WorldWideScience

Sample records for replacement diet plan

  1. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  2. Partial Meal Replacement Plan and Quality of the Diet at 1 Year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Anderson, Andrea M; Miller, Gary D; Reeves, Rebecca; Delahanty, Linda M; Vitolins, Mara Z; Harper, Patricia; Mobley, Connie; Konersman, Kati; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a partial meal replacement plan in the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention. To compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Diabetes Support and Education groups at 12 months. A randomized controlled trial comparing Intensive Lifestyle Intervention with Diabetes Support and Education at 0 and 12 months. From 16 US sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available for 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to Diabetes Support and Education group and 1,211 randomized to Intensive Lifestyle Intervention group. A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and saturated fats; trans-fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements; and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance, using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted χ² tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. At 12 months, Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than Diabetes Support and Education participants. Intensive Lifestyle Intervention participants consumed more servings per day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt, and cheese; and fewer servings per day of fats, oils, and sweets than Diabetes Support and Education participants. A greater

  3. Efficacy of low-calorie, partial meal replacement diet plans on weight and abdominal fat in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of two diet plans - one high in protein and one nutritionally balanced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Lee, J; Bae, W K; Choi, J K; Kim, H J; Cho, B

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the relative efficacy of high-protein vs. conventional diet plans that include partial meal replacements on body fat loss in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two low-calorie diets with partial meal replacement plans-a high-protein plan (HP) and a nutritionally balanced conventional (C) plan-on reducing obesity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week, double-blind study, we randomised 75 participants to either the HP- or the C-plan group. We recorded key metrics at 0 and 12 weeks. The overall mean weight loss was 5 kg in the HP-plan group and 4.9 kg in the C-plan group (p = 0.72). Truncal fat mass decreased 1.6 kg in the HP-plan group (p or = 70% dietary compliance, however, truncal and whole body fat mass decreased more in the HP-plan group (Delta 2.2 kg and Delta 3.5 kg respectively) than in the C-plan group (Delta 1.3 kg and Delta 2.3 [corrected] kg respectively) (p < 0.05). The HP- and C-plans had a similar effect on weight and abdominal fat reduction, but the HP-plan was more effective in reducing body fat among compliant subjects.

  4. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  5. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-02

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens.

  6. Cassava dreg as replacement of corn in goat kid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Lucíola Vilarim; Guim, Adriana; Véras, Robson Magno Liberal; de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando Ramos; de Freitas, Marciela Thais Dino

    2018-02-01

    The effects of corn replacement by cassava dreg in diets of crossbred goat kids were evaluated. We tested the impacts of 0, 33, 66 and 100% replacement on intake, digestibility, feeding behaviour, performance and carcass characteristics. Thirty-six goat kids, aged between 4 and 5 months and with initial body weights of 17.61 ± 1.98 kg, were used in a completely randomised design. Analysis of regression revealed a negative linear effect on neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake and a positive linear effect on non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and hydrocyanic acids (HCN) intake. Cassava dreg use had a positive linear effect on organic matter digestibility and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Based on our results, cassava dreg use did not negatively impact animal performance, feeding behaviour and carcass characteristics, suggesting that it may replace corn up to 100% in the diets of confined goat kids.

  7. A complex method of equipment replacement planning. An advanced plan for the replacement of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondelinger, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    This complex method of equipment replacement planning is a methodology; it is a means to an end, a process that focuses on equipment most in need of replacement, rather than the end itself. It uses data available from the maintenance management database, and attempts to quantify those subjective items important [figure: see text] in making equipment replacement decisions. Like the simple method of the last issue, it is a starting point--albeit an advanced starting point--which the user can modify to fit their particular organization, but the complex method leaves room for expansion. It is based on sound logic, documented facts, and is fully defensible during the decision-making process and will serve your organization well as provide a structure for your equipment replacement planning decisions.

  8. Application of capital replacement models with finite planning horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarf, P.A.; Christer, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Capital replacement models with finite planning horizons can be used to model replacement policies in complex operational contexts. They may also be used to investigate the cost consequences of technological change. This paper reviews the application of these models in various such contexts. We also

  9. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  10. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P

    2009-01-01

    the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...... up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole......, and no change in muscle layer thickness, as compared to control. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 relative increase was higher in NaB group than in C group, and may be involved in rumen development. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet (milk replacer and starter diet) with NaB may enhance rumen development...

  11. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Engel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL, high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  12. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kern, Hua; Brenna, J. Thomas; H. Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID:29361684

  13. Replacement Planning: A Starting Point for Succession Planning and Talent Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Replacement planning is a process of identifying short-term or long-term backups so that organizations have people who can assume responsibility for critical positions during emergencies. Individuals identified as "replacements" are not promised promotions; rather, they are prepared to the point where they can assume a critical position long…

  14. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Engel, Matthew; J Kern, Hua; Brenna, J Thomas; H Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-20

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet ( n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B 12 , B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B 12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  15. Replacement value of poultry visceral offal meal in the diet of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the replacement value of poultry visceral offal meal (PVOM) substituting for fish meal (FM) on an equal protein basis in the diets or unsexed Ross-strain broiler chickens from day-old to 8 weeks of age. One hundred and fifty birds were allotted in groups of 10 into 15 equidimeosional ...

  16. Scientific Opinion on the essential composition of total diet replacements for weight control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    or authoritative bodies. Derived from the minimum content of macronutrients, the Panel proposed a minimum energy content of total diet replacements for weight control of 2 510 kJ/day (600 kcal/day). The Panel also advised on potential conditions and restrictions of use for these products....

  17. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  18. Optimal Diet Planning for Eczema Patient Using Integer Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen Sheng, Low; Sufahani, Suliadi

    2018-04-01

    Human diet planning is conducted by choosing appropriate food items that fulfill the nutritional requirements into the diet formulation. This paper discusses the application of integer programming to build the mathematical model of diet planning for eczema patients. The model developed is used to solve the diet problem of eczema patients from young age group. The integer programming is a scientific approach to select suitable food items, which seeks to minimize the costs, under conditions of meeting desired nutrient quantities, avoiding food allergens and getting certain foods into the diet that brings relief to the eczema conditions. This paper illustrates that the integer programming approach able to produce the optimal and feasible solution to deal with the diet problem of eczema patient.

  19. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF BREAD WASTE AS A REPLACEMENT FOR MAIZE IN THE DIET OF GROWING SNAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. OMOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing maize fraction of the diet of growing snails partially or wholly with bread waste (BW on performance characteristics and cost benefits was studied for 12 weeks. A total of 120 growing snails (Archachatina marginata of mean weight 83.67 ± 3.5g of about 3 months of age were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments, BW1, BW2, BW3 and BW4 in which maize fraction of the diet was replaced at 0, 50, 75 and 100% with BW respectively, in a completely randomized design replicated 3 times. The parameters measured were feed intake, weight gain, shell length, width and thickness. Feed conversion ratio and cost/weight gain were calculated. The results showed that significant differences were not observed in the mean total feed intake, weight gain and shell increment (P>0.05. The results also revealed that dietary treatments had no significant influence on the dressing percentage (P>0.05 which varied between 41.25 and 41.28%. The total feed cost and cost per weight reduced as the level of BW in the diet increased from 0 to 100%. The highest cost/ weight gain (CW of N223.2 was recorded in diet containing 0% BW while the lowest CW was recorded in diet containing 100%BW. Based on the present results maize fraction of snail’s diet could be replaced with bread waste up to 100% at reduced cost without any adverse effect on performance of growing snails.

  20. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calton Jayson B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown micronutrient deficiency to be scientifically linked to a higher risk of overweight/obesity and other dangerous and debilitating diseases. With more than two-thirds of the U.S. population overweight or obese, and research showing that one-third are on a diet at any given time, a need existed to determine whether current popular diet plans could protect followers from micronutrient deficiency by providing the minimum levels of 27 micronutrients, as determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations (FDA Reference Daily Intake (RDI guidelines. Methods Suggested daily menus from four popular diet plans (Atkins for Life diet, The South Beach Diet, the DASH diet, the DASH diet were evaluated. Calorie and micronutrient content of each ingredient, in each meal, were determined by using food composition data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. The results were evaluated for sufficiency and total calories and deficient micronutrients were identified. The diet plans that did not meet 100% sufficiency by RDI guidelines for each of the 27 micronutrients were re-analyzed; (1 to identify a micronutrient sufficient calorie intake for all 27 micronutrients, and (2 to identify a second micronutrient sufficient calorie intake when consistently low or nonexistent micronutrients were removed from the sufficiency requirement. Results Analysis determined that each of the four popular diet plans failed to provide minimum RDI sufficiency for all 27 micronutrients analyzed. The four diet plans, on average, were found to be RDI sufficient in (11.75 ± 2.02; mean ± SEM of the analyzed 27 micronutrients and contain (1748.25 ± 209.57 kcal. Further analysis of the four diets found that an average calorie intake of (27,575 ± 4660.72 would be required to achieve sufficiency in all 27 micronutrients. Six micronutrients (vitamin B7, vitamin D, vitamin E, chromium, iodine and molybdenum were

  1. Diabetes Diet: Create Your Healthy-Eating Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... methods works for you: The plate method. The American Diabetes Association offers a simple seven-step method of meal ... complications. Diabetes meal plans and a healthy diet. American Diabetes Association. http://www.diabetes.org/food-and-fitness/food/ ...

  2. Partial replacement of corn by forage cactus in the diets of lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Santiago Silva Goveia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of corn by forage cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck in the diets of lactating goats on the nutrient intake, milk production and composition and ingestive behavior. Five crossbreed Saanen x Pardo Alpina goats with body weights of 47 ± 3.3 kg were used in the study. The design was 5x5 Latin square design, in which the treatments were as follows: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% of girl cactus included in the diet as a partial replacement of corn, with 0, 18, 36, 54 and 72% of the added the cactus comprising of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq Walp as roughage in all treatments. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.05 the dry matter intake, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients with the increasing levels of cactus in the diet, presenting means of 1.64, 0.26, 0.82, 0.54 and 1.17 kg day-1, respectively. In the same way, no influence was observed on the daily milk production and levels of fat, protein, lactose and total solids of milk, which averaged 1.18 kg day-1; 3.74, 3.34, 5.06 and 13.56%, respectively. The inclusion of cactus also had no influence (P > 0.05 on the ingestion behavior. The treatment with 35% cactus showed a lower impairment of food intake (31%. The partial replacement of the corn by the girl cactus in the diets of dairy goats can be accomplished because it does not alter the intake, milk yield and composition and feeding behavior. The replacement of up to 54% corn by the cactus is recommended to reduce producer costs for food.

  3. Carcass characteristics of sheep fed diets with slow-release urea replacing conventional urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow-release urea to replace conventional urea in the diet on carcass characteristics of feedlot sheep. We used 20 Santa Ines x SRD rams, with average body weight of 21.1±1.2 kgand average age of 120 days, distributed in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments. The replacement levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80%, composing diets of about 12% crude protein, with 50 % Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate. There was no influence of slow release urea on weight at slaughter (35.17 kg, and on hot (16.75 kg and cold (16.24 kg carcass weight, but the yield of these carcasses showed quadratic trend, revealing lower percentages at 48.5 and 47.63% replacement levels, respectively. The weights and yields of cuts did not change, except for the posterior arm, whose values showed a cubic trend. Objective measures of carcass, loin eye area, and subjective evaluations of conformation, finishing and marbling of carcasses were not affected. The subcutaneous fat thickness decreased linearly (4.25 to2.48 mm. The inclusion of slow release urea in the diet changes the yield and reduces subcutaneous fat, however, it does not influence other carcass characteristics.

  4. Performance and economic analysis of broilers fed diets containing acerola meal in replacement of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Henrique Zanetti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed with this research to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing increasing levels of acerola meal in replacement of corn and analyze the economic viability of that production system. A total of 980 day-old male Cobb chicks were used, allotted in a completely randomized design, with four treatments - inclusion levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of acerola meal in replacement of corn – and seven replications with 35 birds per experimental unit. The birds were weighed at 21 and 42 days of age to measure the performance data. In the period between 1 and 21 days of age, differences were observed in the feed intake and feed:gain only, in which the inclusion of acerola meal linearly decreased feed intake and improved feed:gain up to a level of 10.25%. For the total rearing period, the control treatment showed higher body weight. The feed:gain showed linear effect, worsening the results with increasing amounts of acerola meal in the diets. In the same period, there was no significant difference in feed intake and productive efficiency index. With regard to the economic analysis, it was found that the lowest final cost per broiler was observed in diets with 10% of acerola meal inclusion in replacement of corn.

  5. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugarcane-based diets for steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela da Conceição

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% in sugar cane-based diets on the intake of nutrients, feeding behavior, and rumen digestibility of steers was assessed using digested samples collected from the omasum. Five crossbred steers (1/2 Holstein-Zebu were fitted with cannulas in the rumen and then assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Samples of omasal digesta were collected for three days. Rumen was evacuated via the rumen cannula to determine the rumen pool of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, indigestible NDF (iNDF, intake (ki, passage (kp and degradation (NDF rates, and the passage of iNDF (kpi. Nutrient intake displayed a quadratic effect, with maximum intakes of DM (5.73 kg d−1, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, 4.63 kg d−1, and digestible organic matter (DOM, 3.45 kg d−1 estimated at the replacement levels of 54.63, 60.00, and 43.17%, respectively. The replacement levels showed no effect on feeding, rumination, or idle times. There was a linear increase in the total apparent and ruminal digestibility of CP as the spineless cactus content in the diet was increased. There was no effect on total and partial digestibilities of OM and NDF or on intestinal digestibility of CP. No effect was observed on the rumen pool of DM, NDF, or iNDF. Furthermore, ki, kp, NDF degradation, and iNDF passage rates displayed a quadratic effect, with higher concentrations estimated for replacement levels of 56.07, 56.12, 59.00, and 55.20%, respectively. Replacing 55% wheat bran with spineless cactus in sugar cane-based diets is recommended.

  6. Replacement Value of Untreated or Fungal Treated Carrot Leaves for Corn in Broiler Diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Faramawy, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Three hundred (21 days old) Arbor Acre chicks were used to evaluate the replacement value of untreated or Aspergillus niger treated carrot leaves for corn in broiler diets. Birds were fed a control diet or diets in which 10% untreated or treated carrot leaves was quantitatively substituted for corn in the control diet. Replacement of yellow corn with 10% untreated and treated carrot leaves caused insignificant (P 0.01) in both experimental groups compared to control. These results denoted that although there were negligible changes in body weight and mortality rate in broiler chicken fed untreated and treated carrot leaves the amino acid profile of carcasses lessen their nutritive value which is in consequence reflected negatively on human amino acids intake. Poultry production represents one of the quickest means of correcting the anomaly of protein inadequacy, yet the rising cost of feed which represents 70-80% of the cost of production among other costs, is a major setback (Opera. 1996). The price of most conventional feed ingredients such as yellow corn, soybean meal and fish meal is so high in recent time that it is becoming uneconomical to use them in poultry feeding (Esonu et al., 2001). Consequently poultry feed researchers have been forced to seek alternative and cheaper feed resources

  7. New Approaches to Planning Diabetic Diets Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Georgia

    Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to educate patients and food service staff regarding diabetic diets, incorporating current therapeutic recommendations and allowing variation and flexibility. Representative topics are facts about diabetes mellitus, high risk groups, symptoms, treatment and goals of diet…

  8. Environmental impact of replacing soybean meal with rapeseed meal in diets of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, H H E; Bikker, P; Mollenhorst, H; Meerburg, B G; de Boer, I J M

    2015-11-01

    The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soybean meal (SBM) content. Cultivation of SBM is associated with high environmental impacts, especially when emissions related to land use change (LUC) are included. This study aims to assess the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets. As RSM has a lower nutritional value, we assessed the environmental impact of replacing SBM with RSM using scenarios that differed in handling changes in nutritional level. Scenario 1 (S1) was the basic scenario containing SBM. In scenario 2 (S2), RSM replaced SBM based on CP content, resulting in reduced energy and amino acid content, and hence an increased feed intake to realize the same growth rate. The diet of scenario 3 (S3) was identical to S2; however, we assumed that pigs were not able to increase their feed intake, leading to reduced growth performance. In scenario 4 (S4), the energy and amino acid content were increased to the same level of S1. Pig performances were simulated using a growth model. We analyzed the environmental impact of each scenario using life-cycle assessment, including processes of feed production, manure management, piglet production, enteric fermentation and housing. Results show that, expressed as per kg of BW, replacing SBM with RSM in finishing pig diets marginally decreased global warming potential (GWP) and energy use (EU) but decreased land use (LU) up to 12%. Between scenarios, S3 had the maximum potential to reduce the environmental impact, due to a lower impact per kg of feed and an increased body protein-to-lipid ratio of the pigs, resulting in a better feed conversion ratio. Optimization of the body protein

  9. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  10. 78 FR 51754 - Request To Modify License by Replacing Security Plan With New Radiation Safety Plan; U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Replacing Security Plan With New Radiation Safety Plan; U.S. Department of the Army, Jefferson Proving... security plan with a new radiation safety plan. DATES: Submit comments by September 20, 2013. Requests for.... The proposed change is to modify License Condition No. 12 D which refers to the security plan of...

  11. Using eastern gamagrass to construct diets that limit intake and caloric density for dairy replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has shown that eastern gamagrass (EGG; Tripsacum dactyloides L.) will survive winter climatic conditions common throughout central Wisconsin, and will produce yields of dry matter (DM) ranging approximately from 7,000 to 10,000 kg/ha annually when managed with a 1-cut harvest system. The objective of this research was to determine whether the fibrous nature of this perennial warm-season grass could be effective in reducing the caloric density and DMI of corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets for replacement dairy heifers. A total of 120 Holstein dairy heifers were blocked by body weight (heavy, 424 ± 15.9 kg; medium, 369 ± 11.8 kg; light, 324 ± 22.4 kg), and then assigned to 15 individual pens containing 8heifers each. Eastern gamagrass forage was harvested, ensiled, and subsequently incorporated into blended corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets at rates of 0, 9.1, 18.3, or 27.4% of the total dietary DM (EGG0, EGG9, EGG18, and EGG27, respectively). These diets were offered during a 105-d evaluation period for ad libitum intake; however, the EGG0 diet also was offered on a limit-fed basis (LF), which was set at 85% of the voluntary intake of EGG0. Serial additions of EGG increased concentrations of neutral detergent fiber in blended diets from 39.6 (EGG0) to 48.7% (EGG27), and simultaneously reduced corresponding estimates of total digestible nutrients (TDN) from 68.2 to 61.3%, and net energy for gain from 1.07 to 0.83 Mcal/kg. Dry matter intakes for all diets offered ad libitum were greater than observed for LF (9.06 vs. 8.07 kg/d); however, DM intakes for diets containing EGG were reduced relative to EGG0 (9.40 vs. 8.94 kg/d). Similarly, intakes of TDN were greater for diets offered for ad libitum intake than for LF (5.84 vs. 5.50 kg/d); however, inclusion of EGG reduced TDN intakes relative to EGG0 (6.41 vs. 5.65 kg/d). This reduction was explained by both linear and quadratic effects of the inclusion rate of EGG in the diet. Over the 105-d trial

  12. Replacement of fishmeal for soy protein concentrate in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc-based rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatobá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the final body weight, weekly weight gain, yield, apparent feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, and feed intake of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei fed four diets containing different levels of soy protein concentrate (SPC as a replacement for fishmeal, reared in a super-intensive biofloc system. Diets consisted of replacing 209 g kg-1 fishmeal at 0, 33, 66, and 100% SPC. Shrimp were raised in a biofloc system using twelve experimental units stocked with 250 shrimp m-3 under constant aeration (O2>5mg L-1 and temperature (29±0.5 °C. No significant differences among treatments were observed based on water quality parameters. Shrimp fed diets with 0 and 33% substitution exhibited the highest weekly growth (1.88 and 1.79 g per week and final weights (15.2 and 14.7 g compared with shrimp fed the 66 and 100% replacement. A lower feed intake was observed for shrimp fed the 33% SPC diet (3.18 kg per experimental unit compared with 0% replacement (3.62 kg. Shrimp fed the 33% replacement achieved a similar performance and lower feed intake than animals fed diet without replacement.

  13. Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System Startup Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerken, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This Startup Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, quality assurance (QA), personnel qualifications, and testing requirements for the Cross-Site Transfer System

  14. Service water system repair/replacement guidelines: Planning and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.J.; Gandy, D.W.; Peterson, A.G. Jr.; Findlan, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Service water system failures have prompted concerns related to extended power plant operating life and plant availability. Selection and procurement of materials for repair or replacement of piping and components may be the most important factors in improving service water system reliability. The authors examined factors that contribute to reduced SWS reliability. The factors include material selection inadequacies, water treatment problems, operational/maintenance practices, fabrication procedures, environmental degradation mechanisms, and coating problems. The authors investigated material selection for replacement and repair, taking into account fabrication practices, environmental concerns, and cost comparisons of materials. They examined specific components such as piping, pumps, valves, and heat exchangers with regard to material selection and fabrication practice. Although proper material selection is essential in upgrading and maintaining the designed functions of a SWS, it is critical to address SWS repair/replacement activities with a systemwide approach. Degradation of materials in SWS applications are plant specific, depending on factors unique to each site such as geographic location, existing materials, operating procedures, and environment. All these characteristics must be addressed in making repair/replacement decisions. Criteria that must be integrated for successful long-term operation of SWS include the following: Materials selection (upgrade or in-kind replacement), Evaluation of root cause or nature of the failure mechanism, Scope of the repair/replacement activities, Material compatibility of the existing materials, Operational and maintenance procedures, Code or jurisdictional requirements, Economic considerations, Water treatment programs, System design improvements or modifications

  15. Replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein in the diets of Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Rosa Sussel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing animal protein with vegetable protein sources on the productive performance of Astyanax altiparanae (lambari-do-rabo-amarelo. Five experimental diets were formulated with increasing replacement levels of animal protein by vegetable protein. A total of 9000 individuals (initial mean weight 1.18 ± 0.12 g, initial mean length 2.1 ± 0.3 cm were distributed in 20 net cages (1 m3 with a density of 450 ind. m-3. Cages were randomly placed in a pond (180 m2, 1.5 m deep, 10% water renewal per day. After 63 days of cultivation, total count and individual biometrics from 20% of each experimental unit were taken. Mean weight, total length, survival, feed conversion, biomass weight gain and proximate body composition were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replications. The reduction in the formulation cost achieved by increasing levels of vegetable protein compensated the slight decrease in biomass gain. Besides that, inclusion of vegetable protein resulted in greater fat deposition, suggesting future exploration of A. altiparanae as a functional food.

  16. Improving compliance to meal-replacement food regimens. Forming implementation intentions (conscious IF-THEN plans) increases compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, E H; den Hoed, W; van der Meer, N; van der Maas, A

    2010-12-01

    Creating and changing habits around dieting behaviour can be a way to help consumers to consume more healthy products and to control their weight. Previous studies suggested that implementation intentions - deliberate plans on when, where and how - increase the likelihood that consumers perform the intended behaviour (Armitage, 2004; Gollwitzer & Sheeran, 2006; Jackson et al., 2005). This study investigated the effect of forming implementation intentions on compliance to a regimen based on a range of meal-replacement food products and snacks. Participants (n = 57) were allocated to one of two groups, either: (1) an implementation-intention group, who formed deliberate plans (implementation intentions) to consume the products - these implementation intentions were formed only once at the beginning of the study -, or (2) a control group who formed no implementation intentions. Participants were then instructed to follow a daily regimen, which included the consumption of foods from a range of meal-replacement products and snacks provided gratis for four weeks. Results showed that the implementation-intention group consumed significantly more meal-replacement food products per week (p intentions was apparent for 18 days. These findings indicate that forming implementation intentions may assist individuals in their compliance to a meal-replacement product regimen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Partial Replacement of soybean cake with amaranthus spinosus leaf meal in the diet of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniji, C.A.; Fakoya, K.A.; Omamohwo, V.R.

    2007-01-01

    The study, designed to assess the potentials of oven dried Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal as partial replacement for soybean cake in the diet of Nile Tilapia, revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) in feed and protein intake. Fish fed on Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal diets had significant (P<0.05) higher survival percentage, while that on soybean cake meal (control diet) recorded significant (P<0.05) better weight gain, average daily rate of growth, efficient feed and protein utilization as well as average final weight. (author)

  18. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  19. Replacement of fish meal protein by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami Trichogaster trichopterus fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, K N; Subramanian, S; Korikanthimath, V S

    2013-02-01

    Based on the nutrient requirement of Trichogaster trichopterus, a fish meal-based basal diet with 350 g/kg diet crude protein and 16.7 MJ/kg energy was formulated, in which the fish meal protein was replaced by surimi by-product protein at 0.0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. The formulated diets were fed ad libitum to T. trichopterus fingerlings (4.80 ± 0.03 g) in triplicate groups for 45 days in a closed water system. Eighteen fibre-reinforced plastic tanks with 200 l of water were used for rearing the fish. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed/gain ratio, protein efficiency ratio, nutrient retention and digestibility (protein and energy) of fish were not affected (p > 0.05) up to 50% fish meal protein replacement level by surimi by-product protein. While whole-body protein content of fish was marginally decreased, the lipid content was increased with increase in surumi by-product incorporation level in the diet. The study results suggest that the fish meal protein, which is scarce and costly nowadays, could be replaced up to 50% by surimi by-product protein in the diet of blue gourami without hampering the growth and nutrient utilization of fish. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Fish condensate as effective replacer of fish meal protein in diet for striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanakul, Wattana; Wattanakul, Uraiwan; Thongprajukaew, Karun; Muenpo, Chutchawan

    2017-02-01

    The optimal protein replacement of fish meal (FM) by fish condensate (FC) was investigated in striped snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch) (1.78 ± 0.02 g initial weight). The FM-based diet (0FC) was replaced by substituting protein from FC for 100 (100FC), 200 (200FC), 300 (300FC), 400 (400FC), 500 (500FC) or 600 (600FC) g kg -1 of the FM, and a commercial diet (CD) for carnivorous fish was included for comparison. The experiment was conducted indoors under completely randomized design (8 treatments × 3 replications × 60 fish per pond) over a 6-month trial. There were no significant differences in water quality during the experiment. The fish fed with 500FC had superior growth performance and feed utilization. This dietary treatment gave similar levels to all observed specific activities of digestive enzymes as did baseline 0FC. Survival, carcass composition, hematological parameters and liver histopathology were not negatively impacted by this protein replacement level. Economic analysis also supports the use of this by-product as a potent protein replacer in striped snakehead diet. Findings from the current study indicate that a 500 g kg -1 protein replacement of FM by FC is near optimal for striped snakehead, and similar use of it in the aquafeed of other species appears worth further studies.

  1. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the United States. Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a national food prices database. Energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in 3 models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, inexpensive, and widely consumed and in a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. A nationwide, representative sample of children in the United States. A total of 7023 children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic complete or partial replacement of juice with fruit. Difference in energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs between observed and modeled diets. For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/d (-2.6% difference [95% CI, -5.1% to -0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 g/d (31.1% difference [95% CI, 26.4%-35.9%]), and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/d (13.3% difference [95% CI, 8.8%-17.8%]). Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children's diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers, and families. These cost effects could be minimized by selecting processed fruits, but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved.

  2. Epilepsy Treatment Simplified through Mobile Ketogenic Diet Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanzhou; Jauregui, Jeffrey L; Fenton, Cagla; Chee, Claire M; Bergqvist, A G Christina

    2014-07-01

    The Ketogenic Diet (KD) is an effective, alternative treatment for refractory epilepsy. This high fat, low protein and carbohydrate diet mimics the metabolic and hormonal changes that are associated with fasting. To maximize the effectiveness of the KD, each meal is precisely planned, calculated, and weighed to within 0.1 gram for the average three-year duration of treatment. Managing the KD is time-consuming and may deter caretakers and patients from pursuing or continuing this treatment. Thus, we investigated methods of planning KD faster and making the process more portable through mobile applications. Nutritional data was gathered from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutrient Database. User selected foods are converted into linear equations with n variables and three constraints: prescribed fat content, prescribed protein content, and prescribed carbohydrate content. Techniques are applied to derive the solutions to the underdetermined system depending on the number of foods chosen. The method was implemented on an iOS device and tested with varieties of foods and different number of foods selected. With each case, the application's constructed meal plan was within 95% precision of the KD requirements. In this study, we attempt to reduce the time needed to calculate a meal by automating the computation of the KD via a linear algebra model. We improve upon previous KD calculators by offering optimal suggestions and incorporating the USDA database. We believe this mobile application will help make the KD and other dietary treatment preparations less time consuming and more convenient.

  3. Replacing cereals with dehydrated citrus pulp in a soybean oil supplemented diet increases vaccenic and rumenic acids in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, José; Dentinho, Maria T; Francisco, Alexandra; Portugal, Ana P; Belo, Ana T; Martins, António P L; Alves, Susana P; Bessa, Rui J B

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the replacement of cereals by dried citrus pulp (DCP) in diets supplemented with 5% of soybean oil, on ewe milk yield and composition, including milk fatty acid (FA). Four Serra da Estrela multiparous ewes in the second month of lactation were used in a double 2×2 Latin square design. Ewes were individually penned and milked twice a day with an 8-h interval. Each experimental period included 14 d of diet adaptation followed by 5d of measurements and sampling. The 2 diets included on dry matter basis 450 g/kg of corn silage and 550 g/kg of either a soybean oil-supplemented concentrate meal containing barley and maize (cereal) or dried citrus pulp (DCP; citrus). Feed was offered ad libitum, considering 10% of orts, and intake was measured daily. Milk yield was higher and dry matter intake tended to be higher with the citrus diet. Milk composition and technological properties for cheese production were not affected by treatments, except for lactose, which was lower with the citrus diet. Replacement of cereals by DCP resulted in a 3-percentage-point decrease of both 18:0 and cis-9-18:1 that were mostly compensated by the 4.19- and 1.68-percentage-point increases of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2, respectively. The intake of C18 FA tended to increase with the citrus diet compared with the cereal diet, but the apparent transfer of 18:2n-6 and of 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. The milk output of C18 FA increased with the citrus compared with the cereal diet, mostly due to the increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 because the daily milk output of 18:0, trans-10-18:1, cis-9-18:1, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 did not differ between diets. Replacing cereals with DCP in an oil-supplemented diet resulted in a selective increase of trans-11-18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-18:2 in milk, with no major effect on other biohydrogenation intermediates. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ''green house'' will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken

  5. Fermented soybean meal exhibits probiotic properties when included in Japanese quail diet in replacement of soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazi, V; Ashayerizadeh, A; Toghyani, M; Shabani, A; Tellez, G; Toghyani, M

    2018-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of dietary probiotic mixture (PM) and organic acid (OA) mixture with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on performance, crop, and ceca microbiota, small intestine morphology, and serum lipid profile in Japanese quails. A total of 800 day-old Japanese quails was randomly allotted to 5 treatments with 8 replicate pens of 20 birds each, for 35 days. The experimental diets consisted of a control corn-soybean meal diet and 4 test diets: 1) control diet + 0.1% PM; 2) control diet + 0.2% OA mixture; 3) control diet + the combination of both PM and OA; and 4) an additives-free diet in which the soybean meal in the control diet was replaced with FSBM. The results indicated that in starter and the entire rearing periods, FSBM, PM, and PM+OA diets had significantly lower FCR compared to control or OA diets (P < 0.05). Birds in the FSBM group gained higher weight than control and OA birds (P < 0.05; 1 to 35 d). At d 21 and 35, birds fed the control diet showed significantly lower numbers of lactic acid bacteria in the crop, while coliforms were higher in the cecal content compared to the other diets (P < 0.05). At d 21, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the duodenum and jejunum of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were greater than in other treatments (P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of birds fed PM, PM+OA, and FSBM diets were significantly lower than birds in control and AO groups (P < 0.05). The results obtained herein suggest that FSBM exhibits probiotic properties and, when used in substitution of SBM in Japanese quail diet, can improve growth performance, balance of desirable gastrointestinal microbiota in crop and ceca, small intestinal morphology, and serum lipid profile-likewise, a probiotic supplement.

  6. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2015-11-26

    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  7. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-01-01

    Context Dietary guidance for children emphasizes fruit over fruit juices but little is known about the potential nutritional and economic impact of substituting fruit for juice. Objective To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the US. Design Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a national food price database. Energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in three models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, low-cost, and widely-consumed and a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. Setting A nationwide, representative sample of children in the US. Participants 7,023 children ages 3-18. Main Outcome Measures Difference in energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost between observed and modeled diets. Results For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/day (−2.6% [95% CI −5.1, −0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 grams/day (+31.1% [95% CI 26.4, 35.9%]) and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/day (+13.3% [95% CI 8.8, 17.8%]). Conclusions Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children’s diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers and families. Cost impacts could be minimized by selecting processed fruits but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved. PMID:22566547

  9. Replacing of live food with artificial diet on growth and survival rates of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani Vagheie, R.; Matinfar, A.; Aeinjamshid, Kh.; Hafezieh, M.; Ghorbani, R.

    2011-01-01

    Replacing live food with artificial diets in aquatic larviculture, especially in shrimp larvae not only is caused convenience feeding, but also in economical view is very important. With this object, in this survey, a density of 100.L -1 white leg shrimp larvae in 9 nutritional treatments each with three replicates were cultured in 20L tanks each one was held with 10L of 30% salty water using one air stone. The larvae were fed 4 times.day-1 with different diets, including live foods (Cheatoce...

  10. Safety and efficacy of a multiphase dietetic protocol with meal replacements including a step with very low calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basciani, Sabrina; Costantini, Daniela; Contini, Savina; Persichetti, Agnese; Watanabe, Mikiko; Mariani, Stefania; Lubrano, Carla; Spera, Giovanni; Lenzi, Andrea; Gnessi, Lucio

    2015-04-01

    To investigate safety, compliance, and efficacy, on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors of a multiphasic dietary intervention based on meal replacements, including a period of very low calorie diet (VLCD) in a population of obese patients. Anthropometric parameters, blood tests (including insulin), dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and questionnaires for the assessment of safety and compliance before and after (phase I) a 30-day VLCD, 700 kcal/day, normoproteic, 50 g/day carbohydrate, four meal replacements; (phase II) a 30-day low calorie diet (LCD), 820 kcal/day, three meal replacements plus a protein plate; (phase III) 60-day LCD, 1,100 kcal/day, two meal replacements plus two protein plates and reintroduction of small amounts of carbohydrates; (phase IV) 60-day hypocaloric balanced diet (HBD), 1,200 kcal/day, one meal replacement, two protein plates and the reintroduction of carbohydrates. 24 patients (17 females, 7 males, mean BMI 33.8±3.2 kg/m2, mean age 35.1±10.2 years) completed the study. The average weight loss was 15.4±6.7%, with a significant reduction of fat mass (from 32.8±4.7 to 26.1±6.3% p<0.05) and a relative increase of lean mass (from 61.9±4.8 to 67.1±5.9% p<0.05). An improvement of metabolic parameters and no variations of the liver and kidney functions were found. A high safety profile and an excellent dietary compliance were seen. The VLCD dietary program and the replacement dietary system described here is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for weight control.

  11. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Gunnels, Trint A; Schriefer, JohnHenry M

    2015-07-14

    We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18-67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects' self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was noted in total and LDL cholesterol

  12. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF. This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption, with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1 and post-intervention testing (day 22 in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05. However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20

  13. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  14. Replacing corn with pearl millet (raw and sprouted) with and without enzyme in chickens' diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharmanesh, M; Ghorbani, N; Mehdipour, Z

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare a commercial corn-soya bean meal diet with a pearl millet (raw and sprouted) diet containing less soya bean meal, alone or in combination with exogenous enzyme, on growth performance and ileal villus development of chicks. Two-hundred-and-forty-one-day-old male broilers (10/pen) were randomly allocated to one of the following dietary treatments: (i) a standard corn-soya bean meal control diet (CTL); (ii) a raw pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (PM); (iii) a sprouted pearl millet-soya bean meal diet (SPM); (iv) CTL + exogenous enzymes (CE); (v) PM + exogenous enzymes (PE); and (vi) SPM + exogenous enzymes (SPE) with four replicate pens/treatment. Body weight of birds at day 21 did not differ between those fed the CTL, and SPM and PE diets. In comparison with feeding broilers the CTL diet, feeding the PE and SPM diets caused significant decrease in feed intake, but with equivalent growth and feed efficiency. However, at day 21, feed conversion ratio did not differ between birds fed the CTL diet and those fed the PM, PE and SPM diets. At day 21, broilers fed the PM and PE diets had longer villi (p diet. At day 21, villi width was reduced (p diet. It is concluded that, in comparison with corn, broiler diets formulated with sprouted pearl millet or pearl millet with enzyme require less soya bean meal and can be used to improve growth performance traits and villus development. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. An Economic Evaluation on Replacement Plan for Aged Thermal Power Plants through a Real Option Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper presents a novel method to evaluate replacement plan for aged thermal power plants under uncertain circumstances through a real option approach. The most economical plan is selected among the three options: an option to operate an existing oil-fired thermal plant, an option to mothball it, and an option to abandon it and to construct an advanced gas combined cycle power plant (ACC) at the same time. Basic ideas of our model are: we use quadranomial approach in order to evaluate an option value consisted by two different uncertain assets; we consider cash flow with a dividend in order to reflect conditions of an aged oil-fired thermal plant and use the sequential compound option approach; we evaluate replacement time using quadranomial decision tree taking into account the options. We also analyze value and time of replacement using numerical examples. Our proposed method will be practically used for generation planning. For example it is possible to make priority quantitatively in replacements of aged thermal power plants by real option values. The target year of replacement may be set as a year when cumulative probability of replacement becomes over certain level.

  16. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition.

  17. Inclusion of calcium hydroxide-treated corn stover as a partial forage replacement in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, Brittany A; Wertz-Lutz, Aimee E; Dunn, Jim L; Donkin, Shawn S

    2018-03-01

    Chemical treatment may improve the nutritional value of corn crop residues, commonly referred to as corn stover, and the potential use of this feed resource for ruminants, including lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prestorage chopping, hydration, and treatment of corn stover with Ca(OH) 2 on the feeding value for milk production, milk composition, and dry matter intake (DMI). Multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 30) were stratified by parity and milk production and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets. Corn stover was chopped, hydrated, and treated with 6% Ca(OH) 2 (as-fed basis) and stored in horizontal silo bags. Cows received a control (CON) total mixed ration (TMR) or a TMR in which a mixture of treated corn stover and distillers grains replaced either alfalfa haylage (AHsub) or alfalfa haylage and an additional portion of corn silage (AH+CSsub). Treated corn stover was fed in a TMR at 0, 15, and 30% of the diet DM for the CON, AHsub, and AH+CSsub diets, respectively. Cows were individually fed in tiestalls for 10 wk. Milk production was not altered by treatment. Compared with the CON diet, DMI was reduced when the AHsub diet was fed and tended to be reduced when cows were fed the AH+CSsub diet (25.9, 22.7, and 23.1 ± 0.88 kg/d for CON, AHsub, and AH+CSsub diets, respectively). Energy-corrected milk production per unit of DMI (kg/kg) tended to increase with treated corn stover feeding. Milk composition, energy-corrected milk production, and energy-corrected milk per unit of DMI (kg/kg) were not different among treatments for the 10-wk feeding period. Cows fed the AHsub and AH+CSsub diets had consistent DMI over the 10-wk treatment period, whereas DMI for cows fed the CON diet increased slightly over time. Milk production was not affected by the duration of feeding. These data indicate that corn stover processing, prestorage hydration, and treatment with calcium hydroxide can serve as an alternative to

  18. The planned replacement of a functioning control system on the CERN 28 GEV accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, B.E.; Daneels, A.; Perriollat, F.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the accelerators (in the 28 GeV accelerator complex) and the old control system; goals of the new control system; constraints (involved in planning a replacement for the control system); a pilot project; major software issues in the system design; portability; parallelism; transition; conclusion. (U.K.)

