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging guided resection in pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Vivek; Raheja, Amol; Suri, Ashish; Chandra, P Sarat; Kale, Shashank S; Kumar, Rajinder; Garg, Ajay; Kalaivani, Mani; Pandey, Ravindra M; Sharma, Bhawani S

    2017-03-01

    Till date there are no randomized trials to suggest the superiority of intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (IOMRI) guided trans-sphenoidal pituitary resection over two dimensional fluoroscopic (2D-F) guided resections. We conducted this trial to establish the superiority of IOMRI in pituitary surgery. Primary objective was to compare extent of tumor resection between the two study arms. It was a prospective, randomized, outcome assessor and statistician blinded, two arm (A: IOMRI, n=25 and B: 2D-F, n=25), parallel group clinical trial. 4 patients from IOMRI group cross-over to 2D-F group and were consequently analyzed in latter group, based on modified intent to treat method. A total of 50 patients were enrolled till completion of trial (n=25 in each study arm). Demographic profile and baseline parameters were comparable among the two arms (p>0.05) except for higher number of endoscopic procedures and experienced neurosurgeons (>10years) in arm B (p=0.02, 0.002 respectively). Extent of resection was similar in both study arms (A, 94.9% vs B, 93.6%; p=0.78), despite adjusting for experience of operating surgeon and use of microscope/endoscope for surgical resection. We observed that use of IOMRI helped optimize the extent of resection in 5/20 patients (25%) for pituitary tumor resection in-group A. Present study failed to observe superiorty of IOMRI over conventional 2D-F guided resection in pituitary macroadenoma surgery. By use of this technology, younger surgeons could validate their results intra-operatively and hence could increase EOR without causing any increase in complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of the determinants of efficient Pestivirus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian

    , and in depth knowledge of the traits that determine the fitness of the virus in this regard are highly valuable. Recent advances in the field of molecular virology with methods to manipulate viral genomes have significantly helped to uncover these core mechanisms responsible for exploitation of the host......, BMC genomics). Manuscript II describes the generation of replicons that express two different types of luciferases (Rluc and Gluc), and their application as a tool for easy monitoring of replication competence (published paper, Journal of General Virology (94), 1739-1748). Manuscript III describes...... the properties of chimeric replicons and infectious clones that include a RNA dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) from one of three different CSFV strains with distinct virulence properties. The entire NS5B proved to influence replication competence and key residues for replication competence was identified...

  2. Replication dynamics of the yeast genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuraman, M K; Winzeler, E A; Collingwood, D; Hunt, S; Wodicka, L; Conway, A; Lockhart, D J; Davis, R W; Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    2001-10-05

    Oligonucleotide microarrays were used to map the detailed topography of chromosome replication in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The times of replication of thousands of sites across the genome were determined by hybridizing replicated and unreplicated DNAs, isolated at different times in S phase, to the microarrays. Origin activations take place continuously throughout S phase but with most firings near mid-S phase. Rates of replication fork movement vary greatly from region to region in the genome. The two ends of each of the 16 chromosomes are highly correlated in their times of replication. This microarray approach is readily applicable to other organisms, including humans.

  3. Chromosomal DNA replication of Vicia faba cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takaji

    1976-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA replication of higher plant cells has been investigated by DNA fiber autoradiography. The nuclear DNA fibers of Vicia root meristematic cells are organized into many tandem arrays of replication units or replicons which exist as clusters with respect to replication. DNA is replicated bidirectionally from the initiation points at the average rate of 0.15 μm/min at 20 0 C, and the average interinitiation interval is about 16 μm. The manner of chromosomal DNA replication in this higher plant is similar to that found in other eukaryotic cells at a subchromosomal level. (auth.)

  4. Inferential misconceptions and replication crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Hirschauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Misinterpretations of the p value and the introduction of bias through arbitrary analytical choices have been discussed in the literature for decades. Nonetheless, they seem to have persisted in empirical research, and criticisms of p value misuses have increased in the recent past due to the non-replicability of many studies. Unfortunately, the critical concerns that have been raised in the literature are scattered over many disciplines, often linguistically confusing, and differing in their main reasons for criticisms. Misuses and misinterpretations of the p value are currently being discussed intensely under the label “replication crisis” in many academic disciplines and journals, ranging from specialized scientific journals to Nature and Science. In a drastic response to the crisis, the editors of the journal Basic and Applied Social Psychology even decided to ban the use of p values from future publications at the beginning of 2015, a fact that has certainly added fuel to the discussions in the relevant scientific forums. Finally, in early March, the American Statistical Association released a brief formal statement on p values that explicitly addresses misuses and misinterpretations. In this context, we systematize the most serious flaws related to the p value and discuss suggestions of how to prevent them and reduce the rate of false discoveries in the future.

  5. Mammalian RAD52 Functions in Break-Induced Replication Repair of Collapsed DNA Replication Forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sotiriou, Sotirios K; Kamileri, Irene; Lugli, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Human cancers are characterized by the presence of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress (DRS), making them dependent on repair pathways such as break-induced replication (BIR) for damaged DNA replication forks. To better understand BIR, we performed a targeted siRNA screen for genes whose...... RAD52 facilitates repair of collapsed DNA replication forks in cancer cells....

  6. Repair replication in replicating and nonreplicating DNA after irradiation with uv light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slor, H.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1978-06-01

    Ultraviolet light induces more pyrimidine dimers and more repair replication in DNA that replicates within 2 to 3 h of irradiation than in DNA that does not replicate during this period. This difference may be due to special conformational changes in DNA and chromatin that might be associated with semiconservative DNA replication.

  7. Faithful replication of grating patterns in polymer through electrohydrodynamic instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H; Yu, W; Wang, T; Zhang, H; Cao, Y; Abraham, E; Desmulliez, M P Y

    2014-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic instability patterning (EHDIP) as an alternative patterning method has attracted a great deal of attention over the past decade. This article demonstrates the faithful transfer of patterns with a high aspect ratio onto a polymer film via electrohydrodynamic instabilities for a given patterned grating mask. We perform a simple mathematical analysis to determine the influence of process parameters on the pressure difference ▵P. Through numerical simulation, it is demonstrated that thick films subject to large electric fields are essential to realize this faithful replication. In particular, the influence of the material properties of the polymer on pattern replication is discussed in detail. It is found that, to achieve the smaller periodic patterns with a higher resolution, film with a larger value of the dielectric constant and smaller value of the surface tension should be chosen. In addition, an ideal replication of the mask pattern with a short evolution time is possible by reducing the viscosity of the polymer liquid. Finally, the experiments of the pattern replication with and without defects are demonstrated to compare with the numerical simulation results. It is found that experiments are in good agreement with the simulation results and prove that the numerical simulation method provides an effective way to predict faithful replication. (paper)

  8. 167: CRITICALLY APPRAISE OF THE REPORTING QUALITY OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS ARTICLES IN THE FIELD OF DIABETES IN MEDICAL GUIDELINES IN IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletaha, Azadeh; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Soltani, Akbar; Ramezani, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims To determine the quality of randomized controlled clinical trial reports in diabetes research in Iran and their presence in domestic and foreign credible guidelines which can imply whether randomized controlled trial articles in the field of diabetes are of good quality or not with respect to their high level of received citations, quality and credibility. Method We included RCTs conducted on Diabetes mellitus in Iran. Animal studies, educational, interventions, and non-randomized trials were excluded. This was a bibliographic study examining published journal articles involving RCTs in diabetes research from Iranian authors. A systematic search of ten databases(ISI Web of science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, The Cochrane Library, Taylor & Francis Online, Biomed Central, EBSCO, ProQuest and OVID)were undertaken from July 2004–2014. We excluded duplicated publications reporting the same groups of participants and intervention two independent reviewers identify all eligible articles specifically designed data extraction form. Two reviewers assessed the quality of reporting by CONSORT 2010 (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) checklist statement and also evaluate each article with Scientometry tools in 260 valid English diabetes guidelines. Result Overall, we included 185 RCTs on diabetes mellitus, One hundred and eight five (185) studies were included and appraised. Half of them (55.7%) were published in Iranian journals. Most (89.7%) were parallel RCTs, and being performed on type2 diabetic patients (77.8%). Less than half of the CONSORT items (43.2%) were reported in studies, totally. The reporting of randomization and blinding were poor. A few studies 15.1% mentioned the method of random sequence generation and strategy of allocation concealment. And only 34.8% of trials report how blinding was applied. From 185 articles, twelve articles (10%) are presented in 260 Guidelines. Conclusion The reporting quality of abstracts of RCTs

  9. Evaluation of pulsing magnetic field effects on paresthesia in multiple sclerosis patients, a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Daryoush; Moradian, Nasrin; Khalili, Majid; Razazian, Nazanin; Bostani, Arash; Hoseini, Jamal; Moradian, Mohamad; Ghiasian, Masoud

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is mounting that magnet therapy could alleviate the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study was performed to test the effects of the pulsing magnetic fields on the paresthesia in MS patients. This study has been conducted as a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial during the April 2012 to October 2013. The subjects were selected among patients referred to MS clinic of Imam Reza Hospital; affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Sixty three patients with MS were included in the study and randomly were divided into two groups, 35 patients were exposed to a magnetic pulsing field of 4mT intensity and 15-Hz frequency sinusoidal wave for 20min per session 2 times per week over a period of 2 months involving 16 sessions and 28 patients was exposed to a magnetically inactive field (placebo) for 20min per session 2 times per week over a period of 2 months involving 16 sessions. The severity of paresthesia was measured by the numerical rating scale (NRS) at 30, 60days. The study primary end point was NRS change between baseline and 60days. The secondary outcome was NRS change between baseline and 30days. Patients exposing to magnetic field showed significant paresthesia improvement compared with the group of patients exposing to placebo. According to our results pulsed magnetic therapy could alleviate paresthesia in MS patients .But trials with more patients and longer duration are mandatory to describe long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ashraful; Tawale, Nanda; Patel, Archana; Dibley, Michael J; Jadhao, Sunil; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-09-09

    Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves.

  11. Application of Radiation Degraded Chitosan as Plant Growth Promoter. A Pilot Scale Production and Field Trial Study of Radiation Processed Chitosan as Plant Growth Promoter for Rice Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Hashim, Kamaruddin; Bahari, Kamarudin

    2010-01-01

    The application of radiation processed chitosan as plant growth promoter has been carried out in the 24 hectares of rice crops. For the field trial, a pilot scale production of oligochitosan was established using gamma irradiation for partial degradation of chitosan powder of DDA 90% and followed by gamma irradiation of aqueous solution of 3% irradiated chitosan powder in 2% lactic acids (3CL2). Radiation dose of 50 kGy was selected for initial degradation of chitosan powder and followed by 12 kGy irradiation of 3CL2. A viscosity average molecular weight of ~10,000 of oligochitosan was obtained and subsequently used in the field trial of MR219 type of rice seeds on 24 hectares of rice plots. The seedlings were carried out after the rice seeds were soaked 24hrs in water and 30 minutes in 200ppm oligochitosan. The rice plots that were sprayed with oligochitosan were found to have higher resistant towards blast diseases. Oligochitosan of 40ppm was found to be effective as fungicides and resulted in the increase of yield of rice seeds of about 5%. (author)

  12. Attenuation of the goose parvovirus strain B. Laboratory and field trials of the attenuated mutant for vaccination against Derzsy's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Derzsy, D; Meszaros, J

    1978-07-01

    Serial transfer of the goose parvovirus strain B, causal agent of Derzsy's gosling disease, in cultured goose-embryo fibroblast (GEF) resulted in a mutant (designated as Bav) apathogenic for both goose embryos and susceptible goslings. Goose embryos inoculated with the 38th or higher passages of strain B survived the infection, although the virus replicated in their organs. Susceptible goslings survived challenge with the Bav strain without showing symptoms, and developed normally. Only 4.2% of gosling progeny of parents vaccinated twice with strain Bav died after challenge with the virulent strain B goose parvovirus compared with 95% of gosling progeny of unvaccinated parents. Progeny of vaccinated and unvaccinated geese were placed on a farm on which Derzsy's disease was present. During the first month of life mortality was 7.7% in the progeny of vaccinated geese compared with 59.8% in the progeny of the unvaccinated geese. At 8 weeks of age the mean weight of the vaccinated goslings was 20% greater than for the unvaccinated goslings. These results indicate that the attenuated apathogenic Bav mutant is suitable for the immunisation of layers to protect their progeny by passive immunisation against Derzsy's disease.

  13. Overcoming natural replication barriers: differential helicase requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ranjith P; Shah, Kartik A; Niu, Hengyao; Sung, Patrick; Mirkin, Sergei M; Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2012-02-01

    DNA sequences that form secondary structures or bind protein complexes are known barriers to replication and potential inducers of genome instability. In order to determine which helicases facilitate DNA replication across these barriers, we analyzed fork progression through them in wild-type and mutant yeast cells, using 2-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis of the replication intermediates. We show that the Srs2 protein facilitates replication of hairpin-forming CGG/CCG repeats and prevents chromosome fragility at the repeat, whereas it does not affect replication of G-quadruplex forming sequences or a protein-bound repeat. Srs2 helicase activity is required for hairpin unwinding and fork progression. Also, the PCNA binding domain of Srs2 is required for its in vivo role of replication through hairpins. In contrast, the absence of Sgs1 or Pif1 helicases did not inhibit replication through structural barriers, though Pif1 did facilitate replication of a telomeric protein barrier. Interestingly, replication through a protein barrier but not a DNA structure barrier was modulated by nucleotide pool levels, illuminating a different mechanism by which cells can regulate fork progression through protein-mediated stall sites. Our analyses reveal fundamental differences in the replication of DNA structural versus protein barriers, with Srs2 helicase activity exclusively required for fork progression through hairpin structures.

  14. Attenuation of Replication-Competent Adenovirus Serotype 26 Vaccines by Vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Lori F; Abbink, Peter; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Borducchi, Erica N; Ng'ang'a, David; Kirilova, Marinela M; Paulino, Noelix; Boyd, Michael; Shabram, Paul; Ruan, Qian; Patel, Mayank; Barouch, Dan H

    2015-11-01

    Replication-competent adenovirus (rcAd)-based vaccine vectors may theoretically provide immunological advantages over replication-incompetent Ad vectors, but they also raise additional potential clinical and regulatory issues. We produced replication-competent Ad serotype 26 (rcAd26) vectors by adding the E1 region back into a replication-incompetent Ad26 vector backbone with the E3 or E3/E4 regions deleted. We assessed the effect of vectorization on the replicative capacity of the rcAd26 vaccines. Attenuation occurred in a stepwise fashion, with E3 deletion, E4 deletion, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) gene insertion all contributing to reduced replicative capacity compared to that with the wild-type Ad26 vector. The rcAd26 vector with E3 and E4 deleted and containing the Env transgene exhibited 2.7- to 4.4-log-lower replicative capacity than that of the wild-type Ad26 in vitro. This rcAd26 vector is currently being evaluated in a phase 1 clinical trial. Attenuation as a result of vectorization and transgene insertion has implications for the clinical development of replication-competent vaccine vectors. Copyright © 2015, Maxfield et al.

  15. Evaluating the reproducibility of environmental radioactivity monitoring data through replicate sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeken, C.L.; White, J.H.; Silver, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, about 10% of the sampling effort in the environmental monitoring program represents replicate sample collection. Replication of field samples was initiated as part of the quality assurance program for environmental monitoring to determine the reproducibility of environmental measurements. In the laboratory these replicates are processed along with routine samples. As all components of variance are included in analysis of such field samples, comparison of the analytical data from replicate analyses provides a basis for estimating the overall reproducibility of the measurements. The replication study indicates that the reproducibility of environmental radioactivity monitoring data is subject to considerably more variability than is indicated by the accompanying counting errors. The data are also compared with analyses of duplicate aliquots from a well mixed sample or with duplicate aliquots of samples with known radionuclide content. These comparisons show that most of the variability is associated with the collection and preparation of the sample rather than with the analytical procedures

  16. Paste pumping and deposition field trials and concepts on Syncrude's dewatered mature fine tailings MFT centrifuge cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahaie, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Ahmed, I.; Labelle, M.; Brown, R. [Golder Paste Technology, Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed a paste pumping and deposition field study conducted on dewatered mature fine tailings (MFT) located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operation. Bench scale rheological examinations of centrifuge cakes and design field testing are used to determine the pumpability of MFT centrifuge cakes. The study included a transportation assessment for the conveyor and positive displacement pumps and pipelines, as well as geotechnical and environmental analyses of bulk materials. Flocculant optimization and centrifuge operational parameter assessments were conducted. Pressure differential and flow rate data were captured in the field studies in order to determine pipeline friction loss. The study showed that pipe friction factors can be obtained using the Bingham plastic model. A natural deposition angle was determined for the MFT centrifuged cake. The study showed that the cake must be sheared in order to reduce yield stress before pumping. It was concluded that displacement pumps can be used to reduced pipeline friction factors. tabs., figs.

  17. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...... importance of surface topography follows. In general the replication is not perfect and the topography of the plastic part differs from the inverse topography of the mould cavity. It is desirable to be able to control the degree of replication perfection or replication quality. This requires an understanding...... of the physical mechanisms of replication. Such understanding can lead to improved process design and facilitate in-line process quality control with respect to surface properties. The purpose of the project is to identify critical factors that affect topography replication quality and to obtain an understanding...

  18. Replicating chromatin: a tale of histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Chromatin serves structural and functional roles crucial for genome stability and correct gene expression. This organization must be reproduced on daughter strands during replication to maintain proper overlay of epigenetic fabric onto genetic sequence. Nucleosomes constitute the structural...... framework of chromatin and carry information to specify higher-order organization and gene expression. When replication forks traverse the chromosomes, nucleosomes are transiently disrupted, allowing the replication machinery to gain access to DNA. Histone recycling, together with new deposition, ensures...

  19. Enzymatic recognition of DNA replication origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stayton, M.M.; Bertsch, L.; Biswas, S.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the process of recognition of the complementary-strand origin with emphasis on RNA polymerase action in priming M13 DNA replication, the role of primase in G4 DNA replication, and the function of protein n, a priming protein, during primosome assembly. These phage systems do not require several of the bacterial DNA replication enzymes, particularly those involved in the regulation of chromosome copy number of the initiatiion of replication of duplex DNA. 51 references, 13 figures, 1 table

  20. Microbial control of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) with Beauveria bassiana strain GHA: Greenhouse and field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Liu; Leah S. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2004, the lethal and sublethal effects of Beauveria bassiana strain GHA on emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) adults and larvae were evaluated using topical spray and fungal band treatments in the greenhouse and field. B. bassiana strain GHA was moderately effective against...

  1. Reliability and stability of immobilization remediation of Cd polluted soils using sepiolite under pot and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuebing; Xu, Yi; Xu, Yingming; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xuefeng; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness and persistence are two important criterias to evaluate alternative remediation technology of heavy metal polluted soils. Pot and field studies showed addition of sepiolite was effective in immobilizing Cd in polluted soils, with significant reduction in TCLP extracts (0.6%-49.6% and 4.0%-32.5% reduction in pot and field experiments, respectively) and plant uptake (14.4%-84.1% and 22.8%-61.4% declines in pot and field studies, correspondingly). However, the applications of sepiolite offered a limited guarantee for the safety of edible vegetables in Cd-polluted soils, depending on the soil type, the Cd pollution type and level, and the dose and application frequency of chemical amendments. Bioassays, such as plant growth, soil enzymatic activities and microbial community diversity, indicated a certain degree of recovery of soil metabolic function. Therefore, sepiolite-assisted in situ remediation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and technically applicable, and can be successfully used to reduce Cd enter into the food chain on field scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability and stability of immobilization remediation of Cd polluted soils using sepiolite under pot and field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yuebing; Xu, Yi; Xu, Yingming; Wang, Lin; Liang, Xuefeng; Li, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness and persistence are two important criterias to evaluate alternative remediation technology of heavy metal polluted soils. Pot and field studies showed addition of sepiolite was effective in immobilizing Cd in polluted soils, with significant reduction in TCLP extracts (0.6%–49.6% and 4.0%–32.5% reduction in pot and field experiments, respectively) and plant uptake (14.4%–84.1% and 22.8%–61.4% declines in pot and field studies, correspondingly). However, the applications of sepiolite offered a limited guarantee for the safety of edible vegetables in Cd-polluted soils, depending on the soil type, the Cd pollution type and level, and the dose and application frequency of chemical amendments. Bioassays, such as plant growth, soil enzymatic activities and microbial community diversity, indicated a certain degree of recovery of soil metabolic function. Therefore, sepiolite-assisted in situ remediation is cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and technically applicable, and can be successfully used to reduce Cd enter into the food chain on field scale. - Highlights: • Sepiolite has reliability and stability for remediation of contaminated Cd. • Sepiolite significantly decreases Cd bioavailability in soil and uptake in plant. • The treatment of sepiolite improves soil quality. - Sepiolite not only decreased soil Cd bioavailability and plant Cd uptake, but also improved soil quality.

