WorldWideScience

Sample records for replacement series design

  1. Competitive analysis of soybean and sudangrass using replacement series design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Antônio Rizzardi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Competition is the best known form of direct interference of weeds on agricultural crops. However, there is relatively little information on the competition of the weed sudangrass on soybean, which has been common in agricultural areas in the southern of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this study was to evaluate the competition between sudangrass and soybeans using replacement series experiments. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with four replications. The treatments consisted of soybean and sudangrass associations. The experimental units were 8-L plastic pots, in the proportions 0: 8, 2: 6, 4: 4, 6: 2, 8: 0, corresponding to 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the crop and weed respectively. Shoot, root and total dry matter and plant height were analyzed through diagrams applied to replacement series and competitive indices. Soybean showed competitive superiority in coexistence with sudangrass in relation to shoot, root and total dry matter. The intraspecific competition was more significant for the crop and inter-specific competition was more important for the weed.

  2. Total ankle replacement. Design evolution and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Alexander; Van Bouwel, Saskia; Dereymaeker, Greta

    2010-04-01

    The ankle joint has unique anatomical, biomechanical and cartilaginous structural characteristics that allow the joint to withstand the very high mechanical stresses and strains over years. Any minor changes to any of these features predispose the joint to osteoarthritis. Total ankle replacement (TAR) is evolving as an alternative to ankle arthrodesis for the treatment of end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. Initial implant designs from the early 1970s had unacceptably high failure and complication rates. As a result many orthopaedic surgeons have restricted the use of TAR in favour of ankle arthrodesis. Long term follow-up studies following ankle arthrodesis show risks of developing adjacent joint osteoarthritis. Therefore research towards a successful ankle replacement continues. Newer designs and longer-term outcome studies have renewed the interest in ankle joint replacement. We present an overview of the evolution, results and current concepts of total ankle replacement.

  3. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  4. Replacing design rules in the VLSI design cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Paul; Kryszczuk, Krzysztof

    2012-03-01

    We make a case for the migration of Design Rule Check (DRC), the first step in the modern VLSI design process, to a model-based system. DRC uses a large set of rules to determine permitted designs. We argue that it is a legacy of the past: slow, labor intensive, ad-hoc, inaccurate and too restrictive. We envisage the replacement of DRC and printability simulation by a signal processing and machine learning-based approach for 22nm technology nodes and beyond. Such a process would produce fast, accurate, autonomous printability prediction for optical lithography. As such, we built a proof-of-concept demonstrator that can predict OPC problems using a trained classifier without the need to fall back on costly first-principle simulation. For one sample test site, and for the OPC Line Width error type OPC violation marker, the demonstrator obtained an Equal Error Rate of ca. 4%.

  5. (UBS Pensions series 8) UK Annuity Rates and Pension Replacement Ratios 1957 - 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Tonks

    2003-01-01

    This paper constructs a time series of annuity rates in the UK for 1957-2002, and examines the pricing of UK annuities, and the relationship between the accumulation and decumulation phases of a defined contribution pension scheme by focusing on the properties of the pension replacement ratio. Using data on annuity returns and the returns on other financial assets, the paper simulates replacement ratios, to build up a frequency distribution of the pension replacement ratio for a UK individual...

  6. Principles of Human Joint Replacement Design and Clinical Application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2012-01-01

    Drs. Buechel, an orthopaedic surgeon, and Pappas, a professor of Mechanical Engineering, are the designers of several successful joint replacement systems. The most well-known of these is the pioneering LCS knee replacement. They have written this book for the users and designers of joint replacements. It is an attempt to convey to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their thirty five year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter de...

  7. Principles of human joint replacement design and clinical application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2015-01-01

    This book is written for the users and designers of joint replacements. In its second extended edition it conveys to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their forty year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter describes the design methodology now required for joint replacement in the USA and EU countries. The remaining chapters provide a history of joint replacement, an evaluation of earlier and current devices and sample case hist...

  8. Philosophies of stem designs in cemented total hip replacement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Stem designs, which have different design features, may produce similar clinical survival curves. Alteratively, some designs that are considered to be similar in design produce different survival rates. In this paper, design aspects of cemented femoral total hip replacement stems, how they can be gr

  9. Optimization criteria for the design of orbital replacement units (ORUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Manfred W.

    A reduction of life cycle costs of spacecraft or Space Station elements can be achieved by a modular build up which allows an in orbit replacement, maintenance, and service of functional units named Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs). The criteria for an optimal design for an ORU is presented. Requirements involving the user spacecraft configuration, the servicing vehicle, the handling by astronauts and remote manipulator system are considered.

  10. Stresses in the ankle joint and total ankle replacement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Rahul; Siddique, M S

    2011-06-01

    The ankle is a highly congruent joint with a surface area of 11-13 cm(2). Total ankle replacements have been attempted since the early 1970s and design has continually evolved as the early designs were a failure. This was because the stresses involved and the mutiaxial motion of the ankle has not been understood until recently. It has been shown that the talus slides as well as rolls during the ankle arc of motion from plantarflexion to dorsiflexion. Furthermore, the articular surfaces and the calcaneofibular and tibiocalcaneal ligaments have been shown to form a four bar linkage dictating ankle motion. A new design ankle replacement has been suggested recently which allows multiaxial motion at the ankle while maintaining congruency throughout the arc of motion. The early results of this ankle replacement have been encouraging without any reported failures due to mechanical loosening.

  11. Recent patents and designs on hip replacement prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derar, H; Shahinpoor, M

    2015-01-01

    Hip replacement surgery has gone through tremendous evolution since the first procedure in 1840. In the past five decades the advances that have been made in technology, advanced and smart materials innovations, surgical techniques, robotic surgery and methods of fixations and sterilization, facilitated hip implants that undergo multiple design revolutions seeking the least problematic implants and a longer survivorship. Hip surgery has become a solution for many in need of hip joint remedy and replacement across the globe. Nevertheless, there are still long-term problems that are essential to search and resolve to find the optimum implant. This paper reviews several recent patents on hip replacement surgery. The patents present various designs of prostheses, different materials as well as methods of fixation. Each of the patents presents a new design as a solution to different issues ranging from the longevity of the hip prostheses to discomfort and inconvenience experienced by patients in the long-term.

  12. Flow-induced vibration testing of replacement thermowell designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, K. H.

    2003-09-01

    Inconel 600 Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) in Nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) has necessitated the repair/replacement of various small bore nozzles. These repairs/replacements must be designed to avoid unwanted vibrations. So, to this end, new RTD-Thermowell-Nozzle replacement designs were developed and subjected to flow testing over a velocity range from 9.14 to 33.53m/s (30-110ft/s), and temperatures ranging from 121°C to 316°C (250-600°F). The replacement nozzles are welded on the pipe OD, rather than on the pipe ID. A split, tapered ferrule is used to support the nozzle tip inside the pipe bore. This maintains high thermowell tip-resonance frequencies with the objective of avoiding self-excitation from vortex shedding that is believed to have caused failures in an earlier design during initial, precritical plant startup testing. The flow testing was complicated by the small size of the thermowell tips (5.08mm or 0.2in ID), which necessitated use of a complement of low temperature and high temperature instrumentation. Since the high temperature device had an internal resonance (750Hz) within the frequency range of interest (0-2500Hz), adequate sensor correlations had to be derived from low temperature tests. The current nozzle/thermowell design was tested concurrently with two slight variations of the replacement design. The acceleration signals were acquired during incremental and continuous flow sweeps, nominally at 5kHz sampling rates and for time domain processing as high as 25kHz. Whereas vortex-shedding frequencies were predicted to prevail between 400 and 1500Hz, no such response was observed at these frequencies. Rather, the thermowell tips responded due to turbulent buffeting with a peak response that was related directly to flow velocity. Lift direction response was always larger than drag direction response. The thermowell tips also responded at their natural tip frequencies in a narrow band random fashion. At the higher

  13. Wear prediction on total ankle replacement effect of design parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Amir Putra Bin Md; Harun, Muhamad Noor; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    2016-01-01

    This book develops and analyses computational wear simulations of the total ankle replacement for the stance phase of gait cycle. The emphasis is put on the relevant design parameters. The book presents a model consisting of three components; tibial, bearing and talar representing their physiological functions.

  14. Repair of Physiologic Time Series: Replacement of Anomalous Data Points to Preserve Fractal Exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Lowen, Steven B.

    2017-01-01

    Extraction of fractal exponents via the slope of the power spectrum is common in the analysis of many physiological time series. The fractal structure thus characterized is a manifestation of long-term correlations, for which the temporal order of the sample values is crucial. However, missing data points due to artifacts and dropouts are common in such data sets, which can seriously disrupt the computation of fractal parameters. We evaluated a number of methods for replacing missing data in time series to enable reliable extraction of the fractal exponent and make recommendations as to the preferred replacement method depending on the proportion of missing values and any a priori estimate of the fractal exponent. PMID:28271060

  15. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  16. Maintainability design criteria for packaging of spacecraft replaceable electronic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler, J. R.; Folsom, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    Maintainability must be designed into long-duration spacecraft and equipment to provide the required high probability of mission success with the least cost and weight. The ability to perform repairs quickly and easily in a space environment can be achieved by imposing specific maintainability design criteria on spacecraft equipment design and installation. A study was funded to investigate and define design criteria for electronic equipment that would permit rapid removal and replacement in a space environment. The results of the study are discussed together with subsequent simulated zero-g demonstration tests of a mockup with new concepts for packaging.

  17. Designer networks for time series processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, C; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1993-01-01

    The conventional tapped-delay neural net may be analyzed using statistical methods and the results of such analysis can be applied to model optimization. The authors review and extend efforts to demonstrate the power of this strategy within time series processing. They attempt to design compact...

  18. Replace the Carburetor Diaphragm. Pulsa-Jet Style with Automatic Choke. Fuel System. Student Manual 2. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of replacing carburetor diaphragms. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  19. Which design and biomaterial factors affect clinical wear performance of total disc replacements? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruva, Sai Y; Steinbeck, Marla J; Toth, Jeffrey; Alexander, Dominik D; Kurtz, Steven M

    2014-12-01

    Total disc replacement was clinically introduced to reduce pain and preserve segmental motion of the lumbar and cervical spine. Previous case studies have reported on the wear and adverse local tissue reactions around artificial prostheses, but it is unclear how design and biomaterials affect clinical outcomes. Which design and material factors are associated with differences in clinical wear performance (implant wear and periprosthetic tissue response) of (1) lumbar and (2) cervical total disc replacements? We performed a systematic review on the topics of implant wear and periprosthetic tissue response using an advanced search in MEDLINE and Scopus electronic databases. Of the 340 references identified, 33 were retrieved for full-text evaluation, from which 16 papers met the inclusion criteria (12 on lumbar disc replacement and five on cervical disc replacement; one of the included studies reported on both lumbar and cervical disc replacement), which involved semiquantitative analysis of wear and adverse local tissue reactions along with a description of the device used. An additional three papers were located by searching bibliographies of key articles. There were seven case reports, three case series, two case-control studies, and seven analytical studies. The Methodological Index for Non-randomized Studies (MINORS) Scale was used to score case series and case-control studies, which yielded mean scores of 10.3 of 16 and 17.5 of 24, respectively. In general, the case series (three) and case-control (two) studies were of good quality. In lumbar regions, metal-on-polymer devices with mobile-bearing designs consistently generated small and large polymeric wear debris, triggering periprosthetic tissue activation of macrophages and giant cells, respectively. In the cervical regions, metal-on-polymer devices with fixed-bearing designs had similar outcomes. All metal-on-metal constructs tended to generate small metallic wear debris, which typically triggered an

  20. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  1. Sheehan's syndrome with pancytopenia--complete recovery after hormone replacement (case series with review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bhat, Javid Rasool; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Khan, Raja Sultan Zaman; Lone, Mohd Iqbal; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2010-03-01

    Reports of pancytopenia in patients with Sheehan's syndrome are rare, because the disorder is not commonly seen in western countries. A case series of pancytopenia in three patients of Sheehan's syndrome is presented. Three women aged 22, 30, and 34 years developed Sheehan's syndrome preceded by post partum hemorrhage. During investigations, they were found to have pancytopenia with hypocellular marrow. Treatment with thyroxine and glucocorticoids resulted in complete recovery after attaining euthyroid and eucortisolemic state. Review of literature revealed the rarity of the disorder, with only four cases reported so far. Multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies in Sheehan's syndrome are responsible for pancytopenia; replacement of thyroid and cortisol hormones results in complete recovery.

  2. Learning and Celebrating: The Glamour of Design Lecture Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Lubomir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the celebratory aspect of the Design Lecture Series, a tradition in architecture schools and interior design programs, its meaning for all constituent parties, and its contributions to creating professional identity and community. The Design Lecture Series is a public event popular in design programs,…

  3. The New Schools. Design & Planning Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisseau, James J.

    This document is one part of a series intended to provide modern pattern books for architects and planners in need of practical solutions to specific problems. Each volume in the series is concerned with structures built for a specific purpose and contains several dozen projects that are good examples of such structures. This volume contains data…

  4. Replacement Gastrostomy Tube Causing Acute Pancreatitis: Case Series with Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish M Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG feedings are generally considered safe with few serious complications. Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication associated with replacement percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Case report We report two cases of acute pancreatitis induced by migrated replacement percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Conclusions Migration of a balloon into the duodenum can result in external manipulation of the ampulla of Vater thereby disturbing the flow of pancreatic secretions leading to acute pancreatitis. Recognition of this complication is important and should be included as potential etiology of acute pancreatitis in patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feedings. Periodic examination and documentation of the distance of the balloon from the skin should be performed to document the position of the tubes or any inadvertent migration of the tubes. The use of Foley catheters as permanent replacement tubes should be considered medically inappropriate.

  5. Design of the LRP airfoil series using 2D CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Bak, Christian; Sørensen, Niels N.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and wind tunnel testing of a high-Reynolds number, high lift airfoil series designed for wind turbines. The airfoils were designed using direct gradient- based numerical multi-point optimization based on a Bezier parameterization of the shape, coupled to the 2D Nav...

  6. Haemophilic arthropathy of the ankle treated by total ankle replacement: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, A; Elsner, A; Hefti, D; Hintermann, B

    2010-07-01

    The standard treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the ankle joint in haemophilic patients has been fusion of the ankle joint. Total ankle replacement is still controversial as a treatment option. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the mid-term outcome in patients treated with total ankle replacement using an unconstrained three-component ankle implant. Ten haemophilic ankles in eight patients (mean age: 43.2 years, range 26.7-57.5) treated with total ankle replacement were followed up for a minimum of 2.7 years (mean: 5.6, range 2.7-7.6). The outcome was measured with clinical and radiological evaluations. There were no intra- or peri-operative complications. The AOFAS-hindfoot-score increased from 38 (range 8-57) preoperatively to 81 (range 69-95) postoperatively. All patients were satisfied with the results. Four patients became pain free; in the whole patient cohort pain level decreased from 7.1 (range 4-9) preoperatively to 0.8 (range 0-3) postoperatively. All categories of SF-36 score showed significant improvements in quality of life. In one patient, open ankle arthrolysis was performed because of painful arthrofibrosis. For patients with haemophilic osteoarthritis of the ankle joint, total ankle replacement is a valuable alternative treatment to ankle fusion.

  7. A Retrospective Analysis of Dental Implants Replacing Failed Implants in Grafted Maxillary Sinus: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Yifat; Chaushu, Gavriel; Lorean, Adi; Mijiritzky, Eithan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the survival rate of dental implants replacing failed implants in grafted maxillary sinuses using the lateral approach vs nongrafted posterior maxillae. A retrospective analysis was conducted to study the survival of secondary dental implants inserted in the posterior maxilla in previously failed implant sites between the years 2000 and 2010. The study group consisted of patients who had also undergone maxillary sinus augmentation, and the control group consisted of patients in whom implants in the posterior maxilla had failed. Clinical and demographic data were analyzed using a structured form. Seventy-five patients with a total of 75 replaced implants were included in the study. The study group comprised 40 patients and the control group, 35 patients. None of the replaced implants in the study group failed, resulting in an overall survival of 100%; three replaced implants in the control group failed (92% survival). The main reason for the primary implant removal was lack of osseointegration (35 [87.5%] of 40 study group implants and 23 [65.7%] of 35 control group implants [P = .027]). The difference between the groups with regard to the timing of primary implant failure was statistically significant. The study group had more early failures of the primary implant than did the control group (77% vs 62%; P = .038). Dental implants replaced in the posterior maxilla had a high survival rate. A higher rate of survival was found in augmented maxillary sinus sites. Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that previous implant failures in the grafted maxillary sinus should not discourage practitioners from a second attempt.

  8. Assessment of Sesame and Chickpea Yield and Yield Components in the Replacement Series Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    F. Pouramir; M. Nassiri Mahallati; A Koocheki; Ghorbani, R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This experiment was carried out for assessment of sesame and chickpea intercropping under climatic condition of Mashhad. The Experiment included main factor A (planting methods) whit two levels a1(row planting) and a2(mixed planting) and factor B (replacement planting pattern) consisting of five levels b1 (chickpea monoculture), b2 (75% chickpea+25% sesame), b3 (50% chickpea+50% sesame), b4 (25% chickpea+75% sesame) and b5 (sesame monoculture) and was carried out in context of spl...

  9. Anatomic Total Talar Prosthesis Replacement Surgery and Ankle Arthroplasty: An Early Case Series in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about specific outcomes and early experiences of total talar prosthesis replacement surgery in the current literature, and ankle arthroplasty in Southeast Asia. This study reported on four patients with talar loss or ankle arthritis. Patients were treated with a custom total talar prosthesis (anatomic-metallic version) replacement (TPR, n=1) or with total ankle replacement (TAR, n=3). Baseline data, including Visual-Analog-Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) and Quality of Life scores via Short-Form-36 (SF-36), were collected for all patients. Mean follow-up time was 7.6 months. From preoperative to postoperative, VAS-FA score increased from 6.0 to 57.5, and SF-36 score increased from 19.3 to 73.7 in a patient with TPR. Mean VAS-FA scores increased from 51.5±15.6 to 85.7±4.7 (P=0.032), and mean SF-36 scores tended to increase from 65.2±13.3 to 99.3±1.2 (P=0.055) in TAR group. This study is the first report of anatomic-metallic TPR which appears to provide satisfactory outcomes for treatment of talar loss at a short-term follow-up. TAR also provides acceptable results for treatment of ankle arthritis at this point. PMID:25317313

  10. Anatomic total talar prosthesis replacement surgery and ankle arthroplasty: an early case series in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayanin Angthong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about specific outcomes and early experiences of total talar prosthesis replacement surgery in the current literature, and ankle arthroplasty in Southeast Asia. This study reported on four patients with talar loss or ankle arthritis. Patients were treated with a custom total talar prosthesis (anatomic-metallic version replacement (TPR, n=1 or with total ankle replacement (TAR, n=3. Baseline data, including Visual-Analog-Scale Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA and Quality of Life scores via Short-Form-36 (SF-36, were collected for all patients. Mean follow-up time was 7.6 months. From preoperative to postoperative, VAS-FA score increased from 6.0 to 57.5, and SF-36 score increased from 19.3 to 73.7 in a patient with TPR. Mean VAS-FA scores increased from 51.5±15.6 to 85.7±4.7 (P=0.032, and mean SF-36 scores tended to increase from 65.2±13.3 to 99.3±1.2 (P=0.055 in TAR group. This study is the first report of anatomic-metallic TPR which appears to provide satisfactory outcomes for treatment of talar loss at a short-term follow-up. TAR also provides acceptable results for treatment of ankle arthritis at this point.

  11. Construct-a-Catapult. Science by Design Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulis, Lee

    This book is one of four books in the Science-by-Design Series crated by TERC and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). It integrates history, physics, mathematics, and technology in its challenge to high school students to design and build a working catapult system. Students investigate elasticity, projectile launching, and learn about…

  12. Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L. in a replacement series experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Population dynamics of the species Plantago major L. and Poa annua L., typical representatives of ruderal vegetation, was analyzed in a replacement series experiment. The analyzed species were sown in an area with meadow vegetation, where the vegetation present had been previously removed by a total herbicide and additionally by hoeing. The objective of the experiment was to monitor growth dynamics and the effect of intra- and inter-specific interaction of the species Plantago major and Poa annua in conditions of different sowing densities and proportions. The effects of intra- and inter-specific interference and the density-dependent responses were assessed on the basis of several parameters (natality, mortality, age structure, and measures of ontogenetic changes. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the responses of the species in the experiment were different, which is explained by different adaptive mechanisms, i.e., strategies, in the specific environmental conditions. An effect of the density dependent response was present in both species in the replacement series experiment. The response was amplified by water deficit caused by intensive evapora­tion of the bare soil. No effect of inter-specific interference was observed at the given densities of the study species on the sample plots. An effect of intra-specific interference of the species Plantago major and Poa annua was observed in the guise of a density-negative response of the rate of ontogenetic changes and fecundity.

  13. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SERIES HYBRID ACTIVE POWER FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Some important factors for designing a series hybrid active power filter (SHAPF) are presented in this paper for the case when the load is varied in a wide range and/or the source voltage is seriously distorted. Special design of passive filters, adaptive control of parameter and multi variant control are discussed in detail. The filter is stable, has good performance, and causes small capacitive reactive current. The simulation and experimental results accorded with the theoretical analysis results.

  14. Real Rainfall Time Series for Storm Sewer Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation method for the design of retention storages, overflows etc. in storm sewer systems. The method is based on computer simulation with real real rainfall time series as input and with a simple transfer model of the ARMA-type (Autoregressive moving average) applied...

  15. Real Rainfall Time Series for Storm Sewer Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    The paper describes a simulation method for the design of retention storages, overflows etc. in storm sewer systems. The method is based on computer simulation with real rainfall time series as input ans with the aply of a simple transfer model of the ARMA-type (autoregressiv moving average model...

  16. Non standard pallet series designing problem in ammunition supply system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Liangchun; Guo Min; Wang Hongwei

    2005-01-01

    According to the compound packing problem in ammunition supply system in our army, the non-standard pallet series design model is proposed, and the original problem that can be solved as a set cover problem with a nested bin-packing problem, is analyzed, then two heuristic algorithms are applied to solve the problem.

  17. Statistical design for a small serial dilution series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelterman, Daniel; Tulupyev, Alexander; Heimer, Robert; Abdala, Nadia

    2010-02-10

    We describe statistical plans for a serial dilution series designed to detect and estimate the number of viral particles in a solution. The design addresses a problem when a very limited number of aliquots are available for proliferation. A gamma prior distribution on the number of viral particles allows us to describe the marginal probability distribution of all experimental outcomes. We examine a design that minimizes the expected reciprocal information and compare this with the maximum entropy design. We argue that the maximum entropy design is more useful from the point of view of the laboratory technician. The problem and design are motivated by our study of the viability of human immunodeficiency virus in syringes and other equipment that might mediate blood-borne viral transmission.

  18. Design of Skin Penetration Enhancers Using Replacement Methods for the Selection of the Molecular Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beshoy Abdelmalek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal delivery of certain drugs is challenging because of skin barrier resistance. This study focuses on the implementation of feature-selection algorithms to design chemical penetration enhancers. A database, consisting of 145 polar and nonpolar chemicals, was chosen for the investigation. Replacement, enhanced replacement and stepwise algorithms were applied to identify relevant structural properties of these compounds. The descriptors were calculated using Molecular Modeling Pro™ Plus. Based on the coefficient of determination, the replacement methods outperformed the stepwise approach in selecting the features that best correlated with the flux enhancement ratio. An artificial neural network model was built to map a subset of descriptors from sixty-one nonpolar enhancers onto the output vector. The R2 value improved from 0.68, for a linear model, to 0.74, which shows that the improved framework might be effective in the design of compounds with user-defined properties.

  19. Optimum design of B-series marine propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Gaafary

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an optimum marine propeller is one of the most important problems in naval architecture. This problem can be handled using the propeller series diagrams or regression polynomials. This paper introduces a procedure to find out the optimum characteristics of B-series marine propellers. The propeller design process is performed as a single objective function subjected to constraints imposed by cavitation, material strength and required propeller thrust. Although optimization software of commercial type can be adopted to solve the problem, the computer program that has been specially developed for this task may be more useful for its flexibility and possibility to be incorporated, as a subroutine, with the complex ship design process.

  20. [Total reverse shoulder replacement. Evaluation of the clinical results and complications in a series of 52 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Sánchez, L; Mesa-Mateo, A; Barrionuevo-Sánchez, F J; García-Benítez, B; Expósito-Triano, S

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical results and analyse the complications of total reverse shoulder replacement performed in our centre over an 8 year period. A retrospective study was conducted on 50 patients (52 shoulders), with a mean age of 70.15 years (range 51 to 84 years) between December 2004 and December 2012, who received a total reverse shoulder replacement, all performed by the same surgeon. The results have been evaluated according to clinical data, radiography study, a satisfaction scale, and the Constant scale, with a minimum follow-up of 16 months. Five of the cases (9.62%) had been intervened due to fractures of the proximal end of the humerus, 6 cases (11.53%) as surgical consequence of a prosthesis revision, 10 cases (19.23%) due to fracture sequelae, and 30 cases (59.62%) were patients with arthropathy due to a massive fracture of the rotator cuff. After a mean follow up of 35.78 months (range, 16-82), satisfactory clinical results were obtained in 80% of cases, with a mean preoperative Constant of 27.7 points, and reaching 67.1 points 12 months after the operation. On the visual analogue scale, 8.25 points were obtained before the surgery, which decreased to 2.25 points 12 months later. The complications rate was 15.38%, which were due to an intra-operative fracture (1.92%), deep infection (3.84%), instability (3.84%), and early mechanical loosening (3.84%). Scapular notching was observed in the radiographic study in 9 (17.3%) cases. After the results obtained, it could be said that total reverse shoulder replacement achieved encouraging results in the short term for the treatment of glenohumeral arthrosis and massive tears of the rotary cuff. On analysing our series, it can be seen that the complications rate is much higher when it is used to treat fracture sequelae in which there is a loss of proximal humerus bone stock. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and testing of the Series III AMTEC cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, R.; Sievers, R.K.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of the Series III (S3) Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) cell which is capable of high efficiency (15--25%) and high power density (100--150 W/kg). Compared to the Series 2 cell which is being developed primarily for space power systems, the Series III cell design provides a significantly higher beta{double_prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) tube packing density around the heat source thereby increasing cell power and minimizing heat loss. The prototype S3 cell will have 96 BASE tubes and is expected to produce about 150 We. In this cell design the BASE tube assemblies are mounted on a cylindrical tube support plate. The BASE tubes are arranged like spokes on a wheel. The inner cylinder, concentric to the tube support plate, is the hot side of the cell and the outer cylinder is the condenser. Since the prototype S3 cell will be the first of its kind, an engineering cell with same dimensions as the prototype but with 24 BASE tubes was built first. The purpose of this cell was to identify and resolve structural, thermal, manufacturing and sodium management issues before launching into the build of a complete 96 BASE tube cell. The engineering cell has been successfully built and tested. The data of the engineering cells have been used to calibrate the SINDA/FLUINT code to predict the prototype cell performance more accurately. The build of the prototype 96 BASE tube cells is now in progress. This paper presents the design and development of the prototype S3 cell. The fabrication and testing of the first S3 engineering cell is discussed next. Based on the test data of the engineering cell, the anticipated thermal performance of the prototype cells predicted by the calibrated SINDA model are also presented.

  2. Quasi-experimental study designs series - paper 1: history and introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Røttingen, John-Arne; Rockers, Peter; Shemilt, Ian; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-07-07

    To contrast the historical development of experiments and quasi-experiments and provide the motivation for a journal series on quasi-experimental designs in health research STUDY DESIGN: A short historical narrative, with concrete examples, and arguments based on an understanding of the practice of health research and evidence synthesis RESULTS: Health research has played a key role in developing today's gold standard for causal inference - the randomized controlled multiply blinded trial. Historically, allocation approaches developed from convenience and purposive allocation to alternate and, finally, to random allocation. This development was motivated both by concerns for manipulation in allocation as well as statistical and theoretical developments demonstrating the power of randomization in creating counterfactuals for causal inference. In contrast to the sequential development of experiments, quasi-experiments originated at very different points in time, from very different scientific perspectives, and with frequent and long interruptions in their methodological development. Health researchers have only recently started to recognize the value of quasi-experiments for generating novel insights on causal relationships. While quasi-experiments are unlikely to replace experiments in generating the efficacy and safety evidence required for clinical guidelines and regulatory approval of medical technologies, quasi-experiments can play an important role in establishing the effectiveness of healthcare practice, programs and policies. The papers in this series describe and discuss a range of important issues in utilizing quasi-experimental designs for primary research and quasi-experimental results for evidence synthesis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Series hybrid vehicles and optimized hydrogen engine design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.; Aceves, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Van Blarigan, P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-05-10

    Lawrence Livermore, Sandia Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories have a joint project to develop an optimized hydrogen fueled engine for series hybrid automobiles. The major divisions of responsibility are: system analysis, engine design and kinetics modeling by LLNL; performance and emission testing, and friction reduction by SNL; computational fluid mechanics and combustion modeling by LANL. This project is a component of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technology, National Hydrogen Program. We report here on the progress on system analysis and preliminary engine testing. We have done system studies of series hybrid automobiles that approach the PNGV design goal of 34 km/liter (80 mpg), for 384 km (240 mi) and 608 km (380 mi) ranges. Our results indicate that such a vehicle appears feasible using an optimized hydrogen engine. The impact of various on-board storage options on fuel economy are evaluated. Experiments with an available engine at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility demonstrated NO{sub x} emissions of 10 to 20 ppm at an equivalence ratio of 0.4, rising to about 500 ppm at 0.5 equivalence ratio using neat hydrogen. Hybrid vehicle simulation studies indicate that exhaust NO{sub x} concentrations must be less than 180 ppm to meet the 0.2 g/mile California Air Resources Board ULEV or Federal Tier II emissions regulations. We have designed and fabricated a first generation optimized hydrogen engine head for use on an existing single cylinder Onan engine. This head currently features 14.8:1 compression ratio, dual ignition, water cooling, two valves and open quiescent combustion chamber to minimize heat transfer losses.

  4. Relevant thermal-hydraulic aspects in the design of the RRR (Replacement Research Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doval, Alicia S.; Mazufri, Claudio M. [INVAP SE, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    A description of the main thermal-hydraulic features and challenges of the Replacement Research Reactor, for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), is presented. Different hydraulic and thermal-hydraulic aspects are considered, core cooling during full power operation and the way it affects the design, design criteria, engineered safety features and computational tools, amongst others. A special section is devoted to the thermal-hydraulic aspects inside the reflector tank, as well as the cooling of irradiation facilities, particularly, the Molybdenum production facility. (author)

  5. Root analog zirconia implants: true anatomical design for molar replacement--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, Wolfgang; Kocher, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Replacement of lost teeth using oral implants is an accepted treatment modality with well-documented high long-term success rates. Conventional screw- or threaded cylinder-type implants have been used almost exclusively. Their incongruence with the extraction socket necessitates the use of a barrier membrane or bone augmentation to prevent down-growth of connective tissue or epithelium between the implant and socket. Although some minor changes in implant design have been made, the neck and abutment connection areas have not changed much in the past 30 years. Custom-made root analog implants have been employed clinically in rare instances; however, they yielded failure rates of up to 96% at 1 year of follow-up. So far, ovoid implants are the closest in design regarding resemblance to the natural tooth anatomy. Root analog zirconia implants with macroretentions were developed and produced for immediate single-stage replacement of missing or hopeless teeth. This article discusses the treatment and 3-year follow-up of a patient with such an implant for replacement of a maxillary molar.

  6. Architectural design of diamond-like carbon coatings for long-lasting joint replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujing; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2013-07-01

    Surface engineering through the application of super-hard, low-friction coatings as a potential approach for increasing the durability of metal-on-metal replacements is attracting significant attention. In this study innovative design strategies are proposed for the development of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings against the damage caused by wear particles on the joint replacements. Finite element modeling is used to analyze stress distributions induced by wear particles of different sizes in the newly-designed coating in comparison to its conventional monolithic counterpart. The critical roles of architectural design in regulating stress concentrations and suppressing crack initiation within the coatings is elucidated. Notably, the introduction of multilayer structure with graded modulus is effective in modifying the stress field and reducing the magnitude and size of stress concentrations in the DLC diamond-like-carbon coatings. The new design is expected to greatly improve the load-carrying ability of surface coatings on prosthetic implants, in addition to the provision of damage tolerance through crack arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic Analysis and Design Optimization of Series Hydraulic Hybrid System through Power Bond Graph Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of natural gas and crude oil resources has been declining over the years. In automobile sector, the consumption of crude oil is 63% of total crude oil production in the world. Hence, automobile industries are placing more emphasis on energy efficient hydraulic hybrid systems, which can replace their conventional transmission systems. Series hydraulic hybrid system (SHHS is a multidomain mechatronics system with two distinct power sources that includes prime mover and hydropneumatic accumulator. It replaces the conventional transmission system to drive the vehicle. The sizing of the subsystems in SHHS plays a major role in improving the energy efficiency of the vehicle. In this paper, a power bond graph approach is used to model the dynamics of the SHHS. The obtained simulation results indicate the energy flow during various modes of operations. It also includes the dynamic response of hydropneumatic accumulator, prime mover, and system output speed. Further, design optimization of the system is carried out to optimize the process parameters for maximizing the system energy efficiency. This leads to increase in fuel economy and environmentally friendly vehicle.

  8. Design of a surface replacement prosthesis for the proximal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, H E; Unsworth, A

    2000-01-01

    A surface replacement finger joint prosthesis was designed specifically for the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ). The two-piece design consisted of a bi-condylar proximal phalangeal head and a conforming bi-concave middle phalangeal base. The bearing surfaces were designed as close to the original anatomy of the PIPJs as possible, using detailed information obtained from a previous anatomical study of 83 PIPJs by the present authors. Four sizes of prosthesis were designed with maximum head diameters of 7, 8, 9 and 10 mm. Fixation of the joint prosthesis was achieved by an interference fit between the stems of semicircular cross-section and the phalangeal bone shafts. The main considerations for the stem designs were the offset from the centre of rotation, angle of inclination, length, and cross-sectional shape and size. It is proposed that the two components will be made from cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) because it can be injection moulded to produce the complex shapes of the joint prosthesis. In addition, XLPE against itself has shown comparable wear rates with stainless steel against ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene from previous work by Joyce et al.

  9. Libraries for Schools and Universities. Design & Planning Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Friedemann

    This document is one part of a series intended to provide modern pattern books for architects and planners in need of practical solutions to specific problems. Each volume in the series is concerned with structures built for a specific purpose and contains several dozen projects, none more than a few years old, that are good examples of such…

  10. Graphical Data Analysis on the Circle: Wrap-Around Time Series Plots for (Interrupted) Time Series Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Beasley, William Howard; Schuelke, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Many data structures, particularly time series data, are naturally seasonal, cyclical, or otherwise circular. Past graphical methods for time series have focused on linear plots. In this article, we move graphical analysis onto the circle. We focus on 2 particular methods, one old and one new. Rose diagrams are circular histograms and can be produced in several different forms using the RRose software system. In addition, we propose, develop, illustrate, and provide software support for a new circular graphical method, called Wrap-Around Time Series Plots (WATS Plots), which is a graphical method useful to support time series analyses in general but in particular in relation to interrupted time series designs. We illustrate the use of WATS Plots with an interrupted time series design evaluating the effect of the Oklahoma City bombing on birthrates in Oklahoma County during the 10 years surrounding the bombing of the Murrah Building in Oklahoma City. We compare WATS Plots with linear time series representations and overlay them with smoothing and error bands. Each method is shown to have advantages in relation to the other; in our example, the WATS Plots more clearly show the existence and effect size of the fertility differential.

  11. Proposal of an IH-DTL design as replacement for the GSI UNILAC Alvarez for FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haehnel, Hendrik; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Tiede, Rudolf [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    To meet the requirements of 15 mA U{sup 28+} at 11.4 AMeV for injection into the SIS18, the GSI UNILAC has to be upgraded. By upgrading the MEBT section between the RFQ and IH-DTL as proposed by the authors, the prestripper section can reach the required 18 mA U{sup 4+} with high efficiency. The Alvarez linac in the poststripper U{sup 28+} section of the UNILAC is nearing 40 years of operation and therefore has to be replaced to ensure reliable and efficient operation for FAIR. We propose an IH-DTL linac as replacement for the current GSI UNILAC Alvarez. The new design is based on the KONUS beam dynamics concept and delivers high beam quality well within FAIR requirements. It will drastically reduce the fabrication costs and will leave about 30 m within the UNILAC for later linac energy upgrades to improve the high current performance of FAIR.

  12. Production design and location in the Danish television drama series Arvingerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ion Wille, Jakob; Waade, Anne Marit

    2016-01-01

    drama series. We use the drama series Arvingerne (The Legacy, DR, 2014-2015) to illustrate how design ideas can be developed at an early stage, in pre-pre-production, as part of a collective, creative process that includes the scriptwriter, the production designer and the producer. Our empirical study...... of the series draws on an analysis of in-house design/concept documents [1], interviews with the production designer Mia Stensgaard [2], and promotional material made for the series [3]. The paper also draws on visual analysis of the finished production. Our overall argument is that the importance of location...

  13. Partial regimen replacement with aripiprazole reduces serum prolactin in patients with a long history of schizophrenia: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naono-Nagatomo, Keiko; Naono, Hisao; Abe, Hiroshi; Takeda, Ryuichiro; Funahashi, Hideki; Uchimura, Daisuke; Ishida, Yasushi

    2017-02-01

    Aripiprazole (ARP) is a popular antipsychotic drug that has demonstrated ameliorative effects on hyperprolactinemia. However, no study to date has studied the utility of ARP in patients with a long history of schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment. We therefore examined the effect of partial antipsychotic regimen replacement with ARP on hyperprolactinemia induced by chronic antipsychotic use in patients with schizophrenia. Sixteen patients with a schizophrenia diagnosis (F2) based on the International Classification of Diseases (version 10) were recruited. At months 0, 1, 3, and 6 of the study, serum prolactin, body weight, and blood glucose were measured, and QOL and psychotic symptoms were assessed using Global Assessment of Functioning scores and Clinical Global Impressions of Improvement (CGI-I) scores. Nine patients with an average age of 46.7±9.6 years and mean disease duration of 15.9±10.4 years were included in the final analysis. Serum prolactin levels significantly decreased and GAF and CGI-I scores improved significantly over the 6-month period after partial replacement with ARP. Additionally, no changes were observed in body weight or blood glucose over the 6-month period. Partial antipsychotic regimen replacement with ARP improves hyperprolactinemia, and may improve the QOL of patients with a long history of schizophrenia. Japan Medical Association, Center for clinical trials D: JMA-IIA00245. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Design Tools to Assess Hydro-Turbine Biological Performance: Priest Rapids Dam Turbine Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly; Dotson, Curtis L.

    2013-06-25

    Over the past two decades, there have been many studies describing injury mechanisms associated with turbine passage, the response of various fish species to these mechanisms, and the probability of survival through dams. Although developing tools to design turbines that improve passage survival has been difficult and slow, a more robust quantification of the turbine environment has emerged through integrating physical model data, fish survival data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) operates the Priest Rapids Dam (PRD), a hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River in Washington State. The dam contains 10 Kaplan-type turbine units that are now almost 50 years old. The Utility District plans to refit all of these aging turbines with new turbines. The Columbia River at PRD is a migratory pathway for several species of juvenile and adult salmonids, so passage of fish through the dam is a major consideration when replacing the turbines. In this presentation, a method for turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) is introduced. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a CFD model of a proposed turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. Using known relationships between the dose of an injury mechanism and frequency of injury (dose–response) from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from proposed designs, the engineer can identify the more-promising alternatives. We will present application of the BioPA method for baseline risk assessment calculations for the existing Kaplan turbines at PRD that will be used as the minimum biological performance that a proposed new design must achieve.

  15. Series Design of Large-Scale NC Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Product system design is a mature concept in western developed countries. It has been applied in war industry during the last century. However, up until now, functional combination is still the main method for product system design in China. Therefore, in terms of a concept of product generation and product interaction we are in a weak position compared with the requirements of global markets. Today, the idea of serial product design has attracted much attention in the design field and the definition of product generation as well as its parameters has already become the standard in serial product designs. Although the design of a large-scale NC machine tool is complicated, it can be further optimized by the precise exercise of object design by placing the concept of platform establishment firmly into serial product design. The essence of a serial product design has been demonstrated by the design process of a large-scale NC machine tool.

  16. The Influence of Partial Knee Replacement Designs on Tensile Strain at Implant-Bone Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial knee replacement (PKR results in fast recovery and good knee mechanics and is ideal to treat medial knee osteoarthritis. Cementless PKR depends on bone growing into the implant surface for long-term fixation. Implant loosening may occur due to high tensile strain resulted from large mechanical loads during rehab exercises. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether external fixations such as superior screw and frontal flange could reduce the tensile strain at the implant-bone interface. Three medial PKRs were designed. The first PKR had no external fixations. A superior screw and a frontal flange were then added to the first PKR to form the second and third PKR designs, respectively. Finite element analysis was performed to examine the tensile strain at the implant-bone interface during weight-bearing exercises. The PKR with no external fixations exhibited high tensile strain at the anterior implant-bone interface. Both the screwed and flanged PKRs effectively reduced the tensile strain at the anterior implant-bone interface. Furthermore, the flanged PKR resulted in a more uniform reduction of the tensile strain than the screwed PKR. In conclusion, external fixations are necessary to alleviate tensile strain at the implant-bone interface during knee rehab exercises.

  17. Radial basis function network design for chaotic time series prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Yong; Kim, Taek Soo; Park, Sang Hui [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-04-01

    In this paper, radial basis function networks with two hidden layers, which employ the K-means clustering method and the hierarchical training, are proposed for improving the short-term predictability of chaotic time series. Furthermore the recursive training method of radial basis function network using the recursive modified Gram-Schmidt algorithm is proposed for the purpose. In addition, the radial basis function networks trained by the proposed training methods are compared with the X.D. He A Lapedes`s model and the radial basis function network by non-recursive training method. Through this comparison, an improved radial basis function network for predicting chaotic time series is presented. (author). 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Modeling, design, and optimization of Mindwalker series elastic joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqian; Meijneke, Cor; van der Kooij, Herman

    2013-06-01

    Weight and power autonomy are limiting the daily use of wearable exoskeleton. Lightweight, efficient and powerful actuation system are not easy to achieve. Choosing the right combinations of existing technologies, such as battery, gear and motor is not a trivial task. In this paper, we propose an optimization framework by setting up a power-based quasi-static model of the exoskeleton joint drivetrain. The goal is to find the most efficient and lightweight combinations. This framework can be generalized for other similar applications by extending or accommodating the model to their own needs. We also present the Mindwalker exoskeleton joint, for which a novel series elastic actuator, consisting of a ballscrew-driven linear actuator and a double spiral spring, was developed and tested. This linear actuator is capable of outputting 960 W power and the exoskeleton joint can output 100 Nm peak torque continuously. The double spiral spring can sense torque between 0.08Nm and 100 Nm and it exhibits linearity of 99.99%, with no backlash or hysteresis. The series elastic joint can track a chirp torque profile with amplitude of 100 Nm over 6 Hz (large torque bandwidth) and for small torque (2 Nm peak-to-peak), it has a bandwidth over 38 Hz. The integrated exoskeleton joint, including the ballscrew-driven linear actuator, the series spring, electronics and the metal housing which hosts these components, weighs 2.9 kg.

  19. An alternative strategy for targeted gene replacement in plants using a dual-sgRNA/Cas9 design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongping; Zhang, Congsheng; Liu, Wenwen; Gao, Wei; Liu, Changlin; Song, Gaoyuan; Li, Wen-Xue; Mao, Long; Chen, Beijiu; Xu, Yunbi; Li, Xinhai; Xie, Chuanxiao

    2016-04-01

    Precision DNA/gene replacement is a promising genome-editing tool that is highly desirable for molecular engineering and breeding by design. Although the CRISPR/Cas9 system works well as a tool for gene knockout in plants, gene replacement has rarely been reported. Towards this end, we first designed a combinatory dual-sgRNA/Cas9 vector (construct #1) that successfully deleted miRNA gene regions (MIR169a and MIR827a). The deletions were confirmed by PCR and subsequent sequencing, yielding deletion efficiencies of 20% and 24% on MIR169a and MIR827a loci, respectively. We designed a second structure (construct #2) that contains sites homologous to Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) for homology-directed repair (HDR) with regions corresponding to the two sgRNAs on the modified construct #1. The two constructs were co-transformed into Arabidopsis plants to provide both targeted deletion and donor repair for targeted gene replacement by HDR. Four of 500 stably transformed T0 transgenic plants (0.8%) contained replaced fragments. The presence of the expected recombination sites was further confirmed by sequencing. Therefore, we successfully established a gene deletion/replacement system in stably transformed plants that can potentially be utilized to introduce genes of interest for targeted crop improvement.