  19. Randomised controlled trial of effect of whole soy replacement diet on features of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-Min; Ho, Suzanne; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Chen, Yu-Ming; Woo, Jean; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; He, Qiqiang; Xie, Yao Jie; Tse, Lap Ah; Chen, Bailing; Su, Xue-Fen; Lao, Xiang-Qian; Wong, Carmen; Chan, Ruth; Ling, Wen-Hua

    2016-09-27

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a public health problem in postmenopausal women. Whole soy foods are rich in unsaturated fats, high quality plant protein and various bioactive phytochemicals that may have a beneficial role in the management of MetS. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of whole soy replacement diet on the features of MetS among postmenopausal women. This will be a 12-month, randomised, single-blind, parallel controlled trial among 208 postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. After 4 weeks' run-in, subjects will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention groups, whole soy replacement group or control group, each for 12 months. Subjects in the whole soy group will be required to include four servings of whole soy foods (containing 25 g soy protein) into their daily diet iso-calorically, replacing red or processed meat and high fat dairy products. Subjects in the control group will remain on a usual diet. The outcome measures will include metabolic parameters as well as a 10-year risk for ischaemic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesise that the whole soy substitution diet will notably improve features of MetS in postmenopausal women at risk of MetS or with early MetS. The study will have both theoretical and practical significance. If proven effective, the application of the whole soy replacement diet model will be a safe, practical and economical strategy for MetS prevention and treatment. Ethics approval has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The results will be disseminated via conference presentations and papers in academic peer reviewed journals. Data files will be deposited in an accessible repository. NCT02610322. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) with maralfalfahay (Pennisetum sp.) in diets of lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.

    2016-01-01

    tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg...... of body weight [BW]) were selected in a 2-treatment and crossoverdesign experiment where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group offive goats was fed a mixed ration with alfalfa as forage (A diet) and the other diet replacedalfalfa with maralfalfa (M diet) in a forage concentrate ratio...

  1. Feasibility of partial replacement of fishmeal with proteins from different sources in diets of Korean rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Quangen; Zhu, Xiaoming; Yang, Yunxia; Han, Dong; Xie, Shouqi

    2014-12-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted in an indoor recirculation seawater system to investigate the effects of partial replacement of dietary fishmeal with proteins from five sources on the growth performance and feed utilization of Sebastes schlegeli. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated using fishmeal (FM, the control) as sole protein source, or proteins from five sources including poultry by-product meal (PBM), meat and bone meal (MBM), soybean meal (SBM), cottonseed meal (CSM) and canola meal (CNM). Fifteen percent of the crude protein provided by fish meal was replaced, respectively. The results showed that the differences in specific growth rate (SGR) and survival rate (SR) among fish fed PBM, MBM, SBM, CSM and whole FM diets were not significant. However, SGR and SR of fish fed CNM diet was significantly lower than that of other treatments. Feeding rate, feed conversion, nutrient retention showed similar patterns to that of growth. Fish fed CSM and CNM showed significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter and gross energy than those fed others while fish fed CNM showed lower ADC of crude protein than those fed others ( Preplacement with CNM reduced fish growth and feed utilization.

  2. Standard Measurement & Verification Plan for Lighting Equipment Retrofit or Replacement Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.

    2009-11-04

    This document provides a framework for a standard Measurement and Verification (M&V) plan for lighting projects. It was developed to support cost-effective retrofits (partial and complete replacements) of lighting systems and is intended to provide a foundation for an M&V plan for a lighting retrofit utilizing a "best practice" approach, and to provide guidance to site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations on what is essential for a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. This document provides examples of appropriate elements of an M&V plan, including the calculation of expected energy savings. The standard M&V plan, as provided, also allows for consistent comparison with other similar lighting projects. Although intended for lighting retrofit applications, M&V plans developed per this framework document may also be used for other non-lighting technology retrofits and new installations.

  3. Coupling Adaptation Tipping Points and Engineering Options: New Insights for Resilient Water Infrastructure Replacement Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, K.; de Neufville, R.; van der Vlist, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents an innovative approach for replacement planning for aging water infrastructure given uncertain future conditions. We draw upon two existing methodologies to develop an integrated long-term replacement planning framework. We first expand the concept of Adaptation Tipping Points to generate long-term planning timelines that incorporate drivers of investment related to both internal structural processes as well as changes in external operating conditions. Then, we use Engineering Options to explore different actions taken at key moments in this timeline. Contrasting to the traditionally more static approach to infrastructure design, designing the next generation of infrastructure so it can be changed incrementally is a promising method to safeguard current investments given future uncertainty. This up-front inclusion of structural options in the system actively facilitates future adaptation, transforming uncertainty management in infrastructure planning from reactive to more proactive. A two-part model underpins this approach. A simulation model generates diverse future conditions, allowing development of timelines of intervention moments in the structure's life. This feeds into an economic model, evaluating the lifetime performance of different replacement strategies, making explicit the value of different designs and their flexibility. A proof of concept study demonstrates this approach for a pumping station. The strategic planning timelines for this structure demonstrate that moments when capital interventions become necessary due to reduced functionality from structural degradation or changed operating conditions are widely spread over the structure's life. The disparate timing of these necessary interventions supports an incremental, adaptive mindset when considering end-of-life and replacement decisions. The analysis then explores different replacement decisions, varying the size and specific options included in the proposed new structure

  4. The effect of a high-protein, high-sodium diet on calcium and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women stratified by hormone replacement therapy use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, M.; Bennett, T.; Jakobsen, Jette

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a high-sodium, high-protein diet on bone metabolism in postmenopausal women ( aged 49 - 60 y) stratified by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. In a crossover trial, 18 women (n = 8 HRT users (+HRT) and n = 10 nonusers (-HRT)) were...... randomly assigned to a diet high in protein ( 90 g/day) and sodium (180 mmol/day) ( calciuric diet) or a diet moderate in protein ( 70 g/day) and low in sodium ( 65 mmol/day) for 4 weeks followed by crossover to alternative dietary regimen for a further 4 weeks. The calciuric diet significantly (P...

  5. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.; Alam, Aftab

    2013-01-01

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2013-10-02

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Evaluation of Coarsely Ground Wheat as a Replacement for Ground Corn in the Diets of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Q. Guo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight multiparous Holstein cows (569±47 kg of BW; 84±17 DIM were used to evaluate the effects of different levels of coarsely ground wheat (CGW as replacements for ground corn (GC in diets on feed intake and digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and plasma metabolites profiles in dairy cows. The cows were settled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 3-wk treatment periods; four cows in one of the replicates were fitted with rumen cannulas. The four diets contained 0, 9.6, 19.2, and 28.8% CGW and 27.9, 19.2, 9.6, and 0% GC on dry matter (DM basis, respectively. Increasing dietary levels of CGW, daily DM intake tended to increase quadratically (p = 0.07; however, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were significantly decreased (p<0.01 in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Ruminal pH remained in the normal physiological range for all dietary treatments at all times, except for the 28.8% CGW diets at 6 h after feeding; moreover, increasing dietary levels of CGW, the daily mean ruminal pH decreased linearly (p = 0.01. Increasing the dietary levels of CGW resulted in a linear increase in ruminal propionate (p<0.01 and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N (p = 0.06 concentration, while ruminal acetate: propionate decreased linearly (p = 0.03 in cows fed the 28.8% CGW diets. Milk production was not affected by diets; however, percentage and yield of milk fat decreased linearly (p = 0.02 when the level of CGW was increased. With increasing levels of dietary CGW, concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA (p = 0.07 and cholesterol (p<0.01 decreased linearly, whereas plasma glucose (p = 0.08, insulin (p = 0.02 and urea nitrogen (p = 0.02 increased linearly at 6 h after the morning feeding. Our results indicate that CGW is a suitable substitute for GC in the diets of dairy cows and that it may be included up to a level of 19.2% of DM without adverse effects on feed intake and digestion

  8. Full Scale 3D Preoperative Planning System of the Ankle Joint Replacement Surgery with Multimedia System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Ping Sun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to develop a computer-aided pre-surgical planning and simulating system in a multimedia environment for ankle joint replacement surgery. This system uses full-scale 3D reverse engineering techniques in design and development of the pre-surgical planning modules for ankle joint replacement surgery. This planning system not only develops the real-scale 3D image of the artificial ankle joint but also provides a detailed interior measurement of the ankle joint from various cutting planes. In this study, we apply the multimedia user interface to integrate different software functions into a surgical planning system with integrated functions. The functions include 3D model image acquisition, cutting, horizontal shifting and rotation of related bones (tibia and talus of the ankle joint in the predetermined time. For related bones of the ankle joint, it can also be used to design artificial ankle joints for adults in Taiwan. Those planning procedures can be recorded in this system for further research and investigation. Furthermore, since this system is a multimedia user interface, surgeons can use this system to plan and find a better and more efficient surgical approach before surgery. A database is available for this system to update and expand, which can provide different users with clinical cases as per their experience and learning.

  9. Comparing the effects of meal replacements with an isocaloric reduced-fat diet on nutrient intake and lower urinary tract symptoms in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, J; Ling, P-S; Chen, R Y-T; Ng, K-K; Tay, T-L; Tan, E; Cho, L-W; Cheong, M

    2014-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men are associated with obesity, particularly central obesity as measured by waist circumference (WC), and may improve with weight loss. We aimed to compare effects of a meal-replacement based diet with isocaloric reduced-fat plan on LUTS and nutrient intake in obese Asian men. Obese Asian [mean (range) body mass index of 32.9 (30.5-42.3) kg m(-2) ] men [mean (range) age 40.2 (30-61) years] were randomised to a reduced-fat (meal-replacement-based plan [meal replacement (MR) group; n = 23], to reduce daily intake by 2000 kJ for 12 weeks. CD and MR groups had statistically significant and similar reductions in weight (-2.6 ± 1.9 kg versus -4.2 ± 3.8 kg), overall LUTS severity measured with International Prostate Symptom Scale (IPSS) scores (-1.71 ± 1.93 points versus -2.42 ± 2.12 points) and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) calculated from plasma glucose and insulin]. The MR group had significantly greater decreases in WC (-4.8 ± 3.3 cm versus -2.5 ± 2.3 cm), fat mass (-2.47 ± 3.63 kg versus -1.59 ± 2.32 kg), fat intake, plasma C-reactive protein, and in storage LUTS score (-1.59 ± 1.33 points versus -1.00 ± 0.87 points), which was associated with a decreased fat intake (r = 0.48, P = 0.03). A decrease in overall IPSS score was associated with reductions in weight, WC and HOMA. Weight loss as a result of CD or MR had similar efficacy in relieving LUTS. MR produced greater reductions in fat intake, adiposity and storage LUTS. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Amino acid fortified diets for weanling pigs replacing fish meal and whey protein concentrate: Effects on growth, immune status, and gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Weaver, Alexandra C; Fellner, Vivek; Payne, Robert L; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Limited availability of fish meal and whey protein concentrate increases overall feed costs. Availability of increased number of supplemental amino acids including Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Val, and Ile allows replacing expensive protein supplements to reduce feed costs. This study was to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate in nursery diets with 6 supplemental amino acids on growth performance and gut health of post-weaning pigs. Treatments were 1) FM-WPC: diet with fish meal (FM) and whey protein concentrate (WPC); 2) FM-AA: diet with FM and crystalline amino acids (L-Lys, L-Thr, L-Trp, DL-Met, L-Val, and L-Ile); 3) WPC-AA: diet with WPC and crystalline amino acid; and 4) AA: diet with crystalline amino acid. Pigs in FM-AA, WPC-AA, and AA had greater (P replace fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate without adverse effects on growth performance, immune status, and gut health of pigs at d 21 to 49 of age. Positive response with the use of 6 supplemental amino acids in growth during the first week of post-weaning may due to increased plasma insulin potentially improving uptake of nutrients for protein synthesis and energy utilization. The replacement of fish meal and/or whey protein concentrate with 6 supplemental amino acids could decrease the crude protein level in nursery diets, and potentially lead to substantial cost savings in expensive nursery diets.

  11. Utilization of noodle waste as replacement for maize in the diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is a major source of energy. It is expensive because of competition between man, animal and a strong demand for it by the manufacturing/industrial sector. Noodle waste (NW) (a by-product from the wheat noodle processing industry) which attracts little/ almost zero cost was used to replace the maize fraction of the ...

  12. Effects of replacing diet beverages with water on weight loss and weight maintenance: 18-month follow-up, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, A; Taylor, M A; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R; Macdonald, I A; Farshchi, H R

    2018-04-01

    Beneficial effects of replacing diet beverages (DBs) with water on weight loss, during a 24-week hypoenergetic diet were previously observed. However, it is not known whether this difference is sustained during a subsequent 12-month weight maintenance period. To evaluate effects of replacing DBs with water on body weight maintenance over a 12-month period in participants who undertook a 6-month weight loss plan. Seventy-one obese and overweight adult women (body mass index (BMI): 27-40 kg m -2 ; age: 18-50 years) who usually consumed DBs in their diet were randomly assigned to either substitute water for DBs (water group: 35) or continue drinking DBs five times per week (DBs group: 36) after their lunch for the 6-month weight loss intervention and subsequent 12-month weight maintenance program. A total of 71 participants who were randomly assigned were included in the study by using an intention-to-treat analysis. Greater additional weight loss (mean±s.d.) in the water group was observed compared with the DBs group after the 12-month follow-up period (-1.7±2.8 vs -0.1±2.7 kg, P=0.001). BMI decreased more in the water group than in the DBs group (-0.7±1 vs -0.05±1.1 kg m - 2 , P=0.003). There was also a greater reduction in fasting insulin levels (-0.5±1.4 vs -0.02±1.5 mmol l -1 , P=0.023), better improvement in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.2±0.4 vs -0.1±0.3, P=0.013) and a greater decrease in 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (-0.2±0.3 vs -0.1±0.3 mmol l -1 , Pwater group compared with the DBs over the 12-month weight maintenance period. Replacement of DBs with water after the main meal in women who were regular users of DBs may cause further weight reduction during a 12-month weight maintenance program. It may also offer benefits in carbohydrate metabolism including improvement of insulin resistance over the long-term weight maintenance period.

  13. Successful Replacement of Artemia salina nauplii with Marine Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in the Diet of Preadult Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; James, Althea; Mobley, Scottie

    2015-10-01

    Previously established rearing protocols for zebrafish begin feeding with marine rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), followed by Artemia nauplii until the fish reach subadult stage, the developmental time point at which they can be most easily transitioned onto a processed diet. However, the inclusion of Artemia is less than ideal, given its fluctuating availability and high costs. We tested whether or not we could replace Artemia with rotifers during our normal rearing sequence and still meet published performance standards for (i) weaning fish onto a processed diet by 25 days postfertilization (dpf) and (ii) successful breeding by 60 dpf. Here, we present the results of trials where wild-type and casper zebrafish were fed exclusively with rotifers (R) or rotifers followed by Artemia (RA) for the first 25 dpf after which point all fish were transitioned to a processed diet (Gemma Micro 300). We measured growth and survival at days 25 and 60, and tested for reproductive capability at 60 dpf. While growth performance was significantly better in the RA groups, we were still able to meet goals for both weaning and generation time in the R groups without compromising survival or sex ratios.

  14. Technology management: a perspective on system support, procurement, and replacement planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, M L; Jackson, M E

    1992-01-01

    The escalating costs associated with medical technology present a host of challenges for the hospital clinical engineering department. As service and support costs comprise ever larger portions of a system's life cycle cost, innovative management of service provider mix and mechanisms can provide substantial savings in operating expenses. In addition to full-service contracts, the use of demand service and independents has become commonplace. Medical equipment maintenance insurance programs provide yet another service alternative, combining the flexibility of demand service with the safety of a capped budget. These programs have gained acceptance among hospitals as their providers have become more focused on the healthcare market and its many needs. In view of the long-term cost impact surrounding technology procurement, the authors recommend that hospitals refine system evaluation methodologies and develop more comprehensive techniques directed at capital equipment replacement planning. One replacement planning approach, based on an estimation of system value changes, is described and illustrated using data collected through client consultations. Although the validity of this method has not been demonstrated, it represents a simplified approach to life cycle cost analysis and is intended to provide a standard method by which system replacement planning may be quantified. As a departure from system devaluation based solely on depreciation, this method estimates prospective system values derived from anticipated operations and maintenance costs, projected revenue, and the availability of new technology.

  15. Supplementation of broiler diets with high levels of microbial protease and phytase enables partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, M M; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Iji, P A

    2018-02-22

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets. Birds that received the protease-free test diets had reduced FI and BWG, but when supplemented with protease, were similar to the control diet in BWG, FI (except 0-35 days) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). When the test diet was supplemented with elevated levels (extradose) of protease and phytase, the BWG was improved during 0-10 days (p = .05) and 0-24 days (p replace SBM in broiler diets, provided the diets are supplemented with elevated levels of protease and phytase. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Long-term outcome on renal replacement therapy in patients who previously received a keto acid-supplemented very-low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, Philippe; Couzi, Lionel; Vendrely, Benoit; de Précigout, Valérie; Combe, Christian; Fouque, Denis; Aparicio, Michel

    2009-10-01

    The consequences of a supplemented very-low-protein diet remain a matter of debate with regard to patient outcome before or after the onset of renal replacement therapy. We evaluated the long-term clinical outcome during maintenance dialysis and/or transplantation in patients who previously received a supplemented very-low-protein diet. We assessed the outcome of 203 patients who received a supplemented very-low-protein diet for >3 mo (inclusion period: 1985-2000) and started dialysis after a mean diet duration of 33.1 mo (4-230 mo). The survival rate in the whole cohort was 79% and 63% at 5 and 10 y, respectively. One hundred two patients continued with chronic dialysis during the entire follow-up, and 101 patients were grafted at least once. Patient outcomes were similar to those of the French Dialysis Registry patients for the dialysis group and similar to the 865 patients who were transplanted in Bordeaux during the same period for the transplant group. There was no correlation between death rate and duration of diet. The lack of correlation between death rate and duration of diet and the moderate mortality rate observed during the first 10 y of renal replacement therapy confirm that a supplemented very-low-protein diet has no detrimental effect on the outcome of patients with chronic kidney disease who receive renal replacement therapy.

  17. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Tariq A; Thakur, S S; Mahesh, M S; Yogi, R K

    2017-10-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC) by rice gluten meal (RGM) and maize gluten meal (MGM) at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg) and age (6 to 12 mo), and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I) was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N) of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44). The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05) for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  18. Replacing groundnut cake with gluten meals of rice and maize in diets for growing Sahiwal cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq A. Malik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment investigated the effect of isonitrogenous replacement of groundnut cake (GNC by rice gluten meal (RGM and maize gluten meal (MGM at 75% level on nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, growth performance and related blood constituents in growing Sahiwal cattle. Methods Eighteen Sahiwal calves were divided into three groups, based on average body weight (87.24 kg and age (6 to 12 mo, and treatments were assigned to the different groups randomly. The first group (GP-I was kept as control and received GNC-based concentrate mixture. In second (GP-II and third (GP-III groups, 750 g/kg nitrogen (N of GNC was substituted by RGM and MGM respectively, with similar forage:concentrate ratio (56:44. Results The 90 days of experimental feeding revealed that intake of dry matter, crude protein and digestibility coefficients for all nutrients did not differ among groups. Furthermore, although N balance was greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III than GP-I and GP-II, average daily gain was similar between GP-I and GP-II but greater (p≤0.05 for GP-III. In addition, feed efficiency and related haematological variables did not differ due to treatments. Conclusion Nutritional worth of GNC and RGM was highly comparable in terms of intake, digestibility and growth in growing calves. However, MGM was found to be more efficacious in improving growth rate than RGM at 75% replacement level of GNC protein.

  19. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carob seed germ meal as a partial soybean meal replacement in the diets of red hybrid tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalbast H.I. Fadel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of carob seed germ meal (CSGM as a soybean meal (SBM replacement in the diet of red tilapia hybrid was evaluated in an 8-week feeding trial. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with increasing CSGM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, at the expense of SBM, were fed to triplicated groups of tilapia fingerlings. Their growth, feeding efficiency, whole body proximate composition, selected plasma biochemical parameters, and liver and gut histopathology were assessed. The survival and growth of red tilapia were unaffected by the dietary CSGM inclusion up to 30%. Growth and feeding efficiencies were significantly reduced at 40% CSGM inclusion. Hematocrit and body crude lipid were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in fish fed 30–40% CSGM while plasma ALT and protein were significantly higher compared to the control (0% CSGM. In addition, some instances of lipofuscin and cellular degradation were shown in liver while morphological changes were observed in fish fed 30 and 40% CSGM. Some of these included a 60% and 34% reduction in goblet cell prevalence and villi length, respectively, as well as a thickening of the intestinal mucosal and submucosa layers of 51 and 27%, respectively as dietary CSGM increased from 0 to 40%, that was likely due to increased anti-nutritional factors. In conclusion, a dietary inclusion of only up to 20% untreated CSGM was recommended for red hybrid tilapia.

  1. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  2. Effects on weight loss in adults of replacing diet beverages with water during a hypoenergetic diet: a randomized, 24-wk clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2015-12-01

    Obese people believe that drinking diet beverages (DBs) may be a simple strategy to achieve weight loss. However, nutritionists advise drinking water when attempting to lose weight. It is unclear how important drinking water instead of DBs is during a weight-loss program. In this study, we compared the effect on weight loss of either replacing DBs with water or continuing to consume DBs in adults during a 24-wk weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 89; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 27-40; age: 18-50 y] who usually consumed DBs in their diet were asked to either substitute water for DBs (water group) or continue drinking DBs 5 times/wk after their lunch for 24 wk (DB group) while on a weight-loss program. Sixty-two participants (71%) completed the trial (32 in the DB group, 30 in the water group). Baseline variables were not statistically significantly different between groups. A statistically significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and statistically significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 24 wk in both groups. Compared with the DB group, the water group had a greater decrease in weight (mean ± SD: water: -8.8 ± 1.9 kg; DBs: -7.6 ± 2.1 kg; P = 0.015, time × group), fasting insulin (mean ± SD: water: -2.84 ± 0.77 mU/L; DBs: -1.78 ± 1.25 mU/L, P water: -0.097 ± 0.049; DBs: -0.057 ± 0.042, P water: -1.02 ± 0.25 mmol/L; DBs: -0.72 ± 0.27 mmol/L; P fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profiles within both groups over 24 wk. Replacement of DBs with water after the main meal may lead to greater weight reduction during a weight-loss program. It may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at www.irct.ir/ as IRCT201402177754N5. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Proposal for a strategic planning for the replacement of products in stores based on sales forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassius Tadeu Scarpin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for strategic planning for the replacement of products in stores of a supermarket network. A quantitative method for forecasting time series is used for this, the Artificial Radial Basis Neural Networks (RBFs, and also a qualitative method to interpret the forecasting results and establish limits for each product stock for each store in the network. The purpose with this strategic planning is to reduce the levels of out-of-stock products (lack of products on the shelves, as well as not to produce overstocking, in addition to increase the level of logistics service to customers. The results were highly satisfactory reducing the Distribution Center (DC to shop out-of-stock levels, in average, from 12% to about 0.7% in hypermarkets and from 15% to about 1.7% in supermarkets, thereby generating numerous competitive advantages for the company. The use of RBFs for forecasting proved to be efficient when used in conjunction with the replacement strategy proposed in this work, making effective the operational processes.

  4. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  5. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thobaiti, A; Al-Ghanim, K; Ahmed, Z; Suliman, E M; Mahboob, S

    2017-10-23

    The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight with feeding treatment A, B, C and D, respectively. The growth performance of the fish in terms of weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were found to be significantly (P replacement of fishmeal in diet B. The worst growth performance was observed in fish fed with commercial diet, designated as diet D. It was concluded that the fish meal can be replaced up to 20 percent with other plant protein sources without any negative impact on fish health. The replacement of fish meal with local plant sources (corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean meal and bagasse kenna mix) will not only be beneficial to achieve better growth performance in O. niloticus, it will be a value addition as well.

  6. Isoenergetic Replacement of Fat by Starch in Diets for African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Effect on Water Fluxes in the Gastro Intestinal Tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harter, T.S.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of an isoenergetic replacement of dietary fat by starch, on chyme characteristics and water fluxes in the gastro intestinal tract (GIT) was assessed. Adult African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed a starch (SD) or fat (FD) diet and groups of fish were dissected at 2, 5 and 8 h after

  7. Replacement of fish oil with soybean oil in diets for juvenile Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus): effects on liver lipid peroxidation and biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deng-Hang; Chang, Jia-Zhi; Dong, Gui-Fang; Liu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the replacement of fish oil (FO) by soybean oil (SO) on growth performance, liver lipid peroxidation, and biochemical composition in juvenile Chinese sucker, Myxocyprinus asiaticus. Fish (13.7 ± 0.2 g) in triplicate were fed five experimental diets in which 0% (FO as control), 40% (SO40), 60% (SO60), 80% (SO40), and 100% (SO100) FO were replaced by SO. The body weight gain of fish fed SO40, SO60, or SO80 diet was similar to FO group, but diets that have 100% soybean oil as dietary lipid significantly reduced fish growth (P fish liver fed diets that contained SO, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and the ratio n-3/n-6 were significantly reduced by the inclusion of dietary SO (P fish. However, diet containing 100% SO as dietary lipid could reduce growth performance. Thus, we recommended that 40-80% SO can be used as dietary lipid to replace FO for juvenile Chinese sucker.

  8. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P carcass gain, carcass dressing, gain-to-feed ratio, Longissimus thoracis muscle area, and back and rump fat thicknesses (P > 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  9. Effects of replacing groundnut cake with rumen content supplemented with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniji, A A; Rumak, S; Oluwafemi, R A

    2015-12-18

    Rabbits are also herbivores which efficiently convert fodder to food. They are prolific and converter of plant proteins of little or no use to people as food into high-value animal protein. Rabbit meat is high in protein, low in calories and low in fat and cholesterol contents, being considered as a delicacy and a healthy food product. Feeding rabbits with concentrates is expensive and therefore in order to reduce cost of production, hence the use of rumen content in this study as alternative feedstuff without competition. A total of thirty six (36) weaner rabbits (oryctalagus cuniculus) of different body weight and age where use in this experiment to determine the effects of replacing rumen content with or without enzyme supplementation for groundnut cake. This feeding trial which lasted for 8 weeks was carried out in order to determine the replacement value of groundnut cake with rumen content with or without enzyme in the diet of weaner rabbit. A 3x2 factorial experiment was adopted such that there where three (3) replacement level of rumen content (0, 25 and 50 %) for groundnut cake by two supplemental level (no enzyme and enzyme supplement). The results showed that increased inclusion level of rumen content has significant effects (p  0.05) with weight gained value of 7.62,7.44 and 7.36 g respectively. Similarly there was a significant (p  0.05) of the treatment on urinary nitrogen. Significant (p  0.05) of the supplementation on the nitrogen intake. The interaction between the varying levels of rumen content supplementation had significant effects (p < 0.05) on the feacal nitrogen, feed intake and feed to gain ratio but no significant (p < 0.05) effects on interaction of nitrogen intake. In conclusion, since the results from this study showed no negative effects on the performance of the experimental animals, the test ingredient can be used as alternative feedstuff at a lower inclusion level so as to reduce production cost and expand

  10. Measurements of three-dimensional glenoid erosion when planning the prosthetic replacement of osteoarthritic shoulders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, A; Ston, J; Larrea, X; Farron, A

    2014-04-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) correction of glenoid erosion is critical to the long-term success of total shoulder replacement (TSR). In order to characterise the 3D morphology of eroded glenoid surfaces, we looked for a set of morphological parameters useful for TSR planning. We defined a scapular coordinates system based on non-eroded bony landmarks. The maximum glenoid version was measured and specified in 3D by its orientation angle. Medialisation was considered relative to the spino-glenoid notch. We analysed regular CT scans of 19 normal (N) and 86 osteoarthritic (OA) scapulae. When the maximum version of OA shoulders was higher than 10°, the orientation was not only posterior, but extended in postero-superior (35%), postero-inferior (6%) and anterior sectors (4%). The medialisation of the glenoid was higher in OA than normal shoulders. The orientation angle of maximum version appeared as a critical parameter to specify the glenoid shape in 3D. It will be very useful in planning the best position for the glenoid in TSR.

  11. Effects of partial replacement of maize in the diet with crude glycerin and/or soyabean oil on ruminal fermentation and microbial population in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury Tatiana; Duarte Messana, Juliana; Carneiro de Souza, Vinícius; Lino Dias, Ana Veronica; Takeshi Kishi, Luciano; Rocha Rebelo, Lucas; Teresinha Berchielli, Telma

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of crude glycerin (CG) and soyabean oil (SO) could be used to partially replace maize in the diet of Nellore steers while maintaining optimum feed utilisation. Eight castrated Nellore steers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a double 4×4 Latin square design balanced for residual effects, in a factorial arrangement (A×B), when factor A corresponded to the provision of SO, and factor B to the provision of CG. Steers feed SO and CG showed similar DM intake, DM, organic matter and neutral-detergent fibre digestibility to that of steers fed diets without oil and without glycerine (P>0·05). Both diets with CG additions reduced the acetate:propionate ratio and increased the proportion of iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate and valerate (Pdiets containing SO had less total N excretion (Pdiet generated a greater ruminal abundance of Prevotella, Succinivibrio, Ruminococcus, Syntrophococcus and Succiniclasticum. Archaea abundance (P=0·002) and total ciliate protozoa were less in steers fed diets containing SO (P=0·011). CG associated with lipids could be an energy source, which is a useful strategy for the partial replacement of maize in cattle diets, could result in reduced total N excretion and ruminal methanogens without affecting intake and digestibility.

  12. Impact of Fishmeal Replacement in Diets for Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota Determined by Pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Estruch

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated the impact of diet on microbiota composition, but the essential need for the optimization of production rates and costs forces farms and aquaculture production to carry out continuous dietary tests. In order to understand the effect of total fishmeal replacement by vegetable-based feed in the sea bream (Sparus aurata, the microbial composition of the stomach, foregut, midgut and hindgut was analysed using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, also considering parameters of growth, survival and nutrient utilisation indices.A total of 91,539 16S rRNA filtered-sequences were analysed, with an average number of 3661.56 taxonomically assigned, high-quality sequences per sample. The dominant phyla throughout the whole gastrointestinal tract were Actinobacteria, Protebacteria and Firmicutes. A lower diversity in the stomach in comparison to the other intestinal sections was observed. The microbial composition of the Recirculating Aquaculture System was totally different to that of the sea bream gastrointestinal tract. Total fishmeal replacement had an important impact on microbial profiles but not on diversity. Streptococcus (p-value: 0.043 and Photobacterium (p-value: 0.025 were highly represented in fish fed with fishmeal and vegetable-meal diets, respectively. In the stomach samples with the vegetable diet, reads of chloroplasts and mitochondria from vegetable dietary ingredients were rather abundant. Principal Coordinate Analysis showed a clear differentiation between diets in the microbiota present in the gut, supporting the presence of specific bacterial consortia associated with the diet.Although differences in growth and nutritive parameters were not observed, a negative effect of the vegetable diet on the survival rate was determined. Further studies are required to shed more light on the relationship between the immune system and sea bream gastrointestinal tract microbiota and should consider the modulation of

  13. Short communication: Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs fed diet replacing corn with orange pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Paya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with orange pulp (OP) on growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs. Twenty male lambs were placed in individual pens and fed with four levels of replacement...... fiber showed a quadratic effect with the level of replacement. The results of the present study showed that replacement of corn by OP improves DMI of fattening lambs, leading to an enhancement in ADG at the replacement level of 40.3%. Also, total replacement of corn by OP did not have any adverse effect...

  14. Can field-in-field technique replace wedge filter in radiotherapy treatment planning: a comparative analysis in various treatment sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, R.; Julka, P.K.; Rath, G.K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show whether field-in-field (FIF) technique can be used to replace wedge filter in radiation treatment planning. The study was performed in cases where wedges are commonly used in radiotherapy treatment planning. Thirty patients with different malignancies who received radiotherapy were studied. This includes patients with malignancies of brain, head and neck, breast, upper and lower abdomen. All the patients underwent computed tomography scanning and the datasets were transferred to the treatment planning system. Initially, wedge based planning was performed to achieve the best possible dose distribution inside the target volume with multileaf collimators (Plan1). Wedges were removed from a copy of the same plan and FIF plan was generated (Plan2). The two plans were then evaluated and compared for mean dose, maximum dose, median dose, doses to 2% (D 2 ) and 98% (D 9 8) of the target volume, volume receiving greater than 107% of the prescribed dose (V>107%), volume receiving less than 95% of the prescribed dose (V 2 , V>107% and CI for more of the sites with statistically significant reduction in monitor units. FIF results in better dose distribution in terms of homogeneity in most of the sites. It is feasible to replace wedge filter with FIF in radiotherapy treatment planning.

  15. Exercise and diet determinants of overweight women participating in an exercise and diet program: a prospective examination of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebecca Ellis; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine prospectively the ability of direct and belief-based measures of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs to predict exercise and diet intention and behavior of overweight women. Participants were 117 overweight, community-dwelling women and university students enrolled in a 4-week exercise and diet program. Participants completed baseline measures of demographic characteristics and the TPB constructs. Their exercise and diet adherence were also recorded. We found that: (1) the direct measure of perceived behavioral control (PBC) predicted exercise intention, (2) the direct measures of instrumental attitude, subjective norm, and PBC predicted diet intention, and (3) none of the direct or belief-based measures of the TPB constructs predicted 4-week exercise or diet behavior. Furthermore, several beliefs were associated with the direct measures of attitude, subjective norm, PBC, and intention. Implications of these results for designing exercise and diet interventions with overweight women are discussed.

  16. Meal replacements and fibre supplement as a strategy for weight loss. Proprietary PGX® meal replacement and PGX® fibre supplement in addition to a calorie-restricted diet to achieve weight loss in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Ronald G; Reimer, Raylene A; Kacinik, Veronica; Pal, Sebely; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks. In addition to the meal replacements, they were also asked to consume 5 g/day of PGX® fibre in the form of granules, powder or capsules together with 250 mlwater. A registered dietician recommended low-fat, low-glycaemic-index foods for snacks and the dinner menus such that each volunteer was consuming a total of 1200 kcal/day. All participants (n = 52) lost a significant amount of weight from baseline (-4.69 ± 3.73 kg), which was further reflected in the reductions in their waist (-7.11 ± 6.35 cm) and hip circumference (-5.59 ± 3.58 cm) over the 12-week study (p meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre along with a controlled dietary caloric intake is of benefit for short-term weight loss.

  17. Comparative Study on the Cellular and Systemic Nutrient Sensing and Intermediary Metabolism after Partial Replacement of Fishmeal by Meat and Bone Meal in the Diet of Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Xu, Dandan; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; He, Gen

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the cellular and systemic nutrient sensing mechanisms as well as the intermediary metabolism responses in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) fed with fishmeal diet (FM diet), 45% of FM replaced by meat and bone meal diet (MBM diet) or MBM diet supplemented with essential amino acids to match the amino acid profile of FM diet (MBM+AA diet). During the one month feeding trial, feed intake was not affected by the different diets. However, MBM diet caused significant reduction of specific growth rate and nutrient retentions. Compared with the FM diet, MBM diet down-regulated target of rapamycin (TOR) and insulin-like growth factor (IGFs) signaling pathways, whereas up-regulated the amino acid response (AAR) signaling pathway. Moreover, MBM diet significantly decreased glucose and lipid anabolism, while increased muscle protein degradation and lipid catabolism in liver. MBM+AA diet had no effects on improvement of MBM diet deficiencies. Compared with fasted, re-feeding markedly activated the TOR signaling pathway, IGF signaling pathway and glucose, lipid metabolism, while significantly depressed the protein degradation signaling pathway. These results thus provided a comprehensive display of molecular responses and a better explanation of deficiencies generated after fishmeal replacement by other protein sources.

  18. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beef and pork, and sweets is limited. Drinking wine in moderation is encouraged. Studies have shown that ... levels and improve cholesterol levels. This diet can benefit people with high blood pressure and may benefit ...

  19. Digestibility and performance of steers fed low-quality crop residues treated with calcium oxide to partially replace corn in distillers grains finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Harding, J L; Griffin, W A; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify methods for treating crop residues to improve digestibility and value in finishing diets based on corn grain and corn wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS). In Exp. 1, 336 yearling steers (initial BW 356 ± 11.5 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 pens per treatment. Factors were 3 crop residues (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and 2 treatments where crop residues were either fed (20% diet DM) in their native form (NT) or alkaline treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and hydrated to 50% DM before anaerobic storage (AT). Intakes were not affected by diet (F test; P = 0.30). An interaction between chemical treatment and residue (P 0.10) was observed between control (46% corn; DM basis) and AT (31% corn; DM basis) for DM digestibility (70.7% vs. 73.7%) or OM digestibility (72.1% vs. 77.0%). Dry matter intakes were not different between treated and untreated diets (P = 0.38), but lower (P < 0.01) NDF intake was observed for treated diets (3.1 vs. 3.5 kg/d), suggesting that CaO treatment was effective in solubilizing some carbohydrate. These data suggest that 15% replacement of corn and 10% untreated residue with treated forage result in a nutrient supply of OM similar to that of the control. The improvements in total tract fiber digestibility that occurred when treated forages were fed may have been related to increased digestibility of recoverable NDF and not to increased ruminal pH. Feeding chemically treated crop residues and WDGS is an effective strategy for replacing a portion of corn grain and roughage in feedlot diets.