  3. Acute peripheral joint injury: cost and effectiveness of low-field-strength MR imaging--results of randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikken, J.J.; Oei, E.H.; Ginai, A.Z.; Krestin, G.P.; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Vugt, A.B. van; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess prospectively if a short imaging examination performed with low-field-strength dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in addition to radiography is effective and cost saving compared with the current diagnostic imaging strategy (radiography alone) in patients with recent acute

  4. Field assessment of a novel household-based water filtration device: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Sophie; Kiyombo, Mbela; Sthreshley, Larry; Tumba, Saturnin; Makambo, Jacques; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Household water treatment can improve the microbiological quality of drinking water and may prevent diarrheal diseases. However, current methods of treating water at home have certain shortcomings, and there is evidence of bias in the reported health impact of the intervention in open trial designs. We undertook a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial among 240 households (1,144 persons) in rural Democratic Republic of Congo to assess the field performance, use and effectiveness of a novel filtration device in preventing diarrhea. Households were followed up monthly for 12 months. Filters and placebos were monitored for longevity and for microbiological performance by comparing thermotolerant coliform (TTC) levels in influent and effluent water samples. Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea was estimated among participants of all ages. Compliance was assessed through self-reported use and presence of water in the top vessel of the device at the time of visit. Over the 12-month follow-up period, data were collected for 11,236 person-weeks of observation (81.8% total possible). After adjusting for clustering within the household, the longitudinal prevalence ratio of diarrhoea was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-1.20). The filters achieved a 2.98 log reduction in TTC levels while, for reasons that are unclear, the placebos achieved a 1.05 log reduction (pwater the previous day. The filter maintained a constant flow rate over time, though 12.4% of filters were damaged during the course of the study. While the filter was effective in improving water quality, our results provide little evidence that it was protective against diarrhea. The moderate reduction observed nevertheless supports the need for larger studies that measure impact against a neutral placebo. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03844341.

  5. Visual field protective effect of Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. extract on glaucoma with controlled intraocular pressure: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yisheng; Xiang, Minhong; Ye, Wen; Cheng, Yu; Jiang, Youqin

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the visual field protective effect of Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) Hand. Mazz. (EBHM) extract on glaucoma with controlled intraocular pressure (IOP). Forty patients (40 eyes) with primary open-angle glaucoma, visual field defects and a postsurgical IOP of <18 mmHg were enrolled. The EBHM and placebo tablets were given orally according to the randomized and double-blind principle. Two tablets (of either EBHM or placebo) were taken three times a day for a period of 6 months. Patients were examined every 2 months after treatment commenced. At the end of the study, the results were given to the drug manufacturer. All patients completed the prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. No obvious adverse effects were found in patients during the treatment period. In the placebo group, no significant difference was found in mean defect (MD) or mean sensitivity (MS) between the values at pre-treatment and after 2, 4, and 6 months of treatment. After 6 months of EBHM treatment, the MD was significantly decreased and the MS was significantly increased compared with pre-treatment (p < 0.05). In the patients with moderate and late glaucoma, the MD was significantly decreased and the MS was significantly increased after 2, 4, and 6 months of EBHM treatment compared with pre-treatment. EBHM extract may have a partial protective effect on the visual field of glaucoma patients with controlled IOP. Further studies are needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of long-term EBHM treatment.

  6. Field trial of a dual-wavelength fluorescent emission (L.I.F.E.) instrument and the Magma White rover during the MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit; Weisleitner, Klemens; Hunger, Lars; Kohstall, Christoph; Frisch, Albert; Józefowicz, Mateusz; Meszyński, Sebastian; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Frischauf, Norbert; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ragonig, Christoph; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sams, Sebastian; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Soucek, Alexander; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Stumptner, Willibald; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    Abstract We have developed a portable dual-wavelength laser fluorescence spectrometer as part of a multi-instrument optical probe to characterize mineral, organic, and microbial species in extreme environments. Operating at 405 and 532 nm, the instrument was originally designed for use by human explorers to produce a laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) spectral database of the mineral and organic molecules found in the microbial communities of Earth's cryosphere. Recently, our team had the opportunity to explore the strengths and limitations of the instrument when it was deployed on a remote-controlled Mars analog rover. In February 2013, the instrument was deployed on board the Magma White rover platform during the MARS2013 Mars analog field mission in the Kess Kess formation near Erfoud, Morocco. During these tests, we followed tele-science work flows pertinent to Mars surface missions in a simulated spaceflight environment. We report on the L.I.F.E. instrument setup, data processing, and performance during field trials. A pilot postmission laboratory analysis determined that rock samples acquired during the field mission exhibited a fluorescence signal from the Sun-exposed side characteristic of chlorophyll a following excitation at 405 nm. A weak fluorescence response to excitation at 532 nm may have originated from another microbial photosynthetic pigment, phycoerythrin, but final assignment awaits development of a comprehensive database of mineral and organic fluorescence spectra. No chlorophyll fluorescence signal was detected from the shaded underside of the samples.

  7. Replicative Intermediates of Human Papillomavirus Type 11 in Laryngeal Papillomas: Site of Replication Initiation and Direction of Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auborn, K. J.; Little, R. D.; Platt, T. H. K.; Vaccariello, M. A.; Schildkraut, C. L.

    1994-07-01

    We have examined the structures of replication intermediates from the human papillomavirus type 11 genome in DNA extracted from papilloma lesions (laryngeal papillomas). The sites of replication initiation and termination utilized in vivo were mapped by using neutral/neutral and neutral/alkaline two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis methods. Initiation of replication was detected in or very close to the upstream regulatory region (URR; the noncoding, regulatory sequences upstream of the open reading frames in the papillomavirus genome). We also show that replication forks proceed bidirectionally from the origin and converge 180circ opposite the URR. These results demonstrate the feasibility of analysis of replication of viral genomes directly from infected tissue.

  8. Nematode 18S rRNA gene is a reliable tool for environmental biosafety assessment of transgenic banana in confined field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakacwa, R; Kiggundu, A; Talwana, H; Namaganda, J; Lilley, C; Tushemereirwe, W; Atkinson, H

    2013-10-01

    Information on relatedness in nematodes is commonly obtained by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region. However, the level of diversity at this locus is often insufficient for reliable species differentiation. Recent findings suggest that the sequences of a fragment of the small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (18S rRNA or SSU), identify genera of soil nematodes and can also distinguish between species in some cases. A database of soil nematode genera in a Ugandan soil was developed using 18S rRNA sequences of individual nematodes from a GM banana confined field trial site at the National Agricultural Research Laboratories, Kawanda in Uganda. The trial was planted to evaluate transgenic bananas for resistance to black Sigatoka disease. Search for relatedness of the sequences gained with entries in a public genomic database identified a range of 20 different genera and sometimes distinguished species. Molecular markers were designed from the sequence information to underpin nematode faunal analysis. This approach provides bio-indicators for disturbance of the soil environment and the condition of the soil food web. It is being developed to support environmental biosafety analysis by detecting any perturbance by transgenic banana or other GM crops on the soil environment.

  9. Activation of human herpesvirus replication by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Alka; Remick, Jill; Zeichner, Steven L

    2013-10-01

    A central feature of herpesvirus biology is the ability of herpesviruses to remain latent within host cells. Classically, exposure to inducing agents, like activating cytokines or phorbol esters that stimulate host cell signal transduction events, and epigenetic agents (e.g., butyrate) was thought to end latency. We recently showed that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus-8 [HHV-8]) has another, alternative emergency escape replication pathway that is triggered when KSHV's host cell undergoes apoptosis, characterized by the lack of a requirement for the replication and transcription activator (RTA) protein, accelerated late gene kinetics, and production of virus with decreased infectivity. Caspase-3 is necessary and sufficient to initiate the alternative replication program. HSV-1 was also recently shown to initiate replication in response to host cell apoptosis. These observations suggested that an alternative apoptosis-triggered replication program might be a general feature of herpesvirus biology and that apoptosis-initiated herpesvirus replication may have clinical implications, particularly for herpesviruses that almost universally infect humans. To explore whether an alternative apoptosis-initiated replication program is a common feature of herpesvirus biology, we studied cell lines latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus/HHV-4, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, and KSHV. We found that apoptosis triggers replication for each HHV studied, with caspase-3 being necessary and sufficient for HHV replication. An alternative apoptosis-initiated replication program appears to be a common feature of HHV biology. We also found that commonly used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents activate HHV replication, which suggests that treatments that promote apoptosis may lead to activation of latent herpesviruses, with potential clinical significance.

  10. Recent Advances and Field Trial Results Integrating Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography with Other Data Sources for Mineral Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, D.

    2015-12-01

    CRM GeoTomography Technologies, Inc. is leading the way in applying muon tomography to discovery and definition of dense ore bodies for mineral exploration and resource estimation. We have successfully imaged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits at mines in North America using our suite of field-proven muon tracking detectors, and are at various stages of development for other applications. Recently we developed in-house inversion software that integrates data from assays, surface and borehole gravity, and underground muon flux measurements. We have found that the differing geophysical data sources provide complementary information and that dramatic improvements in inversion results are attained using various inversion performance metrics related to the excess tonnage of the mineral deposits, as well as their spatial extents and locations. This presentation will outline field tests of muon tomography performed by CRM Geotomography in some real world examples, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of joint muon tomography, assay and gravity inversion techniques in field tests (where data are available) and in simulations.

  11. Results from a Field Trial of the Radio Frequency Based Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System at the Global Nuclear Fuel Americas Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, Peter; Laughter, Mark D.; Martyn, Rose; Pickett, Chris A.; Rowe, Nathan C.; Younkin, James R.; Shephard, Adam M.

    2010-01-01

    The Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) is a tool designed for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to improve overall inspector efficiency through real-time unattended monitoring of cylinder movements, site specific rules-based event detection, and the capability to integrate many types of monitoring technologies. The system is based on the tracking of cylinder movements using (radio frequency) RF tags, and the collection of data, such as accountability weights, that can be associated with the cylinders. This presentation will cover the installation and evaluation of the CATS at the Global Nuclear Fuels (GNF) fuel fabrication facility in Wilmington, NC. This system was installed to evaluate its safeguards applicability, operational durability under operating conditions, and overall performance. An overview of the system design and elements specific to the GNF deployment will be presented along with lessons learned from the installation process and results from the field trial.

  12. Radionuclide analysis of environmental field trial samples at STUK. Report on Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.; Klemola, S.; Saxen, R.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Moring, M.

    1994-12-01

    Radionuclide determinations on seventeen field trial test samples were carried out for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). All the samples, i.e., samples of sea water, grass and biota were analysed for gamma emitting nuclides. 3 H was determined in water, 90 Sr in grass and 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Am in biota samples. To avoid losses of radionuclides before gamma activity measurements, the sequence of treatments was adjusted considering the unknown radionuclide composition. The radionuclide contents found in the samples were roughly the same or lower than contents in same types of environmental samples in the Northern hemisphere. The ratios of Pu and Am nuclides in two of the biota samples referred to an origin other than the global atmospheric fallout. The work was carried out under Task FIN A 847 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards. (orig.) (21 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.)

  13. Integrating a suicide prevention program into the primary health care network: a field trial study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Poshtmashadi, Marjan; Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Mansouri Moghadam, Fariba; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Afghah, Susan; Bolhari, Jafar; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ (2) = 14.8, P suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  14. Integrating a Suicide Prevention Program into the Primary Health Care Network: A Field Trial Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Malakouti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe and evaluate the feasibility of integrating a suicide prevention program with Primary Health Care services and evaluate if such system can improve screening and identification of depressive disorder, reduce number of suicide attempters, and lower rate of suicide completion. Methodology. This was a quasi-experimental trial in which one community was exposed to the intervention versus the control community with no such exposure. The study sites were two counties in Western Iran. The intervention protocol called for primary care and suicide prevention collaboration at different levels of care. The outcome variables were the number of suicides committed, the number of documented suicide attempts, and the number of identified depressed cases. Results. We identified a higher prevalence of depressive disorders in the intervention site versus the control site (χ2=14.8, P<0.001. We also found a reduction in the rate of suicide completion in the intervention region compared to the control, but a higher prevalence of suicide attempts in both the intervention and the control sites. Conclusion. Integrating a suicide prevention program with the Primary Health Care network enhanced depression and suicide surveillance capacity and subsequently reduced the number of suicides, especially in rural areas.

  15. Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial to Assess the Acute Diuretic Effect of Equisetum arvense (Field Horsetail in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Maciel Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 36 healthy male volunteers were randomly distributed into three groups (n=12 that underwent a three-step treatment. For four consecutive days, we alternately administered a standardized dried extract of Equisetum arvense (EADE, 900 mg/day, placebo (corn starch, 900 mg/day, or hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg/day, separated by a 10-day washout period. Each volunteer served as his own control, and the groups’ results were compared. We repeated the same evaluation after each stage of treatment to evaluate the safety of the drug. The diuretic effect of EADE was assessed by monitoring the volunteers’ water balance over a 24 h period. The E. arvense extract produced a diuretic effect that was stronger than that of the negative control and was equivalent to that of hydrochlorothiazide without causing significant changes in the elimination of electrolytes. There was no significant increase in the urinary elimination of catabolites. Rare minor adverse events were reported. The clinical examinations and laboratory tests showed no changes before or after the experiment, suggesting that the drug is safe for acute use. Further research is needed to better clarify the mechanism of diuretic action and the other possible pharmacological actions of this phytomedicine.

  16. NUCLEAR HEATING IN LIF DOSEMETERS IN A FUSION NEUTRON FIELD, TRIAL OF DIRECT COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATED RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorecki, Wladyslaw; Obryk, Barbara

    2017-09-29

    The results of nuclear heating measured by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD-LiF) in a Cu block irradiated by 14 MeV neutrons are presented. The integral Cu experiment relevant for verification of copper nuclear data at neutron energies characteristic for fusion facilities was performed in the ENEA FNG Laboratory at Frascati. Five types of TLDs were used: highly photon sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N), 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-7) and standard, lower sensitivity LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-N), 7LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-7) and 6LiF:Mg,Ti (MTS-6). Calibration of the detectors was performed with gamma rays in terms of air-kerma (10 mGy of 137Cs air-kerma). Nuclear heating in the Cu block was also calculated with the use of MCNP transport code Nuclear heating in Cu and air in TLD's positions was calculated as well. The nuclear heating contribution from all simulated by MCNP6 code particles including protons, deuterons, alphas tritons and heavier ions produced by the neutron interactions were calculated. A trial of the direct comparison between experimental results and results of simulation was performed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. DNA replication and cancer: From dysfunctional replication origin activities to therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-06-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Replication initiatives will not salvage the trustworthiness of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C

    2016-05-31

    Replication initiatives in psychology continue to gather considerable attention from far outside the field, as well as controversy from within. Some accomplishments of these initiatives are noted, but this article focuses on why they do not provide a general solution for what ails psychology. There are inherent limitations to mass replications ever being conducted in many areas of psychology, both in terms of their practicality and their prospects for improving the science. Unnecessary compromises were built into the ground rules for design and publication of the Open Science Collaboration: Psychology that undermine its effectiveness. Some ground rules could actually be flipped into guidance for how not to conduct replications. Greater adherence to best publication practices, transparency in the design and publishing of research, strengthening of independent post-publication peer review and firmer enforcement of rules about data sharing and declarations of conflict of interest would make many replications unnecessary. Yet, it has been difficult to move beyond simple endorsement of these measures to consistent implementation. Given the strong institutional support for questionable publication practices, progress will depend on effective individual and collective use of social media to expose lapses and demand reform. Some recent incidents highlight the necessity of this.

  19. Timing, coordination, and rhythm: Acrobatics at the DNA replication fork

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Samir

    2010-04-09

    In DNA replication, the antiparallel nature of the parental duplex imposes certain constraints on the activity of the DNA polymerases that synthesize new DNA. The leading-strand polymerase advances in a continuous fashion, but the lagging-strand polymerase is forced to restart at short intervals. In several prokaryotic systems studied so far, this problem is solved by the formation of a loop in the lagging strand of the replication fork to reorient the lagging-strand DNA polymerase so that it advances in parallel with the leading-strand polymerase. The replication loop grows and shrinks during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The timing of Okazaki fragment synthesis and loop formation is determined by a subtle interplay of enzymatic activities at the fork. Recent developments in single-molecule techniques have enabled the direct observation of these processes and have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the replication fork. Here, we will review recent experimental advances, present the current models, and discuss some of the exciting developments in the field. 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Timing, coordination, and rhythm: Acrobatics at the DNA replication fork

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Samir; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2010-01-01

    In DNA replication, the antiparallel nature of the parental duplex imposes certain constraints on the activity of the DNA polymerases that synthesize new DNA. The leading-strand polymerase advances in a continuous fashion, but the lagging-strand polymerase is forced to restart at short intervals. In several prokaryotic systems studied so far, this problem is solved by the formation of a loop in the lagging strand of the replication fork to reorient the lagging-strand DNA polymerase so that it advances in parallel with the leading-strand polymerase. The replication loop grows and shrinks during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The timing of Okazaki fragment synthesis and loop formation is determined by a subtle interplay of enzymatic activities at the fork. Recent developments in single-molecule techniques have enabled the direct observation of these processes and have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the replication fork. Here, we will review recent experimental advances, present the current models, and discuss some of the exciting developments in the field. 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Replication and Robustness in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2014-01-01

    Replications and robustness checks are key elements of the scientific method and a staple in many disciplines. However, leading journals in developmental psychology rarely include explicit replications of prior research conducted by different investigators, and few require authors to establish in their articles or online appendices that their key…

  2. Three Conceptual Replication Studies in Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Many studies in mathematics education research occur with a nonrepresentative sample and are never replicated. To challenge this paradigm, I designed a large-scale study evaluating student conceptions in group theory that surveyed a national, representative sample of students. By replicating questions previously used to build theory around student…

  3. Using Replication Projects in Teaching Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G.; Grenier, Manuel; Lane, Erica A.; Roberts, Meigan S.; Sykes, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that replication projects may be valuable in teaching research methods, and also address the current need in psychology for more independent verification of published studies. Their use in an undergraduate methods course is described, involving student teams who performed direct replications of four well-known experiments, yielding…

  4. Dynamic behavior of DNA replication domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, E. M.; Stap, J.; Strackee, J.; van Driel, R.; Aten, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Like many nuclear processes, DNA replication takes place in distinct domains that are scattered throughout the S-phase nucleus. Recently we have developed a fluorescent double-labeling procedure that allows us to visualize nascent DNA simultaneously with "newborn" DNA that had replicated earlier in

  5. Field trials in South China to control the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) using radiation-induced sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R.; Xia, D.; Gu, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the control of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella by the sterile insect technique (SIT). Our studies included mating characteristics, sterility of the F 1 generation, dispersal and recapture of irradiated moths, as well as control of DBM using SIT and F 1 sterility, and an economic evaluation of F 1 sterility to protect cabbage. Male DBM mated an average of 16 times and female DBM mated an average of 4 times. However, irradiated male DBM only mated an average of 7.2 times. Seventy percent of matings occurred from 18:00-24:00 h with an average duration of 80 min. Irradiated male moths and untreated male moths exhibited the same attraction to female moths. After 10 days, most (94.2%) of the released, sterile DBM were recaptured within 40 m of the release site. Only one DBM was recaptured at 120 m from the release site. The area of dispersal was calculated to be 696 m 2 during the first three days. In a field study to control DBM by releases of irradiated insects, the ratio of sterile to wild DBM was 4.7:1. During this study, the egg sterility in the F 1 and F 2 generations was 79.0% and 81.7%, respectively. The developmental times for the F 1 and F 2 generations were 4 and 12 days longer, respectively, than for DBM in the control area. Thus, the number of DBM generations was reduced in the treated field. With successive releases over two generations, the control effectiveness was 80.8% in the F 1 generation and 79.1% in the F 2 generation. The cost of using F 1 sterility to control DBM in a small field was similar to the cost of using pesticides. Therefore, the use of F 1 sterility should be an economically viable control strategy for DBM that also would help protect the environment from the overuse of pesticides. (author)

  6. Collaborative Strategic Reading: Replications with Consideration of the Role of Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Reutebuch, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a multicomponent reading intervention aimed at improving students' text comprehension. Two 1-year randomized controlled trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of CSR with seventh and eighth grade students. The Year 2 replication study was identical to the original Year 1 study except that the…

  7. Managing clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Sara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Managing clinical trials, of whatever size and complexity, requires efficient trial management. Trials fail because tried and tested systems handed down through apprenticeships have not been documented, evaluated or published to guide new trialists starting out in this important field. For the past three decades, trialists have invented and reinvented the trial management wheel. We suggest that to improve the successful, timely delivery of important clinical trials for patient benefit, it is time to produce standard trial management guidelines and develop robust methods of evaluation.