  20. A Novel Approach to Power Circuit Breaker Design for Replacement of SF6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Telfer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the role of PTFE ablation in enhancing current interruption for various background gases in high voltage circuit breakers. An assessment of the current interruption capability has been made in terms of the arcing duration and the contact gap length at which critical arc extinction is achieved. These observations are supported by measurements of the magnitude of extinction and re-ignition voltage peaks. Most previous and other current experimental work on gas filled circuit breaker design follows conventional wisdom in investigating arcing behaviours at elevated gas pressures (usually up to 6 bar. But in this work we concentrate on the effects of using low gas pressures (less than 1 bar in the presence of a close-fitting shield of ablatant polymer material (PTFE that surrounds the electrode assembly of an experimental high power circuit breaker. We demonstrate that for several different gases, arc extinction capability compares well under these conditions with SF6, suggesting that SF6 could be replaced entirely in this novel system by more environmentally friendly gases. Moreover, the critical contact gap lengths at extinction are only slightly greater than when using SF6 at 6 bar. Weight loss measurements from the ablatant shield suggest that a chemical puffer action is the most likely mechanism for achieving the observed arc extinctions in this system.

  1. Modularly assembled designer TAL effector nucleases for targeted gene knockout and gene replacement in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xuefeng; Wright, David A; Carpenter, Susan; Spalding, Martin H; Weeks, Donald P; Yang, Bing

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that the DNA recognition domain of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors can be combined with the nuclease domain of FokI restriction enzyme to produce TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) that, in pairs, bind adjacent DNA target sites and produce double-strand breaks between the target sequences, stimulating non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here, we exploit the four prevalent TAL repeats and their DNA recognition cipher to develop a 'modular assembly' method for rapid production of designer TALENs (dTALENs) that recognize unique DNA sequence up to 23 bases in any gene. We have used this approach to engineer 10 dTALENs to target specific loci in native yeast chromosomal genes. All dTALENs produced high rates of site-specific gene disruptions and created strains with expected mutant phenotypes. Moreover, dTALENs stimulated high rates (up to 34%) of gene replacement by homologous recombination. Finally, dTALENs caused no detectable cytotoxicity and minimal levels of undesired genetic mutations in the treated yeast strains. These studies expand the realm of verified TALEN activity from cultured human cells to an intact eukaryotic organism and suggest that low-cost, highly dependable dTALENs can assume a significant role for gene modifications of value in human and animal health, agriculture and industry.

  2. Modularly assembled designer TAL effector nucleases for targeted gene knockout and gene replacement in eukaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T; Huang, S; Zhao, XF; Wright, DA; Carpenter, S; Spalding, MH; Weeks, DP; Yang, B

    2011-08-08

    Recent studies indicate that the DNA recognition domain of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors can be combined with the nuclease domain of FokI restriction enzyme to produce TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) that, in pairs, bind adjacent DNA target sites and produce double-strand breaks between the target sequences, stimulating non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. Here, we exploit the four prevalent TAL repeats and their DNA recognition cipher to develop a 'modular assembly' method for rapid production of designer TALENs (dTALENs) that recognize unique DNA sequence up to 23 bases in any gene. We have used this approach to engineer 10 dTALENs to target specific loci in native yeast chromosomal genes. All dTALENs produced high rates of site-specific gene disruptions and created strains with expected mutant phenotypes. Moreover, dTALENs stimulated high rates (up to 34%) of gene replacement by homologous recombination. Finally, dTALENs caused no detectable cytotoxicity and minimal levels of undesired genetic mutations in the treated yeast strains. These studies expand the realm of verified TALEN activity from cultured human cells to an intact eukaryotic organism and suggest that low-cost, highly dependable dTALENs can assume a significant role for gene modifications of value in human and animal health, agriculture and industry.

  3. Biomechanical Considerations in the Design of High-Flexion Total Knee Replacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Kung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Typically, joint arthroplasty is performed to relieve pain and improve functionality in a diseased or damaged joint. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA involves replacing the entire knee joint, both femoral and tibial surfaces, with anatomically shaped artificial components in the hope of regaining normal joint function and permitting a full range of knee flexion. In spite of the design of the prosthesis itself, the degree of flexion attainable following TKA depends on a variety of factors, such as the joint’s preoperative condition/flexion, muscle strength, and surgical technique. High-flexion knee prostheses have been developed to accommodate movements that require greater flexion than typically achievable with conventional TKA; such high flexion is especially prevalent in Asian cultures. Recently, computational techniques have been widely used for evaluating the functionality of knee prostheses and for improving biomechanical performance. To offer a better understanding of the development and evaluation techniques currently available, this paper aims to review some of the latest trends in the simulation of high-flexion knee prostheses.

  4. Design of PdAg Hollow Nanoflowers through Galvanic Replacement and Their Application for Ethanol Electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Caiqin; Wang, Jin; Zhong, Jiatai; Feng, Yue; Guo, Jun; Du, Yukou

    2016-11-07

    In this study, galvanic replacement provides a simple route for the synthesis of PdAg hollow nanoflower structures by using the Ag-seeds as sacrificial templates in the presence of l-ascorbic acid (reductant) and CTAC (capping agent). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and EDS mapping were used to characterize the as-prepared PdAg hollow nanoflower catalysts, where they were alloyed nanoflower structures with hollow interiors. By maneuvering the Pd/Ag ratio, we found that the as-prepared Pd1 Ag3 hollow nanoflower catalysts had the optimized performance for catalytic activity toward ethanol oxidation reaction. Moreover, these as-prepared PdAg hollow nanoflower catalysts exhibited noticeably higher electrocatalytic activity as compared to pure Pd and commercial Pd/C catalysts due to the alloyed Ag-Pd composition as well as the hollow nanoflower structures. It is anticipated that this work provides a rational design of other architecturally controlled bimetallic nanocrystals for application in fuel cells.

  5. Design, fabrication, and testing of a scalable series augmented railgun research platform

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The design and material properties of rails and projectiles are critical to the success of the Navy railgun. This thesis addresses the design, fabrication, and testing of a scalable square bore electromagnetic railgun. This railgun is designed to permit series augmented operation, and incorporates disposable rail liners to facilitate investigating the suitability of variousrail materials. A series of shots has demonstrated performance consistent with theoretical modeling, including significan...

  6. UHMWPE wear debris and tissue reactions are reduced for contemporary designs of lumbar total disc replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruva, Sai Y; Lanman, Todd H; Isaza, Jorge E; MacDonald, Daniel W; Kurtz, Steven M; Steinbeck, Marla J

    2015-03-01

    Lumbar total disc replacement (L-TDR) is a procedure used to relieve back pain and maintain mobility. Contemporary metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) L-TDRs were developed to address wear performance concerns about historical designs, but wear debris generation and periprosthetic tissue reactions for these newer implants have not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine (1) whether periprosthetic ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) wear debris and biological responses were present in tissues from revised contemporary MoP L-TDRs that contain conventional cores fabricated from γ-inert-sterilized UHMWPE; (2) how fixed- versus mobile-bearing design affected UHMWPE wear particle number, shape, and size; and (3) how these wear particle characteristics compare with historical MoP L-TDRs that contain cores fabricated from γ-air-sterilized UHMWPE. We evaluated periprosthetic tissues from 11 patients who received eight fixed-bearing ProDisc-L and four mobile-bearing CHARITÉ contemporary L-TDRs with a mean implantation time of 4.1 and 2.7 years, respectively. Histologic analysis of tissues was performed to assess biological responses and polarized light microscopy was used to quantify number and size/shape characteristics of UHMWPE wear particles from the fixed- and mobile-bearing devices. Comparisons were made to previously reported particle data for historical L-TDRs. Five of seven (71%) fixed-bearing and one of four mobile-bearing L-TDR patient tissues contained at least 4 particles/mm(2) wear with associated macrophage infiltration. Tissues with wear debris were highly vascularized, whereas those without debris were more necrotic. Given the samples available, the tissue around mobile-bearing L-TDR was observed to contain 87% more, 11% rounder, and 11% less-elongated wear debris compared with tissues around fixed-bearing devices; however, there were no significant differences. Compared with historical L-TDRs, UHMWPE particle number and

  7. Methodology series module 8: Designing questionnaires andclinical record forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As researchers, we often collect data on a clinical record form or a questionnaire. It is an important part of study design. If the questionnaire is not well designed, the data collected will not be useful. In this section of the module, we have discussed some practical aspects of designing a questionnaire. It is useful to make a list of all the variables that will be assessed in the study before preparing the questionnaire. The researcher should review all the existing questionnaires. It may be efficient to use an existing standardized questionnaire or scale. Many of these scales are freely available and may be used with an appropriate reference. However, some may be under copyright protection and permissions may be required to use the same questionnaire. While designing their own questionnaire, researchers may use open- or close-ended questions. It is important to design the responses appropriately as the format of responses will influence the analysis. Sometimes, one can collect the same information in multiple ways - continuous or categorical response. Besides these, the researcher can also use visual analog scales or Likert's scale in the questionnaire. Some practical take-home points are: (1 Use specific language while framing the questions; (2 write detailed instructions in the questionnaire; (3 use mutually exclusive response categories; (4 use skip patterns; (5 avoid double-barreled questions; and (6 anchor the time period if required.

  8. Design a light pattern of multiple concentric circles for LED fishing lamps using Fourier series and an energy mapping method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S C; Li, J S; Huang, M C

    2014-06-02

    Fourier series and an energy mapping method were used in this study to design a lens that produces a light pattern of multiple concentric circles (LPMCC) for a light-emitting diode (LED) fishing lamp. Fourier series were used to represent the light intensity distribution curve (LIDC) of the LPMCC light pattern. Energy mapping involves performing angular energy mapping based on the LIDCs of an LED light source and LPMCC to design a freeform lens. Type I and Type II LPMCC lenses were designed according to the phototaxis behavior of fish to create a LPMCC light pattern of interleaving light-dark zones that attracts fish shoals to stay in an area for a long period. The experimental results indicated that, in comparing the LIDCs of the Type I and II lenses with the respective simulation values, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) value reached 96%. According to a 24-hour observation of the phototaxis of Poecilia reticulata to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed light pattern to attract fish, when a fish shoal was habituated to a light source that emitted constant illumination light, it gradually moved away from the intense light zone and hovered around the junction of the light and dark zones. In the future, the design used in this study can be applied to LED fishing lamps to replace traditional fishing lamps.

  9. Medical Requirements for Ambulance Design and Equipment. Emergency Health Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Medical Sciences.

    A vehicle must meet certain specific requirements to be classified as an ambulance if it is to satisfy the demands of the physician in terms of emergency care for which properly trained ambulance attendants can be held responsible. Developed by professional and lay experts for use by automotive designers and manufacturing, this publication would…

  10. Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012, 17 October). Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study. Presentation at the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning, Helsinki, Finland.

  11. Preparation and evaluation at the delta opioid receptor of a series of linear leu-enkephalin analogues obtained by systematic replacement of the amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Kristina; Proteau-Gagné, Arnaud; Bourassa, Philippe; Nadon, Jean-François; Côté, Jérome; Bournival, Véronique; Gobeil, Fernand; Guérin, Brigitte; Dory, Yves L; Gendron, Louis

    2013-08-21

    Leu-enkephalin analogues, in which the amide bonds were sequentially and systematically replaced either by ester or N-methyl amide bonds, were prepared using classical organic chemistry as well as solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). The peptidomimetics were characterized using competition binding, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, receptor internalization, and contractility assays to evaluate their pharmacological profile over the delta opioid receptor (DOPr). The lipophilicity (LogD7.4) and plasma stability of the active analogues were also measured. Our results revealed that the last amide bond can be successfully replaced by either an ester or an N-methyl amide bond without significantly decreasing the biological activity of the corresponding analogues when compared to Leu-enkephalin. The peptidomimetics with an N-methyl amide function between residues Phe and Leu were found to be more lipophilic and more stable than Leu-enkephalin. Findings from the present study further revealed that the hydrogen-bond donor properties of the fourth amide of Leu-enkephalin are not important for its biological activity on DOPr. Our results show that the systematic replacement of amide bonds by isosteric functions represents an efficient way to design and synthesize novel peptide analogues with enhanced stability. Our findings further suggest that such a strategy can also be useful to study the biological roles of amide bonds.

  12. Production design as a storytelling tool in the writing of Danish TV drama series The Legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redvall, Eva Novrup; Sabroe, Iben Albinus

    2016-01-01

    Production design not only sets the scene for the action of a film or television series, it holds great potential to convey story and character information. However, most literature on production design describe how the work of production designers only begin in pre-production when they are ‘give...... the production design perform crucial back story and character information related to the inheritance drama and to the portrayal of the artist matriarch Veronika who was intended to haunt the lives of her children throughout the series even though she dies in the very first episode....

  13. Hypogonadal men with psoriasis benefit from long-term testosterone replacement therapy - a series of 15 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, F; Haider, A; Gooren, L

    2016-04-01

    Psoriasis is increasingly recognised as a skin disease with far-reaching systemic effects, associated with a high prevalence of comorbid disease such as cardiometabolic dysfunction, shifting the focus from a single organ disease confined to the skin to a systemic inflammatory condition. Chronic and systemic inflammation plays a major role in the development of these diseases, and there are striking similarities between the molecular and inflammatory pathways in psoriasis and atherosclerosis. In a single-centre, cumulative, prospective registry study of 347 hypogonadal men (total testosterone ≤12.1 nmol l(-1) ), fifteen men with psoriasis could be studied. Upon testosterone administration, the skin disease improved considerably. Scores on the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Physician Global Assessment for Psoriasis showed significant improvement for the first 24 months. Thereafter, these improvements were sustained. Upon testosterone treatment, C-reactive protein declined significantly. There were significant improvements of obesity and of lipid profiles. Adipose tissue is now regarded as a source of inflammatory factors. These preliminary results deserve to be studied in a specifically designed study to investigate the effects of testosterone on psoriasis and its associated immunopathology.

  14. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  15. Understanding total hip replacement recovery towards the design of a context-aware system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Garcia, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Total Hip Replacement (THR) is a common procedure to improve the mobility of elderly with osteoarthritis. Presently information about the recovery process after discharge is unclear. As consequence patients and physiotherapists face uncertainties to follow an adequate trajectory for recovery. Curren

  16. Developed Design for Humeral Head Replacement Using 3D Surface Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    Assessment of dimensional and geometrical data on the humeral head replacement (HHR) objects is essential for solving the relevant designing problems in the physics of reverse engineering (RE). In this work, 2D-assessment for human humerus was performed using the computed tomography (CT) technique within the RE plan, after which the 2D images of humeral objects were converted into 3D images. The conversion was successful and indicated a clear difference in the 2D and 3D estimates of sizes and geometry of the humerus. The authors have analyzed and confirmed experimentally the statistical information on the relevant anatomical objects. The results of finite-element simulation of the compressive stresses affecting the geometry of 3D surface mapping were analyzed using SolidWorks software. For developing the biomechanical design of an HHR object suitable biomaterials were selected, and different metal-based biomaterials are discussed as applied at various loads. New methodology is presented for the size estimation of humeral head - both anatomical and artificial - in 3D-shape. A detailed interpretation is given for the results of CT D-measurements. Izmēru un ģeometrisko datu novērtējums, kas attiecas uz pleca kaula galviņas nomaiņas (PKGN) objektiem, nepieciešams, lai risinātu virkni reversīvās inženierijas (RI) problēmu. Šajā darbā cilvēka pleca kaula galviņas divdimensiju novērtējums tika veikts ar datortomogrāfijas palīdzību (RI) ietvaros, un pēc tam objekta divdimensiju attēlojums tika pārveidots trīsdimensiju. Pārveidojums bija sekmīgs, parādot pleca kaula galviņas izmēru un ģeometrijas atšķirības starp 2D un 3D novērtējumiem. Autori izanalizēja un eksperimentāli apstiprināja statistisko informāciju pēc dotā veida anatomiskiem objektiem. Saspiešanas sasprindzinājumi, kuri ietekmē trīsdimensiju virsmas attēlojuma ģeometriju, tika analizēti ar gala-elementu simulācijas metodi, lietojot programmu Solid

  17. A series of student design projects for improving and modernizing safety helmets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Stilma, M. (Margot); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2014-01-01

    The Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology employs many students during research projects. This paper discusses a series of student design projects on safety helmets in the Safety@Work project. At construction sites workers are required to wear personal protective equipment during their wo

  18. Apparel Design and Production: A Suggested Program Guide. Fashion Industry Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    The apparel design and production guide is the second of a series of five interrelated program resource guides encompassing the various dimensions of the fashion industry. Designed to provide youths and adults with intensive preparation for initial entry employment and also with career advancement opportunities within specific categories of jobs,…

  19. Designed nanostructured pt film for electrocatalytic activities by underpotential deposition combined chemical replacement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minghua; Jin, Yongdong; Jiang, Heqing; Sun, Xuping; Chen, Hongjun; Liu, Baifeng; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2005-08-18

    Multiple-deposited Pt overlayer modified Pt nanoparticle (MD-Pt overlayer/PtNPs) films were deliberately constructed on glassy carbon electrodes through alternately multiple underpotential deposition (UPD) of Ag followed redox replacement reaction by Pt (II) cations. The linear and regular growth of the films characterized by cyclic voltammetry was observed. Atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) provides the surface morphology of the nanostructured Pt films. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry demonstrate that the MD-Pt overlayer/PtNPs films can catalyze an almost four-electron reduction of O(2) to H(2)O in air-saturated 0.1 M H(2)SO(4). Thus-prepared Pt films behave as novel nanostructured electrocatalysts for dioxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) with enhanced electrocatalytic activities, in terms of both reduction peak potential and peak current, when compared to that of the bulk polycrystalline Pt electrode. Additionally, it is noted that after multiple replacement cycles, the electrocatalytic activities improved remarkably, although the increased amount of Pt is very low in comparison to that of pre-modified PtNPs due to the intrinsic feature of the UPD-redox replacement technique. In other words, the electrocatalytic activities could be improved markedly without using very much Pt by the technique of tailoring the catalytic surface. These features may provide an interesting way to produce Pt catalysts with a reliable catalytic performance as well as a reduction in cost.

  20. Three-dimensional computer graphics-based ankle morphometry with computerized tomography for total ankle replacement design and positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chien-Chung; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Leardini, Alberto; Lu, Tung-Wu; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2014-05-01

    Morphometry of the bones of the ankle joint is important for the design of joint replacements and their surgical implantations. However, very little three-dimensional (3D) data are available and not a single study has addressed the Chinese population. Fifty-eight fresh frozen Chinese cadaveric ankle specimens, 26 females, and 32 males, were CT-scanned in the neutral position and their 3D computer graphics-based models were reconstructed. The 3D morphology of the distal tibia/fibula segment and the full talus was analyzed by measuring 31 parameters, defining the relevant dimensions, areas, and volumes from the models. The measurements were compared statistically between sexes and with previously reported data from Caucasian subjects. The results showed that, within a general similarity of ankle morphology between the current Chinese and previous Caucasian subjects groups, there were significant differences in 9 out of the 31 parameters analyzed. From a quantitative comparison with available prostheses designed for the Caucasian population, few of these designs have both tibial and talar components suitable in dimension for the Chinese population. The current data will be helpful for the sizing, design, and surgical positioning of ankle replacements and for surgical instruments, especially for the Chinese population.

  1. The exemplar design features in creation of the series of types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gendarz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents way to designate the exemplary design features by optimizing the features by means of the Finite Element Method. The subject of optimization are the qualitative and quantitative geometrical design features: the geometrical design form and the geometrical dimensions.Design/methodology/approach: The fallowing computer aided methods were used to support the engineering process: FEM analysis, geometry optimization, optimization of the dimension values using the variant analysis and relational parameterization. These stages were developed in TOSCA software and advanced graphical programs: NX and I-DEAS.Findings: The result of research was the determination of exemplar design features that take into account consideration: technical expediency, economic expediency and production capacities. On the basis of design features and with the use of the relational parameterization, the series of types was established.Research limitations/implications: Due to the iterative process, optimization based on Finite Element Analysis is time consuming.Practical implications: The described method can be used in creating the series of types and modular construction systems.Originality/value: The presented algorithm of optimization and analysis of the geometrical features with the use of the Finite Element Method, allows determining the exemplar design features, which are the basis for the development of an exemplar form of the series of types.

  2. New Replacement Name for Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890 with Designations of Lectotypes for Rana paradoxa and Rana conspicil-lata Günther, 1872:Both Synonymized with Limnonectes kuhlii (Tschudi, 1838) (Dicroglossidae:Dicroglossinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masafumi MATSUI; Alain DUBOIS; Annemarie OHLER

    2013-01-01

    Fanged frogs, now called Limnonectes kuhlii, from Borneo are remotely related to true Javanese L. kuhlii. For future taxonomy of Bornean fanged frogs, we ifx the nomenclatural status of two existing names, Rana conspicillata Günther, 1872 and Rana paradoxa Mocquard, 1890. Morphological comparison of the type-series revealed heterospeciifc relationships of the two species. For R. conspicillata, we designate BMNH 1947.2.29.20 as the lectotype, and for R. para-doxa, we also designate MNHN 1889.222 as the lectotype and propose a replacement name Limnonectes mocquardi, in order to stabilize their nomenclature.

  3. Design and implementation of FPGA-based phase modulation control for series resonant inverters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Gayathri; M C Chandorkar

    2008-10-01

    Owing to the tremendous advances in the digital technology, and improved reliability and performance of the digital control mechanisms, this paper focuses on design and implementation of digital controller using FPGA-based circuit design approach. The digital controller proposed is designed for series resonant inverter used in DC–DC converter applications. Phase modulation technique is proposed for the realization of digital controller on FPGA. The Series Resonant Converter (SRC) is considered in this paper as a preferred converter topology for high power, high voltage power supplies. This paper studies the implementation of phase shift modulation technique using FPGA. The inverter designed, is IGBT based, and Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) technique is implemented due to reduced stresses on devices and increased efficiency. The phase modulated series resonant inverters (PM-SRC) promotes ZVS operation when its switching frequency is greater than resonant frequency. The designed PM controller is realized using FPGA on which control algorithm and other features of a controller are developed. The series resonant inverter is built and tested for full load under open loop and closed loop conditions at a switching frequency of 20 kHz. The results are presented under varying load conditions. The simulation and the experimental results were found to match closely.

  4. Adding Design Elements to Improve Time Series Designs: No Child Left behind as an Example of Causal Pattern-Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Some form of a short interrupted time series (ITS) is often used to evaluate state and national programs. An ITS design with a single treatment group assumes that the pretest functional form can be validly estimated and extrapolated into the postintervention period where it provides a valid counterfactual. This assumption is problematic. Ambiguous…

  5. Adding Design Elements to Improve Time Series Designs: No Child Left behind as an Example of Causal Pattern-Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Manyee; Cook, Thomas D.; Steiner, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Some form of a short interrupted time series (ITS) is often used to evaluate state and national programs. An ITS design with a single treatment group assumes that the pretest functional form can be validly estimated and extrapolated into the postintervention period where it provides a valid counterfactual. This assumption is problematic. Ambiguous…

  6. Design considerations for case series models with exposure onset measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Sandra M; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Sentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V

    2013-02-28

    The case series model allows for estimation of the relative incidence of events, such as cardiovascular events, within a pre-specified time window after an exposure, such as an infection. The method requires only cases (individuals with events) and controls for all fixed/time-invariant confounders. The measurement error case series model extends the original case series model to handle imperfect data, where the timing of an infection (exposure) is not known precisely. In this work, we propose a method for power/sample size determination for the measurement error case series model. Extensive simulation studies are used to assess the accuracy of the proposed sample size formulas. We also examine the magnitude of the relative loss of power due to exposure onset measurement error, compared with the ideal situation where the time of exposure is measured precisely. To facilitate the design of case series studies, we provide publicly available web-based tools for determining power/sample size for both the measurement error case series model as well as the standard case series model.

  7. Light weight replacement and the optimization design of bumper beam based on crash safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jingwen; Ma Mingtu; Fan Tiqiang; Zhao Qingjiang; Li Yang

    2014-01-01

    Bumper beam is one of the key structural parts,which plays an important role in the frontal crashes of automobile. With the global trend of light-weighted automotive parts,the light weight of bumper beam at-tracts extensive attention of automobile manufacturers,and hot stamping technology with significant weight ad-vantage has become one of the main light weight measures for bumper beam. The quasi-static press,low speed crash and frontal crash simulation models of bumper beam were established according to its actual working con-ditions in the automobile crashes. The feasibility of replacing normal steel bumper beam with hot stamping bum-per beam was analyzed. Meanwhile,the stiffeners in the front face of hot stamping bumper beam were opti-mized with topography optimization in order to further improve its performances.

  8. Quantum Isostere Database: a web-based tool using quantum chemical topology to predict bioisosteric replacements for drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Mike; Popelier, Paul L A; McLay, Iain M

    2009-06-01

    This paper introduces the 'Quantum Isostere Database' (QID), a Web-based tool designed to find bioisosteric fragment replacements for lead optimization using stored ab initio data. A wide range of original geometric, electronic, and calculated physical properties are stored for each fragment. Physical descriptors with clear meaning are chosen, such as distribution of electrostatic potential energy values across a fragment surface and geometric parameters to describe fragment conformation and shape from ab initio structures. Further fundamental physical properties are linked to broader chemical characteristics relevant to biological activity, such as H-bond donor and acceptor strengths. Additional properties with less easily interpretable links to biological activity are also stored to allow future development of QSAR/QSPR models for quantities such as pK(a) and solubility. Conformational dependence of the ab initio descriptors is explicitly dealt with by storing properties for a variety of low-energy conformers of each fragment. Capping groups are used in ab initio calculations to represent different chemical environments, based on background research into transferability of electronic descriptors [J. Comput. Chem. 2009, 30, 1300-1318]. The resulting database has a Web interface that allows medicinal chemists to enter a query fragment, select important chemical features, and retrieve a list of suggested replacements with similar chemical characteristics. Examples of known bioisosteric replacements correctly identified by the QID tool are given.

  9. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of

  10. Quantitative histologic analysis of the mitral valve anterior leaflet: ischemic alterations and implications for valve replacement design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, David W.; Kunzelman, Karyn S.; Cochran, Richard P.

    1999-06-01

    There is a current trend to design innovative mitral valve replacements that mimic the native mitral valve (MV). A prerequisite for these new designs is the characterization of MV structure. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of MV collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) in MV anterior leaflets. Methods: Specimens from the mid-line of eight sheep MV anterior leaflets were stained with aniline blue (collagen) and alcian blue (GAGs). These specimens were analyzed using an image analysis system running Optimas software. Based on the luminance of stains within individual valve layers, the distribution of valvular collagen and GAGs from leaflet annulus to free-edge were determined. Results: Near the annulus, 100% of MV thickness is fibrosa (collagen dominated layer). Moving towards the free-edge, fibrosa prominence decreases and there is a transition to spongiosa (GAG dominated layer). Near the free-edge 100% of MV thickness is dominated by the spongiosa. Conclusions: Valvular collagen dominates MV structure near the annulus to support the stresses of bending and pressurization. Valvular GAGs dominate the MV near the free-edge to absorb the impact of leaflet coaptation. Image analysis has proven to be an effective tool to evaluate MV structure and facilitate the design of valve replacements.

  11. Minimum Cost Design of Distributed Energy Resources with Studying the Effect of Capital Cost and Replacement Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nafar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an optimized design of HPS in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, Diesel generator and battery bank.In this research, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization HPS. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for HPS and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of HPS construction. This study tested on case study network on Mardasht city in Iran.

  12. A Unified Framework for Estimating Minimum Detectable Effects for Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Cristofer; Unlu, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Short Interrupted Time Series (C-SITS) design is a frequently employed quasi-experimental method, in which the pre- and post-intervention changes observed in the outcome levels of a treatment group is compared with those of a comparison group where the difference between the former and the latter is attributed to the treatment. The…

  13. Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2012). Ambient Learning Displays: lecture series and results from a participatory design study. In M. Specht, J. Multisilta, & M. Sharples (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning 2012 (pp. 232-235). October, 16-18, 2012,

  14. The Learning Disabled and Computer Based Education: Program Design Strategies. CREATE Monograph Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David; And Others

    Third in a series of six monographs on the use of new technologies in the instruction of learning disabled students, the paper explores program design strategies for computer-based instructional materials. Section 1 summarizes ideas related to models of perception and cognition, theories of instruction, and key characteristics of intelligent…

  15. Textile Design: A Suggested Program Guide. Fashion Industry Series No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    The textile design guide is the third of a series of five interrelated program resource guides encompassing the various dimensions of the fashion industry. The job-preparatory guide is conceived to provide youth and adults with intensive preparation for initial entry employment and also with career advancement opportunities within specific…

  16. A new computer method to optimize turbine design and runner replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goede, E.; Cuenod, R.; Grunder, R.; Pestalozzi, J. (Sulzer Escher Wyss, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1991-02-01

    When a designer's ideas for the design or rehabilitation of a hydraulic turbine are tested before the actual machine is manufactured, operating characteristics can be improved. A variety of techniques exist to perform this preliminary design testing. In recent years, great progress has been made in the area of numerical simulation of physical phenomena. Sulzer Escher Wyss has been successfully using the computer method of numerical flow simulation to test designers' ideas. The method calculates the fluid flow in a hydraulic turbomachine, effectively simulating the hydraulic performance of a turbine before it is manufactured. The authors have used flow analysis as a theoretical tool -- a numerical test stand -- to aid in the first cut of turbomachinery design and rehabilitation. This way, only the fine tuning must be made in physical tests. This approach provides a fast and cost-effective layout procedure for machine components. However, the reliability of such a numerical test greatly depends on the quality of the method used, as well as on its proper use in terms of correct boundary conditions and accurate interpretation of the results. To aid in interpretation of the data from the flow analysis, the authors have developed a procedure to compress data from the flow calculations and present them in the form of sophisticated computer graphics. In this way, the design engineer can visualize the main relationships, which will aid him or her in making sound decisions regarding the turbine layout procedure. Ultimately, the method has helped optimize the design and rehabilitation of hydraulic machines, while reducing overall time and expense.

  17. Multiscale Homogenization Theory: An Analysis Tool for Revealing Mechanical Design Principles in Bone and Bone Replacement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmich, Christian; Fritsch, Andreas; Dormieux, Luc

    Biomimetics deals with the application of nature-made "design solutions" to the realm of engineering. In the quest to understand mechanical implications of structural hierarchies found in biological materials, multiscale mechanics may hold the key to understand "building plans" inherent to entire material classes, here bone and bone replacement materials. Analyzing a multitude of biophysical hierarchical and biomechanical experiments through homogenization theories for upscaling stiffness and strength properties reveals the following design principles: The elementary component "collagen" induces, right at the nanolevel, the mechanical anisotropy of bone materials, which is amplified by fibrillar collagen-based structures at the 100-nm scale, and by pores in the micrometer-to-millimeter regime. Hydroxyapatite minerals are poorly organized, and provide stiffness and strength in a quasi-brittle manner. Water layers between hydroxyapatite crystals govern the inelastic behavior of the nanocomposite, unless the "collagen reinforcement" breaks. Bone replacement materials should mimic these "microstructural mechanics" features as closely as possible if an imitation of the natural form of bone is desired (Gebeshuber et al., Adv Mater Res 74:265-268, 2009).

  18. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is being studied, the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series and the intervention is expected to 'interrupt' the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. Given that the internal validity of the design rests on the premise that the interruption in the time series is associated with the introduction of the treatment, treatment effects may seem less plausible if a parallel trend already exists in the time series prior to the actual intervention. Thus, sensitivity analyses should focus on detecting structural breaks in the time series before the intervention. In this paper, we introduce a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) as an approach to determine if structural breaks can be identified in years prior to the initiation of the intervention, using data from California's 1988 voter-initiated Proposition 99 to reduce smoking rates. The ODA analysis indicates that numerous structural breaks occurred prior to the actual initiation of Proposition 99 in 1989, including perfect structural breaks in 1983 and 1985, thereby casting doubt on the validity of treatment effects estimated for the actual intervention when using a single-group ITSA design. Given the widespread use of ITSA for evaluating observational data and the increasing use of machine-learning techniques in traditional research, we recommend that structural break sensitivity analysis is routinely incorporated in all research using the single-group ITSA design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Interaction of impeller and guide vane in a series-designed axial-flow pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the interaction of the impeller and guide vane in a series-designed axial-flow pump was examined through the implementation of a commercial CFD code. The impeller series design refers to the general design procedure of the base impeller shape which must satisfy the various flow rate and head requirements by changing the impeller setting angle and number of blades of the base impeller. An arc type meridional shape was used to keep the meridional shape of the hub and shroud with various impeller setting angles. The blade angle and the thickness distribution of the impeller were designed as an NACA airfoil type. In the design of the guide vane, it was necessary to consider the outlet flow condition of the impeller with the given setting angle. The meridional shape of the guide vane were designed taking into consideration the setting angle of the impeller, and the blade angle distribution of the guide vane was determined with a traditional design method using vane plane development. In order to achieve the optimum impeller design and guide vane, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and the DOE method were applied. The interaction between the impeller and guide vane with different combination set of impeller setting angles and number of impeller blades was addressed by analyzing the flow field of the computational results.

  20. Production design and location in the Danish television drama series Arvingerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ion Wille, Jakob; Waade, Anne Marit

    2016-01-01

    Television fiction is most often referred to as the writer’s medium, whereas feature film is generally perceived as the vision and work of the director. In this article we turn our focus to the role and function of the production design and locations in developing and conceptualising a television...... neglected relation between place and story in television productions. At the end of the article we suggest a simplified analytical model including dramatic text, visual design and location registrations as mutually dependent objects in the development of screen fiction....... of the series draws on an analysis of in-house design/concept documents [1], interviews with the production designer Mia Stensgaard [2], and promotional material made for the series [3]. The paper also draws on visual analysis of the finished production. Our overall argument is that the importance of location...... and production design has been overlooked in studies of television drama development and production, despite the fundamental part these play in drama production in general and in establishing the production values and the visual style of a series in particular. We also want to shed light on the somewhat...

  1. Design and Development of a Series Switch for High Voltage in RF Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Himanshu K.; Shah, Deep; Thacker, Mauli; Shah, Atman

    2013-02-01

    Plasma is the fourth state of matter. To sustain plasma in its ionic form very high temperature is essential. RF heating systems are used to provide the required temperature. Arching phenomenon in these systems can cause enormous damage to the RF tube. Heavy current flows across the anode-cathode junction, which need to be suppressed in minimal time for its protection. Fast-switching circuit breakers are used to cut-off the load from the supply in cases of arching. The crowbar interrupts the connection between the high voltage power supply (HVPS) and the RF tube for a temporary period between which the series switch has to open. The crowbar shunts the current across the load but in the process leads to short circuiting the HVPS. Thus, to protect the load as well as the HVPS a series switch is necessary. This paper presents the design and development of high voltage Series Switch for the high power switching applications. Fiber optic based Optimum triggering scheme is designed and tested to restrict the time delay well within the stipulated limits. The design is well supported with the experimental results for the whole set-up along with the series switch at various voltage level before its approval for operation at 5.2 kV.

  2. That Was Then, This Is Now: Replacing the Mobile-Optimized Site with Responsive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie M. Bridges

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As mobile technologies continue to evolve, libraries seek sustainable ways to keep up with these changes and to best serve our users.  Previous library mobile usability research has examined tasks users predict they might be likely to perform, but little is known about what users actually do on a mobile-optimized library site.  This research used a combination of survey methodology and web analytics to examine what tasks users actually carry out on a library mobile site.  The results indicate that users perform an array of passive and active tasks and do not want content choices to be limited on mobile devices.  Responsive design is described as a long-term solution for addressing both designers and users’ needs.

  3. The Design of Series Chocolate Packing%巧克力包装系列设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪微

    2014-01-01

    本文以科学、实用、美观、经济的设计原则,分析了现有巧克力包装概况,在强调绿色包装的基础上,提出了纸质化设计、新型数字印刷方式、新颖的包装结构造型与装潢设计等一系列方法。本系列包装设计紧紧围绕中西结合的主旨,在材料上实行统一且带有中国元素,结构简约,风格有所突破,利用中西方的文化结合,确立其品牌地位和形象,抓住市场动机,包装独具创新。%According to the principles of science,practicability, beauty and economy, this paper analyzed the brands, materials and structures of chocolate in the related market. Based on the requirements of the green packing design, this paper proposed a series of new methods about packing design including design materials with paper, new type digital print, novel packing struc-ture and decorating design. This design of series chocolate pack-ing closely links to the purpose about the combination of East and West with the united materials, the brief form, original Chinese design and style. And the design of series chocolate packing de-termines the packing and image of its brand, thus catching the commercial opportunities in the market.

  4. Thermo-structural analysis and design consideration of the replaceable backwall in IFMIF liquid lithium target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakamura.hiroo@jaea.go.jp; Ida, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chida, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Hyogo 652-8585 (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    The IFMIF is an accelerator-based intense neutron source for testing candidate materials for fusion reactors. Intense neutrons are emitted inside the Li flow through a backwall. The backwall made of 316L stainless steel or RAFM is attached to the target assembly with a lip seal welded by a YAG laser. Since the backwall is operating under a severe neutron irradiation of 50 dpa/year and a maximum nuclear heating rate of 25 W/cm{sup 3}, thermo-structural design is one of critical issues in a target design. Thermal stress was calculated using the ABAQUS code. As a permissible stress, yield strength at 300 {sup o}C was used. In the case of the 316 stainless steel backwall, the maximum thermal stress was more than the permissible stress (164 MPa). On the other hand, in case of the F82H backwall, a maximum thermal stress was below the permissible stress (455 MPa). Therefore, F82H is recommended as the backwall material.

  5. The influence of kinematic conditions and design on the wear of patella-femoral replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Raman; Fisher, John; Rowley, Liam; Jennings, Louise M

    2014-02-01

    The success rate of patella-femoral arthroplasty varies between 44% and 90% in 17 years of follow-up. Several studies have been performed previously for assessing the surface wear in the patella-femoral joint. However, they have not included all six degrees of freedom. The aim of this study was to develop a six-axis patella-femoral joint simulator to assess the wear rate for two patellae designs (round and oval dome) at different kinematic conditions. An increase in patellar rotation from 1° to 4° led to a significantly (p0.08). The increase in wear rate was likely due to the higher cross shear. A decrease in patellar medial lateral displacement from passive to constrained resulted in a nonsignificant reduction in wear (p>0.06). There was no significant difference in wear rate between the two patellae designs (p>0.28). The volumetric wear under all conditions was positively correlated with the level of passive patellar tilt (rho>0.8). This is the first report of preclinical wear simulation of patella-femoral joint in a six-axis simulator under different kinematic conditions.

  6. Replacing the Soft FEC Limit Paradigm in the Design of Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarado, Alex; Lavery, Domanic; Maher, Robert; Bayvel, Polina

    2015-01-01

    The FEC limit paradigm is the prevalent practice for designing optical communication systems to attain a certain bit-error rate (BER) without forward error correction (FEC). This practice assumes that there is an FEC code that will reduce the BER after decoding to the desired level. In this paper, we challenge this practice and show that the concept of a channel-independent FEC limit is invalid for soft-decision bit-wise decoding. It is shown that for low code rates and high order modulation formats, the use of the soft FEC limit paradigm can underestimate the spectral efficiencies by up to 20%. A better predictor for the BER after decoding is the generalized mutual information, which is shown to give consistent post-FEC BER predictions across different channel conditions and modulation formats. Extensive optical full-field simulations and experiments are carried out in both the linear and nonlinear transmission regimes to confirm the theoretical analysis.

  7. Transformations and innovations of punk graphic design in Peter Punk series from Disney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Rossetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The punk movement is an example of peripheral culture that currently influences the dominant culture. This article aims to point out what were the changes and the innovations that the punk graphic design had to struggle to adapt itself to the series Peter Punk, exhibited by Disney XD channel. Through literature review and analysis of images, it is possible to conclude that the show’s graphic design absorbed the punk style with other influences, but without the spontaneity of punk.

  8. Systematic model researches on the stability limits of the DVL series of float designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottorf, W.

    1949-01-01

    To determine the trim range in which a seaplane can take off without porpoising, stability tests were made of a Plexiglas model, composed of float, wing, and tailplane, which corresponded to a full-size research airplane. The model and full-size stability limits are in good agreement. After all structural parts pertaining to the air frame were removed gradually, the aerodynamic forces replaced by weight forces, and the moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity changed, no marked change of limits of the stable zone was noticeable. The latter, therefore, is for practical purposes affected only by hydrodynamic phenomena. The stability limits of the DVL family of floats were determined by a systematic investigation independent of any particular sea-plane design, thus a seaplane may be designed to give a run free from porpoising.

  9. Early Clinical Outcome of Mitral Valve Replacement Using a Newly Designed Stentless Mitral Valve for Failure of Initial Mitral Valve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hidefumi; Kasegawa, Hitoshi; Kin, Hajime; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2016-12-21

    Here we report the early outcome of mitral valve replacement using a newly designed stentless mitral valve for failure of initial mitral valve repair. Mitral valve plasty (MVP) for mitral regurgitation is currently a standard technique performed worldwide. However, whether mitral valve repair should be performed for patients with advanced leaflet damage or complicated pathology remains controversial. Mitral valve replacement might be feasible for patients who have undergone failed initial MVP; however, it is not an optimal treatment because of poor valve durability and the need for anticoagulative therapy. We report two cases of successful mitral valve replacement using a newly designed stentless mitral valve made of fresh autologous pericardium, which may have a potential benefit over mitral valve repair or mitral valve replacement with a mechanical or bioprosthetic valve.

  10. A personalized 3D-printed prosthetic joint replacement for the human temporomandibular joint: From implant design to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, David C; Robinson, Dale; Redhead, Michael; Lee, Peter Vee Sin; Moskaljuk, Adrian; Dimitroulis, George

    2017-05-01

    Personalized prosthetic joint replacements have important applications in cases of complex bone and joint conditions where the shape and size of off-the-shelf components may not be adequate. The objective of this study was to design, test and fabricate a personalized 3D-printed prosthesis for a patient requiring total joint replacement surgery of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The new 'Melbourne' prosthetic TMJ design featured a condylar component sized specifically to the patient and fixation screw positions that avoid potential intra-operative damage to the mandibular nerve. The Melbourne prosthetic TMJ was developed for a 58-year-old female recipient with end-stage osteoarthritis of the TMJ. The load response of the prosthesis during chewing and a maximum-force bite was quantified using a personalized musculoskeletal model of the patient's masticatory system developed using medical images. The simulations were then repeated after implantation of the Biomet Microfixation prosthetic TMJ, an established stock device. The maximum condylar stresses, screw stress and mandibular stress at the screw-bone interface were lower in the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ (259.6MPa, 312.9MPa and 198.4MPa, respectively) than those in the Biomet Microfixation device (284.0MPa, 416.0MPa and 262.2MPa, respectively) during the maximum-force bite, with similar trends also observed during the chewing bite. After trialing surgical placement and evaluating prosthetic TMJ stability using cadaveric specimens, the prosthesis was fabricated using 3D printing, sterilized, and implanted into the female recipient. Six months post-operatively, the prosthesis recipient had a normal jaw opening distance (40.0 mm), with no complications identified. The new design features and immediate load response of the Melbourne prosthetic TMJ suggests that it may provide improved clinical and biomechanical joint function compared to a commonly used stock device, and reduce risk of intra-operative nerve damage

  11. A comparison of leg length and femoral offset discrepancies in hip resurfacing, large head metal-on- metal and conventional total hip replacement: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Katie A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A discrepancy in leg length and femoral offset restoration is the leading cause of patient dissatisfaction in hip replacement surgery and has profound implications on patient quality of life. The aim of this study is to compare biomechanical hip reconstruction in hip resurfacing, large-diameter femoral head hip arthroplasty and conventional total hip replacement. Method Sixty patient's post-operative radiographs were reviewed; 20 patients had a hip resurfacing (HR, 20 patients had a Large Head Metal-on-metal (LHM hip replacement and 20 patients had a conventional small head Total Hip Replacement (THR. The leg length and femoral offset of the operated and unoperated hips were measured and compared. Results Hip resurfacing accurately restored hip biomechanics with no statistical difference in leg length (P = 0.07 or femoral offset (P = 0.95 between the operated and non-operative hips. Overall HR was superior for reducing femoral offset discrepancies where it had the smallest bilateral difference (-0.2%, P = 0.9. The traditional total hip replacement was least effective at restoring the hip anatomy. Conclusion The use of a larger-diameter femoral head in hip resurfacing does not fully account for the superior biomechanical restoration, as LHM did not restore femoral offset as accurately. We conclude that restoration of normal hip biomechanics is best achieved with hip resurfacing.