  20. Replacement of soybean oil by fish oil increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats fed a high-carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Lupin Seed-based Meal in Chicken Diet on Performance, Carcass Value and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this experimental study was to determine how diets containing lupin meal affect the performance indicators, carcass value, and chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens. The diets tested in experimental groups E1 and E2 differed as follows: in group E1, one third of nitrogen-containing substances (NSs from extracted soybean meal was replaced with NSs from lupin meal; in group E2, two thirds were replaced compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal in experimental diets failed to produce any significant effect on the average live weight of chickens on Day 42 of the fattening period compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal resulted in decreased average weight of carcass and breast muscles and in decreased yield of breast muscles. Differences between the control group (C and group E2 were significant (P ⪬ 0.01. Chickens in group E2 also showed a significant increase (P ⪬ 0.01 in the yield of the heart and stomach compared to the control group. The differences in weight and yield of thigh muscles between the control group and the experimental groups (E1 and E2 were not significantly affected. As far as chemical composition is concerned, chickens receiving the lupin-containing feed showed a significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in the ash content in breast muscles. On the contrary, in thigh muscles in group E2, the ash content decreased significantly (P ⪬ 0.01. The content of calcium showed an increasing trend in both breast and thigh muscles in both experimental groups. In contrast, the content of magnesium in chicken muscles in both experimental groups decreased. These differences were significant (P ⪬ 0.01 only in thigh muscles. Our results show that lupin seed is a suitable substitute for NSs contained in soybean extracted meal. It is considered optimal to replace up to one third of NSs contained in

  2. Effects of replacing fishmeal with animal by-products meal supplementation in diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of mangrove red snapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Abbas, Ghulam; Akhtar, Rukhsana; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing

    2007-07-01

    A feeding trial was conducted for 75 d to evaluate the nutritive value of a mixture of animal by-products (MAB) as a possible protein source in diets for juvenile mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (mean initial body weight, 30 g). Fish were fed one of five isonitrogenous diets (40% crude protein) replacing 0, 25% (MAB25), 50% (MAB50), 75% (MAB75) and 100% (MAB100) of fish meal protein with similar percentages of MAB. The MAB consisted of 25% cow liver meal, 20% leather meal, 20% meat and bone meal, 15% blood meal, 10% APC (poultry feather meal), 8% poultry manure dried, 1.5% choline and 0.5% chromic oxide. After 75 d of feeding, fish fed with diets MAB50, MAB75 and MAB100 exhibited significantly lower growth performance than that of fish fed with control and MAB25 diets. The optimum level of MAB was estimated to be 23%. Replacement of fish meal by MAB23% showed the following performance: maximum weight gain, 510%; SGR, 2.39% and FCE, 2.83%. The MAB substitution up to 75% of fish meal protein in diets did not show differences in apparent protein digestibility (83.6% for MAB25, 79.2% for MAB50, 78.7% for MAB75) compared with control (83.4%), whereas in MAB100 group digestibility (65.3%) was significantly lower than in other groups. The apparent phosphorus absorption of test diet groups was significantly higher (37.1% for MAB25, 28.5% for MAB50, 55.6% for MAB75 and 54.5% for MAB100) than that of control (11.2%). The levels of protein and ash in the whole body, carcass and viscera increased as MAB substitution in diets increased, whereas lipids and moisture remained consistent among all treatment groups. These results showed that approximately 23% of fish meal protein could be replaced by a mixture of animal by-products for juvenile snapper growing from 30 g to 167 g in 75 d without compromising growth performance and feed efficiency.

  3. Effect of feeding three lysine to energy diets on growth, body composition and age at puberty in replacement gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effect of diets differing in standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine on lysine intake, growth rate, body composition and age at puberty on maternal line gilts. Crossbred Large White×Landrace gilts (n =641) were fed corn-soybean diets differing in SID lysine concentration (%, ...

  4. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) with subabul (Leucaena leucocephala) leaf meal in diets of Najdi goats: effect on digestion activity of rumen microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadabadi, Tahereh; Jolazadeh, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of replacing alfalfa hay by subabul leaf meal (SLM) on digestion, fermentation parameters and rumen bacteria and fungi activity of Najdi goats. Six Najdi goats (150 ± 15 days of age and initial body weight of 35 ± 1.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments in a balanced completely randomized design (three goats per treatment) for 56 days. Experimental treatments included alfalfa hay as control group and diet containing SLM (SLM replacing alfalfa hay at 50% level). Bacterial and fungi activity and rumen fermentation parameters of animals fed experimental diets were determined. Dry matter disappearance (DMD) was unaffected by replacing SLM with alfalfa hay for both rumen bacteria and fungi in different incubation times, except for 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria, which decreased for SLM group (P > 0.05). NDF disappearance (NDFD) and ADF disappearance (ADFD) after 24 and 48 h of incubation in specific culture medium of mixed rumen bacteria was not affected by experimental diets (P > 0.05). However, 72 h after incubation, NDFD in SLM treatment decreased (P > 0.05). Gas production parameters of rumen bacteria were similar for both experimental diets, but partitioning factor (PF), efficiency microbial biomass production (EMBP), microbial protein production (MP), and organic matter truly digested (OMTD) decreased (p alfalfa hay by SLM had no major effect on rumen microorganisms' activity of Najdi goats, so it may be used as an alternative for alfalfa (at 50% level) in susceptible areas.

  5. Telemedicine consulting in the patient preparation and planning of prosthetic tooth replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the management of edentulous spaces, there is a permanent need of a dentist-prosthetician in charge to consult other specialists. Modern telemedicine, based on powerful computer and telecomunication systems, offers an adequate answer to these challenges, being able to transfer and obtain clinical data and consultation information over large distances. Using smartphone or a computer, the teleconsultant acces the system, downloads and review the data and photographs and gave suggestions. The system then enables direct, real time contact with the consultant, chat, or directs them to contact each other by phone. Case report. We presented telemedicine consulting in the patient preparation and planning of prosthetic tooth replacement in 3 cases with different teleconsultation requirements: the first case for prosthetic rehabilitation of his upper teeth, the second one for prosthetic management of his partial edentulousness and “a growth on his gums” in the vestibular region of the frontal teeth and the third one for prosthetic management of total edentulousness of her upper jaw. We used the system of telemedicine in dentistry, established at the Faculty of Medicine in Kosovska Mitrovica. The operation was based on the computer application system XPA3 Online, computer networking and mobile smartphone network. All consultations were succefull with no need for further procedures in regional center. Conclusion. The use of a mobile smartphone has brought about the mobility and availability of teleconsultant specialists in an extent never seen before. Prostheticians are thus able to offer better service to their patients and improve the quality of management of partially or totally edentulous patients, especially in rural areas.

  6. Telemedicine consulting in the patient preparation and planning of prosthetic tooth replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenović, Dragan; Tosić, Goran; Zivković, Dusan; Djindjić, Natasa; Mladenović, Lidija; Mladenović, Sanja; Marković, Ivana

    2013-09-01

    In the management of edentulous spaces, there is a permanent need of a dentist-prosthetician in charge to consult other specialists. Modern telemedicine, based on powerful computer and telecomunication systems, offers an adequate answer to these challenges, being able to transfer and obtain clinical data and consultation information over large distances. Using smartphone or a computer, the teleconsultant acces the system, downloads and review the data and photographs and gave suggestions. The system then enables direct, real time contact with the consultant, chat, or directs them to contact each other by phone. We presented telemedicine consulting in the patient preparation and planning of prosthetic tooth replacement in 3 cases with different teleconsultation requirements: the first case for prosthetic rehabilitation of his upper teeth, the second one for prosthetic management of his partial edentulousness and "a growth on his gums" in the vestibular region of the frontal teeth and the third one for prosthetic management of total edentulousness of her upper jaw. We used the system of telemedicine in dentistry, established at the Faculty of Medicine in Kosovska Mitrovica. The operation was based on the computer application system XPA3 Online, computer networking and mobile smartphone network. All consultations were succefull with no need for further procedures in regional center. The use of a mobile smartphone has brought about the mobility and availability of teleconsultant specialists in an extent never seen before. Prostheticians are thus able to offer better service to their patients and improve the quality of management of partially or totally edentulous patients, especially in rural areas.

  7. Computed Tomography Helps to Plan Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliński, Jarosław; Plicner, Dariusz; Grudzień, Grzegorz; Kruszec, Paweł; Fijorek, Kamil; Musiał, Robert; Andres, Janusz

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in preparation for minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR). An analysis of 187 patients scheduled for MIAVR between June 2009 and December 2014 was conducted. In the study group (n = 86), MDCT of the thorax, aorta, and femoral arteries was performed before the operation. In the control group (n = 101), patients qualified for MIAVR without receiving preoperative MDCT. The surgical strategy was changed preoperatively in 12.8% of patients from the study group and in 2.0% of patients from the control group (p = 0.010) and intraoperatively in 9.9% of patients from the control group and in none from the study group (p = 0.002). No conversion to median sternotomy was necessary in the study group; among the controls, there were 4.0% conversions. On the basis of the MDCT measurements, optimal access to the aortic valve was achieved when the angle between the aortic valve plane and the line to the second intercostal space was 91.9 ± 10.0 degrees and to the third intercostal space was 94.0 ± 1.4 degrees, with the distance to the valve being 94.8 ± 13.8 mm and 84.5 ± 9.9 mm for the second and third intercostal spaces, respectively. The right atrium covering the site of the aortotomy was present in 42.9% of cases when MIAVR had been performed through the third intercostal space and in 1.3% when through the second intercostal space (p = 0.001). Preoperative MDCT of the thorax, aorta, and femoral arteries makes it possible to plan MIAVR operations. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D printed cardiac phantom for procedural planning of a transcatheter native mitral valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Richard L.; O'Hara, Ryan P.; Iyer, Vijay; Hansen, Rose; Meess, Karen M.; Nagesh, S. V. Setlur; Rudin, Stephen; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Springer, Michael; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    3D printing an anatomically accurate, functional flow loop phantom of a patient's cardiac vasculature was used to assist in the surgical planning of one of the first native transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) procedures. CTA scans were acquired from a patient about to undergo the first minimally-invasive native TMVR procedure at the Gates Vascular Institute in Buffalo, NY. A python scripting library, the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), was used to segment the 3D geometry of the patient's cardiac chambers and mitral valve with severe stenosis, calcific in nature. A stereolithographic (STL) mesh was generated and AutoDesk Meshmixer was used to transform the vascular surface into a functioning closed flow loop. A Stratasys Objet 500 Connex3 multi-material printer was used to fabricate the phantom with distinguishable material features of the vasculature and calcified valve. The interventional team performed a mock procedure on the phantom, embedding valve cages in the model and imaging the phantom with a Toshiba Infinix INFX-8000V 5-axis Carm bi-Plane angiography system. Results: After performing the mock-procedure on the cardiac phantom, the cardiologists optimized their transapical surgical approach. The mitral valve stenosis and calcification were clearly visible. The phantom was used to inform the sizing of the valve to be implanted. Conclusion: With advances in image processing and 3D printing technology, it is possible to create realistic patientspecific phantoms which can act as a guide for the interventional team. Using 3D printed phantoms as a valve sizing method shows potential as a more informative technique than typical CTA reconstruction alone.

  9. TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH AN ORGANICALLY CERTIFIED YEAST–BASED PROTEIN IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP (Litopenaeus Vannamei DIETS: LABORATORY AND FIELD TRIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of totally replacing the fishmeal component of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei diets was examined both in the laboratory setting and during a full–scale commercial trial. Animals were fed either a traditional fishmeal–based diet or one in which complete replacement of fishmeal, on a per protein basis, was manufactured using a yeast–based product, NuPro®. Laboratory studies determined that irrespective of diet fed, no difference in shrimp performance (weight gain, survival and SGR occurred. A field trial was thus activated to determine whether lab–scale studies were transferable to the commercial setting. Trials were conducted in earthen ponds from mid–June to early November 2005. Ponds were initially stocked with PL12–16 shrimp at a rate of 100,000 per hectare. At trial end, ponds receiving the NuPro®–based feed had equivalent growth to that of shrimp fed the traditional, fishmeal–based diet. Percent increase in weight from initial values and survival for the NuPro® ponds was 296, 269 and 275%, and 78, 76 and 85% respectively, whereas that for the fishmeal–based diet was 305% and 80% respectively. Noteworthy was that within pond size variation of L. vannamei was lower in NuPro® fed animals (±2.3 g when compared against animals receiving the traditional feed (±4.1 g. Overall observations from the field trial indicate the importance of the »bioreactor« pond with respect to the supply of energy to sustain shrimp growth potential.

  10. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets.

  11. Influence of a meal-replacement diet on quality of life in women with obesity and knee osteoarthritis before orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Juan José; Izaola-Jáuregui, Olatz; Torres-Torres, Beatriz; Gómez-Hoyos, Emilia; Castro Lozano, María Ángeles; Ortolá-Buigues, Ana; Martín Ferrero, Miguel Ángel; De Luis-Román, Daniel Antonio

    2018-01-16

    Knee osteoarthritis is a disease with a high prevalence in our environment, especially in women. Weight loss can improve the quality of life of these patients before surgery. To evaluate the effect of a meal-replacement diet on weight loss, body composition, and the improvement of the quality of life in obese women with knee osteoarthritis pending surgery. One branch intervention study was performed over three months on 81 women with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2 with knee osteoarthritis before surgery. Patients received a hyperproteic meal-replacement diet with two bottles of an oral nutrition supplement in lunch and dinner (1,035 kcal). Anthropometric parameters, and body composition were measured. The quality of life was assessed by WOMAC and SF-36 test. The mean age of the patients was 62.23 (8.50) years. The percentage of weight loss was 8.23% (4.04). An improvement in the SF-36 total score was observed (basal: 49.35 [20.41], three months: 58.71 [17.07], p diet, there is a significant decrease in weight and fat mass with a relative increase of the latter. There is an improvement in the quality of life according to SF-36 and WOMAC. There is an independent relationship between weight loss and SF-36 improvement.

  12. A Walnut-Enriched Diet Reduces Lipids in Healthy Caucasian Subjects, Independent of Recommended Macronutrient Replacement and Time Point of Consumption: a Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Charlotte; Rossmeier, Andreas; Lechner, Katharina; Wu, Liya; Waldmann, Elisa; Stark, Renée G; Altenhofer, Julia; Henze, Kerstin; Parhofer, Klaus G

    2017-10-06

    Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m²) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (8 weeks each). Ninety-six subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g walnuts/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet. Ninety-eight subjects followed the diets in reverse order. Subjects were also randomized to either reduce carbohydrates ( n = 62), fat ( n = 65), or both ( n = 67) during the walnut diet, and instructed to consume walnuts either as a meal or as a snack. The walnut diet resulted in a significant reduction in fasting cholesterol (walnut vs. -8.5 ± 37.2 vs. -1.1 ± 35.4 mg/dL; p = 0.002), non-HDL cholesterol (-10.3 ± 35.5 vs. -1.4 ± 33.1 mg/dL; p ≤ 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (-7.4 ± 32.4 vs. -1.7 ± 29.7 mg/dL; p = 0.029), triglycerides (-5.0 ± 47.5 vs. 3.7 ± 48.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015) and apoB (-6.7 ± 22.4 vs. -0.5 ± 37.7; p ≤ 0.001), while HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) did not change significantly. Neither macronutrient replacement nor time point of consumption significantly affected the effect of walnuts on lipids. Thus, 43 g walnuts/d improved the lipid profile independent of the recommended macronutrient replacement and the time point of consumption.

  13. Effect of dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet plan on pregnancy outcome patients with gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test the effects of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH diet plan on pregnancy outcomes patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed among 33 women diagnosed with gestational diabetes. These patients were randomly distributed to the control group (n = 16 or DASH diet group (n = 17 for 4 weeks. Whereas 47.1% of women in the DASH diet needed to have a cesarean section, this percentage of mean gestational age in control diet was 81.3% (p<0.01. Approximately 23.5% of women in the DASH diet and 75% of women in control diet needed to commence insulin therapy after intervention (p<0.01. In conclusion, the effect of DASH diet improved pregnancy outcomes patients with gestational diabetes.

  14. Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola G; Okomoda, Victor T; Oguche, Obekpa

    2018-01-01

    The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal ( Canavalia ensiformis ) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C .  ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soybeans meal (at 58.8% inclusion) with C .  ensiformis in the diet of Clarias gariepinus . The result obtained after 56 days revealed that fingerlings could tolerate up to 20% replacement without significant effect on growth and nutrient utilization. Beyond this, growth was significantly reduced. Survivals of the fish also follow a similar trend as stated above. It was concluded that dietary inclusion of raw C .  ensiform meal should not be beyond 11% (or 20% replacement for soybeans meal included at 58.8%) in the diet of C .  gariepinus .

  15. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Partial replacement of fish meal by T-Iso in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata juveniles diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of microalga Isochrysis sp. T-Iso in partial substitution of fish meal and the study of the effects on gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata perform- ances and chemical composition of fillets. The results show that the microalga T-Iso nutrients support growth better than control diets, and the chemical composition of sea bream fillets also meets the needs of consumers for healthy diets. T-Iso resulted highly digestible, and support the best perform- ances of fish fed on 70% alga diet probably due to its high protein efficiency in comparison to other diets. The presence of a high quantity of cyclic isoprenoid could explain this high efficiency of T-Iso. Gilthead sea bream fed on 70% T-Iso showed fillets with a low level of protein and a high level of fat; moreover, their somatic indexes were higher than those of fish fed other diets. Highest percentage T- Iso diet showed the highest amount of the sum of saturated fatty acids, mainly due to myristate and palmitate. On the contrary, the sum of polyunsaturated decreases, mainly because of the reduction of EPA and DHA amounts. If the mass production economical problems are solved, T-Iso will represent a good solution in partial substitution of fish meal.

  17. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycholis, Tanya J; Cant, John P; Osborne, Vern R; Shoveller, Anna K

    2014-08-12

    Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats.

  18. Impact of replacing fish meal by a mixture of different plant protein sources on the growth performance in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) diets

    OpenAIRE

    A. Al-Thobaiti; K. Al-Ghanim; Z. Ahmed; E. M. Suliman; S. Mahboob

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to assess the appropriate level of replacement of fish meal (FM) with alternative plant sources in the feed fed to Oreochromis niloticus to evaluate the growth performance. Three isoproteinious (40% crude protein) diets were prepared from different ingredients viz., fish meal, corn gluten meal, wheat gluten meal, and bagasse kenna meal. O. niloticus showed a maximum increase in weight as 9.70, 11.09, 8.53 and 8.32 g during the 2nd, 2nd, 3rd and 2nd fortnight w...

  19. Replacing Corn and Wheat in Layer Diets with Hulless Oats Shows Effects on Sensory Properties and Yolk Quality of Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa R. Winkler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however

  20. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  1. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisook, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulated to contain defatted SBM to replace fish meal at 0, 10 and 20% of fish meal protein. Each diet wasgiven to the fish at either 4% of body weight (BW or to satiation. At each feeding level, the fish were fed at two feeding frequencies, once and twice daily. Fish with an average initial weight of 2.04±0.06 g/fish werereared for twelve weeks in the flow through system. Growth of fish reduced with an increasing amount of defatted SBM incorporated in diets as observed in other carnivorous species. Within groups of fish fed thesame diet, different growth performance and feed efficiency differed due to both feeding level and frequency. Weight gain of fish that were fed diet with defatted SBM replacing 10% of fish meal protein (diet 2until satiation was not significantly different from fish fed fish meal based diet at 4% BW. Furthermore, feeding fish the former diet twice daily resulted in an improvement of FCR, PER and PPV of fish to those ofthe fish fed fish meal based diet at satiation twice daily. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss was affected by diet, feeding level and frequency. Fish fed diet 2 until satiation twice daily lost nitrogen and phosphorus in theamount similar to that of fish fed fish meal based diet until satiation.

  2. Dynamic optimization of maintenance and improvement planning for water main system: Periodic replacement approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Choi, Go Bong; Lee, Jong Min [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Chul [Samchully Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) based approach to derive an optimal schedule of maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement of the water main system. The scheduling problem utilizes auxiliary information of a pipe such as the current state, cost, and deterioration model. The objective function and detailed algorithm of dynamic programming are modified to solve the periodic replacement problem. The optimal policy evaluated by the proposed algorithm is compared to several existing policies via Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed decision framework provides a systematic way to obtain an optimal policy.

  3. Substantial replacement of lactose with fat in a high-lactose milk replacer diet increases liver fat accumulation but does not affect insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gerrits, W J J; Vonk, R J; van den Borne, J J G C

    2016-12-01

    In veal calves, the major portion of digestible energy intake originates from milk replacer (MR), with lactose and fat contributing approximately 45 and 35%, respectively. In veal calves older than 4 mo, prolonged high intakes of MR may lead to problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, ultimately resulting in sustained insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and impaired animal performance. The contribution of each of the dietary energy sources (lactose and fat) to deteriorated glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance is currently unknown. Therefore, an experiment was designed to compare the effects of a high-lactose and a high-fat MR on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Sixteen male Holstein-Friesian calves (120±2.8kg of BW) were assigned to either a high-lactose (HL) or a high-fat (HF) MR for 13 consecutive weeks. After at least 7 wk of adaptation, whole-body insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic clamps, respectively. Postprandial blood samples were collected to assess glucose, insulin, and triglyceride responses to feeding, and 24-h urine was collected to quantify urinary glucose excretion. At the end of the trial, liver and muscle biopsies were taken to assess triglyceride contents in these tissues. Long-term exposure of calves to HF or HL MR did not affect whole-body insulin sensitivity (averaging 4.2±0.5×10 -2 [(mg/kg∙min)/(μU/mL)]) and insulin secretion. Responses to feeding were greater for plasma glucose and tended to be greater for plasma insulin in HL calves than in HF calves. Urinary glucose excretion was substantially higher in HL calves (75±13g/d) than in HF calves (21±6g/d). Muscle triglyceride content was not affected by treatment and averaged 4.5±0.6g/kg, but liver triglyceride content was higher in HF calves (16.4±0.9g/kg) than in HL calves (11.2±0.7g/kg), indicating increased hepatic fat accumulation. We conclude that

  4. An Organic Khorasan Wheat-Based Replacement Diet Improves Risk Profile of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Whittaker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Khorasan wheat is an ancient grain with previously reported health benefits in clinically healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to examine whether a replacement diet, thereby substituting all other cereal grains, with products made with organic khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing lipid, oxidative and inflammatory risk factors, in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS in comparison to a similar replacement diet using products made from organic modern wheat. A randomized double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases was conducted on 22 ACS patients (9 F; 13 M. The patients were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers made either from organic semi-whole khorasan wheat or organic semi-whole control wheat for eight weeks in a random order. On average, patients ingested 62.0 g dry weight (DW day−1 khorasan or control semolina; and 140.5 g DW day−1 khorasan or control flour, respectively. An eight-week washout period was implemented between the respective interventions. Blood analyses were performed both at the beginning and end of each intervention phase; thereby permitting a comparison of both the khorasan and control intervention phases, respectively, on circulatory risk factors for the same patient. Consumption of products made with khorasan wheat resulted in a significant amelioration in total cholesterol (−6.8%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (−8.1% glucose (−8% and insulin (−24.6% from baseline levels, independently of age, sex, traditional risk factors, medication and diet quality. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipoperoxidation of circulating monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as in the levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha. No significant differences from baseline in the same patients were observed after the conventional control wheat intervention phase. The present results suggest that a

  5. Predicting Intentions to Eat a Healthful Diet by College Baseball Players: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Roman; Malinauskas, Brenda; Rivera, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors important to college baseball players regarding intention to eat a healthful diet within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Design: A survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was administered during the 2006 summer league season from 5 of the Northern Division teams of the Coastal Plain League. Participants: Male…

  6. Effect of replacing a soy diet with Vicia faba and Pisum sativum on performance, meat and fat traits of Cinta Senese pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sirtori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets containing genetically modified organism-free legumes as a replacement of soybean on the basis of performance, carcass composition and quality of local pig meat (Cinta Senese. Twenty-four Cinta Senese barrows were divided into 3 dietary groups and were each fed with a diet containing different protein sources: soybean meal (SOY, Vicia faba (FABA and Pisum sativum (PEA (8 pigs for each group. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric and contained approximately 14.5% crude protein and 14.8 MJ/kg of digestible energy (on dry matter. Each group was reared outdoors in a paddock of 3500 m2. In vivo performances were not different among groups. At slaughter, differences in subcutaneous fat thickness appeared only in the outer layer, at the last thoracic vertebra level, which was lowest in the PEA group. No differences were found in the sample joint composition. With regard to the chemico-physical traits of meat and fat, the FABA group had the highest values of redness in lean and backfat, while the PEA group showed higher moisture and lower fat content in meat compared to the SOY group. Differences in the fatty acid profile of backfat were found only for the C16:1 percentage that was higher in FABA than SOY pigs. In conclusion, Vicia faba and Pisum sativum could be a good alternative to soybean in the growing-fattening of Cinta Senese pigs.

  7. Buckwheat bran (Fagopyrum esculentum as partial replacement of corn and soybean meal in the laying hen diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Gatta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial substitution of corn (-20% and soybean meal (-10% with buckwheat bran (+30% (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench in the diet of ISA-Brown hens was investigated in sixteen 74-week old hens, housed in couple wire cages and submitted to a 16 h light:8 h dark photoperiod. The following traits were measured: body weight, egg production, egg mass, egg quality, feed intake, feed conversion, comparative palatability of ingredients and digestibility of diet. χ2 and non-parametric tests were used for production rate and yolk color score, respectively. ANOVA was used for all other parameters. Comparative choice of buckwheat, corn and soy was checked under different forms in 3 free choice tests. Results show that egg production rate (43.3% vs 50.5%; P<0.05 and feed intake (78.3±0.68 eggs/hen d vs 87.8±0.68 eggs/hen d; P<0.05 increased with the partial introduction of buckwheat bran in the diet. There was no difference in feed conversion between treatments. Nutrient balance confirmed that AMEn of diet was deeply lowered by the buckwheat bran use (6.5 MJ/kg vs 10.1 MJ/kg , due to the high fibre content of buckwheat bran (263 g/kg. Maize was always the most preferred ingredient, buckwheat bran was consumed more than expected in absence of any preference, and soybean was the food least chosen. Buckwheat bran can be used as an ingredient feed for low-producing laying hens; it induces a feed-intake increase, partially balanced by improved egg-production rates and a tendency to better albumen Haugh units.

  8. Planning and replacement of steam generators at the Ringhals nuclear power station in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looft, H.

    1991-01-01

    Planning of the project was divided into different individual phases: studies, conceptual engineering and tender specifications, detailed engineering and construction planning. The paper describes the individual phases and the measures resulting from the studies. The organization of a smooth implementation of all the activities both by the electricity supply undertaking and also by the contractor merits special attention. (orig.) [de

  9. Utilization of fermented animal by-product blend as fishmeal replacer in the diet of Labeo rohita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Samaddar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to evaluate efficiency of Labeo rohita to utilize fermented animal protein blend containing slaughter house blood (SHB and fish offal (FO as dietary fishmeal (FM replacer. Five isoproteic (30%, isolipidic (8% and isoenergitic (15.00 kJ g−1 feed were prepared by replacing 0 (T1, 25 (T2, 50 (T3, 75 (T4 and 100% (T5 FM protein with the fermented blend and fingerlings of L. rohita (mean weight 2.07 g were fed each of these feed in triplicate groups. The results showed that apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of protein significantly increased in T3–T5, while ADC of lipid and total amino acid absorption rate increased in T2–T5 as compared to control (T1. Among the essential amino acids (EAA, arginine exhibited maximum absorption followed by histidine, phenylalanine, valine and lysine while aspartic acid showed a high absorption among the non-essential amino acids (NAA. Fish fed up to 75% of replacement level (T4 did not show any significant difference (P < 0.05 in weight gain (WG, specific growth rate (SGR, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent net protein utilization (ANPU between the dietary groups (T1–T4. But FCR was increased and other growth parameters were significantly reduced in 100% replacement group (T5, while body muscle protein was significantly reduced in both T4 and T5. Deposition of EAA (except histidine and methionine in T4 and NAA (except cystine in both T4 and T5 in the muscle of fish were also significantly reduced as compared to control (T1. Multi-objective optimization programming technique was used to determine FM replacement level that optimized all the growth parameters (WG, SGR, FCR and PER simultaneously. By using Global Criterion method, it was obtained that 21.11% replacement of FM by the fermented blend was ideal for optimum growth of L. rohita.

  10. A khorasan wheat-based replacement diet improves risk profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Anne; Dinu, Monica; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Fiorillo, Claudia; Becatti, Matteo; Casini, Alessandro; Marcucci, Rossella; Benedettelli, Stefano; Sofi, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether a replacement diet with products made with organic ancient khorasan wheat could provide additive protective effects in reducing glucose, insulin, lipid and inflammatory risk factors, and in restoring blood redox balance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared to diet with product made with modern organic wheat. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial with two intervention phases on 21 T2DM patients (14 females, 7 males). The participants were assigned to consume products (bread, pasta, crackers and biscuits) made using semi-whole flour from organic wheat that was either from ancient khorasan wheat or modern control wheat for 8 weeks in a random order. An 8-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Laboratory analyses were performed both at the beginning and at the end of each intervention phase. The metabolic risk profile improved only after the khorasan intervention period, as measured by a reduction in total and LDL cholesterol (mean reduction: -3.7 and -3.4 %, respectively), insulin (-16.3 %) and blood glucose (-9.1 %). Similarly, there was a significant reduction in circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-1ra, and a significant increase of total antioxidant capacity (+6.3 %). No significant differences from baseline were noted after the modern control wheat intervention phase. The change (from pre- to post-intervention) between the two intervention arms was significantly different (p diet with ancient khorasan wheat consumption provided additive protection in reducing total and LDL cholesterol, insulin, blood glucose, ROS production, and some inflammatory risk factors, which are all key factors warranting of control in secondary prevention of T2DM compared to a diet with products made with modern wheat.

  11. Milk yield, milk composition, eating behavior, and lamb performance of ewes fed diets containing soybean hulls replacing coastcross (Cynodon species) hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, R C; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Mendes, C Q; Rodrigues, G H; Packer, I U; Eastridge, M L

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing coastcross hay NDF by soybean hull (SH) NDF on the lactation performance and eating behavior of ewes and also on the performance of their lambs. Fifty-six Santa Inês lactating ewes (56.1 +/- 6.8 kg of initial BW; mean +/- SD) were penned individually and used in a randomized complete block design with 14 blocks and 4 treatments. Diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of NDF (56%) and CP (16%). The SH NDF replaced 33 (SH33), 67 (SH67), or 100% (SH100) of the NDF contributed by coastcross hay in a 70% forage-based diet (SH0), resulting in SH inclusion rates of 0, 25, 54, and 85% of the dietary DM. Once a week, from the second to the eighth week of lactation (weaning time), ewes were separated from their lambs, stimulated by a 6-IU i.v. oxytocin injection, and hand milked to empty the udder. After 3 h, milk production was obtained after the same procedure. Quadratic effect for milk production (142.4, 179.8, 212.6, and 202.9 g/3 h) and cubic effect for DMI (2.27, 2.69, 3.25, and 3.00 kg/d) were observed as SH inclusion increased from 0 to 85% of the dietary DM. Milk fat (7.59, 7.86, 7.59, and 7.74%), protein (4.53, 4.43, 4.40, and 4.55%), and total solids (18.24, 18.54, 18.39, and 18.64%) did not differ among the 70% forage-based diet and diets with SH NDF replacing 33, 67, or 100% of the NDF. A linear increase in lactose concentration was observed with SH inclusion. Ewe BW gain during the trial showed a cubic response (0.37, 0.03, 4.80, and 2.80 kg) with SH inclusion. The preweaning ADG of lambs increased linearly, and ADG of lambs after weaning decreased linearly with SH inclusion. Final BW of lambs (2 wk after weaning) did not differ among treatments. Eating behavior observations were conducted with 44 ewes. The same facilities, experimental design, dietary treatments, and feeding management were used. Observations were visually recorded every 5 min for a 24-h period when

  12. Effects of Replacing Dry-rolled Corn with Increasing Levels of Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy of Diet in Hair Lambs Fed High-concentrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Castro-Pérez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Four male lambs (Katahdin; average live weight 25.9±2.9 kg with “T” type cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the influence of supplemental dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS levels (0, 10, 20 and 30%, dry matter basis in substitution for dry-rolled (DR corn on characteristics of digestive function and digestible energy (DE of diet. Treatments did not influence ruminal pH. Substitution of DR corn with DDGS increased ruminal neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestion (quadratic effect, p<0.01, but decreased ruminal organic matter (OM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01. Replacing corn with DDGS increased (linear, p≤0.02 duodenal flow of lipids, NDF and feed N. But there were no treatment effects on flow to the small intestine of microbial nitrogen (MN or microbial N efficiency. The estimated UIP value of DDGS was 44%. Postruminal digestion of OM, starch, lipids and nitrogen (N were not affected by treatments. Total tract digestion of N increased (linear, p = 0.04 as the DDGS level increased, but DDGS substitution tended to decrease total tract digestion of OM (p = 0.06 and digestion of gross energy (p = 0.08. However, it did not affect the dietary digestible energy (DE, MJ/kg, reflecting the greater gross energy content of DDGS versus DR corn in the replacements. The comparative DE value of DDGS may be considered similar to the DE value of the DR corn it replaced up to 30% in the finishing diets fed to lambs.

  13. Doctor Referral of Overweight People to a Low-Energy Treatment (DROPLET) in primary care using total diet replacement products: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, Susan A; Astbury, Nerys M; Tearne, Sarah; Nickless, Alecia; Aveyard, Paul

    2017-08-04

    The global prevalence of obesity has risen significantly in recent decades. There is a pressing need to identify effective interventions to treat established obesity that can be delivered at scale. The aim of the Doctor Referral of Overweight People to a Low-Energy Treatment (DROPLET) study is to determine the clinical effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability of referral to a low-energy total diet replacement programme compared with usual weight management interventions in primary care. The DROPLET trial is a randomised controlled trial comparing a low-energy total diet replacement programme with usual weight management interventions delivered in primary care. Eligible patients will be recruited through primary care registers and randomised to receive a behavioural support programme delivered by their practice nurse or a referral to a commercial provider offering an initial 810 kcal/d low-energy total diet replacement programme for 8 weeks, followed by gradual food reintroduction, along with weekly behavioural support for 24 weeks. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. The secondary outcomes are weight change at 3 and 6 months, the proportion of participants achieving 5% and 10% weight loss at 12 months, and change in fat mass, haemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 12 months. Data will be analysed on the basis of intention to treat. Qualitative interviews on a subsample of patients and healthcare providers will assess their experiences of the weight loss programmes and identify factors affecting acceptability and adherence. This study has been reviewed and approved by the National Health ServiceHealth Research Authority (HRA)Research Ethics Committee (Ref: SC/15/0337). The trial findings will be disseminated to academic and health professionals through presentations at meetings and peer-reviewed journals and to the public through the media. If the intervention is effective, the results

  14. Lifestyle influences on the association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer prognosis - results from The Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Kroman, Niels

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer specific mortality as well as potential influences from other lifestyle factors on the association was investigated. STUDY DESIGN: Female participants from the prospective cohort "Diet, Cancer......, and Health" diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) were identified and their pre-diagnostic HRT use evaluated for association with tumour biology and breast cancer outcome in multivariate analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Breast cancer specific mortality. RESULTS: Of the 1212 patients originally considered 1064...... were included. Of these, 105 women died from breast cancer during a median follow-up of 6.3 years (range 0.2-14.3 years). In multivariate analyses women who used HRT at enrolment into the cohort study had 47% lower risk of dying from breast cancer as compared to women who had previously or never used...

  15. Losing weight without dieting. Use of commercial foods as meal replacements for lunch produces an extended energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly

    2011-10-01

    High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the reduced intake was not the dietary composition of the meal replacement, but the controlled portion sized meals. Seventeen volunteers ate all of their meals and snacks from foods provided by the research unit from Monday to Friday for five consecutive weeks. For the first week, all participants selected their food from a buffet where each food was weighed before and after eating. For the next two weeks, half of the group selected their lunch by choosing one food from a selection of six commercially available portion controlled foods. They could eat as much as they wished at other meals or snacks. For final weeks four and five, the conditions were reversed for the two groups. Consuming the portion controlled lunches resulted in about a 250 kcal reduction in energy intake. More importantly, no sign of caloric compensation was evident across the 10 days of testing, an observation substantiated by a significant loss of body weight. The results suggest that the mere substitution of one smaller portioned meal each day is sufficient to cause reduction in daily energy intake and a significant amount of weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Srisook, S.; Mahankich, S.; Tantikitti, C.; Onkong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM) replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulat...

  17. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) and the effects on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Aline A P; Forgiarini, Juliana; Xavier, Eduardo G; Lopes, Débora C N; Roll, Victor F B; Rutz, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01) and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01). All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  18. Replacing soybean oil with increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of coturnix quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix and the effects on egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINE A.P. ROLL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of increasing levels of soybean acid oil in diets of quails on the quality of eggs were evaluated over a period of 56 days. A completely randomized design with five treatment levels of soybean acid oil (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% as a replacer for soybean oil and eight replicates of two quails each were used. A total of 240 fresh eggs were used for quality analysis, and 400 eggs were stored at 23ºC over a period of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for analysis of shelf-life. Polynomial regression and ANOVA with repeated measurements and Tukey´s tests were used. Soybean acid oil linearly increased the intensity of red (a* = -5.26 + 0.14 x, R2 = 0.89, P = 0.01 and yellow (b* = 42.32 + 0.44 x, R2 = 0.88 P = 0.01. All other variables of egg quality were not affected by the treatments, with the exception of sensory attributes, such as odor and aftertaste, which were more pronounced with soybean acid oil. In conclusion, soybean acid oil affects the intensity of yellow and red color of the yolk. Trained assessors detected differences in odor and aftertaste of eggs when soybean acid oil was included in the quail diet.

  19. Ingestive and metabolic behavior of beef cattle fed diets with different levels of turnip forage (Rhaphanus sativus cake in replacement to soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdecir de Souza Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five substitution levels of soybean meal by turnip forage cake in the concentrate, on dry matter intake (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, pH and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 in the rumen liquid and plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN in beef steer. The diets were isoprotein (6.5 % CP and isoenergetic (50.0% TDN, using in natura sugarcane silage as the only forage (85,5 %DM. Five castrated males were used, 1/2 Simental x Nelore cross, with average weight of 610 kg and 36 months old, all fistulated in the rumen. The different levels of replacement were: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%, based on CP responsible of soybean meal of ration. Each experimental period lasted 19 days. The experiment was carried out in a 5x5 latin square experimental design, with five animals and five periods. The potential of dry matter intake (%BW and g/kg BW0,75 of turnip forage cake forage was obtained with 27% of replacement in the protean basis in relation to soybean meal, promoting, a maximum intake of 0,217 kg/animal/day, not proportionating alterations in the ruminal dynamic and in the blood.