  8. Transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields for multiple chemical sensitivity: Study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Skovbjerg, Sine; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    . The symptoms may have severe impact on patients' lives, but an evidence-based treatment for the condition is nonexisting. The pathophysiology is unclarified, but several indicators point towards abnormal processing of sensory signals in the central nervous system. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) offer...... follow-up according to a predefined timetable. The primary outcome will be a measurement of the impact of MCS on everyday life. The secondary outcomes will be measurements of MCS symptoms, psychological distress (stress, anxiety or depressive symptoms), capsaicin-induced secondary punctate hyperalgesia...

  9. Pole-mounted horizontal axis micro-wind turbines: UK field trial findings and market size assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissons, M.F.; James, P.A.B.; Bradford, J.; Myers, L.E.; Bahaj, A.S.; Anwar, A.; Green, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the key findings of the pole-mounted turbine (2.5-6 kWp) component of the UK micro-wind trial. The real world performance of horizontal axis turbines is compared with yield estimates based on site wind speed prediction. The distribution of UK agricultural farms is overlaid with wind resource mapping to estimate the number of potential agricultural farm sites for micro-wind. The yield performance of turbines during the monitoring period was observed to be very close to that predicted by NOABL-MCS wind speed estimates. Based on an installation criterion of a maximum 12 year payback time, with a 6% discount rate and micro-generation feed in tariffs available, there are ∼87,000 farm sites for micro-wind in the UK. If 10% of these farms were to install micro-wind turbines (to a capacity of 48 kWp per farm) this would correspond to a capacity of 418 MWp, with an annual generation yield of 1025 GWh, comparable to that of a large, on shore wind farm in the UK. It should be noted that the feed in tariff considered in this paper is that available in the UK in 2011, which, at 26.7 p/kWh (∼30 Euro cents/kWh) represents a significant subsidy. - Highlights: → Estimated 87,000 agricultural farm sites which are economic for pole mounted micro-wind in the UK. → Good agreement between NOABL-MCS yield prediction and site measurements for UK pole mounted turbines. → Pole mounted micro-wind has favourable economics under current UK feed in tariffs.

  10. A Replication by Any Other Name: A Systematic Review of Replicative Intervention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bryan G.; Collins, Lauren W.; Cook, Sara C.; Cook, Lysandra

    2016-01-01

    Replication research is essential to scientific knowledge. Reviews of replication studies often electronically search for "replicat*" as a textword, which does not identify studies that replicate previous research but do not self-identify as such. We examined whether the 83 intervention studies published in six non-categorical research…

  11. Recommendations for Replication Research in Special Education: A Framework of Systematic, Conceptual Replications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Michael D.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Special education researchers conduct studies that can be considered replications. However, they do not often refer to them as replication studies. The purpose of this article is to consider the potential benefits of conceptualizing special education intervention research within a framework of systematic, conceptual replication. Specifically, we…

  12. Surface Microstructure Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    2005-01-01

    topography is transcribed onto the plastic part through complex mechanisms. This replication however, is not perfect, and the replication quality depends on the plastic material properties, the topography itself, and the process conditions. This paper describes and discusses an investigation of injection...... moulding of surface microstructures. Emphasis is put on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection moulding conditions, notably with low cost materials at low mould temperatures. The replication of surface microstructures in injection moulding has been explored...... for Polypropylene at low mould temperatures. The process conditions were varied over the recommended process window for the material. The geometry of the obtained structures was analyzed. Evidence suggests that step height replication quality depends linearly on structure width in a certain range. Further...

  13. Surface microstructure replication in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Uffe Arlø; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    topography is transcribed onto the plastic part through complex mechanisms. This replication, however, is not perfect, and the replication quality depends on the plastic material properties, the topography itself, and the process conditions. This paper describes and discusses an investigation of injection...... molding of surface microstructures. The fundamental problem of surface microstructure replication has been studied. The research is based on specific microstructures as found in lab-on-a-chip products and on rough surfaces generated from EDM (electro discharge machining) mold cavities. Emphasis is put...... on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection-molding conditions, i.e., with commodity materials within typical process windows. It was found that within typical process windows the replication quality depends significantly on several process parameters, and especially the mold...

  14. Rescue from replication stress during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Michalis; Naim, Valeria

    2017-04-03

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer and a common feature of human disorders, characterized by growth defects, neurodegeneration, cancer predisposition, and aging. Recent evidence has shown that DNA replication stress is a major driver of genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Cells can undergo mitosis with under-replicated DNA or unresolved DNA structures, and specific pathways are dedicated to resolving these structures during mitosis, suggesting that mitotic rescue from replication stress (MRRS) is a key process influencing genome stability and cellular homeostasis. Deregulation of MRRS following oncogene activation or loss-of-function of caretaker genes may be the cause of chromosomal aberrations that promote cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the causes and consequences of replication stress, focusing on its persistence in mitosis as well as the mechanisms and factors involved in its resolution, and the potential impact of incomplete replication or aberrant MRRS on tumorigenesis, aging and disease.

  15. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuai; Realegeno, Susan; Pant, Anil; Satheshkumar, Panayampalli S; Yang, Zhilong

    2017-01-01

    Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  16. Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV, the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. The inhibitory effect of resveratrol on poxviruses is independent of VACV N1 protein, a potential resveratrol binding target. Further experiments demonstrated that resveratrol had little effect on VACV early gene expression, while it suppressed VACV DNA synthesis, and subsequently post-replicative gene expression.

  17. Critical appraisal of arguments for the delayed-start design proposed as alternative to the parallel-group randomized clinical trial design in the field of rare disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M; Jenz, Eva; Großhennig, Anika; Koch, Armin

    2017-08-17

    A number of papers have proposed or evaluated the delayed-start design as an alternative to the standard two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial (RCT) design in the field of rare disease. However the discussion is felt to lack a sufficient degree of consideration devoted to the true virtues of the delayed start design and the implications either in terms of required sample-size, overall information, or interpretation of the estimate in the context of small populations. To evaluate whether there are real advantages of the delayed-start design particularly in terms of overall efficacy and sample size requirements as a proposed alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease. We used a real-life example to compare the delayed-start design with the standard RCT in terms of sample size requirements. Then, based on three scenarios regarding the development of the treatment effect over time, the advantages, limitations and potential costs of the delayed-start design are discussed. We clarify that delayed-start design is not suitable for drugs that establish an immediate treatment effect, but for drugs with effects developing over time, instead. In addition, the sample size will always increase as an implication for a reduced time on placebo resulting in a decreased treatment effect. A number of papers have repeated well-known arguments to justify the delayed-start design as appropriate alternative to the standard parallel group RCT in the field of rare disease and do not discuss the specific needs of research methodology in this field. The main point is that a limited time on placebo will result in an underestimated treatment effect and, in consequence, in larger sample size requirements compared to those expected under a standard parallel-group design. This also impacts on benefit-risk assessment.

  18. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chul Yun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013 in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively.

  19. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-09-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively.

  20. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively. PMID:25289014

  1. A New Replication Norm for Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne P LeBel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a growing concern regarding the replicability of findings in psychology, including a mounting number of prominent findings that have failed to replicate via high-powered independent replication attempts. In the face of this replicability “crisis of confidence”, several initiatives have been implemented to increase the reliability of empirical findings. In the current article, I propose a new replication norm that aims to further boost the dependability of findings in psychology. Paralleling the extant social norm that researchers should peer review about three times as many articles that they themselves publish per year, the new replication norm states that researchers should aim to independently replicate important findings in their own research areas in proportion to the number of original studies they themselves publish per year (e.g., a 4:1 original-to-replication studies ratio. I argue this simple approach could significantly advance our science by increasing the reliability and cumulative nature of our empirical knowledge base, accelerating our theoretical understanding of psychological phenomena, instilling a focus on quality rather than quantity, and by facilitating our transformation toward a research culture where executing and reporting independent direct replications is viewed as an ordinary part of the research process. To help promote the new norm, I delineate (1 how each of the major constituencies of the research process (i.e., funders, journals, professional societies, departments, and individual researchers can incentivize replications and promote the new norm and (2 any obstacles each constituency faces in supporting the new norm.

  2. Prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of multidigit number: exemplifying a replication framework for mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Erik; Simpson, Amber

    2018-04-01

    Replication studies play a critical role in scientific accumulation of knowledge, yet replication studies in mathematics education are rare. In this study, the authors replicated Thanheiser's (Educational Studies in Mathematics 75:241-251, 2010) study of prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of multidigit number and examined the main claim that most elementary pre-service teachers think about digits incorrectly at least some of the time. Results indicated no statistically significant difference in the distribution of conceptions between the original and replication samples and, moreover, no statistically significant differences in the distribution of sub-conceptions among prospective teachers with the most common conception. These results suggest confidence is warranted both in the generality of the main claim and in the utility of the conceptions framework for describing prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of multidigit number. The report further contributes a framework for replication of mathematics education research adapted from the field of psychology.

  3. Field Trial on a Rack-mounted DC Power Supply System with 80-Ah Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Toshio

    Using an industrial lithium-ion battery that has higher energy density than conventional valve-regulated lead-acid batteries, a rack-mounted DC-power-supply system was assembled and tested at a base transceiver station (BTS) offering actual services. A nominal output voltage and maximum output current of the system is 53.5V and 20A, respectively. An 80-Ah lithium-ion battery composed of 13 cells connected in series was applied in the system and maintained in a floating charge method. The DC-power-supply system was installed in a 19-inch power rack in the telecommunications equipment box at BTS. The characteristics of the 80Ah lithium-ion battery, specifications of the DC-power-supply system and field-test results were shown in this paper.

  4. Secure transfer of surveillance data over Internet using Virtual Private Network technology. Field trial between STUK and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, H.; Martinez, R.; Caskey, S.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Poellaenen, R.; Jeremica, N.; Ford, G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary concerns of employing remote monitoring technologies for IAEA safeguards applications is the high cost of data transmission. Transmitting data over the Internet has been shown often to be less expensive than other data transmission methods. However, data security of the Internet is often considered to be at a low level. Virtual Private Networks has emerged as a solution to this problem. A field demonstration was implemented to evaluate the use of Virtual Private Networks (via the Internet) as a means for data transmission. Evaluation points included security, reliability and cost. The existing Finnish Remote Environmental Monitoring System, located at the STUK facility in Helsinki, Finland, served as the field demonstration system. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) established a Virtual Private Network between STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) Headquarters in Helsinki, Finland, and IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Data from the existing STUK Remote Monitoring System was viewed at the IAEA via this network. The Virtual Private Network link was established in a proper manner, which guarantees the data security. Encryption was verified using a network sniffer. No problems were? encountered during the test. In the test system, fixed costs were higher than in the previous system, which utilized telephone lines. On the other hand transmission and operating costs are very low. Therefore, with low data amounts, the test system is not cost-effective, but if the data amount is tens of Megabytes per day the use of Virtual Private Networks and Internet will be economically justifiable. A cost-benefit analysis should be performed for each site due to significant variables. (orig.)

  5. Data from Investigating Variation in Replicability: A “Many Labs” Replication Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Klein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset is from the Many Labs Replication Project in which 13 effects were replicated across 36 samples and over 6,000 participants. Data from the replications are included, along with demographic variables about the participants and contextual information about the environment in which the replication was conducted. Data were collected in-lab and online through a standardized procedure administered via an online link. The dataset is stored on the Open Science Framework website. These data could be used to further investigate the results of the included 13 effects or to study replication and generalizability more broadly.

  6. Field reliability of competence to stand trial opinions: How often do evaluators agree, and what do judges decide when evaluators disagree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowensmith, W Neil; Murrie, Daniel C; Boccaccini, Marcus T

    2012-04-01

    Despite many studies that examine the reliability of competence to stand trial (CST) evaluations, few shed light on "field reliability," or agreement among forensic evaluators in routine practice. We reviewed 216 cases from Hawaii, which requires three separate evaluations from independent clinicians for each felony defendant referred for CST evaluation. Results revealed moderate agreement. In 71% of initial CST evaluations, all evaluators agreed about a defendant's competence or incompetence (kappa = .65). Agreement was somewhat lower (61%, kappa = .57) in re-evaluations of defendants who were originally found incompetent and sent for restoration services. We also examined the decisions judges made about a defendant's CST. When evaluators disagreed, judges tended to make decisions consistent with the majority opinion. But when judges disagreed with the majority opinion, they more often did so to find a defendant incompetent than competent, suggesting a generally conservative approach. Overall, results reveal moderate agreement among independent evaluators in routine practice. But we discuss the potential for standardized training and methodology to further improve the field reliability of CST evaluations.

  7. Lessons From Paired Data From exPVP Maize Lines in Agronomic Field Trials and RGB And Hyperspectral Time-Series Imaging In Controlled Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnable, J. C.; Pandey, P.; Ge, Y.; Xu, Y.; Qiu, Y.; Liang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Maize Zea mays ssp. mays is one of three crops, along with rice and wheat, responsible for more than 1/2 of all calories consumed around the world. Increasing the yield and stress tolerance of these crops is essential to meet the growing need for food. The cost and speed of plant phenotyping is currently the largest constraint on plant breeding efforts. Datasets linking new types of high throughput phenotyping data collected from plants to the performance of the same genotypes under agronomic conditions across a wide range of environments are essential for developing new statistical approaches and computer vision based tools. A set of maize inbreds and hybrids - primarily recently off patent lines - were phenotyped using a high throughput platform at University of Nebraska-Lincoln. These lines have been previously subjected to high density genotyping, and scored for a core set of 13 phenotypes in field trials across 13 North American states in 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017. Correlations between image-based measurements and manual measurements demonstrated the feasibility of quantifying variation in plant architecture using image data. However, we demonstrate that naive approaches to measuring traits such as biomass where are developed without integrating genotypic information can introduce nonrandom measurement errors which are confounded with variation between plant accessions. Analysis of hyperspectral image data demonstrated unique signatures from stem tissue which were not identified using aerial imagry. Integrating heritable phenotypes from high-throughput phenotyping data with field data from different environments can reveal previously unknown factors influencing yield plasticity.

  8. Genomic Selection in Multi-environment Crop Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakey, Helena; Cullis, Brian; Thompson, Robin; Comadran, Jordi; Halpin, Claire; Waugh, Robbie

    2016-05-03

    Genomic selection in crop breeding introduces modeling challenges not found in animal studies. These include the need to accommodate replicate plants for each line, consider spatial variation in field trials, address line by environment interactions, and capture nonadditive effects. Here, we propose a flexible single-stage genomic selection approach that resolves these issues. Our linear mixed model incorporates spatial variation through environment-specific terms, and also randomization-based design terms. It considers marker, and marker by environment interactions using ridge regression best linear unbiased prediction to extend genomic selection to multiple environments. Since the approach uses the raw data from line replicates, the line genetic variation is partitioned into marker and nonmarker residual genetic variation (i.e., additive and nonadditive effects). This results in a more precise estimate of marker genetic effects. Using barley height data from trials, in 2 different years, of up to 477 cultivars, we demonstrate that our new genomic selection model improves predictions compared to current models. Analyzing single trials revealed improvements in predictive ability of up to 5.7%. For the multiple environment trial (MET) model, combining both year trials improved predictive ability up to 11.4% compared to a single environment analysis. Benefits were significant even when fewer markers were used. Compared to a single-year standard model run with 3490 markers, our partitioned MET model achieved the same predictive ability using between 500 and 1000 markers depending on the trial. Our approach can be used to increase accuracy and confidence in the selection of the best lines for breeding and/or, to reduce costs by using fewer markers. Copyright © 2016 Oakey et al.

  9. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  10. The Inherent Asymmetry of DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snedeker, Jonathan; Wooten, Matthew; Chen, Xin

    2017-10-06

    Semiconservative DNA replication has provided an elegant solution to the fundamental problem of how life is able to proliferate in a way that allows cells, organisms, and populations to survive and replicate many times over. Somewhat lost, however, in our admiration for this mechanism is an appreciation for the asymmetries that occur in the process of DNA replication. As we discuss in this review, these asymmetries arise as a consequence of the structure of the DNA molecule and the enzymatic mechanism of DNA synthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that asymmetries in DNA replication are able to play a central role in the processes of adaptation and evolution by shaping the mutagenic landscape of cells. Additionally, in eukaryotes, recent work has demonstrated that the inherent asymmetries in DNA replication may play an important role in the process of chromatin replication. As chromatin plays an essential role in defining cell identity, asymmetries generated during the process of DNA replication may play critical roles in cell fate decisions related to patterning and development.