  12. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion requirement in total knee replacement in the Indian population: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Parshotam Lal; Katyal, Sunil; Yamin, Mohammad; Singh, Amandip

    2011-01-01

    Context: Total knee replacement (TKR) is often carried out using a tourniquet to minimize intraoperative blood loss. However, its application enhances local fibrinolysis, resulting in excessive blood loss during the post-operative period. Fibrinolytic profile varies in different regions and races. Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce post-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion in TKR. However, there is paucity of literature from the Indian population and the efficacy of the agent has not been tested in Indian patients undergoing TKR. Aims: Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in TKR surgery in the Indian population. Setting and Design: In this double-blinded study, 40 patients undergoing unilateral TKR were randomly divided into two groups. Methods: All patients were conducted under spinal anaesthesia using injection bupivacaine 0.5% heavy 12-15 mg. The treatment group received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid, intravenous (IV), half an hour before deflation of the tourniquet, with a second dose of 2 mg/kg administered 3 hours after the first dose. The exact protocol was followed for the placebo group, except that normal saline was used instead of tranexamic acid. Blood loss, blood transfusion details and change in haemoglobin levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student's paired ‘t’ test was used in statistical analysis. Results: The mean post-operative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 272.5±122.5 ml (mean±SD), and 685±118.2 ml in the placebo group (P<0.001). The total blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (427.6 ml vs. 911.6 ml; P<0.001). The absolute number of blood transfusions and the number of patients who required transfusions were lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group. None of the patients had any side or adverse effect. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly decreases post-operative blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing

  13. Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss and transfusion requirement in total knee replacement in the Indian population: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parshotam Lal Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Total knee replacement (TKR is often carried out using a tourniquet to minimize intraoperative blood loss. However, its application enhances local fibrinolysis, resulting in excessive blood loss during the post-operative period. Fibrinolytic profile varies in different regions and races. Tranexamic acid has been shown to reduce post-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion in TKR. However, there is paucity of literature from the Indian population and the efficacy of the agent has not been tested in Indian patients undergoing TKR. Aims: Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss in TKR surgery in the Indian population. Setting and Design: In this double-blinded study, 40 patients undergoing unilateral TKR were randomly divided into two groups. Methods: All patients were conducted under spinal anaesthesia using injection bupivacaine 0.5% heavy 12-15 mg. The treatment group received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid, intravenous (IV, half an hour before deflation of the tourniquet, with a second dose of 2 mg/kg administered 3 hours after the first dose. The exact protocol was followed for the placebo group, except that normal saline was used instead of tranexamic acid. Blood loss, blood transfusion details and change in haemoglobin levels were noted. Statistical Analysis: Student′s paired ′t′ test was used in statistical analysis. Results: The mean post-operative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group was 272.5±122.5 ml (mean±SD, and 685±118.2 ml in the placebo group (P<0.001. The total blood loss was lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (427.6 ml vs. 911.6 ml; P<0.001. The absolute number of blood transfusions and the number of patients who required transfusions were lower in the tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group. None of the patients had any side or adverse effect. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly decreases post-operative blood loss and reduces the need for blood transfusion in

  14. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  15. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  16. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Manikandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used.

  17. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used. PMID:26881271

  18. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Narayanan; Subha, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used.

  19. Stress shielding in periprosthetic bone following a total knee replacement: Effects of implant material, design and alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Hang; Cossey, Andrew; Tong, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Periprosthetic bone strain distributions in some of the typical cases of total knee replacement (TKR) were studied with regard to the selection of material, design and the alignments of tibial components to examine which conditions are more forgiving than the others to stress shielding post a TKR. Four tibial components with two implant designs (cruciate sacrificing and cruciate retaining) and material properties (metal-backed (MB) and all-polyethylene (AP)) were considered in a specimen-specific finite element tibia bone model loaded in a neutral position. The influence of tibial material and design on the periprosthetic bone strain response was investigated under the peak loads of walking and stair descending/ascending. Two of the models were also modified to examine the effect of selected implant malalignment conditions (7° posterior, 5° valgus and 5° varus) on stress shielding in the bone, where the medio-lateral load share ratios were adjusted accordingly. The predicted increases of bone density due to implantation for the selected cases studied were also presented. For the cases examined, the effect of stress shielding on the periprosthetic bone seems to be more significantly influenced by the implant material than by the implant geometry. Significant stress shielding is found in MB cases, as opposed to increase in bone density found in AP cases, particularly in the bones immediately beneath the baseplate. The effect of stress shielding is reduced somewhat for the MB components in the malaligned positions compared with the neutral case. In AP cases, the effect of stress shielding is mostly low except in the varus position, possibly due to off-loading of lateral condyle. Increases in bone density are found in both MB and AP cases for the malaligned conditions. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrostatic micro-actuator with a pre-charged series capacitor: modeling, design, and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Ho; Han, Chang-Hoon; Oen Lee, Jeong; Yoon, Jun-Bo

    2014-06-01

    As a powerful method to reduce actuation voltage in an electrostatic micro-actuator, we propose and investigate an electrostatic micro-actuator with a pre-charged series capacitor. In contrast to a conventional electrostatic actuator, the injected pre-charges into the series capacitor can freely modulate the pull-in voltage of the proposed actuator even after the completion of fabrication. The static characteristics of the proposed actuator were investigated by first developing analytical models based on a parallel-plate capacitor model. We then successfully designed and demonstrated a micro-switch with a pre-charged series capacitor. The pull-in voltage of the fabricated micro-switch was reduced from 65.4 to 0.6 V when pre-charged with 46.3 V. The on-resistance of the fabricated micro-switch was almost the same as the initial one, even when the device was pre-charged, which was demonstrated for the first time. All results from the analytical models, finite element method simulations, and measurements were in good agreement with deviations of less than 10%. This work can be favorably adapted to electrostatic micro-switches which need a low actuation voltage without noticeable degradation of performance.

  1. Clutchable series-elastic actuator: design of a robotic knee prosthesis for minimum energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Elliott J; Mooney, Luke M; Martinez-Villalpando, Ernesto C; Herr, Hugh M

    2013-06-01

    The cyclic and often linear torque-angle relationship of locomotion presents the opportunity to innovate on the design of traditional series-elastic actuators (SEAs). In this paper, a novel modification to the SEA architecture was proposed by adding a clutch in parallel with the motor within the SEA--denoted as a CSEA. This addition permits bimodal dynamics where the system is characterized by an SEA when the clutch is disengaged and a passive spring when the clutch is engaged. The purpose of the parallel clutch was to provide the ability to store energy in a tuned series spring, while requiring only reactionary torque from the clutch. Thus, when the clutch is engaged, a tuned elastic relationship can be achieved with minimal electrical energy consumption. The state-based model of the CSEA is introduced and the implementation of the CSEA mechanism in a powered knee prosthesis is detailed. The series elasticity was optimized to fit the spring-like torque-angle relationship of early stance phase knee flexion and extension during level ground walking. In simulation, the CSEA knee required 70% less electrical energy than a traditional SEA. Future work will focus on the mechanical implementation of the CSEA knee and an empirical demonstration of reduced electrical energy consumption during walking.

  2. Optimal design of multistage chemostats in series using different microbial growth kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Petroleum Engineering Technology, Abu Dhabi Polytechnic (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the optimum design of multistage chemostats (CSTRs) was investigated. The optimal design was based on the minimum overall reactor volume using different volume for each chemostat. The paper investigates three different microbial growth kinetics; Monod kinetics, Contois kinetics and the Logistic equation. The total dimensionless residence time (theta Total) was set as the optimization objective function that was minimized by varying the intermediate dimensionless substrate concentration (alfa i). The effect of inlet substrate concentration (S0) to the first reactor on the optimized total dimensionless residence time was investigated at a constant conversion of 0.90. In addition, the effect of conversion on the optimized total dimensionless residence time was also investigated at constant inlet substrate concentration (S0). For each case, optimization was done using up to five chemostats in series.

  3. Bayesian analysis of time-series data under case-crossover designs: posterior equivalence and inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Batterman, Stuart; Ghosh, Malay

    2013-12-01

    Case-crossover designs are widely used to study short-term exposure effects on the risk of acute adverse health events. While the frequentist literature on this topic is vast, there is no Bayesian work in this general area. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, the paper establishes Bayesian equivalence results that require characterization of the set of priors under which the posterior distributions of the risk ratio parameters based on a case-crossover and time-series analysis are identical. Second, the paper studies inferential issues under case-crossover designs in a Bayesian framework. Traditionally, a conditional logistic regression is used for inference on risk-ratio parameters in case-crossover studies. We consider instead a more general full likelihood-based approach which makes less restrictive assumptions on the risk functions. Formulation of a full likelihood leads to growth in the number of parameters proportional to the sample size. We propose a semi-parametric Bayesian approach using a Dirichlet process prior to handle the random nuisance parameters that appear in a full likelihood formulation. We carry out a simulation study to compare the Bayesian methods based on full and conditional likelihood with the standard frequentist approaches for case-crossover and time-series analysis. The proposed methods are illustrated through the Detroit Asthma Morbidity, Air Quality and Traffic study, which examines the association between acute asthma risk and ambient air pollutant concentrations.

  4. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  5. Implementation challenges for designing integrated in vitro testing strategies (ITS) aiming at reducing and replacing animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wever, Bart; Fuchs, Horst W; Gaca, Marianna; Krul, Cyrille; Mikulowski, Stan; Poth, Albrecht; Roggen, Erwin L; Vilà, Maya R

    2012-04-01

    At the IVTIP (in vitro testing industrial platform) meeting of November 26th 2009 entitled 'Toxicology in the 21st century ('21C')--working our way towards a visionary reality' all delegates endorsed the emerging concept of the '21C' vision as the way forward to enable a thorough, reliable and systematic approach to future toxicity testing without the use of animals. One of the emerging concepts focused on integrating a defined number of tests modelling in vivo-relevant and well-characterised toxicity pathways representing mechanistic endpoints. At this meeting the importance of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) as tools towards reduction and eventually replacement of the animals currently used for hazard identification and risk assessment was recognised. A follow-up IVTIP Spring 2010 meeting entitled 'Integrated In Vitro Testing Strategies (ITS)--Implementation Challenges' was organised to address pending questions about ITS. This report is not a review of the ITS literature, but a summary of the discussions triggered by presented examples on how to develop and implement ITS. Contrasts between pharmaceutical and chemical industry, as well as a list of general but practical aspects to be considered while developing an ITS emerged from the discussions. In addition, current recommendations on the validation of ITS were discussed. In conclusion, the outcome of this workshop improved the understanding of the participants of some important factors that may impact the design of an ITS in function of its purpose (e.g., screening, or early decision making versus regulatory), the context in which they need to be applied (e.g., ICH guidelines, REACH) and the status and quality of the available tools. A set of recommendations of best practices was established and the importance of the applicability of the individual tests as well as the testing strategy itself was highlighted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Interplay of Design and Materials in Orthopedics: Evaluating the Impact of Notch Geometry on Fatigue Failure of UHMWPE Joint Replacements

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    Each year, roughly 750,000 patients in the US receive a total joint replacement (TJR), or a synthetic medical device that serves to replace the natural joint to restore function and relieve pain. TJRs have had a long history of use in the hip, knee and shoulder, yet still retain the same standard design of a hard-on-soft bearing coupling. Today, those bearings are primarily composed of hard cobalt chrome (CoCr) surface articulating against ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a p...

  7. Design and characterization of a magneto-rheological series elastic actuator for a lower extremity exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Zhao, Xuan; Ma, Hao; Qin, Ling; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an innovative actuator named magneto-rheological series elastic actuator (MRSEA) is designed for the knee joints of a lower extremity exoskeleton CUHK-EXO. MRSEA is designed to reduce the mechanical impedance of the exoskeleton and filter out unwanted collisions. It can also provide large controllable braking torque with low power, and hence improve the system energy efficiency. A description of CUHK-EXO developed to help paraplegic patients regain the mobility to stand up, sit down and walk is firstly introduced, followed by the mechanical design of MRSEA and simulation of the torsion spring pack (TSP) and magneto-rheological (MR) brake of MRSEA. Prototype of MRSEA is fabricated. Preliminary tests are performed to investigate the characteristics of the TSP and MR brake, and walking experiments with a paraplegic patient are performed to evaluate the performance of MRSEA. Experimental results of MRSEA match the modeling and simulation. As compared with the electric motor, the energy efficiency of the innovative MRSEA is improved by 52.8% during a gait cycle.

  8. Optimal Control Design of Static Synchronous Series Compensator for Damping Power System Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In power systems, there exists a continuous challenge to improve dynamic performance of power system. Approach: The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC is a power electronic based device that has capability of controlling the power flow through the line both in steady state and dynamic sate. This study applied the SSSC to damp power system oscillation. The optimal control design is applied to derive the control strategy of SSSC. The simulation results are tested on a Single Machine Infinite bus. The proposed method is equipped in sample system with disturbance. The generator rotor angle curve of the system without and with a SSSC is plotted and compared. Results: It was found that the system without a SSSC has high variation whereas that of the system with a SSSC has much smaller variation. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the SSSC can damp power system oscillation.

  9. Supplementary Controller Design for SSR Damping in a Series-Compensated DFIG-Based Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqiang Hu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing presence of wind power in power systems will likely drive the integration of large wind farms with electrical networks that are series-compensated to sustain large power flows. This may potentially lead to subsynchronous resonance (SSR issues. In this paper, a supplementary controller on the grid-side converter (GSC control loop is designed to mitigate SSR for wind power systems based on doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs with back-to-back converters. Different supplementary controller feedback signals and modulated-voltage injecting points are proposed and compared based on modal analysis and verified through root locus analysis to identify the optimal feedback signal and the most effective control location for SSR damping. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed supplemental control are demonstrated on the IEEE first benchmark model for computer simulations of SSR by means of time domain simulation analysis using Matlab/Simulink.

  10. Replacing a 252Cf source with a neutron generator in a shuffler - a conceptual design performed with MCNPX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The {sup 252}Cf shuffler has been widely used in nuclear safeguards and radioactive waste management to assay fissile isotopes, such as {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu, present in a variety of samples, ranging from small cans of uranium waste to metal samples weighing several kilograms. Like other non-destructive assay instruments, the shuffler uses an interrogating neutron source to induce fissions in the sample. Although shufflers with {sup 252}Cf sources have been reliably used for several decades, replacing this isotopic source with a neutron generator presents some distinct advantages. Neutron generators can be run in a continuous or pulsed mode, and may be turned off, eliminating the need for shielding and a shuffling mechanism in the shuffler. There is also essentially no dose to personnel during installation, and no reliance on the availability of {sup 252}Cf. Despite these advantages, the more energetic neutrons emitted from the neutron generator (141 MeV for D-T generators) present some challenges for certain material types. For example when the enrichment of a uranium sample is unknown, the fission of {sup 238}U is generally undesirable. Since measuring uranium is one of the main uses of a shuffler, reducing the delayed neutron contribution from {sup 238}U is desirable. Hence, the shuffler hardware must be modified to accommodate a moderator configuration near the source to tailor the interrogating spectrum in a manner which promotes sub-threshold fissions (below 1 MeV) but avoids the over-moderation of the interrogating neutrons so as to avoid self-shielding. In this study, where there are many material and geometry combinations, the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code was used to model, design, and optimize the moderator configuration within the shuffler geometry. The code is then used to evaluate and compare the assay performances of both the modified shuffler and the current {sup 252}Cf shuffler designs for different test samples. The

  11. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  12. Tables of Replacement Parts for Vehicle Average Useful Life Study of Truck, 5 Ton, 6x6, M39A2 Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    Logistics ,O. ABSTRACT (Continue , l ree e-•’oe d it neoeeaty and td --, flt, by block numb..) This report contains tables of replacement parts developed...8217 n4c 000’’n>,. _j.u0.too ~0 ~ 0 0’(0 49 43 :; S Z) c ;u 0tLu .. .!J, Lu0LU Lu j w - 1- a L tD 4 o cm 0 L Z ..J P- 3 > ..2c ~ ~ ~ ~ .. W . L4 IL l I 4m...WI z v ൌmi WKn z-zO. M~ 43 Km K: 0KK X 44ft4az-4O:tm 0 4.~4kmu Wtm4. ac o K 4 3m 6m-30 4 .9mgemm.94mN I..e "Mre-NaPIP-aa:m.9lop 040.9m.4r.. FA#..Ne

  13. Curriculum and Design Analysis of a Mathematics-Based Educational Television Program: A Case Study of Cyberchase Animated Television Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Farrah Dina

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a curriculum and design analyses of an Emmy-award winning children educational television series, Cyberchase. Using Posner's (2004) four process of curriculum analysis framework, this paper addresses each of the components and relates it to the design principles undertaken by the Cyberchase production team. Media and document…

  14. Analog series-based scaffolds: computational design and exploration of a new type of molecular scaffolds for medicinal chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Computational design of and systematic search for a new type of molecular scaffolds termed analog series-based scaffolds. Materials & methods: From currently available bioactive compounds, analog series were systematically extracted, key compounds identified and new scaffolds isolated from them. Results: Using our computational approach, more than 12,000 scaffolds were extracted from bioactive compounds. Conclusion: A new scaffold definition is introduced and a computational methodology developed to systematically identify such scaffolds, yielding a large freely available scaffold knowledge base.

  15. Analog series-based scaffolds: computational design and exploration of a new type of molecular scaffolds for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Dilyana; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-12-01

    Computational design of and systematic search for a new type of molecular scaffolds termed analog series-based scaffolds. From currently available bioactive compounds, analog series were systematically extracted, key compounds identified and new scaffolds isolated from them. Using our computational approach, more than 12,000 scaffolds were extracted from bioactive compounds. A new scaffold definition is introduced and a computational methodology developed to systematically identify such scaffolds, yielding a large freely available scaffold knowledge base.

  16. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  17. Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Long-Term Outcomes of First-In-Man Experience with an Apically Tethered Device - A Case Series from a Single Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Alison; Daqa, Anan; Yeh, James; Davies, Simon; Uebing, Anselm; Quarto, Cesare; Moat, Neil

    2017-08-13

    Transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) is a novel technique for treating mitral regurgitation. We report 18-month/2-year outcomes of the 5 first-in-man patients undergoing chronic TMVR with the Tendyne device. Five patients (STS score 14%-23%) underwent TMVR using a Tendyne system under compassionate use at a single centre. 1 patient (who was noncompliant with anti-coagulation) died 9 months after TMVR following a cerebrovascular accident. Whilst some of the remaining patients experienced recognised post-TMVR complications (left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, paravalvular leak, stent thrombosis), all patients alive at 18-months/2-years after TMVR reported significant reduction in NYHA Class and increase in exercise capacity compared to baseline. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated valve stability, absent transvalvular mitral regurgitation, and significant reductions in tricuspid regurgitation severity and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure. Eighteen months/2 years after compassionate use of Tendyne TMVR in a highrisk surgical group, the majority of patients were alive, patient symptoms improved, and the device was stable with good haemodynamic function and no late migration. Continued follow-up of patients treated with Tendyne TMVR are required to further describe its safety and efficacy.

  18. Metacognition Modules: A Scaffolded Series of Online Assignments Designed to Improve Students’ Study Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A. Cardinale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students’ lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students’ inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies. By setting lessons on improving study behavior within a biological context, we help students grasp the reason for changing their behavior based on an understanding of biological functions and their application to learning. Students who complete these scaffolded journaling assignments show a shift toward a growth mindset and a consistent ability to evaluate the efficacy of their own study behaviors. In this article, we discuss the modules and student assignments, as well as provide in depth support for faculty who wish to adopt the modules for their own courses.

  19. Metacognition Modules: A Scaffolded Series of Online Assignments Designed to Improve Students’ Study Skills†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Jean A.; Johnson, Bethany C.

    2017-01-01

    Many first-year biology students begin college with high aspirations but limited skills in terms of those needed for their success. Teachers are increasingly focused on students’ lack of metacognitive awareness combined with students’ inability to self-regulate learning behaviors. To address this need, we have designed a series of out-of-class assignments to provide explicit instruction on memory and learning. Our metacognition modules consist of six video assignments with reflective journaling prompts, allowing students to explore the relationship between the learning cycle, neuroplasticity, memory function, expert and novice thinking, and effective study strategies. By setting lessons on improving study behavior within a biological context, we help students grasp the reason for changing their behavior based on an understanding of biological functions and their application to learning. Students who complete these scaffolded journaling assignments show a shift toward a growth mindset and a consistent ability to evaluate the efficacy of their own study behaviors. In this article, we discuss the modules and student assignments, as well as provide in depth support for faculty who wish to adopt the modules for their own courses. PMID:28904648

  20. Design, fabrication, testing and packaging of a silicon micromachined radio frequency microelectromechanical series (RF MEMS) switch

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Giridhar; Ashwini Jambhalikar; Jiju John; R Islam; Ananda Behera; C L Nagendra; George Thachil; M P Srikanth; Shailesh Somani; B H M Darukesha; Srinivasarao Bollu

    2013-04-01

    RF characterization and packaging of a single pole single throw (SPST) direct contact microelectromechanical (MEMS) series radio frequency (RF) switch is reported. Precise thickness of the silicon MEMS structure is achieved using a specially developed silicon Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) thinning process. A stress free release process is employed which ensures a high yield of released microstructures. The design of the device is based on stiffness equations derived from first principles. Displacement of the actuator under applied field is measured to confirm electrostatic pull in, which occurs in the 30–50 V range. The variation of contact resistance with time has been measured and is found to have a power law decay, in agreement with theoretical models. At the bare die level the insertion loss, return loss and the isolation of the switch were measured to be −0.43 dB, −25 dB and −21 dB, respectively at 10 GHz. The devices were packaged in commercially available RF packages and mounted in alumina boards for post package characterization. Due to the presence of bond wires in the signal path of the packaged devices, the RF performance was found to degrade at high frequencies. However, losses were measured to be at acceptable levels up to 2 GHz. Factors contributing to insertion loss at the die and package device levels are discussed in detail with possible solutions.

  1. State Observer Design for Monitoring the Degree of Polymerization in a Series of Melt Polycondensation Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear reduced-order state observer is applied to estimate the degree of polymerization in a series of polycondensation reactors. The finishing stage of polyethylene terephthalate synthesis is considered in this work. This process has a special structure of lower block triangular form, which is properly utilized to facilitate the calculation of the state-dependent gain in the observer design. There are two possible on-line measurements in each reactor. One is continuous, and the other is slow-sampled with dead time. For the slow-sampled titration measurement, inter-sample behavior is estimated from an inter-sample output predictor, which is essential in providing continuous corrections on the observer. Dead time compensation is carried out in the same spirit as the Smith predictor to reduce the effect of delay in the measurement outputs. By integrating the continuous-time reduced-order observer, the inter-sample predictor and the dead time compensator together, the degree of polymerization is accurately estimated in all reactors. The observer performance is demonstrated by numerical simulations. In addition, a pre-filtering technique is used in the presence of sensor noise.

  2. Esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Shaun M; Coran, Arnold G

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on esophageal replacement as a surgical option for pediatric patients with end-stage esophageal disease. While it is obvious that the patient׳s own esophagus is the best esophagus, persisting with attempts to retain a native esophagus with no function and at all costs are futile and usually detrimental to the overall well-being of the child. In such cases, the esophagus should be abandoned, and the appropriate esophageal replacement is chosen for definitive reconstruction. We review the various types of conduits used for esophageal replacement and discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages that are relevant for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shaped reflector antenna analysis using the Jacobi-Bessel series. [design for space and satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Galindo-Israel, V.

    1980-01-01

    A vector radiation integral is derived for an offset shaped reflector illuminated by an arbitrarily located and oriented source. A procedure for expressing the integral in terms of a series of the Fourier transforms of an effective aperture distribution is discussed. The Jacobi-Bessel series is used to evaluate the Fourier transforms. Numerical results are presented for different reflector configurations and source locations.

  4. Design of an Active Bumper with a Series Elastic Actuator for Pedestrian Protection of Small Unmanned Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terumasa, Narukawa; Tomoki, Tsuge; Hiroshi, Yamamoto; Takahiro, Suzuki

    2016-09-01

    When autonomous unmanned vehicles are operated on sidewalks, the vehicles must have high safety standards such as avoiding injury when they come in contact with pedestrians. In this study, we established a design for preventing serious injury when such collisions occur. We designed an active bumper with a series elastic actuator, with the goal of avoiding serious injury to a pedestrian in a collision with a small unmanned vehicle. The series elastic actuator comprised an elastic element in series with a table driven by a ball screw and servo motor. The active bumper was used to control the contact force between a vehicle and a pedestrian. The optimal force for minimizing the deflection of the object of the collision was derived, and the actuator controlled to apply this optimal force. Numerical simulations showed that the active bumper was successful in improving the collision safety of small unmanned vehicles.

  5. Designs and Implementation of Learning Application of Fourier Series on Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moechammad Sarosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there are a huge number of mobile phone users, ranging from children to adults who use mobile phones for the purpose of communication media or entertainment during leisure time. Varied features offered such as games, internet access, and social networks have become points of attraction to use mobile phones. However, features offered are mainly for entertainment and communication. There are only a few features that provide education support for users, especially for students. This study was aimed at developing a learning application that could be run on mobile phones (in-learning to assist users to learn something. Difficulties to learn Fourier series for electronic students was the main reason of this study to choose the topic of Fourier series. It was expected that this learning application could help students to more easily understand Fourier series using their mobile phones instead of books. Fourier series is a sinusoidal series (sinus and cosine used to represent functions of periodical signs in general. This application can be used to determine Fourier series, started from calculating Fourier coefficients namely a0, an and bn, using Romberg Integration approach and based on trapezoidal rule so that it can be achieved integral values with high accuracy. Test results of the application on mobile phones show that users can easily run the application program, choosing the menu providing explanation about Fourier series, doing practices to determine Fourier series coefficients, presenting graphs of Fourier series functions f(x=a and f(x=ax. This application was proven to assist students to learn and understand Fourier series more easily.

  6. Therapeutic Assessment for Preadolescent Boys with Oppositional Defiant Disorder: A Replicated Single-Case Time-Series Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.; Handler, Leonard; Nash, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    The Therapeutic Assessment (TA) model is a relatively new treatment approach that fuses assessment and psychotherapy. The study examines the efficacy of this model with preadolescent boys with oppositional defiant disorder and their families. A replicated single-case time-series design with daily measures is used to assess the effects of TA and to…

  7. The Future of STEM Curriculum and Instructional Design: A Research and Development Agenda for Learning Designers. Report of a Workshop Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for the Study of Mathematics Curriculum, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009-10 a series of Workshops was organized to focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning design for young students and adolescents. The objective was to provide visionary leadership to the education community by: (a) identifying and analyzing the needs and opportunities for future STEM curriculum development and…

  8. Design and baseline characteristics of the soy phytoestrogens as replacement estrogen (SPARE) study--a clinical trial of the effects of soy isoflavones in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Silvina; Strickman-Stein, Nancy; Doerge, Daniel R; Krischer, Jeffrey

    2010-07-01

    Following the results of the Women's Health Initiative, many women now decline estrogen replacement at the time of menopause and seek natural remedies that would treat menopausal symptoms and prevent bone loss and other long-term consequences of estrogen deficiency, but without adverse effects on the breast, uterus, and cardiovascular system. The results of most soy studies in this population have had limitations because of poor design, small sample size, or short duration. This report describes the study rationale, design, and procedures of the Soy Phytoestrogens As Replacement Estrogen (SPARE) study, which was designed to determine the efficacy of soy isoflavones in preventing spinal bone loss and menopausal symptoms in the initial years of menopause. Women ages 45 to 60 without osteoporosis and within 5 years from menopause were randomized to receive soy isoflavones 200mg daily or placebo for 2 years. Participants have yearly measurements of spine and hip bone density, urinary phytoestrogens, and serum lipids, thyroid stimulating hormone, and estradiol. Menopausal symptoms, mood changes, depression, and quality of life are assessed annually. The SPARE study recruited 283 women, 66.1% were Hispanic white. With a large cohort, long duration, and large isoflavone dose, this trial will provide important, relevant, and currently unavailable information on the benefits of purified soy isoflavones in the prevention of bone loss and menopausal symptoms in the first 5 years of menopause. Given the high proportion of Hispanics participating in the study, the results of this trial will also be applicable to this minority group.

  9. Persistent threats to validity in single-group interrupted time series analysis with a cross over design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel

    2017-04-01

    The basic single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) design has been shown to be susceptible to the most common threat to validity-history-the possibility that some other event caused the observed effect in the time series. A single-group ITSA with a crossover design (in which the intervention is introduced and withdrawn 1 or more times) should be more robust. In this paper, we describe and empirically assess the susceptibility of this design to bias from history. Time series data from 2 natural experiments (the effect of multiple repeals and reinstatements of Louisiana's motorcycle helmet law on motorcycle fatalities and the association between the implementation and withdrawal of Gorbachev's antialcohol campaign with Russia's mortality crisis) are used to illustrate that history remains a threat to ITSA validity, even in a crossover design. Both empirical examples reveal that the single-group ITSA with a crossover design may be biased because of history. In the case of motorcycle fatalities, helmet laws appeared effective in reducing mortality (while repealing the law increased mortality), but when a control group was added, it was shown that this trend was similar in both groups. In the case of Gorbachev's antialcohol campaign, only when contrasting the results against those of a control group was the withdrawal of the campaign found to be the more likely culprit in explaining the Russian mortality crisis than the collapse of the Soviet Union. Even with a robust crossover design, single-group ITSA models remain susceptible to bias from history. Therefore, a comparable control group design should be included, whenever possible. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. DESIGN, OPERATION AND CONTROL OF SERIES-CONNECTED POWER CONVERTERS FOR OFFSHORE WIND PARKS

    OpenAIRE

    Garces Ruiz, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    OFFSHORE wind farms need to develop technologies that fulfill three main objectives:Efficiency, power density and reliability. The purpose of this thesisis to study an HVDC transmission system based on series connection of the turbineswhich theoretically meet these three objectives. A new topology of matrixconverter operated at high frequency is proposed. This converter is studied usingdifferent modulation algorithms. Simulation and experimental results demonstratedthat the converter can be o...

  11. Design, operation and control of series-connected power converters for offshore wind parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Alejandro Garces

    2012-07-01

    Offshore wind farms need to develop technologies that fulfill three main objectives:Efficiency, power density and reliability. The purpose of this thesis is to study an HVDC transmission system based on series connection of the turbines which theoretically meet these three objectives. A new topology of matrix converter operated at high frequency is proposed. This converter is studied using different modulation algorithms. Simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the converter can be operated as a current source converter with high efficiency. An optimal control based on a linear quadratic regulator is propose dto control the matrix converter as well as the converter placed on shore. Results demonstrated the high performance of this type of control and its simplicity for implementation. An stationary state study based on non-linear programming and Montecarlo simulation was carried out to determine the performance of the concept for long-term operation. Series connection is an efficient technology if and only if the differences in the effective wind velocity are small. This aspect limits the number of wind turbines that can be connected in series, since a numerous number of turbines will lead to high covariances in the distribution of the wind. A complementary study about active filter and reactive power compensation was carried out using an optimization-based algorithm. (Author)

  12. Reliability Based Optimal Design of Vertical Breakwaters Modelled as a Series System Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, E.; Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Reliability based design of monolithic vertical breakwaters is considered. Probabilistic models of important failure modes such as sliding and rupture failure in the rubble mound and the subsoil are described. Characterisation of the relevant stochastic parameters are presented, and relevant design...... variables are identified and an optimal system reliability formulation is presented. An illustrative example is given....

  13. Procedure for the Design of a Hybrid-Series Vehicle and the Hybridization Degree Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Coccia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available For years, the interest of the UDR1 research group has focused on the development of a Hybrid Series (HS vehicle, different from the standard one thanks to the use of a Gas Turbine set (GT as a thermal engine. The reason for this choice resides in the opportunity to reduce weight and dimensions, in comparison to a traditional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE. It is not possible to use the GT engine set directly for the vehicle traction, therefore the UDR1 HS configuration shows the GT set connected with the electric generator only. The result is that the traction is purely electric. The resulting engine configuration is a commonly defined Hybrid Series. Many efforts are spent in the definition of a generic scientific method to define the correct ratio (Degree of Hybridization between the installed power of the battery pack and that of the GT electric generator, which simultaneously guarantees the life of the battery pack and the capacity of the vehicle to complete a common mission without lack of energy or stopping. This article reports a method to define the power ratio between battery pack and GT generator, applied to a recent commission for the development of a mini city bus.

  14. Robust thyristor-controlled series capacitor controller design based on linear matrix inequality for a multi-machine power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, Masachika; Yokoyama, Ryuichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji, Tokyo (Japan); Shirai, Goro [Hosei Univ., Koganei, Tokyo (Japan); Niimura, Takahide [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    Power system stabilizing control has an important role in maintaining synchronism in power systems during major disturbances resulting from sudden changes of load and configuration. The thyristor- controlled series capacitor (TCSC) is one of the representative devices in flexible AC transmission systems. In this paper, robust TCSC controllers are applied to suppress disturbances in realistic power systems. H{sub {infinity}} control is adopted as the methodology of the robust controller design along with a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which solves the Lyapunov inequality without the weighting coefficients used in other control theories. In the proposed design, load changes are treated as a system uncertainty in the LMI approach. The proposed LMI -based approach is shown to be effective in the design of TCSC controllers to enhance robustness and response by simulations on a test system. (Author)

  15. [Estrogen replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  16. MWD design in a series of CSTRs with living polymerisation reactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eszter Farkas; Zsolt György Meszéna

    2010-01-01

    ...) of living polymerisation processes in various reactor configurations, ii) and - in a reversed calculation process - to design reactor parameters and feed profiles for a single CSTR or a tubular reactor to meet a target...

  17. Unlimited Horizons: Design and Development of the U-2. [NASA Aeronautics Book Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the creation, history, design, and research value of the U-2 program. It also describes the involvement of NACA, as a cover story, and the later use by NASA of these aircraft as environmental research platforms.

  18. Parameter Design for the Energy-Regeneration System of Series Hydraulic-Hybrid Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONG Yunpu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper simplifies the energy recovery process in the series hydraulic hybrid bus’ energy regeneration system into a process in which the main axle’s moment of inertia drives the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and brings hydraulic oil from the oil tank to the accumulator. This process enables braking of the vehicle and also allows recovery of energy to the accumulator. Based on the flow equation for the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor and the torque equilibrium equation for its axle, the force equilibrium equation for vehicle braking and the pressure variation and flow continuity equations for the accumulator, simulation studies are conducted to analyze the effects of various system parameters, such as accumulator capacity, displacement of the secondary element variable delivery pump/motor, initial operating pressure of the system, etc. on system performance during regenerative braking.  

  19. Design of multi-objective damping controller for gate-controlled series capacitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amin Safari; Navid Rezaei

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes an optimization procedure based on eigenvalues to carry out the stabilization function of the Gate-Controlled Series Capacitor (GCSC) in a power system. It is aimed to provide a reliable damping framework by means of a GCSC based multi-objective damping controller. The proposed method employs Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to search for optimal parameter settings of a widely used multi-objective lead-lag damping controller. The eigenvalue analysis is considered as the cornerstone of the performed studies in order to investigate the multi-objective methodology in which the unstable or lightly damped modes are scheduled to effectively shift to some prescribed stability zones in the s-plane. The effectiveness of the suggested approach in damping local and interarea oscillations modes in a multi-machine power system, over a wide range of loading conditions, is confirmed through eigenvalue analysis and time simulation.

  20. Design and Characterization of a Novel High-Power Series Elastic Actuator for a Lower Limb Robotic Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Accoto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A safe interaction is crucial in wearable robotics in general, while in assistive and rehabilitation applications, robots may also be required to minimally perturb physiological movements, ideally acting as perfectly transparent machines. The actuation system plays a central role because the expected performance, in terms of torque, speed and control bandwidth, must not be achieved at the expense of lightness and compactness. Actuators embedding compliant elements, such as series elastic actuators, can be designed to meet the above-mentioned requirements in terms of high energy storing capacity and stability of torque control. A number of series elastic actuators have been proposed over the past 20 years in order to accommodate the needs arising from specific applications. This paper presents a novel series elastic actuator intended for the actuation system of a lower limb wearable robot, recently developed in our lab. The actuator is able to deliver 300 W and has a novel architecture making its centre of mass not co-located with its axis of rotation, for an easier integration into the robotic structure. A custom-made torsion spring with a stiffness of 272.25 N·m·rad–1 is directly connected to the load. The delivered torque is calculated from the measurement of the spring deflection, through two absolute encoders. Testing on torque measurement accuracy and torque/stiffness control are reported.

  1. The Design of Education. Second Edition. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book, which is intended primarily for specialists in the field of adult education (AE) who wish to improve their performance, presents a systematic plan for designing, establishing, and evaluating successful programs for adult learners. The following topics are among those discussed in the book's six chapters: credos and systems (growth of…

  2. Intensification of the Learning Process: Educational Grouping Questionnaire. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    This report consists of a classification of elementary school age children and information concerning an Educational Grouping Questionnaire, which is designed to help the classroom teacher group her students. (See TM 001 368 for example of questionnaire; see TM 001 363 for summary of report; for other related documents, see TM 001 160, 364-366,…

  3. Intensification of the Learning Process: Research Findings. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The designs for measuring the effectiveness of personalized educational prescriptions in a pilot second-grade classroom for the first and second years are presented. The analysis of pretest and posttest data is also given. (See TM 001 363 for summary report of the project; for other related documents, see TM 001 160, 365-374.) (MS)

  4. A Higher-Order Neural Network Design for Improving Segmentation Performance in Medical Image Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Eşref; Selver, M. Alper; Güzeliş, Cüneyt; Dicle, Oǧuz

    2014-03-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures from medical image series is an ongoing field of research. Although, organs of interest are three-dimensional in nature, slice-by-slice approaches are widely used in clinical applications because of their ease of integration with the current manual segmentation scheme. To be able to use slice-by-slice techniques effectively, adjacent slice information, which represents likelihood of a region to be the structure of interest, plays critical role. Recent studies focus on using distance transform directly as a feature or to increase the feature values at the vicinity of the search area. This study presents a novel approach by constructing a higher order neural network, the input layer of which receives features together with their multiplications with the distance transform. This allows higher-order interactions between features through the non-linearity introduced by the multiplication. The application of the proposed method to 9 CT datasets for segmentation of the liver shows higher performance than well-known higher order classification neural networks.

  5. Improving Designs of CA6DF2 Series Diesel Combustion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen-xiang; GE Yun-shan; HU Fang; LI Jun

    2005-01-01

    The technical improvements are made based on the former CA6110 diesel engine to meet the requirements of Euro Ⅱ emission standards. The performance and emission for CA6DF1 and CA6DF2 are all met the demand of design by improving the fuel, combustion and supercharging systems. The injection system adopts high-pressure pump-pipe-injector injection system. To enhance the injection pressure, the methods of augmenting plunger diameter, decreasing the nozzle hole diameter and reducing the inner diameter of the highpressure fuel pipe are adopted. The design of combustion chamber and the match of inner fuel distributions with air motion are based on a great deal of experimental database and some simple computer-aided methods,which ensure the optimization of performance and provide the guide for experimental development.

  6. Design and optimization of multi-class series-parallel linear electromagnetic array artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ji, Zhenyu; Shi, Xuetao; You, Fusheng; Fu, Feng; Liu, Ruigang; Xia, Junying; Wang, Nan; Bai, Jing; Wang, Zhanxi; Qin, Xiansheng; Dong, Xiuzhen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exhibiting complex and excellent precision has evolved for millions of years. Skeletal muscle has better performance and simpler structure compared with existing driving modes. Artificial muscle may be designed by analyzing and imitating properties and structure of skeletal muscle based on bionics, which has been focused on by bionic researchers, and a structure mode of linear electromagnetic array artificial muscle has been designed in this paper. Half sarcomere is the minimum unit of artificial muscle and electromagnetic model has been built. The structural parameters of artificial half sarcomere actuator were optimized to achieve better movement performance. Experimental results show that artificial half sarcomere actuator possesses great motion performance such as high response speed, great acceleration, small weight and size, robustness, etc., which presents a promising application prospect of artificial half sarcomere actuator.

  7. Design of Furnace Transformer with Series Capacitance Compensation%带串联电容补偿的电炉变压器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张懋鲁; 刘玉建

    2012-01-01

    The series capacitance compensation principle and application and the main design points of furnace transformer with series capacitance compensation are presented.%介绍了串联电容补偿工作原理、应用方案及带串联电容补偿的电炉变压器设计要点。

  8. Predicting the effects of amino acid replacements in peptide hormones on their binding affinities for class B GPCRs and application to the design of secretin receptor antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Jerez A.; Dong, Maoqing; Miller, Laurence J.; Bordner, Andrew J.

    2012-07-01

    Computational prediction of the effects of residue changes on peptide-protein binding affinities, followed by experimental testing of the top predicted binders, is an efficient strategy for the rational structure-based design of peptide inhibitors. In this study we apply this approach to the discovery of competitive antagonists for the secretin receptor, the prototypical member of class B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Proteins in this family are involved in peptide hormone-stimulated signaling and are implicated in several human diseases, making them potential therapeutic targets. We first validated our computational method by predicting changes in the binding affinities of several peptides to their cognate class B GPCRs due to alanine replacement and compared the results with previously published experimental values. Overall, the results showed a significant correlation between the predicted and experimental ΔΔG values. Next, we identified candidate inhibitors by applying this method to a homology model of the secretin receptor bound to an N-terminal truncated secretin peptide. Predictions were made for single residue replacements to each of the other nineteen naturally occurring amino acids at peptide residues within the segment binding the receptor N-terminal domain. Amino acid replacements predicted to most enhance receptor binding were then experimentally tested by competition-binding assays. We found two residue changes that improved binding affinities by almost one log unit. Furthermore, a peptide combining both of these favorable modifications resulted in an almost two log unit improvement in binding affinity, demonstrating the approximately additive effect of these changes on binding. In order to further investigate possible physical effects of these residue changes on receptor binding affinity, molecular dynamics simulations were performed on representatives of the successful peptide analogues (namely A17I, G25R, and A17I/G25R) in bound and

  9. Design of a Radar Signal Simulator Based on Virtex-Ⅱ Series FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A simulation method to simulate the pseudorandom code P.M PP radar's echo signal is proposed that makes use of the pre-generated Doppler simulation data, according to the relative movement parameter of the radar and the target. It resolves the problem of the high precision distance simulation and the high speed digital shift phase. At the same time, the radar dynamic digital video frequency target signal simulator is designed. Simulation results of the critical unit and the output waveform are given. The result of the test satisfies the system's request.

  10. Design,synthesis and antitumor evaluation of a new series of N-substituted-thiourea derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian LI; Bing XIONG; Xi-shan XIONG; Hong LIU; Xiao-min LUO; Hua-liang JIANG; Jin-zhi TAN; Li-li CHEN; Jian ZHANG; Xu SHEN; Chang-lin MEI; Li-li FU; Li-ping LIN; Jian DING

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To design and synthesize a novel class of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors, featuring the N-(2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl-methyl)-thiourea framework. Methods: First, compounds 1 and 2 were identified using the virtual screening approach in conjunction with binding assay based on surface plasmon resonance. Subsequently, 3 regions of compounds 1 and 2 were selected for chemical modification. All compounds were characterized potent inhibitory activities toward the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPAC1. Results: Forty new compounds (1-2, 3a-g, 4a-w, and 5a-l) were designed, synthesized and bioassayed. Six compounds (1, 3e, 41,4w, 5a, and 5b) were found to show promising inhibitory activity against the SPAC1 tumor cell line. The inhibitory activity of compound 5a increases approximately 10 times more than that of the original compound 1. Conclusion: This study provides a promising new template with potential antitumor activity.