  20. Effects of the total replacement of fish-based diet with plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of two European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax half-sibfamilies showing different growth rates with the plant-based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geay Florian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts towards utilisation of diets without fish meal (FM or fish oil (FO in finfish aquaculture have been being made for more than two decades. Metabolic responses to substitution of fishery products have been shown to impact growth performance and immune system of fish as well as their subsequent nutritional value, particularly in marine fish species, which exhibit low capacity for biosynthesis of long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. The main objective of the present study was to analyse the effects of a plant-based diet on the hepatic transcriptome of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. Results We report the first results obtained using a transcriptomic approach on the liver of two half-sibfamilies of the European sea bass that exhibit similar growth rates when fed a fish-based diet (FD, but significantly different growth rates when fed an all-plant diet (VD. Overall gene expression was analysed using oligo DNA microarrays (GPL9663. Statistical analysis identified 582 unique annotated genes differentially expressed between groups of fish fed the two diets, 199 genes regulated by genetic factors, and 72 genes that exhibited diet-family interactions. The expression of several genes involved in the LC-PUFA and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways was found to be up-regulated in fish fed VD, suggesting a stimulation of the lipogenic pathways. No significant diet-family interaction for the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathways could be detected by microarray analysis. This result was in agreement with LC-PUFA profiles, which were found to be similar in the flesh of the two half-sibfamilies. In addition, the combination of our transcriptomic data with an analysis of plasmatic immune parameters revealed a stimulation of complement activity associated with an immunodeficiency in the fish fed VD, and different inflammatory status between the two half-sibfamilies. Biological processes related to protein

  1. Comparison of Three Instructional Strategies in Food and Nutrition Education: Developing a Diet Plan for a Diabetic Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Pourafshar, Shirin; Suryavanshi, Rinki; Arrington, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the performance of dietitians-in-training on developing a diet plan for a diabetic patient either independently or after peer discussion. Participants (n = 58) from an undergraduate program in food and nutrition were divided into two groups based on their prior knowledge before being randomly assigned into three conditions: (1)…

  2. Project Plan 7930 Cell G PaR Remote Handling System Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Kathryn A.

    2009-01-01

    For over 40 years the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have made Californium-252 ( 252 Cf) available for a wide range of industries including medical, nuclear fuels, mining, military and national security. The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) located within the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) processes irradiated production targets from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Operations in Building 7930, Cell G provide over 70% of the world's demand for 252 Cf. Building 7930 was constructed and equipped in the mid-1960s. Current operations for 252 Cf processing in Building 7930, Cell G require use of through-the-wall manipulators and the PaR Remote Handling System. Maintenance and repairs for the manipulators is readily accomplished by removal of the manipulator and relocation to a repair shop where hands-on work can be performed in glove boxes. Contamination inside cell G does not currently allow manned entry and no provisions were created for a maintenance area inside the cell. There has been no maintenance of the PaR system or upgrades, leaving operations vulnerable should the system have a catastrophic failure. The Cell G PaR system is currently being operated in a run to failure mode. As the manipulator is now 40+ years old there is significant risk in this method of operation. In 2006 an assessment was completed that resulted in recommendations for replacing the manipulator operator control and power centers which are used to control and power the PaR manipulator in Cell G. In mid-2008 the chain for the bridge drive failed and subsequent examinations indicated several damaged links (see Figure 1). To continue operations the PaR manipulator arm is being used to push and pull the bridge as a workaround. A retrieval tool was fabricated, tested and staged inside Cell G that will allow positioning of the bridge and manipulator arm for removal from the cell should the PaR system completely fail. A fully functioning and

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns in golden eagle diets in the western United States, with implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Geoffrey; Watson, James W.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Preston, Charles R.; Woodbridge, Brian; Williams, Gary E.; Keller, Kent R.; Crandall, Ross H.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed information on diets and predatory ecology of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is essential to prioritize prey species management and to develop landscape-specific conservation strategies, including mitigation of the effects of energy development across the western United States. We compiled published and unpublished data on Golden Eagle diets to (1) summarize available information on Golden Eagle diets in the western U.S., (2) compare diets among biogeographic provinces, and (3) discuss implications for conservation planning and future research. We analyzed 35 studies conducted during the breeding season at 45 locations from 1940–2015. Golden Eagle diet differed among western ecosystems. Lower dietary breadth was associated with desert and shrub-steppe ecosystems and higher breadth with mountain ranges and the Columbia Plateau. Correlations suggest that percentage of leporids in the diet is the factor driving overall diversity of prey and percentage of other prey groups in the diet of Golden Eagles. Leporids were the primary prey of breeding Golden Eagles in 78% of study areas, with sciurids reported as primary prey in 18% of study areas. During the nonbreeding season, Golden Eagles were most frequently recorded feeding on leporids and carrion. Golden Eagles can be described as both generalist and opportunistic predators; they can feed on a wide range of prey species but most frequently feed on abundant medium-sized prey species in a given habitat. Spatial variations in Golden Eagle diet likely reflect regional differences in prey community, whereas temporal trends likely reflect responses to long-term change in prey populations. Evidence suggests dietary shifts from traditional (leporid) prey can have adverse effects on Golden Eagle reproductive rates. Land management practices that support or restore shrub-steppe ecosystem diversity should benefit Golden Eagles. More information is needed on nonbreeding-season diet to determine what food resources

  4. CT angiography for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement using automated tube voltage selection: Image quality and radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Stefanie [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Kuhlman, Taylor S.; Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Duguay, Taylor M. [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Tesche, Christian [Department of Cardiology, Heart Centre Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • TAVR-planning CT was performed with automated tube voltage selection. • Automated tube voltage selection enables individual tube voltage adaptation. • Image quality was diagnostic while radiation exposure was significantly decreased. - Abstract: Purpose: To assess image quality and accuracy of CT angiography (CTA) for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) planning performed with 3rd generation dual-source CT (DSCT). Material and methods: We evaluated 125 patients who underwent TAVR-planning CTA on 3rd generation DSCT. A two-part protocol was performed including retrospectively ECG-gated coronary CTA (CCTA) and prospectively ECG-triggered aortoiliac CTA using 60 mL of contrast medium. Automated tube voltage selection and advanced iterative reconstruction were applied. Effective dose (ED), signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Five-point scales were used for subjective image quality analysis. In patients who underwent TAVR, sizing parameters were obtained. Results: Image quality was rated good to excellent in 97.6% of CCTA and 100% of aortoiliac CTAs. CTA studies at >100 kV showed decreased objective image quality compared to 70–100 kV (SNR, all p ≤ 0.0459; CNR, all p ≤ 0.0462). Mean ED increased continuously from 70 to >100 kV (CCTA: 4.5 ± 1.7 mSv–13.6 ± 2.9 mSv, all p ≤ 0.0233; aortoiliac CTA: 2.4 ± 0.9 mSv–6.8 ± 2.7 mSv, all p ≤ 0.0414). In 39 patients TAVR was performed and annulus diameter was within the recommended range in all patients. No severe cardiac or vascular complications were noted. Conclusion: 3rd generation DSCT provides diagnostic image quality in TAVR-planning CTA and facilitates reliable assessment of TAVR device and delivery option while reducing radiation dose.

  5. CT angiography for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement using automated tube voltage selection: Image quality and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, Stefanie; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Kuhlman, Taylor S.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Caruso, Damiano; Duguay, Taylor M.; Tesche, Christian; Vogl, Thomas J.; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TAVR-planning CT was performed with automated tube voltage selection. • Automated tube voltage selection enables individual tube voltage adaptation. • Image quality was diagnostic while radiation exposure was significantly decreased. - Abstract: Purpose: To assess image quality and accuracy of CT angiography (CTA) for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) planning performed with 3rd generation dual-source CT (DSCT). Material and methods: We evaluated 125 patients who underwent TAVR-planning CTA on 3rd generation DSCT. A two-part protocol was performed including retrospectively ECG-gated coronary CTA (CCTA) and prospectively ECG-triggered aortoiliac CTA using 60 mL of contrast medium. Automated tube voltage selection and advanced iterative reconstruction were applied. Effective dose (ED), signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated. Five-point scales were used for subjective image quality analysis. In patients who underwent TAVR, sizing parameters were obtained. Results: Image quality was rated good to excellent in 97.6% of CCTA and 100% of aortoiliac CTAs. CTA studies at >100 kV showed decreased objective image quality compared to 70–100 kV (SNR, all p ≤ 0.0459; CNR, all p ≤ 0.0462). Mean ED increased continuously from 70 to >100 kV (CCTA: 4.5 ± 1.7 mSv–13.6 ± 2.9 mSv, all p ≤ 0.0233; aortoiliac CTA: 2.4 ± 0.9 mSv–6.8 ± 2.7 mSv, all p ≤ 0.0414). In 39 patients TAVR was performed and annulus diameter was within the recommended range in all patients. No severe cardiac or vascular complications were noted. Conclusion: 3rd generation DSCT provides diagnostic image quality in TAVR-planning CTA and facilitates reliable assessment of TAVR device and delivery option while reducing radiation dose.

  6. Anionic salts in the prepartum diet and addition of sodium bicarbonate to colostrum replacer, and their effects on immunoglobulin G absorption in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, K M; Marston, S P; Whitehouse, N L; Van Amburgh, M E; Schwab, C G; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine whether feeding anionic salts to prepartum Holstein cows affected their calf's colostral IgG passive transfer and whether adding sodium bicarbonate to a colostrum replacer (CR) would increase the efficiency of IgG absorption. Forty Holstein cows and their resulting calves were assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design based on expected date of calving. Three weeks before the projected due date, cows were placed on 1 of 2 treatments: a diet without anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference of +77 mEq/kg) or a diet with anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference of -100 mEq/kg). Within 45 min after birth, all calves received 1 dose of a commercially available CR (132g of IgG) without or with supplemental sodium bicarbonate (19.5 g/dose). A half-dose of CR (66g of IgG) and sodium bicarbonate (9.75g) was fed at 6h of age. Calves received milk replacer at 12, 24, 36, and 48h. Blood samples were obtained from calves at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h and were analyzed for IgG concentration. Cows fed the diet supplemented with anionic salts had lower DMI on d 8, 5, 4, and 1 and lower urine pH 2 and 1 wk before parturition compared with cows fed the diet without supplemental anionic salts. Calves born from dams receiving anionic salts had similar IgG concentrations (15.1 vs. 14.4g/L) and apparent efficiency of absorption values (29.2 vs. 28.2%) compared with calves born from dams not fed anionic salts. Calves receiving supplemental sodium bicarbonate in the CR had higher serum IgG concentrations at 12 (14.4 vs. 12.0g/L), 24 (16.3 vs. 13.2g/L), and 48h (14.6 vs. 11.2g/L) and higher apparent efficiency of absorption values (31.2 vs. 26.1%) than calves that did not receive sodium bicarbonate in the CR. Calves receiving sodium bicarbonate also had greater area under the curve values for IgG absorption compared with calves not receiving sodium bicarbonate. There was a trend

  7. The effects on digestibility and ruminal measures of chemically treated corn stover as a partial replacement for grain in dairy diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D E; Combs, D K; Doane, P H; Cecava, M J; Hall, M B

    2016-08-01

    Alkaline treatment of gramineous crop residues can convert an abundant, minimally utilized, poorly digestible straw into a moderately digestible feedstuff. Given the volatile nature of grain prices, substitution of treated stover for grain was investigated with dairy cows to provide insights on ruminal and digestibility effects of a feed option that makes use of alternative, available resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in diet digestibility and ruminal effects when increasing levels of calcium oxide-treated corn stover (CaOSt) were substituted for corn grain in diets of lactating cows. Mature corn stover was treated with calcium oxide at a level of 50g∙kg(-1) dry matter (DM), brought up to a moisture content of 50% following bale grinding, and stored anaerobically at ambient temperatures for greater than 60d before the feeding experiment. Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 686kg of body weight and 35kg of milk∙d(-1) were enrolled in a replicated 4×4 Latin square, where CaOSt replaced corn grain on a DM basis in the ration at rates of 0, 40, 80, and 120g∙kg(-1) DM. All reported significant responses were linear. The DM intake declined by approximately 1kg per 4% increase in CaOSt inclusion. With increasing replacement of corn grain, dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration increased. However, rumen NDF turnover, NDF digestibility, NDF passage rate, and digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF were unaffected by increasing CaOSt inclusion. Total-tract organic matter digestibility declined by 5 percentage units over the range of treatments, approximately 1.5 units per 4-percentage-unit substitution of CaOSt for grain. With increasing CaOSt, the molar proportions of butyrate and valerate declined, whereas the lowest detected ruminal pH increased from 5.83 to 5.94. Milk, fat, and protein yields declined as CaOSt increased and DM intake declined with the result that net energy in milk declined by

  8. Optimal Planning Method of On-load Capacity Regulating Distribution Transformers in Urban Distribution Networks after Electric Energy Replacement Considering Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric energy replacement is the umbrella term for the use of electric energy to replace oil (e.g., electric automobiles, coal (e.g., electric heating, and gas (e.g., electric cooking appliances, which increases the electrical load peak, causing greater valley/peak differences. On-load capacity regulating distribution transformers have been used to deal with loads with great valley/peak differences, so reasonably replacing conventional distribution transformers with on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers can effectively cope with load changes after electric energy replacement and reduce the no-load losses of distribution transformers. Before planning for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers, the nodal effective load considering uncertainties within the life cycle after electric energy replacement was obtained by a Monte Carlo method. Then, according to the loss relation between on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers and conventional distribution transformers, three characteristic indexes of annual continuous apparent power curve and replacement criteria for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers were put forward in this paper, and a set of distribution transformer replaceable points was obtained. Next, based on cost benefit analysis, a planning model of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers which consists of investment profitability index within the life cycle, investment cost recouping index and capacity regulating cost index was put forward. The branch and bound method was used to solve the planning model within replaceable point set to obtain upgrading and reconstruction scheme of distribution transformers under a certain investment. Finally, planning analysis of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers was carried out for electric energy replacement points in one urban distribution network under three scenes: certain load, uncertain load and nodal

  9. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmly, Lloyd M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; McQuiston, Andrew D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Bayer, Richard R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m{sup 2} vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m{sup 2}, P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. (orig.)

  10. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmly, Lloyd M.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; McQuiston, Andrew D.; Schoepf, U.J.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Bayer, Richard R.; Mangold, Stefanie; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m 2 vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m 2 , P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. (orig.)

  11. Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Shougi; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were composed to investigate the effects of incorporation of potato protein concentrate (PPC) and supplementation of methionine in the diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on feeding rate, digestion, growth, feed utilization and body composition. ...

  12. Meal planning is associated with food variety, diet quality and body weight status in a large sample of French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Aroumougame, Vani; Ibanez, Gladys; Allès, Benjamin; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2017-02-02

    Meal planning could be a potential tool to offset time scarcity and therefore encourage home meal preparation, which has been linked with an improved diet quality. However, to date, meal planning has received little attention in the scientific literature. The aim of our cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between meal planning and diet quality, including adherence to nutritional guidelines and food variety, as well as weight status. Meal planning, i.e. planning ahead the foods that will be eaten for the next few days, was assessed in 40,554 participants of the web-based observational NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary measurements included intakes of energy, nutrients, food groups, and adherence to the French nutritional guidelines (mPNNS-GS) estimated through repeated 24-h dietary records. A food variety score was also calculated using Food Frequency Questionnaire. Weight and height were self-reported. Association between meal planning and dietary intakes were assessed using ANCOVAs, while associations with quartiles of mPNNS-GS scores, quartiles of food variety score and weight status categories (overweight, obesity) were evaluated using logistic regression models. A total of 57% of the participants declared to plan meals at least occasionally. Meal planners were more likely to have a higher mPNNS-GS (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.13, 95% CI: [1.07-1.20]), higher overall food variety (OR quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.25, 95% CI: [1.18-1.32]). In women, meal planning was associated with lower odds of being overweight (OR = 0.92 [0.87-0.98]) and obese (OR = 0.79 [0.73-0.86]). In men, the association was significant for obesity only (OR = 0.81 [0.69-0.94]). Meal planning was associated with a healthier diet and less obesity. Although no causality can be inferred from the reported associations, these data suggest that meal planning could potentially be relevant for obesity prevention.

  13. Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate and of DL-methionine supplementation in high-energy, extruded diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, M; Roem, A J; Carvèdi, J P; Lallès, J P; Kaushik, S J

    1999-11-01

    Our objectives were to test the potential replacement of fish meal by soy protein concentrate (SPC) in high-energy, extruded diets fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to evaluate the efficiency of DL-methionine supplementation of soy-based diets. Groups of trout (initial BW 103 to 106 g) were fed to visual satiety with isonitrogenous (6.6% DM) high-energy (22.8 MJ/kg DM gross energy), extruded diets, in which fish meal was progressively replaced with SPC (0, 50, 75, and 100%). Three 100% SPC diets were formulated to be either unsupplemented or supplemented with DL-methionine, so that total methionine content was .8 or 1.0% of DM. The quality of the SPC source used was assessed by measuring the antitryptic and antigenic activities and the concentrations of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein. Apparent digestibility of the diets was determined using the indirect method. A growth trial was conducted over 90 d at a water temperature of 18 degrees C. In addition to body composition analysis, plasma amino acid concentrations, anti-soy protein antibodies in the serum, and isoflavone concentrations in the bile were measured. The SPC source tested exhibited low antitryptic and antigenic activities, but it contained high concentrations of isoflavones (1,990 and 5,903 ppm for daidzein and genistein, respectively). Protein digestibility was high (92%) and was unaffected either the proportion of SPC in the diet or by DL-methionine supplementation. This was also true for the availability of amino acids, except phenylalanine. Digestibility of lipid and energy was reduced by 19% when SPC totally replaced fish meal. Growth rate was reduced when more than 50% of the dietary protein was of soy origin (daily growth coefficient of 3.2 and 2.1% for the control and the unsupplemented 100% SPC diet, respectively). The effect on growth was mainly explained by a general decline in feed intake (13.7 and 12.0 g DM x kg BW(-1) x d(-1) for the control and the unsupplemented 100

  14. Influence of partial replacement of soya bean meal by faba beans or peas in heavy pigs diet on meat quality, residual anti-nutritional factors and phytoestrogen content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Domenico; Russo, Claudia; Giuliotti, Lorella; Mannari, Claudio; Picciarelli, Piero; Lombardi, Lara; Giovannini, Luca; Ceccarelli, Nello; Mariotti, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The study evaluated the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans (18%) or peas (20%) as additional protein sources in diets destined for typical Italian heavy pig production. It compared animal performances, meat quality, the presence of residual anti-nutritional factors (ANF) and phytoestrogens in plasma and meat and the possible effects on pig health, by evaluating oxidative, inflammatory and pro-atherogenic markers. The results showed that the productive performances, expressed as body weight and feed conversion ratio, of pigs fed with faba bean and pea diets were similar to those of pigs fed only the soybean meal. Meat quality of pigs fed with the three diets was similar in colour, water-holding capacity, tenderness and chemical composition. Despite the higher levels of phytoestrogen in the plasma of pigs fed only the soybean meal, phytoestrogen concentration in the muscle was equivalent to that of animals fed diets with faba beans, whereas pigs fed a diet with peas showed a lower concentration. Inflammation and pro-atherogenic parameters did not show significant differences among the three diets. Overall, the partial substitution of soybean meal by faba beans appears more interesting than with peas, particularly in relation to the higher amount of polyphenols in the diet and the highest concentration of phytoestrogens found in the plasma and muscle of animals, while the pyrimidine anti-nutritional compounds present in the diet did not appear to accumulate and had no effect on the growth performance of animals.

  15. Impact of the consumption of a rich diet in butter and it replacement for a rich diet in extra virgin olive oil on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Vasquez, Hazel Ester; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ortega Fernández, Pablo; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the impact of the substitution of a rich diet in saturated fats with a rich diet in monounsaturated fats on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women. A prospective, longitudinal and comparative study where 18 postmenopausal women participated in two periods of dietary intervention of 28 days each one: 1) (SAT diet) consumed butter. Caloric formula (CF) = 15% protein, 38% fat. [20% saturated fat (SFA), 12% monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates and 6% polyunsaturated (PUFA)]. b) Period MONO: with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). CF = 15% protein, 38% fat (profile: SAT diet increased TC (p <0.001), LDL-C (p <0.002) and non HDL-Cholesterol (p <0.000), HDL-C increased in MONO diet (p <0.000). SAT diet: TC/HDL-c ratio, Non col HDL-c/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c (p <0.000) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.000). In MONO diet decreased TC/HDL-c (p <0.015) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.016). The SAT diet increased cardiovascular risk, while the MONO diet decreased the risk to develop the metabolic syndrome components and choronary heart disease. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Weight Changes and Metabolic Outcomes in Calorie-Restricted Obese Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Containing Corn or Flaxseed Oil: Physiological Role of Sugar Replacement with Polyphenol-Rich Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Zamaninour, Negar; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Pishva, Hamideh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Dilmaghanian, Aydin; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Shidfar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S). After 11 weeks, 15 mice were sacrificed and another 60 were divided among 4 high-fat diet groups with 30% calorie restriction (CR) for the next 12 weeks. The diets contained corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO) with sugar (S) or grape (G). Despite CR, a weight loss trend was observed only during the first 4 weeks in all groups. CR did not significantly increase SIRT1 gene expression. Higher liver weight was observed in mice consuming FO (p sugar (FBS) was significantly higher than in CO + G-CR. Grape intake increased Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression and decreased insulin resistance in CO + G-CR. Sugar replacement with polyphenol-rich grape along with CR improved glucose homeostasis, and substituting corn oil with flaxseed oil in obese mice reduced fat mass, but even with no change in adiponectin levels it could not decrease insulin resistance. However, none of the food item combinations facilitated weight reduction in the long-term CR. Therefore, regardless of the total calorie intake, different diet components and fat contents may have unexpected effects on metabolic regulation.

  17. SU-E-T-504: Usefulness of CT-MR Fusion in Radiotherapy Planning for Prostate Cancer Patient with Bilateral Hip Replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, R.; Giri, Shankar [University of Mississippi Med. Center, Jackson, MS (United States); VA Medical Center at Jackson, Mississippi (United States); Kumar, P. [VA Medical Center at Jackson, Mississippi (United States); Hu, Y.; Suggs, J.; Yang, C. [University of Mississippi Med. Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Target localization of prostate for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in patients with bilateral hip replacements is difficult due to artifacts in Computed Tomography (CT) images generated from the prostheses high Z materials. In this study, Magnetic Resonance (MR) images fused with CT images are tested as a solution. Methods: CT images of 2.5 mm slice thickness were acquired on a GE Lightspeed scanner with a flat-topped couch for a prostate cancer patient with bilateral hip replacements. T2 weighted images of 5 mm separation were acquired on a MR Scanner. After the MR-CT registration on a radiotherapy treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian), the target volumes were defined by the radiation oncologists on MR images and then transferred to CT images for planning and dose calculation. The CT Hounsfield Units (HU) was reassigned to zero (as water) for artifacts. The Varian flat panel treatment couch was modeled for dose calculation accuracy with heterogeneity correction. A Volume Matrix Arc Therapy (VMAT) and a seven-field IMRT plans were generated, each avoiding any beam transversing the prostheses; the two plans were compared. The superior VMAT plan was used for treating the patient. In-vivo dosimetry was performed using MOSFET (Best Canada) placed in a surgical tube inserted into the patient rectum during therapy. The measured dose was compared with planned dose for MOSFET location. Results: The registration of MR-CT images and the agreement of target volumes were confirmed by three physicians. VMAT plan was deemed superior to IMRT based on dose to critical nearby structures and overall conformality of target dosing. In-vivo measured dose compared with calculated dose was -4.5% which was likely due to attenuation of the surgical tube surrounding MOSFET. Conclusion: When artifacts are present on planning CT due to bilateral hip prostheses, MR-CT image fusion is a feasible solution for target delineation.

  18. SU-E-T-504: Usefulness of CT-MR Fusion in Radiotherapy Planning for Prostate Cancer Patient with Bilateral Hip Replacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, R.; Giri, Shankar; Kumar, P.; Hu, Y.; Suggs, J.; Yang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Target localization of prostate for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in patients with bilateral hip replacements is difficult due to artifacts in Computed Tomography (CT) images generated from the prostheses high Z materials. In this study, Magnetic Resonance (MR) images fused with CT images are tested as a solution. Methods: CT images of 2.5 mm slice thickness were acquired on a GE Lightspeed scanner with a flat-topped couch for a prostate cancer patient with bilateral hip replacements. T2 weighted images of 5 mm separation were acquired on a MR Scanner. After the MR-CT registration on a radiotherapy treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian), the target volumes were defined by the radiation oncologists on MR images and then transferred to CT images for planning and dose calculation. The CT Hounsfield Units (HU) was reassigned to zero (as water) for artifacts. The Varian flat panel treatment couch was modeled for dose calculation accuracy with heterogeneity correction. A Volume Matrix Arc Therapy (VMAT) and a seven-field IMRT plans were generated, each avoiding any beam transversing the prostheses; the two plans were compared. The superior VMAT plan was used for treating the patient. In-vivo dosimetry was performed using MOSFET (Best Canada) placed in a surgical tube inserted into the patient rectum during therapy. The measured dose was compared with planned dose for MOSFET location. Results: The registration of MR-CT images and the agreement of target volumes were confirmed by three physicians. VMAT plan was deemed superior to IMRT based on dose to critical nearby structures and overall conformality of target dosing. In-vivo measured dose compared with calculated dose was -4.5% which was likely due to attenuation of the surgical tube surrounding MOSFET. Conclusion: When artifacts are present on planning CT due to bilateral hip prostheses, MR-CT image fusion is a feasible solution for target delineation

  19. Long-term dietary replacement of fishmeal and fish oil in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Effects on growth, whole body fatty acids and intestinal and hepatic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève

    2018-01-01

    The effects of replacing fishmeal and fish oil with a plant-based diet were studied in juvenile (10g) and ongrowing (250-350g) rainbow trout from first-feeding. Feed-related differences in the intestinal and hepatic transcriptome were examined in juveniles after 7 months of feeding at 7°C. Based on microarray results obtained for juveniles, the expression of selected genes related to lipid, cholesterol and energy metabolisms, was assessed by RT-qPCR in ongrowing trout after 6 additional months of feeding at 17°C. Plasma glucose and cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid profile of whole body were analyzed at both stages. After 7 months at 7°C, all juveniles reached the same body weight (10g), while at 13 months ongrowing fish fed the totally plant-based diet exhibited lower body weight (234 vs 330-337g). Body lipid content was higher in juveniles fed the totally plant-based diet (13.2 vs 9.4-9.9%), and plasma cholesterol was about 2-times lower in trout fed the plant-based diets at both stages. Fatty acid profile mirrored that of the respective diet, with low proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish fed plant-based diets. Genes involved in protein catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and trafficking were down-regulated in the intestines of juveniles fed the plant-based diets. This was not true for ongrowing fish. Genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolisms were up-regulated in the livers of fish fed plant-based diets for both stages. In this study, feeding trout a totally plant-based diet from first-feeding affect a relatively low proportion of metabolism-related genes. In the longer term, when fish were reared at a higher temperature, only some of these changes were maintained (i.e. up-regulation of lipid/cholesterol metabolism). Although the plant-based diets tested in this study had no major deficiencies, small adjustments in the feed-formula are needed to further optimize growth performance while sparing marine resources.

  20. Growth performance and sorting characteristics of corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets with or without forage dilution offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Esser, N M; Hoffman, P C; Akins, M S

    2015-11-01

    Gravid heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and overconditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and dry matter intake (DMI) of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a nonsortable alternative. Our objectives were (1) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (control) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGH), chopped wheat straw (WS), or chopped corn fodder (CF)]; and (2) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n=128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial body weight (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing both diet energy density and DMI. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the control or EGH diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for WS, and much more severely for the CF diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared with control (1.16 kg/d), average daily gains (ADG) were reduced by dilution in all cases, but

  1. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Mediterranean diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Diets updates by ... foods Diet-busting foods Mediterranean diet Related Health Topics Child Nutrition DASH Eating Plan Diabetic Diet Nutrition ...

  2. Preparation and planning for the replacement of the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor rotary specimen rack assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.V.; Dodd, B.; Johnson, A.G.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    Recently there have been a number of indications that the rotating rack may be approaching the end of its useful life. In order to benefit from the experience of other reactors who have removed and replaced their rotating racks, General Atomic (GA) was contacted and previous TRIGA Conference proceedings were scanned. It was determined that a number of facilities, had experienced difficulties with their lazy susans and eventually had to replace them. However, most of the written descriptions of this project were not sufficiently detailed to be of great use. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the more important questions related to the replacement of our rotating rack assembly and OSU's currently proposed solutions, with a view towards soliciting ideas from other members of the TRIGA reactor community

  3. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health beliefs affect the correct replacement of daily disposable contact lenses: Predicting compliance with the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Stefano; Zeri, Fabrizio; Baroni, Rossella

    2017-02-01

    To assess the compliance of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses (DDCLs) wearers with replacing lenses at a manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency. To evaluate the ability of two different Health Behavioural Theories (HBT), The Health Belief Model (HBM) and The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), in predicting compliance. A multi-centre survey was conducted using a questionnaire completed anonymously by contact lens wearers during the purchase of DDCLs. Three hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned. The survey comprised 58.5% females and 41.5% males (mean age 34±12years). Twenty-three percent of respondents were non-compliant with manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency (re-using DDCLs at least once). The main reason for re-using DDCLs was "to save money" (35%). Predictions of compliance behaviour (past behaviour or future intentions) on the basis of the two HBT was investigated through logistic regression analysis: both TPB factors (subjective norms and perceived behavioural control) were significant (pbehaviour and future intentions) and perceived benefit (only for past behaviour) as significant factors (pbehavioural control of daily replacement (behavioural control) are of paramount importance in improving compliance. With reference to the HBM, it is important to warn DDCLs wearers of the severity of a contact-lens-related eye infection, and to underline the possibility of its prevention. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  6. Effects of replacing wild rye, corn silage, or corn grain with CaO-treated corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles in lactating cow diets on performance, digestibility, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H T; Li, S L; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Alugongo, G M; Doane, P H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye (Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40 kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60 kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03 kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03 kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03 kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02 kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02 kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02 kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02 kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG

  7. Tool Inventory and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, W. Forrest

    1976-01-01

    Vocational agriculture teachers are encouraged to evaluate curriculum offerings, the new trends in business and industry, and develop a master tool purchase and replacement plan over a 3- to 5-year period. (HD)

  8. Effects of supplementary desalted mother liquor as replacement of commercial salt in diet for Thai native cattle on digestibility, energy and nitrogen balance, and rumen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshiaki; Angthong, Wanna; Butcha, Patima; Takeda, Motoharu; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2018-05-16

    Four Thai native cattle were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the availability of desalted mother liquor (DML) as replacement of salt in concentrate. Each cattle was assigned to one of the following concentrate feeding treatments: C1, 1% NaCl was added as salt; C2, 2% NaCl was added as salt; D1, 1% NaCl was replaced by DML; D2, 2% NaCl was replaced by DML, on a dry matter (DM) basis. The animals were fed rice straw and experimental concentrates (40:60) at 1.9% of body weight on a DM basis, daily. Acid detergent fiber expressed exclusive of residual ash (ADFom) digestibility in DML treatment was higher than salt treatment (p balance, rumen conditions, blood metabolites and methane emission. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Substituição do feno de "Coastcross" (Cynodon sp. por casca de soja na alimentação de borregas confinadas Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in ewe lambs diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Barreto de Morais

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e oito borregas da raça Santa Inês (23,1kg de peso vivo e 124 dias de idade foram utilizadas para avaliar os efeitos da substituição do feno de "Coastcross" por casca de soja (CS no desempenho em confinamento. Os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos completos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. As dietas experimentais foram isonitrogenadas e continham a mesma quantidade de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. A casca de soja foi incluída nas proporções de 0; 12,5; 25 e 37,5% da matéria seca das dietas correspondendo aos tratamentos experimentais 0CS, 12,5CS, 25CS e 37,5CS, respectivamente. A FDN da CS substituiu 0; 25; 50 e 75% da FDN do feno. Houve efeito linear crescente (PForty-eight Santa Ines ewe lambs (23.1kg BW and 124 days old were used to evaluate the replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls on feedlot performance. Animals were assigned to a complete randomized block design with four diets and six replicates. All diets were isonitrogenous and contained the same amount of NDF. Soybean hulls replaced hay at 0%, 12.5%, 25% or 37.5% on DM basis, corresponding to the experimental treatments OCS, 12.5CS, 25CS and 37.5CS, respectively. Soybean hulls NDF replaced hay NDF at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. There was a linear increased response (P<0.01 on dry matter intake (0.95, 1.02, 1.08 and 1.20kg day-1 and average daily gain (113, 137, 150 and 187g day-1 and a linear improvement (P<0.01 on feed conversion (8.55, 7.20, 7.11 and 6.25kg of DM kg of gain-1 when soybean hulls were added to the diet. When soybean hulls are added to the diet (up to 37.5%, DM basis there is an improvement on animal performance and the ewe lambs attain breeding weight faster.

  10. Quantitative replacement of soybean meal with toasted African yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the result, one can conclude that 25% AYB (treatment II) compared favourably with the control diets 0% AYB in starter broiler diets and is hereby recommended as optimal for quantitative replacement of soybean in broiler starter diet. Key words: Broiler Starter diet, African Yam Bean, Soyabean replacement ...

  11. Very Low-Cost Nutritious Diet Plans Designed by Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foytik, Jerry

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedural details of Linear Programing, developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to devise a dietary guide for consumers that minimizes food costs without sacrificing nutritional quality. Compares Linear Programming with the Thrifty Food Plan, which has been a basis for allocating coupons under the Food Stamp Program. (CS)

  12. Replacing conventional or brown-mid rib corn silage with brown-mid rib sudangrass silage in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forages that use less water, but are high in digestibility, are sought as alternatives to traditional forages such as corn silage. Brown mid-rib (BMR) sudangrass is a possible alternative that can provide high-quality forage as a replacement for corn silage. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  13. Effects of straw processing and pen overstocking on the growth performance and sorting characteristics of diets offered to replacement Holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Akins, M S; Esser, N M; Ogden, R K; Gelsinger, S L

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the growth performance, feed-bunk sorting behaviors, and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers. Two corn silage-alfalfa haylage diets diluted with wheat straw were offered; diet composition was identical, except that one diet contained short (well-processed) straw (SS; 46.0% neutral detergent fiber, 12.9% crude protein, 60.7% total digestible nutrients, TDN), and the other long (poorly processed) straw (LS; 46.5% neutral detergent fiber, 12.6% crude protein, 60.0% TDN; % of dry matter basis). A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (SS or LS) and pen-stocking-density [100, 125, or 150% of capacity] treatments was evaluated with 240 Holstein dairy heifers (410 ± 56.3 kg) that were blocked by weight, and then assigned to 24 pens with 4 pens/interactive treatment. For 91 d, diets were dispersed at 1100 h daily, and bunks were sampled subsequently at 1300, 1600, 1900, 2200, 0100, and 0600 h during 3 evaluation periods throughout the trial. Diets were offered for ad libitum intake, but with minimal orts (19 mm) particles increased linearly from 1.26 to 2.82 across sampling times, differing from the SS diet at 2200, 0100, 0600, and 0900 h (orts). Similar factors calculated for the SS diet also increased linearly across sampling times, but these responses were less severe (1.27 to 1.97). Overall, particle-size concentration factors for physically effective fiber exhibited responses similar to those observed for large particles, except they were limited to narrower ranges for both the SS (1.04 to 1.14) and LS (1.03 to 1.26) diets. Despite these differences, daily dry matter intake was not affected by treatment (mean = 9.65 kg of dry matter/d), nor was daily intake of TDN (mean = 5.92 kg of TDN/d). For SS, heifers housed within overstocked pens exhibited reduced average daily gain (ADG) compared with the 100% stocking rate (0.93 vs. 0.99 kg/d). With LS processing, ADG

  14. Digital correction of magnification in pelvic x rays for preoperative planning of hip joint replacements: Theoretical development and clinical results of a new protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The, B.; Diercks, R.L.; Stewart, R.E.; Ooijen, P.M.A. van; Horn, J.R. van

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of digital radiological facilities leads to the necessity of digital preoperative planning, which is an essential part of joint replacement surgery. To avoid errors in the preparation and execution of hip surgery, reliable correction of the magnification of the projected hip is a prerequisite. So far, no validated method exists to accomplish this. We present validated geometrical models of the x-ray projection of spheres, relevant for the calibration procedure to correct for the radiographic magnification. With help of these models a new calibration protocol was developed. The validity and precision of this procedure was determined in clinical practice. Magnification factors could be predicted with a maximal margin of error of 1.5%. The new calibration protocol is valid and reliable. The clinical tests revealed that correction of magnification has a 95% margin of error of -3% to +3%. Future research might clarify if a strict calibration protocol, as presented in this study, results in more accurate preoperative planning of hip joint replacements

  15. SU-G-201-04: Can the Dynamic Library of Flap Applicators Replace Treatment Planning in Surface Brachytherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzurovic, I; Devlin, P; Hansen, J; O’Farrell, D; Bhagwat, M; Friesen, S; Damato, A; Harris, T; Cormack, R [Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women’s Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Contemporary brachytherapy treatment planning systems-(TPS) include the applicator model libraries to improve digitization; however, the library of surface-flap-applicators-(SFA) is not incorporated into the commercial TPS. We propose the dynamic library-(DL) for SFA and investigate if such library can eliminate applicator reconstruction, source activation and dose normalization. Methods: DL was generated for the SFA using the C++class libraries of the Visualization Toolkit-(VTK) and Qt-application framework for complete abstraction of the graphical interface. DL was designed such that the user can initially choose the size of the applicator that corresponds to the one clinically placed to the patient. The virtual applicator-(VA) has an elastic property so that it can be registered to the clinical CT images with a real applicator-(RA) on it. The VA and RA matching is performed by adjusting the position and curvature of the VA. The VA does not elongate or change its size so each catheter could always be at a distance of 5mm from the skin and 10mm apart from the closest catheter maintaining the physical accuracy of the clinical setup. Upon the applicator placement, the dwell positions were automatically activated, and the dose is normalized to the prescription depth. The accuracy of source positioning was evaluated using various applicator sizes. Results: The accuracy of the applicator placement was in the sub-millimeter range. The time-study reveals that up to 50% of the planning time can be saved depending on the complexity of the clinical setup. Unlike in the classic approach, the planning time was not highly dependent on the applicator size. Conclusion: The practical benefits of the DL of the SFA were demonstrated. The time demanding planning processes can be partially automated. Consequently, the planner can dedicate effort to fine tuning, which can result in the improvement of the quality of treatment plans in surface brachytherapy.