  11. Ultrastructural Characterization of Zika Virus Replication Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Cortese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A global concern has emerged with the pandemic spread of Zika virus (ZIKV infections that can cause severe neurological symptoms in adults and newborns. ZIKV is a positive-strand RNA virus replicating in virus-induced membranous replication factories (RFs. Here we used various imaging techniques to investigate the ultrastructural details of ZIKV RFs and their relationship with host cell organelles. Analyses of human hepatic cells and neural progenitor cells infected with ZIKV revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane invaginations containing pore-like openings toward the cytosol, reminiscent to RFs in Dengue virus-infected cells. Both the MR766 African strain and the H/PF/2013 Asian strain, the latter linked to neurological diseases, induce RFs of similar architecture. Importantly, ZIKV infection causes a drastic reorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments forming cage-like structures surrounding the viral RF. Consistently, ZIKV replication is suppressed by cytoskeleton-targeting drugs. Thus, ZIKV RFs are tightly linked to rearrangements of the host cell cytoskeleton. : Cortese et al. show that ZIKV infection in both human hepatoma and neuronal progenitor cells induces drastic structural modification of the cellular architecture. Microtubules and intermediate filaments surround the viral replication factory composed of vesicles corresponding to ER membrane invagination toward the ER lumen. Importantly, alteration of microtubule flexibility impairs ZIKV replication. Keywords: Zika virus, flavivirus, human neural progenitor cells, replication factories, replication organelles, microtubules, intermediate filaments, electron microscopy, electron tomography, live-cell imaging

  12. Experimental studies on the weathering of chemicals in a field trial to predict their behaviour in case of a spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamaca, E.; Merlin, F.X.; Le Floch, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the world's production of vegetable oil is transported by sea. In 2001, nearly 850,000 tons of vegetable oil entered and left harbours in France. This trend increases the risk of accidental spills at sea. The physical state of vegetable oil changes when it is spilled at sea, turning this non-toxic product into a pollutant that damages the marine ecosystem. This study demonstrated how vegetable oil could react when spilled at sea. A series of field studies were conducted to obtain experimental data on the behaviour of vegetable oil both on the surface of water and in the water column. Castor oil, soybean oil, oleic acid and dioctylphtalate were released at sea and the dispersion of the oil in the water was monitored with a fluorimeter. Measurements were taken to a depth of 1 metre. Emulsification and viscosity kinetics were monitored. The study showed that the behaviour of the 4 products depends on the nature of the product and weather conditions such as wind and sea surface state. Vegetable oil spilled at sea behaves differently from spilled chemical products in terms of solubility. It was suggested that in the case of an accidental spill at sea, emergency responders should first pump the oil and then use dispersants. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  13. Static magnetic field therapy for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Michael I; Wolfe, Gil I; Barohn, Richard A; Cole, Steven P; Parry, Gareth J; Hayat, Ghazala; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Page, Jeffrey C; Bromberg, Mark B; Schwartz, Sherwyn L

    2003-05-01

    To determine if constant wearing of multipolar, static magnetic (450G) shoe insoles can reduce neuropathic pain and quality of life (QOL) scores in symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Randomized, placebo-control, parallel study. Forty-eight centers in 27 states. Three hundred seventy-five subjects with DPN stage II or III were randomly assigned to wear constantly magnetized insoles for 4 months; the placebo group wore similar, unmagnetized device. Nerve conduction and/or quantified sensory testing were performed serially. Daily visual analog scale scores for numbness or tingling and burning and QOL issues were tabulated over 4 months. Secondary measures included nerve conduction changes, role of placebo, and safety issues. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and chi-square analysis were performed. There were statistically significant reductions during the third and fourth months in burning (mean change for magnet treatment, -12%; for sham, -3%; P<.05, ANCOVA), numbness and tingling (magnet, -10%; sham, +1%; P<.05, ANCOVA), and exercise-induced foot pain (magnet, -12%; sham, -4%; P<.05, ANCOVA). For a subset of patients with baseline severe pain, statistically significant reductions occurred from baseline through the fourth month in numbness and tingling (magnet, -32%; sham, -14%; P<.01, ANOVA) and foot pain (magnet, -41%; sham, -21%; P<.01, ANOVA). Static magnetic fields can penetrate up to 20mm and appear to target the ectopic firing nociceptors in the epidermis and dermis. Analgesic benefits were achieved over time.

  14. Summary of field trials using the direct and competitive enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibody to brucella abortus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.; Gall, D.

    1998-01-01

    Two indirect and two competitive enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus, validated elsewhere, were field tested in five different Latin American laboratories. Testing was performed according to standardised protocols using sera obtained in each area. Sera from B. abortus infected herds, from vaccinated (but serologically negative in a screening test) and non-vaccinated cattle were tested in each assay and compared to the results obtained with conventional diagnostic tests used for diagnosis of brucellosis in each country. Relative sensitivity and specificity values were calculated for each country as well as a weighted summary combining the data from all the participating laboratories. The result demonstrate that all ELISAs performed as well as, or better than, the conventional aerological tests. Given the inherent errors in the use of the latter in the diagnosis of brucellosis, it is recommended that the ELISAs described here be considered as replacements for the conventional tests. The CELISA using the lipopolysaccharide antigen with the competing monoclonal antibody M84, should be considered as the most useful because of cross-species and vaccination considerations. (author)

  15. MYC and the Control of DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Sola, David; Gautier, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The MYC oncogene is a multifunctional protein that is aberrantly expressed in a significant fraction of tumors from diverse tissue origins. Because of its multifunctional nature, it has been difficult to delineate the exact contributions of MYC’s diverse roles to tumorigenesis. Here, we review the normal role of MYC in regulating DNA replication as well as its ability to generate DNA replication stress when overexpressed. Finally, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which replication stress induced by aberrant MYC expression could contribute to genomic instability and cancer. PMID:24890833

  16. Replicated Data Management for Mobile Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Douglas, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Managing data in a mobile computing environment invariably involves caching or replication. In many cases, a mobile device has access only to data that is stored locally, and much of that data arrives via replication from other devices, PCs, and services. Given portable devices with limited resources, weak or intermittent connectivity, and security vulnerabilities, data replication serves to increase availability, reduce communication costs, foster sharing, and enhance survivability of critical information. Mobile systems have employed a variety of distributed architectures from client-server

  17. Statistical correction of the Winner's Curse explains replication variability in quantitative trait genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Palmer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified hundreds of SNPs responsible for variation in human quantitative traits. However, genome-wide-significant associations often fail to replicate across independent cohorts, in apparent inconsistency with their apparent strong effects in discovery cohorts. This limited success of replication raises pervasive questions about the utility of the GWAS field. We identify all 332 studies of quantitative traits from the NHGRI-EBI GWAS Database with attempted replication. We find that the majority of studies provide insufficient data to evaluate replication rates. The remaining papers replicate significantly worse than expected (p < 10-14, even when adjusting for regression-to-the-mean of effect size between discovery- and replication-cohorts termed the Winner's Curse (p < 10-16. We show this is due in part to misreporting replication cohort-size as a maximum number, rather than per-locus one. In 39 studies accurately reporting per-locus cohort-size for attempted replication of 707 loci in samples with similar ancestry, replication rate matched expectation (predicted 458, observed 457, p = 0.94. In contrast, ancestry differences between replication and discovery (13 studies, 385 loci cause the most highly-powered decile of loci to replicate worse than expected, due to difference in linkage disequilibrium.

  18. Field Trial of an Aerially-Distributed Tuberculosis Vaccine in a Low-Density Wildlife Population of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Nugent

    Full Text Available Oral-delivery Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine in a lipid matrix has been shown to confer protection against M. bovis infection and reduce the severity of tuberculosis (TB when fed to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula, the major wildlife vector of bovine TB in New Zealand. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of aerial delivery of this live vaccine in bait form to an M. bovis-infected wild possum population, and subsequently assess vaccine uptake and field efficacy. Pre-trial studies indicated a resident possum population at very low density (5 baits available per possum. Blood sampling conducted two months later provided some evidence of vaccine uptake. A necropsy survey conducted one year later identified a lower prevalence of culture-confirmed M. bovis infection and/or gross TB lesions among adult possums in vaccinated areas (1.1% prevalence; 95% CI, 0-3.3%, n = 92 than in unvaccinated areas (5.6%; 0.7-10.5%, n = 89; P = 0.098. Although not statistically different, the 81% efficacy in protecting possums against natural infection calculated from these data is within the range of previous estimates of vaccine efficacy in trials where BCG vaccine was delivered manually. We conclude that, with further straightforward refinement to improve free-choice uptake, aerial delivery of oral BCG vaccine is likely to be effective in controlling TB in wild possums. We briefly discuss contexts in which this could potentially become an important complementary tool in achieving national eradication of TB from New Zealand wildlife.

  19. Field Trial of an Aerially-Distributed Tuberculosis Vaccine in a Low-Density Wildlife Population of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Graham; Yockney, Ivor J; Whitford, E Jackie; Cross, Martin L; Aldwell, Frank E; Buddle, Bryce M

    2016-01-01

    Oral-delivery Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in a lipid matrix has been shown to confer protection against M. bovis infection and reduce the severity of tuberculosis (TB) when fed to brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), the major wildlife vector of bovine TB in New Zealand. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of aerial delivery of this live vaccine in bait form to an M. bovis-infected wild possum population, and subsequently assess vaccine uptake and field efficacy. Pre-trial studies indicated a resident possum population at very low density (matrix baits in weather-proof sachets could be successfully sown aerially via helicopter and were palatable to, and likely to be consumed by, a majority of wild possums under free-choice conditions. Subsequently, sachet-held lipid baits containing live BCG vaccine were sown at 3 baits/ha over a 1360 ha area, equating to >5 baits available per possum. Blood sampling conducted two months later provided some evidence of vaccine uptake. A necropsy survey conducted one year later identified a lower prevalence of culture-confirmed M. bovis infection and/or gross TB lesions among adult possums in vaccinated areas (1.1% prevalence; 95% CI, 0-3.3%, n = 92) than in unvaccinated areas (5.6%; 0.7-10.5%, n = 89); P = 0.098. Although not statistically different, the 81% efficacy in protecting possums against natural infection calculated from these data is within the range of previous estimates of vaccine efficacy in trials where BCG vaccine was delivered manually. We conclude that, with further straightforward refinement to improve free-choice uptake, aerial delivery of oral BCG vaccine is likely to be effective in controlling TB in wild possums. We briefly discuss contexts in which this could potentially become an important complementary tool in achieving national eradication of TB from New Zealand wildlife.

  20. Field trials in Norway with SLICE (0.2% emamectin benzoate) for the oral treatment of sea lice infestation in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, A; Colquhoun, D J; Nordmo, R; Sutherland, I H; Simmons, R

    2002-06-21

    Four commercial salmon farms on the West coast of Norway were recruited to a programme of field trials in which the efficacy of SLICE (0.2% emamectin benzoate; Schering-Plough Animal Health) was compared with a commercially available product, EKTOBANN (teflubenzuron 2 g kg(-1); Skretting A/S) in treating natural sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis infections in Atlantic salmon Salmo salmar L. At each test site, 3 fish pens were treated with each product. In total, nearly 1.2 million first-year-class fish were included in the trial, of which approximately 561,000 received emamectin benzoate at a dosage of 50 microg kg(-1) body wt d(-1), while approximately 610,000 received teflubenzuron at a dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) body wt d(-1). Medicated feed was provided at 0.5% body wt d(-1) over 7 consecutive days. Feed containing emamectin benzoate was generally well accepted by the fish and no problems were encountered in feeding the medicated diet at the desired dose. Lice numbers were counted 2 d before and 1, 7, 14 and 21 d after commencement of treatment. While treatment with both substances rapidly reduced lice numbers, pens treated with emamectin benzoate were found to harbour significantly fewer lice 14 and 21 d post-treatment. Twenty-one days following treatment with emamectin benzoate the lice abundance was reduced on average by 94%. Limited sampling outside the main study period indicated that emamectin benzoate protects against sea-lice infestation over longer periods.

  1. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Return to Sports After Arthroscopic Debridement and Microfracture of Osteochondral Talar Defects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilingh, Mikel L; van Bergen, Christiaan J A; Gerards, Rogier M; van Eekeren, Inge C; de Haan, Rob J; Sierevelt, Inger N; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Krips, Rover; Meuffels, Duncan E; van Dijk, C N; Blankevoort, Leendert

    2016-05-01

    Osteochondral defects (OCDs) of the talus usually affect athletic patients. The primary surgical treatment consists of arthroscopic debridement and microfracture. Various possibilities have been suggested to improve the recovery process after debridement and microfracture. A potential solution to obtain this goal is the application of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), which stimulate the repair process of bone and cartilage. The use of PEMFs after arthroscopic debridement and microfracture of an OCD of the talus leads to earlier resumption of sports and an increased number of patients that resume sports. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 68 patients were randomized to receive either PEMFs (n = 36) or placebo (n = 32) after arthroscopic treatment of an OCD of the talus. The primary outcomes (ie, the number of patients who resumed sports and time to resumption of sports) were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves as well as Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, and log-rank tests. Secondary functional outcomes were assessed with questionnaires (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, EuroQol, and numeric rating scales for pain and satisfaction) at multiple time points up to 1-year follow-up. To assess bone repair, computed tomography scans were obtained at 2 weeks and 1 year postoperatively. Almost all outcome measures improved significantly in both groups. The percentage of sport resumption (PEMF, 79%; placebo, 80%; P = .95) and median time to sport resumption (PEMF, 17 weeks; placebo, 16 weeks; P = .69) did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. Likewise, there were no significant between-group differences with regard to the secondary functional outcomes and the computed tomography results. PEMF does not lead to a higher percentage of patients who resume sports or to earlier resumption of sports after arthroscopic debridement and microfracture of talar OCDs. Furthermore, no

  2. The role of kelp crabs as consumers in bull kelp forests—evidence from laboratory feeding trials and field enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Dobkowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Northern kelp crab (Pugettia producta and the graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis are common primary consumers in bull kelp beds near the San Juan Islands (Salish Sea, NE Pacific. In this system, urchins (often considered the most voracious herbivores exerting top-down control on kelp beds tend to remain sedentary because of the high availability of detrital macroalgae, but the extent to which kelp crabs consume kelp (and other food options is largely unknown. I conducted four types of laboratory feeding experiments to evaluate kelp crab feeding patterns: (1 feeding electivity between bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana and seven species of co-occurring local macroalgae; (2 feeding electivity on aged vs. fresh bull kelp; (3 feeding preference between N. luetkeana and small snails (Lacuna sp.; and (4 scaling of feeding rate with body size in P. producta and P. gracilis. In choice experiments, P. producta consumed greater mass of N. luetkeana than of other macroalgal species offered and elected to eat fresh bull kelp over aged. However, P. producta also consumed snails (Lacuna sp., indicating more generalized feeding than previously suspected. Feeding rates for P. producta exceeded the expected 3∕4 scaling rule of metabolic rates, indicating that larger P. producta may have a disproportionately large impact on bull kelp. A subtidal field experiment, designed to assess the influence of consumers on juvenile bull kelp net tissue gain, found that only fully enclosed (protected bull kelp increased in wet mass and blade length. Herbivory by kelp crabs, among other consumers, is likely to play a previously unrecognized role in mediating the growth and survival of this annual kelp species within the Salish Sea.

  3. Effects of resource-building group intervention on career management and mental health in work organizations: randomized controlled field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti

    2012-03-01

    A resource-building group intervention was developed to enhance career management, mental health, and job retention in work organizations. The in-company training program provided employees with better preparedness to manage their own careers. The program activities were universally implemented using an organization-level, 2-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and occupational health services. The study was a within-organizations, randomly assigned field experimental study; it investigated the impacts of the intervention on immediate career management preparedness and later mental health and intentions to retire early. A total of 718 eligible individuals returned a questionnaire in 17 organizations and became voluntary participants. The respondents were randomly assigned to either an intervention (N = 369) or a comparison group (N = 349). Those in the intervention group were invited to group intervention workshops, whereas those in the comparison group received printed information about career and health-related issues. The 7-month follow-up results showed that the program significantly decreased depressive symptoms and intentions to retire early and increased mental resources among the group participants compared to the others. The mediation analyses demonstrated that the increase in career management preparedness as a proximal impact of the intervention mediated the longer term mental health effects. Those who benefited most from the intervention as regards their mental health were employees with elevated levels of depression or exhaustion and younger employees, implying additional benefits of a more targeted use of the intervention. The results demonstrated the benefits of the enhancement of individual-level career management and resilience resources as career and health promotion practice in work organizations.

  4. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ... humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ...

  5. What Should Researchers Expect When They Replicate Studies? A Statistical View of Replicability in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasad; Peng, Roger D; Leek, Jeffrey T

    2016-07-01

    A recent study of the replicability of key psychological findings is a major contribution toward understanding the human side of the scientific process. Despite the careful and nuanced analysis reported, the simple narrative disseminated by the mass, social, and scientific media was that in only 36% of the studies were the original results replicated. In the current study, however, we showed that 77% of the replication effect sizes reported were within a 95% prediction interval calculated using the original effect size. Our analysis suggests two critical issues in understanding replication of psychological studies. First, researchers' intuitive expectations for what a replication should show do not always match with statistical estimates of replication. Second, when the results of original studies are very imprecise, they create wide prediction intervals-and a broad range of replication effects that are consistent with the original estimates. This may lead to effects that replicate successfully, in that replication results are consistent with statistical expectations, but do not provide much information about the size (or existence) of the true effect. In this light, the results of the Reproducibility Project: Psychology can be viewed as statistically consistent with what one might expect when performing a large-scale replication experiment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Mapping replication origins in yeast chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1991-07-01

    The replicon hypothesis, first proposed in 1963 by Jacob and Brenner, states that DNA replication is controlled at sites called origins. Replication origins have been well studied in prokaryotes. However, the study of eukaryotic chromosomal origins has lagged behind, because until recently there has been no method for reliably determining the identity and location of origins from eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, we review a technique we developed with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allows both the mapping of replication origins and an assessment of their activity. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization with total genomic DNA are used to determine whether a particular restriction fragment acquires the branched structure diagnostic of replication initiation. The technique has been used to localize origins in yeast chromosomes and assess their initiation efficiency. In some cases, origin activation is dependent upon the surrounding context. The technique is also being applied to a variety of eukaryotic organisms.

  7. Advancing Polymerase Ribozymes Towards Self-Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjhung, K. F.; Joyce, G. F.

    2017-07-01

    Autocatalytic replication and evolution in vitro by (i) a cross-chiral RNA polymerase catalyzing polymerization of mononucleotides of the opposite handedness; (ii) non-covalent assembly of component fragments of an existing RNA polymerase ribozyme.

  8. Initiation of Replication in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Jakob

    The circular chromosome of Escherichia coli is replicated by two replisomes assembled at the unique origin and moving in the opposite direction until they meet in the less well defined terminus. The key protein in initiation of replication, DnaA, facilitates the unwinding of double-stranded DNA...... to single-stranded DNA in oriC. Although DnaA is able to bind both ADP and ATP, DnaA is only active in initiation when bound to ATP. Although initiation of replication, and the regulation of this, is thoroughly investigated it is still not fully understood. The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate...... the regulation of initiation, the effect on the cell when regulation fails, and if regulation was interlinked to chromosomal organization. This thesis uncovers that there exists a subtle balance between chromosome replication and reactive oxygen species (ROS) inflicted DNA damage. Thus, failure in regulation...

  9. LHCb Data Replication During SC3

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    LHCb's participation in LCG's Service Challenge 3 involves testing the bulk data transfer infrastructure developed to allow high bandwidth distribution of data across the grid in accordance with the computing model. To enable reliable bulk replication of data, LHCb's DIRAC system has been integrated with gLite's File Transfer Service middleware component to make use of dedicated network links between LHCb computing centres. DIRAC's Data Management tools previously allowed the replication, registration and deletion of files on the grid. For SC3 supplementary functionality has been added to allow bulk replication of data (using FTS) and efficient mass registration to the LFC replica catalog.Provisional performance results have shown that the system developed can meet the expected data replication rate required by the computing model in 2007. This paper details the experience and results of integration and utilisation of DIRAC with the SC3 transfer machinery.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication Checkpoint Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Recolin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge of the cell cycle is to deliver an intact, and fully duplicated, genetic material to the daughter cells. To this end, progression of DNA synthesis is monitored by a feedback mechanism known as replication checkpoint that is untimely linked to DNA replication. This signaling pathway ensures coordination of DNA synthesis with cell cycle progression. Failure to activate this checkpoint in response to perturbation of DNA synthesis (replication stress results in forced cell division leading to chromosome fragmentation, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. In this review, we will describe current knowledge of the molecular determinants of the DNA replication checkpoint in eukaryotic cells and discuss a model of activation of this signaling pathway crucial for maintenance of genomic stability.

  11. Locating Nearby Copies of Replicated Internet Servers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guyton, James D; Schwartz, Michael F

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of choosing among a collection of replicated servers focusing on the question of how to make choices that segregate client/server traffic according to network topology...

  12. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    The surface micro topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical and technical reasons. The quality of replication of mould surface topography onto the plastic surface depends among other factors on the process conditions. A study of this relationship has been...... carried out with rough EDM (electrical discharge machining) mould surfaces, a PS grade, and by applying established three-dimensional topography parameters. Significant quantitative relationships between process parameters and topography parameters were established. It further appeared that replication...