  11. Design and fabrication of segmented-in-series solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tammy S.

    Segmented-in-series solid oxide fuel cells (SS-SOFC) consist of several thick film cells deposited onto a porous, flattened tubular substrate. SS-SOFCs have a reduced need for gas-tight seals relative to planar SOFCs and can have a short current path compared to tubular SOFCs, limiting electrode ohmic resistance. Like tubular SOFCs, SS-SOFCs are suitable for stationary power generation. Their potentially small cell size makes them candidates for portable applications as well. The goals of this thesis project were to develop SS-SOFCs with 1-2 mm cell lengths and to analyze the effects of cell geometry and support current shunting on performance. Standard SOFC materials were chosen for the active components: yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte; Ni-YSZ cermet anode; and (La,Sr)MnO 3-based cathode. A Pt-YSZ cermet was used as the interconnect material. Screen printing was the deposition method for all layers due to its low cost and patterning ability. A power density of >900 mW/cm2 was achieved with a cathode sheet resistance of ≈3 O/□ (≈90 mum LSM thickness). A D-optimal study was conducted to find processing conditions yielding substrates with ≥30 vol% porosity and high strength. Uniaxially pressed partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) with 15 wt% starch pore former met the requirements, though 20 wt% graphite pore former was later found to give a smoother surface that improved screen printed layer quality. Calculations presented in this thesis take into account losses due to cell resistances, electrode ohmic resistances, interconnect resistance, and shunting by a weakly-conductive support material. Power density was maximized at an optimal cell length---it decreased at larger cell lengths due to electrode lateral resistance loss and at smaller cell lengths due to a decreasing fraction of cell active area. Assuming dimensions expected for screen printing and typical area specific resistances (RAS), optimal cell lengths typically ranged from 1 to 3 mm

  12. Improving Drug Design: An Update on Recent Applications of Efficiency Metrics, Strategies for Replacing Problematic Elements, and Compounds in Nontraditional Drug Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanwell, Nicholas A

    2016-04-18

    Drug discovery and development is a complex and lengthy enterprise that suffers from high rates of candidate attrition at all stages of the process. The physical, biological, and toxicological properties of a drug candidate are inextricably linked to its structure, and once a molecule has been synthesized, all subsequent studies along the development path are focused only on assessing and understanding its properties in greater detail. Unfortunately, a full prediction of the biological properties of a molecule from an analysis of its 2- or 3-dimensional structure is currently beyond our expertise. This backdrop mandates that considerable care be taken at the design stage if a molecule is to be successful in testing a mechanistic concept underlying a disease process and to progress into late stage clinical trials and, ultimately, marketing approval. While there are multiple potential causes of candidate attrition, an introspective analysis of drug design practices over the past decade has focused attention on the perception that contemporary molecules are unnecessarily obese, burdened by high molecular weight and excessive lipophilicity. This practice is believed to have its roots in the singular pursuit of enhancing potency during lead optimization rather than adopting a more holistic approach to drug design that gives broader consideration to how structural features affect developability properties. In an effort to provide the medicinal chemistry community with practical guideposts to enhancing compound quality in the drug design phase and which can readily be applied, a series of efficiency indices have been proposed that attempt to define aspects of compound quality in the context of a series of physicochemical parameters. Of these metrics, lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE or LipE), which provides an index of the dependence of the potency of a molecule on its intrinsic lipophilicity, has been characterized as the most robust metric that has potential for broad

  13. Series of selenoid valve pneumatic AC 220 volts with disposable contra angle as a replacement for micromotor in preclinic laboratory (experimental study on the health ministry of health polytechnic course D-III department of dental nursing Tasikmalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyat Miko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To report on the essential performance characteristics of disposable air turbine handpiece and on aspect of their convenience and safety for preclinical use. The disposable handpiece is not recommended drilling in oral cavity. We use for student practical  in Operative Dentistry at preclinic laboratory. The other side micromotor low speed handpiece used as bur device on the phantom, the problem usually found in preclinik laboratory on practical conservation with the use of micromotor frequent damage to the handpiece (contra angel. Micromotor tend to heat up faster and have a low-speed, so it took a long time to complete the drilling, using the micromotor tend to be less safe because of the power generated from the flow of electricity at any time could damage. The price of  micromotor also is quite expensive. The limitations of the budget funds for maintenance, repair and procurement of mikromotor also became a problem. Based on these problems, the research team made a solution in the form of a replacement tool (substitute micromotor with the aim to resolve the existing problems as well as creating practices preclinic more effectively and efficiently. The use of a simple drill tool in the form of a series of Pneumatic Valve 220 volt (include electric compressor and Selenoid Disposible Handpiece Contra-angles as a new innovation in the laboratory of Dental Nursing. Majors preclinik Health Polytechnic Tasikmalaya  have been applied for last 3 years and have been able to more efficient cost of procurement tool of 70%. This disposible tool is apparently able to drill up to 20 times preparasicavity. This research uses descriptive method. Data collection techniques are used through the question form or questionnaire. Population and sample the study is a students collage 2nd years D-III of department of dental nursing Health Polytechnic Tasikmalaya. From the results of research that the majority of students expressed pleased and satisfied. This

  14. Ethyl loflazepate: a prodrug from the benzodiazepine series designed to dissociate anxiolytic and sedative activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, J P; Perio, A; Demarne, H; Hallot, A; Dantzer, R; Roncucci, R; Bizière, K

    1985-01-01

    Ethyl loflazepate (Victan) is an original 1,4-benzodiazepine (BZD) being used as a potent, nonsedative, minor tranquillizer. Ethyl loflazepate was designed to be a prodrug that would gradually release within the organism an active 1,4-BZD. It was hypothesized that this type of pharmacokinetic profile would dissociate anxiolytic from sedative activities. Previously published pharmacokinetic studies performed in rats, baboons and humans have confirmed that ethyl loflazepate gradually releases in the plasma an active 1,4-BZD, descarboxyloflazepate. In the present study, the activity of ethyl loflazepate and its main plasmatic metabolites were examined in rodent models predictive of anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, myorelaxant and sedative properties. The activities of ethyl loflazepate and its metabolites were compared to those of reference BZDs: diazepam, bromazepam, nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, clorazepate. Ethyl loflazepate and its metabolites revealed the typical profile of activity of minor tranquillizers. The activity of ethyl loflazepate was long-lasting. The overall anxiolytic potency of ethyl loflazepate was similar to that of diazepam but ethyl loflazepate appeared to be less sedative than diazepam. Thus in the approach-avoidance conflict procedure in rats the threshold anxiolytic doses were 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. for ethyl loflazepate and diazepam, respectively, whereas the threshold sedative doses were 16 and 8 mg/kg i.p., respectively. In vitro ethyl loflazepate exhibited a weak affinity for the BZD receptor site. In vivo ethyl loflazepate displaced [3H]-flunitrazepam from mice brain membranes with a potency comparable to that of lorazepam. In vitro, descarboxyloflazepate, the main plasmatic metabolites of ethyl loflazepate, revealed a 4-fold greater affinity for the BZD receptor than diazepam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Separation of 20 coumarin derivatives using the capillary electrophoresis method optimized by a series of Doehlert experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniakiewicz, Michał; Gładysz, Marta; Nowak, Paweł M; Kędzior, Justyna; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this study was to develop the first CE-based method enabling separation of 20 structurally similar coumarin derivatives. To facilitate method optimization a series of three consequent Doehlert experimental designs with the response surface methodology was employed, using number of peaks and the adjusted time of analysis as the selected responses. Initially, three variables were examined: buffer pH, ionic strength and temperature (No. 1 Doehlert design). The optimal conditions provided only partial separation, on that account, several buffer additives were examined at the next step: organic cosolvents and cyclodextrin (No. 2 Doehlert design). The optimal cyclodextrin type was also selected experimentally. The most promising results were obtained for the buffers fortified with methanol, acetonitrile and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)-β-cyclodextrin. Since these additives may potentially affect acid-base equilibrium and ionization state of analytes, the third Doehlert design (No. 3) was used to reconcile concentration of these additives with optimal pH. Ultimately, the total separation of all 20 compounds was achieved using the borate buffer at basic pH 9.5 in the presence of 10mM cyclodextrin, 9% (v/v) acetonitrile and 36% (v/v) methanol. Identity of all compounds was confirmed using the in-lab build UV-VIS spectra library. The developed method succeeded in identification of coumarin derivatives in three real samples. It demonstrates a huge resolving power of CE assisted by addition of cyclodextrins and organic cosolvents. Our unique optimization approach, based on the three Doehlert designs, seems to be prospective for future applications of this technique.

  16. Design and Synthesis of a Series of Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives as CCR4 Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed and synthesized based on known CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4 antagonists. The activities of all the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated using a chemotaxis inhibition assay. Compound 6b was proven to be a potent CCR4 antagonist that can block cell chemotaxis induced by macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC, thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC, and CKLF1, the natural ligands of CCR4. In addition, compound 6b is more effective than budesonide in the murine rhinitis model. The intravenous injection LD50 of compound 6b is 175 mg/kg and the oral LD50 is greater than 2,000 mg/kg.

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of glycosylated platinum(iv) complexes as antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingpeng; Huang, Zhonglv; Ma, Jing; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xin; George Wang, Peng

    2016-06-21

    A new series of glycosylated Pt(iv) complexes were designed, synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. The incorporation of glycosyl groups to the Pt(iv) system has much influence on the antitumor abilities. Four lead compounds with activities comparable or even superior to cisplatin and oxaliplatin are screened out. These Pt(iv) complexes could be reduced to release Pt(ii) complexes and cause the death of tumour cells. The apoptosis-inducing properties of these compounds are similar to cisplatin. The accumulation of the glycosylated Pt(iv) complexes in cells and DNA is higher than cisplatin and oxaliplatin. The in vivo assay demonstrates that the tested compounds inhibit the growth of HepG2 tumors with low toxicity.

  18. The GOME-2 instrument on the Metop series of satellites: instrument design, calibration, and level 1 data processing - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Klaes, Dieter; Poli, Gabriele; Retscher, Christian; Lindstrot, Rasmus; Huckle, Roger; Lacan, Antoine; Grzegorski, Michael; Holdak, Andriy; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; Livschitz, Jakob; Eisinger, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) flies on the Metop series of satellites, the space component of the EUMETSAT Polar System. In this paper we will provide an overview of the instrument design, the on-ground calibration and characterization activities, in-flight calibration, and level 0 to 1 data processing. The current status of the level 1 data is presented and points of specific relevance to users are highlighted. Long-term level 1 data consistency is also discussed and plans for future work are outlined. The information contained in this paper summarizes a large number of technical reports and related documents containing information that is not currently available in the published literature. These reports and documents are however made available on the EUMETSAT web pages and readers requiring more details than can be provided in this overview paper will find appropriate references at relevant points in the text.

  19. A Series of New Ligustrazine-Triterpenes Derivatives as Anti-Tumor Agents: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Chu, Fuhao; Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Qiang; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Xing, Yanyi; Chen, Jing; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2015-09-02

    A series of novel ligustrazine-triterpenes derivatives was designed, synthesized and screened for their cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines (Bel-7402, HepG2, HT-29, Hela, and MCF-7) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). Current study suggested that most of the ligustrazine-triterpenes conjunctions showed better cytotoxicity than the starting materials. In particular, compound 4a exhibited better cytotoxic activity (IC5020 μM) towards MDCK cells. A combination of fluorescence staining observation and flow cytometric analysis indicated that 4a could induce HepG2 cell apoptosis. Further studies suggested that 4a-induced apoptosis is mediated through depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential and increase of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. In addition, the structure-activity relationships of these derivatives were briefly discussed.

  20. Design and synthesis of tricyclic tetrahydroquinolines as a new series of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoya; Miyakawa, Motonori; Amano, Seiji; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Inoguchi, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-15

    Some tricyclic tetrahydroquinolines (THQs) were found to have the potential of a new series of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Compound 5b was first designed and synthesized under our hypothesis based on a four-point pharmacophoric requirement of the 3-carbonyl, 18-methyl, 17-hydroxyl, and 13-quaternary carbon groups of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). It was revealed that this compound exhibits not only a strong androgen receptor (AR) agonistic activity (EC(50)=9.2 nM) but also the highest selectivity in binding affinity to AR among the steroid hormone receptors. Furthermore, this compound showed a weak virilizing effect with retention of the desired anabolic effect as compared with DHT in vivo.

  1. [The assessment of mechanical heart valves stenosis in adults after aortic valve replacement: the advantage of full-flow design of mechanical valve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokeria, L A; Bokeria, O L; Fadeev, A A; Makhachev, O A; Kosareva, T I; Averina, I I

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of transprosthetic hemodynamics in adults after aortic valve replacement in the Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery in 2007-2010 demonstrated the hemodynamic advantage of the concept of new full-flow mechanical aortic valve prosthesis "CorBeat". Having the same size of internal orifice and tissue annulus diameters, the values of transprosthetic parameters (peak and mean gradients, blood flow velocities) through "CorBeat" were close to physiological values of transvalvular native aortic parameters and had a tendency to be not dependent on the size of prosthesis (p = 0.63). In the article for the first time a morphometric database of geometric values of internal orifice area of normal native aortic valves in adults was used taking into account both the gender and the body surface area's of a patient. There was also used the standardized prosthesis size Z-score which represents the number of SDs by which the internal prosthesis area differs from the mean normal native aortic valve area for the patient's body surface area. The article emphasizes the need of the personal selection of the size and the type of prosthesis for any patient as well as the need for new design development of prosthetic heart valves.

  2. Series Bosch System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Evans, Christopher; Mansell, Matt; Swickrath, Michael

    2012-01-01

    State-of-the-art (SOA) carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology for the International Space Station produces methane as a byproduct. This methane is subsequently vented overboard. The associated loss of hydrogen ultimately reduces the mass of oxygen that can be recovered from CO2 in a closed-loop life support system. As an alternative to SOA CO2 reduction technology, NASA is exploring a Series-Bosch system capable of reducing CO2 with hydrogen to form water and solid carbon. This results in 100% theoretical recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. In the past, Bosch-based technology did not trade favorably against SOA technology due to a high power demand, low reaction efficiencies, concerns with carbon containment, and large resupply requirements necessary to replace expended catalyst cartridges. An alternative approach to Bosch technology, labeled "Series-Bosch," employs a new system design with optimized multi-stage reactors and a membrane-based separation and recycle capability. Multi-physics modeling of the first stage reactor, along with chemical process modeling of the integrated system, has resulted in a design with potential to trade significantly better than previous Bosch technology. The modeling process and resulting system architecture selection are discussed.

  3. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  4. 77 FR 64029 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Design Dive Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http: DocketsInfo.dot.gov/. Docket: Background... Series Airplanes; Design Dive Speed AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... airplanes. These design features include a high-speed protection system. The applicable...

  5. Evaluation of a clinical decision support tool for osteoporosis disease management: protocol for an interrupted time series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Monika; Sawka, Anna; Thorpe, Kevin; Chignel, Mark; Marquez, Christine; Newton, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2011-07-22

    Osteoporosis affects over 200 million people worldwide at a high cost to healthcare systems. Although guidelines on assessing and managing osteoporosis are available, many patients are not receiving appropriate diagnostic testing or treatment. Findings from a systematic review of osteoporosis interventions, a series of mixed-methods studies, and advice from experts in osteoporosis and human-factors engineering were used collectively to develop a multicomponent tool (targeted to family physicians and patients at risk for osteoporosis) that may support clinical decision making in osteoporosis disease management at the point of care. A three-phased approach will be used to evaluate the osteoporosis tool. In phase 1, the tool will be implemented in three family practices. It will involve ensuring optimal functioning of the tool while minimizing disruption to usual practice. In phase 2, the tool will be pilot tested in a quasi-experimental interrupted time series (ITS) design to determine if it can improve osteoporosis disease management at the point of care. Phase 3 will involve conducting a qualitative postintervention follow-up study to better understand participants' experiences and perceived utility of the tool and readiness to adopt the tool at the point of care. The osteoporosis tool has the potential to make several contributions to the development and evaluation of complex, chronic disease interventions, such as the inclusion of an implementation strategy prior to conducting an evaluation study. Anticipated benefits of the tool may be to increase awareness for patients about osteoporosis and its associated risks and provide an opportunity to discuss a management plan with their physician, which may all facilitate patient self-management.

  6. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, V.K.; Pankiw, R.I.

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this program was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and upper use temperature by 86 to 140 F (30 to 60 C). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 38 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of $185 million/year. The higher strength H-Series of cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat-treating industry. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc. with research participation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies. Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) was also a partner in this project. Each team partner had well-defined roles. Duraloy Technologies led the team by identifying the base alloys that were to be improved from this research. Duraloy Technologies also provided an extensive creep data base on current alloys, provided creep-tested specimens of certain commercial alloys, and carried out centrifugal casting and component fabrication of newly designed alloys. Nucor Steel was the first partner company that installed the radiant burner tube assembly in their heat-treating furnace. Other steel companies participated in project review meetings and are currently working with Duraloy Technologies to obtain components of the new alloys. EIO is promoting the enhanced performance of the newly designed alloys to Ohio-based companies. The Timken Company is one of the Ohio companies being promoted by EIO. The project management and coordination plan is shown in Fig. 1.1. A related project at University of Texas-Arlington (UT-A) is described in Development of Semi-Stochastic Algorithm for Optimizing Alloy Composition of High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) for Desired

  7. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, V.K.; Pankiw, R.I.

    2006-04-15

    The goal of this program was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and upper use temperature by 86 to 140 F (30 to 60 C). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 38 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of $185 million/year. The higher strength H-Series of cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat-treating industry. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc. with research participation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies. Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) was also a partner in this project. Each team partner had well-defined roles. Duraloy Technologies led the team by identifying the base alloys that were to be improved from this research. Duraloy Technologies also provided an extensive creep data base on current alloys, provided creep-tested specimens of certain commercial alloys, and carried out centrifugal casting and component fabrication of newly designed alloys. Nucor Steel was the first partner company that installed the radiant burner tube assembly in their heat-treating furnace. Other steel companies participated in project review meetings and are currently working with Duraloy Technologies to obtain components of the new alloys. EIO is promoting the enhanced performance of the newly designed alloys to Ohio-based companies. The Timken Company is one of the Ohio companies being promoted by EIO. The project management and coordination plan is shown in Fig. 1.1. A related project at University of Texas-Arlington (UT-A) is described in Development of Semi-Stochastic Algorithm for Optimizing Alloy Composition of High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) for Desired

  8. Design for Clamping and Replacing Device of Pruning Shears%修枝剪刀刀具夹紧更换机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛云; 方珏; 李远

    2013-01-01

    Pruning shears have been widely used in the garden shaping and orchard pruning. In recent years, various types of pruners have been developed both at home and abroad. However, the traditional bolt and nut structure is still used in the clamping structure of the vertical tip. When it is working, the traditional structure presents the following problems: the clamping structure is easy to loosen and it is difficult to clamp again without auxiliary tools after slackness;after long time operation,it is complex to replace the blades and an auxiliary tool is in need, which reduces the operating efficiency. Based to the clamping principle of the circular eccentric mechanism,a circular eccentric clamping ATC is designed, which is suitable for pruners to clamp in the vertical tip. Circular eccentric clamping ATC can effectively solve the above problems. This paper also studies the mechanism of the clamping process and mechanical design to determine the optimum dimensions.%为解决传统剪刀的螺栓紧固结构在换刀及间隙调整方面存在的弊端,本文依据圆偏心机构夹紧原理,以电动修枝剪刀为设计对象,通过对夹紧机理、机构设计进行研究分析,设计出一种适用于修枝剪刀动、定刀快速定位及换刀的圆偏心夹紧换刀机构.该机构能有效解决普通剪刀在修剪作业过程中螺栓松懈后再次夹紧困难、换刀程序繁琐等问题,从而提高作业时夹紧、换刀的速度.本文对设计步骤及计算方法进行了洋细的描述,为电动、气动、液压等机械化修枝剪的紧固换刀装置设计提供理论参考依据.

  9. A unique peri-prosthetic fracture pattern in well fixed femoral stems with polished, tapered, collarless design of total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatopoulos, George; Pandit, Hemant; Kambouroglou, Gregoris; Deakin, Mark; Gundle, Roger; McLardy-Smith, Peter; Taylor, Adrian; Murray, David

    2011-11-01

    Peri-prosthetic fractures (PPF) are a recognised complication following hip arthroplasty. Prosthesis design and type influence PPF pattern. Surgeons rely on classification systems, such as the Vancouver, to aid treatment planning. This study highlights a specific fracture pattern that occurs with cemented well-fixed polished, tapered, collarless (PTC) stems. We reviewed a consecutive series of 21 PPF around well fixed PTC stems. The majority of the fractures were classified pre-operatively as Vancouver B2 (14/21), but there were also B1 (6/21) and A type fractures. The B2 fractures had common radiological and intra-operative findings: a spiral fracture with extensive fragmentation of bone and cement, debonding of cement from the implant, cement fracture, and a well-fixed cement-bone interface. Reconstruction of these fractures was more difficult than suggested by the radiographs. Two of the six patients who were considered to have a Vancouver B1 fracture underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), and had treatment-related complications. Retrospective review of the radiographs showed subtle features, such as subsidence of the stem into the centraliser, that are characteristic of a B2 fracture pattern. In summary, it is important to recognise this fracture pattern around secure PTC stems in order to prevent misinterpretation of the fracture as a Vancouver B1 rather than a B2, leading to failure of treatment, and to alert the surgeon that complex reconstruction will be required because of the extensive fragmentation.

  10. Development of optimal design theory for series multiple tuned mass dampers considering stroke and multiple structural modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. F.; Lin, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    A tuned mass damper (TMD) system generates structural control forces through large motions of mass units. Therefore, it may not be functional if the stroke capacity of its spring and damper components are insufficient. This paper focuses on a novel mass-damper system, the series multiple tuned mass damper (SMTMD) system, which consists of multiple interconnected TMDs, of which only the first is connected to the primary structure. The main purpose of this paper is to compare the control effectiveness and TMD stroke of SMTMDs with those of a conventional TMD device. In addition, the ability of the studied SMTMD to suppress multiple structural modes is also investigated. First, the optimal design theory for an SMTMD installed on an arbitrary floor of a multi-storey building is developed. To optimize the SMTMD parameters, two performance indices are established by combining multiple modal responses of the primary structure. The developed theory is demonstrated analytically by using a three-story building. The results show that the SMTMD with a higher number of TMD units places lower demands on the TMD stroke and is more adaptive in controlling multiple structural modes of the primary structure.

  11. ASYMPTOTIC NORMALITY OF SOME ESTIMATORS IN A FIXED-DESIGN SEMIPARAMETRIC REGRESSION MODEL WITH LINEAR TIME SERIES ERRORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhong YOU; CHEN Min; Gemai CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Consider a semiparametric regression model with linear time series errors Yκ = x′κβ + g(tκ) + εκ,1 ≤ k ≤ n, where Yκ's are responses, xκ= (xκ1,xκ2,…,xκp)′and tκ ∈ T( ) R are fixed design points, β = (β1,β2,…… ,βp)′ is an unknown parameter vector, g(.) is an unknown bounded real-valued function defined on a compact subset T of the real line R, and εκ is a linear process given by εκ = ∑∞j=0 ψjeκ-j, ψ0 = 1, where ∑∞j=0 |ψj| <∞, and ej, j = 0,±1,±2,…, are I.I.d, random variables. In this paper we establish the asymptotic normality of the least squares estimator ofβ, a smooth estimator of g(·), and estimators of the autocovariance and autocorrelation functions of the linear process εκ.

  12. What's in a Name? The Incorrect Use of Case Series as a Study Design Label in Studies Involving Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Cullen, J N; Makielski, K M; Jones-Bitton, A

    2017-07-01

    Study design labels are used to identify relevant literature to address specific clinical and research questions and to aid in evaluating the evidentiary value of research. Evidence from the human healthcare literature indicates that the label "case series" may be used inconsistently and inappropriately. Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of studies in the canine and feline veterinary literature labeled as case series that actually corresponded to descriptive cohort studies, population-based cohort studies, or other study designs. Our secondary objective was to identify the proportion of case series in which potentially inappropriate inferential statements were made. Descriptive evaluation of published literature. One-hundred published studies (from 19 journals) labeled as case series. Studies were identified by a structured literature search, with random selection of 100 studies from the relevant citations. Two reviewers independently characterized each study, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Of the 100 studies, 16 were case series. The remaining studies were descriptive cohort studies (35), population-based cohort studies (36), or other observational or experimental study designs (13). Almost half (48.8%) of the case series or descriptive cohort studies, with no control group and no formal statistical analysis, included inferential statements about the efficacy of treatment or statistical significance of potential risk factors. Authors, peer-reviewers, and editors should carefully consider the design elements of a study to accurately identify and label the study design. Doing so will facilitate an understanding of the evidentiary value of the results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Design and synthesis of a novel series of histamine H3 receptor antagonists through a scaffold hopping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhongli; Hurst, William J; Hall, Daniel; Hartung, Ryan; Reynolds, William; Kang, Jiesheng; Nagorny, Raisa; Hendrix, James A; George, Pascal G

    2015-02-01

    Lead compounds 5-fluoro-2-methyl-N-[2-methyl-4-(2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-phenyl]-benzamide (1), tetrahydro-pyran-4-carboxylic acid [((2S,3'S)-2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-phenyl]-amide (2), and 3,5-dimethyl-isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid [((2S,3'S)-2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-phenyl]-amide (3) discovered in our laboratory, displayed high histamine H3 receptor (H3R) affinity, good selectivity and weak human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel affinity with desirable overall physico-chemical and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles. Herein, we describe the design and synthesis of a novel series of H3R antagonists utilizing a scaffold hopping strategy. Further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the series culminated in the identification of ((2S,3'S)-2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (tetrahydro-pyran-4-yl)-amide (4c) and -[4-((2S,3'S)-2-methyl-[1,3']bipyrrolidinyl-1'-yl)-phenyl]-N-(tetrahydro-pyran-4-yl)-acetamide (4d), which exhibited good H3R affinity in vitro, good selectivity, and desirable PK properties. Compounds 4c and 4d were also assessed in cardiac safety experiments. In particular, the effects of the compounds on action potentials recorded from ventricular myocytes isolated from guinea pigs were used to screen compounds that not only displayed a low affinity towards hERG channel, but also had lower interference with other cardiac ion channels. Compound 4c did not alter the major parameters in this model system at ⩽10 μM, and no significant induction of any major haemodynamic effect when intravenously administered at 3mg/kg dose to anaesthetized mongrel dogs. Compound 4c is a new promising lead as orally potent and selective H3R antagonist belonging to a distinct structural class.

  14. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  15. Design of a New Concentration Series for the Orthogonal Sample Design Approach and Estimation of the Number of Reactions in Chemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiajia; Liu, Yuhai; Guo, Ran; Li, Xiaopei; He, Anqi; Gao, Yunlong; Wei, Yongju; Liu, Cuige; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Yizhuang; Noda, Isao; Wu, Jinguang

    2015-11-01

    A new concentration series is proposed for the construction of a two-dimensional (2D) synchronous spectrum for orthogonal sample design analysis to probe intermolecular interaction between solutes dissolved in the same solutions. The obtained 2D synchronous spectrum possesses the following two properties: (1) cross peaks in the 2D synchronous spectra can be used to reflect intermolecular interaction reliably, since interference portions that have nothing to do with intermolecular interaction are completely removed, and (2) the two-dimensional synchronous spectrum produced can effectively avoid accidental collinearity. Hence, the correct number of nonzero eigenvalues can be obtained so that the number of chemical reactions can be estimated. In a real chemical system, noise present in one-dimensional spectra may also produce nonzero eigenvalues. To get the correct number of chemical reactions, we classified nonzero eigenvalues into significant nonzero eigenvalues and insignificant nonzero eigenvalues. Significant nonzero eigenvalues can be identified by inspecting the pattern of the corresponding eigenvector with help of the Durbin-Watson statistic. As a result, the correct number of chemical reactions can be obtained from significant nonzero eigenvalues. This approach provides a solid basis to obtain insight into subtle spectral variations caused by intermolecular interaction.

  16. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  17. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  18. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  19. Planning and Designing Academic Library Learning Spaces: Expert Perspectives of Architects, Librarians, and Library Consultants. Project Information Literacy Research Report. The Practitioner Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies approaches, challenges, and best practices related to planning and designing today's academic library learning spaces. As part of the Project Information Literacy (PIL) Practitioner Series, qualitative data is presented from 49 interviews conducted with a sample of academic librarians, architects, and library consultants.…

  20. Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings. Buildings and Infrastructure Protection Series. FEMA-428/BIPS-07/January 2012. Edition 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipley, Michael; Lyon, Wesley; Smilowitz, Robert; Williams, Pax; Arnold, Christopher; Blewett, William; Hazen, Lee; Krimgold, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This publication, part of the new Building and Infrastructure Protection Series (BIPS) published by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Infrastructure Protection and Disaster Management Division (IDD), serves to advance high performance and integrated design for buildings and infrastructure. This…

  1. 77 FR 64023 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A318, A319, A320, and A321 Series Airplanes; Design Roll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... design features include electronic flight controls that affect maneuvering. The applicable airworthiness... novel or unusual design feature: Electronic flight controls that affect maneuvering. The current design...; Design Roll Maneuver Conditions AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final...

  2. Changing use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in Thika Hospital, Kenya: a quality improvement intervention with an interrupted time series design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Aiken

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In low-income countries, Surgical Site Infection (SSI is a common form of hospital-acquired infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is an effective method of preventing these infections, if given immediately before the start of surgery. Although several studies in Africa have compared pre-operative versus post-operative prophylaxis, there are no studies describing the implementation of policies to improve prescribing of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in African hospitals. METHODS: We conducted SSI surveillance at a typical Government hospital in Kenya over a 16 month period between August 2010 and December 2011, using standard definitions of SSI and the extent of contamination of surgical wounds. As an intervention, we developed a hospital policy that advised pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis and discouraged extended post-operative antibiotics use. We measured process, outcome and balancing effects of this intervention in using an interrupted time series design. RESULTS: From a starting point of near-exclusive post-operative antibiotic use, after policy introduction in February 2011 there was rapid adoption of the use of pre-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (60% of operations at 1 week; 98% at 6 weeks and a substantial decrease in the use of post-operative antibiotics (40% of operations at 1 week; 10% at 6 weeks in Clean and Clean-Contaminated surgery. There was no immediate step-change in risk of SSI, but overall, there appeared to be a moderate reduction in the risk of superficial SSI across all levels of wound contamination. There were marked reductions in the costs associated with antibiotic use, the number of intravenous injections performed and nursing time spent administering these. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a locally developed policy regarding surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is an achievable quality improvement target for hospitals in low-income countries, and can lead to substantial benefits for individual patients and

  3. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shoulder Replacement Options Shoulder replacement surgery is highly technical. It should be performed by a surgical team ... area and will meet a doctor from the anesthesia department. You, your anesthesiologist, and your surgeon will ...

  4. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  5. Evolution of the Instructional Design in a Series of Online Workshops | L’évolution d’un design pédagogique dans le développement d’ateliers en ligne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Patry

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This case recounts the story of the design and production of a series of online workshops for French-speaking healthcare professionals in Canada. The project spans a couple of years and, despite encountering some challenges, succeeds in large part because of its strong foundation: the instructional design. This case study features an instructional designer from a central Canadian university and three SMEs. The main design issues highlighted are the target population’s limited availability for continuing education, the SME’s lack of knowledge of the instructional design process, the magnitude of this project with its national scope but limited time frame and human resources, as well as personnel changes among the SMEs and the instructional design team. This case outlines how the project team deals with these challenges to produce a series of online workshops that provide high quality training in French to healthcare professionals across Canada.

  6. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos was designed to help you learn more about Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). You will learn how the diagnosis of ...

  7. Effect of Structural Design on MLCC Equivalent Series Inductance%MLCC的结构设计对电容器等效串联电感的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安可荣; 黄旭业; 祝忠勇

    2012-01-01

    通过分析MLCC内部结构和MLCC等效电路,结合实际制作出不同结构设计的MLCC,并对不同结构产品的等效串联电感(ESL)进行对比,获得了MLCC降低等效串联电感的最佳结构设计方案。%Make different kind structural design of MLCC by analyzing internal structure and equivalent circuit of MLCC and combining practice, Compare the equivalent series inductance (ESL) for different kind structural design of MLCC, find out the best structural design to decrease the MLCC equivalent series inductance (ESL).

  8. The Development of Mini Portable Digester Designs for Domestic and Restaurant Solid Waste Processing to be Clean Biogas as Energy's Alternative to Replace LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Janari dan, D.; Setiawan, N.

    2016-02-01

    Biofuel is developed as an alternative source of second generation energy that could be attained from organic waste. This research is purposed to create applicative and cheap Portable digester unit for society. The design concepts’ screening that was made under considerations of the experts is finally resumed. Design 1 with final weight score of 1, design 2 with final weight score of -1, design 3 with final weight score of 2, design 4 with final weight score 3, design 5 with final weight score of -1, design 6 with final weight score of 0. Accepted designs for further concept assessment are design 1, 2 and 6. The result of concept assessment applies weighting for the scoring. Design 1 resulting 2.67, design 2 results 2.15 while design 3 results 2.52. Design 1 is concluded as the design with biggest result, which is 2.67. Its specification is explained as follows: tank capacity of 60 liters, manual rotating crank pivot, tank's material is plastic with symbol 1, material of axle swivel arm is grey cast iron, 2 mm rotary blades with hole. The experiment 1 contained 23.78% methane and 13.65 carbon dioxide that resulted from content test.

  9. Design on CAN Network Project for Pure Electric Bus with Power Battery Replacement%换电式纯电动客车CAN网络方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房永强

    2015-01-01

    结合某款换电式纯电动客车的研发与应用,介绍一种换电式纯电动客车三级CAN网络架构,以及合理的纯电动系统CAN总线管理方案。%Taking the R&D and application of a pure electric bus with the power battery replacement as an example, the author introduces a three-level CAN network architecture and appropriate management project of the control system based on the CAN bus of the pure electric system.

  10. 锅壳燃气锅炉系列化中的匹配设计%Matching design of shell gas boiler series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铁君; 孙连启; 张文胜

    2014-01-01

    随着我国能源政策的调整,天然气燃料越来越多地被锅炉所应用,国内燃气锅炉市场巨大。本文以 WNS 系列燃气锅炉为基础,分析了在锅壳燃气锅炉系列化设计中的几个关键要素的设计匹配原则并给出一些改进措施。%with China’s energy policy adjustment,natural gas is more and more used in the domestic market of boiler,gas boiler huge.This paper is based on the WNS series gas boiler,analyses the matching principle and gives some measures to improve the design of several key elements in the shell gas boiler series design.

  11. Digitally Designed Surgical Guides for Placing Implants in the Nasal Floor of Dentate Patients : A Series of Three Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, W. Joerd; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Gerrits, Peter O.; Noorda, Willem D.; Vissink, Arjan; Visser, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Insight into the bone volume and position of natural teeth is essential when placing implants to retain nasal prostheses. This paper describes a series of three cases in which a new method was applied for implant placement in the nasal floor of dentate patients using digital planning techni

  12. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  13. Multi-load Optimal Design of Burner-inner-liner Under Performance Index Constraint by Second-Order Polynomial Taylor Series Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Gaoqiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using maximum expansion pressure of n-decane, the aeroengine burner-inner-liner combustion pressure load is computed. Aerodynamic loads are obtained from internal gas pressure load and gas momentum. Multi-load second-order Taylor series equations are established using multi-variant polynomials and their sensitivities. Optimal designs are carried out using various performance index constraints. When 0.25 to 0.8 rectifications of different design variants are implemented, they converge under 5×10‒4 d-norm difference ratio.

  14. Inclusion of mobile telephone numbers into an ongoing population health survey in New South Wales, Australia, using an overlapping dual-frame design: impact on the time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margo L; Ferguson, Raymond A; Steel, David G

    2014-08-12

    Since 1997, the NSW Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) had selected the sample using random digit dialing of landline telephone numbers. When the survey began coverage of the population by landline phone frames was high (96%). As landline coverage in Australia has declined and continues to do so, in 2012, a sample of mobile telephone numbers was added to the survey using an overlapping dual-frame design. Details of the methodology are published elsewhere. This paper discusses the impacts of the sampling frame change on the time series, and provides possible approaches to handling these impacts. Prevalence estimates were calculated for type of phone-use, and a range of health indicators. Prevalence ratios (PR) for each of the health indicators were also calculated using Poisson regression analysis with robust variance estimation by type of phone-use. Health estimates for 2012 were compared to 2011. The full time series was examined for selected health indicators. It was estimated from the 2012 NSWPHS that 20.0% of the NSW population were mobile-only phone users. Looking at the full time series for overweight or obese and current smoking if the NSWPHS had continued to be undertaken only using a landline frame, overweight or obese would have been shown to continue to increase and current smoking would have been shown to continue to decrease. However, with the introduction of the overlapping dual-frame design in 2012, overweight or obese increased until 2011 and then decreased in 2012, and current smoking decreased until 2011, and then increased in 2012. Our examination of these time series showed that the changes were a consequence of the sampling frame change and were not real changes. Both the backcasting method and the minimal coverage method could adequately adjust for the design change and allow for the continuation of the time series. The inclusion of the mobile telephone numbers, through an overlapping dual-frame design, did impact on the time series for some of

  15. Effects of long-term testosterone replacement therapy, with a temporary intermission, on glycemic control of nine hypogonadal men with type 1 diabetes mellitus - a series of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Farid; Yassin, Aksam; Almehmadi, Yousef; Doros, Gheorghe; Gooren, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is often associated with obesity and subnormal serum testosterone (T) levels. Until 5 years ago there was no indication that men with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) had subnormal serum T. But recent studies indicate that about 10% of men with T1DM suffer from hypogonadism, as a rule aged men and men with obesity. While hypogonadal men with T2DM benefit from normalization of their serum T, this has not been investigated in men with T1DM. Nine men with T1DM, erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism (total testosterone ≤ 12 nmol/L) received testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). In seven men TRT was intermitted: one man with prostate malignancy and six men because of problems of reimbursement. Incidentally, this provided an opportunity to monitor the effects of withdrawal and of the reinstatement of TRT. In all men, glycemic control (serum glucose and HbA1c), weight, waist circumference, lipid profiles and erectile function improved upon TRT. The seven men whose TRT was intermitted showed a deterioration which improved again upon reinstatement of TRT. The data suggest that aging and obese men with T1DM might have subnormal T levels and that their glycemic control, lipid profiles and erectile function might benefit from TRT.

  16. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  17. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific and Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, G. (Murali); Sikka, Vinod K.

    2006-06-30

    The goal of this project was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and the upper use temperature by 86 to 140 degrees fahrenheit (30 to 60 degrees celsius). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 35 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of approximately $230 million/year. The higher-strength H-Series cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat treating industry, including radiant burner tubes. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc., with research participation by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies.

  18. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific and Design Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, G. (Murali); Sikka, Vinod K.

    2006-06-30

    The goal of this project was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and the upper use temperature by 86 to 140 degrees fahrenheit (30 to 60 degrees celsius). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 35 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of approximately $230 million/year. The higher-strength H-Series cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat treating industry, including radiant burner tubes. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc., with research participation by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies.

  19. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  20. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  1. Rational design of 5-phenyl-3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid ethyl esters as growth inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. a potent and selective series for further drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Pieroni, Marco; Wan, Baojie; Wang, Yuehong; Franzblau, Scott G; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2010-01-28

    New antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs are urgently needed to shorten the 6-12 month treatment regimen and especially to battle drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains. In this study, we have continued our efforts to develop isoxazole-based anti-TB compounds by applying rational drug design approach. The biological activity and the structure-activity relationships (SAR) for a designed series of 5-phenyl-3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid ethyl ester derived anti-TB compounds were investigated. Several compounds were found to exhibit nanomolar activity against the replicating bacteria (R-TB) and low micromolar activity against the nonreplicating bacteria (NRP-TB). The series showed excellent selectivity toward Mtb, and in general, no cytotoxicity was observed in Vero cells (IC(50) > 128 muM). Notably, selected compounds also retained their activity against isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RMP), and streptomycin (SM) resistant Mtb strains. Hence, benzyloxy, benzylamino, and phenoxy derivatives of 5-phenyl-3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid ethyl esters represent a highly potent, selective, and versatile series of anti-TB compounds and as such present attractive lead compounds for further TB drug development.

  2. Decentralization for High-Quality Education: Elements and Issues of Design. RTI Research Report Series. Occasional Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, F. Henry, III; Crouch, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The impact of education decentralization on high-quality education has been mixed at best. This can be attributed to a variety of factors including decentralization itself, ineffectual implementation, political-economic friction, and poor design. This paper focuses largely on the issue of design, contending that if governments or donors aim to…

  3. Design and clinical evaluation of a high-capacity digital image archival library and high-speed network for the replacement of cinefilm in the cardiac angiography environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusma, Jack T.; Spero, Laurence A.; Groshong, Bennett R.; Cho, Teddy; Bashore, Thomas M.

    1993-09-01

    An economical and practical digital solution for the replacement of 35 mm cine film as the archive media in the cardiac x-ray imaging environment has remained lacking to date due to the demanding requirements of high capacity, high acquisition rate, high transfer rate, and a need for application in a distributed environment. A clinical digital image library and network based on the D2 digital video format has been installed in the Duke University Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory. The system architecture includes a central image library with digital video recorders and robotic tape retrieval, three acquisition stations, and remote review stations connected via a serial image network. The library has a capacity for over 20,000 Gigabytes of uncompressed image data, equivalent to records for approximately 20,000 patients. Image acquisition in the clinical laboratories is via a real-time digital interface between the digital angiography system and a local digital recorder. Images are transferred to the library over the serial network at a rate of 14.3 Mbytes/sec and permanently stored for later review. The image library and network are currently undergoing a clinical comparison with cine film for visual and quantitative assessment of coronary artery disease. At the conclusion of the evaluation, the configuration will be expanded to include four additional catheterization laboratories and remote review stations throughout the hospital.

  4. Beyond a curricular design of convenience: replacing the noon conference with an academic half day in three internal medicine residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalden, Maren K; Warm, Eric J; Logio, Lia S

    2013-05-01

    Several residency programs have created an academic half day (AHD) for the delivery of core curriculum, and some program Web sites provide narrative descriptions of individual AHD curricula; nonetheless, little published literature on the AHD format exists. This article details three distinctive internal medicine residency programs (Cambridge Health Alliance, University of Cincinnati, and New York Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical College) whose leaders replaced the traditional noon conference curriculum with an AHD. Although each program's AHD developed independently of the other two, retrospective comparative review reveals instructive similarities and differences that may be useful to other residency directors. In this article, the authors describe the distinct approaches to the AHD at the three institutions through a framework of six core principles: (1) protect time and space to facilitate learning, (2) nurture active learning in residents, (3) choose and sequence curricular content deliberately, (4) develop faculty, (5) encourage resident preparation and accountability for learning, and (6) employ a continuous improvement approach to curriculum development and evaluation. The authors chronicle curricular adaptations at each institution over the first three years of experience. Preliminary outcome data, presented in the article, suggests that the transition from the traditional noon conference to an AHD may increase conference attendance, improve resident and faculty satisfaction with the curriculum, and improve resident performance on the In Training Examination.

  5. Computer-aided identification, design and synthesis of a novel series of compounds with selective antiviral activity against chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Marcella; De Burghgraeve, Tine; Delang, Leen; Massarotti, Alberto; Coluccia, Antonio; Zonta, Nicola; Gatti, Valerio; Colombano, Giampiero; Sorba, Giovanni; Silvestri, Romano; Tron, Gian Cesare; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; Brancale, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Arbovirus that is transmitted to humans primarily by the mosquito species Aedes aegypti. Infection with this pathogen is often associated with fever, rash and arthralgia. Neither a vaccine nor an antiviral drug is available for the prevention or treatment of this disease. Albeit considered a tropical pathogen, adaptation of the virus to the mosquito species Aedes albopictus, which is also very common in temperate zones, has resulted in recent outbreaks in Europe and the US. In the present study, we report on the discovery of a novel series of compounds that inhibit CHIKV replication in the low μM range. In particular, we initially performed a virtual screening simulation of ∼5 million compounds on the CHIKV nsP2, the viral protease, after which we investigated and explored the Structure-Activity Relationships of the hit identified in silico. Overall, a series of 26 compounds, including the original hit, was evaluated in a virus-cell-based CPE reduction assay. The study of such selective inhibitors will contribute to a better understanding of the CHIKV replication cycle and may represents a first step towards the development of a clinical candidate drug for the treatment of this disease.