  16. SU-G-201-04: Can the Dynamic Library of Flap Applicators Replace Treatment Planning in Surface Brachytherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzurovic, I; Devlin, P; Hansen, J; O’Farrell, D; Bhagwat, M; Friesen, S; Damato, A; Harris, T; Cormack, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Contemporary brachytherapy treatment planning systems-(TPS) include the applicator model libraries to improve digitization; however, the library of surface-flap-applicators-(SFA) is not incorporated into the commercial TPS. We propose the dynamic library-(DL) for SFA and investigate if such library can eliminate applicator reconstruction, source activation and dose normalization. Methods: DL was generated for the SFA using the C++class libraries of the Visualization Toolkit-(VTK) and Qt-application framework for complete abstraction of the graphical interface. DL was designed such that the user can initially choose the size of the applicator that corresponds to the one clinically placed to the patient. The virtual applicator-(VA) has an elastic property so that it can be registered to the clinical CT images with a real applicator-(RA) on it. The VA and RA matching is performed by adjusting the position and curvature of the VA. The VA does not elongate or change its size so each catheter could always be at a distance of 5mm from the skin and 10mm apart from the closest catheter maintaining the physical accuracy of the clinical setup. Upon the applicator placement, the dwell positions were automatically activated, and the dose is normalized to the prescription depth. The accuracy of source positioning was evaluated using various applicator sizes. Results: The accuracy of the applicator placement was in the sub-millimeter range. The time-study reveals that up to 50% of the planning time can be saved depending on the complexity of the clinical setup. Unlike in the classic approach, the planning time was not highly dependent on the applicator size. Conclusion: The practical benefits of the DL of the SFA were demonstrated. The time demanding planning processes can be partially automated. Consequently, the planner can dedicate effort to fine tuning, which can result in the improvement of the quality of treatment plans in surface brachytherapy.

  17. Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Shola G.; Okomoda, Victor T.; Oguche, Obekpa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal (Canavalia ensiformis) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C. ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soyb...

  18. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  19. Resultados de un plan de gestión de listas de espera quirúrgica de prótesis articulares Results of a management plan for surgical waiting lists for hip and knee replacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí-Valls

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un plan de gestión de las listas de espera quirúrgicas de prótesis articulares de cadera y rodilla y sus resultados a los 3 años. El plan de gestión se basó en la unificación de la información y programación, depuración periódica, guía clínica, gestión de la demanda, priorización por necesidad e incremento de la oferta. Durante el primer año se consiguió aflorar la lista de espera real, con un 23% más de pacientes de los contabilizados hasta entonces. A los 3 años, se depuró la lista en un 16% de los pacientes, se disminuyó la estancia media de estos procedimientos en 4 días, se evaluó el 59,5% de los pacientes con un instrumento de priorización y se incrementó la actividad de artroplastias en un 16%. Se redujo en un 14,7% los pacientes en espera de prótesis articulares y el tiempo de resolución de estos procedimientos disminuyó en 3 meses para las artroplastias de rodilla y en un mes para las de cadera.This study describes the implementation of a management plan for surgical joint replacement waiting lists and its results after 3 years. The plan was based on the following: unification of information and scheduling, periodic review, clinical guidelines, management of demand, prioritization according to need, and increasing the services provided. During the first year, the plan succeeded in revealing the real waiting list, with 23% more patients than previously included. Three years later, 16% of the patients had not turned up for surgery after being scheduled; the mean length of hospital stay for joint replacements had been reduced by 4 days; 59.5% of the patients joining the list had been assessed with a prioritization instrument, and the number of joint replacements had increased by 16% with a reduction of 14.7% in patients waiting for joint replacements. The resolution time for these procedures had also deceased by 3 months for knee arthroplasty and by 1 month for hip arthroplasty.

  20. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  1. Substituição da farinha de carne suína por fontes vegetais em dietas para carpa-húngara Replacement of pork meal by plant protein sources in Hungarian carp diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Taffarel Bergamin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento e a qualidade de carcaça de carpa-húngara alimentada com dietas em que houve substituição da farinha de carne suína por farelos de soja e canola, bem como determinar parâmetros bioquímicos do metabolismo dos peixes e a qualidade sensorial do filé. Cada um dos farelos contribuiu com 50% da proteína na mistura. Cinco dietas foram avaliadas, com níveis de substituição (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% da proteína da farinha de carne suína pela mistura das fontes vegetais. A inclusão de fontes proteicas vegetais nas dietas reduziu o crescimento, a deposição de gordura corporal e no filé, e o colesterol total dos peixes. A cor e o sabor dos filés não foram afetados pela inclusão das fontes proteicas vegetais. A dieta à base de farinha de carne suína é mais eficiente para o crescimento da carpa-húngara, e proporciona maior deposição de proteína no peixe inteiro e no filé.The objective of this work was to evaluate growth and carcass composition of Hungarian carp fed with diets in which pork meat meal was replaced by a combination of canola and soybean meals, as well as to determine fish metabolism biochemical parameters and the sensorial quality of the fillet. Each plant meal contributed with 50% of the dietary protein of the mixture. Five diets were tested, with replacement levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of pork meal by plant protein sources. The inclusion of the plant-protein meal in the diet results in lower overall growth, lower body and fillet lipid deposition and lower total cholesterol of the fish. Color and flavor of the fillets were not affected by inclusion of plant protein sources. A pork meat meal based diet is more efficient for Hungarian carp growth, and provides higher whole fish and fillet protein deposition.

  2. Substituição do feno de coastcross por casca de soja na alimentação de cabras em lactação Replacement of coastcross hay by soybean hulls in diets for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Shinkai Gentil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar a resposta de cabras em lactação alimentadas com dietas contendo casca de soja em substituição ao feno de coastcross. Trinta e seis cabras (38±5 dias em lactação; 2,1±0,4 kg/dia foram distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados e confinadas por oito semanas. As dietas foram compostas de 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado e com o mesmo teor de fibra em detergente neutro. A casca de soja substituiu o feno de coastcross em 0, 33, 67 ou 100% da matéria seca (MS. O consumo de matéria seca e a eficiência alimentar apresentaram resposta quadrática aos teores de casca de soja na dieta. A produção de leite e a variação do peso corporal não foram alteradas, porém a concentração de gordura e lactose do leite aumentou e os tempos gastos com ruminação e mastigação decresceram com a inclusão da casca de soja na dieta. A casca de soja pode substituir totalmente o feno de coastcross em dietas para cabras em lactação, pois essa substituição não prejudica a produção de leite e aumenta o teor de gordura e lactose do leite. Em comparação ao feno picado de coastcross, a casca de soja apresenta menor efetividade em estimular a ruminação e a mastigação.The objective of this experiment was to verify the response of lactating goats fed diets with different levels (content of soybean hulls replacing coastcross hay (Cynodon sp. on performance. Thirty-six lactating Saanen goats (38±5 days of lactation; 2.1±0.4 kg/day were assigned to a randomized complete blocks design and housed for 8 weeks. Goats were fed diets of 50% roughage and 50% concentrate, but with the same amount of neutral detergent fiber. Soybean hulls replaced hay by 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the dry matter (DM. Dry matter and NDF intake and feed efficiency showed a quadratic response to the levels of soybean hulls in the diet. Milk yield and body weight variations did not change; however, milk fat

  3. Self-reported adherence to diet and preferences towards type of meal plan in patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzo, V; Rosato, R; Tarsia, E; Goitre, I; De Michieli, F; Fadda, M; Monge, T; Pezzana, A; Broglio, F; Bo, S

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the attitudes of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) towards the given dietary plans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate: i) the self-reported adherence of T2DM patients to the prescribed diets; ii) the use of other types of diet schemes; iii) the patients' preferences towards the type of meal plans. A 16 multiple-choice items questionnaire was administered to 500 T2DM patients; 71.2% (356/500) of them had the perception of having received a dietary plan; only 163/356 declared to be fully adherent. The latter had lower BMI (25.8 ± 4.5 vs 29.1 ± 4.5 kg/m 2 , p 1) than patients who were partly adherent. Among patients not following the given diet, 61.8% was eating in accordance to a self-made diet and 20.9% did not follow any diet. Only a few patients (2.4%) had tried a popular diet/commercial program. Most patients preferred either a "sufficiently free" (201/500) or a "free" (218/500) scheme. The use of supplements attracted younger, obese individuals, with higher education, and most managers. In a multinomial regression model, age and diabetes duration were inversely associated with the choice of a "rigid" scheme, diabetes duration and glycated hemoglobin levels were inversely correlated with a "free" diet choice, obesity was associated with a "strategic" scheme choice, while lower education (inversely) and obesity (directly) correlated with the preference for "supplement use". Socio-cultural/individual factors could affect attitudes and preferences of T2DM patients towards diet. These factors should be considered in order to draw an individually tailored dietary plan. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metabarcoding avian diets at airports: implications for birdstrike hazard management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Megan L; White, Nicole E; Murray, Dáithí C; Houston, Jayne; Rutherford, William; Bellgard, Matthew I; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

    2013-12-11

    Wildlife collisions with aircraft cost the airline industry billions of dollars per annum and represent a public safety risk. Clearly, adapting aerodrome habitats to become less attractive to hazardous wildlife will reduce the incidence of collisions. Formulating effective habitat management strategies relies on accurate species identification of high-risk species. This can be successfully achieved for all strikes either through morphology and/or DNA-based identifications. Beyond species identification, dietary analysis of birdstrike gut contents can provide valuable intelligence for airport hazard management practices in regards to what food is attracting which species to aerodromes. Here, we present birdstrike identification and dietary data from Perth Airport, Western Australia, an aerodrome that saw approximately 140,000 aircraft movements in 2012. Next-generation high throughput DNA sequencing was employed to investigate 77 carcasses from 16 bird species collected over a 12-month period. Five DNA markers, which broadly characterize vertebrates, invertebrates and plants, were used to target three animal mitochondrial genes (12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and COI) and a plastid gene (trnL) from DNA extracted from birdstrike carcass gastrointestinal tracts. Over 151,000 DNA sequences were generated, filtered and analyzed by a fusion-tag amplicon sequencing approach. Across the 77 carcasses, the most commonly identified vertebrate was Mus musculus (house mouse). Acrididae (grasshoppers) was the most common invertebrate family identified, and Poaceae (grasses) the most commonly identified plant family. The DNA-based dietary data has the potential to provide some key insights into feeding ecologies within and around the aerodrome. The data generated here, together with the methodological approach, will greatly assist in the development of hazard management plans and, in combination with existing observational studies, provide an improved way to monitor the effectiveness of

  5. Experimental Plan for EDF Energy Creep Rabbit Graphite Irradiations- Rev. 2 (replaces Rev. 0 ORNL/TM/2013/49).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2014-07-01

    The experimental results obtained here will assist in the development and validation of future models of irradiation induced creep of graphite by providing the following data: Inert creep stain data from low to lifetime AGR fluence Inert creep-property data (especially CTE) from low to lifetime AGR fluence Effect of oxidation on creep modulus (by indirect comparison with experiment 1 and direct comparison with experiment 3 NB. Experiment 1 and 3 are not covered here) Data to develop a mechanistic understanding, including oAppropriate creep modulus (including pinning and high dose effects on structure) oInvestigation of CTE-creep strain behavior under inert conditions oInformation on the effect of applied stress/creep strain on crystallite orientation (requires XRD) oEffect of creep strain on micro-porosity (requires tomography & microscopy) This document describes the experimental work planned to meet the requirements of project technical specification [1] and EDF Energy requests for additional Pre-IE work. The PIE work is described in detail in this revision (Section 8 and 9).

  6. Substituição do milho pela raspa de mandioca em dietas para vacas primíparas em lactação Replacement of corn with cassava scrapings in diets for primiparous lactating Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pimentel Ramalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de níveis de substituição do milho moído pela raspa de mandioca no desempenho dos animais, no consumo e na digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill e silagem de sorgo, cinco vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa (60±15 dias em lactação e 448 kg de PV inicial foram distribuídas em um único quadrado latino (5 x 5. A raspa de mandioca substituiu 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% do milho moído nas dietas. Os consumos e a digestibilidade de MS (em kg/dia, % do PV, g/kg0,75 do PV, MO, PB, EE, CNF, CHOT, FDA, FDN e NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de raspa de mandioca nas dietas. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura e a produção de gordura decresceram linearmente em 20, 30 e 1,15 g/dia, respectivamente. A eficiência alimentar (kg de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura/kg de MS diminuiu linearmente em 0,001 para cada unidade de inclusão da raspa de mandioca, enquanto o teor de gordura não foi influenciado pelos níveis de substituição do milho moído nas dietas.This study was conducted to evaluate replacement of ground corn grain with cassava scrapings on nutrient intake, digestibility, and production of primiparous Holstein lactating dairy cows receivind diets containing forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, sorghum silage and concentrate. Five cows averaging 60±15 of days in milk and initial body weight (BW of 448 kg were randomly assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square with increasing levels of cassava scrapings in the diet: 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. Intakes of dry matter (DM (kg, %BW and g/BW kg0.75, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, nonfiber carbohidrates (NFC, total carbohydrates (TCHO, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and total digestible nutrients (TDN all were not affected by replacing ground corn with cassava scrapings in the diet. Similarly

  7. Adding Diet and Exercise Counseling to the Health Promotion Plan Alleviates Anthropometric and Metabolic Complications in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    S. Morita-Suzuki; Y. Fujioka; H. Mitsuoka; M. Tashiro; M. Harada

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of individual (IC) and group (GC) diet and exercise counseling in men with metabolic syndrome. Participants received exercise instruction and exercise load was monitored. IC participants received individual diet counseling sessions and general consultations at baseline and monthly. GC participants received a group diet counseling session at baseline and general consultations at baseline and monthly. In the IC group, body mass index (BMI) percent body fat, waist cir...

  8. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior predict dietary intention and future dieting in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese veterans attending medical clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K

    2016-04-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans' numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one's weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB's ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans' facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior Predict Dietary Intention and Future Dieting in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Overweight and Obese Veterans Attending Medical Clinics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Denise N.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans’ numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one’s weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB’s ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans’ facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774

  10. Replacing cottonseed meal with ground Prosopis juliflora pods; effect on intake, weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed pasture hay basal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Mohammed; Animut, Getachew

    2014-08-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the supplementary feeding value of ground Prosopis juliflora pod (Pjp) and cottonseed meal (CSM) and their mixtures on feed intake, body weight gain and carcass parameters of Afar sheep fed a basal diet of pasture hay. Twenty-five yearling fat-tailed Afar rams with mean initial live weight 17.24 ± 1.76 kg (mean ± SD) were used in a randomized complete block design. Animals were blocked on their initial body weight. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks and carcass evaluation followed. Treatments were hay alone ad libitum (T 1) or with 300 g CSM (T 2), 300 g Pjp (T 5), 2:1 ratio (T 3) and 1:2 ratio of CSM : Pjp (T 4). The CP contents of the hay, CSM and Pjp were 10.5, 44.5 and 16.7 %, respectively. Hay DM intake was higher (P < 0.05) for non-supplemented and total DM intake was lower in non-supplemented. Average daily weight gain (ADG) was lower (P < 0.05) for T 1 compared to all supplemented treatments except T 5. Hot carcass weight and rib-eye muscle area also followed the same trend like that of ADG. Compared with feeding hay alone, supplementing with CSM or a mixture of CSM and Pjp appeared to be a better feeding strategy, biologically, for yearling Afar rams.

  11. The Improvement of Low Salt Diet Behavior based on Theory of Planned Behavior on Elderly with Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lembunai Tat Alberta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension in elderly is triggered by the thickening and stiffness of arterial wall due to ageing processes. One attempt to prevent the complications of hypertension is by change their lifestyle, such as perform a low-salt diet. The implementation of a low-salt diet on elderly should be adjusted with their behavior and habits. TPB is one of theoretical attempt to identify the relationship between elderly’s attitude and their behavior, and to emphasize the importancy of intention as determinant of behavior, focused on cognitif and rational decission making process. This study was aimed to analyze the improvement of low salt diet behavior based on TPB on elderly with hypertension. Method: This research was used descriptive design with observational analytic method. Population were elderly with hypertension recorded at Puskesmas Pucang, Kota Surabaya. Samples were 32 respondents, taken randomly. Data were collected by using questionnaires and direct interview. Data were then analyzed by using Partial Least Square (PLS. Result: The results had showed that intention to implement a low-salt diet was built by attitudes toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC on elderly with hypertension. A low-salt diet behavior was built by intention to implement a low-salt diet on elderly with hypertension. Discussion: These results can be used as a model to improve low salt diet behavior on elderly with hypertension. Keywords: low-salt diet, hypertension, elderly, TPB

  12. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  13. Value of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic reconstruction technique in dual-energy CT for planning of transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Simon S.; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Huesers, Kristina; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Booz, Christian; Bodelle, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Metzger, Sarah C.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate objective and subjective image quality of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstruction technique in dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Datasets of 47 patients (35 men; 64.1 ± 10.9 years) who underwent DECT angiography of heart and vascular access prior to TAVR were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional monoenergetic (VMI) algorithms in 10-keV intervals from 40-100 keV. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 564 arterial segments were evaluated. Subjective analysis was rated by three blinded observers using a Likert scale. Mean SNR and CNR were highest in 40 keV VMI+ series (SNR, 27.8 ± 13.0; CNR, 26.3 ± 12.7), significantly (all p 0.05), significantly superior to all VMI and standard linearly-blended images (all p < 0.01). Low-keV VMI+ reconstructions significantly increase CNR and SNR compared to VMI and standard linear-blending image reconstruction and improve subjective image quality in preprocedural DECT angiography in the context of TAVR planning. (orig.)

  14. Substituição total do milho por sorgo e óleo de abatedouro avícola em dietas para frangos de corte Total replacement of corn by sorghum and slaughterhouse poultry oil in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Régia Ramos de Albuquerque Rocha

    2008-01-01

    pigmentos.This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of total replacement of corn by sorghum and crecent levels of slaugherhouse poultry oil (PO on performance and carcass characteristics and yield of broilers. A total of 260 chicks one day-old, males, Cobb strain, was allotted to the following treatments: a corn based reference ration, and four sorghum based diets with the inclusion levels of 0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of PO according to the growing phases (from 1 to 7 days, 8 to 21 days, 22 to 33 days and 34 to 42 days. The experimental desing was in radomized blocks, with two blocks, where the parameter for blocks was the sense of the hangar, two replicates per block, with 13 birds per pen and five treatments. The inclusion of PO in the sorghum based diet linearly increased feed intake (FI, except during the first phase, and showed a linear effect on weight gain, that increased in the phases from 1 to 7 days, 22 to 33 days, and 1 to 42 days. Feed conversion (FC and viability did not showed differences in the studied phases. The absolute weight at slaughter broilers lineally increased with the addition PO in the diet. The weights and yield hot carcass, cold carcass, freezing 24 hours carcass, prime cuts, edible visceras, abdominal fat was not influenced by the diets. Carcass pigmentation did not show difference by the addition of PO in the sorghum based diet. The sorghum could totally replacement corn, from the day 8, because did not negatively affect performance and carcass yield. The addition of up to 7.5% of PO in the sorghum based diet provide carcass production with yield similar to those fed corn soybean meal based diets, but the addition of pigments is important.

  15. Bland diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bland diet; Nausea - bland diet; Diarrhea - bland diet; Peptic ulcer - bland diet ... be used alongside lifestyle changes to help treat ulcers, heartburn, ... stomach or intestinal surgery. A bland diet includes foods ...

  16. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Medications prescribed by your doctor should help control pain. During the hospital stay, you'll be encouraged to move your ... exercise your new knee. After you leave the hospital, you'll continue physical ... mobility and a better quality of life. And most knee replacements can be ...

  17. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...

  18. Development, features and application of DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP) software in supporting public health nutrition research in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Kadvan, Agnes; Nikolić, Marina; Zeković, Milica; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet growing public health nutrition challenges in Central Eastern European Countries (CEEC) and Balkan countries, development of a Research Infrastructure (RI) and availability of an effective nutrition surveillance system are a prerequisite. The building block of this RI is an innovative tool called DIET ASSESS & PLAN (DAP), which is a platform for standardized and harmonized food consumption collection, comprehensive dietary intake assessment and nutrition planning. Its unique structure enables application of national food composition databases (FCDBs) from the European food composition exchange platform (28 national FCDBs) developed by EuroFIR (http://www.eurofir.org/) and in addition allows communication with other tools. DAP is used for daily menu and/or long-term diet planning in diverse public sector settings, foods design/reformulation, food labelling, nutrient intake assessment and calculation of the dietary diversity indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity-Women (MDD-W). As a validated tool in different national and international projects, DAP represents an important RI in public health nutrition epidemiology in the CEEC region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Value of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic reconstruction technique in dual-energy CT for planning of transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Simon S.; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Huesers, Kristina; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Booz, Christian; Bodelle, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Metzger, Sarah C.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate objective and subjective image quality of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstruction technique in dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Datasets of 47 patients (35 men; 64.1 ± 10.9 years) who underwent DECT angiography of heart and vascular access prior to TAVR were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F{sub 0}.5), VMI+, and traditional monoenergetic (VMI) algorithms in 10-keV intervals from 40-100 keV. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 564 arterial segments were evaluated. Subjective analysis was rated by three blinded observers using a Likert scale. Mean SNR and CNR were highest in 40 keV VMI+ series (SNR, 27.8 ± 13.0; CNR, 26.3 ± 12.7), significantly (all p < 0.001) superior to all VMI series, which showed highest values at 70 keV (SNR, 18.5 ± 7.6; CNR, 16.0 ± 7.4), as well as linearly-blended F{sub 0}.5 series (SNR, 16.8 ± 7.3; CNR, 13.6 ± 6.9). Highest subjective image quality scores were observed for 40, 50, and 60 keV VMI+ reconstructions (all p > 0.05), significantly superior to all VMI and standard linearly-blended images (all p < 0.01). Low-keV VMI+ reconstructions significantly increase CNR and SNR compared to VMI and standard linear-blending image reconstruction and improve subjective image quality in preprocedural DECT angiography in the context of TAVR planning. (orig.)

  20. Effects of 3-week total meal replacement vs. typical food-based diet on human brain functional magnetic resonance imaging food-cue reactivity and functional connectivity in people with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka Nadeeshan; Davis, Tyler; O'Boyle, Michael; Boyd, Lori Ann; Chin, Shao-Hua; Paniukov, Dmitrii; Binks, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Calorie restriction via total meal replacement (TMR) results in greater reduction of food cravings compared to reduced-calorie typical diet (TD). Direct evidence of the impact of these interventions on human brain fMRI food-cue reactivity (fMRI-FCR) and functional connectivity is absent. We examined the effects of a 3-week 1120 kcal/d TMR intervention as compared to an iso-caloric TD intervention using an fMRI-FCR paradigm. Thirty-two male and female subjects with obesity (19-60 years; 30-39.9 kg/m 2 ) participated in a randomized two-group repeated measures dietary intervention study consisting of 1120 kcal/d from either 1) TMR (shakes), 2) TD (portion control). Pre-intervention and following the 3-week diet fMRI-FCR, functional connectivity, food cravings (Food Craving Inventory) and weight were considered. Compared to TD, TMR showed increased fMRI-FCR of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC), orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, primary motor and left insular cortices and bilateral nucleus accumbens regions in the post-intervention state relative to the pre-intervention state. Compared to TD, TMR was also associated with negative modulation of fMRI-FCR of the nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala by dlPFC. Reduced body weight (4.87 kg, P food cravings (0.41, P = 0.047) were seen in the TMR group. In the TD group reduced body weight (2.37 kg, P = 0.004) and body fat (1.64 kg, P = 0.002) were noted. Weight loss was significantly greater in TMR versus TD (2.50 kg, P = 0.007). Greater weight loss and reduced cravings, coupled with stronger activations and potential negative modulation of the food reward related regions by the dlPFC during exposure to visual food cues is consistent with increased executive control in TMR vs. TD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Replacement rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes in an elongated replacement rod for use with fuel assemblies of the type having two end fittings connected by guide tubes with a plurality of rod and guide tube cell defining spacer grids containing rod support features and mixing vanes. The grids secured to the guide tubes in register between the end fittings at spaced intervals. The fuel rod comprising: an asymmetrically beveled tip; a shank portion having a straight centerline; and a permanently diverging portion between the tip and the shank portion

  2. Understanding the DASH diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has been widely studied and has many health benefits. Following this diet plan may help: Lower high blood pressure Reduce the ... more expensive than prepared foods. The diet is flexible enough to follow if you are vegetarian , vegan, or gluten-free .

  3. A hybrid Dantzig-Wolfe, Benders decomposition and column generation procedure for multiple diet production planning under uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsungworagul, A.; Charnsethikul, P.

    2018-03-01

    This article introduces methodology to solve large scale two-phase linear programming with a case of multiple time period animal diet problems under both nutrients in raw materials and finished product demand uncertainties. Assumption of allowing to manufacture multiple product formulas in the same time period and assumption of allowing to hold raw materials and finished products inventory have been added. Dantzig-Wolfe decompositions, Benders decomposition and Column generations technique has been combined and applied to solve the problem. The proposed procedure was programmed using VBA and Solver tool in Microsoft Excel. A case study was used and tested in term of efficiency and effectiveness trade-offs.

  4. Effects on Diabetes Medications, Weight and Glycated Hemoglobin Among Adult Patients With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: 6-Month Observations From a Full Meal Replacement, Low-Calorie Diet Weight Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Judy Y; So, Derek Y F; Dent, Robert R

    2018-02-01

    A 6-month weight-management program with full meal replacement, low-calorie diet (full MR-LCD) (900 kcal/day for 6 to 12 weeks) follows a protocol for patients with diabetes for decreasing or discontinuing weight-gaining diabetes medications first (Group WG) and then titrating weight-neutral medications (Group WN). This is a retrospective cohort study (1992 to 2009) of weight, glycemic control and diabetes medications changes in 317 patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes who were taking medications. Group WG and Group WN were similar at baseline, except that glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels were significantly lower in Group WN (7.5% vs. 6.6%; p<0.001). At 6 months, both groups had lost 16% of their weight, and the decreases or discontinuations of medications were 92.1% sulfonureas, 86.5% insulins, 78.8% thiazolidinediones, 77.8% alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, 50% meglitinides, 33.3% dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and 32.8% metformin. At 6 months, compared with baseline, A1C levels improved in Group WG and Group WN (6-month A1C levels 6.7% and 5.8%, respectively; p<0.0001), and Group WN had significantly better A1C levels than Group WG. At 6 months, 30% of patients were no longer taking diabetes medications and had significantly better percentages of weight loss compared with those taking medications (18.6% vs. 16%; p=0.002); both groups had improved glycemic control at 6 months (A1C 6.0% vs. A1C 6.6%; NS). In patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes taking medications, a full MR-LCD program appears to be safe and includes improvement in A1C levels. At 6 months, the percentage of weight loss can be significantly better in patients who no longer require diabetes medications, and A1C levels are best controlled in patients who are on WN medications. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Paleo Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucká, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Topic: Paleo Diet Objectives: The aim of bachelor thesis is to study available literature about Paleo Diet and evaluated it. Then determine whether there is awareness of Paleo Diet in Czech republic. In addition, find out whether there is any experience in dieting according to Paleo Diet and whether Paleo Diet coul be applied in our environment. Methods: As a source of information served a survey. The research group consists of respondents who should have any experience in dieting according t...

  6. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to replace maize (10.1 CP) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% making diets (D1-D5). The diets were fed to the fish (5.59±0.37g) to apparent ...

  7. Effects of partial replacement of soyabean meal or groundnut cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    160 unsexed Nera day old chicks were weighed and randomly divided into 8 experimental groups such that there were 2 replicates of 10 birds each per diet. Eight diets were formulated for the starter and finisher phases. The first four diets had groundnut cake as the protein source and were gradually replaced by sunflower ...

  8. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  9. The Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Diet in Carers of People with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Catherine M.; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Background: The utility of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in predicting the intentions of care staff to encourage healthy eating behaviour in those they supported was examined. Method: A quantitative, within-participant, questionnaire based design was used with 112 carers to assess the performance of two TPB models. The first contained the…

  10. Desempenho e qualidade da carne de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de sorgo em substituição ao milho Effects on performance and meat quality of replacing corn with sorghum in a broiler diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Garcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho e a qualidade da carne de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de sorgo, do cultivar SAARA, com 0,49g/kg de tanino, em substituição ao milho. Os 2600 pintos sexados de um dia de idade, da linhagem Ross 308, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com esquema fatorial 5×2 (cinco níveis de sorgo - 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% e dois sexos, e quatro repetições de 65 aves por unidade experimental. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 da substituição do milho pelo sorgo sobre as características de desempenho, de rendimentos de carcaça, carne de peito e pernas, de composição química e sensoriais. O pH observado nas carnes de peito e pernas foi maior para os machos (PThe effects of diets with graded levels of SAARA sorghum, a variety containing 0.49g/kg of tannin, on broiler performance and meat quality were evaluated. One-day-old, sexed Ross 308 chicks (n=2600 were randomly assigned within sex to one of five levels of sorghum (replacement of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of corn in the diet. There were 65 birds per experimental unit in 4 replicates of the 5 sorghum level × 2 sex factorial design. Level of corn replacement by sorghum did not affect performance characteristics, carcass characteristics, main cut yield, muscle tissue chemical composition or sensory characteristics of the meat (P>0.05. Muscle tissue from males had higher pH values than that from females, and muscle pH decreased as sorghum replaced corn in the diet (P<0.05. Loin length, width and thickness were larger for males. Breast meat from males had higher cooking loss and required greater shear force than breast meat from females (P<0.05. With increasing level of sorghum in the diet, the L value (level of light of breast and leg muscle increased, whereas a value (redness and b value (yellowness decreased (P<0.05. In summary, replacing corn in the diet with increasing levels of sorghum did not affect live performance, carcass or main cut

  11. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  12. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  13. Impact of Diets Containing Plant Raw Materials as Fish Meal and Fish Oil Replacement on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata, and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio Freshness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorakis Kriton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate whether the total or high substitution of fish meal (FM and fish oil (FO by sustainable plant raw materials (plant meal and oils in long-term feeding for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp can result in spoilage alterations during ice storage. These three species were fed throughout their whole rearing cycle with plant-based diets and compared to counterparts that received FM/FO-based diets or commercial-like diets. Sensory QIM schemes adopted for these species and ATP breakdown products (K-value and components were used to evaluate the freshness. Sensory acceptability of 14, 15, and 12 days was found for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. This corresponded to K-values of approximately 80%, 35%, and 65% for rainbow trout, gilthead sea bream, and common carp, respectively. No major effect of dietary history on postmortem shelf life was shown for gilthead sea bream and common carp; neither sensory-perceived nor chemical freshness showed diet-related differences. Rainbow trout fed with the plant-based diet exhibited slightly worse sensory freshness than fish fed with FM/FO-based diets, at the end of shelf life. These findings imply that FM and FO can be successfully substituted without major impacts on shelf life of fish.

  14. The effect of replacing maize with cassava peel meal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimal replacement level(s) of dried cassava peel meal (DCPM) for maize in diets for weaner rabbits. Four experimentnl diets were formulated such that dried cassava peel meal replaced maize at 0, 50%, 75% and 100% levels, respectively. Each diet was fed to five ...

  15. Effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fat and a full Mediterranean diet on PBMC whole genome gene expression and plasma proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, van, Susan; Feskens, Edith; Bos, M.B.; Groot, de, Lisette; Vries, de, Jeanne; Muller, Michael; Afman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of replacement of saturated fat (SFA) by monunsaturated fat (MUFA) in a western-type diet and the effects of a full Mediterranean (MED) diet on whole genome PBMC gene expression and plasma protein profiles. Abdominally overweight subjects were randomized to a 8 wk completely controlled SFA-rich diet, a SFA-by-MUFA-replaced diet (MUFA diet) or a MED diet. Concentrations of 124 plasma proteins and PBMCs whole genome transcriptional profiles were assessed...

  16. Compliance With the Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity Level of Users of the PAFES (Plan for Physical Activity, Sport and Health Web Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío López

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Physical Activity Plan Sport and Health web site (www.pafes.cat allows users to assess the level of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD and level of physical activity (PA by two interactive questionnaires: the MD questionnaire adapted from the study Prevention with Mediterranean Diet (Predimed and the abbreviated version of the International Physical Activity questionnaire (IPAQ.Methods: A descriptive analysis was performed on the results of both questionnaires during the period 2009 to 2010.Results: Of the 1376 questionnaires analyzed on adherence to the MD, 12.5% of users have a high compliance, 67.2% moderate, and 20.3% low. Almost all (95.8% used olive oil as the main added fat, 82.2% and 78.4% reported a low intake of butter and derivatives, and sugary drinks, respectively, and 70.9% referred to an adequate intake of vegetables. On the negative side, 82.3% reported a low intake of legumes, 71.6% a high intake of red meat, 67.6% and 25% lower intake of fruit and nuts, respectively. As regards PA, of the 1221 questionnaires analyzed, 79.4% of the population met the PA health recommendations, 36.5% at a high level, and 42.9% moderate.Conclusions: Web questionnaires can be a useful tool in the promotion and dissemination of both habits. As a suggestion for improvement, we propose the inclusion of demographic variables to determine the profile of users who completed the questionnaires.

  17. Feeder replacement tooling and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, R.; Goslin, R.; Pink, D.; Askari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Primary heat transport system feeder integrity has become a concern at some CANDU nuclear plants as a result of thinning caused by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). Feeder inspections are indicating that life-limiting wall thinning can occur in the region between the Grayloc hub weld and second elbow of some outlet feeders. In some cases it has become necessary to replace thinned sections of affected feeders to restore feeder integrity to planned end of life. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd. (B and W) have developed a new capability for replacement of single feeders at any location on the reactor face without impacting or interrupting operation of neighbouring feeders. This new capability consists of deploying trained crews with specialized tools and procedures for feeder replacements during planned outages. As may be expected, performing single feeder replacement in the congested working environment of an operational CANDU reactor face involves overcoming many challenges with respect to access to feeders, available clearances for tooling, and tooling operation and performance. This paper describes some of the challenges encountered during single feeder replacements and actions being taken by AECL and B and W to promote continuous improvement of feeder replacement tooling and processes and ensure well-executed outages. (author)

  18. Características de carcaça e da carne de caprinos Boer x Saanen confinados recebendo rações com casca do grão de soja em substituição ao milho Characteristics of carcass and meat of feedlot Boer x Saanen kids fed diets with ground corn replaced by soybean hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Hideo Hashimoto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características de carcaça, os rendimentos dos cortes, a proporção dos tecidos, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus dorsi de cabritos confinados alimentados com rações contendo casca do grão de soja em substituição ao grão de milho moído. Foram utilizados 15 cabritos machos inteiros Boer x Saanen distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado (cinco animais por tratamento e abatidos com 33,82 ± 4,40 kg de peso corporal. As rações foram compostas de feno de grama-estrela (Cynodon spp., farelo de soja, milho moído e/ou casca do grão de soja e minerais. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de 0, 50 e 100% de substituição do milho pela casca do grão de soja. Os níveis de substituição do milho pela casca do grão de soja não alteraram as características de carcaça, mas influenciaram o rendimento dos cortes comerciais do lombo e do pescoço. A porcentagem de carne do músculo Longissimus dorsi não foi afetada pelos tratamentos, entretanto, os animais do tratamento que não receberam casca do grão e soja apresentaram maiores proporções de gordura e menores de osso. A composição centesimal e o perfil dos ácidos graxos não diferiram entre os animais, contudo, o músculo Longissimus dorsi daqueles alimentados com casca do grão de soja apresentou maiores teores de colesterol. A casca do grão de soja pode ser utilizada como substituto do milho em rações, pois não alterou as características de carcaça e de carne dos animais.The objective of this trial was to evaluate carcass characteristics, cuts yield, tissues proportion, and chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the Longissimus dorsi of feedlot kids fed diets, in which soybean hulls (SH replaced ground corn grain (GCG. Fifteen Boer x Saanen male kids were assigned to a completely randomized design (five animals per treatment and slaughtered at 33.82 ± 4.40 kg of body weight. Diets were composed

  19. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  20. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB ... PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or ...

  1. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  2. Replacing dietary nonessential amino acids with ammonia nitrogen does not alter amino acid profile of deposited protein in the carcass of growing pigs fed a diet deficient in nonessential amino acid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, W D; Htoo, J K; de Lange, C F M

    2017-10-01

    Amino acid usage for protein retention, and, consequently, the AA profile of retained protein, is the main factor for determining AA requirements in growing animals. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing ammonia N on whole-body N retention and the AA profile of retained protein in growing pigs fed a diet deficient in nonessential AA (NEAA) N. In total, 48 barrows with a mean initial BW of 13.6 kg (SD 0.7) were used. At the beginning of the study, 8 pigs were euthanized for determination of initial protein mass. The remaining animals were individually housed and fed 1 of 5 dietary treatments. A common basal diet (95% of experimental diets) was formulated to meet the requirements for all essential AA (EAA) but to be deficient in NEAA N (CP = 8.01%). The basal diet was supplemented (5%) with cornstarch (negative control) or 2 N sources (ammonia or NEAA) at 2 levels each to supply 1.35 or 2.70% extra CP. The final standardized ileal digestible (SID) NEAA content in the high-NEAA-supplemented diet (positive control) was based on the NEAA profile of whole-body protein of 20-kg pigs, and it was expected to reduce the endogenous synthesis of NEAA. Pigs were fed at 3.0 times maintenance energy requirements for ME in 3 equal meals daily. At the end of a 3-wk period, pigs were euthanized and the carcass and visceral organs were weighed, frozen, and ground for determination of protein mass. From pigs in the initial, negative control, high-ammonia, and high-NEAA groups, AA contents in the carcass and pooled visceral organs were analyzed to determine the total and deposited protein AA profile, dietary EAA efficiencies, and minimal de novo synthesis of NEAA. Carcass weight and whole-body N retention linearly increased ( 0.10) between N sources, but Cys content increased ( ammonia in visceral organ protein and deposited protein. The dietary SID EAA efficiency for increasing EAA deposition in whole-body protein increased ( 0.10) between N

  3. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (PThe objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch (S but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was

  4. Substituição de uréia por cloreto de amônio em dietas de bovinos: digestibilidade, síntese de proteína microbiana, parâmetros ruminais e sanguíneos = Replacing urea with ammonium chloride in cattle diets: digestibility, synthesis of microbial protein, and rumen and plasma parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman David Castañeda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados cinco bovinos machos, castrados, da raça Holandesa Preta e Branca, com 450 kg de peso vivo em um delineamento quadrado latino 5 x 5, sendo os tratamentos cinco níveis de substituição, 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de ureia por cloreto de amônio, como fontes de nitrogênio não-proteico da dieta. Houve redução linear (p 0,05 a excreção de alantoína e de derivados de purinas na urina, purinas absorvidas, síntese de compostos nitrogenados microbianos e eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana. Houve queda linear (p 0,05 a concentração de amônia no rúmen. O cloreto de amônio pode ser utilizado como fonte de NNP para bovinos em níveis de até 1,4% da matéria seca total da dieta.Five Holstein steers weighting 450 kg were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square statistical design, where treatments consisted of five replacement levels: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of urea by ammonium chloride, as non-protein nitrogen in the diet. There was a linear decrease (p 0.05 daily excretion of allantoin, purine derivatives, absorbed purines, as well as microbial nitrogen compounds and microbial efficiency synthesis. Rumen pH and plasma urea nitrogen decreased linearly (p 0.05 ruminal ammonia concentration as urea was replaced by ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride can be used as a nonprotein nitrogen source in ruminant diets up to level of 1.4% of diet dry matter.