  13. The Legal Road To Replicating Silicon Valley

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour; Douglas Cumming

    2004-01-01

    Must policymakers seeking to replicate the success of Silicon Valley’s venture capital market first replicate other US institutions, such as deep and liquid stock markets? Or can legal reforms alone make a significant difference? In this paper, we compare the economic and legal determinants of venture capital investment, fundraising and exits. We introduce a cross-sectional and time series empirical analysis across 15 countries and 13 years of data spanning an entire business cycle. We show t...

  14. Evolution of Database Replication Technologies for WLCG

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Zbigniew; Pardavila, Lorena Lobato; Blaszczyk, Marcin; Dimitrov, Gancho; Canali, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this article we summarize several years of experience on database replication technologies used at WLCG and we provide a short review of the available Oracle technologies and their key characteristics. One of the notable changes and improvement in this area in recent past has been the introduction of Oracle GoldenGate as a replacement of Oracle Streams. We report in this article on the preparation and later upgrades for remote replication done in collaboration with ATLAS and Tier 1 databas...

  15. Modes of DNA repair and replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, P.; Kondo, S.

    1979-01-01

    Modes of DNA repair and replication require close coordination as well as some overlap of enzyme functions. Some classes of recovery deficient mutants may have defects in replication rather than repair modes. Lesions such as the pyrimidine dimers produced by ultraviolet light irradiation are the blocks to normal DNA replication in vivo and in vitro. The DNA synthesis by the DNA polymerase 1 of E. coli is blocked at one nucleotide away from the dimerized pyrimidines in template strands. Thus, some DNA polymerases seem to be unable to incorporate nucleotides opposite to the non-pairing lesions in template DNA strands. The lesions in template DNA strands may block the sequential addition of nucleotides in the synthesis of daughter strands. Normal replication utilizes a constitutive ''error-free'' mode that copies DNA templates with high fidelity, but which may be totally blocked at a lesion that obscures the appropriate base pairing specificity. It might be expected that modified replication system exhibits generally high error frequency. The error rate of DNA polymerases may be controlled by the degree of phosphorylation of the enzyme. Inducible SOS system is controlled by recA genes that also control the pathways for recombination. It is possible that SOS system involves some process other than the modification of a blocked replication apparatus to permit error-prone transdimer synthesis. (Yamashita, S.)

  16. Nonequilibrium Entropic Bounds for Darwinian Replicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Piñero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Life evolved on our planet by means of a combination of Darwinian selection and innovations leading to higher levels of complexity. The emergence and selection of replicating entities is a central problem in prebiotic evolution. Theoretical models have shown how populations of different types of replicating entities exclude or coexist with other classes of replicators. Models are typically kinetic, based on standard replicator equations. On the other hand, the presence of thermodynamical constraints for these systems remain an open question. This is largely due to the lack of a general theory of statistical methods for systems far from equilibrium. Nonetheless, a first approach to this problem has been put forward in a series of novel developements falling under the rubric of the extended second law of thermodynamics. The work presented here is twofold: firstly, we review this theoretical framework and provide a brief description of the three fundamental replicator types in prebiotic evolution: parabolic, malthusian and hyperbolic. Secondly, we employ these previously mentioned techinques to explore how replicators are constrained by thermodynamics. Finally, we comment and discuss where further research should be focused on.

  17. Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-09-16

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners’ replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization’s building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.

  18. Human Parvovirus B19 Utilizes Cellular DNA Replication Machinery for Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Zekun; Xiong, Min; Chen, Aaron Yun; Xu, Peng; Ganaie, Safder S; Badawi, Yomna; Kleiboeker, Steve; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Ye, Shui Qing; Qiu, Jianming

    2018-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection of human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) induces a DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest at late S phase, which facilitates viral DNA replication. However, it is not clear exactly which cellular factors are employed by this single-stranded DNA virus. Here, we used microarrays to systematically analyze the dynamic transcriptome of EPCs infected with B19V. We found that DNA metabolism, DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage response, cell cycle, and cell cycle arrest pathways were significantly regulated after B19V infection. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that most cellular DNA replication proteins were recruited to the centers of viral DNA replication, but not the DNA repair DNA polymerases. Our results suggest that DNA replication polymerase δ and polymerase α are responsible for B19V DNA replication by knocking down its expression in EPCs. We further showed that although RPA32 is essential for B19V DNA replication and the phosphorylated forms of RPA32 colocalized with the replicating viral genomes, RPA32 phosphorylation was not necessary for B19V DNA replication. Thus, this report provides evidence that B19V uses the cellular DNA replication machinery for viral DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection can cause transient aplastic crisis, persistent viremia, and pure red cell aplasia. In fetuses, B19V infection can result in nonimmune hydrops fetalis and fetal death. These clinical manifestations of B19V infection are a direct outcome of the death of human erythroid progenitors that host B19V replication. B19V infection induces a DNA damage response that is important for cell cycle arrest at late S phase. Here, we analyzed dynamic changes in cellular gene expression and found that DNA metabolic processes are tightly regulated during B19V infection. Although genes involved in cellular DNA replication were downregulated overall, the cellular DNA replication machinery was tightly

  19. Organization of Replication of Ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.

    1988-01-01

    Using recently developed replicon mapping techniques, we have analyzed the replication of the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that (i) the functional origin of replication colocalizes with an autonomously replicating sequence element previously mapped to the

  20. The Importance of Replication in Measurement Research: Using Curriculum-Based Measures with Postsecondary Students with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, John L.; Ford, Jeremy W.; Huddle, Sally M.; Hensley, Kiersten K.

    2018-01-01

    Replication is a foundation of the development of a knowledge base in an evidence-based field such as education. This study includes two direct replications of Hosp, Hensley, Huddle, and Ford which found evidence of criterion-related validity of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for reading and mathematics with postsecondary students with…

  1. How many bootstrap replicates are necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattengale, Nicholas D; Alipour, Masoud; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Moret, Bernard M E; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2010-03-01

    Phylogenetic bootstrapping (BS) is a standard technique for inferring confidence values on phylogenetic trees that is based on reconstructing many trees from minor variations of the input data, trees called replicates. BS is used with all phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, but we focus here on one of the most popular, maximum likelihood (ML). Because ML inference is so computationally demanding, it has proved too expensive to date to assess the impact of the number of replicates used in BS on the relative accuracy of the support values. For the same reason, a rather small number (typically 100) of BS replicates are computed in real-world studies. Stamatakis et al. recently introduced a BS algorithm that is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude faster than previous techniques, while yielding qualitatively comparable support values, making an experimental study possible. In this article, we propose stopping criteria--that is, thresholds computed at runtime to determine when enough replicates have been generated--and we report on the first large-scale experimental study to assess the effect of the number of replicates on the quality of support values, including the performance of our proposed criteria. We run our tests on 17 diverse real-world DNA--single-gene as well as multi-gene--datasets, which include 125-2,554 taxa. We find that our stopping criteria typically stop computations after 100-500 replicates (although the most conservative criterion may continue for several thousand replicates) while producing support values that correlate at better than 99.5% with the reference values on the best ML trees. Significantly, we also find that the stopping criteria can recommend very different numbers of replicates for different datasets of comparable sizes. Our results are thus twofold: (i) they give the first experimental assessment of the effect of the number of BS replicates on the quality of support values returned through BS, and (ii) they validate our proposals for

  2. Assessing the usefulness of mineral licks containing herbal extracts with anti-parasitic properties for the control of gastrointestinal helminths in grazing sheep – a field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosal P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the alternative methods of parasite control, of particular importance in sustainable farming, is the use of medicinal plants. The specific aim of the present field trial was to assess the anti-parasitic effects of herbal extracts contained in a commercially available lick formulation for sheep. At the outset of this study conducted during the grazing season, all animals were de-wormed and then randomly assigned to one of the two separately kept groups (treatment and control, each consisting of 25 animals (11 ewes and 14 lambs. The treatment group received mineral licks containing the extracts of the plants with anti-parasitic properties, while control animals received standard mineral licks ad libitum. Rectal fecal samples were collected monthly from all animals for the McMaster analyses. There were no significant differences in the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections between the treatment and control groups. Thus, we were not able to ascertain the efficacy of the commercial herbal de-wormer tested for the control of gastrointestinal helminths in grazing ewes and their lambs.

  3. Impact of selected magnetic fields on the therapeutic effect in patients with lumbar discopathy: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taradaj, Jakub; Ozon, Marcin; Dymarek, Robert; Bolach, Bartosz; Walewicz, Karolina; Rosińczuk, Joanna

    2018-03-23

    Interdisciplinary physical therapy together with pharmacological treatment constitute conservative treatment strategies related to low back pain (LBP). There is still a lack of high quality studies aimed at an objective evaluation of physiotherapeutic procedures according to their effectiveness in LBP. The aim of this study is to carry out a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, and placebocontrolled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of magnetic fields in discopathy-related LBP. A group of 177 patients was assessed for eligibility based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the end, 106 patients were randomly assigned into 5 comparative groups: A (n = 23; magnetic therapy: 10 mT, 50 Hz); B (n = 23; magnetic therapy: 5 mT, 50 Hz); C (n = 20; placebo magnetic therapy); D (n = 20; magnetic stimulation: 49.2 μT, 195 Hz); and E (n = 20; placebo magnetic stimulation). All patients were assessed using tests for pain intensity, degree of disability and range of motion. Also, postural stability was assessed using a stabilographic platform. In this study, positive changes in all clinical outcomes were demonstrated in group A (p 0.05). It was determined that the application of magnetic therapy (10 mT, 50 Hz, 20 min) significantly reduces pain symptoms and leads to an improvement of functional ability in patients with LBP.

  4. Limitations for phytoextraction management on metal-polluted soils with poplar short rotation coppice-evidence from a 6-year field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, E; Annicaerta, B; De Moor, S; Van Nevel, L; De Fraeye, M; Meiresonne, L; Vangronsveld, J; Tack, F M G; Ok, Y S; Meers, Erik

    2018-01-02

    Poplar clones were studied for their phytoextraction capacity in the second growth cycle (6-year growth) on a site in the Belgian Campine region, which is contaminated with Cd and Zn via historic atmospheric deposition of nearby zinc smelter activities. The field trial revealed regrowth problems for some clones that could not be predicted in the first growth cycle. Four allometric relations were assessed for their capacity to predict biomass yield in the second growth cycle. A power function based on the shoot diameter best estimates the biomass production of poplar with R 2 values between 0.94 and 0.98. The woody biomass yield ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 ton woody Dry Mass (DM) ha -1 y -1 . The primary goal was to reduce soil concentrations of metals caused by phytoextraction. Nevertheless, increased metal concentrations were determined in the topsoil. This increase can partially be explained by the input of metals from deeper soil layers in the top soil through litterfall. The phytoextraction option with poplar short rotation coppice in this setup did not lead to the intended soil remediation in a reasonable time span. Therefore, harvest of the leaf biomass is put forward as a crucial part of the strategy for soil remediation through Cd/Zn phytoextraction.

  5. Triple blind intervention field trial to compare the outcome parameters of the preventive package being administered by community animal health workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, F.; Khan, M.A.; Mahmood, A.; Rahman, Z.U.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized triple blind intervention field/community trial was conducted to compare different outcome parameters like morbidity rate, mortality rate, conception rate, prophylactic/ therapeutic efficacy rate and cost benefit ratio in a dairy cluster of district Kasur and Okara where the community based animal health delivery system was being practiced. In a cluster of 30 villages, 15 villages were selected as interventional group comprising of 1101 dairy animals and rest of the 15 villages as non- interventional control (placebo) group comprising of 9513 dairy animals. In the non-interventional group of villages, vaccinations anthelmintic and mineral mixture administration as a package was not practiced by the community animal health workers(CAHWS). In the intervention villages group, the preventive package was administered at the rate ranging from 95 to 100 %. The result with respect to morbidity rate, morality rate, conception rate and cost- benefit ratio was significantly better (P< 0.05) in the interventional group as compared to the non-interventional group. In both the groups the ratio of cattle and buffaloes ranged between 1:2.72 and 1: 2.82. (author)

  6. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF A LOCAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIUM USING 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCE THAT WAS USED FOR FIELD TRIAL TO ENHANCED WHITELEG SHRIMP (Litopenaeus vannamei SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tb. Haeru Rahayu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of local probiotics in the culture of aquatic organisms is increasing with the demand for more environmental-friendly aquaculture practices. The local bacterium isolate considered as a probiotic was added into the water of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture in a field trial. Four rectangular plastic ponds (ca. 20 m x 30 m per pond were used for 100 days experimentation for six consecutive crops in two years experiment. Survival, harvest size, feed conversion ratio (FCR and Vibrio bacterial count was compared with those of shrimp receiving and none of local isolate. Identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequence shown those isolate was Bacillus pumilus strain DURCK14 with 99% homology. Water shrimp pond added a local isolate had significantly higher survival at about 10.0% to 11.7% than shrimp without added the isolate (p<0.05, and better FCR, but no significant different in shrimp harvest size. Vibrio bacterial was undetected by total plate count. Moreover, it shown better projected yields on an annual basis (three crops per year.

  8. How (and Whether) to Teach Undergraduates about the Replication Crisis in Psychological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, William J.; Bremner, Ryan H.; Defever, Andrew M.; Keller, Victor N.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, crises surrounding replication, fraud, and best practices in research methods have dominated discussions in the field of psychology. However, no research exists examining how to communicate these issues to undergraduates and what effect this has on their attitudes toward the field. We developed and validated a 1-hr lecture…

  9. MOF Suppresses Replication Stress and Contributes to Resolution of Stalled Replication Forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Pandita, Raj K; Singh, Mayank; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Hambarde, Shashank; Ramnarain, Deepti; Charaka, Vijaya; Ahmed, Kazi Mokim; Hunt, Clayton R; Pandita, Tej K

    2018-03-15

    The human MOF (hMOF) protein belongs to the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases and plays a critical role in transcription and the DNA damage response. MOF is essential for cell proliferation; however, its role during replication and replicative stress is unknown. Here we demonstrate that cells depleted of MOF and under replicative stress induced by cisplatin, hydroxyurea, or camptothecin have reduced survival, a higher frequency of S-phase-specific chromosome damage, and increased R-loop formation. MOF depletion decreased replication fork speed and, when combined with replicative stress, also increased stalled replication forks as well as new origin firing. MOF interacted with PCNA, a key coordinator of replication and repair machinery at replication forks, and affected its ubiquitination and recruitment to the DNA damage site. Depletion of MOF, therefore, compromised the DNA damage repair response as evidenced by decreased Mre11, RPA70, Rad51, and PCNA focus formation, reduced DNA end resection, and decreased CHK1 phosphorylation in cells after exposure to hydroxyurea or cisplatin. These results support the argument that MOF plays an important role in suppressing replication stress induced by genotoxic agents at several stages during the DNA damage response. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Sterol Binding by the Tombusviral Replication Proteins Is Essential for Replication in Yeast and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Nagy, Peter D

    2017-04-01

    Membranous structures derived from various organelles are important for replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses. Although the important roles of co-opted host proteins in RNA virus replication have been appreciated for a decade, the equally important functions of cellular lipids in virus replication have been gaining full attention only recently. Previous work with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in model host yeast has revealed essential roles for phosphatidylethanolamine and sterols in viral replication. To further our understanding of the role of sterols in tombusvirus replication, in this work we showed that the TBSV p33 and p92 replication proteins could bind to sterols in vitro The sterol binding by p33 is supported by cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) and CARC-like sequences within the two transmembrane domains of p33. Mutagenesis of the critical Y amino acids within the CRAC and CARC sequences blocked TBSV replication in yeast and plant cells. We also showed the enrichment of sterols in the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fractions obtained from yeast and plant cells replicating TBSV. The DRMs could support viral RNA synthesis on both the endogenous and exogenous templates. A lipidomic approach showed the lack of enhancement of sterol levels in yeast and plant cells replicating TBSV. The data support the notion that the TBSV replication proteins are associated with sterol-rich detergent-resistant membranes in yeast and plant cells. Together, the results obtained in this study and the previously published results support the local enrichment of sterols around the viral replication proteins that is critical for TBSV replication. IMPORTANCE One intriguing aspect of viral infections is their dependence on efficient subcellular assembly platforms serving replication, virion assembly, or virus egress via budding out of infected cells. These assembly platforms might involve sterol-rich membrane microdomains, which are

  11. X-irradiation affects all DNA replication intermediates when inhibiting replication initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loenn, U.; Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm

    1982-01-01

    When a human melanoma line was irradiated with 10 Gy, there was, after 30 to 60 min, a gradual reduction in the DNA replication rate. Ten to twelve hours after the irradiation, the DNA replication had returned to near normal rate. The results showed tht low dose-rate X-irradiation inhibits preferentially the formation of small DNA replication intermediates. There is no difference between the inhibition of these replication intermediates formed only in the irradiated cells and those formed also in untreated cells. (U.K.)

  12. Realistic Vascular Replicator for TAVR Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Oren M; Kovarovic, Brandon; Sadasivan, Chander; Gruberg, Luis; Lieber, Baruch B; Bluestein, Danny

    2018-04-13

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an over-the-wire procedure for treatment of severe aortic stenosis (AS). TAVR valves are conventionally tested using simplified left heart simulators (LHS). While those provide baseline performance reliably, their aortic root geometries are far from the anatomical in situ configuration, often overestimating the valves' performance. We report on a novel benchtop patient-specific arterial replicator designed for testing TAVR and training interventional cardiologists in the procedure. The Replicator is an accurate model of the human upper body vasculature for training physicians in percutaneous interventions. It comprises of fully-automated Windkessel mechanism to recreate physiological flow conditions. Calcified aortic valve models were fabricated and incorporated into the Replicator, then tested for performing TAVR procedure by an experienced cardiologist using the Inovare valve. EOA, pressures, and angiograms were monitored pre- and post-TAVR. A St. Jude mechanical valve was tested as a reference that is less affected by the AS anatomy. Results in the Replicator of both valves were compared to the performance in a commercial ISO-compliant LHS. The AS anatomy in the Replicator resulted in a significant decrease of the TAVR valve performance relative to the simplified LHS, with EOA and transvalvular pressures comparable to clinical data. Minor change was seen in the mechanical valve performance. The Replicator showed to be an effective platform for TAVR testing. Unlike a simplified geometric anatomy LHS, it conservatively provides clinically-relevant outcomes and complement it. The Replicator can be most valuable for testing new valves under challenging patient anatomies, physicians training, and procedural planning.

  13. A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Balapiravir, a Polymerase Inhibitor, in Adult Dengue Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Tran, Chau Nguyen Bich; Phung, Lam Khanh; Duong, Kien Thi Hue; Huynh, Huy le Anh; Farrar, Jeremy; Nguyen, Quyen Than Ha; Tran, Hien Tinh; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Merson, Laura; Hoang, Long Truong; Hibberd, Martin L.; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Nguyen, Dung Thi; Pham, Mai Phuong; Nguyen, Truong Thanh; Javanbakht, Hassan; Klumpp, Klaus; Hammond, Janet; Petric, Rosemary; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen, Chinh Tran; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans. There are currently no specific treatments for dengue. Balapiravir is a prodrug of a nucleoside analogue (called R1479) and an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication in vivo. Methods. We conducted in vitro experiments to determine the potency of balapiravir against dengue viruses and then an exploratory, dose-escalating, randomized placebo-controlled trial in adult male patients with dengue with treatment. Conclusions. Although this trial, the first of its kind in dengue, does not support balapiravir as a candidate drug, it does establish a framework for antiviral treatment trials in dengue and provides the field with a clinically evaluated benchmark molecule. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01096576. PMID:22807519

  14. Ceratapion basicorne (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): laboratory and open field trials to assess its specificity as biocontrol agent of Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospective biological control agents generally must be demonstrated to not pose risks to non-target plants. Laboratory experiments evaluating host plant specificity are the most common method of evaluating such risk; however, they are constrained by limitations of space and number of replicates, gi...