  6. Designing a Framework to Improve Time Series Data of Construction Projects: Application of a Simulation Model and Singular Spectrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hojjati Tavassoli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During a construction project life cycle, project costs and time estimations contribute greatly to baseline scheduling. Besides, schedule risk analysis and project control are also influenced by the above factors. Although many papers have offered estimation techniques, little attempt has been made to generate project time series data as daily progressive estimations in different project environments that could help researchers in generating general and customized formulae in further studies. This paper, however, is an attempt to introduce a new simulation approach to reflect the data regarding time series progress of the project, considering the specifications and the complexity of the project and the environment where the project is performed. Moreover, this simulator can equip project managers with estimated information, which reassures them of the execution stages of the project although they lack historical data. A case study is presented to show the usefulness of the model and its applicability in practice. In this study, singular spectrum analysis has been employed to analyze the simulated outputs, and the results are separated based on their signal and noise trends. The signal trend is used as a point-of-reference to compare the outputs of a simulation employing S-curve technique results and the formulae corresponding to earned value management, as well as the life of a given project.

  7. JHP系列高压齿轮油泵结构设计%Structure Design for JHP Series High Pressure Gear Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温得英

    2013-01-01

    As a typical hydraulic component,high-pressure gear pump is widely used in construction machinery hydraulic system.High pressure gear pump design work focuses on the structural design.A novel asymmetric structure gear pump-JHP series high pressure gear pump was proposed.The parts of the gear pump were designed.%高压齿轮油泵作为典型的液压动力元件,广泛应用于工程机械液压系统.高压齿轮油泵设计工作的重点是结构设计,提出一种新型非对称结构齿轮泵-JHP系列高压齿轮油泵,对齿轮油泵各部分结构进行了设计.

  8. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels in the tooth pulps are rather large. Drilling down these teeth for crowns may expose the ... porcelain replacement tooth is held in place by metal extensions cemented to the backs of the adjacent ...

  9. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  10. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a ... long. Then your surgeon will: Move your kneecap (patella) out of the way, then cut the ends ...

  11. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  12. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on product platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....

  13. UK annuity rates and pension replacement ratios 1957-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Edmund; Tonks, Ian

    2003-01-01

    This paper constructs a time series of annuity rates in the UK for 1957-2002, and examines the pricing of UK annuities, and the relationship between the accumulation and decumulation phases of a defined contribution pension scheme by focusing on the properties of the pension replacement ratio. Using data on annuity returns and the returns on other financial assets, the paper simulates replacement ratios, to build up a frequency distribution of the pension replacement ratio for a UK individual...

  14. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  15. Rear axle structure design of DD32/120 series%DD32/120系列后桥结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红利; 杨爱民

    2012-01-01

    详细论了DD32/120系列后桥设计方案,对从动齿轮与桥壳间隙及从动齿轮与主减速器壳前轴承座间隙进行了计算。%Detailed discuss the rear axle design scheme of DD32/120 series,make calculation for driven gear and axle housing clearance and driven gear and front-end bearing pedestal of main reducing housing.

  16. Thermometer Design Based on Taylor Series%基于泰勒级数的温度计设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍连利

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, analyze the temperature characteristics of thermistor resistances; secondly, taking the non-balanced bridge circuit which is composed by resistance box measure to design and produce a linear digital thermistor thermometer, finally the experimental analysis shows the rationality of the design.%首先分析了热敏电阻的温度特性,其次利用电阻箱自组成非平衡电桥电路,设计并制作了一种线性化的数字式热敏电阻温度计,最后实验分析表明设计的合理性.

  17. Intensification of the Learning Process: Gross Motor Performance Scale. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The Gross Motor Performance Screening Test was designed to aid the classroom teacher in obtaining specific information about the child's physical abilities. The test includes items which have been found to measure the various factors of physical fitness. It also includes items to measure skills important to the child and adult. Included also are…

  18. Intensification of the Learning Process: Automated Instructional Resources Retrieval System. A Series of Reports Designed for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Public Schools, Doylestown, PA.

    The problem of finding relevant material to answer a classroom need is the focus of this report. The Automated Instructional Resources Retrieval System (AIRR) is designed to assist teachers by storing information in a number of categories, including the following: media type, maturity level, length, producer or publisher, main curriculum area,…

  19. Universal Design for Learning in the Classroom: Practical Applications. What Works for Special-Needs Learners Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tracey E., Ed.; Meyer, Anne, Ed.; Rose, David H., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Clearly written and well organized, this book shows how to apply the principles of universal design for learning (UDL) across all subject areas and grade levels. The editors and contributors describe practical ways to develop classroom goals, assessments, materials, and methods that use UDL to meet the needs of all learners. Specific teaching…

  20. Current concepts in total femoral replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Deepak; Siqueira, Marcelo Bp; Klika, Alison K; Higuera, Carlos A; Barsoum, Wael K; Joyce, Michael J

    2015-12-18

    Total femoral replacement (TFR) is a salvage arthroplasty procedure used as an alternative to lower limb amputation. Since its initial description in the mid-20(th) century, this procedure has been used in a variety of oncologic and non-oncologic indications. The most compelling advantage of TFR is the achievement of immediate fixation which permits early mobilization. It is anticipated that TFR will be increasingly performed as the rate of revision arthroplasty rises worldwide. The existing literature is mainly composed of a rather heterogeneous mix of retrospective case series and a wide assortment of case reports. Numerous TFR prostheses are currently available and the surgeon must understand the unique implications of each implant design. Long-term functional outcomes are dependent on adherence to proper technique and an appropriate physical therapy program for postoperative rehabilitation. Revision TFR is mainly performed for periprosthetic infection and the severe femoral bone loss associated with aseptic revisions. Depending on the likelihood of attaining infection clearance, it may sometimes be advisable to proceed directly to hip disarticulation without attempting salvage of the TFR. Other reported complications of TFR include hip joint instability, limb length discrepancy, device failure, component loosening, patellar maltracking and delayed wound healing. Further research is needed to better characterize the long-term functional outcomes and complications associated with this complex procedure.

  1. Research on Series Products Rapid Design Technology Based on IPD%基于IPD的系列产品快速设计技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗彦; 马士良; 吴淑芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the need of the rapid design for product updates, according to the characteristics of series products development, product design principles under integrated product development (IPD) model was described.By considering the product resource plan, product design process based on IPD was constructed.In order to achieve products rapid development and smart design, parametric design methods based IPD was discussed in detail.Flexible modular structure under the IPD model was analyzed, and knowledge integration architecture based on IPD was established.The effectiveness was verified by a model of gantry crane taken as an example.%为了适应不同需求系列产品的快速更新设计,根据系列产品开发的特点,阐述了1PD(Integrated Product Development)模式下的产品设计原理,在资源规划基础上构建基于IPD的产品设计过程,详细讨论了基于IPD的参数化设计方法,分析了IPD模式下的柔性模块化结构,建立了基于IPD的知识集成体系结构,以实现产品的智能开发和快速设计,最后以门式起重机为例验证了方法的有效性.

  2. Frequency domain analysis and design of nonlinear systems based on Volterra series expansion a parametric characteristic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, Xingjian

    2015-01-01

    This book is a systematic summary of some new advances in the area of nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain, focusing on the application oriented theory and methods based on the GFRF concept, which is mainly done by the author in the past 8 years. The main results are formulated uniformly with a parametric characteristic approach, which provides a convenient and novel insight into nonlinear influence on system output response in terms of characteristic parameters and thus facilitate nonlinear analysis and design in the frequency domain.  The book starts with a brief introduction to the background of nonlinear analysis in the frequency domain, followed by recursive algorithms for computation of GFRFs for different parametric models, and nonlinear output frequency properties. Thereafter the parametric characteristic analysis method is introduced, which leads to the new understanding and formulation of the GFRFs, and nonlinear characteristic output spectrum (nCOS) and the nCOS based analysis a...

  3. Design and development of repetitive capacitor charging power supply based on series-parallel resonant converter topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankur; Nagesh, K V; Kolge, Tanmay; Chakravarthy, D P

    2011-04-01

    LCL resonant converter based repetitive capacitor charging power supply (CCPS) is designed and developed in the division. The LCL converter acts as a constant current source when switching frequency is equal to the resonant frequency. When both resonant inductors' values of LCL converter are same, it results in inherent zero current switching (ZCS) in switches. In this paper, ac analysis with fundamental frequency approximation of LCL resonant tank circuit, frequency dependent of current gain converter followed by design, development, simulation, and practical result is described. Effect of change in switching frequency and resonant frequency and change in resonant inductors ratio on CCPS will be discussed. An efficient CCPS of average output power of 1.2 kJ/s, output voltage 3 kV, and 300 Hz repetition rate is developed in the division. The performance of this CCPS has been evaluated in the laboratory by charging several values of load capacitance at various repetition rates. These results indicate that this design is very feasible for use in capacitor-charging applications. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  4. Clinical trial design principles and endpoint definitions for transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement: part 2: endpoint definitions: A consensus document from the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Généreux, Philippe; Vranckx, Pascal; Mehran, Roxana; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Leon, Martin B; Piazza, Nicolo; Head, Stuart J; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Vahanian, Alec S

    2015-08-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous aetiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodelling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of trans- catheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives.

  5. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  6. Molecular docking based screening of novel designed chalcone series of compounds for their anti-cancer activity targeting EGFR kinase domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chennu Maruthi Malya Prasada; Yejella, Rajendra Prasad; Rehman, Rehman Shaik Abdul; Basha, Syed Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are critical for the growth of many tumors and expressed at high levels in about one third of epithelial cancers. Hence, blockade of the binding sites for EGFR has been hypothesized as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Chalcone derivative compounds have been shown to be highly effective anti-cancer agents, however there are still so many novel derivatives possible, one of which might get us the best targeted EGFR inhibitor. In this effort directed towards the discovery of novel, potent anti-tumor agents for the treatment of cancer, in the present study a library of novel chalcone series of compounds has been designed and evaluated for their anti-cancer activity targeting EGFR kinase domain using various computational approaches. Among the twenty five novel designed chalcone series of compounds, all of them have found to be successfully docking inside the active binding domain of EGFR receptor target with a binding energy in a range of -6.10 to -9.25 Kcal/mol with predicted IC50 value range of 33.50 micor molar to 164.66 nano molar respectively. On the other hand, calculated 2DQSAR molecular descriptor properties of the compounds showed promising ADME parameters and found to be well in compliance with Lipinski׳s rule of five. Among all the twenty five compounds tested, compound 21 ((2E)-3-(anthracen-9-yl)-1-phenylprop-2-2n-1- one) was found to be the best lead like molecule with a binding energy of -9.25 kcal/mol with predicted IC50 value of 164.66 nano molar. Conclusively, novel designed compound 21 of the present study have shown promising anti-cancer potential worth considering for further evaluations. PMID:26339147

  7. Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of irreversible human rhinovirus 3C protease inhibitors. 4. Incorporation of P1 lactam moieties as L-glutamine replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovich, P S; Prins, T J; Zhou, R; Webber, S E; Marakovits, J T; Fuhrman, S A; Patick, A K; Matthews, D A; Lee, C A; Ford, C E; Burke, B J; Rejto, P A; Hendrickson, T F; Tuntland, T; Brown, E L; Meador, J W; Ferre, R A; Harr, J E; Kosa, M B; Worland, S T

    1999-04-08

    The structure-based design, chemical synthesis, and biological evaluation of various human rhinovirus (HRV) 3C protease (3CP) inhibitors which incorporate P1 lactam moieties in lieu of an L-glutamine residue are described. These compounds are comprised of a tripeptidyl or peptidomimetic binding determinant and an ethyl propenoate Michael acceptor moiety which forms an irreversible covalent adduct with the active site cysteine residue of the 3C enzyme. The P1-lactam-containing inhibitors display significantly increased 3CP inhibition activity along with improved antirhinoviral properties relative to corresponding L-glutamine-derived molecules. In addition, several lactam-containing compounds exhibit excellent selectivity for HRV 3CP over several other serine and cysteine proteases and are not appreciably degraded by a variety of biological agents. One of the most potent inhibitors (AG7088, mean antirhinoviral EC90 approximately 0.10 microM, n = 46 serotypes) is shown to warrant additional preclinical development to explore its potential for use as an antirhinoviral agent.

  8. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Apramycin-Paromomycin Analogues. Importance of the Configuration at the 6'-Position and Differences Between the 6'-Amino and Hydroxy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandhapati, Appi Reddy; Yang, Guanyu; Kato, Takayuki; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Hobbie, Sven N; Vasella, Andrea; Böttger, Erik C; Crich, David

    2017-09-11

    The preparation of a series of four analogues of the aminoglycoside antibiotics neomycin and paromomycin is described in which ring I, involved in critical binding interactions with the ribosomal target, is replaced by an apramycin-like dioxabicyclo[4.4.0]octane system. The effect of this modification is to lock the hydroxymethyl side chain of the neomycin or paromomycin ring I, as part of dioxabicyclooctane ring, into either the gauche-gauche or the gauche-trans conformation (respectively axial or equatorial to the bicyclic system). The antiribosomal activity of these compounds is investigated with cell-free translation assays using both bacterial ribosomes and recombinant hybrid ribosomes carrying eukaryotic decoding A site cassettes. Compounds substituted with an equatorial hydroxyl or amino group in the newly formed ring are considerably more active than their axial diastereomers lending strong support to crystallographically-derived models of aminoglycoside-ribosome interactions. One such bicyclic compound carrying an equatorial hydroxyl group has activity equal to that of the parent, yet displays better ribosomal selectivity, predictive of an enhanced therapeutic index. A paromomycin analog lacking the hydroxymethyl ring I side chain is considerably less active than the parent. Antibacterial activity against model Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria is reported, for selected compounds, as is activity against ESKAPE pathogens and recombinant bacteria carrying specific resistance determinants. Analogues with a bicyclic ring I carrying equatorial amino or hydroxyl groups mimicking the bound side chains of neomycin and paromomcyin, respectively, show excellent activity and by virtue of their novel structure retain this activity in strains that are insensitive to the parent compounds.

  9. Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Alana, L.A.; Moreno, A; Pérez-de-Gracia, F. (Fernando)

    2011-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed a considerable increase in the use of time series techniques in econometrics. The articles in this important set have been chosen to illustrate the main themes in time series work as it relates to econometrics. The editor has written a new concise introduction to accompany the articles. Sections covered include: Ad Hoc Forecasting Procedures, ARIMA Modelling, Structural Time Series Models, Unit Roots, Detrending and Non-stationarity, Seasonality, Seasonal Adju...

  10. Robotic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Sahin; Gullu, Ahmet Umit; Kocyigit, Muharrem; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karabulut, Hasan; Alhan, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgical techniques allow surgeons to perform mitral valve surgery. This procedure has gained acceptance, particularly for mitral valve repair in degenerative mitral disease. However, mitral repair may not always be possible, especially in severely calcified mitral valve of rheumatic origin. This study demonstrates the basic concepts and technique of robotic mitral valve replacement for valve pathologies that are not suitable for repair.

  11. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  12. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  13. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  14. Molecular Design and Property Prediction for a Series of Novel Dicyclic Cyclotrimethylene Trinitramines (RDX) Derivatized as High Energy Density Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng; Wang, Pengcheng; Lu, Ming

    2015-07-23

    Quantum chemistry calculations and thermodynamics methods were carried out to screen out novel high energy density materials (HEDMs) from several new derivatives with dicyclic structures of Cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX). Their volumes, densities, heats of formation, detonation properties and impact sensitivities have been calculated with thermodynamics methods under DFT B3LYP 6-31++g (d, p) level and all of these compounds exhibit good performance as HEDMs. Especially, R4 has given outstanding values as a potential HEDM. Its crystal density (2.07 g/cm(3)), heat of detonation (1.67 kJ/g), detonation velocity (10051m/s), and detonation pressure (48.5 GPa) are even higher than those of CL-20 while its impact sensitivity (h50, 16 cm) remains a relative safety value. The results indicate that the derivative work in common explosives is a good strategy which can design novel HEDMs with high energetic properties and low sensitivity. And furthermore, some mature processes can be used to synthesize them.

  15. Non-random temporary emigration and the robust design: Conditions for bias at the end of a time series: Section VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2008-01-01

    Deviations from model assumptions in the application of capture–recapture models to real life situations can introduce unknown bias. Understanding the type and magnitude of bias under these conditions is important to interpreting model results. In a robust design analysis of long-term photo-documented sighting histories of the endangered Florida manatee, I found high survival rates, high rates of non-random temporary emigration, significant time-dependence, and a diversity of factors affecting temporary emigration that made it difficult to model emigration in any meaningful fashion. Examination of the time-dependent survival estimates indicated a suspicious drop in survival rates near the end of the time series that persisted when the original capture histories were truncated and reanalyzed under a shorter time frame. Given the wide swings in manatee emigration estimates from year to year, a likely source of bias in survival was the convention to resolve confounding of the last survival probability in a time-dependent model with the last emigration probabilities by setting the last unmeasurable emigration probability equal to the previous year’s probability when the equality was actually false. Results of a series of simulations demonstrated that if the unmeasurable temporary emigration probabilities in the last time period were not accurately modeled, an estimation model with significant annual variation in survival probabilities and emigration probabilities produced bias in survival estimates at the end of the study or time series being explored. Furthermore, the bias propagated back in time beyond the last two time periods and the number of years affected varied positively with survival and emigration probabilities. Truncating the data to a shorter time frame and reanalyzing demonstrated that with additional years of data surviving temporary emigrants eventually return and are detected, thus in subsequent analysis unbiased estimates are eventually realized.

  16. Effect of trial-to-trial variability on optimal event-related fMRI design: Implications for Beta-series correlation and multi-voxel pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Hunar; Henson, Richard N

    2016-01-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies typically employ rapid, event-related designs for behavioral reasons and for reasons associated with statistical efficiency. Efficiency is calculated from the precision of the parameters (Betas) estimated from a General Linear Model (GLM) in which trial onsets are convolved with a Hemodynamic Response Function (HRF). However, previous calculations of efficiency have ignored likely variability in the neural response from trial to trial, for example due to attentional fluctuations, or different stimuli across trials. Here we compare three GLMs in their efficiency for estimating average and individual Betas across trials as a function of trial variability, scan noise and Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA): "Least Squares All" (LSA), "Least Squares Separate" (LSS) and "Least Squares Unitary" (LSU). Estimation of responses to individual trials in particular is important for both functional connectivity using "Beta-series correlation" and "multi-voxel pattern analysis" (MVPA). Our simulations show that the ratio of trial-to-trial variability to scan noise impacts both the optimal SOA and optimal GLM, especially for short SOAsdesign of experiments using Beta-series regression and MVPA, but also statistical parametric mapping studies that seek only efficient estimation of the mean response across trials.

  17. 电炉变压器级差保护器的设计%DESIGNING OF SERIES DIFFRENCE PROTECTOR FOR EAF TRANSFORMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈民强

    2001-01-01

    电炉变压器在冶炼过程中调压范围大,分接开关动作频繁,容易出现电压级差故障,损坏变压器。本文介绍了其控制电路中增设的级差保护器的设计原理,它能有效地监控变压器的运行,防止变压器的损坏。%A EAF transformer shall be broken easy by a breakdowns of the voltage series difference while its air switchs is operated frequently as a result of the voltage of EAF transformer is abjeused largely in a melting process.A design about the series difference protector for its contral lines of the EAF transformer was introduced in this paper.The protector can control the operations effectively and avoid breaking of the EAF transformer.

  18. Structure-activity relationship of novel series of 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles as cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors: Design, synthesis, bioassay screening and molecular docking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawabrah Al-Hourani, Baker; Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Matalka, Khalid Z; El-Barghouthi, Musa I; Alsoubani, Fatima; Wuest, Frank

    2016-10-01

    A novel class of modified 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles was designed and synthesized, their biological activity as cyclooxygenases inhibitors was screened, and their molecular docking studies were performed. The structural modifications of the first category included the 4-methylsulfonyl phenyl at C-1 of the central moiety and the linkers (-OH, -CH2OH, -CH2CH2OH) with different lengths at the para position of the N-1 phenyl group. For the second category, the 4-methylsulfonyl phenyl group at C-1 was replaced with 4-aminosulfonyl phenyl. While for the third category, a methylene unit was inserted between the C-1 of the tetrazole central ring and the 4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl group, keeping the same linkers of various extensions at the para position of the N-1 phenyl group. Among the screened compounds, tetrazole 4i showed the best inhibition potency and selectivity values for both COX-2 enzyme (IC50=3μM, SI>67) and COX-1 isoenzyme (IC50>200μM). Compounds 4e, 4h, and 4i, which have the highest inhibition potency toward COX-2 were selected for the molecular docking studies to verify their inhibition and selectivity for COX-2 over COX-1 with their modified structure. The obtained theoretical studies are in agreement with the in vitro bioassay screening results, which supports the importance of the structural modifications for our studied compounds.

  19. Revision of the aseptic and septic total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Norman; Wirth, Stephan Hermann

    2013-04-01

    Total ankle replacement has become a popular treatment of symptomatic end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. Contemporary total ankle replacement systems provide more anatomic and biomechanically sound function. However, longevity is still limited and long-term results of modern total ankle replacement designs are not available. In the case of failure, conversion into arthrodesis has remained the treatment of choice but at the cost of hindfoot function and potential degeneration of the adjacent joints. Thus, revision total ankle replacement by exchange of the prosthetic components represents an attractive solution. This article focuses on revision total ankle replacement and conversion to ankle arthrodesis.

  20. Design of series corrector based on the third-order best design%基于三阶最佳设计法的串联校正器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻俊

    2013-01-01

    目前在工程实践中,对线性定常控制系统常用的3种校正方法有串联校正、反馈校正和复合校正,而三阶最佳设计法是在串联综合校正法的基础上,按照最佳性能的要求来设定相应的PID控制器,使得期望特性能进一步的规范化和简单化,最终能够实现一定要求的控制规律。通过仿真结果表明,这种设计方法易于实现,而且大大地改善了系统的控制性能。%There are three correction methods which are the series correction ,feedback correction and composite correction usually used for linear time -invariant control system in the engineering practice currently .The third-order best design is based on the series synthetic correction method ,in accordance with the best performance requirements to set the appropriate PID controller ,making the desired properties more standardized and easier ,and eventually be able to achieve certain requirements of control law .The simulation results show that this design is easy to practice ,but also greatly improve control performance of the system.

  1. Chart Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...

  2. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... Upper cervical spine injuries: a management of a series of 70 cases. El Fatemi ... women, with traffic accidents being the major traumatic cause. .... osteosynthesis is preferred to respect the biomechanics of the cervical spine ...

  3. Research on The Series Resistance in Non-balanced Bridge Thermometer Design%非平衡电桥温度计设计中串联电阻的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫星; 冯中营

    2012-01-01

    本文探讨了串联电阻型非平衡电桥温度设计中串联电阻与桥路电流、桥臂电阻的关系,并说明了串联电阻、桥路电流及桥臂电阻间的相互影响。%This article has discussed that the relation of the series resistance and the bridge connection electric current in the series resistance non-balanced bridge thermometer design,and the relation of the series resistance and the bridge arm resistance.The result has showed the mutual influence of the series resistance and the bridge connection electric current,and the mutual influence of the series resistance and the bridge arm resistance.

  4. Preliminary Experience with a New Total Distal Radioulnar Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Timothy J.; Skeete, Kshamata; Moran, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the intermediate-term results of four patients from a series eight patients who have had an insertion of a new complete distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) prosthesis. A retrospective review was performed for all patients who underwent DRUJ joint replacement with the STABILITY Sigmoid Notch Total DRUJ System between the years of 2003 and 2008. To be included in this report, all patients had to have more than 24 months of follow-up and hand examination by the senior author. From the eight patients with this procedure, four patients met the inclusion criteria. These included one patient with painful posttraumatic arthritis, two patients with failed hemiarthroplasty, and one patient with a failed Sauvé–Kapandji procedure. Mean age at the time of surgery was 42.5 years (range: 35 to 51 years) and mean follow-up was 46 months (range: 36 to 66 months). Preoperative and postoperative assessment included range of motion, grip strength, visual analog pain scale, patient satisfaction, and radiographic evaluation. There was a successful replacement of the DRUJ in all four patients. Final range of motion showed mean pronation of 80 degrees (range: 60 to 90 degrees) and mean supination of 64 degrees (range: 45 to 90 degrees). Final grip strength on the operated extremity was 25.5 kg and averaged 73% of contralateral side. This was an improvement from preoperative grip strength of 14.5 kg visual analog pain scale decreased from 8 to 2.5 following surgery (scale: 1 to 10). Patient satisfaction was 100%. One patient returned to manual labor, one patient returned to office work, and two patients remained off work. Postoperative radiographs depict appropriate alignment of the DRUJ, and there have been no cases of subluxation or dislocation. Implant survival has been 100%. Total DRUJ joint replacement with sigmoid notch resurfacing and distal ulna replacement is an alternative to ulnar head resection in cases of DRUJ arthritis. Total DRUJ arthroplasty with this

  5. Steel designers' manual

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Graham W

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 the then current European national standards for building and construction were replaced by the EN Eurocodes, a set of pan-European model building codes developed by the European Committee for Standardization. The Eurocodes are a series of 10 European Standards (EN 1990 - EN 1999) that provide a common approach for the design of buildings, other civil engineering works and construction products. The design standards embodied in these Eurocodes will be used for all European public works and are set to become the de-facto standard for the private sector in Europe, with probable adoption

  6. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... countries. METHODS: A multi-institutional, non-randomized, retrospective analysis was conducted among 2,932 patients who underwent AVR surgery at seven tertiary cardiac surgery centers throughout Europe. Demographic and perioperative variables including valve size and type, body surface area (BSA) and early...

  7. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  8. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  9. 串联式混合动力拖拉机驱动系设计%Design of drive system for series hybrid electric tractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立友; 刘孟楠; 周志立

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at the drawbacks of traditional tractors, such as complicated transmissions, inefficient transmission systems, heavy fuel consumption rates, and high exhaust gas emissions, the design method of the tractor’s series hybrid electric drive systems was put forward by calculating its plough operation rated traction. A feasible formation was given and included design methods of the electric tractive motor, weight parameters, and prime energy systems, which consist of a diesel engine and a generator of the powerful tractor’s hybrid electric drive systems. Transmission ratios of the series hybrid electric tractor drive systems were designed to follow with differences of working load rates under commonly used working conditions, while making sure of the efficiency and capacity of transmission systems. Its storage battery parameters were designed to fill the traction power requirement, which is from the changing load situation when the tractor worked under a light gear. The YTO-1804 wheeled tractor has been taken as the investigative object, its series hybrid electric drive systems have been designed by using the aforementioned method. Upon analysis of its tractive characteristics, the results conveyed that the installed tractor’s working adaptability and tractive characteristics are better when it compared with the original tractor. Output of the electric motor is suitable with the requirements of a heavy load working circumstance. The curve portrayed that the relation between the traction force and the traction power of the installed tractor could cover the original tractor’s working area. The installed tractor’s transmission is more efficient and its structure is simpler. Combined with the relevant slippage test results to analyze the installed tractor’s slippage situation, changes in slippage rate followed with changes in driving force are acceptable. Based on the analysis of the difference of equivalent fuel consumption rates between the two types of

  10. Série histórica de custos com terapia de substituição renal no município do Rio de Janeiro (1995-2009 Serie histórica de costes con terapia de reemplazo renal en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro (1995-2009 Time series of costs of renal replacement therapy in Rio de Janeiro city (1995-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis de Souza Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a tendência temporal do custo total de terapia de substituição renal e a proporção entre custo e solicitações de Autorizações de Procedimentos Ambulatoriais de Alta Complexidade/Custo no município do Rio de Janeiro, entre 1995 e 2009, em totais e segundo prestador. Estudo quantitativo, descritivo, tipo série temporal. Utilizaram-se informações referentes aos valores e quantidades de autorizações de procedimentos de alta complexidade para terapia de substituição renal por ano, disponíveis no DATASUS, coletadas entre fevereiro e março de 2011. Observou-se tendência crescente para o custo total e o total de autorizações destes procedimentos (y=3,8414x + 16,904, R²=0,9665 e y=14519x + 299719, R²=0,8835, respectivamente. Há uma diferença estatisticamente significativa (pEl objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la tendencia temporal del coste total de terapia de reemplazo renal y la proporción entre coste y solicitaciones de Autorizaciones de Procedimientos en Ambulatorio de Alta Complejidad/Coste en la cuidad de Rio de Janeiro, entre 1995 y 2009, en total y segundo proveedor. Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, de serie temporal. Se utilizó la información relativa a los valores y las cantidades de los procedimientos de permisos de alta complejidad para la terapia de reemplazo renal por año, disponible en DATASUS, recolectadas desde febrero y marzo de 2011. Se observó una tendencia creciente para el coste total y el total de permisos de estos procedimientos (y = 3,8414x + 16,904, R² = 0,9665 e y = 14519x + 299719, R² = 0,8835, respectivamente. Hay una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pThe study objective was to evaluate the temporal tendency of the final cost of renal replacement therapy and also to evaluate the ratio between a procedure cost and its requests on the High Complexity Outpatient Procedures Authorization/Cost in the city of Rio de Janeiro, between 1995 and 2009 in totals and as

  11. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  13. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  14. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  15. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  16. Faster Replacement Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Virginia Vassilevska

    2010-01-01

    The replacement paths problem for directed graphs is to find for given nodes s and t and every edge e on the shortest path between them, the shortest path between s and t which avoids e. For unweighted directed graphs on n vertices, the best known algorithm runtime was \\tilde{O}(n^{2.5}) by Roditty and Zwick. For graphs with integer weights in {-M,...,M}, Weimann and Yuster recently showed that one can use fast matrix multiplication and solve the problem in O(Mn^{2.584}) time, a runtime which would be O(Mn^{2.33}) if the exponent \\omega of matrix multiplication is 2. We improve both of these algorithms. Our new algorithm also relies on fast matrix multiplication and runs in O(M n^{\\omega} polylog(n)) time if \\omega>2 and O(n^{2+\\eps}) for any \\eps>0 if \\omega=2. Our result shows that, at least for small integer weights, the replacement paths problem in directed graphs may be easier than the related all pairs shortest paths problem in directed graphs, as the current best runtime for the latter is \\Omega(n^{2.5...

  17. Synthesis and antifungal activity of novel indole-replaced streptochlorin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Jia, Chen-Yang; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Mulholland, Nick; Turner, Sarah; Beattie, David; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Yang, Guang-Fu; Clough, John

    2017-01-27

    Based on examples of the successful applications in drug discovery of bioisosterism, a series of streptochlorin analogues in which indole has been replaced by other heterocycles has been designed and synthesized, as a continuation of our studies aimed at the discovery of novel streptochlorin analogues with improved antifungal activity. Biological testing showed that most of the indole-replaced streptochlorin analogues were inactive, though compound 6f had a broad spectrum of antifungal activity with significant activity against Alternaria solani. The SAR study demonstrated that indole ring is an essential moiety for the antifungal activity of streptochlorin analogues, promoting the idea of indole ring as a framework that might be exploited in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. RLC 串联电路暂态过程综合实验设计%Comprehensive Experiment Design of RLC Series Circuit Transient State Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝小江

    2016-01-01

    开设 RLC 串联电路综合实验,理论分析了二阶电路全响应电容两端电压的四种情况:欠阻尼、临界阻尼、过阻尼和最佳阻尼。对四种情况分别都进行了软件仿真实验和传统硬件实验,实验结果一致。“软硬结合”实验方法激发了学生的学习兴趣,提高了学生的综合能力。%Through comprehensive experiment design of circuit principle,the paper applies software simulation experiment and traditional hardware experiment to design experiment of full response of the RLC series circuit under four kinds of situations:under damping、critical damping、over damping and optimal damping.The voltage changes of the capacitor in four situations are shown.The experiment results are agree with each other.The practice experience of circuit principle experiment can arouse student’s interest of study and enhance the student’s ability of operation and cause experiment content to be more direct -viewing,vivid and easy to be grasped.It plays a good role in deeping the reform of circuit principle experiment,a promotion of the research,reform of experiment teaching contents,experimental teaching mode,experiment teaching method,the interest of studying,the improvement of college students’comprehensive ability and practice ability.

  19. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    to have considerable problems keeping a clear focus on the key question: What are the implications of this empirical turn in terms of philosophy of legal science, of the social understanding of IL, and, not least, of the place of doctrinal scholarship after the alleged Wende? What is needed, we argue......, in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  20. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational Curricula. Auto Body Repair. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Larry; Shin, Masako

    This document, one of eight in a multi-cultural competency-based vocational/technical curricula series, is on auto body repair. This program is designed to run 40 weeks and cover 7 instructional areas: use of basic repair tools; metal bumping (theory and practice); metal refinishing (theory and practice); panel replacement; glass work; spot…

  1. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  2. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  3. Series elastic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Matthew M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents the design, construction, control and evaluation of a novel for controlled actuator. Traditional force controlled actuators are designed from the premise that 'Stiffer is better'. This approach gives a high bandwidth system, prone to problems of contact instability, noise, and low power density. The actuator presented in this thesis is designed from the premise that 'Stiffness isn't everything'. The actuator, which incorporates a series elastic element, trades off achievable bandwidth for gains in stable, low noise force control, and protection against shock loads. This thesis reviews related work in robot force control, presents theoretical descriptions of the control and expected performance from a series elastic actuator, and describes the design of a test actuator constructed to gather performance data. Finally the performance of the system is evaluated by comparing the performance data to theoretical predictions.

  4. Clinical trial design principles and endpoint definitions for transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement: part 1: clinical trial design principles: A consensus document from the mitral valve academic research consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Vahanian, Alec S; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Borer, Jeffrey S; Bax, Jeroen J; Schofer, Joachim; Cutlip, Donald E; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Généreux, Philippe; Mack, Michael J; Siegel, Robert J; Grayburn, Paul A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kappetein, Arie Pieter

    2015-08-01

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous aetiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodelling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives.

  5. Clinical Trial Design Principles and Endpoint Definitions for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement: Part 1: Clinical Trial Design Principles: A Consensus Document From the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Vahanian, Alec S; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Borer, Jeffrey S; Bax, Jeroen J; Schofer, Joachim; Cutlip, Donald E; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Généreux, Philippe; Mack, Michael J; Siegel, Robert J; Grayburn, Paul A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kappetein, Arie Pieter

    2015-07-21

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous etiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodeling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  7. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should be admini...... treatment, when to follow-up for relapse, which dosage and type of therapy should be recommended or not recommended, and if some patients should not be treated....... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  8. 5自由度串并联机器人控制系统设计%Design on the control system of 5 DOF series-parallel robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建国; 何茂艳; 孙学城; 黄真

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the already constructed 5 DOF series-parallel robot a design from two aspects of hardware and software on its motion control system has been carried out. The functions of pro-traction of its spatial complicated figures and the calligraphy of Clu-nese characters were realized. By means of various motion interpola-tion methods the prearranged track of the outpntfing terminal end was realized. Through analysis of the relation between class objects the hierarchy of motion control system software based on PC was ob-tained. Utilizing the VB language the man-computer interaction inter-face and program of the robotic demonstration system were developed and the functions of handwriting linkage input and memory reappear-ante were achieved. It has been proved by practice that the designed hardware control system and the software control system had favoura-hie performances and provided the expandable functions.%在已构建5自由度串并联机器人的基础上,从硬件和软件两方面.对其运动控制系统进行设计,实现其空间复杂图形的绘制和汉字的书写功能.通过多种运动插补方法实现输出末端的预定轨迹,通过类对象间关系分析得到基于PC的运动控制体系软件层次结构.利用VB语言开发出机器人示教系统的人机交互界面和程序,实现手写联动输入和记忆重现功能.实践证明所设计的硬件控制系统和软件控制系统表现良好.且具备可扩充功能.

  9. `Indoor` series vending machines; `Indoor` series jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensui, T.; Kida, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, H. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper introduces three series of vending machines that were designed to match the interior of an office building. The three series are vending machines for cups, paper packs, cans, and tobacco. Among the three series, `Interior` series has a symmetric design that was coated in a grain pattern. The inside of the `Interior` series is coated by laser satin to ensure a sense of superior quality and a refined style. The push-button used for product selection is hot-stamped on the plastic surface to ensure the hair-line luster. `Interior Phase II` series has a bay window design with a sense of superior quality and lightness. The inside of the `Interior Phase II` series is coated by laser satin. `Interior 21` series is integrated with the wall except the sales operation panel. The upper and lower dress panels can be detached and attached. The door lock is a wire-type structure with high operativity. The operation block is coated by titanium color. The dimensions of three series are standardized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint replacement surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder replacement surgery - after ... You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made of metal and a ...

  11. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  12. [Ascending aorta replacement late after aortic valve replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasunari; Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Fujii, Genyo; Hoshino, Satoshi; Tokoro, Masayoshi; Yanagisawa, Junji

    2013-07-01

    Replacement of the asceding aorta is indicated in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement( AVR), if the diameter of the ascending aorta is greater than 5.0 cm. If the diameter of the asceding aorta is from 4.0 to 5.0 cm, it was arguable whether replacement of the ascending aorta should be performed. Nine patients who underwent reoperative ascending aorta replacement after AVR were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation on the asending aorta replacement was performed 11.8±7.2 years (range 1y5m~23y3m) after AVR. Mean patient age was 69.9±6.3 (range 60~81). In 2 cases, reoperations were performed early year after AVR. Although ascending aorta was dilated at the 1st operation, replacement wasn't performed for the age and minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). In 3 cases, reoperations were performed more than 10 years later. On these cases, ascending aorta aneurysm and dissection occurred with no pain and were pointed out by computed tomography(CT) or ultrasonic cardiogram(UCG). We think that patients with dilatation of the ascending aorta should undergo AVR and aorta replacement at the 1st operation regardness of age. It is important that patients who underwent AVR should undergo a regular checkup on the ascending aorta.

  13. Design, synthesis, and anti-inflammatory evaluation of a series of novel amino acid-binding 1,5-diarylpyrazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-hui LI; Lin-lin YIN; Mao-jun CAI; Wei-yu ZHANG; Yue HUANG; Xin WANG; Xing-zu ZHU; Jing-kang SHEN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To design and synthesize a series of novel amino acid-binding 1,5-diarylpyrazole derivatives, which are intended to act as prodrugs with better aqueous solubility than celecoxib, and which will exert potent anti-inflammatory activities after being converted to their parent compounds in vivo.Methods: To introduce an amino acid, celecoxib analogs containing amino or methylamino group were synthesized first through multi-step chemical reactions.All the synthesized compounds were screened in an intact cell-based assay in vitro and in carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema in vivo.Some active compounds were selected for further evaluation in a carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model.The preliminary pharmacokinetics experiments were conducted using high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS).Results: Celecoxib, 6 of the 1,5-diarylpyrazole class of celecoxib analogs, and their amino acid derivatives (hydrochloride salts) were synthesized.In vitro screening, the hydrochloride salts showed decreased inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 compared with their parent compounds, but some exhibited potent anti-inflam-matory activity in vivo.Compound 4a was selected for further evaluation, and its anti-inflammatory effect was equivalent to that of celecoxib after oral administration in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model.At three doses (25 mg/kg,50 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg) the percentage inhibition on edema was 20.7%, 52.6%,and 62.6% (for compound 4a) and 27.8%, 38.4%, and 40.1% (for celecoxib),respectively.Preliminary pharmacokinetic evaluations support the hypothesis that compound 4a was actually converted to its parent compound, compound 4.Conclusion: The compound bound with amino acid acts like prodrug, which can exert anti-inflammatory effect similar to celecoxib after being converted to its parent compound.This finding will be of great benefit in carrying out structural modifications of prodrug-like selective COX-2 inhibitors.

  14. Resorbable screws versus pins for optimal transplant fixation (SPOT in anterior cruciate ligament replacement with autologous hamstring grafts: rationale and design of a randomized, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial [ISRCTN17384369

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rademacher Grit

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL are common injuries to the knee joint. Arthroscopic ACL replacement by autologous tendon grafts has established itself as a standard of care. Data from both experimental and observational studies suggest that surgical reconstruction does not fully restore knee stability. Persisting anterior laxity may lead to recurrent episodes of giving-way and cartilage damage. This might at least in part depend on the method of graft fixation in the bony tunnels. Whereas resorbable screws are easy to handle, pins may better preserve graft tension. The objective of this study is to determine whether pinning of ACL grafts reduces residual anterior laxity six months after surgery as compared to screw fixation. Design/ Methods SPOT is a randomised, controlled, patient and investigator blinded trial conducted at a single academic institution. Eligible patients are scheduled to arthroscopic ACL repair with triple-stranded hamstring grafts, conducted by a single, experienced surgeon. Intraoperatively, subjects willing to engage in this study will be randomised to transplant tethering with either resorbable screws or resorbable pins. No other changes apply to locally established treatment protocols. Patients and clinical investigators will remain blinded to the assigned fixation method until the six-month follow-up examination. The primary outcome is the side-to-side (repaired to healthy knee difference in anterior translation as measured by the KT-1000 arthrometer at a defined load (89 N six months after surgery. A sample size of 54 patients will yield a power of 80% to detect a difference of 1.0 mm ± standard deviation 1.2 mm at a two-sided alpha of 5% with a t-test for independent samples. Secondary outcomes (generic and disease-specific measures of quality of life, magnetic resonance imaging morphology of transplants and devices will be handled in an exploratory fashion. Conclusion SPOT aims at

  15. Agility to INBONE: anterior and posterior approaches to the difficult revision total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, J George; Scott, Ryan T; Berlet, Gregory C; Hyer, Christopher F; Lee, Thomas H; DeOrio, James K

    2013-01-01

    Total ankle replacement is now acknowledged as a viable alternative to ankle arthrodesis for end-stage ankle arthritis. The authors present a series of 14 patients who were converted from the Agility total ankle replacement to an INBONE total ankle replacement. This report is unique in that anterior and posterior approaches are discussed and detailed. Although the authors present successful conversion of the Agility total ankle replacement to an INBONE total ankle replacement, the difficulty of this procedure is demonstrated by the high complication rate and 2 early failures.

  16. Replacement Condition Detection of Railway Point Machines Using an Electric Current Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaewon; Choi, Younchang; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Daihee; Yoon, Sukhan

    2017-01-29

    Detecting replacement conditions of railway point machines is important to simultaneously satisfy the budget-limit and train-safety requirements. In this study, we consider classification of the subtle differences in the aging effect-using electric current shape analysis-for the purpose of replacement condition detection of railway point machines. After analyzing the shapes of after-replacement data and then labeling the shapes of each before-replacement data, we can derive the criteria that can handle the subtle differences between "does-not-need-to-be-replaced" and "needs-to-be-replaced" shapes. On the basis of the experimental results with in-field replacement data, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect the replacement conditions with acceptable accuracy, as well as provide visual interpretability of the criteria used for the time-series classification.

  17. Outcome and risk of revision following shoulder replacement in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe V

    2014-06-01

    This thesis includes four studies focusing on the functional outcome, shoulder-specific quality of life and risk of revision following shoulder replacement in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis without symptomatic rotator cuff pathology. The Danish version of WOOS, translated according to international standardized guidelines, had substantial psychometric properties comparable to the original version. It is recommendable to use WOOS in the evaluation of patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis treated with shoulder replacement. Data from DSR showed that the shoulder specific quality of life following total shoulder arthroplasty was superior to that of hemiarthroplasty (resurfacing hemiarthroplasty and stemmed hemiarthroplasty). The difference between stemmed hemiarthroplasty and resurfacing hemiarthroplasty was small and did not exceed the minimal clinically important difference. The revision rate following resurfacing hemiarthroplasty was surprisingly high compared with previous reports but there were no statistical significant differences in revision rate between arthroplasty designs. The shoulder specific quality of life and revision rate in patients under the age of 55 was worrying. The use of resurfacing hemiarthroplasty has relied on the results from case series only. The efficacy in the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis has been promising but the CMS found in the randomized clinical trial indicate that the functional outcome may be inferior to that of stemmed hemiarthroplasty and less favourable than previously reported. However, the limited number of patients may have influenced the results and a larger definitive RCT is needed.Shoulder replacement is relevant and effective in the treatment of glenohumeral osteoarthritis; however, resurfacing hemiarthroplasty was associated with a poorer outcome and a higher risk of revision than previously assumed especially in patients under the age of 55. Based on data from this thesis, and based on

  18. Design and evaluation of a novel series of 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase inhibitors with low systemic exposure, relationship between pharmacokinetic properties and ocular toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchet, Marie-Hélène; Donche, Frédéric; Martin, Christelle; Bouillot, Anne; Junot, Christophe; Boullay, Anne-Bénédicte; Potvain, Florent; Magny, Sylvie Demaria; Coste, Hervé; Walker, Max; Issandou, Marc; Dodic, Nérina

    2008-06-01

    We describe the discovery of novel potent inhibitors of 2,3-oxidosqualene:lanosterol cyclase inhibitors (OSCi) from a focused pharmacophore-based screen. Optimization of the most tractable hits gave a series of compounds showing inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis at 2mg/kg in the rat with distinct pharmacokinetic profiles. Two compounds were selected for toxicological study in the rat for 21 days in order to test the hypothesis that low systemic exposure could be used as a strategy to avoid the ocular side effects previously described with OSCi. We demonstrate that for this series of inhibitors, a reduction of systemic exposure is not sufficient to circumvent cataract liabilities.