  5. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  6. Vegetarian Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vegetarian diet focuses on plants for food. These include fruits, vegetables, dried beans and peas, grains, seeds and nuts. There is no single type of vegetarian diet. Instead, vegetarian eating patterns usually fall into the ...

  7. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  8. Substituição do milho por farelo de palma forrageira em dietas de ovinos em crescimento: desempenho Replacement of corn by forage cactus meal in growing lambs diets: performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar quatro níveis de substituição do milho (0; 33; 67 e 100% pelo farelo de palma forrageira sobre o desempenho de ovinos em crescimento terminados em confinamento. Vinte carneiros mestiços Santa Inês foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma e cinco repetições. Além do milho e/ou farelo de palma, os animais receberam feno de Tifton (Cynodon dactylon, como volumoso, farelo de soja, calcário e sal mineral. O ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar diminuíram, enquanto os consumos de FDN e de FDA aumentaram linearmente com a substituição. Os consumos de matéria seca, de proteína bruta, de matéria orgânica e de carboidratos totais e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pela substituição do milho pelo farelo de palma.The objective of this work was to evaluate four corn replacement levels (0, 33, 67 and 100% by forage cactus meal on performance of feedlot growing lambs. Twenty crossbred lambs were allotted to a completely randomized block design with four treatments (replacement of corn by forage cactus meal and five replications. Besides corn and/or forage cactus meal, the animals were fed Tifton hay (Cynodon dactylon, as forage, soybean meal, limestone and mineral salt. Weight gain and feed:gain ratio decreased and intakes of NDF and ADF increased linearly with corn replacement. The intakes of dry matter, crude protein, organic matter and total carbohydrates and carcass yield were not affected by replacement of corn by forage cactus meal.

  9. Níveis de bagaço de cana e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento Sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in the growing dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brandão Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de bagaço e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento, dois experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro, 20 bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os animais receberam dietas à base de palma forrageira e bagaço de cana em níveis de 5,5; 14,4; 24,4 e 34% da matéria seca total. O ganho de peso diminuiu, enquanto a conversão alimentar, e os consumos de FDN e FDA aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de bagaço. O consumo máximo de MS foi estimado em 2,73% do peso vivo com 30% de bagaço de cana. No segundo experimento foi avaliada a substituição do farelo de soja (FS por uréia mais milho moído (UM, em dietas à base de palma forrageira, sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu. Vinte animais foram alimentados de acordo com os níveis de substituição do FS por UM (0, 20, 40 e 60% distribuídos em blocos ao acaso. Não houve efeito da substituição parcial do farelo de soja por milho e uréia sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças.In order to evaluate different levels of sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in growing dairy cattle diets, two trials were conducted. In the first, twenty crossbreed bull calves (Holstein x Zebu were allotted in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The animals were fed forage cactus based diets, containing levels of 5.5, 14.4, 24.4 and 34% of sugar cane bagasse on the dry matter basis. The liveweight gain decreased while the feed: gain ratio, FDN and FDA intakes increased linearly in function of the increased level of sugar cane bagasse. The maximum daily dry matter intake of 2.73% of LW was estimated with 30% of sugar cane bagasse in the diet. In the second, was evaluated the partial replacement of soybean meal (SM by urea plus corn cracked (UC in forage cactus based diets on the

  10. Substituição do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia para vacas em final de lactação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1234 Replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in diets for late lactation cows urea and starea in diets for lactation cows - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1234

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Imaizumi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para estudar a substituição parcial do farelo de soja (FS por uréia, na forma extrusada com milho (A150S ou convencional (U. No experimento 1 utilizou-se 38 vacas em final de lactação. A substituição não afetou (P > 0,05 a produção de leite e leite corrigido para gordura, o teor e produção de proteína, a produção de sólidos totais e as concentrações plasmáticas de glicose e N-uréico. O tratamento U aumentou (P 0,05. A substituição parcial do farelo de soja por uréia é uma alternativa viável para vacas em final de lactação. O processamento da uréia não apresentou vantagens em relação à forma convencionalTwo trials were conducted to study the partial replacement of soybean meal (FS by urea (U in diets for late lactation cows. Conventional urea was compared to extruded urea (A150S. In trial 1, 38 late lactation cows were used. The partial replacement of soybean meal by urea sources or the urea processing did not affect milk and 3.5% FCM yields, protein content and yield, total solids yield, and plasma urea N and glucose. Feeding U increased milk fat and total solids content. In trial 2, five dry cows, fitted with ruminal canulas were used. Dry matter intake, total tract nutrient digestibility’s, rumen VFA molar concentration, plasma urea-N and plasma glucose were not affected by treatments (p > 0.05. The partial replacement of soybean meal by urea is an alternative to reduce costs of diets for late lactating cows. Extrusion of urea did not show any advantage compared to conventional urea

  11. Replacement of fishmeal by silkworm caterpillar ( Anaphe infracta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaphe infracta) meal (SCM) as a replacement for fishmeal in practical diet of Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerling (M±SE=71 g±0.04g). The fish were fed five isonitrogenous (40% crude protein) and isocaloric (5.2Kcal-1) diets formulated using the ...

  12. Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste products on nutrient digestibility and performance by lambs. ... The diets had similar intake and nutrient digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Lambs fed the 25 and 50% PW diets had higher intakes of crude ...

  13. Ketogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bregant

    2009-04-01

    conclusions This review traces a history of ketogenic diet, reviews its uses and side effects, and discusses possible alternatives and the diet’s possible mechanisms of action. We show how to use the diet in practice. Protocol and calculations are presented. We look toward possible future uses of the ketogenic diet, since it is efficient, under doctor’s supervison safe, but very demanding, additional treatment.

  14. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  15. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  16. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  17. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  18. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  19. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17810 Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  20. Efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca em rações para poedeiras comerciais Effect of corn replacement with cassava shaving flour in commercial laying hen diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank George Guimarães Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os desempenhos produtivo e econômico da substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca em rações para poedeiras. Foram utilizadas 200 poedeiras Lohmann LSL com 46 semanas de idade, distribuídas em 25 gaiolas. O delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições de oito aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco níveis (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca. O consumo diário de ração apresentou efeito quadrático, com médias de 100,68; 101,00; 100,72; 99,42 e 99,50 g, nos respectivos níveis de substituição. A viabilidade, a produção de ovos e a conversão alimentar (kg/dz e kg/kg não diferiram significativamente entre os tratamentos. O peso do ovo, os percentuais de albúmen e da casca, a espessura da casca e a gravidade específica do ovo foram alterados pelos tratamentos, apresentando efeito quadrático. A massa de ovo e o percentual de gema não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. O tratamento com 50% de substituição do milho, embora tenha proporcionado maior peso do ovo, resultou em menor percentual de casca. A coloração da gema foi alterada pelos tratamentos, reduzindo linearmente (7,84; 7,52; 7,35; 5,32 e 5,12 à medida que se aumentou o nível de substituição do milho. Economicamente, o tratamento com 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha da apara de mandioca apresentou maior diferença no custo por quilo de ração, por dúzia de ovo e por caixa de ovo em relação aos demais. A substituição de até 100% do milho pela farinha da apara da mandioca não influencia a produção de ovos e a conversão alimentar. Entretanto, para substituição, deve-se considerar o custo desse resíduo em relação ao milho e dos pigmentantes a serem utilizados para corrigir a pigmentação da gema.The economic and productive performances of the dietary corn replacement with cassava shavings

  1. Replacement value of palm kernel meal for maize on growth, egg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A research was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing maize with palm kernel meal (PKM) in the diet on the performance of duck hens. Five treatment diets were formulated in which PKM replaced maize at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% using a completely randomized design in three replications. The study lasted 8 weeks ...

  2. Desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 alimentados com rações contendo farinha de crueira de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz em substituição ao milho (Zea mays Performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 fed diets containing crueira manioc flour (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in replacement of corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Pereira Pereira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, alimentados com níveis crescentes de farinha de crueira de mandioca, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, como substituto do milho (Zea mays. Os peixes (peso médio inicial de 6,6 ± 0,1 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 24 grupos (20 peixes/grupo e alimentados com as dietas experimentais em quatro repetições para avaliação da performance de crescimento, eficiência alimentar, composição corporal e os custos de produção. As performances de crescimento não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O teor de lipídio no músculo foi diferentemente significativo em peixes alimentados com 40% e 100% em relação aos outros tratamentos. O custo de produção de milho diminuiu linearmente com a substituição. O valor da dieta diminuiu de R $ 1,43 kg-1 a R $ 1,21 kg-1 e o peixe de R $ 1,54 kg-1 a R $ 1,30 peixe kg-1. Concluiu-se que o milho pode ser totalmente substituído por farinha de crueira de mandioca na dieta de juvenil de tambaqui, sem prejudicar o seu desempenho.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of young tambaqui (Colossoma macropum, fed with increasing levels of cassava flour, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, as corn (Zea mays replacement. Fish (initial body weight 6.6 ± 0.1 g were randomly distributed in 24 groups (20 fish/group with four replications. They were fed with the experimental diets for evaluation of growth performances, feed utilization, body composition and production costs. Growth performances were not affected by the dietary treatments. Lipid content in muscle were significant different in fish fed 40% and 100% substitution when compared to the other treatments. The production cost decreased linearly with corn substitution. Diet decreased from R$ 1.43 kg-1 to R$ 1.21 kg-1 and fish production cost from R$ 1.54 kg-1 to R$ 1.30 kg-1 fish. It was

  3. Diverticulitis Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examples of items allowed on a clear liquid diet include: Broth Fruit juices without pulp, such as apple juice Ice chips ... and poultry Refined white bread Fruit and vegetable juice with no ... two or three days of starting the diet and antibiotics. If you haven't started feeling ...

  4. Some economic aspects of steam generator replacements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebegner, J.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generator replacements performed over last decade (about 25 replacements until now), indicate trends towards improved techniques, shorter schedules and reduced total exposure and total costs. The goal of this paper is to give a worldwide review of SG replacement experience with accent on the economic aspect of the SG replacement. The main information about carried out replacements will be presented: cost, schedules, exposures, SG supplier and type, date of replacement, etc. Furthermore, the paper will contain the list of planned steam generator replacements in Europe, Japan and US future replacement plans. Finally, some of NPPs will be described whose initial nominal power has been increased along with SG replacement. (author)

  5. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Produção e Composição do Leite e Digestibilidade dos Nutrientes Corn Replacement by Cassava by-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Milk Production and Composition and Nutrients Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre o desempenho, a composição do leite (sólidos totais e proteína bruta, a digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (FDN, e amido e a concentração dos nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT das dietas. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura. Os tratamentos não influenciaram a ingestão, excreção fecal, digestão total e a digestibilidade total da MS, MO, PB, FDN e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF. Houve diminuição linear na excreção fecal e aumento na digestibilidade do amido, com a inclusão da farinha de mandioca de varredura. O NDT não diferiu entre as dietas estudadas, com média de 71,59%. Houve correlação positiva entre a digestibilidade da matéria orgânica (DIGMO e o NDT (r = 0,9472, permitindo estimativas do NDT a partir da equação NDT (% = 0,8897DIGMO (% + 10,9940 (R²=0,8972. A substituição da farinha da mandioca de varredura não alterou a produção, bem como a composição do leite. Recomenda-se a utilização da farinha de mandioca de varredura em dietas de cabras em lactação, em total substituição ao milho, sem prejuízos na digestibilidade dos nutrientes e na produção.The objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on milk production and composition (total solids and crude protein, nutrient apparent digestibility and total digestible nutrients (TDN of diets. Four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula, with 100 days of lactation, were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin

  6. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação: consumo e digestibilidade Total replacement of corn and partial of tifton hay by forage cactus in diets for lactating dairy cows: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação do consumo e da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dietas contendo diferentes níveis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição total ao milho (Zea mays L. e parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp, foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, distribuídas em quadrado latino 5 × 5. No início do experimento, os animais apresentavam 583 ± 7,07 kg de peso corporal (PC e período de lactação em torno de 110 dias. Cada período experimental teve duração de 17 dias, dez dias para adaptação dos animais à dieta e sete dias para coleta de dados. O consumo de MS (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 e os consumos de MO, EE, PB, carboidratos totais (CT, FDN, FDA e NDT (kg/dia diminuíram linearmente conforme aumentaram os níveis de palma forrageira na dieta. O consumo de CNF, no entanto, aumentou com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, EE, PB, CT e CNF não foram influenciados pela inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. Entretanto, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da FDN reduziu linearmente com a inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta. A inclusão da palma forrageira nas dietas influenciou negativamente no consumo dos nutrientes e no coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients in diets containing different levels (0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0, and 51.0% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill in total replacement of corn (Zea mays L. and partial of Tifton hay (Cynodon spp. Five Holstein cows were assigned to a 5x5 latin square. The animals showed an average of 583 ± 7,07 kg BW and lactation period around 110 days. Each experimental period lasted 17 days, 10 days for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 7 days for data collecting. The DM intake (kg/day, %BW and g/kg0.75, and the intakes of OM, EE, CP, total

  7. Substituição do milho por casca de café ou de soja em dietas para vacas leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite Replacing corn with coffee hulls or soyhulls in dairy cows diets: intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    three replicated 4 ´ 4 Latin squares. Diets were isonitrogeneous (14% of CP, DM basis and control diet contained 60% corn silage plus 40%concentrate. Three sugarcane based diets with 60% concentrate were used: control (without coffee hulls or soyhulls, 25% and 50% replacing corn meal by coffee hulls and soyhulls, respective. Dry matter intake did not differ and averaged 19.39 kg/day among diets. Although the intakes of CP and total digestible nutrients differ among treatments, all diets were able to meet the nutrional requirements for milk production, 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM, and BW gain because milk yield, FCM, BW change and plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids did not differ and averaged 20.54 kg/ day, 19.68 kg/day, 0.683 kg/day, and 226.99 µeq/L across diets, respectively. With the exception of lactose and solids nonfat no other significant differences in milk composition were observed across diets. In sugarcane based diets for cows producing 20 kg of milk/day, the corn can be replacement by 25% of coffee hulls or 50% of soyhulls since the concentrate participation is of 60%.

  8. A single - item replacement decision model for repairable spare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we present an analytical method for determining spare parts replacement over an infinite planning horizon. (The objective is to minimize the total system cost). We develop an exact and simple method for determining the time for equipment replacement or making decision about when to replace equipments, ...

  9. Artificial Diets for Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for more than a million human deaths every year. Modern mosquito control strategies such as sterile insect technique (SIT, release of insects carrying a dominant lethal (RIDL, population replacement strategies (PR, and Wolbachia-based strategies require the rearing of large numbers of mosquitoes in culture for continuous release over an extended period of time. Anautogenous mosquitoes require essential nutrients for egg production, which they obtain through the acquisition and digestion of a protein-rich blood meal. Therefore, mosquito mass production in laboratories and other facilities relies on vertebrate blood from live animal hosts. However, vertebrate blood is expensive to acquire and hard to store for longer times especially under field conditions. This review discusses older and recent studies that were aimed at the development of artificial diets for mosquitoes in order to replace vertebrate blood.

  10. Substituição da Proteína do Farelo de Soja pela Proteína do Farelo de Canola em Rações para Alevinos de Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus V. Replacement of Soybean Meal Protein by Canola Meal Protein in "Curimbatá" (Prochilodus lineatus V. Fingerling Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em rações para alevinos de curimbatá, foram utilizados 120 animais com peso médio de 1,88 ± 0,82 g e comprimento total médio de 5,40 ± 0,99 cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições em aquários de vidro (50 L, com cinco alevinos por unidade experimental. As rações foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas (26,00%, isocálcicas (0,90% e isofosfóricas (0,70%, com níveis crescentes de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00; 20,00; 40,00; 60,00; 80,00 e 100,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00; 8,03; 16,10; 24,10; 32,15 e 43,12% de inclusão do FC nas rações e fornecidas por um período de 30 dias. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram medidos a cada sete dias. Observou-se redução linear do ganho de peso e da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear da taxa de conversão alimentar, com aumento da inclusão do FC nas rações. A taxa de sobrevivência e o custo de ração/kg ganho não foram afetados com o uso do FC nas rações. Os valores da temperatura da água, do pH e da condutividade elétrica permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. Concluiu-se que o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da proteína do farelo de canola nas rações para alevinos de curimbatá acarretou redução no desempenho dos mesmos.The influence of the substitution of soybean meal protein (SM by canola meal protein (CM in Prochilodus lineatus fingerling diets was verified. One hundred and twenty specimens, averaging weight 1.88±0.82g and total length 5.40±0.99cm, was assigned to a completely randomized randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates, in a 50 L glass aquarium, with five fingerlings in each experimental unit. Isoprotein (26.00%, isocalcium (0.90% and isophosphorus (0.70% diets were formulated with increasing replacement

  11. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  12. IBS Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common questions IBS patients have is what food to avoid. This can drive a person to ... Global Treatments IBS Diet What to Do and What to Avoid Foods That Cause Cramping and Diarrhea Foods that Cause ...

  13. Heart disease and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  14. Soja integral processada (fermentada e extrusada e farelo de soja em substituição ao leite em pó em dieta de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade Whole processed (fermented and extruded soybean and soybean meal in replacement of dried milk in diet of piglets weaned at 14 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Soares

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da utilização de soja integral fermentada (SIF, soja integral extrusada (SIE e farelo de soja (FS, em substituição ao leite em pó (LP da dieta, sobre desempenho e alterações morfológicas do sistema digestivo de leitões dos 14 aos 35 dias e dos 14 aos 56 dias e o seu efeito residual dos 36 aos 56 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 96 leitões machos, mestiços (Landrace x Large White, desmamados aos 14 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições e seis animais por unidade experimental. A fonte de proteína influenciou o desempenho dos leitões dos 14 aos 35 e dos 14 aos 56 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior ganho de peso nas três primeiras semanas após o desmame e no período total. No entanto, no período de 36 aos 56 dias, não se observou influência dos tratamentos sobre o desempenho dos animais. Verificou-se efeito da fonte de proteína na altura de vilosidade (AV, na relação vilosidade: cripta dos leitões abatidos aos 21 dias de idade e na AV dos animais abatidos com 35 dias de idade. Os animais que receberam dieta com LP apresentaram maior AV que os dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o LP pode ser substituído pela SIE e pelo FS nas dietas de leitões desmamados aos 14 dias de idade e os altos níveis de fatores antitripsina na SIF comprometeram os resultados.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the use of whole fermented soybean (WFS, whole extruded soybean (WES and soybean meal (SBM in replacement to the dried milk (MD of the diet on the performance, feed intake and morphological alterations on the digestive system of piglets from 14 to 35 day and from 14 to 56 days, and its residual effects from 36 to 56 days of age. Ninety-six crossbreed (Landrace x Large White piglets weaned at 14 days of age were allotted to a completely randomized experimental design with

  15. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  16. Substituição parcial e total da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína dos farelos de canola e algodão em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Partial and total replacement of soybean meal protein by canola or cottonseed meal protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC e farelo de algodão (FA, em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, realizou-se um experimento com duração de 60 dias, utilizando-se 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,10 g distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas isoprotéicas foram formuladas de forma a terem o FS, FC, FA, FS+FC, FS+FA e FC+FA como fonte protéica. Os alevinos, alimentados com dietas contendo FS e FS+FA, apresentaram valores de peso final e taxa de eficiência protéica superiores (p 0,05 pelo uso das diferentes dietas. Observou-se redução linear dos valores de peso final, da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear (p The effects of soybean meal (SB protein replacement by canola meal (CN or cottonseed meal (CT protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae fingerlings are provided. Assay was carried out during 60 days. Three hundred fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.00g were distributed in a block randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. Isoprotein diets contained SB, CN, CT, SB+CN, SB+CT and CN+CT as protein source. Fingerlings fed on diets with SB, SB+CN, SB+CT showed better final mean weight and protein efficiency rate values (p 0.05 by different diets linear reduction (p macrocephalus fingerlings, replacing 50.00% of SB protein.

  17. Utilization Of Diets Containing Cashew-Nut Reject Meal By Weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to assess the performance and digestibility of weaner pigs fed diets containing cashew nut reject meal (CNM). A control diet was formulated without cashew nut reject meal while two other diets were also formulated to contain either 50g or 100g/kg diet. The CNM replaced soybean meal in the control ...

  18. Substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo com alto e baixo teor de tanino em dietas para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989 Replacement of corn by sorghum silage with low and high tannin contents in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ribeiro Neves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a substituição do milho pela silagem de sorgo como fonte de energia para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Foram formuladas 3 dietas práticas isocalóricas (3000kcal de energia digestível e isoprotéica (28% de proteína bruta. O farelo de milho foi substituído pela silagem de sorgo de baixo (0,44% (SSBT e alto (1,14% (SSAT teor de tanino. Os peixes (55,09 ± 0,94g foram distribuídos em tanques de fibro-cimento (1000L e alimentados com dietas experimentais até à saciedade 3 vezes ao dia, durante 67 dias. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas sobre a conversão alimentar, eficiência protéica, índice hepato-somático, gordura visceral e taxa de sobrevivência. O ganho de peso dos peixes alimentados com SSBT foi significativamente maior que os alimentados com dietas contendo milho e SSAT. Os peixes alimentados com dietas contendo SSBT consumiram mais ração do que os peixes alimentados com a dieta com SSAT. Os resultados indicaram que a inclusão de 44% de silagem de sorgo nas dietas podem suportar normal crescimento nos juvenis de tilápia do Nilo, com potencial para substituir o milho.This work was carried out to evaluate the replacement of corn by sorghum silage as an energy source for juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. Three isocaloric (3000kcal of digestible energy and isoproteic (28% of crude protein practical diets were formulated. Corn meal was totally substituted by low (0.44% (LTSS and high (1.14% (HTSS tannin contents silage sorghum. Fish (55.09 ± 0.94g were reared in fiberglass tanks (1000L and hand-fed with experimental diets until reach they satiation, three times a day during 67 days. Feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio, hepatosomatic index, visceral fat and survival ratio of fish fed with the diets were not significantly different. Weight gain of fish fed with LTSS diet was significantly higher than those

  19. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  20. Replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in diets based on spineless cactus for lactating cows Substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria da Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal in the diet of dairy cows fed diets based on spineless cactus. Five Girolando lactating cows were used, with average live weight of 490 kg and average production of 11.5 kg of milk/day, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design (5 animals, 5 treatments and 5 experimental periods. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, 10 days being for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 5 days for data collection. The experimental diet consisted of spineless cactus (53%, sorghum silage (32% and concentrate (15%. The cottonseed meal replaced 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of soybean meal in the concentrate. The intake, milk yield and composition were evaluated. The nutrients intake and digestibility were not affected by the treatments, with an average of 15.55 and 56.05; 13.8 and 59.31, 0.37 and 49.40, 5.32 and 30.95, 1.79 and 48.14; 9.94 and 54.31, 4.43 kg/day and 80.99%, for the dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, total carbohydrates and non-fibrous carbohydrates, respectively. The total digestible nutrients were not affected (average of 8.30 kg/day. Similarly, the milk yield and composition, fat corrected milk yield (4%, lactose, total solids, fat and protein were not affected by replacement (11.56, 11.41 kg milk/day and 4.45, 12.75, 3.95 and 3.42%, respectively. Recommended the replacement of soybean meal by cottonseed meal for low production dairy cows.Objetivou-se avaliar a substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira para vacas em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Girolando (peso vivo médio de 490 kg e produção média de 11,5 kg de leite/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 × 5, composto de cinco animais, cinco níveis de farelo de algodão (0; 25; 50; 75 e 100% em substituição ao farelo de soja e cinco períodos experimentais, cada

  1. Design verification for reactor head replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Whitt, M.S.; Lee, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges of design verification for reactor head replacement for PWR plants and the program for qualification from the prospective of the utility design engineering group. This paper is based on the experience with the design confirmation of four reactor head replacements for two plants, and their interfacing components, parts, appurtenances, and support structures. The reactor head replacement falls under the jurisdiction of the applicable edition of the ASME Section XI code, with particular reference to repair/replacement activities. Under any repair/replacement activities, demands may be encountered in the development of program and plan for replacement due to the vintage of the original design/construction Code and the design reports governing the component qualifications. Because of the obvious importance of the reactor vessel, these challenges take on an added significance. Additional complexities are introduced to the project, when the replacement components are fabricated by vendors different from the original vendor. Specific attention is needed with respect to compatibility with the original design and construction of the part and interfacing components. The program for reactor head replacement requires evaluation of welding procedures, applicable examination, test, and acceptance criteria for material, welds, and the components. Also, the design needs to take into consideration the life of the replacement components with respect to the extended period of operation of the plant after license renewal and other plant improvements. Thus, the verification of acceptability of reactor head replacement provides challenges for development and maintenance of a program and plan, design specification, design report, manufacturer's data report and material certification, and a report of reconciliation. The technical need may also be compounded by other challenges such as widely scattered global activities and organizational barriers, which

  2. Substituição do farelo de soja pela mistura raspa de mandioca e uréia em dietas para vacas mestiças em lactação Replacement of soybean meal with urea plus cassava scrapings in diets for crossbred lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pimentel Ramalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da substituição do farelo de soja pela mistura raspa de mandioca+uréia sobre o desempenho, o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill e silagem de sorgo, oito vacas mestiças Holandês:Gir (60±30 dias em lactação e 491 kg de PV inicial foram distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4 × 4. A mistura raspa de mandioca+uréia substituiu 0, 33, 67 e 100% do farelo de soja nas dietas. Os consumos de matéria seca (expressos em kg/dia, % do PV, g/kg0,75 do PV, MO, PB, EE, FDN e CHOT diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão da raspa de mandioca. As ingestões de FDN (%PV, FDA, CNF e NDT não foram afetadas pelos níveis de raspa de mandioca+uréia nas dietas. A inclusão de raspa de mandioca+uréia influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrita por função quadrática. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigida para 4,0% de gordura e a produção de gordura diminuíram linearmente em 30, 20 e 0,8 g/dia, respectivamente, enquanto o teor de gordura e a eficiência alimentar, em kg de leite corrigido para 4,0% de gordura/kg de MS, não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de substituição do farelo de soja na dieta.This trial was conducted to investigate the replacement of soybean meal with a mixture of urea plus cassava scrapings on nutrient intake, digestibility, and production of crossbred lactating cows fed diets containing forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, sorghum silage, and concentrate. Eight crossbred holstein:zebu cows averaging 60±30 days in milk and initial body weight (BW of 491 kg were randomly assigned to two replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares and were fed diets with increasing levels of urea plus cassava scrapings: 0, 33, 67 or 100%. Replacing soybean meal with urea plus cassava scrapings linearly decreased the intakes of DM (kg, % BW and g/BW kg0.75, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and TC. However

  3. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  4. REPLACEMENT OF MAIZE BY SORGHUM IN LAYING HENS DIETS FORMULATED TO ATTEMPT DIFFERENT CRITERIA IN AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS SUBSTITUIÇÃO DO MILHO PELO SORGO EM RAÇÕES PARA POEDEIRAS COMERCIAIS FORMULADAS COM DIFERENTES CRITÉRIOS DE ATENDIMENTO DAS EXIGÊNCIAS EM AMINOÁCIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Assuena

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment had the objective of evaluate different replacement levels of maize by sorghum in laying hen diets formulated on digestible and total amino acid basis. Lohmann LSL hens 31 weeks old were used in this trial, distributed in a completely at random design in a 2x5 factorial scheme, composed by two amino acid recommendation (total and digestible and five replacement levels of maize by sorghum (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% e 100% with three replications of eight birds each, totalizing two hundred-fourty hens. During five periods of 28 days performance (feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion and egg quality (specific gravity, Haugh Unity, egg percentage and shell thickness parameters were evaluated. Under the conditions of this experiment were not observed significant effects on performance and egg quality parameters from hens fed treatments evaluated. Results indicated maize can be replaced by sorghum; however, pigments need to be added to diets to improve yolk color. Digestible amino acid formulation did not determine benefits on parameters evaluated when compared to total amino acid basis.
    KEY WORDS: Digestible amino acids, egg quality, performance, total amino acids.

    O experimento avaliou o efeito de diferentes níveis de substituição do milho por sorgo em rações de poedeiras comerciais, as quais foram formuladas com base em recomendações de aminoácidos totais e digestíveis. Foram utilizadas 240 poedeiras comerciais, da linhagem Lohmann LSL com 31 semanas de idade, distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema

  5. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  6. Partial knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good range of motion in your knee. The ligaments in your knee are stable. However, most people with knee arthritis have a surgery called a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Knee replacement is most often done in people age 60 ...

  7. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  8. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  9. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make everyday tasks easier. Practice using a cane, walker , crutches , or a wheelchair correctly. On the ... ask your doctor Knee joint replacement - discharge Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Surgical ...

  10. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    . To shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega...... replacement was chosen in each company. Findings – The study shows that platform replacements primarily challenge managers' existing knowledge about platform architectures. A distinction can be made between “width” and “height” in platform replacements, and it is crucial that managers observe this in order...... to challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...

  11. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  12. Steam-generator replacement sets new marks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how, in one of the most successful steam-generator replacement experiences at PWRs worldwide, the V C Summer retrofit exceeded plant goals for critical-path duration, radiation, exposure, and radwaste generation. Intensive planning and teamwork, combined with the firm support of station management and the use of mockups to prepare the work crews for activity in a radiological environment, were key factors in the record performance achieved by South Carolina Electric and Gas Co (SCE and G) in replacing three steam generators at V C Summer nuclear station. The 97-day, two-hour breaker-to-breaker replacement outage -- including an eight-day delay for repair of leak in a small-bore seal-injection line of a reactor coolant pump (unrelated to the replacement activities) -- surpassed the project goal by over one day. Moreover, the outage was only 13 hours shy of the world record held by Virginia Power Co's North Anna Unit 1

  13. Who Will Replace Those Vanishing Execs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    2000-01-01

    Many top-level managers are retiring early. Programs to prepare their replacements have been scaled back. Many companies are offering phased retirement plans, redesigning jobs, and paying for spouses to go along on business trips to keep their managers a little longer. (JOW)

  14. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  15. Understanding the complexity of trans fatty acid reduction in the American diet: American Heart Association Trans Fat Conference 2006: report of the Trans Fat Conference Planning Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Borra, Susan; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Yin-Piazza, Shirley Y

    2007-04-24

    A 2-day forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing trans fatty acids without increasing saturated fats in the food supply while maintaining functionality and consumer acceptance of packaged, processed, and prepared foods. Attendees represented the agriculture and oilseed industry and oil processing, food manufacturing, food service, government, food technology, and health and nutrition disciplines. Presentations included food science behind fatty acid technology, the health science of dietary fatty acids, alternatives to trans fatty acids, and the use of alternatives in food manufacturing and food service. The reduction of trans fatty acids in the food supply is a complex issue involving interdependent and interrelated stakeholders. Actions to reduce trans fatty acids need to carefully consider both intended and unintended consequences related to nutrition and public health. The unintended consequence of greatest concern is that fats and oils high in saturated fats, instead of the healthier unsaturated fats, might be used to replace fats and oils with trans fatty acids. Many different options of alternative oils and fats to replace trans fatty acids are available or in development. Decisions on the use of these alternatives need to consider availability, health effects, research and development investments, reformulated food quality and taste, supply-chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference demonstrated the value of collaboration between the food industry and health and nutrition professionals, and this conference model should be used to address other food development, processing, and/or technology issues.

  16. evaluation of early calves' weaning diet as milk replacer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    days with good economic and performance results. Key Words: Diarrhea .... quality Napier grass (harvested at the ... were housed in individual roofed pens measuring. 3 m x 4 m, ... outputs and prevailing procurement price in least- cost feed ...

  17. Predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches among adults living in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Leske

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of research comparing why dieting and non-dieting approaches are adopted. A greater understanding of reasons underlying dieting and non-dieting attempts will help to identify target beliefs for interventions to support and motivate adults to attempt whatever approach they are willing and/or able to pursue. We investigated the predictors of dieting and non-dieting approaches in Australian adults using predictors that were identified in a previous qualitative study. Methods We conducted a prospective study, with two waves of data collection occurring 4 weeks apart. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire assessing constructs drawn from the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy, past behaviour, non-planning, attributions for dieting failure, weight control beliefs, and dieting and non-dieting intentions. We used path modelling to analyse responses. Results At baseline, 719 adults (52.2% male aged between 18 and 76 completed the questionnaire. Four weeks later, 64% of participants (n = 461 reported on their dieting and non-dieting behaviour in the past month. Past behaviour, attitude, subjective norm, and self-identity significantly predicted dieting intentions. Dieting intentions and past behaviour significantly predicted dieting behaviour, while non-planning and self-efficacy did not. The model explained 74.8% of the variance in intention and 52.9% of the variance in behaviour. While most findings were similar for the non-dieting model, subjective norms and self-identity did not predict intention, while self-efficacy and self-identity both predicted non-dieting behaviour directly. The non-dieting model explained 58.2% of the variance in intention and 37.5% of the variance in behaviour. Conclusions The findings from this study provide support for the application of TPB and identity theory constructs in the context of both dieting and non-dieting behaviour

  18. Substituição do milho pela casca de café ou de soja em dietas para vacas leiteiras: comportamento ingestivo, concentração de nitrogênio uréico no plasma e no leite, balanço de compostos nitrogenados e produção de proteína microbiana Replacing corn with coffee hulls or soyhulls in diets of dairy cows: chewing activity, ruminal metabolism, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    microbial protein synthesis. Animals were fed a control diet containing 60% corn silage and 40% concentrate (CS diet or three sugarcane based diets with forage to concentrate ratio of 40:60. The sugarcane diets contained 100% of corn in the concentrate (SC diet or partial replacement of corn with 25% of coffee hulls (SCH diet or 50% of soyhulls (SSH diet. Total chewing time was lowest on CS and did not change by the inclusion of coffee hulls or soyhulls in the diet. Ruminal pH did not differ significantly at zero (pre-feeding and at three hours after the morning feeding across diets. The same was observed for the ruminal concentration of ammonia N immediately before feeding. However, the concentration of ruminal ammonia N at three hours after feeding was lower on SCH than on CS and SSH diets but was similar to that of SC diet. No significant differences were observed for the urinary excretion of urea N and milk urea N, which averaged 179.31 mg/kg BW and 12.59 mg/dL, respectively, among diets. Replacing corn grain with coffee hulls or soyhulls did not improve the ruminal environment. Microbial protein synthesis and microbial efficiency were both not affected by diets averaging 273 g/day and 130.08 g microbial CP/kg TDN, respectively.

  19. 40 CFR 261.35 - Deletion of certain hazardous waste codes following equipment cleaning and replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... codes following equipment cleaning and replacement. 261.35 Section 261.35 Protection of Environment... equipment in accordance with this section; (ii) Prepare and follow an equipment replacement plan and replace equipment in accordance with this section; or (iii) Document cleaning and replacement in accordance with...

  20. Efeitos da substituição parcial do milho na dieta pelo resíduo de panificação sobre o desempenho de novilhos da raça Holandesa Effects of partial replacement of corn by bakery waste in the diet on performance of Holstein steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Passini

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a adição de resíduo de panificação (RP em substituição ao milho, na dieta de novilhos Holandeses. Foram aplicados quatro tratamentos, correspondendo, respectivamente, à adição de 0%, 10%, 20% e 30% de RP na mistura de concentrados, em substituição ao milho. A alimentação fornecida foi ração completa, peletizada, contendo 30% de feno de Coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon L. como volumoso. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, para um total de 20 animais. Foram avaliados o consumo de matéria seca, conversão alimentar, ganho de peso, perímetro torácico e altura da cernelha. Avaliou-se a incidência de diarréia, por meio de observação diária das fezes. O experimento iniciou quando os animais atingiram 90 kg de peso vivo médio, e durou 120 dias. Os resultados não mostraram diferença estatística significativa entre os tratamentos em relação aos parâmetros estudados. A adição do RP causou redução de 3,74%, 7,44% e 10,90% no custo de alimentação, respectivamente nos níveis 10%, 20% e 30% de RP, em comparação com a dieta-controle. O RP é uma fonte alternativa viável para a alimentação e redução dos custos de criação dos novilhos.The effects of addition of bakery waste (BW replacing corn in the diet of Holstein steers were studied. Four treatments, respectively to the addition of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of bakery waste were applied in the concentrated mixture for corn replacement. Animals were fed with complete mixtures pelleted ration, with 30% of Coast-cross hay (Cynodon dactylon L. as roughage. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with four treatments and five repetitions, totalizing 20 animals. The performance was evaluated by intake and feed conversion, weight gain, heart-girth and size. Diarrhea incidence was evaluated through daily observation of faeces. The experiment began when calves reached 90 kg of life weight, and

  1. Glycemic Index Diet: What's Behind the Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GI foods would, in turn, delay feelings of hunger. Clinical investigations of this theory have produced mixed ... provide needed direction to help them make better choices for a healthy diet plan. The researchers who ...

  2. Diet and feeding behaviour of longnosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, A; Bellodi, A; Cannas, R; Cau, Al; Cuccu, D; Marongiu, M F; Porcu, C; Follesa, M C

    2015-01-01

    A total of 255 longnosed skate Dipturus oxyrinchus caught in Sardinian waters (central-western Mediterranean Sea), was analysed with respect to fish total length (LT ), season and depth, in order to provide information on diet and feeding behaviour. Specimens ranging from 93 to 1153 mm LT , were collected at depths between 121 and 671 m, during experimental trawl surveys carried out from 2005 to 2010. The diet comprised crustaceans [prey specific index of relative importance (%IPSRI ) = 72·69], teleosts (%IPSRI  = 10·28) and molluscs (%IPSRI  = 10·94). Levins' index (Bi ) showed a narrow niche breadth (Bi  = 0·35). The mean ± s.e. trophic level (TL ) was 3·63 ± 0·50. The analysis showed major ontogenetic changes in the feeding behaviour. Early life stages were characterized by a benthic diet, which changed to benthopelagic during growth. Mysids, particularly Lophogaster typicus (%IPSRI  = 34·51), were the main prey items of immature individuals, replaced by euphausiids, mainly Meganyctiphanes norvegica (%IPSRI  = 13·19), in maturing fish. Crustaceans became less important in mature specimens, being replaced by molluscs (%IPSRI  = 28·99) and teleosts (%IPSRI  = 24·56). A concomitant increase of the TL was recorded (mean ± s.e. = 3·41 ± 0·44, 3·75 ± 0·54 and 4·28 ± 0·61 for immature, maturing and mature individuals). These feeding patterns ensured low levels of intraspecific competition. This study provides new information about the role that the D. oxyrinchus plays in the marine food chain and data now essential to formulate new and effective management plans for this species. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. Performance and economic effects of partially replacing soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance and economic effects of replacing soybean meal with palm kernel cake (PKC) in broiler diet was investigated in other to determine the optimal level of inclusion for maximum production in broilers. A total of 120 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups of 30 birds each.