  15. Optical tweezers reveal how proteins alter replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasiya, Kathy

    Single molecule force spectroscopy is a powerful method that explores the DNA interaction properties of proteins involved in a wide range of fundamental biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. We use optical tweezers to capture and stretch a single DNA molecule in the presence of proteins that bind DNA and alter its mechanical properties. We quantitatively characterize the DNA binding mechanisms of proteins in order to provide a detailed understanding of their function. In this work, we focus on proteins involved in replication of Escherichia coli (E. coli ), endogenous eukaryotic retrotransposons Ty3 and LINE-1, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DNA polymerases replicate the entire genome of the cell, and bind both double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) during DNA replication. The replicative DNA polymerase in the widely-studied model system E. coli is the DNA polymerase III subunit alpha (DNA pol III alpha). We use optical tweezers to determine that UmuD, a protein that regulates bacterial mutagenesis through its interactions with DNA polymerases, specifically disrupts alpha binding to ssDNA. This suggests that UmuD removes alpha from its ssDNA template to allow DNA repair proteins access to the damaged DNA, and to facilitate exchange of the replicative polymerase for an error-prone translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that inserts nucleotides opposite the lesions, so that bacterial DNA replication may proceed. This work demonstrates a biophysical mechanism by which E. coli cells tolerate DNA damage. Retroviruses and retrotransposons reproduce by copying their RNA genome into the nuclear DNA of their eukaryotic hosts. Retroelements encode proteins called nucleic acid chaperones, which rearrange nucleic acid secondary structure and are therefore required for successful replication. The chaperone activity of these proteins requires strong binding affinity for both single- and double-stranded nucleic

  16. Digital breast tomosynthesis plus synthesised images versus standard full-field digital mammography in population-based screening (TOSYMA): protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Stefanie; Gerss, Joachim; Hense, Hans-Werner; Krischke, Miriam; Sommer, Alexander; Czwoydzinski, Jörg; Lenzen, Horst; Kerschke, Laura; Spieker, Karin; Dickmaenken, Stefanie; Baier, Sonja; Urban, Marc; Hecht, Gerold; Heidinger, Oliver; Kieschke, Joachim; Heindel, Walter

    2018-05-14

    Development of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) provides a technology that generates three-dimensional data sets, thus reducing the pitfalls of overlapping breast tissue. Observational studies suggest that the combination of two-dimensional (2D) digital mammography and DBT increases diagnostic accuracy. However, because of duplicate exposure, this comes at the cost of an augmented radiation dose. This undesired adverse impact can be avoided by using synthesised 2D images reconstructed from the DBT data (s2D).We designed a diagnostic superiority trial on a high level of evidence with the aim of providing a comparison of screening efficacy parameters resulting from DBT+s2D versus the current screening standard 2D full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a multicentre and multivendor setting on the basis of the quality-controlled, population-based, biennial mammography screening programme in Germany. 80 000 women in the eligible age 50-69 years attending the routine mammography screening programme and willing to participate in the TOSYMA trial will be assigned by 1:1 randomisation to either the intervention arm (DBT+s2D) or the control arm (FFDM) during a 12-month recruitment period in screening units of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. State cancer registries will provide the follow-up of interval cancers.Primary endpoints are the detection rate of invasive breast cancers at screening examination and the cumulative incidence of interval cancers in the 2 years after a negative examination. Secondary endpoints are the detection rate of ductal carcinoma in situ and of tumour size T1, the recall rate for assessment, the positive predictive value of recall and the cumulative 12-month incidence of interval cancers. An adaptive statistical design with one interim analysis provides the option to modify the design. This protocol has been approved by the local medical ethical committee (2016-132-f-S). Results will be submitted to international peer

  17. The AGIS metric and time of test: A replication study

    OpenAIRE

    Counsell, S; Swift, S; Tucker, A

    2016-01-01

    Visual Field (VF) tests and corresponding data are commonly used in clinical practices to manage glaucoma. The standard metric used to measure glaucoma severity is the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Studies (AGIS) metric. We know that time of day when VF tests are applied can influence a patient’s AGIS metric value; a previous study showed that this was the case for a data set of 160 patients. In this paper, we replicate that study using data from 2468 patients obtained from Moorfields Eye Ho...

  18. Spacetime replication of continuous variable quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Patrick; Nezami, Sepehr; Salton, Grant; Sanders, Barry C

    2016-01-01

    The theory of relativity requires that no information travel faster than light, whereas the unitarity of quantum mechanics ensures that quantum information cannot be cloned. These conditions provide the basic constraints that appear in information replication tasks, which formalize aspects of the behavior of information in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, we provide continuous variable (CV) strategies for spacetime quantum information replication that are directly amenable to optical or mechanical implementation. We use a new class of homologically constructed CV quantum error correcting codes to provide efficient solutions for the general case of information replication. As compared to schemes encoding qubits, our CV solution requires half as many shares per encoded system. We also provide an optimized five-mode strategy for replicating quantum information in a particular configuration of four spacetime regions designed not to be reducible to previously performed experiments. For this optimized strategy, we provide detailed encoding and decoding procedures using standard optical apparatus and calculate the recovery fidelity when finite squeezing is used. As such we provide a scheme for experimentally realizing quantum information replication using quantum optics. (paper)

  19. COPI is required for enterovirus 71 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Wang

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11, is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies.

  20. Extremal dynamics in random replicator ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kärenlampi, Petri P., E-mail: petri.karenlampi@uef.fi

    2015-10-02

    The seminal numerical experiment by Bak and Sneppen (BS) is repeated, along with computations with replicator models, including a greater amount of features. Both types of models do self-organize, and do obey power-law scaling for the size distribution of activity cycles. However species extinction within the replicator models interferes with the BS self-organized critical (SOC) activity. Speciation–extinction dynamics ruins any stationary state which might contain a steady size distribution of activity cycles. The BS-type activity appears as a dissimilar phenomenon in comparison to speciation–extinction dynamics in the replicator system. No criticality is found from the speciation–extinction dynamics. Neither are speciations and extinctions in real biological macroevolution known to contain any diverging distributions, or self-organization towards any critical state. Consequently, biological macroevolution probably is not a self-organized critical phenomenon. - Highlights: • Extremal Dynamics organizes random replicator ecosystems to two phases in fitness space. • Replicator systems show power-law scaling of activity. • Species extinction interferes with Bak–Sneppen type mutation activity. • Speciation–extinction dynamics does not show any critical phase transition. • Biological macroevolution probably is not a self-organized critical phenomenon.

  1. Replication of cultured lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, D.; Bienkowski, R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have investigated the conditions necessary to support replication of lung type 2 epithelial cells in culture. Cells were isolated from mature fetal rabbit lungs (29d gestation) and cultured on feeder layers of mitotically inactivated 3T3 fibroblasts. The epithelial nature of the cells was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining for keratin and by polyacid dichrome stain. Ultrastructural examination during the first week showed that the cells contained myofilaments, microvilli and lamellar bodies (markers for type 2 cells). The following changes were observed after the first week: increase in cell size; loss of lamellar bodies and appearance of multivesicular bodies; increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi; increase in tonafilaments and well-defined junctions. General cell morphology was good for up to 10 wk. Cells cultured on plastic surface degenerated after 1 wk. Cell replication was assayed by autoradiography of cultures exposed to ( 3 H)-thymidine and by direct cell counts. The cells did not replicate during the first week; however, between 2-10 wk the cells incorporated the label and went through approximately 6 population doublings. They have demonstrated that lung alveolar epithelial cells can replicate in culture if they are maintained on an appropriate substrate. The coincidence of ability to replicate and loss of markers for differentiation may reflect the dichotomy between growth and differentiation commonly observed in developing systems

  2. Targeting Virus-host Interactions of HIV Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weydert, Caroline; De Rijck, Jan; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger

    2016-01-01

    Cellular proteins that are hijacked by HIV in order to complete its replication cycle, form attractive new targets for antiretroviral therapy. In particular, the protein-protein interactions between these cellular proteins (cofactors) and viral proteins are of great interest to develop new therapies. Research efforts have led to the validation of different cofactors and some successes in therapeutic applications. Maraviroc, the first cofactor inhibitor approved for human medicinal use, provided a proof of concept. Furthermore, compounds developed as Integrase-LEDGF/p75 interaction inhibitors (LEDGINs) have advanced to early clinical trials. Other compounds targeting cofactors and cofactor-viral protein interactions are currently under development. Likewise, interactions between cellular restriction factors and their counteracting HIV protein might serve as interesting targets in order to impair HIV replication. In this respect, compounds targeting the Vif-APOBEC3G interaction have been described. In this review, we focus on compounds targeting the Integrase- LEDGF/p75 interaction, the Tat-P-TEFb interaction and the Vif-APOBEC3G interaction. Additionally we give an overview of currently discovered compounds presumably targeting cellular cofactor-HIV protein interactions.

  3. Chromatin Structure and Replication Origins: Determinants Of Chromosome Replication And Nuclear Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Owen K.; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA replication program is, in part, determined by the epigenetic landscape that governs local chromosome architecture and directs chromosome duplication. Replication must coordinate with other biochemical processes occurring concomitantly on chromatin, such as transcription and remodeling, to insure accurate duplication of both genetic and epigenetic features and to preserve genomic stability. The importance of genome architecture and chromatin looping in coordinating cellular processes on chromatin is illustrated by two recent sets of discoveries. First, chromatin-associated proteins that are not part of the core replication machinery were shown to affect the timing of DNA replication. These chromatin-associated proteins could be working in concert, or perhaps in competition, with the transcriptional machinery and with chromatin modifiers to determine the spatial and temporal organization of replication initiation events. Second, epigenetic interactions are mediated by DNA sequences that determine chromosomal replication. In this review we summarize recent findings and current models linking spatial and temporal regulation of the replication program with epigenetic signaling. We discuss these issues in the context of the genome’s three-dimensional structure with an emphasis on events occurring during the initiation of DNA replication. PMID:24905010

  4. The progression of replication forks at natural replication barriers in live bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolman, M.C.; Tiruvadi Krishnan, S; Kerssemakers, J.W.J.; de Leeuw, R.; Lorent, V.J.F.; Sherratt, David J.; Dekker, N.H.

    2016-01-01

    Protein-DNA complexes are one of the principal barriers the replisome encounters during replication. One such barrier is the Tus-ter complex, which is a direction dependent barrier for replication fork progression. The details concerning the dynamics of the replisome when encountering these

  5. Using Replicates in Information Retrieval Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Ellen M; Samarov, Daniel; Soboroff, Ian

    2017-09-01

    This article explores a method for more accurately estimating the main effect of the system in a typical test-collection-based evaluation of information retrieval systems, thus increasing the sensitivity of system comparisons. Randomly partitioning the test document collection allows for multiple tests of a given system and topic (replicates). Bootstrap ANOVA can use these replicates to extract system-topic interactions-something not possible without replicates-yielding a more precise value for the system effect and a narrower confidence interval around that value. Experiments using multiple TREC collections demonstrate that removing the topic-system interactions substantially reduces the confidence intervals around the system effect as well as increases the number of significant pairwise differences found. Further, the method is robust against small changes in the number of partitions used, against variability in the documents that constitute the partitions, and the measure of effectiveness used to quantify system effectiveness.

  6. DNA replication stress and cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Hiroyuki; Iimori, Makoto; Kataoka, Yuki; Wakasa, Takeshi; Tokunaga, Eriko; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-01

    DNA replication is one of the fundamental biological processes in which dysregulation can cause genome instability. This instability is one of the hallmarks of cancer and confers genetic diversity during tumorigenesis. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have indicated that most tumors have experienced and overcome the stresses caused by the perturbation of DNA replication, which is also referred to as DNA replication stress (DRS). When we consider therapeutic approaches for tumors, it is important to exploit the differences in DRS between tumor and normal cells. In this review, we introduce the current understanding of DRS in tumors and discuss the underlying mechanism of cancer therapy from the aspect of DRS. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  7. Evolution of Database Replication Technologies for WLCG

    CERN Document Server

    Baranowski, Zbigniew; Blaszczyk, Marcin; Dimitrov, Gancho; Canali, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this article we summarize several years of experience on database replication technologies used at WLCG and we provide a short review of the available Oracle technologies and their key characteristics. One of the notable changes and improvement in this area in recent past has been the introduction of Oracle GoldenGate as a replacement of Oracle Streams. We report in this article on the preparation and later upgrades for remote replication done in collaboration with ATLAS and Tier 1 database administrators, including the experience from running Oracle GoldenGate in production. Moreover, we report on another key technology in this area: Oracle Active Data Guard which has been adopted in several of the mission critical use cases for database replication between online and offline databases for the LHC experiments.

  8. Synchronization of DNA array replication kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manturov, Alexey O.; Grigoryev, Anton V.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we discuss the features of the DNA replication kinetics at the case of multiplicity of simultaneously elongated DNA fragments. The interaction between replicated DNA fragments is carried out by free protons that appears at the every nucleotide attachment at the free end of elongated DNA fragment. So there is feedback between free protons concentration and DNA-polymerase activity that appears as elongation rate dependence. We develop the numerical model based on a cellular automaton, which can simulate the elongation stage (growth of DNA strands) for DNA elongation process with conditions pointed above and we study the possibility of the DNA polymerases movement synchronization. The results obtained numerically can be useful for DNA polymerase movement detection and visualization of the elongation process in the case of massive DNA replication, eg, under PCR condition or for DNA "sequencing by synthesis" sequencing devices evaluation.

  9. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions and clinical trials. Optimizing our Clinical Trials Enterprise NHLBI has a strong tradition of supporting clinical ... multi-pronged approach to Optimize our Clinical Trials Enterprise that will make our clinical trials enterprise even ...

  10. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... to-kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The trial is led by a principal ... for the clinical trial. The protocol outlines what will be done during the clinical trial and why. ...

  11. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... take part in a clinical trial. When researchers think that a trial's potential risks are greater than ... care costs for clinical trials. If you're thinking about taking part in a clinical trial, find ...

  12. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... of clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical trials are ... earlier than they would be in general medical practice. This is because late-phase trials have large ...

  13. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... clinical trials contribute to medical knowledge and practice. Why Clinical Trials Are Important Clinical trials are a ... will be done during the clinical trial and why. Each medical center that does the study uses ...

  14. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... medical strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials ... and Centers sponsor clinical trials. Many other groups, companies, and organizations also sponsor clinical trials. Examples include ...

  15. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... and treatments that work best. How Clinical Trials Work If you take part in a clinical trial, ... kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The trial is led by a principal investigator ( ...

  16. Signal replication in a DNA nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Oscar; Houmadi, Said; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reaction are the basic building blocks of future nanorobotic systems. The circuits tethered to DNA origami platforms present several advantages over solution-phase versions where couplings are always diffusion-limited. Here we consider a possible implementation of one of the basic operations needed in the design of these circuits, namely, signal replication. We show that with an appropriate preparation of the initial state, signal replication performs in a reproducible way. We also show the existence of side effects concomitant to the high effective concentrations in tethered circuits, such as slow leaky reactions and cross-activation.

  17. Temporal organization of cellular self-replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Victor; Pugatch, Rami

    Recent experiments demonstrate that single cells grow exponentially in time. A coarse grained model of cellular self-replication is presented based on a novel concept - the cell is viewed as a self-replicating queue. This allows to have a more fundamental look into various temporal organizations and, importantly, the inherent non-Markovianity of noise distributions. As an example, the distribution of doubling times can be inferred and compared to single cell experiments in bacteria. We observe data collapse upon scaling by the average doubling time for different environments and present an inherent task allocation trade-off. Support from the Simons Center for Systems Biology, IAS, Princeon.

  18. Chromatin challenges during DNA replication and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Rocha, Walter; Verreault, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Inheritance and maintenance of the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin are central for eukaryotic life. To orchestrate DNA-replication and -repair processes in the context of chromatin is a challenge, both in terms of accessibility and maintenance of chromatin organization. To meet...... the challenge of maintenance, cells have evolved efficient nucleosome-assembly pathways and chromatin-maturation mechanisms that reproduce chromatin organization in the wake of DNA replication and repair. The aim of this Review is to describe how these pathways operate and to highlight how the epigenetic...... landscape may be stably maintained even in the face of dramatic changes in chromatin structure....

  19. Iterated function systems for DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    The kinetic equations of DNA replication are shown to be exactly solved in terms of iterated function systems, running along the template sequence and giving the statistical properties of the copy sequences, as well as the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the replication process. With this method, different effects due to sequence heterogeneity can be studied, in particular, a transition between linear and sublinear growths in time of the copies, and a transition between continuous and fractal distributions of the local velocities of the DNA polymerase along the template. The method is applied to the human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ without and with exonuclease proofreading.

  20. Involvement of Autophagy in Coronavirus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Britton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses are single stranded, positive sense RNA viruses, which induce the rearrangement of cellular membranes upon infection of a host cell. This provides the virus with a platform for the assembly of viral replication complexes, improving efficiency of RNA synthesis. The membranes observed in coronavirus infected cells include double membrane vesicles. By nature of their double membrane, these vesicles resemble cellular autophagosomes, generated during the cellular autophagy pathway. In addition, coronavirus infection has been demonstrated to induce autophagy. Here we review current knowledge of coronavirus induced membrane rearrangements and the involvement of autophagy or autophagy protein microtubule associated protein 1B light chain 3 (LC3 in coronavirus replication.

  1. The replication of expansive production knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – With the aim to support offshore production line replication, this paper specifically aims to explore the use of templates and principles to transfer expansive productive knowledge embedded in a production line and understand the contingencies that influence the mix of these approaches......; and (2) rather than being viewed as alternative approaches, templates and principles should be seen as complementary once the transfer motive moves beyond pure replication. Research limitations – The concepts introduced in this paper were derived from two Danish cases. While acceptable for theory...

  2. Effect of manual therapy versus proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in dynamic balance, mobility and flexibility in field hockey players. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma V; López-Martínez, Susana; Inglés, Marta; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Marta

    2018-04-22

    To compare the effectiveness of a specific Manual Therapy (MT) protocol applied to field hockey players (FHP), versus a Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) protocol, in the improvement of dynamic balance, active range of movement and lumbar flexibility one-week and four-weeks after the treatment. Randomized controlled trial. Participants were assigned to 2 groups: MT and PNF. 30 min' sessions were performed once a week for three weeks. Three evaluations were performed: basal, one-week and four-weeks post-treatment. University of Valencia (Spain). 22 in MT group and 20 in PNF group. Dynamic Balance, measured with Star Excursion Balance Test; Active Range of Motion (ROM), using a manual goniometer and Lumbar Flexibility, assessed with Fingertip-to-floor test. Both groups significantly improved in lateral and medial dynamic balance one-week post-treatment (p < 0.05); but the improvement in the MT group lasted until the fourth-week after treatment in both reaches (lateral and medial) (p < 0.05). MT group also obtained significant improvements in dorsal flexion of the ankle in the fourth-week post-treatment (p < 0.05) and in lumbar flexibility one-week post-treatment (p < 0.05). MT and PNF improve dynamic balance one-week post-treatment; however, the improvement obtained through MT is maintained four-weeks later. Only MT improves dorsal flexion of the ankle four-weeks post-treatment and lumbar flexibility one-week post-treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality control of involved field radiotherapy in the HD 13 and HD 14 trials. Report of the radiotherapy panel of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriz, J.; Haverkamp, U.; Eich, H.T.; Baues, C.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R.; Herfarth, K.; Lukas, P.; Pluetschow, A.; Fuchs, M.; Engert, A.; Schmidberger, H.; Staar, S.