  19. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Papaderakis; Ioanna Mintsouli; Jenia Georgieva; Sotiris Sotiropoulos

    2017-01-01

    Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases) hydrogen evolution too...

  20. DCP Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stearns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photo essay. A collection of Images produced by intentionally corrupting the circuitry of a Kodak DC280 2 MP digitalcamera. By rewiring the electronics of a digital camera, glitched images are produced in a manner that parallels chemically processing unexposed film or photographic paper to produce photographic images without exposure to light. The DCP Series of Digital Images are direct visualizations of data generated by a digital camera as it takes a picture. Electronic processes associated with the normal operations of the camera, which are usually taken for granted, are revealed through an act of intervention. The camera is turned inside­out through complexes of short­circuits, selected by the artist, transforming the camera from a picture taking device to a data capturing device that renders raw data (electronic signals as images. In essence, these images are snap­shots of electronic signals dancing through the camera's circuits, manually rerouted, written directly to the on­board memory device. Rather than seeing images of the world through a lens, we catch a glimpse of what the camera sees when it is forced to peer inside its own mind.

  1. TOWARDS A RATIONAL DESIGN FOR RESOLVING AGENTS .5. SUBSTITUENT EFFECTS IN THE RESOLUTION OF EPHEDRINE USING A SERIES OF CYCLIC PHOSPHORIC-ACIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHAEST, AD; WYNBERG, H; LEUSEN, FJJ; BRUGGINK, A

    1993-01-01

    The effects of various aromatic substituents in both ephedrine and a cyclic phosphoric acid on the quality of resolution via diastereomeric salt formation are investigated. The diastereoselective synthesis of a novel series of chloro-substituted ephedrines is described. These chloroephedrines can be

  2. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy....... The 30-day mortality rate for the 98 patients was zero, although 14 of the 98 mini-sternotomies had to be converted to complete sternotomies intraoperatively due to technical problems. Such conversion doubled the operative time over that of the planned full sternotomies. In the group of patients whose...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  3. Replacements For Ozone-Depleting Foaming Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon B.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorinated ethers used in place of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Replacement necessary because CFC's and HCFC's found to contribute to depletion of ozone from upper atmosphere, and manufacture and use of them by law phased out in near future. Two fluorinated ethers do not have ozone-depletion potential and used in existing foam-producing equipment, designed to handle liquid blowing agents soluble in chemical ingredients that mixed to make foam. Any polyurethane-based foams and several cellular plastics blown with these fluorinated ethers used in processes as diverse as small batch pours, large sprays, or double-band lamination to make insulation for private homes, commercial buildings, shipping containers, and storage tanks. Fluorinated ethers proved useful as replacements for CFC refrigerants and solvents.

  4. 78 FR 67291 - Special Conditions: Bombardier Inc., Models BD-500-1A10 and BD-500-1A11 Series Airplanes; Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... design feature associated with an electronic flight control system that provides roll control of the... design features: The airplanes are equipped with an electronic flight control system that provides... Airplanes; Design Roll Maneuver Condition AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION:...

  5. Design and synthesis of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-1,2-diazepin-7-one derivatives as a new series of Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariento, Sara; Karawajczyk, Anna; Bull, James A; Marchini, Gessica; Bielska, Martyna; Iwanowa, Xenia; Bruno, Olga; Fossa, Paola; Giordanetto, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors have attractive therapeutic potential in respiratory, inflammatory, metabolic and CNS disorders. The present work details the design, chemical exploration and biological profile of a novel PDE4 inhibitor chemotype. A diazepinone ring was identified as an under-represented heterocyclic system fulfilling a set of PDE4 structure-based design hypotheses. Rapid exploration of the structure activity relationships for the series was enabled by robust and scalable two/three-steps parallel chemistry protocols. The resulting compounds demonstrated PDE4 inhibitory activity in cell free and cell-based assays comparable to the Zardaverine control used, suggesting potential avenues for their further development.

  6. The Design of Automatic Filling Device for the Brake Fluid Replacement%基于汽车制动液更换的自动加注装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨省云

    2014-01-01

    It introduces the replacement process and matters for needing attention of motor vehicle brake fluid , presents a structure of the pneumatic brake fluid automatic replacement device structure and working principle , and analyses the device development background and technical innovation .%通过对汽车制动液的更换过程和注意事项进行介绍,论述了一种气动汽车制动液自动更换装置的结构组成及工作原理,同时介绍了该装置的研发背景,分析了其技术创新点。

  7. Imaging in the context of replacement heart valve development: use of the Visible Heart(®) methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Michael G; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    In recent years huge strides have been made in the fields of interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery which now allow physicians and surgeons to repair or replace cardiac valves with greater success in a larger demographic of patients. Pivotal to these advances has been significant improvements in cardiac imaging and improved fundamental understanding of valvular anatomies and morphologies. We describe here a novel series of techniques utilized within the Visible Heart(®) laboratory by engineers, scientists, and/or anatomists to visualize and analyze the form and function of the four cardiac valves and to assess potential repair or replacement therapies. The study of reanimated large mammalian hearts (including human hearts) using various imaging modalities, as well as specially prepared anatomical specimens, has enhanced the design, development, and testing of novel cardiac therapies.

  8. Instability and internet design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Braman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Instability - unpredictable but constant change in one’s environment and the means with which one deals with it - has replaced convergence as the focal problem for telecommunications policy in general and internet policy in particular. Those who designed what we now call the internet during the first decade of the effort (1969-1979, who in essence served simultaneously as its policy-makers, developed techniques for coping with instability of value for network designers today and for those involved with any kind of large-scale sociotechnical infrastructure. Analysis of the technical document series that was medium for and record of that design process reveals coping techniques that began with defining the problem and went on to include conceptual labour, social practices, and technical approaches.

  9. Design and characteristics of series–series and series–parallel topologies fed from constant-voltage fixed-frequency supply

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KUNWAR ADITYA

    2017-02-01

    Characteristics of series–series and series–parallel topologies when fed from a constant-voltage fixed-frequency supply have been studied. Characterization helps understanding the fundamentals of the topologies and helps in selection of particular topology for a particular application. For studying the characteristics a prototype of IPT coils has been developed in the laboratory. Parameters of the coil have been found using finite-element analysis software JMAG. Characteristics have been simulated in MATLAB Simulink andresults obtained have been compared with those obtained from the hardware implementation of the characteristic. It has been shown in this paper that series–series topology has ideal current-source characteristics and series–parallel topology has ideal voltage-source characteristics.

  10. Design and implementation of PV-based three-phase four-wire series hybrid active power filter for power quality improvement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Vijayakumar; S Vijayan

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a Photovoltaic (PV)-based three-phase four-wire Series Hybrid Active Power Filter (SHAPF), it comprises of a Series Active Power Filter (SAPF) and an LC shunt passive filter. The proposed system eliminates both the current and voltage harmonics and compensates reactive power, neutral current and voltage interruption. A SAPF demands a source of energy for compensating the voltage sag/swell. This system found a new topology for SHAPF which utilizes the PV with DC–DC boost converter as a source of DC power for the series active filter. The compensation current reference evaluation is based on the twin formulation of the vectorial theory of electrical power theorem with Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The PV array/battery managed DC–DC boost converter is employed to step up the voltage to meet the DC bus voltage requirement of the three-leg Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). The foremost benefit of the proposed system is that, it will provide uninterrupted compensation for the whole day. This system utilizes the renewable energy; accordingly saves the energy and provides the uninterruptable power supply to critical/sensitive load, through the PV array/battery bank during both day time and night time. An experimental model was established and results were obtained, which indicated the capability of the proposed control scheme.

  11. 49 CFR 551.49 - May a foreign manufacturer replace its agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a foreign manufacturer replace its agent? 551... Foreign Manufacturers and Importers Designation of An Agent for Service of Process § 551.49 May a foreign manufacturer replace its agent? (a) Yes, a foreign manufacturer may replace its agent in the same way...

  12. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison for Series-Parallel and Series-Series Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles – PART 2/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Series-series and series-parallel topologies are the most favored topologies for design of wireless power transfer system for vehicle applications. The series-series topology has the advantage of reflecting only the resistive part on the primary side. On the other hand, the current source output ...

  13. Replacement corn for jackfruit silage in diets for feedlot lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effects of replacement corn by jackfruit silage on intake, coefficient of apparent digestibility and performance in diets for feedlot confined lambs. Santa Inês crossbred castrated male lambs were used, in the completely randomized design. The replacement levels were 0. 333. 666. 1000 g kg-1 in dry matter (DM of corn as the concentrate component. The intake DM, crude protein (CP (g day-1, neutral detergent fiber (NDF in g kg-1 and g kg-1 body weight (BW increased linearly with replacement. The intake of organic matter (OM, ethereal extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC decreased linearly, while for total digestible nutrients (TDN quadratic behavior with replacement. The coefficients of apparent digestibility of OM, TC and NFC decreased linearly with replacement, while the coefficient of digestibility of CP and TDN showed quadratic behavior with replacement. The BW and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement of corn for jackfruit silage. The jackfruit silage can be used to replace corn in diets of lambs and their use is dependent on economic factors, the availability of fruit and purpose of animal productivity to be reached

  14. Study of Voltage-sharing Circuit for Thyristor Series and Its Design%晶闸管串联均压电路设计与仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏; 王宏华; 冯进通; 尹祥顺; 李军民

    2015-01-01

    晶闸管串联式高压异步电动机软启动器应用前景广阔,晶闸管串联均压是其关键技术之一。对晶闸管串联均压电路进行了研究与设计,仿真分析了均压电路参数选取对均压效果的影响。仿真表明:采用动、静态均压电路可有效抑制开通和关断过程中晶闸管串联分压不均,对均压电路参数优化设计具有重要作用。%The high-voltage asynchronous motor soft starter is widely used in thyristor series. One of its key techniques is the volt-age-sharing of thyristor series. This paper researches on and designs the voltage-sharing circuit for thyristor series, and analyzes and simulates the relationship between voltage-sharing circuit parameters and voltage-sharing effect. The simulation results show that thyristor series voltage-sharing inequality in the process of conducting and turning off is effectively suppressed in the dynamic and static voltage-sharing circuit. The optimization of voltage-sharing circuit parameters plays an important role.

  15. Concomitant aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, J M; Jones, E L; Hatcher, C R; Farmer, J H

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six consecutive patients underwent combined aortic valve replacement and myocardial revascularization at the Emory University Affiliated Hospitals between May, 1973 and March, 1976. Acute myocardial infarction resulted in two operative deaths (8%). There have been four late deaths, all Class IV preoperative. The age range was 37 to 79 years with an average age of 60. Preoperatively all patients were Class IV or late Class III. Twenty-three patients had symptoms of angina pectoris; congestive heart failure was evident in 56%. Postoperatively, 70% are now Class 1 or II. Single coronary bypass was performed in 16 patients, double in 6, and triple in three. Double bypass plus mitral valve replacement was required in two with aneurysmectomy in one. The rate of intraoperative infarction was 27% for the series but only 7% in the last year. The methods of intraoperative myocardial preservation and the technical approach for the operative procedures were variable. Results with each method are correlated, and currently preferred techniques are presented and discussed. Best results were obtained in patients who presented early in their symptomatic course with isolated proximal coronary lesions and good renoff vessels. Excellent results could be achieved despite advanced age of patients, requirement for multiple bypass grafts, and correction of other associated cardiac lesions. Poorest results were obtained when long-standing ventricular failure was combined with poor vessels distal to coronary stenoses. PMID:860881

  16. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    This publication is unique in its demystification and operationalization of the complex and elusive nature of the design process. The publication portrays the designer’s daily work and the creative process, which the designer is a part of. Apart from displaying the designer’s work methods...... and design parameters, the publication shows examples from renowned Danish design firms. Through these examples the reader gets an insight into the designer’s reality....

  17. Knee Replacement: What you can Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves function lessen with each additional surgery. Artificial knees can wear out Another risk of knee replacement ... replacement surgery to last about two hours. After knee replacement surgery After surgery, you're wheeled to ...

  18. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pallotta, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Salto Talaris fixed-bearing total ankle replacement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Shannon M; Todd, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The Salto Talaris total ankle replacement is an anatomically designed fixed bearing prosthesis available in the United States based on the successful design of the mobile-bearing Salto prosthesis available outside the United States. The original mobile-bearing design was modified and the mobile-bearing was transferred to the precision instrumentation at the trial phase evaluation. Instrumentation and technique allow the surgeon to determine the functional joint axis before final implantation. The Salto Talaris total ankle replacement design blends minimal bone resection and optimizes surface area, cortical contact, and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene conformity. The authors present an overview of the Salto Talaris total ankle replacement surgical technique and pearls for successful application.

  20. Replacing the Beam Dump at the Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The PS Booster Dump, designed in the 1960’s to cope with beam energies in the order of 800 MeV, has been dismantled and replaced with a new one, capable of withstanding the 2 GeV beam provided by the upcoming LINAC4 at CERN. This video shows the installation of that new dump core inside a one-metre diameter cavity, surrounded by five shielding rings made of concrete and steel. It is the culmination of months of preparation, an interdisciplinary work involving several teams from the Engineering, Beams and Technology Departments, as well as the collaboration and supervision of radio-protection experts.

  1. Replacing the Beam Dump at the Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The PS Booster Dump, designed in the 1960’s to cope with beam energies in the order of 800 MeV, has been dismantled and replaced with a new one, capable of withstanding the 2 GeV beam provided by the upcoming LINAC4 at CERN. This video shows the installation of that new dump core inside a one-metre diameter cavity, surrounded by five shielding rings made of concrete and steel. It is the culmination of months of preparation, an interdisciplinary work involving several teams from the Engineering, Beams and Technology Departments, as well as the collaboration and supervision of radio-protection experts.

  2. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  3. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  4. Wafer Replacement Cluster Tool (Presentation);

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branz, H. M.

    2008-04-01

    This presentation on wafer replacement cluster tool discusses: (1) Platform for advanced R and D toward SAI 2015 cost goal--crystal silicon PV at area costs closer to amorphous Si PV, it's 15% efficiency, inexpensive substrate, and moderate temperature processing (<800 C); (2) Why silicon?--industrial and knowledge base, abundant and environmentally benign, market acceptance, and good efficiency; and (3) Why replace wafers?--expensive, high embedded energy content, and uses 50-100 times more silicon than needed.

  5. Total ankle replacement for posttraumatic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weme, Rebecca A Nieuwe; van Solinge, Guido; N Doornberg, Job; Sierevelt, Inger; Haverkamp, Daniël; Doets, H Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Most studies on total ankle replacement (TAR) have used a case mix of patients. We evaluated the outcome of TAR performed for end-stage arthritis either because of fracture or ligamentous injury. Patients and methods We prospectively followed 88 consecutive patients (50 postfracture ankles and 40 ankles with instability arthritis (2 bilateral)) who underwent TAR between 2001 and 2009. Mean follow-up for both groups was 5 years. Results Preoperative varus deformity of 10° or more was present in 23 ankles in the instability group. At 6 years, survival with revision or salvage fusion as an endpoint was 87% (95% CI: 74–99) in the postfracture group and 79% (95% CI: 63–94) in the instability group. Progressive periprosthetic osteolysis was seen in 23 ankles, and required salvage fusion in 6. The number of reoperations was similar in both groups. Clinical outcome, as assessed with 2 ankle scores and 2 questionnaires, showed good results and was similar at the latest follow-up. Interpretation The outcome was similar in the postfracture and instability groups and also similar to that reported in series including a case mix of patients. In contrast to earlier reports, preoperative frontal plane deformity in this series was not identified as a risk factor for failure. PMID:25772269

  6. Square summable power series

    CERN Document Server

    de Branges, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students introduces Hilbert space and analytic function theory, which is centered around the invariant subspace concept. The book's principal feature is the extensive use of formal power series methods to obtain and sometimes reformulate results of analytic function theory. The presentation is elementary in that it requires little previous knowledge of analysis, but it is designed to lead students to an advanced level of performance. This is achieved chiefly through the use of problems, many of which were proposed by former students. The book's

  7. Double emulsions as fat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have

  8. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  9. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  10. Mactaquac intake tendons removal and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, I. [NB Power Generation Corp., Mactaquac Generating Station, Keswick Ridge, NB (Canada); Mee, A. [Hatch Energy, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    In 1988 and 1989, multi-strand tendons were installed in the intake structure of the Mactaquac generating station. In order to control displacements caused by alkali aggregate reaction (AAR), they were installed in preparation for a slot cutting program in the intake structure to guard against the possibility of a sliding failure of a section of the structure along a plane coincident with the bottom of the water passage. Unique problems for the designers were present in the expansion affect of AAR that were compounded by field conditions that resulted in further difficulties. For example, concrete expansion required the installation of a thick shim pack under the upper anchor head and the periodic testing of the tendons. Once tested, shims could be gradually removed to maintain the correct load over the life of the tendon. However, during the first round of testing and de-stressing five years after the original installation, it was found that some of the tendons had already failed. Over half of the tendons have been replaced in the 20 years since the installation. This paper discussed the original design considerations and examined the conditions that contributed to the premature failure of the tendons. It outlined the history of tendon testing procedures, tendon failure modes and tendon replacement methods. Specifically, the paper discussed the remedial techniques that were employed and the iterations that lead to the current repair approach, while considering the unique field conditions. The application of various corrosion protection schemes and installation and testing methodologies were discussed. It was concluded that tendons were successfully installed in numerous concrete dams around the world but have needed replacement for a variety of reasons. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  11. Bonding over Dentin Replacement Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraji, Naghmeh; Camilleri, Josette

    2017-08-01

    Dentin replacement materials are necessary in large cavities to protect the pulp and reduce the bulk of filling material. These materials are layered with a composite resin restorative material. Microleakage caused by poor bonding of composite resin to underlying dentin replacement material will result in pulp damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the interface between dentin replacement materials and composite resin and to measure the shear bond strength after dynamic aging. Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), Theracal LC (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL), and Fuji IX (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were used as dentin replacement materials. They were then overlaid with a total-etch and bonding agent or a self-etch primer and composite resin or a glass ionomer cement. All combinations were thermocycled for 3000 cycles. The interface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping. Furthermore, the shear bond strength was assessed. The Biodentine surface was modified by etching. The Theracal LC and Fuji IX microstructure was unchanged upon the application of acid etch. The Biodentine and glass ionomer interface showed an evident wide open space, and glass particles from the glass ionomer adhered to the Biodentine surface. Elemental migration was shown with aluminum, barium, fluorine, and ytterbium present in Biodentine from the overlying composite resin. Calcium was more stable. The bond strength between Theracal LC and composite using a total-etch technique followed by self-etch primer achieved the best bond strength values. Biodentine exhibited the weakest bond with complete failure of bonding shown after demolding and thermocycling. Dynamic aging is necessary to have clinically valid data. Bonding composite resin to water-based dentin replacement materials is still challenging, and further alternatives for restoration of teeth using such materials need to be developed. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  12. PERFORMANCE OF PRIVATE CACHE REPLACEMENT POLICIES FOR MULTICORE PROCESSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lentz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Multicore processors have become ubiquitous, both in general-purpose and special-purpose applications. With the number of transistors in a chip continuing to increase, the number of cores in a processor is also expected to increase. Cache replacement policy is an important design parameter of a cache hierarchy. As most of the processor designs have become multicore, there is a need to study cache replacement policies for multi-core systems. Previous studies have focused on the shared levels of the multicore cache hierarchy. In this study, we focus on the top level of the hierarchy, which bears the brunt of the memory requests emanating from each processor core. We measure the miss rates of various cache replacement policies, as the number of cores is steadily increased from 1 to 16. The study was done by modifying the publicly available SESC simulator, which models in detail a multicore processor with a multilevel cache hierarchy. Our experimental results show that for the private L1 caches, the LRU (Least Recently Used replacement policy outperforms all of the other replacement policies. This is in contrast to what was observed in previous studies for the shared L2 cache. The results presented in this paper are useful for hardware designers to optimize their cache designs or the program codes.

  13. 非对称优化PWM串联型有源滤波器的研究及设计%Asymmetric Research and Design Optimization the PWM Series Active Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许文静

    2013-01-01

    This article first describes the basic principle and optimization of asymmetric filter characteristic and mathe-matical model of PWM, and then discussed the unsymmetrical optimal PWM series active filter design of hardware and software. Finally, system simulation using Matlab.%  首先介绍了有源滤波器基本原理和非对称优化PWM的特点及数学模型;然后讨论了非对称优化PWM串联型有源滤波的硬件及软件设计;最后使用Matlab对系统进行了仿真。

  14. Handbook of camera monitor systems the automotive mirror-replacement technology based on ISO 16505

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook offers a comprehensive overview of Camera Monitor Systems (CMS), ranging from the ISO 16505-based development aspects to practical realization concepts. It offers readers a wide-ranging discussion of the science and technology of CMS as well as the human-interface factors of such systems. In addition, it serves as a single reference source with contributions from leading international CMS professionals and academic researchers. In combination with the latest version of UN Regulation No. 46, the normative framework of ISO 16505 permits CMS to replace mandatory rearview mirrors in series production vehicles. The handbook includes scientific and technical background information to further readers’ understanding of both of these regulatory and normative texts. It is a key reference in the field of automotive CMS for system designers, members of standardization and regulation committees, engineers, students and researchers.

  15. 7800系列三端固定集成稳压器应用电路的可靠性设计%Reliability Design of Application Circuit for 7800 Series Three Terminal Positive Voltage Regulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The article introduced the working principle for 7800 series three terminal posi-tive voltage regulator. At the same time, based on the statistic fault data of three terminal positive voltage regulator, it can be classified for five kind fault characteristics. And com-bining the working principle of 7800 series and energy characteristics of the power supply, the five kind of the fault characteristics were analyzed. Finally, the article presented the methods for reliability design of application circuit for 7800 series three terminal positive voltage regulator. The methods are simple to use and have high reliability, and verified in application.%  简介:本文介绍了7800系列三端固定集成稳压器的工作原理。同时根据已统计的三端固定集成稳压器故障数据,归类于五种故障特征,并结合7800系列的工作原理和电源的能量特征对这五种故障进行了分析。最后给出7800系列三端固定集成稳压器应用电路的可靠性设计的方法。这些方法简单实效,且可靠性强,已得到了实际应用验证。

  16. A Comparison of Four Linear Equating Methods for the Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design Using Simulation Methods. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topczewski, Anna; Cui, Zhongmin; Woodruff, David; Chen, Hanwei; Fang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates four methods of linear equating under the common item nonequivalent groups design. Three of the methods are well known: Tucker, Angoff-Levine, and Congeneric-Levine. A fourth method is presented as a variant of the Congeneric-Levine method. Using simulation data generated from the three-parameter logistic IRT model we…

  17. Two-dimensional surrogate contact modeling for computationally efficient dynamic simulation of total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chung; Haftka, Raphael T; Queipo, Nestor V; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2009-04-01

    Computational speed is a major limiting factor for performing design sensitivity and optimization studies of total knee replacements. Much of this limitation arises from extensive geometry calculations required by contact analyses. This study presents a novel surrogate contact modeling approach to address this limitation. The approach involves fitting contact forces from a computationally expensive contact model (e.g., a finite element model) as a function of the relative pose between the contacting bodies. Because contact forces are much more sensitive to displacements in some directions than others, standard surrogate sampling and modeling techniques do not work well, necessitating the development of special techniques for contact problems. We present a computational evaluation and practical application of the approach using dynamic wear simulation of a total knee replacement constrained to planar motion in a Stanmore machine. The sample points needed for surrogate model fitting were generated by an elastic foundation (EF) contact model. For the computational evaluation, we performed nine different dynamic wear simulations with both the surrogate contact model and the EF contact model. In all cases, the surrogate contact model accurately reproduced the contact force, motion, and wear volume results from the EF model, with computation time being reduced from 13 min to 13 s. For the practical application, we performed a series of Monte Carlo analyses to determine the sensitivity of predicted wear volume to Stanmore machine setup issues. Wear volume was highly sensitive to small variations in motion and load inputs, especially femoral flexion angle, but not to small variations in component placements. Computational speed was reduced from an estimated 230 h to 4 h per analysis. Surrogate contact modeling can significantly improve the computational speed of dynamic contact and wear simulations of total knee replacements and is appropriate for use in design sensitivity

  18. Urbanization, Ikization, and Replacement Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of Iks was first found by anthropologists and biologists, but it is actually a problem of human geography. However, it has not yet drawn extensive attention of geographers. In this paper, a hypothesis of ikization is presented that sudden and violent change of geographical environments results in dismantling of traditional culture, which then result in collective depravity of a nationality. By quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling, the causality between urbanization and ikization is discussed, and the theory of replacement dynamics is employed to interpret the process of ikization. Urbanization is in essence a nonlinear process of population replacement. Urbanization may result in ikization because that the migration of population from rural regions to urban regions always give rise to abrupt changes of geographical environments and traditional culture. It is necessary to protect the geographical environment against disruption, and to inherit and develop traditional culture in order t...

  19. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  20. Structure-based design of a new series of D-glutamic acid based inhibitors of bacterial UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine:D-glutamate ligase (MurD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasić, Tihomir; Zidar, Nace; Sink, Roman; Kovac, Andreja; Blanot, Didier; Contreras-Martel, Carlos; Dessen, Andréa; Müller-Premru, Manica; Zega, Anamarija; Gobec, Stanislav; Kikelj, Danijel; Masic, Lucija Peterlin

    2011-07-14

    MurD ligase is one of the key enzymes participating in the intracellular steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis and constitutes a viable target in the search for novel antibacterial drugs to combat bacterial drug-resistance. We have designed, synthesized, and evaluated a new series of D-glutamic acid-based Escherichia coli MurD inhibitors incorporating the 5-benzylidenethiazolidin-4-one scaffold. The crystal structure of 16 in the MurD active site has provided a good starting point for the design of structurally optimized inhibitors 73-75 endowed with improved MurD inhibitory potency (IC(50) between 3 and 7 μM). Inhibitors 74 and 75 showed weak activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. Compounds 73-75, with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range, represent the most potent D-Glu-based MurD inhibitors reported to date.

  1. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics And Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Mat...

  2. Replacing magnets at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    LHC, LSI2, Point 4

    2013-01-01

    CERN engineers have been working through the night this week to move the final replacement dipole magnets into position on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Though there are several still to go, the teams expect to have completed the task by the end of this month. Dipole magnets bend the paths of particles as they travel around the circular accelerator. Of the LHC's 1232 dipoles – each 15 metres long and weighing 35 tonnes – 15 are being replaced as part of the long shutdown of CERN's accelerator complex. These 15 magnets suffered wear and tear during the LHC's first 4-year run. Three quadrupole-magnet assemblies – which help to focus particles into a tight beam – have also been replaced. Moving such heavy magnets requires specially adapted cranes and trailers both above and below ground. There are several access points on the LHC. Some, such as the 100-metre vertical access shaft down to the ALICE experiment, are equipped with lifts to allow technical personnel and visitors down to the caverns. Other ...

  3. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  4. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  5. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Pettiway, Keon

    2017-01-01

    by designers, planners, etc. (staging from above) and mobile subjects (staging from below). A research agenda for studying situated practices of mobility and mobilities design is outlined in three directions: foci of studies, methods and approaches, and epistemologies and frames of thinking. Jensen begins...... with a brief description of how movement is studied within social sciences after the “mobilities turn” versus the idea of physical movement in transport geography and engineering. He then explains how “mobilities design” was derived from connections between traffic and architecture. Jensen concludes......In this chapter, Ole B. Jensen takes a situational approach to mobilities to examine how ordinary life activities are structured by technology and design. Using “staging mobilities” as a theoretical approach, Jensen considers mobilities as overlapping, actions, interactions and decisions...

  6. Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Mette

    Design - proces & metode iBog®  er enestående i sit fokus på afmystificering og operationalisering af designprocessens flygtige og komplekse karakter. Udgivelsen går bag om designerens daglige arbejde og giver et indblik i den kreative skabelsesproces, som designeren er en del af. Udover et bredt...... indblik i designerens arbejdsmetoder og designparametre giver Design - proces & metode en række eksempler fra anerkendte designvirksomheder, der gør det muligt at komme helt tæt på designerens virkelighed....

  7. Rationale and design of the Aortic Valve replAcemenT versus conservative treatment in Asymptomatic seveRe aortic stenosis (AVATAR trial): A randomized multicenter controlled event-driven trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banovic, Marko; Iung, Bernard; Bartunek, Jozef; Asanin, Milika; Beleslin, Branko; Biocina, Bojan; Casselman, Filip; da Costa, Mark; Deja, Marek; Gasparovic, Hrvoje; Kala, Petr; Labrousse, Lois; Loncar, Zlatibor; Marinkovic, Jelena; Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Milan; Nemec, Peter; Nikolic, Serge D; Pencina, Michael; Penicka, Martin; Ristic, Arsen; Sharif, Faisal; Van Camp, Guy; Vanderheyden, Marc; Wojakowski, Wojtek; Putnik, Svetozar

    2016-04-01

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) therapy is an obvious choice for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients as it improves symptoms, left ventricular function, and survival. The treatment decisions and indication for AVR in asymptomatic patients with severe AS and normal left ventricular ejection fraction are less well established and the subject of ongoing debate. Many efforts have been made to define the best treatment option in asymptomatic AS patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Retrospective and observational data imply that elective AVR for asymptomatic severe AS may lead to improvement in outcomes in comparison to surgery performed after onset of symptoms. The AVATAR trial will aim to assess outcomes among asymptomatic AS patients randomized to either elective early AVR or medical management with vigilant follow-up. In the latter group, AVR would be delayed until either the onset of symptoms or changes in predefined echocardiographic parameters. To the best of the authors' knowledge, it will be the first large prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial that will evaluate the safety and efficacy of elective AVR in this specific group of patients.

  8. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  9. Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  10. Optical Design for Photonics. Organization of the 1993 Photonics Science Topical Meetings Held in Palm Springs, California on March 22 - 24, 1993. Technical Digest Series, Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-24

    propagat- desip wsing Affractive optics, T. ponents, N. Fabricius, B, Wol~f, In- ing LiNb03. (p. 29) Heydenburg. D. A. Zweig , Hughes Dan- teg-riem-e...of various fabrication technologies. OMA3-1 / 7 Practical Considerations for Optical Design Using Diffractive Optics T. Heydenburg, D.A. Zweig Hughes...OTuA5-1 /53 Fresnel Ping-Pong Algorithm for Two-Plane CGH Display Rainer G. Dorsch, Adolf W. Lohmann, Stefan Sinzinger Physikalisches Institut der

  11. Research Design and Statistical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Edna Mora

    1993-01-01

    Presents fourth editorial in series, this one describing research design and explaining its relationship to statistical design. Research design, validity, and research approaches are examined, quantitative research designs and hypothesis testing are described, and control and statistical designs are discussed. Concludes with section on the art of…

  12. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison for Series-Parallel and Series-Series Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles – PART 1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Resonant circuits of wireless power transfer system can be designed in four possible ways by placing the primary and secondary capacitor in a series or parallel order with respect to the corresponding inductor. The two topologies series-parallel and series-series under investigation have been alr...

  13. Fusion following failed total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschel, Markus; Leichtle, Ulf G; Leichtle, Carmen I; Walter, Christian; Mittag, Falk; Arlt, Eva; Suckel, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Although mid- to long-term results after total ankle replacement have improved because of available second- and third-generation devices, failure of total ankle replacement is still more common compared with total hip replacement and total knee replacement. The portfolio of available total ankle replacement revision component options is small. Furthermore, the bone stock of the tibiotalar region is scarce making it difficult and in some situations impossible to perform revision total ankle replacement. In these cases tibiotalar and tibiotalocalcaneal fusions are valuable options. This article describes which surgical procedures should be performed depending on the initial situation and gives detailed advice on surgical technique, postoperative care, and clinical results.

  14. Licensing of the Australian replacement research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garea, Veronica B. [INVAP S.E., San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)'s Replacement Research Reactor has been submitted to a comprehensive licensing process of which peer review has been a fundamental part. Following Australian Regulation, an application for a site licence was the first step supported by an Environmental Impact Statement approved by The Minister for the Environment and Heritage, and a Reference Accident Analysis. After the site licence had been granted and the contract awarded to the Designer and Constructor, INVAP S.E:, a 2500 page Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was submitted by ANSTO to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), which conducted its review. ARPANSA requested that the PSAR be also reviewed by an experts mission from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The PSAR was also reviewed by the Argentine Regulatory Body, it was submitted to public examination in Australia and it was reviewed by international experts hired as consultants by several Australian organisations. A public forum was also held in Sydney. The Regulator, the applicant and the Designer-Constructor maintained constant interaction during the whole process, so that questions, comments and observations that arose from the review of the PSAR were fed back to the designers. This process allowed for a robust, safe design enriched by the results of the safety analysis and review process. (author)

  15. Summation of series

    CERN Document Server

    Jolley, LB W

    2004-01-01

    Over 1,100 common series, all grouped for easy reference. Arranged by category, these series include arithmetical and geometrical progressions, powers and products of natural numbers, figurate and polygonal numbers, inverse natural numbers, exponential and logarithmic series, binomials, simple inverse products, factorials, trigonometrical and hyperbolic expansions, and additional series. 1961 edition.

  16. Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a series of α-substituted phenylpropanoic acid PPARγ agonists to further investigate the stereochemistry-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Masao; Nakagome, Izumi; Kasuga, Jun-Ichi; Nobusada, Hiromi; Matsuno, Kenji; Makishima, Makoto; Hirono, Shuichi; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Miyachi, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that the α-benzylphenylpropanoic acid-type PPARγ-selective agonist 6 exhibited a reversed stereochemistry-activity relationship, that is, the (R)-enantiomer is a more potent PPARγ agonist than the (S)-enantiomer, compared with structurally similar α-ethylphenylpropanoic acid-type PPAR agonists. Here, we designed, synthesized and evaluated the optically active α-cyclohexylmethylphenylpropanoic acid derivatives 7 and α-phenethylphenylpropanoic acid derivatives 8, respectively. Interestingly, α-cyclohexylmethyl derivatives showed reversal of the stereochemistry-activity relationship [i.e., (R) more potent than (S)], like α-benzyl derivatives, whereas α-phenethyl derivatives showed the 'normal' relationship [(S) more potent than (R)]. These results suggested that the presence of a branched carbon atom at the β-position with respect to the carboxyl group is a critical determinant of the reversed stereochemistry-activity relationship.

  17. Facilitating needs based cancer care for people with a chronic disease: Evaluation of an intervention using a multi-centre interrupted time series design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibbritt David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palliative care should be provided according to the individual needs of the patient, caregiver and family, so that the type and level of care provided, as well as the setting in which it is delivered, are dependent on the complexity and severity of individual needs, rather than prognosis or diagnosis 1. This paper presents a study designed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of an intervention to assist in the allocation of palliative care resources according to need, within the context of a population of people with advanced cancer. Methods/design People with advanced cancer and their caregivers completed bi-monthly telephone interviews over a period of up to 18 months to assess unmet needs, anxiety and depression, quality of life, satisfaction with care and service utilisation. The intervention, introduced after at least two baseline phone interviews, involved a training medical, nursing and allied health professionals at each recruitment site on the use of the Palliative Care Needs Assessment Guidelines and the Needs Assessment Tool: Progressive Disease - Cancer (NAT: PD-C; b health professionals completing the NAT: PD-C with participating patients approximately monthly for the rest of the study period. Changes in outcomes will be compared pre-and post-intervention. Discussion The study will determine whether the routine, systematic and regular use of the Guidelines and NAT: PD-C in a range of clinical settings is a feasible and effective strategy for facilitating the timely provision of needs based care. Trials registration ISRCTN21699701

  18. Radiology of total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J.; Lovelock, J.E.; McCollister Evarts, C.; Geyer, D.

    1984-06-01

    The radiology of total hip replacement (THR) and its complications is reviewed in conjunction with a long-term follow-up study on 402 patients with 501 prostheses. The indications, contraindications, biomechanics, and operative management of these patients is discussed. Clinical complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and hemorrhage are mentioned. Postoperative infections including granulomatous pseudotumors, dislocations and fractures, true loosening of the prosthesis, and heterotopic bone formation (HBF) are discussed and illustrated. The importance of differentiating the lucent line from true loosening is stressed. Mechanical and other clinical complications which are largely ignored by radiologists are also discussed. The uses of arthrography and bone scanning are included.

  19. [Proximal and total femur replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennekamp, P H; Wirtz, D C; Dürr, H R

    2012-07-01

    Reconstruction of segmental bone defects of the proximal femur following wide tumor resection or revision arthroplasty. Aggressive benign or primary malignant bone tumors of the proximal femur; destructive metastases; massive segmental bone defects of the proximal femur; periprosthetic fractures. Local infection; very short life expectancy (acetabular bone stock. Anterolateral approach. Exposure and detachment of the iliopsoas and gluteus medius muscle from the proximal femur with a sufficient safety margin to the bone; distal transsection of the vastus lateralis/intermedius and rectus femoris muscle according to the extraosseous tumor extension; distal femur osteotomy al least 3 cm beyond the farthest point of tumor extension; in case of total femur replacement, additional lateral arthrotomy of the knee with resection of the ligaments and menisci; reaming of the medullary canal after securing the shaft with a Verbrugge clamp; trial assembly and reduction followed by the definitive implantation of the prosthesis with adjustment of the femoral neck anteversion in 5° increments; soft tissue reconstruction and fixation to an attachment tube covering the prosthesis; in case of total femur replacement, the preparation of the tibia is followed by the coupling of the tibial and femoral components. Infection prophylaxis, 20 kg partial weight bearing, continuous passive motion. A total of 20  patients with proximal femur replacement and 2 patients with total femur replacement implanted between June 2007 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had primary malignant bone tumors, while 19 patients underwent resection for metastatic disease. The mean age at surgery was 62.0 ± 18.1 years (18-82 years). Fifteen patients with a mean follow-up of 20.3 ± 17.2 months (4-51 months) were studied. Among the 22 cases, periprosthetic infection occurred in 3 patients (13.6%), dislocation in 2 patients (9.1%). Evaluation of the functional

  20. Early micromovement of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, J O; Ding, M; Varmarken, J E;

    2012-01-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) can detect early micromovement in unstable implant designs which are likely subsequently to have a high failure rate. In 2010, the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) was withdrawn because of a high failure rate. In 19 ASR femoral components, the mean micromovemen...

  1. Interdisciplinary approach to a total knee replacement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, S

    2000-06-01

    An orthopedic clinical nurse specialist facilitated an interdisciplinary evaluation, design, and implementation of best practice initiatives for the total knee replacement patient population using the Center for Advanced Nursing Practice's Evidence-Based Practice Model. The interdisciplinary team approach enhanced the total joint program by achieving positive patient outcomes, demonstrating financial stewardship of resources, and facilitating inter- and intradisciplinary communication.

  2. Series editorial: Network and Service Management Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlou, George; Pras, Aiko

    2010-01-01

    This is the ninth issue of the series on Network and Service Management, which is typically published twice a year. It was originally published in April and October, but since last year it is published in July and December. The series provides articles on the latest developments in this well establi

  3. Series editorial: Network and Service Management Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlou, George; Pras, Aiko

    2011-01-01

    This is the 11th issue of the series on Network and Service Management, which is typically published twice a year. It was originally published in April and October but since last year it is published in July and December. The series provides articles on the latest developments in this well-establish

  4. Strategies for Revision Total Ankle Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Roukis, DPM, PhD, FACFAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As the frequency of primary total ankle replacement (TAR continues to build, revision will become more commonplace. At present there are no “standard principles” associated with revision TAR. What is clear is that the current approaches are technically complex, fraught with complications and no one approach represents the only answer. Exchange of TAR metallic components to the same system standard or dedicated revision components are viable options with limited occurrence of complications. Explantation and conversion to custom-design long stemmed components has limited availability. Explantation and conversion to another TAR system is high-risk and has strong potential for complications. The use of metal reinforced polymethylmethacrylate cement augmentation of failed TAR systems and tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis should be reserved for very select situations where other options are not possible. There is a real need for long-term survivorship following revision TAR and future efforts ought to be directed in this area.

  5. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  6. The Research of Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhua; Qiang Shenb

    2008-01-01

    Cervical arthroplasty after anterior decompression with insertion of a prosthetic total disc replacement has been suggested as an alternate to anterior cervical fusion. It develops quickly during recent years. Currently there are several cervical arthroplasty devices. Each device varies in terms of materials, range of motion and constraint. Early studies suggest that in the short term, the complication rate and efficacy is no worse than fusion surgery. Long-term results have not yet been reported. This review examines the current prostheses as well as discussing issues regarding indications and technique. It is hoped that an improvement of cervical arthroplasty occurs in terms of materials and design as spinal surgeons enter a new dines of the management of cervical spine disease.

  7. Design and Development for Series of Baby Home Textiles%婴童家用系列纺织品设计与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小红

    2012-01-01

      Baby home textile market is at an early stage of development in China. There are many similar products which are hard to meet the increasing needs of consumers in variety, specification, function, price and so on. The baby home textile market fills with great business opportunities, that makes enterprises pay more attention to improve their products continually. This paper discussed the process and method of design and development for baby home textiles by a real case.%  中国婴童家纺市场目前处于初级发展阶段,同质化现象严重,产品不论是在品种、规格、功能、还是价格上都难以满足日益增长的消费者需要。因此,婴童家纺市场有着巨大商机,使其日益受到企业的重视的同时不断得以改善。本文以实际案例探讨了婴童家纺产品的设计开发流程与方法。

  8. Flash-Aware Page Replacement Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxia Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited main memory resource of consumer electronics equipped with NAND flash memory as storage device, an efficient page replacement algorithm called FAPRA is proposed for NAND flash memory in the light of its inherent characteristics. FAPRA introduces an efficient victim page selection scheme taking into account the benefit-to-cost ratio for evicting each victim page candidate and the combined recency and frequency value, as well as the erase count of the block to which each page belongs. Since the dirty victim page often contains clean data that exist in both the main memory and the NAND flash memory based storage device, FAPRA only writes the dirty data within the victim page back to the NAND flash memory based storage device in order to reduce the redundant write operations. We conduct a series of trace-driven simulations and experimental results show that our proposed FAPRA algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of page hit ratio, the number of write operations, runtime, and the degree of wear leveling.

  9. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  10. REMINDER REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  11. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations.

  12. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  13. Hemodynamic function of the standard St. Jude bileaflet disc valve has no clinical impact 10 years after aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Dorup, Inge; Emmertsen, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Size mismatch and impaired left ventricular function have been shown to determine the hemodynamic function of the standard St. Jude bileaflet disc valve early after aortic valve replacement (AVR). We aimed to analyse St. Jude valve hemodynamic function and its clinical impact in the s......OBJECTIVES: Size mismatch and impaired left ventricular function have been shown to determine the hemodynamic function of the standard St. Jude bileaflet disc valve early after aortic valve replacement (AVR). We aimed to analyse St. Jude valve hemodynamic function and its clinical impact...... in the survivors of a prospective series 10 years after AVR for aortic stenosis. DESIGN: Forty-three survivors aged 32-90 years from a prospective series attended a follow-up study with Doppler echo and radionuclide cardiography 10 years after AVR for aortic stenosis. Six patients with significant left sided valve......Hg. In a multilinear regression analysis GOA indexed for LVEDD, hypertension, and LVEF were independently related to peak gradient. CONCLUSION: High gradients of the standard St. Jude bileaflet disc valve 10 years after AVR was primarily related to systemic hypertension and mismatch between valve and left ventricular...