  4. Effect of Replacement of Maize with Cassava Root Meal Fortified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM) fortified with palm oil on performance of starter broilers were determined in a 28-day feeding trial. Diets T2, T3, T4 and T5 were formulated such that they contained cassava root meal, fortified with 20% palm oil, in the proportions 10, 20, 30 and 40%, ...

  5. Effect of dietary citric acid supplementation and partial replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beluga is one of the most important fishes in Caspian Sea. The purpose of this experiment were to evaluate the effect of soybean meal (SBM) as a fishmeal (FM) partial replacement and citric acid (CA) supplement on the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) of muscle, scute and serum of Beluga diets. Three isonitrogenous and ...

  6. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure. ABSTRACT: This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to ...

  7. Nutritive and replacement value of hungry rice ''Acha'' ( Digitaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hungry rice grains (HG) were determined for nutrients and anti nutrients and evaluated for growth performance. Five dietary diets were formulated with AG replacing maize at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 %. A total of 150 7days-old broiler chicks (Abor-Acre) were randomly allotted to five treatments of 30 birds each, replicated ...

  8. Replacement Value of Feather Meal for Fishmeal on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Replacement Value of Feather Meal for Fishmeal on the Performance of Starter Cockerels. ... ratio and feed cost/kg weights gain. Considering the results of final live weight and daily weight gain, it appeared that the 7.5% level of FEM could be the optimal inclusion level feather meal in the diets of growing cockerels.

  9. Effect of replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect o replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer's dried grains at 0 25 50, 75 and 100 % graded levels in broiler chick starter diets was investigated. Five dietary treatments were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 23 % crude protein and 2900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy.

  10. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  11. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  12. Can photovoltaic replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    As the French law on energy transition for a green growth predicts that one third of nuclear energy production is to be replaced by renewable energies (wind and solar) by 2025, and while the ADEME proposes a 100 per cent renewable scenario for 2050, this paper proposes a brief analysis of the replacement of nuclear energy by solar photovoltaic energy. It presents and discusses some characteristics of photovoltaic production: production level during a typical day for each month (a noticeable lower production in December), evolution of monthly production during a year, evolution of the rate between nuclear and photovoltaic production. A cost assessment is then proposed for energy storage and for energy production, and a minimum cost of replacement of nuclear by photovoltaic is assessed. The seasonal effect is outlined, as well as the latitude effect. Finally, the authors outline the huge cost of such a replacement, and consider that public support to new photovoltaic installations without an at least daily storage mean should be cancelled

  13. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    not be cited for purposes of advertisement. DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS: Destroy this document when no longer needed. Do not return to the... recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  14. Replacing Recipe Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Saatsi, J

    2017-01-01

    Many realist writings exemplify the spirit of ‘recipe realism’. Here I characterise recipe realism, challenge it, and propose replacing it with ‘exemplar realism’. This alternative understanding of realism is more piecemeal, robust, and better in tune with scientists’ own attitude towards their best theories, and thus to be preferred.

  15. Inclusion of brown midrib dwarf pearl millet silage in the diet of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Melgar, A; Oh, J; Nedelkov, K; Sanchez, G; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2018-06-01

    Brown midrib brachytic dwarf pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) forage harvested at the flag leaf visible stage and subsequently ensiled was investigated as a partial replacement of corn silage in the diet of high-producing dairy cows. Seventeen lactating Holstein cows were fed 2 diets in a crossover design experiment with 2 periods of 28 d each. Both diets had forage:concentrate ratios of 60:40. The control diet (CSD) was based on corn silage and alfalfa haylage, and in the treatment diet, 20% of the corn silage dry matter (corresponding to 10% of the dietary dry matter) was replaced with pearl millet silage (PMD). The effects of partial substitution of corn silage with pearl millet silage on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk components, fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients, N utilization, and enteric methane emissions were analyzed. The pearl millet silage was higher in crude protein and neutral detergent fiber and lower in lignin and starch than the corn silage. Diet did not affect dry matter intake or energy-corrected milk yield, which averaged 46.7 ± 1.92 kg/d. The PMD treatment tended to increase milk fat concentration, had no effect on milk fat yield, and increased milk urea N. Concentrations and yields of milk protein and lactose were not affected by diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter decreased from 66.5% in CSD to 64.5% in PMD. Similarly, organic matter and crude protein digestibility was decreased by PMD, whereas neutral- and acid-detergent fiber digestibility was increased. Total milk trans fatty acid concentration was decreased by PMD, with a particular decrease in trans-10 18:1. Urinary urea and fecal N excretion increased with PMD compared with CSD. Milk N efficiency decreased with PMD. Carbon dioxide emission was not different between the diets, but PMD increased enteric methane emission from 396 to 454 g/d and increased methane yield and intensity. Substituting corn silage with brown midrib dwarf

  16. International examples of steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechmann, K.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1979-1980 a total of twelve nuclear power plants world-wide have had their steam generators replaced. The replacement of the Combustion steam generators in the Millstone-2 plant in the United States was completed very recently. Steam generator replacement activities are going on at present in four plants. In North Anna, the steam generators have been under replacement since January 1990. In Japan, preparations have been started for Genkai-1. Since January 1992, the two projects in Beznau-1, Switzerland, and Doel-3, Belgium, have bee planned and executed in parallel. Why steam generator replacement? There are a number of defect mechanisms which give rise to the need for early steam generator replacement. One of the main reasons is the use of Inconel-600 as material for the heating tubes. Steam generator heating tubes made of Inconel-600 have been known to exhibit their first defects due to stress corrosion cracking after less than one year of operation. (orig.) [de

  17. Steam generator replacement from ALARA aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, I.; Breznik, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is going to consider radiological related parameters important for steam generator replacement (SGR) implementation. These parameters are identified as ALARA related parameters, owner-contractor relationship, planning, health physics with logistic services, and time required for the replacement. ALARA related parameters such as source or initial dose rate and plant system configuration define the initial conditions for the planning. There is room to optimise work planning. managerial procedures and also the staff during the implementation phase. The overview of these general considerations is based on the following background: using internationally available data and the experience of one of the vendors, i.e. Siemens-Framatome, and management experience of SG replacement which took place at Krsko NPP in the spring of 2000. Generally plant decisions on maintenance or repair procedures under radiation conditions take into account ALARA considerations. But in the main it is difficult to adjudge the results of an ALARA study, usually in the form of a collective dose estimate, because a comparison standard is missing. That is, very often the planned work is of a one-off nature so comparisons are not possible or the scopes are not the same. In such a case the collective doses for other types of work are looked at and a qualitative evaluation is made. In the case of steam generator replacement this is not the case. Over years of steam generator replacements world-wide a standard has been developed gradually. The first part of the following displays an overview of SGR and sets the Krsko SGR in perspective by applying dose analysis. The second part concentrates on the Krsko SGR itself and its ALARA aspects. (authors)

  18. Age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.H.; Qu, Jian; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    In most of literatures of age replacement policy, failures before planned replacement age can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired based on the types of failures, cost for repairs and so on. In this paper, we propose age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability. The proposed policy incorporates the case that such intermittent failure can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired with random probabilities. The mathematical formulas of the expected cost rate per unit time are derived for both the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that the optimal replacement age exists and is finite. - Highlights: • We propose a new age replacement policy with random probability of perfect repair. • We develop the expected cost per unit time. • We discuss the optimal age for replacement minimizing the expected cost rate.

  19. Effect of supplementation of cassava peel meal based diet with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-week experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility and economic indices of broiler finishers fed soaked and sun-dried cassava peel meal (CPM) based diet. CPM was included in the diets replacing maize at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% ...

  20. Evaluation of yeast single cell protein (SCP) diets on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out on the possibility of replacing fishmeal with graded levels of yeast single cell protein (SCP; 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) in isonitrogenous feed formulations (30% protein) in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings for a period of 12 weeks. The control diet had fishmeal as the primary protein ...

  1. DASH Eating Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels declined in all three groups. The two groups that received counseling and followed a treatment plan had more weight loss than the advice-only group. However, participants who received counseling and followed the DASH diet had the greatest ...

  2. The effect of replacing Fish meal with 10% of Groundnut cake in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, food conversion efficiency and survival of H. longifilis fed diets with varying levels of protein in which 10% of fish meal was replaced with groundnut cake were studied for 84 days. Fish fed the diet containing 44.17% crude protein showed the best weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and efficiency.

  3. Synchronization of the seminiferous epithelium after vitamin A replacement in vitamin A-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, A. M.; de rooij, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin A replacement on spermatogenesis was studied in mice. Breeding pairs of Cpb-N mice were given a vitamin A-deficient diet for at least 4 wk. The born male mice received the same diet and developed signs of vitamin A deficiency at the age of 14-16 wk. At

  4. Glaucoma after corneal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaziak, Monika; Chew, Hall F; Podbielski, Dominik W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    Glaucoma is a well-known complication after corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty, has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with penetrating keratoplasty. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser, or surgical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Horlock, K.

    2001-01-01

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000. This was followed by the completion of the detailed design and an application for a construction licence was made in May 2001. This paper will describe the main elements of the design and their relation to the proposed applications of the reactor. The future stages in the project leading to full operation are also described

  6. Three Steam Generator Replacement Projects in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, R.; Clavier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Since the companies Siemens AG and Framatome S. A. joined their experience and efforts in the field of steam generator replacements and formed a consortium in 1991, the following projects were performed in 1995: Ringhals 3, Tihange 3 and Asco 1. Further projects will follow in 1996, i. e., Doel 4 and Asco 2. Currently, this European consortium is bidding for the contract to replace the steam generators at the Krsko NPP and hopes to be awarded in 1996. An overview of the way the Consortium Siemens and Framatome approaches SG replacement projects is given based on the projects performed in 1995. Various aspects of project planning, management, licensing, personnel qualification and techniques used on site will be discussed. (author)

  7. Substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991 Replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos 0%; 25%; 50%; 75% e 100% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, com 4 repetições. Os níveis adotados corresponderam a 11,75%; 23%; 35,78% e 47,28% de inclusão de glúten de milho nas rações, as quais foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas em proteína digestível (PD, isocalóricas em energia digestível (ED e com a mesma quantidade de fibra bruta, lisina e metionina. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso médio de 7,47±1,61g, distribuídos em 20 aquários (250L, em sistema de recirculação de água dotado de controle de temperatura. Foi observado efeito quadrático para o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo os respectivos valores ótimos estimados em 30,69%; 48% e 46,25% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, para o consumo de ração, foi verificado efeito linear. Em função da média referente aos valores estimados para os diferentes parâmetros avaliados, pôde-se concluir que a proteína do glúten de milho pode substituir até 42% (19,82% de inclusão na ração da proteína do farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The research was carried out aiming to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae diets. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of replacement of soybean protein by corn gluten meal protein and 4 replicates. The used levels corresponded to 11.75%, 23%, 35.78% and 42.28% of corn gluten meal inclusion in diets, formulated to be

  8. Apparatus for fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To support a telescope mast such that no deforming load is applied to it even during massive vibration, it is held fixed at the time of fuel replacement to permit satisfactory remote control operation by automatic operation. Structure: The body of the fuel replacement apparatus is provided with telescope mast fixing means comprising a slide base supported for reciprocal movement with respect to a telescope mast, an operating arm pivoted at the slide base, a wrist member mounted on the free end of the operating arm and an engagement member for restricting the slide base and operating arm at the time of loading and unloading the fuel. When loading and unloading the fuel, the slide base and operating arm are restrained by the engagement member to reliably restrict the vibration of the telescope mast. When the fuel replacement apparatus is moved, the means provided on the operating arm is smoothly displaced to follow the swing (vibration) of the telescope mast to prevent the deforming load from being applied to the support portion or other areas. The wrist member supports the telescope mast such that it can be rotated while restraining movement in the axial direction, and it is provided with revolution drive means for rotating the telescope mast under remote control. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowerman Susan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM, this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack. One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP] or 2 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP. LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1. Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05 as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the

  10. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  11. Hermetia illucens meal as fish meal replacement for rainbow trout on farm

    OpenAIRE

    Stadtlander, Timo; Stamer, Andreas; Buser, Andrea; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Leiber, Florian; Sandrock, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In a 7-week on-farm feeding trial rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were provided with a diet containing 28% mechanically de-fatted insect meal prepared from larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (HIM) and compared to a control that received a certified organic and fishmeal based diet. In the test diet insect meal replaced almost 50% of the fishmeal. The whole experiment was conducted under practical conditions on an organically certified rainbow trout farm in Switzerland. Fish...

  12. Functional Foods in fad diets: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Abigail Navaro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fad diets can be defined as any diet making claims that are unrealistic and not supported by evidence-based data. Having been developed since the early 19th century, fad diets promise drastic weight loss and/or other unsubstantiated health claims, often omitting entire food groups. Their popularity with the public makes them an important topic for nutritionists and clinicians, especially in the framework of the obesity epidemic. Additionally, it is conceivable that components of fad diets can indeed facilitate weight loss, even if the diet overall is without merit. The grapefruit diet, the cabbage soup diet, and the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG diet are among the most popular fad diets and are reviewed within this study not only in terms of the diet plan itself, but also in terms of possible and known weight loss and health benefits provided by the foods on which the diets are based. Bioflavonoids in grapefruit, including naringin, hesperidin, and bergamottin, may benefit glucose homeostasis. Cabbage contains lutein, zeaxanthin, kaempferol, quercetin, and apigenin, which have anti-inflammatory properties and improve both glucose homeostasis and fat metabolism. The hCG diet is frequently supplemented with non-hCG preparations, which often contains African mango, which has been shown to enhance weight loss by an unspecified mechanism; astragalus root, which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma receptor agonistic properties; arginine, which stimulates lipolysis; glutamine, which has been shown to enhance weight loss, perhaps by altering the gut microbiome; carnitine, which appears to facilitate weight loss; B12, which improves insulin resistance; and niacin, which improves the dyslipidemia associated with overweight/obesity. Presently, high quality clinical trials suggest that fad diets reduce weight in the short term due to drastic caloric restriction rather than functional food

  13. Perissodactyla diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2018-01-01

    Perissodactyla (Schoch 1989) includes tapirs, rhinoceros, wild asses, horses, and zebras. It is the order of hoofed mammals referred to as “odd-toed ungulates” because its members have one to three weight-bearing toes and walk on hoofs or “ungules.” They are herbivores that are specialized to exploit grasslands and brushy habitat (rhinos, horses, asses, zebras) or dense tropical forests (tapirs). All share a common digestive system called hindgut fermentation, or cecal digestion (in the cecum), and can consume relatively tough, coarse forage. Some perissodactyls are “browsers” that forage primarily on woody shrubs and trees, whereas others are “grazers” with a graminoid-dominated diet. They are all predominantly opportunistic feeders and select for quantity over quality of forage; that is, they consume more abundant low-quality forage instead of searching and selecting for higher-quality forage because it gives them the advantage of reducing search effort, which conserves energy.

  14. Rodent malaria in rats exacerbated by milk protein, attenuated by low-protein vegetable diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorne, C.W. van; Eling, W.M.C.; Luyken, R.

    1998-01-01

    Young male Wistar rats were fed a purified, vegetable, low-protein diet containing 6% protein from maize gluten and 2% from soy protein isolate, or comparable diets in which maize gluten was replaced partly or completely by the equivalent amount of a milk protein concentrate. Diets with adequate

  15. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  16. Structural considerations in steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertheau, S.R.; Gazda, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion of the tubes and tube-support structures inside pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators has led many utilities to consider a replacement of the generators. Such a project is a major undertaking for a utility and must be well planned to ensure an efficient and cost-effective effort. This paper discusses various structural aspects of replacement options, such as total or partial generator replacement, along with their associated pipe cuts; major structural aspects associated with removal paths through the equipment hatch or through an opening in the containment wall, along with the related removal processes; onsite movement and storage of the generators; and the advantages and disadvantages of the removal alternatives. This paper addresses the major structural considerations associated with a steam generator replacement project. Other important considerations (e.g., licensing, radiological concerns, electrical requirements, facilities for management and onsite administrative activities, storage and fabrication activities, and offsite transportation) are not discussed in this paper, but should be carefully considered when undertaking a replacement project

  17. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and DietDiet for the ... Thalassemia (for providers) Exercise for Patients with Thalassemia Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  18. Low Tyramine Headache Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find A Provider Contact Membership Donate 25 Oct Low-Tyramine Diet for Migraine Posted at 17:16h ... and Diamond Headache Clinic Headache Diet Tags: headache , low tyramine diet , MAOI , tyramine No Comments Post A ...

  19. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  20. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  1. Fluoride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fluoride ... bones and teeth. Too much fluoride in the diet is very rare. Rarely, infants who get too ... of essential vitamins is to eat a balanced diet that contains a variety of foods from the ...

  2. Palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton (Cynodon spp em dietas de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação. 1. Digestibilidade = Forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill and urea in replacement of tifton hay (Cynodon spp in lactating Holstein cows diet. 1. Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem Valéria de Araújo Cavalcanti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0%; 12,5%; 25%; 37,5%; e 50% de palma forrageira e uréia em substituição ao feno de capim tifton, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica(DAMO, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da proteína bruta (DAPB, dos carboidratos totais (DACHOT e dos carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas, com peso médio de 480 kg e produção média de leite de 20 kg/dia, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5x5. As DAMS, DAMO, DACHOT e DACNF aumentaram, aDAFDN diminuiu linearmente e a DAPB não foi influenciada com o aumento dos níveis de palma e uréia na dieta. Os nutrientes digestíveis totais de mantença, a energia digestível de lactação, energia metabolizável de lactação e energia líquida de lactação aumentaram à medida que eram incluídas palma e uréia na dieta.The effect of five levels forage cactus and urea (0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% in replacement of tifton hay in lactating Holstein cows diets, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, crude protein (ADCP, total carbohydrates (ADTC and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC were evaluated. Five Holstein cows weighing on average 480 kg and with an average milk yield of 20 kg of milk/day were used in a 5x5 Latin square design. The DM, OM, TC and NFC apparent digestibility increased while NDF apparent digestibility decreased linearly and the CP apparent digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of forage cactus and urea. The total digestible nutrients of maintenance,digestible energy of lactation, metabolizing energy of lactation and liquid energy of lactation increased as the forage cactus and urea levels increased.

  3. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  4. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    , in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  5. Upgrade, rebuild or replace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ageing reactor simulators present some tough decisions for utility managers. Although most utilities have chosen the cheaper, upgrading solution as the best compromise between costs and outage length, some US utilities have found that for them, replacement represents the best option. Simulators may be less than ten years old, but they have limited instructor systems, older low fidelity models that cannot reproduce important training scenarios, and out of date, difficult to maintain computers that do not permit much expansion of the models anyway. Perhaps worse than this is the possibility that the simulator may no longer be a faithful reproduction of the referenced plant, or have poor (or non-existent) documentation. (author)

  6. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  7. A Bayesian perspective on age replacement with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, S.-H.; Yeh, R.H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Juang, M.-G.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a Bayesian approach is developed for determining an optimal age replacement policy with minimal repair. By incorporating minimal repair, planned replacement, and unplanned replacement, the mathematical formulas of the expected cost per unit time are obtained for two cases - the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that there exists a unique and finite optimal age for replacement under some reasonable conditions. When the failure density is Weibull with uncertain parameters, a Bayesian approach is established to formally express and update the uncertain parameters for determining an optimal age replacement policy. Further, various special cases are discussed in detail. Finally, a numerical example is given

  8. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  9. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  10. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  11. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  12. Big plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Kevin F; Doyle, James F

    2005-09-01

    In Elmhurst Memorial Healthcare's capital planning method: Future replacement costs of assets are estimated by inflating their historical cost over their lives. A balanced model is created initially based on the assumption that rates of revenue growth, inflation, investment income, and interest expense are all equal. Numbers then can be adjusted to account for possible variations, such as excesses or shortages in investment or debt balances.

  13. BIOCLAIMS standard diet (BIOsd): a reference diet for nutritional physiology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoevenaars, F.P.M.; van Schothorst, E. M.; Horáková, Olga; Voigt, A.; Rossmeisl, Martin; Pico, C.; Caimari, A.; Kopecký, Jan; Klaus, S.; Keijer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2012), s. 399-404 ISSN 1555-8932 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10059; GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : semi-purified diet * nutrient requirements * rat * mouse Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.329, year: 2012

  14. Replace with abstract title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coho, Aleksander; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    We use the semidiscrete variational generelized Peierls-Nabarro model to study the effect of Cu alloying on the dislocation properties of Al. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy surface when a plane, on which one in four Al atoms has been replaced with a Cu atom, slips over a pure Al plane. Various dislocation core properties (core width, energy, Peierls stress, dissociation tendency) are investigated and compared with the pure Al case. Cu alloying lowers the intrinsic stacking fault (ISF) energy, which makes dislocations more likely to dissociate into partials. We also try to understand the lowering of ISF energy in terms of Al-Cu and Al-Al bond formation and braking during shearing along the direction. From the above we draw conclusions about the effects of Cu alloying on the mechanical properties of Al.

  15. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  16. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Replacing soybean meal for cottonseed meal on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Hugo; De Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an alternative source of protein, and previous studies have been shown that it can replace soybean meal (SBM) without decrease animal performance. However, Brazilian CSM has a different chemical composition compared with the usual CSM reported in the literature. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing SBM for Brazilian CSM on performance and energy balance of mid-lactating dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein cows were used in a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square design. Increasing contents of CSM (0, 15, and 30% of dry matter (DM)) were fed in diets to replace SBM. Milk yield and feed efficiency were linearly reduced with the replacement of CSM for SBM (P = 0.001). Milk fat content tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.07) with CSM addition. Replacing SBM for CSM affected milk protein content quadratically (P = 0.05). Milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.06 and 0.10) when CSM replaced SBM to the diets. Variation in body weight (BW) also responded quadratically as CSM replaced SBM (P = 0.05). Altogether, the findings suggest better performance when cows receive SBM diet compared with the Brazilian CSM diet.

  18. Fad diets, miracle diets, diet cult… but no results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fad diets, miracle diets (in sum, diet cult are diets that make promises of weight loss or other health advantages (e.g. longer life without backing by solid science, and usually they are characterized by highly restrictive or unusual food choices. These diets are often supported by celebrities and some health “professionals”, and they result attractive among people who want to lose weight quickly. By means of pseudoscientific arguments, designers of fad, miracle or magic diets usually describe them as healthy diets with unusual properties but always with undoubted benefits. After revising the history of these diets and exploring the scientific evidence, it must be noted that there is not a diet better than eating less, moving more and eating lots of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is necessary to be aware of our general daily habits, remembering that eating is important but it is not everything. Getting active is also very relevant to improve (or recover our health. Summarizing, eating healthy and taking care of yourself are a duty but not a miracle.

  19. Substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia, em dietas com alto teor de concentrado, sobre a amônia ruminal, os parâmetros sangüíneos e o metabolismo do nitrogênio em bovinos de corte Total replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in high grain diets on nitrogen metabolism, ruminal ammonia-N concentration and blood parameters in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seis novilhos da raça Nelore, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 420 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado, foram utilizados para avaliar a substituição total de uma fonte de proteína verdadeira (farelo de soja, em uma dieta deficiente em proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR, por uréia ou amiréia (fontes de nitrogênio não protéico, ambas em uma dieta adequada em PDR. As dietas foram isoprotéicas (13,0% utilizando-se o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN como única fonte de volumoso (20% da MS. Foram avaliados: a concentração de amônia ruminal, nitrogênio uréico plasmático, glicose plasmática e o metabolismo do nitrogênio. Os tratamentos foram: 1 farelo de soja (FS; 2 uréia e 3 amiréia (A-150S. A concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal no fluido ruminal foi superior no tratamento com uréia, comparado ao tratamento com farelo de soja, sendo que o tratamento com amiréia não diferiu dos demais. O tratamento com amiréia apresentou maior perda de N urinário. A retenção de N (g/d e % do consumido e o valor biológico da proteína (N retido, % do N digerido foram superiores para o tratamento com uréia, comparado aos demais. A concentração de nitrogênio uréico no plasma e a concentração de glicose plasmática foram similares entre os tratamentos. A substituição total do farelo de soja por uréia, ajustando a PDR na dieta de bovinos de corte, demonstrou ser viável. A uréia na forma convencional apresentou vantagens em relação à amiréia.Six Nellore bulls, with initial body weight of 420 kg, were assigned to a duplicated 3x3 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of replacing a true protein source (soybean meal, of high biological value, in a rumen degradable protein (RDP deficient diet, by urea or starea (a supposedly slow release nonprotein nitrogen source, both in a RDP adjusted diet. In natura sugarcane bagasse as the only source of forage (20% of DM. Evaluated

  20. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  1. Reliability tests for reactor internals replacement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimaki, K.; Uchiyama, J.; Ohtsubo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Structural damage due to aging degradation of LWR reactor internals has been reported in several nuclear plants. NUPEC has started a project to test the reliability of the technology for replacing reactor internals, which was directed at preventive maintenance before damage and repair after damage for the aging degradation. The project has been funded by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan since 1995, and it follows the policy of a report that the MITI has formally issued in April 1996 summarizing the countermeasures to be considered for aging nuclear plants and equipment. This paper gives an outline of the whole test plans and the test results for the BWR reactor internals replacement methods; core shroud, ICM housing, and CRD Housing and stub tube. The test results have shown that the methods were reliable and the structural integrity was appropriate based on the evaluation. (author)

  2. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  3. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  4. Development of practical diet for aquaculture of Japanese flounder; Gyofun wo sakutenshita hirameyo shiryo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.

    2000-07-01

    Feeding experiments were conducted to examine the potential use of defatted soybean meal (SBM) in combinations with blood meal (BM), corn gluten meal (CGM) and freeze dried meat of blue mussel (BMM) as a partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in the diet of Japanese flounder. Availability of CGM in combinations with BM and/or BMM was also examined. Juvenile fish of about 4 g in initial body weight were fed diets to satiation twice daily, 6 days per week for 8 weeks at 20 degree C in both feeding experiments. Weight gain of fish fed diet replacing 45% FM protein with SBM was not different from that of fish fed the control diet containing FM as a protein source, however, feed efficiency (FE) in fish fed the SBM diet was significantly lower. Growth and feed performance of fish fed diet replacing 45% FM protein with SBM and BM were comparable to those of fish the control diet. Inclusion of 5% BMM for equal amount of SBM in the SBM-BM diet improved the growth and FE of the flounder remarkably and both values were significantly higher than those in the control. Replacing 55% of FM protein with SBM and CGM or SBM and BM resulted in poor growth performance. There were not marked differences in hematological characteristics together with proximate composition of the whole body of cultured fish fed the dietary treatments. Weight gain and FE of fish fed diet replacing 40% FM protein with CGM were inferior to those of fish fed the control diet containing FM as a protein source. Replacement of 40% FM protein with CGM and BM made those parameters worse. Inclusion of BMM in CGM-BM diet did not improve the growth of fish. Adverse effects of replacing FM protein with CGM and/or CGM and BM were stronger with increasing replacement level. These results indicate that SBM is highly available as alternative protein source for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder. SBM in combination with BM successfully replace about 45% of FM protein in the diet without supplemental amino acids

  5. Comparing replacement rates under private and federal retirement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patricia P

    One measure of the adequacy of retirement income is replacement rate - the percentage of pre-retirement salary that is available to a worker in retirement. This article compares salary replacement rates for private-sector employees of medium and large private establishments with those for federal employees under the Civil Service Retirement System and the Federal Employees Retirement System. Because there is no standard benefit formula to represent the variety of formulas available in the private sector, a composite defined benefit formula was developed using the characteristics of plans summarized in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Medium and Large Employer Plan Survey. The resulting "typical" private-sector defined benefit plan, with an accompanying defined contribution plan, was then compared with the two federal systems. The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) is a stand-alone defined benefit plan whose participants are not covered by Social Security. Until passage of the 1983 Amendments to Social Security Act, it was the only retirement plan for most federal civilian employees. Provisions of the 1983 Amendments were designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. One provision created the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), which covers federal employees hired after 1983. It was one of the provisions designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. FERS employees contribute to and are covered by Social Security. FERS, which is a defined benefit plan, also includes a basic benefit and a 401(k)-type plan known as the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP). To compare how retirees would fare under the three different retirement systems, benefits of employees retiring at age 65 with 35 years of service were calculated using hypothetical workers with steady earnings. Workers were classified according to a percentage of the average wage in the economy: low earners (45 percent), average earners

  6. Hip Replacement: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive hip replacement (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hip Replacement updates ... replacement - precautions Minimally invasive hip replacement Related Health Topics Hip Injuries and Disorders National Institutes of Health ...

  7. Evaluation of dietary soybean meal as fish meal replacer for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonho Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Different levels of dietary soybean meal (SBM as a fish meal (FM replacer, with and without amino acid supplementation, for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in the biofloc system was examined in eight weeks of feeding trial. Eight experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 0% FM replacement by SBM provided in clear sea water without biofloc system (S0SW, four diets replacing FM at 0% (S0, 33% (S33, 67% (S67 and 100% (S100 by SBM, and three diets replacing FM at 33% (S33A, 67% (S67A and 100% (S100A by SBM supplemented with amino acids (methionine and lysine in the seawater biofloc system. Results of water quality analyses showed significantly lower total suspended solids and nitrate for S0SW group than all other treatments. Diets S0 and S33A resulted in higher weight gain and specific growth rate among all groups, with no significant differences with S33 group. In addition, whole-body protein and amino acid compositions of shrimp fed S0SW were lower than most biofloc groups. Haemolymph parameters showed significant differences in total protein, cholesterol and triglyceride between groups S0 and S0SW. Also, superoxide dismutase activity showed a decreasing trend with increasing replacement level. In conclusion, based on these results, SBM could replace up to 33% of FM with or without amino acid supplementation in juvenile whiteleg shrimp diets reared in the biofloc system.

  8. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  9. Metabolic Diet App Suite for inborn errors of amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gloria; Ueda, Keiko; Houben, Roderick F A; Joa, Jeff; Giezen, Alette; Cheng, Barbara; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2016-03-01

    An increasing number of rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are amenable to targeted metabolic nutrition therapy. Daily adherence is important to attain metabolic control and prevent organ damage. This is challenging however, given the lack of information of disorder specific nutrient content of foods, the limited availability and cost of specialty products as well as difficulties in reliable calculation and tracking of dietary intake and targets. To develop apps for all inborn errors of amino acid metabolism for which the mainstay of treatment is a medical diet, and obtain patient and family feedback throughout the process to incorporate this into subsequent versions. The Metabolic Diet App Suite was created with input from health care professionals as a free, user-friendly, online tool for both mobile devices and desktop computers (http://www.metabolicdietapp.org) for 15 different IEMs. General information is provided for each IEM with links to useful online resources. Nutrient information is based on the MetabolicPro™, a North American food database compiled by the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) Technology committee. After user registration, a personalized dashboard and management plan including specific nutrient goals are created. Each Diet App has a user-friendly interface and the functions include: nutrient intake counts, adding your own foods and homemade recipes and, managing a daily food diary. Patient and family feedback was overall positive and specific suggestions were used to further improve the App Suite. The Metabolic Diet App Suite aids individuals affected by IEMs to track and plan their meals. Future research should evaluate its impact on patient adherence, metabolic control, quality of life and health-related outcomes. The Suite will be updated and expanded to Apps for other categories of IEMs. Finally, this Suite is a support tool only, and does not replace medical/metabolic nutrition professional advice. Copyright

  10. Steam generator replacement project in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerjak, J.; Holz, R.; Haus, J.; Gloaguen, C.

    1999-01-01

    NE Krsko has awarded the contract for the Steam Generator Replacement Project, which is one of the modernization projects in Krsko, to the Consortium of Siemens / Framatome in February 1998. This paper deals with the various aspects of the project: scope planning, engineering, preparation of modification packages for licensing, management, major techniques used, etc., showing also the status of the activities for the project which are scheduled to be performed in April through June 2000. The project is being performed on a turnkey basis, that means the Consortium is performing all engineering, preparation of the modification packages and site activities; NE Krsko is dealing with the licensing of the project.(author)

  11. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  12. Utilization of by-products in ruminant diets in Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economides, S.; Hadjipanayiotou, M.

    1987-01-01

    Five experiments were carried out with the objective of studying the nutritive value of crop residues and agro-industrial by-products, either alone or in combination with non-protein nitrogen, and the use of these by-products in ruminant diets. The intake and nutritive value of poor quality roughages and other by-products (cereal straw, peanut hulls and waste paper) were improved considerably by supplements that provide nitrogen (soybean meal or urea) and energy (barley grain). Partial replacement of soybean meal in diets of fattening lambs by urea was possible and dry mature sheep could be maintained on cereal straw diets supplemented with small quantities of barley grain, urea, minerals and vitamins. Silage was made from citrus peels or grape marc and poultry litter. It replaced successfully part of the concentrate mixture in the diets of lactating cows and growing heifers. (author)

  13. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  14. Caffeine in the diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - caffeine ... Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or ... been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine. It can be avoided in the diet. Caffeine ...

  15. Protein in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - protein ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a ... to eat animal products to get all the protein you need in your diet. Amino acids are ...

  16. Diet-boosting foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity - diet-boosting foods; Overweight - diet-boosting foods ... Low-fat and nonfat milk, yogurt, and cottage cheese are healthy sources of calcium, vitamin D , and potassium. Unlike sweetened drinks with extra calories, milk ...

  17. Gastric Bypass Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the guidance of your doctor. A new healthy diet Three to four months after weight-loss surgery, ... as your stomach continues to heal. Throughout the diet To ensure that you get enough vitamins and ...

  18. Diet induced thermogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp KR

    2004-01-01

    Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Resu...

  19. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. PMID:23680946

  20. Ketogenic Diets and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Masino, Susan A.; Ruskin, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are well-established as a successful anticonvulsant therapy. Based on overlap between mechanisms postulated to underlie pain and inflammation, and mechanisms postulated to underlie therapeutic effects of ketogenic diets, recent studies have explored the ability for ketogenic diets to reduce pain. Here we review clinical and basic research thus far exploring the impact of a ketogenic diet on thermal pain, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

  1. Diet quality in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Laura A.; Nguyen, Anh N.; Schoufour, Josje D.; Geelen, Anouk; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based

  2. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth / For Teens / Are Detox Diets ... seguras las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that ...

  3. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  4. Effects of a diet high in monounsaturated fat and a full Mediterranean diet on PBMC whole genome gene expression and plasma proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Susan; Feskens, Edith; Bos, M.B.; Groot, de Lisette; Vries, de Jeanne; Muller, Michael; Afman, Lydia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the effects of replacement of saturated fat (SFA) by monunsaturated fat (MUFA) in a western-type diet and the effects of a full Mediterranean (MED) diet on whole genome PBMC gene expression and plasma protein profiles. Abdominally overweight subjects were randomized to a

  5. Diet and eating after esophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esophagectomy - diet; Post-esophagectomy diet ... weight. You will also be on a special diet when you first get home. ... will teach you how to prepare the liquid diet for the feeding tube and how much to ...

  6. Metabolic Effects of Ketogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The results of 24 metabolic profiles performed on 55 epileptic children receiving the classical ketogenic diet, the MCT diet, a modified MCT diet, and normal diets are reported from the University Department of Paediatrics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, England.

  7. Implementation strategy for achieving replacement level fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The recommendation of the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development at the ESCAP regional conference was to adopt strategies for attaining replacement-level fertility of 2.1 or 2.2 children by 2010. East Asian countries, except Mongolia and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the Southeast Asian countries Singapore and Thailand have already reached replacement-level fertility. Most larger Oceanic countries have also done so. Only South Asian Sri Lanka and southern India have attained replacement level. The following conditions slow or hinder the goal, but they do not provide an "absolute" barrier to fertility decline: social welfare schemes and old age security, son preference, lack of government family planning, poverty, relatively high mortality, low status of women, and education status. Theories of demographic transition have postulated that economic and social development initially brings a decline in mortality, and later brings a decline in fertility; and high fertility was an adaptation to high mortality. Policy gets caught in the lag between mortality and fertility decline. Eventually the cultural motives for high fertility are undercut by social and economic development. Although the generalization that economic growth slows fertility is true for South Asia, the correlation is uneven. Forceful government-sponsored family planning programs in Bangladesh and China may lead the way to strategies for decline in ESCAP region. A Thailand study suggested important factors were fundamental social change, the increased cost of children, cultural acceptance of birth control, a latent demand for fertility control, and government efforts in family planning. ESCAP countries have in common relatively high morality and inadequate public health programs, patriarchal structures, and limited female autonomy, poverty and landlessness, lack of community cohesiveness, and inadequate family planning programs. Weaknesses in programs are attributed to

  8. Breakfast replacement with a low-glycaemic response liquid formula in patients with type 2 diabetes : a randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenvers, Dirk J; Schouten, Lydia J; Jurgens, Jordy; Endert, Erik; Kalsbeek, A.; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Low-glycaemic index diets reduce glycated Hb (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes, but require intensive dietary support. Using a liquid meal replacement with a low glycaemic response (GR) may be an alternative dietary approach. In the present study, we investigated whether breakfast replacement

  9. Breakfast replacement with a low-glycaemic response liquid formula in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenvers, Dirk J.; Schouten, Lydia J.; Jurgens, Jordy; Endert, Erik; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    Low-glycaemic index diets reduce glycated Hb (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes, but require intensive dietary support. Using a liquid meal replacement with a low glycaemic response (GR) may be an alternative dietary approach. In the present study, we investigated whether breakfast replacement

  10. Patients Unicondylar Knee Replacement vs. Total Knee Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Hedra Eskander

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to analyse the clinical effectiveness of total knee replacement (TKR) compared to unicondylar knee replacement (UKR) on patients. In terms of survival rates, revision rates and postoperative complications. The keywords used were: knee arthroplasty. Nearly three thousand articles were found on 25 August 2016. Of those, only twenty-five were selected and reviewed because they were strictly focused on the topic of this article. Compared with those who have TKR, ...