    2017-01-01

    As part of the foundation of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) in 1978, a central radiotherapy (RT) reference centre was established to evaluate and to improve the quality of treatment. During the study generations, the quality assurance programs (QAP) were continued and adapted to the demands of each study. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the results of the fifth study generation and to compare them to the previous findings. With the start of the fourth GHSG study generation (HD10-12), a central prospective review of all diagnostic images was established to create an individual treatment plan for each early stage study patient. The quality of involved field RT was retrospectively evaluated by an expert panel of radiation oncologists. In the fifth study generation (HD13-15), the retrospective review of radiotherapy performed was refined and the results were compared with the findings of the fourth generation. The expert panel analyzed the RT planning and application of 1037 (28 %) patients (HD13 n = 465, HD14 n = 572). Simulation films were available in 85 % of cases and verification films in 87 %. RT was assessed as major violation in 46 % (HD13 = 38 %, HD14 = 52 %), minor violation in 9 % (HD13 = 9 %, HD14 = 9 %) and according to the protocol in 45 % (HD13 = 52 %, HD14 = 38 %). The value for QAP of RT within the GHSG trials is well known. Still there were several protocol violations. In the future, the QAP program has to be adapted to the requirements of ''modern RT'' in malignant lymphoma. (orig.) [de

  4. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trial Protocol Each clinical trial has a master plan called a protocol (PRO-to-kol). This plan explains how the trial will work. The trial ... clinical trial; and detailed information about the treatment plan. Eligibility Criteria A clinical trial's protocol describes what ...

  5. The Genomic Replication of the Crenarchaeal Virus SIRV2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alvarez, Laura

    reinitiation events may partially explain the branched topology of the viral replication intermediates. We also analyzed the intracellular location of viral replication, showing the formation of viral peripheral replication centers in SIRV2-infected cells, where viral DNA synthesis and replication...

  6. Bayesian tests to quantify the result of a replication attempt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Replication attempts are essential to the empirical sciences. Successful replication attempts increase researchers’ confidence in the presence of an effect, whereas failed replication attempts induce skepticism and doubt. However, it is often unclear to what extent a replication attempt results in

  7. Optical replication techniques for image slicers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmoll, J.; Robertson, D.J.; Dubbeldam, C.M.; Bortoletto, F.; Pína, L.; Hudec, René; Prieto, E.; Norrie, C.; Ramsay- Howat, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, 4-5 (2006), s. 263-266 ISSN 1387-6473 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : smart focal planes * image slicers * replication Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.914, year: 2006

  8. Inhibition of DNA replication by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenberg, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    DNA replication in ultraviolet-irradiated HeLa cells was studied by two different techniques: measurements of the kinetics of semiconservative DNA synthesis, and DNA fiber autoradiography. In examining the kinetics of semiconservative DNA synthesis, density label was used to avoid measuring the incorporation due to repair replication. The extent of inhibition varied with time. After doses of less than 10 J/m 2 the rate was initially depressed but later showed some recovery. After higher doses, a constant, low rate of synthesis was seen for at least the initial 6 h. An analysis of these data indicated that the inhibition of DNA synthesis could be explained by replication forks halting at pyrimidine dimers. DNA fiber autoradiography was used to further characterize replication after ultraviolet irradiation. The average length of labeled segments in irradiated cells increased in the time immediately after irradiation, and then leveled off. This is the predicted pattern if DNA synthesis in each replicon continued at its previous rate until a lesion is reached, and then halted. The frequency of lesions that block synthesis is approximately the same as the frequency of pyrimidine dimers

  9. Replication and Inhibitors of Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonneke van der Linden

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Enterovirus (EV and Parechovirus genera of the picornavirus family include many important human pathogens, including poliovirus, rhinovirus, EV-A71, EV-D68, and human parechoviruses (HPeV. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from a simple common cold to life-threatening diseases such as encephalitis and myocarditis. At the moment, no antiviral therapy is available against these viruses and it is not feasible to develop vaccines against all EVs and HPeVs due to the great number of serotypes. Therefore, a lot of effort is being invested in the development of antiviral drugs. Both viral proteins and host proteins essential for virus replication can be used as targets for virus inhibitors. As such, a good understanding of the complex process of virus replication is pivotal in the design of antiviral strategies goes hand in hand with a good understanding of the complex process of virus replication. In this review, we will give an overview of the current state of knowledge of EV and HPeV replication and how this can be inhibited by small-molecule inhibitors.

  10. Chaotic interactions of self-replicating RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, C V

    1996-03-01

    A general system of high-order differential equations describing complex dynamics of replicating biomolecules is given. Symmetry relations and coordinate transformations of general replication systems leading to topologically equivalent systems are derived. Three chaotic attractors observed in Lotka-Volterra equations of dimension n = 3 are shown to represent three cross-sections of one and the same chaotic regime. Also a fractal torus in a generalized three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra Model has been linked to one of the chaotic attractors. The strange attractors are studied in the equivalent four-dimensional catalytic replicator network. The fractal torus has been examined in adapted Lotka-Volterra equations. Analytic expressions are derived for the Lyapunov exponents of the flow in the replicator system. Lyapunov spectra for different pathways into chaos has been calculated. In the generalized Lotka-Volterra system a second inner rest point--coexisting with (quasi)-periodic orbits--can be observed; with an abundance of different bifurcations. Pathways from chaotic tori, via quasi-periodic tori, via limit cycles, via multi-periodic orbits--emerging out of periodic doubling bifurcations--to "simple" chaotic attractors can be found.

  11. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication.

  12. Chromatin Controls DNA Replication Origin Selection, Lagging-Strand Synthesis, and Replication Fork Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurat, Christoph F; Yeeles, Joseph T P; Patel, Harshil; Early, Anne; Diffley, John F X

    2017-01-05

    The integrity of eukaryotic genomes requires rapid and regulated chromatin replication. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. Using purified yeast replication proteins and fully chromatinized templates, we have reconstituted this process in vitro. We show that chromatin enforces DNA replication origin specificity by preventing non-specific MCM helicase loading. Helicase activation occurs efficiently in the context of chromatin, but subsequent replisome progression requires the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription). The FACT-associated Nhp6 protein, the nucleosome remodelers INO80 or ISW1A, and the lysine acetyltransferases Gcn5 and Esa1 each contribute separately to maximum DNA synthesis rates. Chromatin promotes the regular priming of lagging-strand DNA synthesis by facilitating DNA polymerase α function at replication forks. Finally, nucleosomes disrupted during replication are efficiently re-assembled into regular arrays on nascent DNA. Our work defines the minimum requirements for chromatin replication in vitro and shows how multiple chromatin factors might modulate replication fork rates in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of replication-deficient adenovirus malaria vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingdale, Michael R; Sedegah, Martha; Limbach, Keith

    2017-03-01

    Malaria remains a major threat to endemic populations and travelers, including military personnel to these areas. A malaria vaccine is feasible, as radiation attenuated sporozoites induce nearly 100% efficacy. Areas covered: This review covers current malaria clinical trials using adenoviruses and pre-clinical research. Heterologous prime-boost regimens, including replication-deficient human adenovirus 5 (HuAd5) carrying malaria antigens, are efficacious. However, efficacy appears to be adversely affected by pre-existing anti-HuAd5 antibodies. Current strategies focus on replacing HuAd5 with rarer human adenoviruses or adenoviruses isolated from non-human primates (NHPs). The chimpanzee adenovirus ChAd63 is undergoing evaluation in clinical trials including infants in malaria-endemic areas. Key antigens have been identified and are being used alone, in combination, or with protein subunit vaccines. Gorilla adenoviruses carrying malaria antigens are also currently being evaluated in preclinical models. These replacement adenovirus vectors will be successfully used to develop vaccines against malaria, as well as other infectious diseases. Expert commentary: Simplified prime-boost single shot regimens, dry-coated live vector vaccines or silicon microneedle arrays could be developed for malaria or other vaccines. Replacement vectors with similar or superior immunogenicity have rapidly advanced, and several are now in extensive Phase 2 and beyond in malaria as well as other diseases, notably Ebola.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors improve the replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Cody

    Full Text Available New therapies are needed for metastatic breast cancer patients. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV is an exciting therapy being developed for use against aggressive tumors and established metastases. Although oHSV have been demonstrated safe in clinical trials, a lack of sufficient potency has slowed the clinical application of this approach. We utilized histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, which have been noted to impair the innate antiviral response and improve gene transcription from viral vectors, to enhance the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. A panel of chemically diverse HDAC inhibitors were tested at three different doses (LD50 for their ability to modulate the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. Several of the tested HDAC inhibitors enhanced oHSV replication at low multiplicity of infection (MOI following pre-treatment of the metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the oHSV-resistant cell line 4T1, but not in the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Inhibitors of class I HDACs, including pan-selective compounds, were more effective for increasing oHSV replication compared to inhibitors that selectively target class II HDACs. These studies demonstrate that select HDAC inhibitors increase oHSV replication in breast cancer cells and provides support for pre-clinical evaluation of this combination strategy.

  15. Diagonalization of replicated transfer matrices for disordered Ising spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoletopoulos, T; Coolen, A C C

    2004-01-01

    We present an alternative procedure for solving the eigenvalue problem of replicated transfer matrices describing disordered spin systems with (random) 1D nearest neighbour bonds and/or random fields, possibly in combination with (random) long range bonds. Our method is based on transforming the original eigenvalue problem for a 2 n x 2 n matrix (where n → 0) into an eigenvalue problem for integral operators. We first develop our formalism for the Ising chain with random bonds and fields, where we recover known results. We then apply our methods to models of spins which interact simultaneously via a one-dimensional ring and via more complex long-range connectivity structures, e.g., (1 + ∞)-dimensional neural networks and 'small-world' magnets. Numerical simulations confirm our predictions satisfactorily

  16. Challenges in preparing and implementing a clinical trial at field level in an Ebola emergency: A case study in Guinea, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carazo Perez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the large Ebola outbreak that affected West Africa in 2014 and 2015, studies were launched to evaluate potential treatments for the disease. A clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the antiviral drug favipiravir was conducted in Guinea. This paper describes the main challenges of the implementation of the trial in the Ebola treatment center of Guéckédou. Following the principles of the Good Clinical Research Practices, we explored the aspects of the community's communication and engagement, ethical conduct, trial protocol compliance, informed consent of participants, ongoing benefit/risk assessment, record keeping, confidentiality of patients and study data, and roles and responsibilities of the actors involved. We concluded that several challenges have to be addressed to successfully implement a clinical trial during an international medical emergency but that the potential for collaboration between research teams and humanitarian organizations needs to be highlighted.

  17. High-Resolution Replication Profiles Define the Stochastic Nature of Genome Replication Initiation and Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hawkins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genome replication is stochastic, and each cell uses a different cohort of replication origins. We demonstrate that interpreting high-resolution Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome replication data with a mathematical model allows quantification of the stochastic nature of genome replication, including the efficiency of each origin and the distribution of termination events. Single-cell measurements support the inferred values for stochastic origin activation time. A strain, in which three origins were inactivated, confirmed that the distribution of termination events is primarily dictated by the stochastic activation time of origins. Cell-to-cell variability in origin activity ensures that termination events are widely distributed across virtually the whole genome. We propose that the heterogeneity in origin usage contributes to genome stability by limiting potentially deleterious events from accumulating at particular loci.

  18. DNA replication and post-replication repair in U.V.-sensitive mouse neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavin, M.F.; McCombe, P.; Kidson, C.

    1976-01-01

    Mouse neuroblastoma cells differentiated when grown in the absence of serum; differentiation was reversed on the addition of serum. Differentiated cells were more sensitive to U.V.-radiation than proliferating cells. Whereas addition of serum to differentiated neuroblastoma cells normally resulted in immediate, synchronous entry into S phase, irradiation just before the addition of serum resulted in a long delay in the onset of DNA replication. During this lag period, incorporated 3 H-thymidine appeared in the light density region of CsCl gradients, reflecting either repair synthesis or abortive replication. Post-replication repair (gap-filling) was found to be present in proliferating cells and at certain times in differentiated cells. It is suggested that the sensitivity of differentiated neuroblastoma cells to U.V.-radiation may have been due to ineffective post-replication repair or to deficiencies in more than one repair mechanism, with reduction in repair capacity beyond a critical threshold. (author)

  19. Field trial of efficacy of the Leish-tec® vaccine against canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in an endemic area with high transmission rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grimaldi

    Full Text Available Because domestic dogs are reservoir hosts for visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Brazil, one of the approaches used to reduce human disease incidence is to cull infected dogs. However, the results of controlled intervention trials based on serological screening of dogs and killing of seropositive animals are equivocal. A prophylactic vaccine to protect dogs from being infectious to the sand fly vector could be an effective strategy to provide sustained control. Here, we investigated whether a currently licensed commercial subunit rA2 protein-saponin vaccine (Leish-tec® had an additional effect to dog culling on reducing the canine infectious populations.This prospective study was conducted in an L. infantum highly endemic area of southeast Brazil. At the onset of the intervention, all of the eligible dogs received through subcutaneous route a three-dose vaccine course at 21-day intervals and a booster on month 12. For the purpose of comparison, newly recruited healthy dogs were included as the exposed control group. To ascertain vaccine-induced protection, dogs were screened on clinical and serological criteria every 6 months for a 2-year follow-up period. Antibody-based tests and histopathological examination of post-mortem tissue specimens from euthanized animals were used as a marker of infection. The standardized vaccine regime, apart from being safe, was immunogenic as immunized animals responded with a pronounced production of anti-A2-specific IgG antibodies. It should be noted the mean seroconversion time for infection obtained among immunized exposed dogs (~ 18 months, which was twice as high as that for unvaccinated ones (~ 9 months. After two transmission cycles completed, the cumulative incidence of infection did differ significantly (P = 0.016 between the vaccinated (27% and unvaccinated (42% dogs. However, the expected efficacy for the vaccine in inducing clinical protection was not evident since 43% of vaccine recipients developed

  20. Impact of metabolic syndrome and its components on cardiovascular disease event rates in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to placebo in the field randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Russell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with the metabolic syndrome are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes and may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD events.We aimed to establish whether CVD event rates were influenced by the metabolic syndrome as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO, the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and to determine which component(s of the metabolic syndrome (MS conferred the highest cardiovascular risk in in 4900 patients with type 2 diabetes allocated to placebo in the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD trial. Research design and methods We determined the influence of MS variables, as defined by NCEP ATPIII, IDF and WHO, on CVD risk over 5 years, after adjustment for CVD, sex, HbA1c, creatinine, and age, and interactions between the MS variables in a Cox proportional-hazards model. Results About 80% had hypertension, and about half had other features of the metabolic syndrome (IDF, ATPIII. There was no difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome variables between those with and without CVD at study entry. The WHO definition identified those at higher CVD risk across both sexes, all ages, and in those without prior CVD, while the ATPIII definition predicted risk only in those aged over 65 years and in men but not in women. Patients meeting the IDF definition did not have higher risk than those without IDF MS. CVD risk was strongly influenced by prior CVD, sex, age (particularly in women, baseline HbA1c, renal dysfunction, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (low HDL-c, triglycerides > 1.7 mmol/L. The combination of low HDL-c and marked hypertriglyceridemia (> 2.3 mmol/L increased CVD risk by 41%. Baseline systolic blood pressure increased risk by 16% per 10 mmHg in those with no prior CVD, but had no effect in those with CVD. In those without prior CVD, increasing numbers of

  1. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2017-03-02

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage.

  2. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

    2017-01-01

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104

  3. Time course of soil carbon storage, 15N and radiocarbon signature in top- and subsoil of a 60-years agricultural field trial - indications for compensating effects of carbon input and turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifeld, Jens; Conen, Franz; Oberholzer, Hans Rudolf; Jochen, Mayer

    2014-05-01

    Soil carbon dynamics are controlled by the delicate balance between carbon inputs and outputs which both are co-regulated by land use and management (LUM) as important anthropogenic drivers. Upon land use change to cropland carbon stocks generally tend to decline but often the contribution of two opposing factors, namely changes in input and decomposition rates, to soil carbon stock changes is indistinguishable. Here we report on an ongoing cropland experiment in Zurich, Switzerland, named ZOFE (Zurich Organic Fertilization Experiment), established on former grassland in 1949. ZOFE encompasses a range of mineral and organic fertilization practices and a zero fertilizer treatment as control. The experiment has a block design with five replicates per treatment. We make use of productivity and fertilization gradients in selected treatments of the ZOFE trial to evaluate how low or high inputs (induced by differential yields and organic fertilization) may affect soil organic carbon storage and transformation. For the most recent sampling that also included subsoil down to 0.9 m, all properties were measured for every single replicate. Topsoil carbon storage declined after grassland conversion at rates of c. 0.2 t C ha-1 a-1, particularly in treatments with mineral fertilizer and high yields, and without fertilization and low yields. Organic matter amendments such as manure or compost could partially offset but not fully compensate some of the topsoil carbon loss. Over time the soil's delta 15N signature declined as well, probably due to increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition. It increased from the top- to the subsoil, indicating increasing microbial transformation, particularly with manure added. The soil's radiocarbon signature revealed distinct bomb peak patterns in all treatments but only in the topsoil. The 14C data confirmed that with higher productivity more recent organic matter was incorporated, both in top and subsoil. Because, in contrast to topsoil

  4. Replication Protein A (RPA) Phosphorylation Prevents RPA Association with Replication Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Vassin, Vitaly M.; Wold, Marc S.; Borowiec, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian replication protein A (RPA) undergoes DNA damage-dependent phosphorylation at numerous sites on the N terminus of the RPA2 subunit. To understand the functional significance of RPA phosphorylation, we expressed RPA2 variants in which the phosphorylation sites were converted to aspartate (RPA2D) or alanine (RPA2A). Although RPA2D was incorporated into RPA heterotrimers and supported simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro, the RPA2D mutant was selectively unable to associate with re...

  5. Functions of Ubiquitin and SUMO in DNA Replication and Replication Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Wong, Ronald P.; Ulrich, Helle D.

    2016-01-01

    Complete and faithful duplication of its entire genetic material is one of the essential prerequisites for a proliferating cell to maintain genome stability. Yet, during replication DNA is particularly vulnerable to insults. On the one hand, lesions in replicating DNA frequently cause a stalling of the replication machinery, as most DNA polymerases cannot cope with defective templates. This situation is aggravated by the fact that strand separation in preparation for DNA synthesis prevents common repair mechanisms relying on strand complementarity, such as base and nucleotide excision repair, from working properly. On the other hand, the replication process itself subjects the DNA to a series of hazardous transformations, ranging from the exposure of single-stranded DNA to topological contortions and the generation of nicks and fragments, which all bear the risk of inducing genomic instability. Dealing with these problems requires rapid and flexible responses, for which posttranslational protein modifications that act independently of protein synthesis are particularly well suited. Hence, it is not surprising that members of the ubiquitin family, particularly ubiquitin itself and SUMO, feature prominently in controlling many of the defensive and restorative measures involved in the protection of DNA during replication. In this review we will discuss the contributions of ubiquitin and SUMO to genome maintenance specifically as they relate to DNA replication. We will consider cases where the modifiers act during regular, i.e., unperturbed stages of replication, such as initiation, fork progression, and termination, but also give an account of their functions in dealing with lesions, replication stalling and fork collapse. PMID:27242895

  6. DNA Replication in Engineered Escherichia coli Genomes with Extra Replication Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbredt, Sarah; Farmani, Neda; Sobetzko, Patrick; Waldminghaus, Torsten

    2016-10-21

    The standard outline of bacterial genomes is a single circular chromosome with a single replication origin. From the bioengineering perspective, it appears attractive to extend this basic setup. Bacteria with split chromosomes or multiple replication origins have been successfully constructed in the last few years. The characteristics of these engineered strains will largely depend on the respective DNA replication patterns. However, the DNA replication has not been investigated systematically in engineered bacteria with multiple origins or split replicons. Here we fill this gap by studying a set of strains consisting of (i) E. coli strains with an extra copy of the native replication origin (oriC), (ii) E. coli strains with an extra copy of the replication origin from the secondary chromosome of Vibrio cholerae (oriII), and (iii) a strain in which the E. coli chromosome is split into two linear replicons. A combination of flow cytometry, microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and modeling revealed silencing of extra oriC copies and differential timing of ectopic oriII copies compared to the native oriC. The results were used to derive construction rules for future multiorigin and multireplicon projects.