  14. Polyethylene damage and deformation on fixed-bearing, non-conforming unicondylar knee replacements corresponding to progressive changes in alignment and fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Melinda K; Schmitt, Sabine; Rössing, Sven; Banks, Scott A; Sharf, Hans-Peter; Viceconti, Marco; Hodge, W Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Deviations from nominal alignment of unicondylar knee replacements impact knee biomechanics, including the load and stress distribution at the articular contact surfaces. This study characterizes relationships between the biomechanical environment, distinguished by progressive changes in alignment and fixation, and articular damage and deformation in a consecutive series of retrieved unicondylar knee replacements. Twenty seven fixed-bearing, non-conforming unicondylar knee replacements of one design were retrieved after 2 to 13 years of in vivo function. The in vivo biomechanical environment was characterized by grading component migration measured from full-length radiographs and grading component fixation based on intraoperative manual palpation. Articular damage patterns and linear deformation on the polyethylene inserts were measured using optical photogrammetry and contact point digitization. Articular damage patterns and surface deformation on the explanted polyethylene inserts corresponded to progressive changes in component alignment and fixation. Component migration produced higher deformation rates, whereas loosening contributed to larger damage areas but lower deformation rates. Migration and loosening of the femoral component, but not the tibial component, were factors contributing to large regions of abrasion concentrated on the articular periphery. Classifying component migration and fixation at revision proved useful for distinguishing common biomechanical conditions associated with the varied polyethylene damage patterns and linear deformation for this fixed-bearing, non-conforming design. Pre-clinical evaluations of unicondylar knee replacements that are capable of reproducing variations in clinical alignment and predicting the observed wear mechanisms are necessary to better understand the impact of knee biomechanics and design on unicondylar knee replacement longevity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 多状态可换零件在注塑模设计中的应用%APPLICATION STUDY OF MULTI-MODE REPLACEABLE PARTS IN INJECTION MOLD DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾强

    2011-01-01

    在模具上通过巧妙的结构设计,最大化的利用模具性能,实现一个模具可生产多种塑胶产品的目标提出了一种新的模具设计理念和设计方案,实现用一个模具换状态生产多类型产品,实现一模多用,大大提高了模具使用效率,利用这一方案可节省大量的模具制造设计费用,为企业降低模具制造成本提供了一个新途径.%By designing clever structure,making full use of the performance of the mold, it was realized that different kinds of plastic products was produced with one mold. A new kind of mold design idea and scheme was put forward. By using this structure scherne,it could be realized producing multi-type products with one mold by changing state. The efficiency of the mold was improved greatly, the mold designing and manufacturing cost could be saved with large amount. A new path to reduce mold manufacturing costs was provided for enterprises.

  16. 串联磷酸铁锂电池组保护电路设计%The circuit design of series of LiFePO4 battery protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙起山; 张存山; 王胜博; 张淑敏

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the safety studies of the LiFePO4 battery,We analyzed the importance of the overcurrent, overvoltage and short circuit protection, and designed a new protection circuit of series of the LiFePO4 battery. The MOSFET switches is used in the protection circuit, according to the battery voltage changes over the MOSFET and the protection of overcurrent is designed in the circuit. The physical experiments verify that the protection circuit can make an action in 20ms to protect the battery pack. We also designed a charge balancing module to improve the performance of the battery and extend the battery life.%设计出了一种新型的串联锂离子电池组保护电路.该保护电路采用MOSFET开关,根据过流时电池组MOSFET电压的变化来设计过流保护电路,并通过实物验证了该保护电路能够在20ms动作,从而保护了电池组和改善了电池的性能,延长了电池的寿命.

  17. Turbine casing bolts; a life assessment and bolt replacement strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J.H. [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present presentation describes a detailed study concerning the life assessment and replacement strategy of large turbine casing bolts in a 120 MW steam raising unit. After 122000 hours service, circa 1991/92, the Cr-Mo-V steel casing bolts, involving a total of 184 bolts, from two identical 120 MW units, termed Units 1 and 2, were examined to establish the extent of Reverse Temper Embrittlement, RTE, and creep damage suffered during service. The bolt replacement plans for the two units were as follows; Unit 1 bolts were completely replaced with new bolts while Unit 2 embrittled bolts were withdrawn from service and replaced with Non- Embrittled bolts from Unit 1; basically Unit 2 bolts were made up from a mixture of Unit 1 and 2 Non- Embrittled bolts which had been in service for 122000 hours. Remnant life assessments, concerning both embrittlement and creep damage aspects, were earned out on this series of easing bolts at service times 122000, 150000 and 200000 hours. These assessments involved the use of general embrittlement and creep damage laws which were empirically derived and concerned such parameters as microstructural grain size, bulk phosphorus content and accumulated service strain. (orig.) 7 refs.

  18. Effects and patients' experiences of interactive video-based physiotherapy at home after shoulder joint replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    Physiotherapy is essential to optimize the results of shoulder joint replacement, but requires a close monitoring and co-operation between patient and physiotherapist. The development of telerehabilitation brings opportunities for distance-spanning and home-based physiotherapy interventions. The aim of this thesis is to explore effects and to describe experiences among patients participating in interactive video-based physiotherapy at home after shoulder joint replacement. A series of 22 pati...

  19. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Aroyl-3-aryl-6,7-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen Derivatives as a Novel Series of Estrogen Receptor Modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-hui; WANG Yan; ZHU Yu-ying; LIU Si-jie; HAN Jian; ZHOU Yi-fan; LI Da-wei; KOIRALA Diwa; HU Chun

    2011-01-01

    Based on the principles of the bioisosterism, combination of the active substructures of selective estrogen receptor modulators which are currently therapeutic agents available for the prevention and treatment of various estrogen dependent diseases, and structural optimization, a novel series of 2-aroyl-3-aryl-6,7-dihydro-5H-furo[3,2-g]chromen derivatives was designed as potent selective estrogen receptor modulators via molecular docking. The target compoundshave been synthesized, and characterized by IR, proton NMR, ESI-MS, elemental analysis and evaluated for their antitumor activity against human osteosarcoma U2OS-EGFP-4FI2G cell line. Some target compounds showed good inhibition effects on U2OS-EGFP-4F 12G cell line and the preliminary structure-activity relationships were discussed.

  20. 基于规则转换的机械式排种器系列与变异变型设计%Series and variation variant design of mechanical seed-metering ;device based on conversion of rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏新; 付露露; 周兴宇; 贾儒

    2015-01-01

    针对2B-JP-FX系列双腔复合种盘机械式精密排种器快速变型设计问题,以同类两型排种器为研究对象,利用CATIA软件平台建立排种器3D模型,在结构特征分析与参数分类基础上,结合参数化设计与知识工程模块,采用规则转化法对零件参数化建模,建立主控零件左排种盘与相关被控零件模型间参数关联,提取主控零件左排种盘外圆直径和折边倾角作为装配体主参数,基于CATIA二次开发技术,以Visual Basic为开发语言,设计人机交互平台,实现排种器系列变型与变异变型设计。模型驱动表明,该方法能有效、快速、准确实现同类多型排种器系列与变异变型设计,有效减少基础模型数量,同时也为复杂装配体高效研发提供解决方案,奠定数字化3D模型资源集合合理构建技术基础。%Aiming at the problem of rapid variant design on 2B-JP-FX series mechanical precision seed-metering device with double cavity composite plate, a kind and two-type seed-metering device was used as an object in the study, the 3D model of the seed-metering device was built by using CATIA software. After, characteristic analysis of its structure and classification of parameters were completed, combine parametric design with module of knowledge engineering, made the parametric design on components by using conversion method of rules. The key component left seed-plate was used as master component, the function association of models between master component and control ed components can be built. And the excircle diameter and flange angle of master component left seed-plate were extracted as the main parameter of the assembly. A kind of human-computer interaction platform had been designed, and the series variant and variation variant design of seed-metering device were determined, which was based on secondary development technology of software CATIA with the development language Visual Basic

  1. Chaos identification based on CMAC with replacing eligibility learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yan-zhong

    2009-01-01

    In the conventional CMAC learning scheme, the correcting amounts of errors are equally distributed into all addressed weight, regardless the temporal credibility of those weights. In order to solve the temporal credit assignment problem of the CMAC, an improved CMAC neural network based on replacing eligibility learning concept was designed. The proposed improved leaning approach uses the replacing eligibility learning concept of the reinforcement learning to improve the prediction capability. The simulations for chaotic system identification show that the improved CMAC neural network is effective.

  2. The instability of wrist joint and total wrist replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-xing Ma; Yong-Qing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Total wrist arthroplasty are not used as widely as total knee and hip replacement.The functional hands are requiring surgeons to design a durable and functional satisfying prosthesis.This article will list the main reasons that cause the failure of the prosthesis.Some remarkable and representative prostheses are listed to show the devolvement of total wrist prosthesis and their individual special innovations to fix the problems,And the second part we will discuss the part that biomechanical elements act in the total wrist replacement (TWA).Summarize and find out what the real problem is and how we can find a way to fix it.

  3. OPTIMUM ORDERING POLICY FOR PREVENTIVE AGE REPLACEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young T.PARK; Jing SUN

    2009-01-01

    Most of the spare ordering policies treated up to now have assumed that preventive and corrective replacement costs are equal, which implies in essential that there is no significant need for preventive replacement. This paper presents an ordering policy for preventive age replacement with minimal repair. Introducing the replacement, repair, inventory holding and shortage costs, the expected cost rate is derived. A procedure to determine jointly the ordering time for a spare and the preventive replacement time for the operating unit so as to minimize the expected cost rate is proposed. To explain the ordering policy and the optimization procedure, a numerical example is also included.

  4. A New Echeloned Poisson Series Processor (EPSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tamara

    2001-07-01

    A specialized Echeloned Poisson Series Processor (EPSP) is proposed. It is a typical software for the implementation of analytical algorithms of Celestial Mechanics. EPSP is designed for manipulating long polynomial-trigonometric series with literal divisors. The coefficients of these echeloned series are the rational or floating-point numbers. The Keplerian processor and analytical generator of special celestial mechanics functions based on the EPSP are also developed.

  5. Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Luke M.; Herr, Hugh M.

    2013-01-01

    Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator for legged locomotion. The CV-SEA implements a continuously-variable transmission (CVT) between a motor and series elastic element. The CVT reduces the torque seen at the motor and allows the motor to operate in speed regimes of higher efficiency, while the series-elastic el...

  6. Introduction of the Mammography unit; SEPIO series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanbu, Yukiko; Sasaki, Osamu; Tsuji, Hisao [Shimadzu Corp., Medical Systems Division, Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    Mammography unit SEPIO series are designed for the both screening and diagnosis of the breast cancer. SEPIO series have the following features; iso-centric C-arm rotation leads to high throughput, two phase compression method called Twincomp minimizes the blind are near chest wall and the bi-angular X-ray tube contributes to better image quality. Furthermore optional MaxVision system which has a function to pull the breast toward the film is introduced to SEPIO series. (author)

  7. ORO. The physical developer replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael A; James, Tim

    2009-12-01

    In the process of fingerprint development Physical Developer has been largely the method of choice on porous surfaces after coming into contact with wet environments. It is only recently that a new technique has been identified which could replace this standard technique. This study aims to build on previous research and expand knowledge regarding the technique. The study built on previous research and compared Physical Developer to Oil Red O, testing both on four paper types, while being placed in three different water types and an accelerant for various amounts of time. Marks were placed with both heavily 'loaded' sebaceous fingers and 'normal' un-washed fingers. Results show that Oil Red O consistently produced clearer more detailed marks from the 'loaded' fingers, but neither technique proved to work better on the 'normal' marks. Neither technique developed any prints from the accelerant.

  8. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  9. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  10. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  11. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the .......6-47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2-39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2-87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6-95.0) for kidneys from living donors....

  12. Leptin replacement improves cognitive development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto J Paz-Filho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. METHODOLOGY: A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105 was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS, a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828.

  13. Total ankle replacement. Early experiences with STAR prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnaghan, J. M.; Warnock, D. S.; Henderson, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    Early designs of Total Ankle Replacement (TAR) had a high failure rate. More recent experience with the 3-piece, meniscal bearing, total ankle replacement has been more promising. We report a review of the early results of our first 22 prostheses in 20 patients undergoing Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement (STAR) in Northern Ireland. There was a mean follow-up time of 26 months. Seventeen patients are pain-free at the ankle joint during normal daily activities. Two of the early cases have required revision surgery due to technical errors. Other complications have included malleolar fractures, poor wound healing and postoperative stiffness. These early results show high levels of patient satisfaction, and we are encouraged to continue with total ankle arthroplasty. There is a steep initial learning curve and use of TAR should be restricted to foot and ankle surgeons. Images Fig 1 Figs 2a and b Figs 2 c and d PMID:16022128

  14. Failure rate of cemented and uncemented total hip replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makela, K. T.; Matilainen, M.; Pulkkinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the failure rate of cemented, uncemented, hybrid, and reverse hybrid total hip replacements in patients aged 55 years or older. Design Register study. Setting Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association database (combined data from Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland......). Participants 347 899 total hip replacements performed during 1995-2011. Main outcome measures Probability of implant survival (Kaplan-Meier analysis) along with implant survival with revision for any reason as endpoint (Cox multiple regression) adjusted for age, sex, and diagnosis in age groups 55-64, 65......-74, and 75 years or older. Results The proportion of total hip replacements using uncemented implants increased rapidly towards the end of the study period. The 10 year survival of cemented implants in patients aged 65 to 74 and 75 or older (93.8%, 95% confidence interval 93.6% to 94.0% and 95.9%, 95...

  15. Replacing a piece of loop-structure in the substrate-binding groove of Aspergillus usamii β-mannanase, AuMan5A, to improve its enzymatic properties by rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yun Hai; Li, Jian Fang; Hu, Die; Yin, Xin; Wang, Chun Juan; Tang, Shi Han; Wu, Min Chen

    2016-05-01

    To perfect the enzymatic properties of AuMan5A, a mesophilic glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 β-mannanase from Aspergillus usamii, its loop-structure substitution was carried out by rational design and followed by megaprimer PCR. Based on the structural analysis and enzymatic property comparison of various β-mannanases, a piece of loop-structure with seven amino acids between two β-strands (βD and βE) in the substrate-binding groove, named "Loop DE," was speculated to be correlative to the thermostability and catalytic efficiency of GH family 5 β-mannanases. Therefore, three AuMan5A's mutants, AuMan5A-Af, AuMan5A-An, and AuMan5A-Th, were designed by substituting a Loop DE sequence ((316)KSPDGGN(322)) of AuMan5A with the corresponding sequences of other three family 5 β-mannanases, respectively. Then, the mutant-encoding genes, Auman5A-Af, Auman5A-An, and Auman5A-Th, were constructed as designed theoretically and then expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The expressed recombinant AuMan5A-Af (re-AuMan5A-Af) displayed the temperature optimum (T opt) of 75 °C, T m value of 76.6 °C and half-life (t 1/2) of 480 min at 70 °C, which were 10 and 12.1 °C higher and 48-fold longer than those of re-AuMan5A, respectively. Its catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) was 12.7-fold that of re-AuMan5A. What is more, the site-directed mutagenesis of D320G in AuMan5A-Af was performed. The T opt and t 1/2 of expressed re-AuMan5A-Af(D320G) decreased to 70 °C and 40 min, respectively, while its k cat/K m was only 35 % of that of re-AuMan5A-Af. These results demonstrated that the mutation of G320 (in AuMan5A) into D320 (in AuMan5A-Af) through Loop DE substitution was mainly responsible for the thermostability and catalytic efficiency improvement of AuMan5A-Af.

  16. Translation of an engineered nanofibrous disc-like angle-ply structure for intervertebral disc replacement in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John T; Milby, Andrew H; Chiaro, Joseph A; Kim, Dong Hwa; Hebela, Nader M; Smith, Lachlan J; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been implicated in the etiology of low back pain; however, the current surgical strategies for treating symptomatic disc disease are limited. A variety of materials have been developed to replace disc components, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), the annulus fibrosus (AF) and their combination into disc-like engineered constructs. We have previously shown that layers of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold, mimicking the hierarchical organization of the native AF, can achieve functional parity with native tissue. Likewise, we have combined these structures with cell-seeded hydrogels (as an NP replacement) to form disc-like angle-ply structures (DAPS). The objective of this study was to develop a model for the evaluation of DAPS in vivo. Through a series of studies, we developed a surgical approach to replace the rat caudal disc with an acellular DAPS and then stabilized the motion segment via external fixation. We then optimized cell infiltration into DAPS by including sacrificial poly(ethylene oxide) layers interspersed throughout the angle-ply structure. Our findings illustrate that DAPS are stable in the caudal spine, are infiltrated by cells from the peri-implant space and that infiltration is expedited by providing additional routes for cell migration. These findings establish a new in vivo platform in which to evaluate and optimize the design of functional disc replacements.

  17. Lag space estimation in time series modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate some techniques for finding the relevant lag-space, i.e. input information, for time series modelling. This is an important aspect of time series modelling, as it conditions the design of the model through the regressor vector a.k.a. the input layer...

  18. Clinical Trial Design Principles and Endpoint Definitions for Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair and Replacement: Part 2: Endpoint Definitions: A Consensus Document From the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gregg W; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Généreux, Philippe; Vranckx, Pascal; Mehran, Roxana; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Leon, Martin B; Piazza, Nicolo; Head, Stuart J; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Vahanian, Alec S

    2015-07-21

    Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most prevalent valve disorders and has numerous etiologies, including primary (organic) MR, due to underlying degenerative/structural mitral valve (MV) pathology, and secondary (functional) MR, which is principally caused by global or regional left ventricular remodeling and/or severe left atrial dilation. Diagnosis and optimal management of MR requires integration of valve disease and heart failure specialists, MV cardiac surgeons, interventional cardiologists with expertise in structural heart disease, and imaging experts. The introduction of transcatheter MV therapies has highlighted the need for a consensus approach to pragmatic clinical trial design and uniform endpoint definitions to evaluate outcomes in patients with MR. The Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium is a collaboration between leading academic research organizations and physician-scientists specializing in MV disease from the United States and Europe. Three in-person meetings were held in Virginia and New York during which 44 heart failure, valve, and imaging experts, MV surgeons and interventional cardiologists, clinical trial specialists and statisticians, and representatives from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considered all aspects of MV pathophysiology, prognosis, and therapies, culminating in a 2-part document describing consensus recommendations for clinical trial design (Part 1) and endpoint definitions (Part 2) to guide evaluation of transcatheter and surgical therapies for MR. The adoption of these recommendations will afford robustness and consistency in the comparative effectiveness evaluation of new devices and approaches to treat MR. These principles may be useful for regulatory assessment of new transcatheter MV devices, as well as for monitoring local and regional outcomes to guide quality improvement initiatives.

  19. Time series analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Time series analysis can be used to quantitatively monitor, describe, explain, and predict road safety developments. Time series analysis techniques offer the possibility of quantitatively modelling road safety developments in such a way that the dependencies between the observations of time series

  20. Synthetic Versus Tissue-Engineered Implants for Joint Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan E. T. Shepherd

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human synovial joints are remarkable as they can last for a lifetime. However, they can be affected by disease that may lead to destruction of the joint surface. The most common treatment in the advanced stages of joint disease is artificial joint replacement, where the diseased synovial joint is replaced with an artificial implant made from synthetic materials, such as metals and polymers. A new technique for repairing diseased synovial joints is tissue engineering where cells are used to grow replacement tissue. This paper explores the relative merits of synthetic and tissue-engineered implants, using joint replacement as an example. Synthetic joint replacement is a well-established procedure with the advantages of early mobilisation, pain relief and high patient satisfaction. However, synthetic implants are not natural tissues; they can cause adverse reactions to the body and there could be a mismatch in mechanical properties compared to natural tissues. Tissue-engineered implants offer great potential and have major advantages over synthetic implants as they are natural tissue, which should ensure that they are totally biocompatible, have the correct mechanical properties and integrate well with the existing tissue. However, there are still many limitations to be addressed in tissue engineering such as scaling up for production, bioreactor design, appropriate regulation and the potential for disease to attack the new tissue-engineered implant.

  1. Differences in the stress distribution in the distal femur between patellofemoral joint replacement and total knee replacement: a finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Jonbergen Hans-Peter W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patellofemoral joint replacement is a successful treatment option for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. However, results of later conversion to total knee replacement may be compromised by periprosthetic bone loss. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated a decrease in distal femoral bone mineral density after patellofemoral joint replacement. It is unclear whether this is due to periprosthetic stress shielding. The main objective of the current study was to evaluate the stress shielding effect of prosthetic replacement with 2 different patellofemoral prosthetic designs and with a total knee prosthesis. Methods We developed a finite element model of an intact patellofemoral joint, and finite element models of patellofemoral joint replacement with a Journey PFJ prosthesis, a Richards II prosthesis, and a Genesis II total knee prosthesis. For each of these 4 finite element models, the average Von Mises stress in 2 clinically relevant regions of interest were evaluated during a simulated squatting movement until 120 degrees of flexion. Results During deep knee flexion, in the anterior region of interest, the average Von Mises stress with the Journey PFJ design was comparable to the physiological knee, while reduced by almost 25% for both the Richards II design and the Genesis II total knee joint replacement design. The average Von Mises stress in the supracondylar region of interest was similar for both patellofemoral prosthetic designs and the physiological model, with slightly lower stress for the Genesis II design. Conclusions Patellofemoral joint replacement results in periprosthetic stress-shielding, although to a smaller degree than in total knee replacement. Specific patellofemoral prosthetic design properties may result in differences in femoral stress shielding.

  2. Mathematical aspects of molecular replacement. II. Geometry of motion spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikjian, Gregory S; Yan, Yan

    2012-03-01

    Molecular replacement (MR) is a well established computational method for phasing in macromolecular crystallography. In MR searches, spaces of motions are explored for determining the appropriate placement of rigid models of macromolecules in crystallographic asymmetric units. In the first paper of this series, it was shown that this space of motions, when endowed with an appropriate composition operator, forms an algebraic structure called a quasigroup. In this second paper, the geometric properties of these MR search spaces are explored and analyzed. This analysis includes the local differential geometry, global geometry and symmetry properties of these spaces.

  3. Design and Implementation of Non-dissipative Equalization Management Scheme for Series Connected Li-ion Battery Pack%串联锂电池组无损均衡管理方案设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勤; 严贺彪; 凌睿

    2011-01-01

    针对串联锂电池组充放电过程中的多电池均衡问题,设计一种实现锂电池组能量无损均衡智能快速充放电的新方案.论述充放电管理方法的总体思路,介绍无损均衡电路及电压、电流、温度的采样,给出充放电控制电路及MOSFET驱动电路等模块的设计a实验结果表明,该方案能够更快速有效地实现串联锂电池组的充放电能量无损均衡.%According to multi-cell equalization problem in the charging and discharging process of series connected li-ion battery pack, this paper designs an intelligent fast charging and discharging research scheme for li-ion battery pack that can realize energy's non-dissipative equalization. The premise and background are introduced. It proposes the overall structure and non-dissipative equalization circuit of charging and discharging management method study. Some design modules are expatiated clearly, including the sample circuits of the scheme's voltage, current and temperature, charging and discharging control and MOSFET driver circuits. Experimental results show that this scheme meets the expected requirements.

  4. Coordinated series of studies to evaluate characteristics and mechanisms of acute coronary syndromes in high-risk patients randomly assigned to enoxaparin or unfractionated heparin: design and rationale of the SYNERGY Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John L; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Becker, Richard C; Goodman, Shaun G; Kleiman, Neal S; Marian, A J; Stone, Gregg W; Lansky, Alexandra J; Lincoff, A Michael; Hazen, Stanley L; Nessel, Christopher C; Toro-Figueroa, Luis; Tate, Lynn; Reist, Craig J; Cohen, Marc; Califf, Robert M; Ferguson, James J

    2004-08-01

    Clinical trials and accompanying substudies in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have over the last several years yielded a wealth of knowledge about the pathophysiology and management of this high-risk condition. The Superior Yield of the New strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and GlYcoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (SYNERGY) trial is a large-scale, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the effect of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin on death and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation ACS. The SYNERGY Library has been designed as a coordinated series of investigations with simultaneous data acquisition on the same cohort of approximately 500 SYNERGY patients at 60 centers in North America. Specifically, electrocardiograms, coronary arteriograms, inflammatory markers, coagulation studies, and genetic samples will be collected and processed at core laboratory facilities, and the results will be stored in a central repository. This novel strategy for substudy investigation is unprecedented in cardiovascular clinical trials. The goal is to gain significant understanding about this patient population, discover new principles of pathophysiology, identify novel pharmacologic targets, and streamline further drug development. It is hoped that the SYNERGY Library will serve as a model for future substudy design to maximize academic insight within the framework of a large-scale, multicenter trial.

  5. A section-sampling design to assess zooplankton distribution in a highly complex hydrographic region (SW Atlantic Ocean, 34-41ºS: insights for a new time series?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Daniela Cepeda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular fish stock assessment cruises could provide a proper data platform to sample zooplankton. It is essential, however, that adequate sampling designs should be developed for each area so that zooplankton features may be accurately described with minimum sampling effort. On the Northern Argentine Continental Shelf (NACS, 34-41ºS, a sectioned-sampling design (18 samples distributed in 4 sections associated with E. anchoita stock estimation cruises was implemented to provide a rapid and reliable survey of zooplankton distribution in relation to the physical environment. The results obtained were similar to those registered in previous studies based on exhaustive sampling. We suggest that a new zooplankton time series covering this broad área be established, based on this sampling design, to contribute to the knowledge of the variability of zooplankton populations and their relation to fishery resources.As campanhas de avaliação de recursos pesqueiros podem fornecer uma adequada base de dados para o monitoramento do zooplâncton. No entanto, o desenvolvimento de um esquema de amostragem apropriado constitui uma tarefa difícil, quando se deseja descrever as características do zooplâncton, com um mínimo de esforço amostral. No setor norte da Plataforma Continental Argentina (NACS, 34º - 41ºS, se projetou um desenho amostral em seções (18 amostras distribuídas em 4 seções, associadas à campanha de avaliação dos recursos pesqueiros de E. anchoita, visando conseguir uma estimativa rápida e confiável da distribuição do zooplâncton. Os resultados obtidos foram semelhantes aos registrados em estudos prévios, baseados na análise de um grande número amostral. Sugere-se o estabelecimento de uma nova serie temporal de dados que envolva uma área amostral alargada e um desenho amostral restrito, visando contribuir para o conhecimento da variação das populações zooplanctônicas e sua relação com os recursos pesqueiros.

  6. TOTAL ANKLE REPLACEMENT: WHY, WHEN AND HOW?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Dettoni, Federico; Femino, John E; Phisitkul, Phinit; Germano, Margherita; Amendola, Annunziato

    2010-01-01

    Total ankle replacement (TAR) was first attempted in the 1970s, but poor results led to its being considered inferior to ankle fusion until the late 1980s and early 1990s. By that time, newer designs which more closely replicated the natural anatomy of the ankle, showed improved clinical outcomes.1 Currently, even though controversy still exists about the effectiveness of TAR compared to ankle fusion, TAR has shown promising mid-term results and should no longer be considered an experimental procedure. Factors related to improved TAR outcomes include: 1) better patient selection, 2) more precise knowledge and replication of ankle biomechanics, 3) the introduction of less-constrained designs with reduced bone resection and no need for cementation, and 4) greater awareness of soft-tissue balance and component alignment. When TAR is performed, a thorough knowledge of ankle anatomy, pathologic anatomy and biomechanics is needed along with a careful pre-operative plan. These are fundamental in obtaining durable and predictable outcomes. The aim of this paper is to outline these aspects through a literature review. PMID:21045984

  7. Hypophosphatemia on the intensive care unit: individualized phosphate replacement based on serum levels and distribution volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bech, A.; Blans, M.; Raaijmakers, M.; Mulkens, C.; Telting, D.; Boer, H. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia occurs in about 25% of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. To date, a safe and validated phosphate replacement protocol is not available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an individualized phosphate replacement regimen. DESIGN: Fifty consecutive intensive care unit patie

  8. Modification of the Sheehan Knee arthroplasty for additional replacement of the femoropatellar articulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miehlke, R.; Croon, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    An alternative version of the Sheehan knee arthroplasty is presented allowing additional replacement of the patellofemoral joint as there is a definite need for replacement of this part of the knee joint in osteoarthritis. However, the original Sheehan design which is considered to be one of the bes

  9. Time Series Forecasting with Missing Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Fu Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Time series prediction has become more popular in various kinds of applications such as weather prediction, control engineering, financial analysis, industrial monitoring, etc. To deal with real-world problems, we are often faced with missing values in the data due to sensor malfunctions or human errors. Traditionally, the missing values are simply omitted or replaced by means of imputation methods. However, omitting those missing values may cause temporal discontinuity. Imputation methods, on the other hand, may alter the original time series. In this study, we propose a novel forecasting method based on least squares support vector machine (LSSVM. We employ the input patterns with the temporal information which is defined as local time index (LTI. Time series data as well as local time indexes are fed to LSSVM for doing forecasting without imputation. We compare the forecasting performance of our method with other imputation methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method is promising and is worth further investigations.

  10. 一种混联喷雾机械臂视觉定位系统设计%A Vision Positioning System Design of the Series-parallel Spraying Mechanical Arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 宗哲英; 张宾

    2014-01-01

    A vision positioning system was designed to realize robotized spray operations using the series -parallel spraying arms in greenhouse .The system can save plenty of pesticide comparing with continuous spaying and detect size and posi -tion coordinates of the object crop .DSP is used for controlling the motors of mechanical arm .The mechanical arm has 3 DOF series-parallel structure that has many advantages such as simple structure and controlling methods , lower cost , greater strength and rigidity .The experiments show that the system can meet requirements of precise spraying for the sin -gle crop canopy .%为实现自动化精准施药,避免对温室中单株作物连续喷药所造成的大量药液浪费,设计了一种基于机器视觉定位的自动化喷雾系统。该系统可自动对目标作物进行大小及位置的检测,由 DSP 控制喷雾机械臂实现针对目标作物的精准喷雾。机械臂采用了三自由度混联结构,具有结构简单、成本低、刚性好、便于控制解算等优点。实验证明,该系统完全可满足针对单株作物冠层的精准喷雾定位要求。

  11. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  12. VNR CMS Pixel detector replacement

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Joel Butler, spokesperson of the CMS collaboration explains how a team from many different partner institutes installed a new detector in CMS. This detector is the silicon pixel detector and they’ve been working on it for about five years, to replace one of our existing detectors. This detectors measures particles closer to the beam than any of the other components of this huge detector behind me. It gives us the most precise picture of tracks as they come out of the collisions and expand and travel through the detector. This particular device has twice as many pixels, 120 million, as opposed to about 68 million in the old detector and it can take data faster and pump it out to the analysis more quickly. 00’53’’ Images of the descent, insertion and installation of first piece of the Pixel detector on Tue Feb 28. Images of the descent, insertion and installation of second piece of the Pixel and the two cylinders being joined.

  13. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Prateek; Dhillon, Inderjit S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of compressed sensing where the goal is to recover almost all the sparse vectors using a small number of fixed linear measurements. For this problem, we propose a novel partial hard-thresholding operator that leads to a general family of iterative algorithms. While one extreme of the family yields well known hard thresholding algorithms like ITI (Iterative Thresholding with Inversion) and HTP (Hard Thresholding Pursuit), the other end of the spectrum leads to a novel algorithm that we call Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement (OMPR). OMPR, like the classic greedy algorithm OMP, adds exactly one coordinate to the support at each iteration, based on the correlation with the current residual. However, unlike OMP, OMPR also removes one coordinate from the support. This simple change allows us to prove that OMPR has the best known guarantees for sparse recovery in terms of the Restricted Isometry Property (a condition on the measurement matrix). In contrast, OMP is kn...

  14. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  15. [Animal experiment, can we replace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrisson, H

    2017-09-01

    Animal experiment is a subject of controversies. Some people, defenders of animals, think that it is not acceptable to use for scientific purposes at the risk of making them suffer or assert that the results obtained with animals are not transposable in the human beings. Others, in particular researchers in biology or medicine, think that the animal models are essential for the biomedical search. This confrontation of the opinions bases largely on an evolution of the place of animals in our society. The regulations authorize the use of animals for scientific purposes but oblige to make it under restrictive conditions. The application of 3Rs - replacement, reduction, and refinement - expressed in 1959 by Russel and Burch is an ethical guide to improve the welfare of animals in research. The alternative methods do not allow, in the present state of the knowledge, to answer all the scientific questions in biology and medicine research. They are, most of the time, complementary methods of the in vivo methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. 两种双腔串联压电泵结构设计与性能比较%Structural design and performance comparison of two kinds of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓锋; 杨志刚; 姜德龙

    2011-01-01

    In order to research structure effect on output performance of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series, two structural forms of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series with a diversion and no diversion slot were designed according to its working principle. The experimental samplers were manufactured and output performance experiments were carried out with water and air as the medium, respectively. The experimental results show that output flow rate of piezoelectric pump with two chambers in series with a diversion slot is better by powered 110 V sinusoidal AC drive voltage. The maximum output of liquid and gas flow rate are 1 100 mL/min and 650 mL/min, respectively, but residual bubble in the diversion slot is its disadvantage. Both the overall output pressure are closer and maximum output pressure reaches to 100 kPa. The self-priming performance of pump with no diversion slot is better and the largest self-priming water column height is 45 cm.%为研究结构形式对双腔串联压电泵输出性能的影响,根据其工作原理,设计了有导流槽和无导流槽两种结构形式的双腔串联有阀压电泵,并加工制造了试验样机,分别以水和空气为介质进行输出性能比较试验.试验结果表明,在110 V正弦交流电驱动下,有导流槽结构的双腔串联压电泵流量输出性能更好,输出的最大液体和气体流量分别为1100和650 mL/min,但容易在导流槽内残留气泡;两者压力输出性能整体上比较接近,最大输出压力可达100 kPa;无导流槽的双腔串联压电泵整体自吸性能更好,最大自吸高度为45 cm水柱.

  17. Biology of tooth replacement in amniotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John A Whitlock; Joy M Richman

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement is a common trait to most vertebrates, including mammals. Mammals, however, have lost the capacity for continuous tooth renewal seen in most other vertebrates, and typically have only 1–2 generations of teeth. Here, we review the mechanisms of tooth replacement in reptiles and mammals, and discuss in detail the current and historical theories on control of timing and pattern of tooth replacement and development.

  18. [Aortic valve replacement as an independent predictive factor for later development of aortic dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kodolitsch, Y; Simic, O; Bregenzer, T; Dresler, C; Haverich, A; Nienaber, C A

    1998-08-01

    Dissection of the ascending aorta (type A) following later after aortic valve replacement has been described with increasing frequency. This study analyzes the role of aortic valve replacement for the evolution of late dissection. In a series of 80 consecutive patients with type A dissection, a previous aortic valve replacement had been performed in 12 cases (15%). In addition to arterial hypertension (p syndrome (p factor for type A dissection. Dissection occurred 3 +/- 4 years after aortic valve replacement with a clinical and anatomical profile similar to classic dissection as proven by comparison to a group of 62 patients with classic dissection associated with arterial hypertension or Marfan syndrome. With 75% and 66%, respectively, 30 day and 1 year survival of patients with dissection following later after aortic valve replacement was similar to patients with classic type A dissection. Extensive thinning and/or fragility (p associated with a high risk for late dissection; this finding was substantiated by comparison to a control group of 10 consecutive patients with a similarly dilated aortic root but no dissection. Type and diameter of valve prostheses, cross-clamp time, NYHA functional class, and left ventricular ejection fraction were unrelated to late dissection. Previous aortic valve replacement is an independent predisposing factor for a dissection of the ascending aorta later. At the time of aortic valve replacement, prophylactic replacement or wrapping of the ascending aorta should be considered in patients with a thinned/fragile aortic wall even without a markedly dilated aortic root.

  19. Ares I Static Tests Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, William; Lindemuth, Kathleen; Mich, John; White, K. Preston; Parker, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic engineering design enhances safety and reduces costs by incorporating risk assessment directly into the design process. In this paper, we assess the format of the quantitative metrics for the vehicle which will replace the Space Shuttle, the Ares I rocket. Specifically, we address the metrics for in-flight measurement error in the vector position of the motor nozzle, dictated by limits on guidance, navigation, and control systems. Analyses include the propagation of error from measured to derived parameters, the time-series of dwell points for the duty cycle during static tests, and commanded versus achieved yaw angle during tests. Based on these analyses, we recommend a probabilistic template for specifying the maximum error in angular displacement and radial offset for the nozzle-position vector. Criteria for evaluating individual tests and risky decisions also are developed.

  20. Research on Construction Monitoring Techniques for Cable Replacement of the Cable-Stayed Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Pu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to various reasons, some cable-stayed bridges require the replacement of part or all stay cables after operating for a period of time. In this study, based on some engineering practices of stay cable replacement, the condition of bridge structure before replacement is analyzed with Finite Element Analysis method for plane member system. The theoretical calculations, cable force measurement, replacement methods and process monitoring for cable replacement are introduced to find out the key technical problems. From the specified bridge monitoring practices, we suggest monitoring cable tension and the main beam alignment during the process of cable replacement, to make sure the cable-stayed bridge reaches its design conditions.

  1. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part I. Cation series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L

    2016-12-01

    Different cationic salts were used to investigate the effects of the Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation. The effects of cationic salts on wheat flour dough mixing properties, the rheological and the chemical properties of the gluten extracted from the dough with different respective salts, were investigated. The specific influence of different cationic salts on the gluten structure formation during dough mixing, compared to the sodium ion, were determined. The effects of different cations on dough and gluten of different flours mostly followed the Hofmeister series (NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)). The impacts of cations on gluten structure and dough rheology at levels tested were relatively small. Therefore, the replacement of sodium from a technological standpoint is possible, particularly by monovalent cations such as NH4(+), or K(+). However the levels of replacement need to take into account sensory attributes of the cationic salts.

  2. Aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dark John H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims As our population ages and life expectancy increases the number of people aged over 80 and more referred for cardiac surgery is growing. This study sought to identify the outcome of aortic valve replacement (AVR in octogenarians. Methods 68 patients aged 80 years or more underwent AVR at the Freeman Hospital, between April 2001 and April 2004. A retrospective review of the notes and outcomes from the patients' GP and the NHS strategic tracking service was performed. 54% (37 underwent isolated AVR whilst 46% (31 underwent combined AVR and CABG. Results Follow up was 100% complete. The mean age was 83.1 ± s.d. 2.9 years, a mean gradient of 83 ± s.d. 31 mmHg and mean AVA of 0.56 cm2. The mean additive EuroSCORE was 8.6 ± s.d. 1.2, the logistic EuroSCORE mean 12.0 ± s.d. 5.9. In hospital 30 day mortality was 13 %. Survival was 80% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. Median follow up was for 712 days. Stepwise logistic regression identified chronic obstructive airways disease as an independent predictor of mortality (p Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the operative mortality for AVR in the over eighties is good, whilst the mid to long term outcome is excellent There is a very low attrition rate with those undergoing the procedure living as long than their age matched population. This study confirms AVR is a safe, acceptable treatment for octogenarians with excellent mid term outcomes.

  3. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  4. Total joint replacement preadmission programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, B

    1998-01-01

    Patients begin to formulate their expectations of the postoperative hospitalization during the preadmission program. The challenge is to better understand the factors patients consider when formulating judgments about the quality of preadmission education. For example, it may be that perceptions of the preadmission program are influenced by what patients believe about their postoperative pain and functional abilities. Specific attention needs to be given both preoperatively and postoperatively to instructing patients on realistic expectations for recovery. One other method of measuring patient outcomes is with the Health Status Profile (SF-36) (Response Healthcare Information Management, 1995). The SF-36 approach emphasizes the outcome of medical care as the patient sees it, in addition to a clinical evaluation of successful health care. This form is currently initiated in the physician's office and returned for scanning at the preadmission class. The patient then completes another SF-36 at 6 months and every year thereafter to compare measurable outcomes. Patients intending to have elective total joint replacements experience anxiety and require much support and education. An effective preadmission program is a major investment in a patient's recovery, as well as a unique marketing tool to customers. Preadmission programs can be viewed as an opportunity to enhance customer satisfaction. Preadmission clinics are an excellent means for nurses to improve the quality of patient care through patient education. the overall goal of preadmission testing programs is to ensure patient preparedness while increasing quality health care and overall customer satisfaction. To enhance program effectiveness, health care providers must lead collaborative efforts to improve the efficiency of systems.

  5. Can shared care deliver better outcomes for patients undergoing total hip replacement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendal, H.; Beekum, W.T. van; Nijhof, P.; Witte, L.P. de; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether shared care for patients undergoing total hip replacement delivers better outcomes compared to care as usual. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Setting: Two regions in the Netherlands where different organisational health care models have been

  6. J series thruster thermal test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Dulgeroff, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Test experience with J series ion thrusters have indicated that the present thruster design may result in excessive temperatures in areas which utilize organic materials such as wire insulation, with the resultant outgassing and potential contamination of insulating materials. Further, it appears that thermal data obtained with earlier thruster designs, such as the 700 series thruster, may not be directly applicable to the J series design. Two J series thrusters were fitted with thermocouples and critical temperatures measured for a variety of configurations and operating parameters. Completely enclosing the thruster to reduce facility contamination significantly increased temperatures prompting the selection of a compromise geometry for life testing. The operating parameter having the largest effect on temperatures was discharge power, while beam power affected little else than extraction system temperatures. Several off-normal operating modes were also investigated. Data believed to be sufficient to effectively modify existing thermal models were obtained from the tests.

  7. Fourier Series Operating Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnow, Milton L.

    1961-01-01

    This report presents a computer program for multiplying, adding, differentiating, integrating, "barring" and scalarly multiplying "literal" Fourier series as such, and for extracting the coefficients of specified terms.

  8. Update of the Body Armour Purchase and Replacement Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    introduction to the issues associated with developing a replacement protocol. The US Office of Law Enforcement Standards (OLES) response to the Zylon ...shooting and resulting injury of an officer wearing a vest made of Zylon ®, which was designed to defeat the round with which the officer was shot, the...applied research. A major conclusion of this work was that the performance of Zylon ® armour will degrade significantly if it is exposed to elevated

  9. Design, synthesis characterization and in vitro biological activity of a series of 3-aryl-6-(bromoarylmethyl)-7H-thiazolo[3,2-b]-1, 2, 4-triazin-7-one derivatives as the novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Nan Xu; Zhe Jin; Si Jie Liu; Hong Min Liu; Shuo Li; Huang Quan Lin; David Chicheong Wan; Chun Hu

    2012-01-01

    Bromination is used as a strategy to improve biological activity in medicinal chemistry.In order to study on the structure-activity relationships of the novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with 7H-thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazin-7-one scaffold,based on our previous work and molecular modeling,a series of novel 3-aryl-6-(bromoarylmethyl)-7H-thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazin-7-one derivatives were designed by molecular docking,synthesized and characterized by mass spectra,infrared spectra,proton NMR and elemental analyses.The study of AChE inhibitory activity was carried out using the Ellman colorimetric assay with huperzine-A as the positive control.Most of all target compounds exhibited more than 45% inhibition at 10 μmol/L.The preliminary structure-activity relationship was the bromine atoms and the hydroxyl group at the phenyl ring at the C6 position of the parent nucleus played significant roles in the AChE inhibitory activity of the target compounds.

  10. 基于简化VOLTERRA级数的数字预失真系统设计方法%Design Method for Digital Predistortion System Based on a Simplified Volterra Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海飞; 夏红娟; 韩非

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种基于Volterra级数的功放模型辨识简化方法,并设计了相应的数字预失真器,进行了MATLAB仿真。最后,搭建半实物的预失真平台验证基于Volterra级数的数字预失真器的线性化程度。实验得出功率放大器输出功率为40 dBm时,改善输出信号的ACPR(邻信道功率比)达15 dB以上,设计的数字预失真模块对功放的线性度改善效果明显。%Designes a digital predistortion system based on a simplified identification method using Volterra series.And uses the simulation of MATLAB to evaluate the performance of the system.Finally a hardware-in-loop simulation of the predistortion system is operated for validating the characteristics.The results indicate that the ACPR is improved by 15dB when output power is 40 dBm.In a word,the linearity of the power is improved by this adapted predistorter.

  11. 基于专业特点的双语系列课程设计与教学实施研究%Research on Bilingual Series Courses Design and Teaching Implementation Based on the Characteristics of Specialty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费丽娜; 苏丽丹

    2012-01-01

    高等职业教育是高等教育的一种类型,其教育的国际化水平是衡量高等职业教育水平的重要指标.本文分析了国土资源管理与测绘类专业双语系列课程的特性,提出了递进式双语系列课程设计模式,阐述了三阶段教学实施方案,对双语教学存在的问题提出了对策.%The higher vocational education is a type of higher education, the internationalization is a measure of an important indicator of the level of higher vocational education. This paper analyzes the characteristics of bilingual courses in the specialty of the land and resources management and surveying and mapping, proposes progressive bilingual series courses design model, describes the three stages of teaching implementation plan, and puts forward the countermeasures of bilingual education problems.

  12. 多产品串并联生产系统动态看板的设计和计算%An Approach to the Design of Dynamic Kanban System for a Multi-Product Series-Parallel Production System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金青; 丁兆国

    2011-01-01

    针对机电产品企业普遍采用的多品种、串并联生产系统,提出了批量轮番生产方式下采用动态看板作为控制手段时看板内容的设置和看板数量的计算方法,使得看板的内容和数量能随“需求”而动态变化,实现了“多品种均衡”生产和现场在制品数量的有效控制.%A multi-product series-parallel production system that is common in electro-mechanical product enterprises is considered. To increase the productivity and reduce the work in process (WIP) , a dynamic kanban system is designed such that the products can be produced in an alternate way. The product mix is dynamically controlled by the dynamic Kanbans. Algorithm is presented to calculate the number of kanbans such that the number of products for different types can be dynamically changed according to "the demands". Based on this approach, the "balance production of multi-products" can be realized and the number of WIP can be effectively controlled.

  13. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylotte, Darren; Osnabrugge, Ruben L J; Windecker, Stephan;

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy.......The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy....

  14. MMIC Replacement for Gunn Diode Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Thomas W.; Porterfield, David

    2011-01-01

    An all-solid-state replacement for high-frequency Gunn diode oscillators (GDOs) has been proposed for use in NASA s millimeter- and submillimeter-wave sensing instruments. Highly developed microwave oscillators are used to achieve a low-noise and highly stable reference signal in the 10-40-GHz band. Compact amplifiers and high-power frequency multipliers extend the signal to the 100-500-GHz band with minimal added phase noise and output power sufficient for NASA missions. This technology can achieve improved output power and frequency agility, while maintaining phase noise and stability comparable to other GDOs. Additional developments of the technology include: a frequency quadrupler to 145 GHz with 18 percent efficiency and 15 percent fixed tuned bandwidth; frequency doublers featuring 124, 240, and 480 GHz; an integrated 874-GHz subharmonic mixer with a mixer noise temperature of 3,000 K DSB (double sideband) and mixer conversion loss of 11.8 dB DSB; a high-efficiency frequency tripler design with peak output power of 23 mW and 14 mW, and efficiency of 16 and 13 percent, respectively; millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers to the 30-40 GHz band with high DC power efficiency; and an 874-GHz radiometer suitable for airborne observation with state-of-the-art sensitivity at room temperature and less than 5 W of total power consumption.

  15. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  16. Alternative materials to improve total hip replacement tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Seppo; Böhler, Max; Harris, William H; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Lappalainen, Reijo; Muratoglu, Orhun; Rieker, Claude; Salzer, Martin

    2003-08-01

    An improvement in tribology of bearing surfaces is an effective means of increasing the longevity of total hip replacement (THR). Currently, 3 approaches are available to achieve this aim: first, use of highly cross-linked UHMWPE; second, aluminum oxide ceramic bearings, and third, metal-on-metal bearings. Cross-linking reduces the wear resistance of UHMWPE markedly without impairment of other significant properties of the material. Simulator studies and some clinical long-term (10-22 years) follow-up surveys suggest an almost immeasurable wear of the highly cross-linked UHMWPE-based acetabular components during an expected clinical life span. Bioinert alumina ceramic (aluminum oxide) was introduced 3 decades ago for THR-bearing surfaces to improve performance and longevity. Alumina ceramic is entirely biostable and bioinert and has good mechanical properties. For correctly positioned alumina-on-alumina bearings, the annual linear wear rate has been reported to be 3.9 microm. Alumina heads have been successfully used in combination with polyethylene sockets, but as regards wear, the best results have been obtained with alumina-on-alumina bearings. In ceramic THR bearings, precise manufacture and contact surface geometry, including optimal clearance, are most important. For the currently available products, the component fracture risk is almost nonexistent (less than 1 per 1000). Metal-on-metal bearings were used in the early stage of THR surgery, although not all old designs were successful. More recent analyses of the early series have shown the advantages of metal-on-metal to be better and have led to a renaissance of this articulation. Initially, stainless steel was used because it was easy to manufacture and polish. Current metal-on-metal bearings are based on cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys with varying carbon contents. Such bearings are self-polishing. Linear wear rates remain at the level of a few microm a year. An improvement in technology has increased

  17. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves originates from

  18. Aortic valve replacement with the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure 12 years after mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, S; Kurata, A; Yamashita, Y

    1999-10-01

    An aortic valve replacement was successfully performed employing the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure in a case of aortic valve stenosis with small annulus 12 years after mitral valve replacement. Previous mitral valve replacement does not preclude feasibility of the Nicks procedure.

  19. Seri Kinship Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Mary B.; Marlett, Stephen A.

    The Seri language contains over 50 kinship terms and represents one of the most highly elaborated kinship systems described to date. This paper discusses Seri kinship terminology and centers around, but is not limited to, the set of obligatory possessed noun stems that are inflected with the following possessive prefixes": "hi-,""ma-," and "a-."…

  20. Time Series Momentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Ooi, Yao Hua; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    under-reaction and delayed over-reaction. A diversified portfolio of time series momentum strategies across all asset classes delivers substantial abnormal returns with little exposure to standard asset pricing factors and performs best during extreme markets. Examining the trading activities...... of speculators and hedgers, we find that speculators profit from time series momentum at the expense of hedgers....

  1. Periodic Time Series Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis book considers periodic time series models for seasonal data, characterized by parameters that differ across the seasons, and focuses on their usefulness for out-of-sample forecasting. Providing an up-to-date survey of the recent developments in periodic time series, the book

  2. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  3. Esthetic removable partial denture design in replacing maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Suk; Basho, Shveta

    2010-01-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation of missing maxillary anterior teeth requires special consideration to restore function and esthetics. This case report describes the prosthodontic management of a patient who lost three maxillary incisors due to a motor vehicle accident. A rotational path removable partial denture was constructed, for which a proximal undercut was created by means of a composite buildup to provide the retention for the prosthesis.

  4. Molecular Design and Evaluation of Biodegradable Polymers Using a Statistical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lewitus, Dan; Rios, Fabian; Rojas, Ramiro; Kohn, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The challenging paradigm of bioresorbable polymers, whether in drug delivery or tissue engineering, states that a fine-tuning of the interplay between polymer properties (e.g., thermal, degradation), and the degree of cell/tissue replacement and remodeling is required. In this paper we describe how changes in the molecular architecture of a series of terpolymers allow for the design of polymers with varying glass transition temperatures and degradation rates. The effect of each component in t...

  5. Short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention to improve mortality trends for paediatric severe malnutrition in rural South African hospitals: An interrupted time series design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Muzigaba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Case fatality rates for childhood severe acute malnutrition (SAM remain high in some resource-limited facilities in South Africa (SA, despite the widespread availability of the World Health Organization treatment guidelines. There is a need to develop reproducible interventions that reinforce the implementation of these guidelines and assess their effect and sustainability. Objectives. To assess the short-term and sustained effects of a health system strengthening intervention on mortality attributable to SAM in two hospitals located in the Eastern Cape Province of SA. Methods. This was a theory-driven evaluation conducted in two rural hospitals in SA over a 69-month period (2009 - 2014. In both facilities, a health system strengthening intervention was implemented within the first 32 months, and thereafter discontinued. Sixty-nine monthly data series were collected on: (i monthly total SAM case fatality rate (CFR; (ii monthly SAM CFR within 24 hours of admission; and (iii monthly SAM CFR among HIV-positive cases, to determine the intervention’s effect within the first 32 months and sustainability over the remaining 37 months. The data were analysed using Linden’s method for analysing interrupted time series data. Results. The study revealed that the intervention was associated with a statistically significant decrease of up to 0.4% in monthly total SAM CFR, a non-statistically significant decrease of up to 0.09% in monthly SAM CFR within 24 hours of admission and a non-statistically significant decrease of up to 0.11% in monthly SAM CFR among HIV-positive cases. The decrease in mortality trends for both outcomes was only slightly reversed upon the discontinuation of the intervention. No autocorrelation was detected in the regression models generated during data analyses. Conclusion. The study findings suggest that although the intervention was designed to be self-sustaining, this may not have been the case. A qualitative enquiry

  6. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  7. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison for Series-Parallel and Series-Series Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles – PART 2/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Series-series and series-parallel topologies are the most favored topologies for design of wireless power transfer system for vehicle applications. The series-series topology has the advantage of reflecting only the resistive part on the primary side. On the other hand, the current source output...... characteristics of the series-parallel topology are more suited for the battery of the vehicle. This paper compares the two topologies in terms of magnetic emissions to the surroundings for the same input power, primary current, quality factor and inductors. Theoretical and simulation results show that the series......-parallel topology emits lesser magnetic field to the surroundings as compared to its series-series counterpart. The results have been provided for ratio of the magnetic emissions for the two topologies at different quality factor, vertical distance between the inductors and turn ratio of the coils....

  8. Compliant mechanism road bicycle brake: a rigid-body replacement case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Howell, Larry L [NON LANL; Magleby, Spencer P [NON LANL

    2011-01-19

    The design of high-performance bicycle brakes is complicated by the competing design objectives of increased performance and low weight. But this challenge also provides a good case study to demonstrate the design of compliant mechanisms to replace current rigid-link mechanisms. This paper briefly reviews current road brake designs, demonstrates the use of rigid-body replacement synthesis to design a compliant mechanism, and illustrates the combination of compliant mechanism design tools. The resulting concept was generated from the modified dual-pivot brake design and is a partially compliant mechanism where one pin has the dual role of a joint and a mounting pin. The pseudo-rigid-body model, finite element analysis, and optimization algorithms are used to generate design dimensions, and designs are considered for both titanium and E-glass flexures. The resulting design has the potential of reducing the part count and overall weight while maintaining a performance similar to the benchmark.

  9. Reduction of Microbial Population in Cheese Whey by UV in a Single and Series Conventional Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effectiveness of two conventional UV reactors in series for the online sterilization of cheese whey was compared to that of a single conventional reactor. The single reactor and the two reactor series were tested at eleven flow rates (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60 and 70 mL min-1 and five flow rates, (35, 40, 50, 60, 70 mL min-1, respectively. 100% destruction efficiency could not be achieved in the single reactor. When two reactors were connected in series, the destruction efficiency reached 100% at the flow rate of 35 mL min-1 and lasted for 25 min. The temperature of the effluent decreased with the increase in flow rate in both systems. The rate of microbial destruction in the single reactor and the two reactor series was described by an exponential equation. The maximum effluent temperatures in the single reactor and the two reactor series were 45.8 and 36.0°C, respectively. The flow in both reactors was laminar (Re=1.39 at 5mL min-1 and Re= 20.10 at 70 mL min-1. Visual observation revealed less fouling on the UV lamps of two reactor series than the single reactor. A different design in which there is no contact between the liquid and the UV lamp should be investigated. The quartz sleeve could also be replaced with fluropolymer coiled tube around the UV lamp. The smooth surface of the fluropolymer would reduce scaling and extend the effective operating time.

  10. Ligand placement based on prior structures: the guided ligand-replacement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klei, Herbert E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Moriarty, Nigel W., E-mail: nwmoriarty@lbl.gov; Echols, Nathaniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545-0001 (United States); Baldwin, Eric T. [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Natural Discovery LLC, Princeton, NJ 08542-0096 (United States); Pokross, Matt; Posy, Shana [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08543-4000 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1762 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), has been developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods for modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein–ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications, GLR

  11. Percutaneous tricuspid valve replacement in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Emmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous replacement of the tricuspid valve with a bovine jugular venous valve (melody valve was successfully undertaken in a 9-year-old boy. The patient had a previous history of bacterial endocarditis of the native tricuspid valve in infancy. Initially, a pericardial patch valve was created, followed by surgical replacement of the valve using a biological tissue valve at 4 years of age. Progressive stenosis and regurgitation of the biological valve, with severe venous congestion and resulting hepatic dysfunction prompted percutaneous valve replacement.

  12. 野外叶面积指数自动测量仪器设计及应用试验%Design and applied experiment of long time series leaf area index measuring instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温一博; 范文义; 常颖; 李明泽; 于宏洲; 王宇航

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) objectively describes the number of leaves, is a key parameter controlling many biological and physical processes associated with vegetation on the earth’s surface, such as photosynthesis, carbon and nutrient cycle, radiative balance, evapotranspiration, and rainfall interception. Thus, LAI is widely used in models of ecology, hydrology, biogeochemistry and climate. Accurately measuring LAI is one of the hotspots in the study of earth science. Long time series LAI is an important input parameter of daily forest carbon and water cycle models, and its accuracy directly influences the result of the model simulation. At present, site measurements of Long time series LAI data expend a large number of repeated manual operations, and produce a great error in the operation. An instrument, with which LAI can be indirectly measured in the field for a long time, was designed in this study. This instrument consisted of solar power system, single-chip microcomputer control system and time control system. The single-chip microcomputer control system was mainly made up of Arduino UNO microcontroller, clock module, storage module, display monitor module steering engine, light intensity sensor, temperature sensor and humidity sensor. In order to prevent the extra light intensity of a single direction that affected the accuracy of measurement, the measuring time was set at 7:00-8:00 and 16:00-17:00 by the time-control system. The solar batteries provided durable electric energy for the instrument. The vertical and horizontal rotary servos were controlled by microcontroller which drove the light sensor to record the light intensity from different solar zenith angles. It can record the light intensity from the zenith angles of 0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°. Two instruments were used at the same time to measure LAI. One instrument was placed under the forest canopy in a plot to measure light intensity through the canopy, another instrument was placed in some

  13. Our Experience with Patello femoral joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Pablo; Arteaga, Gonzalo; Vargas, Medardo; Naranjo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ten to fifteen percent of knee arthritis is reported to be isolated patellofemoral arthritis. Total knee arthroplasty is not recommended for isolated patella femoral arthritis particularly in young patients. We present the retrospective review our series in 7 years. Objectives: The aim of this presentation is to describe our experience in the management of patellofemoral osteoarthritis with the use of the partial patellofemoral arthroplasty, as well as to delineate the pitfalls and causes of revision in our initial series of 153 cases. Methods: between 2009 and 2016, our group performed 157 patellofemoral arthroplasties (PFA) 74% being in women, and 26% in men, the mean age for women was 58 yrs. And 38 yrs. for men, our initial 13 cases were managed with the Avon prosthesis (Stryker Corporation Kalamazoo, Michigan), and then we switched to the Vanguard PF (Zimmer-Biomet Warsaw In), both systems are an On-Lay design that is more flexible for addressing dysplastic trochleas that are more common in our population. Results: We performed a Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) for the assessment of the success of the procedure and obtained 87% of patients with excellent results (95 to 100), 10% with fair results (70 to 90) and 3% with poor outcomes (50), we performed a total of 3 revisions due to pain or progress to global arthritis. Conclusion: The PFA is a successful, safe and reproducible surgery that can be used in the group of patients that have isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis. It requires a thorough knowledge of the patello femoral joint biomechanics, and physiopathology.

  14. Prosthetic knee design by simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollerbach, K; Hollister, A

    1999-07-30

    Although 150,000 total knee replacement surgeries are performed annually in North America, current designs of knee prostheses have mechanical problems that include a limited range of motion, abnormal gait patterns, patellofemoral joint dysfunction, implant loosening or subsidence, and excessive wear. These problems fall into three categories: failure to reproduce normal joint kinematics, which results in altered limb function; bone-implant interface failure; and material failure. Modern computer technology can be used to design, prototype, and test new total knee implants. The design team uses the full range of CAD-CAM to design and produce implant prototypes for mechanical and clinical testing. Closer approximation of natural knee kinematics and kinetics is essential for improved patient function and diminished implant loads. Current knee replacement designs are based on 19th Century theories that the knee moves about a variable axis of rotation. Recent research has shown, however, that knee motion occurs about two fixed, offset axes of rotation. These aces are not perpendicular to the long axes of the bones or to each other, and the axes do not intersect. Bearing surfaces of mechanisms that move about axes of rotation are surfaces of revolution of those axes which advanced CAD technology can produce. Solids with surfaces of revolution for the two axes of rotation for the knee have been made using an HP9000 workstation and Structural Ideas Master Series CAD software at ArthroMotion. The implant's CAD model should closely replicate movements of the normal knee. The knee model will have a range of flexion-extension (FE) from -5 to 120 degrees. Movements include varus, valgus, internal and external rotation, as well as flexion and extension. The patellofemoral joint is aligned perpendicular to the FE axis and replicates the natural joint more closely than those of existing prostheses. The bearing surfaces will be more congruent than current designs and should

  15. LS1 Report: A stubborn cavity will soon be replaced

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Testing on the LHC’s replacement RF cryomodule was completed last week in SM18. This module will bring them all to design-level, replacing a faulty cavity that has been acting up since the machine’s start-up.   A LHC cryomodule undergoes testing in SM18. Distributed between four cryomodules, the LHC is home to a total of 16 radiofrequency (RF) cavities. Each is designed to provide a 2 MV accelerating field… and all but one has been succeeding at this job. Ever since the machine’s startup, one stubborn cavity in a Point 4 module has quenched whenever it had to stay at 2 MV. The accelerator team found that no amount of conditioning could get the cavity to behave, and the highest continuous wave voltage it could perform at was 1.3 MV. “This was fine for physics,” says Pierre Maesen, who is leading the repair and replacement of the LHC’s cryomodules. “We were able to compensate for this ‘missing’...

  16. A Series of Experiment Items Design for Firewall Technology Based on Open Source Code Software%基于开放源代码的防火墙实验项目设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康佳; 方贤进

    2014-01-01

    At present, the course of computer network security has been widely set for specialty of computer, information securi-ty, and that, the firewall technology is an important part of the course of computer network security. If the special firewall hard-ware equipment is used for experiments, it has some disadvantages, such as expensive price, unexposed inner techniques and so on. In this paper, a series of experiment items for firewall techniques are designed based on Linux OS open source code software, which can reduce the cost of experiment teaching, make the students clearly understand the firewall techniques and improve prac-tical specialty ability of the students.%当前计算机网络安全课程已经广泛地开设于计算机及信息安全等相关专业,而防火墙技术又是计算机网络安全课程的重要内容之一。用专用硬件防火墙作为实验设备具有价格昂贵、内部技术不透明的缺点,因此本文设计一系列基于Linux操作系统开放源代码的防火墙技术实验,这样不仅可以降低教学实验成本,也能让学生更清楚地了解各种防火墙技术及实现,增强学生的专业实践能力。

  17. Analysis of series resonant converter with series-parallel connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Ren; Huang, Chien-Lan

    2011-02-01

    In this study, a parallel inductor-inductor-capacitor (LLC) resonant converter series-connected on the primary side and parallel-connected on the secondary side is presented for server power supply systems. Based on series resonant behaviour, the power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors are turned on at zero voltage switching and the rectifier diodes are turned off at zero current switching. Thus, the switching losses on the power semiconductors are reduced. In the proposed converter, the primary windings of the two LLC converters are connected in series. Thus, the two converters have the same primary currents to ensure that they can supply the balance load current. On the output side, two LLC converters are connected in parallel to share the load current and to reduce the current stress on the secondary windings and the rectifier diodes. In this article, the principle of operation, steady-state analysis and design considerations of the proposed converter are provided and discussed. Experiments with a laboratory prototype with a 24 V/21 A output for server power supply were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  18. The Effect of Integration of Self-Management Web Platforms on Health Status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Management in Primary Care (e-Vita Study): Interrupted Time Series Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talboom-Kamp, Esther Pwa; Verdijk, Noortje A; Kasteleyn, Marise J; Harmans, Lara M; Talboom, Irvin Jsh; Looijmans-van den Akker, Ingrid; van Geloven, Nan; Numans, Mattijs E; Chavannes, Niels H

    2017-08-16

    Worldwide nearly 3 million people die from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) every year. Integrated disease management (IDM) improves quality of life for COPD patients and can reduce hospitalization. Self-management of COPD through eHealth is an effective method to improve IDM and clinical outcomes. The objective of this implementation study was to investigate the effect of 3 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease eHealth programs applied in primary care on health status. The e-Vita COPD study compares different levels of integration of Web-based self-management platforms in IDM in 3 primary care settings. Patient health status is examined using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). The parallel cohort design includes 3 levels of integration in IDM (groups 1, 2, 3) and randomization of 2 levels of personal assistance for patients (group A, high assistance, group B, low assistance). Interrupted time series (ITS) design was used to collect CCQ data at multiple time points before and after intervention, and multilevel linear regression modeling was used to analyze CCQ data. Of the 702 invited patients, 215 (30.6%) registered to a platform. Of these, 82 participated in group 1 (high integration IDM), 36 in group 1A (high assistance), and 46 in group 1B (low assistance); 96 participated in group 2 (medium integration IDM), 44 in group 2A (high assistance) and 52 in group 2B (low assistance); also, 37 participated in group 3 (no integration IDM). In the total group, no significant difference was found in change in CCQ trend (P=.334) before (-0.47% per month) and after the intervention (-0.084% per month). Also, no significant difference was found in CCQ changes before versus after the intervention between the groups with high versus low personal assistance. In all subgroups, there was no significant change in the CCQ trend before and after the intervention (group 1A, P=.237; 1B, P=.991; 2A, P=.120; 2B, P=.166; 3, P=.945). The e-Vita eHealth-supported COPD

  19. Trials and Tribulations with VH Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhao eMeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VH replacement is a type of antibody gene rearrangement in which an upstream heavy chain variable gene segment (VH invades a pre-existing rearrangement (VDJ. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we begin by reviewing the mechanism of VH replacement, its developmental timing and its potential biological consequences. Then we explore the hypothesis that specific sequence motifs called footprints reflect VH replacement vs. other processes. We provide a compilation of footprint sequences from different regions of the antibody heavy chain, include data from the literature and from a high throughput sequencing experiment to evaluate the significance of footprint sequences. We conclude by discussing the difficulties of attributing footprints to VH replacement.

  20. Gyrator-type circuits replace ungrounded inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Gyrator circuits using only transistors, capacitors, and resistors which can replace both grounded and ungrounded inductors have been developed to permit complete microminiaturization of circuitry by integration of the components.

  1. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  2. Total ankle replacement - surgical treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Krogulec, Zbigniew; Turski, Piotr; Przepiórski, Emil; Małdyk, Paweł; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Functions of the ankle joint are closely connected with the gait and ability to maintain an upright position. Degenerative lesions of the joint directly contribute to postural disorders and greatly restrict propulsion of the foot, thus leading to abnormal gait. Development of total ankle replacement is connected with the use of the method as an efficient treatment of joint injuries and continuation of achievements in hip and knee surgery. The total ankle replacement technique was introduced as an alternative to arthrodesis, i.e. surgical fixation, which made it possible to preserve joint mobility and to improve gait. Total ankle replacement is indicated in post-traumatic degenerative joint disease and joint destruction secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, total ankle replacement and various types of currently used endoprostheses are discussed. The authors also describe principles of early postoperative rehabilitation as well as rehabilitation in the outpatient setting.

  3. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... Operator License, Marine Radio Operator Permit, First Class Radiotelegraph Operator's Certificate, Second... Radio Operator's License, Restricted GMDSS Radio Operator License, GMDSS Radio Maintainer's License,...

  4. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  5. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  6. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  7. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement Therapy (GRT) In Sickle Cell Anemia. ... manifesting clinical disease, while the heterozygoste(AS) are clinically ... medicine, we argue here the case for Bone marrow transplantation

  8. Ionic Liquids to Replace Hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelfgen, Syri; Sims, Joe; Forton, Melissa; Allan, Barry; Rogers, Robin; Shamshina, Julia

    2011-01-01

    A method for developing safe, easy-to-handle propellants has been developed based upon ionic liquids (ILs) or their eutectic mixtures. An IL is a binary combination of a typically organic cation and anion, which generally produces an ionic salt with a melting point below 100 deg C. Many ILs have melting points near, or even below, room temperature (room temperature ionic liquids, RTILs). More importantly, a number of ILs have a positive enthalpy of formation. This means the thermal energy released during decomposition reactions makes energetic ILs ideal for use as propellants. In this specific work, to date, a baseline set of energetic ILs has been identified, synthesized, and characterized. Many of the ILs in this set have excellent performance potential in their own right. In all, ten ILs were characterized for their enthalpy of formation, density, melting point, glass transition point (if applicable), and decomposition temperature. Enthalpy of formation was measured using a microcalorimeter designed specifically to test milligram amounts of energetic materials. Of the ten ILs characterized, five offer higher Isp performance than hydrazine, ranging between 10 and 113 seconds higher than the state-of-the-art propellant. To achieve this level of performance, the energetic cations 4- amino-l,2,4-triazolium and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazolium were paired with various anions in the nitrate, dicyanamide, chloride, and 3-nitro-l,2,4-triazole families. Protonation, alkylation, and butylation synthesis routes were used for creation of the different salts.

  9. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  10. Multivariate Time Series Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical...

  11. Impact of the FUTURES series. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FUTURES series in affecting junior high school students` attitudes towards math and careers. FUTURES is a series of 12 programs designed to encourage positive attitudes in students towards math and science. The series illustrates their relevance to a variety of careers. The programs are hosted by Jaime Escalante and targeted to seventh to 12th grade students, with a special focus on minority students. This study looked at the long-term effects of the FUTURES series under classroom conditions. This study was designed to measure the effectiveness of the series in: (1) increasing positive attitudes toward math and science in school; (2) motivating students to have more positive attitudes about their future careers; (3) widening the possible choices of careers that involve the use of math and science; and, (4) creating an understanding of the relevance of math and science to careers and daily life. In addition, this study examined the appeal of the series, the students` understanding of program content, and how the series was used in the classroom.

  12. Synthesis of Dibenzylidene Sorbitol Series Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Rongxiu; CHEN Ligong; HOU Zhongke; SONG Jian

    2007-01-01

    A series of alditol derivatives were designed and synthesized with relatively high yield. On the basis of reaction between sorbitol and a series of substituted benzaldehyde in the presence of an acid catalyst, a series of acetal derivatives were synthesized through free hydroxyl esterification. D-sorbitol acetal amido derivatives were prepared by reduction of nitryl and acylation of amino. Dsorbitol acetal carboxyl esterification derivatives were prepared through esterification and hydrolysis. By high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra (HPLC-MS) and H nuclear magneticresonance spectra (1 H-NMR), 36 compounds prepared were identified. Among these derivatives prepared, 26 compounds have not been reported in the previous literatures.

  13. Surgical phantom for off-pump mitral valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Jones, Doug L.; Campbell, Gordon; Peters, Terry M.

    2011-03-01

    Off-pump, intracardiac, beating heart surgery has the potential to improve patient outcomes by eliminating the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamping but it requires extensive image guidance as well as the development of specialized instrumentation. Previously, developments in image guidance and instrumentation were validated on either a static phantom or in vivo through porcine models. This paper describes the design and development of a surgical phantom for simulating off-pump mitral valve replacement inside the closed beating heart. The phantom allows surgical access to the mitral annulus while mimicking the pressure inside the beating heart. An image guidance system using tracked ultrasound, magnetic instrument tracking and preoperative models previously developed for off-pump mitral valve replacement is applied to the phantom. Pressure measurements and ultrasound images confirm the phantom closely mimics conditions inside the beating heart.

  14. The spectrum of transcatheter mitral valve replacement devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudiy, Yuriy; Brownlee, Andrew; Ruiz, Carlos E

    2016-06-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most common valvular heart disease. The gold standard for patients not suitable for valve repair is a surgical valve replacement. A significant proportion of patients, however are not referred for surgery due to comorbidities, advanced age or severe LV dysfunction. Transcatheter mitral valve replacement may be a viable therapeutic option for these high risk patients. With improvements in technology and data on the durability of the transcatheter mitral valve, this technology has the potential to be used in a lower risk population. A number of transcatheter systems have emerged recently and are at different stages of investigation. In this review, we outline the key elements and challenges of the transcatheter mitral valve design as well as the status of devices that have reached First in Man status.

  15. Infective endocarditis following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Gary; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ihlemann, Nikolaj;

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult.......Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult....

  16. Long time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisdal, H.; Holmqvist, E.; Hyvärinen, V.;

    Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the......Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the...

  17. Long time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisdal, H.; Holmqvist, E.; Hyvärinen, V.

    Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the......Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the...

  18. Ameloblastic carcinoma: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appaji Athota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastic carcinoma is a rare odontogenic tumor exhibiting not only features of ameloblastoma but also features of carcinoma in either or both primary and metastatic lesions. Clinical features of this lesion are more aggressive and rapid than those of ameloblastoma. At times, it can metastasize to the lung or regional lymph nodes. Histologically, there is a picture of both ameloblastoma and carcinoma. Treatment is aggressive and has to be designed for each individual patient. English literature is sparse for this condition, as fewer cases have been reported till date. We report a series of four cases with different treatment modalities.

  19. [Replacement of tracheo-esophageal Provox prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biacabe, B; Laccourreye, O; Ménard, M; Hans, S; Brasnu, D

    2000-02-01

    To compare anesthesic techniques used between 1992 and 1997 at Laënnec Hospital for replacement by tracheo-esophageal Provox prosthesis: local and general anesthesia. Theoretical financial cost for replacement was estimated according to anaesthetic techniques. Provox in situ lifetime was calculated in 58 patients who underwent 115 and 49 replacements under general and local anaesthesia respectively. Age, sex, surgical and radiotherapy backgrounds, complications and anaesthetic techniques were studied as potential factors correlated with Provox in situ lifetime. Theoretical financial cost for replacement was estimated according to anaesthetic techniques. In 1992, 12% of Provox prosthesis were inserted under local anaesthesia and 54% in 1997. Provox in situ lifetime was either not influenced by anaesthetic techniques or other factors under analysis. The theoretical financial cost was estimated at 14, 341 FFrs and 6,048 FFrs for replacement under general and local anaesthesia respectively. Due to increased control of health care costs, we advocated local anaesthesia for Provox prosthesis replacement if control endoscopy is not required.

  20. Balancing innovation and medical device regulation: the case of modern metal-on-metal hip replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Due to problems with wear particle generation and subsequent loosening using conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacements, there has been a shift toward alternative bearing systems, including metal-on-metal (MoM), for younger, more active patients with degenerative joint disease. Based on positive results from early short-term clinical studies, MoM hip replacements were readily adopted by orthopedic surgeons with thousands being implanted worldwide over the past decade. Unacceptably high revision rates reported by two national joint registries called into question the rigorousness of the regulatory approval process for these implants, particularly with respect to premarket data requirements to prove safety, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the regulatory pathway chosen. The purpose of this review was to investigate the balance between facilitating the introduction of new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment. The case of MoM hip replacement devices was used to frame the investigation and subsequent discussions. The regulatory approval processes and post-market surveillance requirements associated with three common MoM hip replacements (two resurfacings: the Birmingham and articular surface replacement and the articular surface replacement XL total hip replacement) were investigated. With respect to modern MoM hip replacement devices, the balance between facilitating the introduction of these new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment was not achieved. The lessons learned from these experiences have application beyond joint replacements to the introduction of new medical technologies in general, particularly for those who have a significant potential for harm. In this regard, a series of recommendations have been developed to contribute to the evolution of the medical device regulatory process

  1. Osteogenesis Imperfecta Model Peptides: Incorporation of Residues Replacing Gly within a Triple Helix Achieved by Renucleation and Local Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jianxi; Madhan, Balaraman; Li, Yingjie; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Missense mutations, which replace one Gly with a larger residue in the repeating sequence of the type I collagen triple helix, lead to the hereditary bone disorder osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Previous studies suggest that these mutations may interfere with triple-helix folding. NMR was used to investigate triple-helix formation in a series of model peptides where the residue replacing Gly, as well as the local sequence environment, was varied. NMR measurement of translational diffusion coef...

  2. Hydraulic distension of the knee: a novel treatment for arthrofibrosis after total knee replacement (case series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, Peter M; Donohue, Michael A; Cannova, Christopher J; Caulfield, J Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a common problem, which can be frustrating to both the patient and treating physician and can dramatically compromise post-operative function. Current treatment options for TKA arthrofibrosis include watchful waiting, injections, physical therapy, manipulation under anaesthesia, arthroscopic/open lysis of adhesions and revision surgery. We present a novel technique to treat acute and chronic stiffness following TKA, which we call hydraulic distension. A retrospective pre- and post-operative inpatient and outpatient record review of three patients treated with hydraulic distension for arthrofibrosis following TKA at a single institution. Three patients with a mean age of 74 years (68-78) underwent hydraulic distension of the knee at a mean of 23.4 ± 18.4 months (9 weeks to 36 months) following primary TKA. The mean pre-distension maximum flexion was 86.7 ± 10.4°, and the mean post-distension flexion was 110 ± 13.2° (23.3° increase). The patients maintained a mean 110 ± 20° flexion (23.3° increase) at a mean follow-up of 11.7 months (1 week to 29 months). There were no complications. We present a novel technique for managing arthrofibrosis following TKA that has not been previously reported. This is an effective, safe procedure, with our patients experiencing a mean 23° increased knee flexion at the most recent follow-up. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Patient-prosthesis mismatch: surgical aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement in high risk patients with aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Ravi K; Kron, Irving L

    2016-10-01

    Patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM) can occur when a prosthetic aortic valve has an effective orifice area (EOA) less than that of a native valve. A recent study by Zorn and colleagues evaluated the incidence and significance of PPM in high risk patients with severe aortic stenosis who were randomized to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). TAVR is associated with decreased incidence of severe PPM compared to traditional SAVR valves. Severe PPM increases risk for death at 1 year postoperatively in high risk patients. The increased incidence of PPM is largely due to differences in valve design and should encourage development of newer SAVR valves to reduce risk for PPM. In addition more vigorous approaches to root enlargement in small annulus should be performed with SAVR to prevent PPM.

  4. On Sums of Numerical Series and Fourier Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, H. Germano; de Oliveira, E. Capelas

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series, on a conveniently chosen interval, can be used to calculate several numerical series. Particular cases are presented and two recent results involving numerical series are recovered. (Contains 1 note.)

  5. Convergence for Fourier Series Solutions of the Forced Harmonic Oscillator II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper compliments two recent articles by the author in this journal concerning solving the forced harmonic oscillator equation when the forcing is periodic. The idea is to replace the forcing function by its Fourier series and solve the differential equation term-by-term. Herein the convergence of such series solutions is investigated when…

  6. Failures of the RM finger prosthesis joint replacement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A; Lakshmipathy, R; Irwin, L R

    2011-09-01

    In our unit a high failure rate of the RM finger prosthesis joint replacement system was noted, prompting a review of cases. A series of patients underwent implantation under the care of one surgeon and the results were monitored. Twenty-one devices were implanted of which 16 were inserted for rheumatoid disease. Patients were reviewed regularly and the implant performance was assessed critically along with survival of the implant to revision, infection or death of the patient. The mean follow-up was 32 months. Unacceptable failure rates at early and medium term stages were identified, with 15 of the implants revised by 2 years. Loosening was the commonest mode of failure. The authors do not recommend the use of this implant, especially in cases of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Possible removal of topiramate by continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Linda; Parker, Dennis; Liu-DeRyke, Xi; Shah, Aashit; Coplin, William M; Rhoney, Denise H

    2010-01-15

    Topiramate is primarily renally eliminated and requires dosage adjustment based upon renal function. While there is data to suggest drug removal during intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), little is known regarding its clearance and dosing during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). We describe a 59-year-old man with refractory status epilepticus who was started on continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) for acute renal failure while receiving topiramate with a series of serum concentrations to assess for removal during CVVHDF. Our data suggest clinically important amounts of topiramate are removed by CRRT, and higher topiramate dosage may be needed for these patients instead of the current recommended 50% of normal dosage. Unfortunately, there is no antiepileptic drug dosing recommendation when used during CRRT due to the paucity of data. This case highlights a need for research evaluating the effect of CRRT on AED elimination in order to optimize therapy for seizure control.

  8. The Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and the ideal biomechanical requirements of ankle replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Shibby; Salih, Alan; Ghosh, Koushik; Vinayakam, Parthiban

    2016-03-01

    The complex anatomy of the articular bone surfaces, ligaments, tendon attachments and muscles makes the ankle joint difficult to replicate in prosthetic replacements. Ever since the early 1970s, which saw the dawn of the first total ankle replacements, there have been numerous other attempts at replicating the joint, often with poor clinical outcomes. The anatomy of the ankle is discussed, followed by evidence of the normal ankle biomechanics and the ideal requirements of an ankle replacement. We focus on the Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and evaluate whether these requirements have been met.

  9. Changing the guard: Polymer replaces porcelain for surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytt, T.; Gleimar, H. E. G.

    2002-07-01

    Surge arresters are safety devices which quickly and effectively limit the over voltages that can arise in transmission networks following lightning, switching and other transient events. The earliest forms of overvoltage protection, a simple air gap between electrodes, have long since been replaced by a new generation of gapless arresters with series-connected, non-linear zinc oxide varistors contained in a porcelain housing. Now these porcelain type surge arresters are being replaced by a new type, called PEXLIM (Polymeric EXcellent LIMiter), which uses the same block of zinc oxide as the porcelain type, but its housing is made of silicon rubber, a polymer. The new lightweight insulation material shows a number of properties superior to the porcelain, such as enhanced product safety and ease of handling. It is also more durable, resilient, yet solid and compact, water-repellent, lightweight, resistant to aging or light or ultra-violet radiation, as well as fire, has good electrical properties, and is environmentally friendly since it does not contain any substances harmful to the environment. These properties make this new type of surge arrester highly suitable for use in earthquake-prone areas; it can also replace more expensive and maintenance-intensive equipment. Having successfully broken into the lower voltage systems, these new type of surge arresters are now rapidly gaining ground at the higher voltage levels. ABB, the developer of PEXLIM, has already supplied these arresters to North America for use in an 800-kV grid. As further proof of its growing popularity, last year PEXLIM made up over half of the surge arrester production for applications up to and including 245 kV. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  10. 基于IGBT串联技术的混合式高压直流断路器方案%A Hybrid High Voltage DC Circuit Breaker Design Plan With Series-Connected IGBTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    药韬; 温家良; 李金元; 陈中圆

    2015-01-01

    Vigorously developing renewable energy will be an inevitable choice to solve the unbalanced distribution of energy resources, ease the tension between electricity supply and demand, and achieve sustainable economic development in China. To integrate conventional DC transmission technology and flexible DC transmission technology, establishing HVDC grid would be an effective means to solve the problem of large scale grid-connected of renewable energy. In this paper the history of HVDC circuit breaker is reviewed, the latest research results are introduced, the current challenges for HVDC circuit breaker are illustrated. Also the typical topological structure, working principle, advantages and shortcomings of different types of HVDC circuit breaker are analyzed and compared. Based on this, a new hybrid HVDC circuit breaker design with series-connected insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) is presented, and the topology characteristics and its working principles are introduced in details. Zhoushan five-terminal DC transmission system is modeled and simulated in the PSCAD/EMTDC software to verify its feasibility.%大力发展可再生能源将是解决我国能源资源分布不平衡,电力供需紧张,实现经济可持续发展的必然选择.综合常规直流输电技术和柔性直流输电技术,建立高压直流电网将是解决大规模可再生能源并网问题的有效手段.回顾高压直流断路器的发展历程,介绍当前最新的研究成果,阐明现阶段高压直流断路器将要面临的挑战,分析比较不同类型高压直流断路器的典型拓扑结构、工作原理和优缺点.在此基础上提出一种基于绝缘栅双极型晶体管(insulated gate bipolar transistor,IGBT)串联技术的混合式高压直流断路器方案,详细介绍其拓扑结构、特点和工作原理,基于舟山5端直流工程在PSCAD/EMTDC软件中搭建仿真模型验证了其可行性.

  11. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... member of our patient care team. Managing Your Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression ...

  12. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... member of our patient care team. Managing Your Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression ...

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  14. Comparing contemporary revision burden among hip and knee joint replacement registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McGrory, MD, MS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Revision burden has gradually decreased for hip replacements and has remained relatively constant for knee replacements both for the last 4 years and compared to historic controls. Knee revision burden was lower than hip revision burden for each period examined. Revision burden is one measure that may be helpful in following the effect of changes in surgical technique and implant design over time in registry populations and may be a helpful way to compare overall results between registries.

  15. Assessment Of DR-55 As A Drop-In Replacement For R410A

    OpenAIRE

    Shen,Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Liudahl, Lane

    2016-01-01

    R410A has zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), and is the most commonly used refrigerant in vapor compression systems for space cooling and space heating applications. However, it has significant global warming potential with GWP higher than 2000. To mitigate the global warming effect, industry and research institutes are actively pursuing a replacement for R410A, which should have much lower GWP, similar or higher efficiency. Â DR-55 is a design-compatible refrigerant replacement for R410A...

  16. Assessment Of DR-55 As A Drop-In Replacement For R410A

    OpenAIRE

    Shen,Bo; Abdelaziz, Omar; Liudahl, Lane

    2016-01-01

    R410A has zero ozone depletion potential (ODP), and is the most commonly used refrigerant in vapor compression systems for space cooling and space heating applications. However, it has significant global warming potential with GWP higher than 2000. To mitigate the global warming effect, industry and research institutes are actively pursuing a replacement for R410A, which should have much lower GWP, similar or higher efficiency. Â DR-55 is a design-compatible refrigerant replacement for R410A...

  17. Feasibility analysis of replacing full factorial design with Taguchi method in mini-plot soil erosion experiments%微小区土壤侵蚀试验中田口方法代替全因子设计的可行性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张风宝; 杨明义; 李占斌

    2015-01-01

    the three methods were different with higher value from Taguchi method than the others, probably because the Taguchi method could effectively reduce contribution of uncontrollable factors such as noise. In general, the contribution of each factor to the variation of erosion and runoff rate from Taguchi method was much closer to full factorial design method. The optimum condition obtained from Taguchi method to produce the maximum erosion was the same with that from the measured results. The determination coefficients (R2) of the predicted values by Taguchi design and the measured values were 0.993 (P < 0.001,N = 254) and 0.929 (P < 0.001,N= 254) for the runoff and erosion rates, respectively. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency index between the predicted values by Taguchi design and measured values were 0.992 and 0.841 for the runoff and erosion rates, respectively. All above results indicate that the Taguchi method can replace full factorial designs in mini-plot erosion studies to produce the credible results and decrease the test numbers and the costs.%田口方法是一种低成本、高效率的试验设计和数据处理方法,目前在土壤侵蚀研究中应用甚少。该文通过对比全因子设计、正交设计和田口方法的微小区土壤侵蚀试验结果,分析利用田口方法研究土壤侵蚀的可行性。结果显示,田口方法试验量仅占全因子设计的6.3%,但其确定的发生最大坡面侵蚀速率的试验条件与实测最大值的试验条件相同,预测的坡面径流速率和侵蚀速率与实测值比较吻合,预测值和实测值的Nash-Sutcliffe效率系数都在0.84以上;两种设计分析的各因子对坡面径流速率和侵蚀速率的主效应趋势一致,估算的各因子对坡面径流速率和侵蚀速率变化的贡献率比较接近。与正交设计的分析结果相比,田口方法的分析结果更接近全因子设计的分析结果,基本与全因子设计的结果相同。说明在微

  18. Time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    ""In this book the author gives a detailed account of estimation, identification methodologies for univariate and multivariate stationary time-series models. The interesting aspect of this introductory book is that it contains several real data sets and the author made an effort to explain and motivate the methodology with real data. … this introductory book will be interesting and useful not only to undergraduate students in the UK universities but also to statisticians who are keen to learn time-series techniques and keen to apply them. I have no hesitation in recommending the book.""-Journa

  19. Applied time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Wayne A; Elliott, Alan C

    2011-01-01

    ""There is scarcely a standard technique that the reader will find left out … this book is highly recommended for those requiring a ready introduction to applicable methods in time series and serves as a useful resource for pedagogical purposes.""-International Statistical Review (2014), 82""Current time series theory for practice is well summarized in this book.""-Emmanuel Parzen, Texas A&M University""What an extraordinary range of topics covered, all very insightfully. I like [the authors'] innovations very much, such as the AR factor table.""-David Findley, U.S. Census Bureau (retired)""…

  20. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.