  7. Mcm10 regulates DNA replication elongation by stimulating the CMG replicative helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõoke, Marko; Maloney, Michael F; Bell, Stephen P

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the Mcm2-7 replicative DNA helicase is the committed step in eukaryotic DNA replication initiation. Although Mcm2-7 activation requires binding of the helicase-activating proteins Cdc45 and GINS (forming the CMG complex), an additional protein, Mcm10, drives initial origin DNA unwinding by an unknown mechanism. We show that Mcm10 binds a conserved motif located between the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide fold (OB-fold) and A subdomain of Mcm2. Although buried in the interface between these domains in Mcm2-7 structures, mutations predicted to separate the domains and expose this motif restore growth to conditional-lethal MCM10 mutant cells. We found that, in addition to stimulating initial DNA unwinding, Mcm10 stabilizes Cdc45 and GINS association with Mcm2-7 and stimulates replication elongation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we identified a lethal allele of MCM10 that stimulates initial DNA unwinding but is defective in replication elongation and CMG binding. Our findings expand the roles of Mcm10 during DNA replication and suggest a new model for Mcm10 function as an activator of the CMG complex throughout DNA replication. © 2017 Lõoke et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. DNA replication and repair in Tilapia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yew, F.H.; Chang, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet radiation on a cell line established from the warm water fish Tilapia has been assessed by measuring the rate of DNA synthesis, excision repair, post-replication repair and cell survival. The cells tolerate ultraviolet radiation better than mammalian cells with respect to DNA synthesis, post-replication repair and cell survival. They are also efficient in excision repair, which in other fish cell lines has been found to be at a low level or absent. Their response to the inhibitors hydroxyurea and 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine is less sensitive than that of other cell lines, yet the cells seem to have very small pools of DNA precursor. (author)

  9. Development, Validation, and Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Quantitative Multiplexing Method To Assess Levels of Ten Endogenous Allergens in Soybean Seed and Its Application to Field Trials Spanning Three Growing Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan C; Oman, Trent J; Wang, Xiujuan; Shan, Guomin; Schafer, Barry; Herman, Rod A; Tobias, Rowel; Shippar, Jeff; Malayappan, Bhaskar; Sheng, Li; Xu, Austin; Bradshaw, Jason

    2017-07-12

    As part of the regulatory approval process in Europe, comparison of endogenous soybean allergen levels between genetically engineered (GE) and non-GE plants has been requested. A quantitative multiplex analytical method using tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated to measure 10 potential soybean allergens from soybean seed. The analytical method was implemented at six laboratories to demonstrate the robustness of the method and further applied to three soybean field studies across multiple growing seasons (including 21 non-GE soybean varieties) to assess the natural variation of allergen levels. The results show environmental factors contribute more than genetic factors to the large variation in allergen abundance (2- to 50-fold between environmental replicates) as well as a large contribution of Gly m 5 and Gly m 6 to the total allergen profile, calling into question the scientific rational for measurement of endogenous allergen levels between GE and non-GE varieties in the safety assessment.

  10. Circus: A Replicated Procedure Call Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 client client stubs ...... ...... ..... ..... runtime libary stub compiler binding agent...runtime libary Figure 1: Structure of the Circus system replicated procedure call paired message protocol unreliable datagrams Figure 2: Circus...114-121. [11) Digit &! Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, a.nd Xerox Corporation. The Ethernet: A Local Area Networlc. September 1080. [12

  11. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    polymerases) catalyzing the growth of a DNA primer strand (the nascent chain of nucleotides complementary to the template strand) based on the Watson ...the fraction (error rate) of monomers for which y, where y is the correct Watson - Crick complementary base of , can be obtained by ¼ X...Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions Associated with DNA Replication Hyung-June Woo* and Anders Wallqvist Biotechnology High Performance Computing

  12. Recursion vs. Replication in Simple Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huttel, Hans; Srba, Jiri

    2005-01-01

    We use some recent techniques from process algebra to draw several conclusions about the well studied class of ping-pong protocols introduced by Dolev and Yao. In particular we show that all nontrivial properties, including reachability and equivalence checking wrt. the whole van Glabbeek's spect...... of messages in the sense of Amadio, Lugiez and Vanackere. We conclude by showing that reachability analysis for a replicative variant of the protocol becomes decidable....

  13. Registered Replication Report: Strack, Martin, & Stepper (1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Alberto; Adams, Reginald B; Albohn, Daniel N; Allard, Eric S; Beek, Titia; Benning, Stephen D; Blouin- Hudon, Eve-Marie; Bulnes, Luis Carlo; Caldwell, Tracy L; Calin-Jageman, Robert J; Capaldi, Colin A; Carfagno, Nicholas S; Chasten, Kelsie T; Cleeremans, Axel; Connell, Louise; DeCicco, Jennifer M.; Dijkhoff, Laura; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fischer, Agneta H; Foroni, Francesco; Gronau, Quentin F; Hess, Ursula; Holmes, Kevin J; Jones, Jacob L H; Klein, Olivier; Koch, Christopher; Korb, Sebastian; Lewinski, Peter; Liao, Julia D; Lund, Sophie; Lupiáñez, Juan; Lynott, Dermot; Nance, Christin N; Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Özdog˘ru, Asil Ali; Pacheco-Unguetti, Antonia Pilar; Pearson, Bethany; Powis, Christina; Riding, Sarah; Roberts, Tomi-Ann; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Senden, Morgane; Shea-Shumsky, Noah B; Sobocko, Karin; Soto, Jose A; Steiner, Troy G; Talarico, Jennifer M; vanAllen, Zack M; Wagenmakers, E-J; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Wainwright, Bethany; Wayand, Joseph F; Zeelenberg, Rene; Zetzer, Emily E; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2016-11-01

    According to the facial feedback hypothesis, people's affective responses can be influenced by their own facial expression (e.g., smiling, pouting), even when their expression did not result from their emotional experiences. For example, Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) instructed participants to rate the funniness of cartoons using a pen that they held in their mouth. In line with the facial feedback hypothesis, when participants held the pen with their teeth (inducing a "smile"), they rated the cartoons as funnier than when they held the pen with their lips (inducing a "pout"). This seminal study of the facial feedback hypothesis has not been replicated directly. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 17 independent direct replications of Study 1 from Strack et al. (1988), all of which followed the same vetted protocol. A meta-analysis of these studies examined the difference in funniness ratings between the "smile" and "pout" conditions. The original Strack et al. (1988) study reported a rating difference of 0.82 units on a 10-point Likert scale. Our meta-analysis revealed a rating difference of 0.03 units with a 95% confidence interval ranging from -0.11 to 0.16. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. The Anisotropy of Replicated Aluminum Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeny L. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The replication casting process gives the open-cell aluminum foams that can be used in many industrial applications as well as in filtering technology. The essential requirement for filters is the uniformity of filtering degree which is defined by the minimal pore size. However the structure of replication castings is often inhomogeneous and the minimal pore radius is decreasing in the direction of melt infiltration. The objective of this investigation is to study the dynamics of melt impregnation of the porous medium by vacuum suction to identify the possibility of reducing the anisotropy. Theoretical data illustrate the processes at the boundary between melt and gas medium. The experiments were carried out using the replication aluminum samples produced according to commercial technology. It was found that the permeability coefficient varies throughout the height of castings. A method for estimation of pressure on the line of melt movement was proposed. The resistance of NaCl layer and circular vents of the mold causes the inhomogeneity of castings. Finally the ways of minimizing the anisotropy were offered.

  15. The molecular biology of Bluetongue virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Avnish; Roy, Polly

    2014-03-01

    The members of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family are arthropod-borne viruses which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality in ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV) which causes disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle) has been in the forefront of molecular studies for the last three decades and now represents the best understood orbivirus at a molecular and structural level. The complex nature of the virion structure has been well characterised at high resolution along with the definition of the virus encoded enzymes required for RNA replication; the ordered assembly of the capsid shell as well as the protein and genome sequestration required for it; and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. More recent developments of Reverse Genetics and Cell-Free Assembly systems have allowed integration of the accumulated structural and molecular knowledge to be tested at meticulous level, yielding higher insight into basic molecular virology, from which the rational design of safe efficacious vaccines has been possible. This article is centred on the molecular dissection of BTV with a view to understanding the role of each protein in the virus replication cycle. These areas are important in themselves for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that related viruses, which includes viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, might also use providing an informed starting point for intervention or prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA Replication Control During Drosophila Development: Insights into the Onset of S Phase, Replication Initiation, and Fork Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Brian L.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2017-01-01

    Proper control of DNA replication is critical to ensure genomic integrity during cell proliferation. In addition, differential regulation of the DNA replication program during development can change gene copy number to influence cell size and gene expression. Drosophila melanogaster serves as a powerful organism to study the developmental control of DNA replication in various cell cycle contexts in a variety of differentiated cell and tissue types. Additionally, Drosophila has provided several developmentally regulated replication models to dissect the molecular mechanisms that underlie replication-based copy number changes in the genome, which include differential underreplication and gene amplification. Here, we review key findings and our current understanding of the developmental control of DNA replication in the contexts of the archetypal replication program as well as of underreplication and differential gene amplification. We focus on the use of these latter two replication systems to delineate many of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the developmental control of replication initiation and fork elongation. PMID:28874453

  17. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... protocol affect the trial's results. Comparison Groups In most clinical trials, researchers use comparison groups. This means ... study before you agree to take part. Randomization Most clinical trials that have comparison groups use randomization. ...

  18. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... clinical trials are vital to the process of improving medical care. Many people volunteer because they want ... care costs for clinical trials. If you're thinking about taking part in a clinical trial, find ...

  19. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... or vulnerable patients (such as children). A DSMB's role is to review data from a clinical trial ... a Clinical Trial If you're interested in learning more about, or taking part in, clinical trials, ...

  20. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, ... required to have an IRB. Office for Human Research Protections The U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

  1. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... Trials About Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ... and Clinical Studies Web page. Children and Clinical Studies Learn more about Children and Clinical Studies Importance ...

  2. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... criteria differ from trial to trial. They include factors such as a patient's age and gender, the ... bias. "Bias" means that human choices or other factors not related to the protocol affect the trial's ...

  3. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... more information about eligibility criteria, go to "How Do Clinical Trials Work?" Some trials enroll people who ... for adults. For more information, go to "How Do Clinical Trials Protect Participants?" For more information about ...

  4. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... you agree to take part in the trial. Talk with your doctor about specific trials you're ... part in a clinical trial is your decision. Talk with your doctor about all of your treatment ...

  5. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... any clinical trial before you agree to take part in the trial. Talk with your doctor about specific trials you're interested in. For a list of questions to ask your doctor and the ...

  6. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... and treatments that work best. How Clinical Trials Work If you take part in a clinical trial, ... study? How might this trial affect my daily life? Will I have to be in the hospital? ...

  7. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... and treatments that work best. How Clinical Trials Work If you take part in a clinical trial, ... from a study at any time, for any reason. Also, during the trial, you have the right ...

  8. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... or device is safe and effective for humans. What Are Clinical Trials? Clinical trials are research studies ... parents, clinicians, researchers, children, and the general public. What to Expect During a clinical trial, doctors, nurses, ...

  9. Clinical Trials

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    Full Text Available ... under way. For example, some trials are stopped early if benefits from a strategy or treatment are ... stop a trial, or part of a trial, early if the strategy or treatment is having harmful ...

  10. Replication, randomization, and treatment design concepts for on-farm research

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most agronomists, randomization and replication are fundamental concepts that have a nearly sacred or spiritual status. They are an integral part of nearly all of our field-based activities. Some on-farm research falls into this category, simply because it is driven and designed by researchers w...

  11. Reproducibility and replicability of rodent phenotyping in preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkafi, Neri; Agassi, Joseph; Chesler, Elissa J; Crabbe, John C; Crusio, Wim E; Eilam, David; Gerlai, Robert; Golani, Ilan; Gomez-Marin, Alex; Heller, Ruth; Iraqi, Fuad; Jaljuli, Iman; Karp, Natasha A; Morgan, Hugh; Nicholson, George; Pfaff, Donald W; Richter, S Helene; Stark, Philip B; Stiedl, Oliver; Stodden, Victoria; Tarantino, Lisa M; Tucci, Valter; Valdar, William; Williams, Robert W; Würbel, Hanno; Benjamini, Yoav

    2018-04-01

    The scientific community is increasingly concerned with the proportion of published "discoveries" that are not replicated in subsequent studies. The field of rodent behavioral phenotyping was one of the first to raise this concern, and to relate it to other methodological issues: the complex interaction between genotype and environment; the definitions of behavioral constructs; and the use of laboratory mice and rats as model species for investigating human health and disease mechanisms. In January 2015, researchers from various disciplines gathered at Tel Aviv University to discuss these issues. The general consensus was that the issue is prevalent and of concern, and should be addressed at the statistical, methodological and policy levels, but is not so severe as to call into question the validity and the usefulness of model organisms as a whole. Well-organized community efforts, coupled with improved data and metadata sharing, have a key role in identifying specific problems and promoting effective solutions. Replicability is closely related to validity, may affect generalizability and translation of findings, and has important ethical implications. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-Replication of Localized Vegetation Patches in Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeu, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G.; Couteron, Piere; Lefever, René; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2016-09-01

    Desertification due to climate change and increasing drought periods is a worldwide problem for both ecology and economy. Our ability to understand how vegetation manages to survive and propagate through arid and semiarid ecosystems may be useful in the development of future strategies to prevent desertification, preserve flora—and fauna within—or even make use of scarce resources soils. In this paper, we study a robust phenomena observed in semi-arid ecosystems, by which localized vegetation patches split in a process called self-replication. Localized patches of vegetation are visible in nature at various spatial scales. Even though they have been described in literature, their growth mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we develop an innovative statistical analysis based on real field observations to show that patches may exhibit deformation and splitting. This growth mechanism is opposite to the desertification since it allows to repopulate territories devoid of vegetation. We investigate these aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple mathematical model, a new class of instabilities that lead to the self-replication phenomenon observed.

  13. Dynamics of Escherichia coli Chromosome Segregation during Multifork Replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Jørck; Youngren, Brenda; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2007-01-01

    Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division, the chro......Slowly growing Escherichia coli cells have a simple cell cycle, with replication and progressive segregation of the chromosome completed before cell division. In rapidly growing cells, initiation of replication occurs before the previous replication rounds are complete. At cell division......, the chromosomes contain multiple replication forks and must be segregated while this complex pattern of replication is still ongoing. Here, we show that replication and segregation continue in step, starting at the origin and progressing to the replication terminus. Thus, early-replicated markers on the multiple......-branched chromosomes continue to separate soon after replication to form separate protonucleoids, even though they are not segregated into different daughter cells until later generations. The segregation pattern follows the pattern of chromosome replication and does not follow the cell division cycle. No extensive...

  14. Paramedic Initiation of Neuroprotective Agent Infusions: Successful Achievement of Target Blood Levels and Attained Level Effect on Clinical Outcomes in the FAST-MAG Pivotal Trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkirkova, Kristina; Starkman, Sidney; Sanossian, Nerses; Eckstein, Marc; Stratton, Samuel; Pratt, Frank; Conwit, Robin; Hamilton, Scott; Sharma, Latisha; Liebeskind, David; Restrepo, Lucas; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2017-07-01

    Paramedic use of fixed-size lumen, gravity-controlled tubing to initiate intravenous infusions in the field may allow rapid start of neuroprotective therapy for acute stroke. In a large, multicenter trial, we evaluated its efficacy in attaining target serum levels of candidate neuroprotective agent magnesium sulfate and the relation of achieved magnesium levels to outcome. The FAST-MAG phase 3 trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium) randomized 1700 patients within 2 hours of onset to paramedic-initiated, a 15-minute loading intravenous infusion of magnesium or placebo followed by a 24-hour maintenance dose. The drug delivery strategy included fixed-size lumen, gravity-controlled tubing for field drug administration, and a shrink-wrapped ambulance kit containing both the randomized field loading and hospital maintenance doses for seamless continuation. Among patient randomized to active treatment, magnesium levels in the first 72 hours were assessed 987 times in 572 patients. Mean patient age was 70 years (SD±14 years), and 45% were women. During the 24-hour period of active infusion, mean achieved serum level was 3.91 (±0.8), consistent with trial target. Mg levels were increased by older age, female sex, lower weight, height, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, and higher blood urea nitrogen, hemoglobin, and higher hematocrit. Adjusted odds for clinical outcomes did not differ by achieved Mg level, including disability at 90 days, symptomatic hemorrhage, or death. Paramedic infusion initiation using gravity-controlled tubing permits rapid achievement of target serum levels of potential neuroprotective agents. The absence of association of clinical outcomes with achieved magnesium levels provides further evidence that magnesium is not biologically neuroprotective in acute stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Pressure tube replication techniques using the advanced NDE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, A.; Jarron, D.; Travers, J.; Hanley, K.

    2006-01-01

    rotary position of the flaw, as determined by ultrasonics, is entered and the tool is positioned in the channel and locked in place. A twenty minute auto-sequence is then initiated which injects material into the flaw and allows it to cure. Once complete, the delivery machine comes off channel and the tool is pushed out of the machine onto a loading trough. The operators remove the replica and recharge the tool for the next set of indications. Once the removed replica has been examined by trained technicians, it is moved to an on-site laser profilometry device to convert the positive of the flaw to a 3D computer image. This image is then curve fitted to determine the smallest radius of the flaw. The combination of in-vault recharging and a two plate tool has reduced critical path times for this phase of the outages. The ANDE Replication System has achieved rates of 10 replicas in just 42 hours. The ANDE Replication System has been successfully used at four different CANDU stations on over 30 flaws. It has been used with both the UDM and the ADM (Advanced Delivery Machine). This paper will present details of the new tool, control system, and field execution of the ANDE Replication System at Ontario Power Generation reactors. (author)

  16. Darwinian Evolution of Mutualistic RNA Replicators with Different Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuuchi, R.; Ichihashi, N.

    2017-07-01

    We report a sustainable long-term replication and evolution of two distinct cooperative RNA replicators encoding different genes. One of the RNAs evolved to maintain or increase the cooperativity, despite selective advantage of selfish mutations.

  17. Replication assessment of surface texture at sub-micrometre scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    [2]. A replication process requires reproducing a master geometry by conveying it to a substrate material. It is typically induced by means of different energy sources (usually heat and force) and a direct physical contact between the master and the substrate. Furthermore, concepts of advanced......, because of the replication nature of molding processes, the required specifications for the manufacture of micro molded components must be ensured by means of a metrological approach to surface replication and dimensional control of both master geometry and replicated substrate [3]-[4]. Therefore...... replication was assessed by the replication fidelity, i.e., comparing the produced parts with the tool used to replicate the geometry. Furthermore, the uncertainty of the replication fidelity was achieved by propagating the uncertainties evaluated for both masters and replicas. Finally, despite the specimens...

  18. The Design of Finite State Machine for Asynchronous Replication Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlong; Li, Zhanhuai; Lin, Wei; Hei, Minglei; Hao, Jianhua

    Data replication is a key way to design a disaster tolerance system and to achieve reliability and availability. It is difficult for a replication protocol to deal with the diverse and complex environment. This means that data is less well replicated than it ought to be. To reduce data loss and to optimize replication protocols, we (1) present a finite state machine, (2) run it to manage an asynchronous replication protocol and (3) report a simple evaluation of the asynchronous replication protocol based on our state machine. It's proved that our state machine is applicable to guarantee the asynchronous replication protocol running in the proper state to the largest extent in the event of various possible events. It also can helpful to build up replication-based disaster tolerance systems to ensure the business continuity.

  19. Chromosome biology: conflict management for replication and transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2013-03-04

    A recent study has uncovered a new mechanism that attenuates DNA replication during periods of heightened gene expression to avoid collisions between replication and transcription. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Topology of a Membrane Associated Regulator of Prokaryotic DNA Replication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Firshein, William

    1998-01-01

    This proposal has focused on a broad host range plasmid, RK2, as a model system to study how a pair of initiation proteins encoded by the plasmid for DNA replication function when replication occurs...