  11. 6-tips diet: a simplified dietary approach in patients with chronic renal disease. A clinical randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Antonio; Riccio, Eleonora; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Caputo, Donatella Luciana; Mozzillo, Giusi; Amato, Marco; Andreucci, Michele; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Sabbatini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The beneficial effects of dietary restriction of proteins in chronic kidney disease are widely recognized; however, poor compliance to prescribed low-protein diets (LPD) may limit their effectiveness. To help patients to adhere to the dietary prescriptions, interventions as education programmes and dietary counselling are critical, but it is also important to develop simple and attractive approaches to the LPD, especially when dietitians are not available. Therefore, we elaborated a simplified and easy to manage dietary approach consisting of 6 tips (6-tip diet, 6-TD) which could replace the standard, non-individualized LPD in Nephrology Units where dietary counselling is not available; hence, our working hypothesis was to evaluate the effects of such diet vs a standard moderately protein-restricted diet on metabolic parameters and patients' adherence. In this randomized trial, 57 CKD patients stage 3b-5 were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive the 6-TD (Group 6-TD) or a LPD containing 0.8 g/kg/day of proteins (Group LPD) for 6 months. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the effects of the two different diets on the main "metabolic" parameters and on patients' adherence (registration number NCT01865526). Both dietary regimens were associated with a progressive reduction in protein intake and urinary urea excretion compared to baseline, although the decrease was more pronounced in Group 6-TD. Effects on serum levels of urea nitrogen and urinary phosphate excretion were greater in Group 6-TD. Plasma levels of phosphate, bicarbonate and PTH, and urinary NaCl excretion remained stable in both groups throughout the study. 44 % of LPD patients were adherent to the dietary prescription vs 70 % of Group 6-TD. A simplified diet, consisting of 6 clear points easily managed by CKD patients, produced beneficial effects either on the metabolic profile of renal disease and on patients' adherence to the dietary plan, when compared to a standard LPD.

  12. Diet induced thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  13. Nuclear reactor fuel replacement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hiroyuki; Joge, Toshio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the direction in which a fuel replacement unit is moving to be monitored by the operator. Structure: When a fuel replacement unit approaches an intermediate goal position preset in the path of movement, renewal of data display on a goal position indicator is made every time the goal position is changed. With this renewal, the prevailing direction of movement of the fuel replacement unit can be monitored by the operator. When the control of movement is initiated, the co-ordinates of the intermediate goal point A are displayed on a goal position indicator. When the replacement unit reaches point A, the co-ordinates of the next intermediate point B are displayed, and upon reaching point B the co-ordinates of the (last) goal point C are displayed. (Nakamura, S.)

  14. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  15. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Substituição de uréia por cloreto de amônio em dietas de bovinos: digestibilidade, síntese de proteína microbiana, parâmetros ruminais e sanguíneos - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.5938 Replacing urea with ammonium chloride in cattle diets: digestibility, synthesis of microbial protein, and rumen and plasma parameters - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.5938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Barreto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados cinco bovinos machos, castrados, da raça Holandesa Preta e Branca, com 450 kg de peso vivo em um delineamento quadrado latino 5 x 5, sendo os tratamentos cinco níveis de substituição, 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de ureia por cloreto de amônio, como fontes de nitrogênio não-proteico da dieta. Houve redução linear (p 0,05 a excreção de alantoína e de derivados de purinas na urina, purinas absorvidas, síntese de compostos nitrogenados microbianos e eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana. Houve queda linear (p 0,05 a concentração de amônia no rúmen. O cloreto de amônio pode ser utilizado como fonte de NNP para bovinos em níveis de até 1,4% da matéria seca total da dieta.Five Holstein steers weighting 450 kg were used in a 5 x 5 Latin square statistical design, where treatments consisted of five replacement levels: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of urea by ammonium chloride, as non-protein nitrogen in the diet. There was a linear decrease (p 0.05 daily excretion of allantoin, purine derivatives, absorbed purines, as well as microbial nitrogen compounds and microbial efficiency synthesis. Rumen pH and plasma urea nitrogen decreased linearly (p 0.05 ruminal ammonia concentration as urea was replaced by ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride can be used as a non-protein nitrogen source in ruminant diets up to level of 1.4% of diet dry matter.

  17. Replacement of sub-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a number of quality aspects related to replacement of important systems or components in a nuclear power station. Reference is given to the steam generator replacement and power uprating performed at Ringhals 2 in Sweden in 1989. Since quality is a wide concept there has been put special emphasis in this paper to the important aspects that traditionally are not connected to quality. (author) 1 fig

  18. Experimental replacement of esophagus with a short segment of trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasidezfouli, Azizollah; Ansari, Damoon; Sheikhy, Kambiz; Abarkar, Mohammad; Sadeghbeigi, Farahnaz; Abbasidezfouli, Sepehr; Sharifi, Davood

    2016-03-01

    Segmental resection of esophagus with primary anastomosis is prohibited because of the risk of dehiscence. We previously have shown that replacement of a segment of cervical esophagus with a tracheal segment of the same length could successfully be performed in a canine model. In this study, we sought to assess the feasibility of replacement of the esophageal defect with a shorter segment of trachea. In five mongrel dogs weighting 20-30 kg, under general anesthesia and after a cervical incision, 8 cm of the cervical esophagus was resected and replaced by a 4-cm segment of the adjacent trachea. The animals were evaluated clinically for signs and symptoms of stenosis and dehiscence and then euthanized after 2 mo of follow-up. All dogs recovered from surgery and started regular diet on the seventh postoperative day. No clinical or endoscopic sign of stenosis or voice change was seen. Squamous metaplasia and atrophy of mucosal glands and cartilage were detected in the histopathologic examination of the replaced segments. Replacement of a cervical esophageal defect with a shorter segment of trachea can be performed successfully in dogs. This procedure can be potentially used for the treatment of cervical esophageal lesions in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  20. Steam generator replacement: a story of continuous improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, M.S.; Wilkerson, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the history of steam generator replacement in the US focusing on the last five years. From the early replacements in the 1980s, there have been major technology improvements resulting in dramatically shorter outages and reduced radiological exposure for workers. Even though the changes for the last five years have been less dramatic, the improvement trend continues. No two steam generator replacement (SGR) projects are the same and there are some major differences including; the access path for the components to containment (is a construction opening in containment required), type of containment, number of steam generators, one piece or two piece replacement, plant type (Westinghouse, CE or B and W) and plant layout. These differences along with other variables such as delays due to plant operations and other activities not related to the steam generator replacement make analysis of performance data difficult. However, trends in outage performance and owner expectations can be identified. How far this trend will go is also discussed. Along with the trend of improved performance, there is also a significant variation in performance. Some of the contributors to this variation are identified. This paper addresses what is required for a successful outage, meeting the increasing expectations and setting new records. The authors will discuss various factors that contribute to the success of a steam generator replacement. These factors include technical issues and, equally important, organizational interface and the role the customer plays. Recommendations are provided for planning a successful steam generator replacement outage. (author)

  1. Effects of partial replacement of corn and soybean meal with sunflower cake in pig diets on ham fatty acid composition/ Efeitos da substituição parcial de milho e farelo de soja por torta de girassol na dieta de suínos sobre a composição em ácidos graxos do pernil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight pigs (24 barrows and 24 gilts, Landrace X Large White with initial liveweight of 22.69 kg were subjected to four treatments: diets with 0, 5, 10, and 15% of sunflower cake (SFC. No significant (P > 0.05 effect of dietary treatment was observed on crude protein (19.6%, total fat (15.3%, ash (0.89%, and moisture (63.9% contents of ham. Fatty acids in all ham (Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus were significantly influenced by diets. Palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids in both diets and pork meat. Linoleic acid (18:2n-6 was the most abundant fatty acid under SFC-based diets. Its levels were also higher in ham of pigs fed SFC diets (T2, T3, and T4 with 15.79, 18.66, and 22.85%, respectively than in that of pig fed the control diet (13.73%. Incorporation of 5, 10, and 15% SFC in pig diet markedly decreased the proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids and increased polyunsaturated fatty acids in ham (P Quarenta e oito suínos (24 fêmeas e 24 machos, Landrace x Large White com peso vivo inicial de 22.69 kg foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos: dietas com 0 , 5, 10 e 15% de torta de girassol (SFC. Não foram observados efeitos significativos (p > 0.05 nas dietas para os teores de proteína total (19,6%, gordura total (15,3%, cinzas (0,89% e umidade (63,9% nos pernis. Os ácidos graxos foram significativamente influenciados pelas dietas. Os ácidos palmítico, oléico e linoléico foram os ácidos graxos mais abundantes tanto nas dietas como no pernil como um todo (Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus. Ácido linoléico (18:2n-6 foi o ácido graxo mais abundante nas dietas SFC. Seus níveis também foram maiores em pernis de suínos alimentados com dietas com SFC (T2, T3 e T4 com 15,8, 18,7 e 22,9%, respectivamente em relação aos suínos que se alimentaram com a dieta controle (13,7%. Incorporação de 5, 10, 15% de SFC em dietas de suínos, diminuem a propor

  2. Evaluation of raw rock phosphate as substitute for bone meal in diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiment was conducted to determine the optimal replacement level of Raw Rock Phosphate (RRP) for bone meal in layers diet. A total of 144, 55 week-old shavers X Hubbard cross-strain laying hens were used for the study. Triplicate groups of 12 hens per replicate were placed on four test diets containing 0, 1, 1.5 and ...

  3. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  4. Effect of origin and composition of diet on ecological impact of the organic egg production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.E.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential to reduce the integral ecological impact (i.e. impact along the egg production chain per kg egg) of Dutch organic egg production by replacing currently used imported diet ingredients with Dutch diet ingredients. We realized this objective by

  5. Improving diet sustainability through evolution of food choices: review of epidemiological studies on the environmental impact of diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, Marlène; Vieux, Florent; Soler, Louis-Georges; Masset, Gabriel; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization defines sustainable diets as nutritionally adequate, safe, healthy, culturally acceptable, economically affordable diets that have little environmental impact. This review summarizes the studies assessing, at the individual level, both the environmental impact and the nutritional quality or healthiness of self-selected diets. Reductions in meat consumption and energy intake were identified as primary factors for reducing diet-related greenhouse gas emissions. The choice of foods to replace meat, however, was crucial, with some isocaloric substitutions possibly increasing total diet greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, nutritional adequacy was rarely or only partially assessed, thereby compromising the assessment of diet sustainability. Furthermore, high nutritional quality was not necessarily associated with affordability or lower environmental impact. Hence, when identifying sustainable diets, each dimension needs to be assessed by relevant indicators. Finally, some nonvegetarian self-selected diets consumed by a substantial fraction of the population showed good compatibility with the nutritional, environmental, affordability, and acceptability dimensions. Altogether, the reviewed studies revealed the scarcity of standardized nationally representative data for food prices and environmental indicators and suggest that diet sustainability might be increased without drastic dietary changes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. Complete replacement of fish meal by other animal protein sources on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauld S. M. Djissou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To completely replace the fish meal by a mixture of earthworm and maggot meals, experimental diets were tested during 42 days on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isoproteic and isoenergetic diets (40 % crude protein and 17.9 ± 0.3 kJ g−1 including the control diet (D1 based on fish meal, were formulated. All these diets satisfied the essential amino acids requirements of C. gariepinus fingerlings. These diets were tested on triplicate groups of 50 fishes (initial body weight: 3 ± 0.1 g bred in tank (0.5 m3. The approximate ratios 2:5; 1:4; 1:12 and 0:1 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal were used, respectively, to formulate four diets D2, D3, D4 and D5 without fish meal. After the feeding period, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed on growth, feed utilization between control diet (D1 and test diets (D2–D5. Fish fed earthworm- and maggot-based diets were grown better than those fed the control diet. Survival and feed utilization were not significantly affected by the ratio between earthworm meal and maggot meal in the test diets. Lipid content was higher in carcass and fillet of fishes fed earthworm- and maggot meals-based diets than that of those fed fish meal-based diet. This study indicates that when the ratio 2:5 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal is used to entirely replace fish meal and the ratio lysine/arginine of the diet is inferior to 1, the growth performances and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings are improved.

  7. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  8. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  9. Digestibilidade e absorção aparentes em vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench Apparent digestibility and absorption od holstein cows fed diets with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica mill in replacement of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciene Karla Bezerra de Andrade

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira em substituição à silagem de sorgo, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da proteína bruta (DAPB, do extrato etéreo (DAEE, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA, dos carboidratos totais (DACHT e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DACNF, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e os coeficientes de absorção aparente de cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, potássio (K e sódio (Na. Foram utilizadas oito vacas, com peso médio de 590 kg e produção média de leite de 27 kg/dia, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos simultâneos (4x4, sendo quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro níveis de inclusão de palma na ração. A inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrito por função quadrática. Foi possível estimar por intermédio desta função um teor máximo de NDT de 77,43% para utilização de 16,51% de palma na dieta. O aumento nos teores de CNF e a redução da FDN das rações foram responsáveis pelo comportamento quadrático na digestibilidade dos nutrientes. As absorções aparentes de Ca, P e Na foram influenciadas quadraticamente com o aumento dos níveis de palma na ração, enquanto o K aumentou linearmente. A relação Ca:P que proporcionou a melhor absorção desses elementos minerais foi de 1,9:1.It was evaluated the effect of four levels forage cactus in replacement of sorghum silage, in diets of lactating Holstein cows, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, ether extract (ADEE, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF and acid (ADADF, total carbohydrates (ADTCH and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC, content of total digestible nutrients (TDN and apparent absorption of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P

  10. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  11. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  12. Soybean hull and enzyme inclusion effects on diet digestibility and growth performance in beef steers consuming corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S

    2016-06-01

    A beef feedlot study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing soybean hull (SH) inclusion and enzyme addition on diet digestibility and animal performance. The hypothesis was SH inclusion and enzyme addition would increase fiber digestibility with no negative effect on animal performance. Eight treatments (TRT) were arranged in a 4 × 2 factorial using four diets and two enzyme (ENZ) inclusion rates. The diets were composed primarily of whole shell corn (WSC) with 0%, 7%, 14%, or 28% SH replacing corn. The ENZ was a commercial proprietary mix of , and (Cattlemace, R&D Life Sciences, Menomonie, WI) included in the diets at 0% (S0, S7, S14, S28) or 0.045% DM basis (S0e, S7e, S14e, S28e). Eighty steers (287 ± 31 kg, SD) were stratified by weight and blocked into pens with 1 heavy and 1 light pen per TRT (2 pen/TRT, 5 steers/pen). Steers were fed for 70 d with titanium dioxide included in the diets for the final 15 d. Fecal samples were collected on d 70 to determine diet digestibility. Diets were balanced for AA and RDP requirement based on available ME. Individual DMI was measured using a GrowSafe system. Diet, ENZ, and diet × ENZ effects were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Initial BW was applied as a covariate for final BW (FBW), and DMI was included as a covariate for all digestibility measures. The diet × ENZ interaction had no effect on FBW, ADG, DMI, or any digestibility measure ( ≥ 0.11). Steers fed ENZ tended to have greater FBW ( = 0.09) and had numerically greater ADG than steers not fed ENZ. Diet influenced DMI ( digestibility ( ≥ 0.2). Diet had an effect on NDF and ADF digestibility ( ≤ 0.04) which decreased as SH inclusion increased. The addition of ENZ tended to decrease NDF digestibility ( = 0.08) but had no effect on ADF digestibility ( = 0.8). Fiber digestibility in WSC diets did not improve with SH inclusion or ENZ addition but steers fed diets with 14% to 28% of WSC replaced by SH and the addition of 0.045% ENZ

  13. Replacement research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ross

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the Australian Government commissioned a review into the need for a replacement research reactor. That review concluded that in about years, if certain conditions were met, the Government could make a decision in favour of a replacement reactor. A major milestone was achieved when, on 3 September 1997, the Australian Government announced the construction of a replacement research reactor at the site of Australia's existing research reactor HIFAR, subject to the satisfactory outcome of an environmental assessment process. The reactor will be have the dual purpose of providing a first class facility for neutron beam research as well as providing irradiation facilities for both medical isotope production and commercial irradiations. The project is scheduled for completion before the end of 2005. (author)

  14. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais, alimentadas com dietas contendo sorgo e páprica em substituição ao milho = Performance and egg quality of laying hens fed with sorghum and paprika based diets to replace the corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarier de Oliveira Moreno

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o efeito da substituição do milho pelo sorgo, com ou sem a adição do pigmento natural, páprica, na ração de poedeiras comerciais, 160 poedeiras Hy-Line W36, (47 semanas de idade, distribuídas ao acaso, em duas aves por gaiola de 25 cm, divididas em cinco tratamentos com quatro repetições de oito aves cada, foram utilizadas. A ração controle foi à base de milho e farelo de soja e as demais substituíram o milho pelo sorgo, de baixo tanino, na proporção de 50 ou 100%. A páprica, quando adicionada, foi em 500 g t-1 e 1.000 g t-1 para os níveis de sorgo de 50 e 100%, respectivamente. A substituição do milho por sorgo não afetou o desempenho na postura, mas reduziu a pigmentação da gema. A coloração da gema, com a adição do pigmento natural, em ambas dosagens, foisuperior ao controle, porém a dosagem de 1.000 g t-1 reduziu a postura.This study aimed to investigate the effect of the substitution of the corn for sorghum, with or without supplementation of paprika, asnatural pigment, in the diets of laying hens. The experiment was conducted with 160 Hy-Line W36 layer hens (47 weeks of age, kept in cages of 25 cm, distributed in a completely randomized design, with eight birds and four replications. The control diet was on a cornand soybean meal base and the other diets had 50 or 100% of substitution of corn by sorghum, low tannin. The paprika, when supplemented, was added in 500 g t-1 or 1,000 g t-1. to the ration of low or high sorghum levels, respectively. The substitution of the cornby sorghum did not affect the performance of laying hens, but decreased the yolk pigmentation. When the natural pigment was added, in both dosages, the yolk pigmentation was higher than that obtained from the control diet, but the level of 1,000 g t-1. reduced theperformance of layers.

  15. Joint replacement in Zambia: A review of Hip & Knee Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data captured by the different variables entered into the Joint Register covering the pre-op, intra-op and post-op period of all total hip and knee replacement surgery done at the ZIOH from 1998 to 2010 was entered into a spreadsheet after verification with individual patient medical records. This was then imported ...

  16. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  17. Insurance for replacement power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, A.

    1980-01-01

    Although careful consideration is given to insurance against physical damage to plant and equipment, little thought is given to the costs that will be incurred in replacing the power that is lost while a relatively efficient system is out of action. The results of an investigation carried out for a generating authority with an installed capacity of about 3000 MW is given. Replacement power costs for different cases of severity of damage range from Pound1.17m per month for damage to central services taking out all four units. (author)

  18. Replacing fuel alignment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetz, F.; Kalthoff, W.

    1991-01-01

    Up to the end of 1989 varying numbers of broken fuel alignment pins were detected in several German PWRs (80 broken pins in all). The distribution of these broken pins over the core cross-section was more or less random. The problem was due to the stress corrosion cracking of the pin material and was restricted to individual pins. It was concluded that all fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X-750 should be replaced. The development of a new pin, more resistant to intergranular stress corrosion, and the replacement technique are outlined. (author)

  19. FY95 software project management plan: TMACS, CASS computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurling, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The FY95 Work Plan for TMACS and CASS Software Projects describes the activities planned for the current fiscal year. This plan replaces WHC-SD-WM-SDP-008. The TMACS project schedule is included in the TWRS Integrated Schedule

  20. The replacement of fishmeal by plant proteins in piglet production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to EC Commission Decision 9/2001 on BSE protection (OJEC, 2001, feedstuffs containing fishmeal can be produced only in establishments manufacturing animal feed which do not prepare feedstuffs for ruminant animals and which are authorised for this purpose by the competent authority. This fact, leading to a reduction of the productive capacity of small establishments, and the increasing aversion of consumers towards the use of animal protein in feedstuffs justify the studies about the possibility of excluding fishmeal from young animal formulations. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the total replacement of fishmeal by some vegetable protein sources in piglet diets.

  1. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of replacing maize with wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the level of inclusion of agro-industrial by-products in poultry diets formulation that will not adversely affect growth performance but enhancing feed cost reduction have been the major concern of researchers. In this study the cost effectiveness of using wheat offal to replace maize at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 percent ...

  2. Replacement Value of Soybean Meal and Maize with Raw or Boiled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to determine the replacement value of raw or boiled pigeon pea seed meal (PSM) for soybean meal and maize in the diets of exotic pullets (1-56 d) was conducted with 324 pullet chicks. The experimental design was 2 x 5 factorial in a completely randomized design (CRD). The factors were form (raw and boiled) ...

  3. Effect of partial replacement of dietary maize with cassava peel meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary cassava peel meal (CPM) inclusion in partial replacement for maize on egg quality characteristics during storage was investigated in this study. In a completely randomized design, ISA brown pullets (n=3,000) aged 20-week were assigned to three dietary treatments. Diets A, B, C contained CPM at 0, 10 and ...

  4. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKEN OFFAL AS REPLACEMENT FOR LOCAL FISH MEAL IN GROWING SNAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A OMOLE

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of ninety six growing snails of mean weight 91.23±2.4g were used to determine the effects of partial or total replacement of local fish meal, a source of protein but expensive to a less expensive, alternative source, chicken offal in the diet of growing snails. Completely randomized design was used for the study. The feeding trial had four treatments, C1, C2, C3 and C4 in which fish meal fraction of the diets was replaced at 0, 50, 75 and 100% with chicken offal respectively. The parameters taken were weight gain, feed intake. Feed conversion ratio, total feed cost, and cost per weight gain were calculated. The trial lasted for twelve weeks. Significant differences were not observed in the mean weekly feed intake of the snails in all the treatments. The mean weight gain in all the treatments were not significantly influenced by the inclusion of chicken offal in the diet (P>0.005. Total feed cost and cost/weight gain reduced as the level of the chicken offal increased while the lowest cost/weight gain was observed in C4. The inclusion of Chicken offal in all the diets had no detrimental effect on the snails in all the treatments. Based on the present results chicken offal could replace local fish meal in the diet of growing snail up to 100% and hereby reduce feed cost

  5. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y nutrición May. 24, ...

  6. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  7. Children's diets (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet of children is the proper amount of fat. Children under two years of age should not be on a fat-restricted diet, because cholesterol and fat are thought to be important nutrients for brain development. Children over two can have lower fat foods added ...

  8. Road diet informational guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A classic Road Diet converts an existing four-lane undivided roadway segment to a three-lane segment consisting of two : through lanes and a center two-way left turn lane (TWLTL). A Road Diet improves safety by including a protected left-turn lane : ...

  9. Diet and Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meat, skinned poultry and fish nonfat dairy products sugar-free drinks like diet soda. Controlling your weight will lower your chance ... with your doctor and dietitian to keep your diet and blood sugar in good control. Where can I get more ...

  10. Postprandial nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after partial dietary fishmeal replacement by soyabean meal in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Zhou, Huihui; Xu, Wei; Song, Fei

    2016-02-14

    In this study, we chose a carnivorous fish, turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), to examine its nutrient-sensing and metabolic responses after ingestion of diets with fishmeal (FM), or 45% of FM replaced by soyabean meal (34·6% dry diet) balanced with or without essential amino acids (EAA) to match the amino acid profile of FM diet for 30 d. After a 1-month feeding trial, fish growth, feed efficiency and nutrient retention were markedly reduced by soyabean meal-incorporated (SMI) diets. Compared with the FM diet, SMI led to a reduction of postprandial influx of free amino acids, hypoactivated target of rapamycin signalling and a hyperactivated amino acid response pathway after refeeding, a status associated with reduced protein synthesis, impaired postprandial glycolysis and lipogenesis. These differential effects were not ameliorated by matching an EAA profile of soyabean meal to that of the FM diet through dietary amino acid supplementation. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the FM diet and SMI diets led to distinct nutrient-sensing responses, which in turn modulated metabolism and determined the utilisation efficiency of diets. Our results provide a new molecular explanation for the role of nutrient sensing in the inferior performance of aquafeeds in which FM is replaced by soyabean meal.

  11. NIF Laser Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D W

    2003-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed with its high value optical systems in cassettes called Line Replaceable Units (LRUs). Virtually all of the NIF's active components are assembled in one of the ∼4000 electrical and optical LRUs that serve between two and eight of NIF's 192 laser beam lines. Many of these LRUs are optomechanical assemblies that are roughly the size of a telephone booth. The primary design challenges for this hardware include meeting stringent mechanical precision, stability and cleanliness requirements. Pre-production units of each LRU type have been fielded on the first bundle of NIF and used to demonstrate that NIF meets its performance objectives. This presentation provides an overview of the NIF LRUs, their design and production plans for building out the remaining NIF bundles

  12. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  13. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  14. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  15. Sandy Hook : alternative access concept plan and vehicle replacement study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This study addresses two critical issues of concern to the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National : Recreational Area: (1) options for alternative access to Sandy Hook during peak summer season, : particularly when the park is closed to private vehicles...

  16. Date Fiber as a Constituent of Broiler Starter Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. AI-Marzooki

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In Oman, efforts are underway to find alternative sources of fwd to support domestic livestock. The date industry thrives in Oman and one of its by-products is date fiber, a by-product of date syrup production. Although the product contains some free sugars, an evaluation of its potential in broiler diets has never been undertaken. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to investigate the value of date fiber in broiler chick diets. The experimental diets consisted of four graded levels of date fiber: 0, 15, 30 and 45 % in a broiler-starter ration replacing corn as an energy source. The diets were isonitrogenous. There were five replicates for each of the four diets and each replicate contained six broiler chicks. As date fiber percent increased in the dietary treatment, there were linear reductions in body weight gain, calculated apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn content, and apparent protein digestibility (P < 0.05. Poor feed utilization (i .e., reduced feed efficiency was observed in birds fed date fiber diets compared to the control group (P < 0.05. The poor performance of birds fed date fiber may be attributed to protein and energy limitations. We conclude that date fiber has no value in growing broiler diets. However, it may have utility in diets where a stable body weight is desirable.

  17. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  18. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  19. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) protein hydrolysate in diets for weaning piglets ─ effect on growth performance, intestinal morphometry and microbiota composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opheim, Margareth; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Sterten, Hallgeir

    2016-01-01

    Salmon protein hydrolysates (SPH) from two different rest raw materials were evaluated in diets for weaning piglets. Four experimental diets were included in the study: a diet based on plant protein with soy protein as the main protein source (Diet PP), a diet based on fishmeal in exchange for soy...... protein (Diet FM) and two diets in which different SPH replaced fishmeal in the FM diet. The experimental diets were fed to piglets from the day of weaning until 32 d postweaning. In addition to the record of performance data, an intestinal sampling for mucosal morphometry and microbiota 16S rRNA gene...... sequencing were performed at day 11 on a subset of the animals. The duodenal villi absorption area was significantly larger in piglets receiving Diets SPH compared with Diet PP (p

  20. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  1. Replacing American snacks with tree nuts increases consumption of key nutrients among US children and adults: results of an NHANES modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background Replacing typical American snacks with tree nuts may be an effective way to improve diet quality and compliance with the 2015?2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). Objective To assess and quantify the impact of replacing typical snacks with composite tree nuts or almonds on diet metrics, including empty calories (i.e., added sugars and solid fats), individual fatty acids, macronutrients, nutrients of public health concern, including sodium, fiber and potassium, and summary ...

  2. Replace or Modernize? The Future of the District of Columbia's Endangered Old and Historic Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-First Century School Fund, Washington, DC.

    This report addresses the decision-making process for replacing or modernizing the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) as proposed in the DCPS facility master plan. The three-section document discusses old and historic schools and their future; the schools' historical and architectural value; cost of replacement and modernization; design;…

  3. From beef to beans: Eating motives and the replacement of animal proteins with plant proteins among Finnish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka; Niva, Mari; Jallinoja, Piia; Latvala, Terhi

    2016-11-01

    A better understanding of the motives underlying the adoption of sustainable and healthy diets is needed for designing more effective policies. The aim of the study was to examine how eating motives were associated with self-reported changes in the consumption of beef, beans, and soy products, i.e., changes related to reducing animal and increasing plant proteins. The study analysed a survey of an adult population living in Finland (N = 1048). The eating motives were measured with the Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS), which distinguishes between 15 eating motives. Six clusters of consumers based on self-reported changes in food choices were identified with latent class analysis (LCA). Four clusters had established food consumption patterns ("Beef only", "Beef and beans", "Beef, beans, and soy products", and "No beef"), one was undergoing a change, and one had attempted a change earlier. ANOVA with planned contrasts revealed that the motives relating to natural concerns, health, and weight control were higher, and convenience and price lower, among those who had an established diet including beans and soy products, as compared to those who consumed only beef. Those undergoing a dietary change expressed a higher endorsement of natural concerns as well as health, sociability, social image, and price motives than those with an established diet including beans and soy products. The results suggest that eating motives play an important role in changing towards more sustainable food consumption patterns in which meat/beef is replaced with plant proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Numerical Study of Effects of the Manufacture Perturbations to Contacts of the Total Hip Replacement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koukal, M.; Fuis, Vladimír; Florian, Z.; Janíček, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2011), s. 33-42 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : total hip replacement * FEM * roundness * contact pressure * frictional moment Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  5. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Varredura (Manihot esculenta, Crantz na Ração de Bezerros Holandeses.: 1. Desempenho e Parâmetros Sangüíneos Replacement of Corn for Cassava Meal (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in the Holstein Calves Diets: 1. Performance and Blood Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Vieira Jorge

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100%, base da matéria seca, sobre o consumo e conversão alimentar, ganho médio diário e níveis de hematócrito, glicose e uréia sanguíneos. Utilizaram-se 35 bezerros holandeses puros de origem ou puros por cruzamento, não castrados, com idade aproximada de 80 dias e peso vivo médio de 80 kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade, até atingir o consumo de 4 kg/dia de concentrado. Como volumoso, foi utilizado feno inteiro de capim tifton 85. Os animais terminaram o experimento, com peso médio de 164 kg. A elevação dos níveis de substituição ocasionou uma resposta linear decrescente no consumo de matéria seca. A conversão alimentar não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Os ganhos diários para os dois primeiros períodos de 28 dias reduziram-se linearmente, com a elevação dos níveis de substituição, mas não diferiram no último período de 28 dias, apresentando valores estimados, variando de 0,93 a 0,68, 1,10 a 0,89 e 1,09 kg/dia, respectivamente. Os níveis de hematócrito, glicose e uréia não foram influenciados pelos níveis de substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura.The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of different replacement levels of corn for cassava meal (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, dry matter basis on the dry matter intake and feed:gain ratio, daily weight gain and levels of blood hematocrit, glucose and urea. Thirty five intact Holstein calves, averaging 80 days old and initial live weight of 80 kg, were allotted to a randomized block design and fed concentrate, ad libitum, to reach the intake of 4 kg/day. Tifton 85 bermudagrass was fed as roughage. The final average weight was of 164 kg. The dry matter intake showed a linear behavior as the replacement levels increased. The feed

  6. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of this...

  7. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  8. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  9. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  10. A Bayesian perspective on some replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Soyer, Refik

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian decision theoretic approach for determining optimal replacement strategies. This approach enables us to formally incorporate, express, and update our uncertainty when determining optimal replacement strategies. We develop relevant expressions for both the block replacement protocol with minimal repair and the age replacement protocol and illustrate the use of our approach with real data

  11. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  12. Maltodextrin and oils in the diet of weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hauptli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of piglets fed two sources of oil (soybean and palm oil combined with maltodextrin and a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin, as well as the apparent digestibility coefficients of these diets. A total of 162 piglets weaned at 21 days, with a mean initial weight of 5.42 ± 0.55 kg, were allocated in a randomized block design consisting of three treatments and 18 replicates of three animals each. The following treatments were evaluated: T1: diet containing soybean oil [3.03% in the pre-initial (I and initial (II diets] and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T2: diet containing palm oil (3.03% in I and II and maltodextrin (10.0% in I and 5.93% in II; T3: diet containing a blend of palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin (10.0% in I and II and maltodextrin added to the blend (4.07% in I so that the percentage of maltodextrin would be identical in the diets of the three treatments. The performance and digestibility data were submitted to analysis of variance using the MIXED and GLM procedures, respectively, of the SAS package and means were compared by the Tukey test (P0.05 in DFI, ADG or FC were observed between piglets submitted to the different treatments. The ADC of dry matter was 4.25% lower (P<0.05 for the diet containing palm oil microencapsulated with maltodextrin compared to the soybean oil diet. The ADC of ether extract was 54% higher (P<0.05 in the soybean oil diet compared to the palm oil diet, which negatively affected the ether extract digestibility coefficient. In conclusion, palm oil microencapsulated or not with maltodextrin can replace soybean oil in the diets of weaned piglets without compromising their performance.

  13. An optimal maintenance policy for machine replacement problem using dynamic programming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Sadegh Amalnik; Morteza Pourgharibshahi

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present an acceptance sampling plan for machine replacement problem based on the backward dynamic programming model. Discount dynamic programming is used to solve a two-state machine replacement problem. We plan to design a model for maintenance by consid-ering the quality of the item produced. The purpose of the proposed model is to determine the optimal threshold policy for maintenance in a finite time horizon. We create a decision tree based on a sequential sampling inc...

  14. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The Province of Ontario Nuclear Emergency Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This plan replaces the Province of Ontario Nuclear Contingency Off-Site Plan (June 1980) which is no longer applicable. The wastes plan includes planning, preparation, emergency organization and operational responsibilities and policy

  15. Farelo de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crants em substituição ao milho (Zea mays L. em rações para alevinos de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228 Replacement of corn Zea mays L. by cassava Manihot esculenta crants meal in grass-carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1228

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-03-01

    /kg digestible energy with different cassava meal inclusion levels of (0.00, 5.99, 11.98, 17.97, 23.95, 29.94 corresponding a 00.0, 20.0, 40.0, 60.0, 80.0 e 100.0% of replacement of corn. Effect were not observed of cassava-by-product meal inclusion levels on the final weight, final length, feed: gain, condition index and survival rate of grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings. The water physical-chemical parameters were 22.92oC, 24.54oC 6.38 mg/L, 7.47 e 0.16 ms/cm, respectively to morning temperature, afternoon temperature, dissolved oxygen, ph and electric conduct. It may be concluded that the cassava meal can substitute the corn in even 100% in grass carp fingerlings diets

  16. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  17. [Breastfeeding and vegan diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagnon, J; Cagnard, B; Bridoux-Henno, L; Tourtelier, Y; Grall, J-Y; Dabadie, A

    2005-10-01

    Vegan diet in lactating women can induce vitamin B12 deficiency for their children with risk of an impaired neurological development. A 9.5-month-old girl presented with impaired growth and severe hypotonia. She had a macrocytic anemia secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. MRI showed cerebral atrophy. She was exclusively breastfed. Her mother was also vitamin B12 deficient, secondary to a vegan diet. She had a macrocytic anemia when discharged from the maternity. Vegan diet is a totally inadequate regimen for pregnant and lactating women, especially for their children. Prevention is based on screening, information and vitamin supplementation.

  18. A new three-dimensional, print-on-demand temporomandibular prosthetic total joint replacement system: Preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulis, George; Austin, Stephen; Sin Lee, Peter Vee; Ackland, David

    2018-05-16

    The aim of this study is to present the preliminary clinical data on the OMX Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Prosthetic total joint replacement system. A prospective, cohort, clinical study was undertaken of consecutive adult patients with Category 5 end-stage joint disease who were implanted with the OMX TMJ prosthesis between May 2015 and April 2017. A total of 50 devices were implanted in 38 patients, with 12 patients receiving bilateral prosthetic joints. There were 31 females and 7 males in this cohort, who ranged in age from 20 to 66 years, with a mean of 43.8 years (±14.0 years). Ten of the 50 prosthetic joints (20%) were fully customized, while the remaining were patient matched using virtual planning software. Based on a mean follow-up period of 15.3 months (range 12-24 months) following the TMJ total joint replacement, preliminary results suggest the OMX TMJ prosthesis has made a positive impact on clinical outcomes, with a mean 74.4% reduction in joint pain levels and significant improvements (p < 0.05) in jaw function as measured by the visual analogue scales for mouth opening (30.8%), diet (77.1%), and function (59.2%). No device failures were reported during the study period. This study suggests that the print-on-demand OMX TMJ prosthesis, designed for rapid delivery of both patient-matched and fully customize devices, represents a safe, reliable and versatile implantable joint replacement system for the treatment of category 5 end-stage TMJ disease. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio em substituição ao cloreto de sódio na dieta de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020 Diferent levels of sodium formate in replacement of sodium chloride in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Krabbe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do formiato de sódio como fonte desse mineral na dieta de frangos de corte, comparando-o com o cloreto de sódio. Utilizaram-se 690 fêmeas de corte Ross, que receberam água e alimentação à vontade, divididas em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, tendo cada repetição 23 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram: T1 (controle, T2 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia, T3 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ sem cloreto de amônia, T4 (formiato de sódio com 0,16% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia e T5 (formiato de sódio com 0,12% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia. O cloreto de amônia foi adicionado em alguns tratamentos para se equilibrar o balanço eletrolítico das dietas. Os dados foram analisados, utilizando-se Anova 5%, teste de Tukey com comparação de médias duas a duas. Observou-se que os diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio não comprometeram o desempenho das aves nem as variáveis de carcaça, mesmo quando o cloreto de amônia foi incluído. Com isso, conclui-se que o formiato de sódio pode ser utilizado como fonte desse mineral para substituir o cloreto de sódio em dietas de frangos de corte.This study aimed to evaluate the use of sodium formate as a source of sodium in replacement of sodium chloride for broilers. A total of 690 female Ross broiler chickens were divided into five treatments with 6 replicates each. Each replicate had 23 birds. Treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ with ammonium chloride, T3 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ without ammonium chloride, T4 (sodium formate 0.16%Na+ with ammonium chloride and T5 (sodium formate 0.12%Na+ without ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added to some of the treatments to balance the electrolyte balance of the diets. Data were analyzed using ANOVA 5%. Means were separated using Tukey test.The use of sodium formate had no effect on performance and carcass traits of broilers. These results indicate that

  20. Moderator inlet line hanger replacement for Pickering nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.A.; Bowman, J.M.; Symmons, W.R.; El-Nesr, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS), Units 1 and 2 were shutdown for large scale fuel channel replacement. Other nonroutine inspection and maintenance activities were performed to determine the overall condition of the units and it was seen that a moderator inlet line hanger (identified as HR-29) had failed in both units. Subsequent inspections during planned maintenance outages of Pickering NGS Units 3 and 4 revealed that hanger HR-29 had failed and required replacement. A research program was conducted to find a suitable technique. These problems included accessing tooling through small inspection ports, manipulating tooling from a significant distance and the high radiation fields within the vault. This paper describes the program undertaken to replace hanger HR-29. (author)

  1. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  2. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  3. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennard, M W [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Pleasantville, NY (United States); Harbottle, J E [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Thornbury, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B{sub 4}C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  4. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B 4 C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  5. Effect of soybean diet: Growth and conversion efficiencies of fingerling of stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzzammil Iqbal Siddiqui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of 15% protein from soybean meal in Diet II was feasible for the stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis and no significant differences in growth parameters were found in fish fed soybean meal-based diets compared to those fed control diet (Diet I. Live weight gain percent (165% obtained in fish fed soybean meal based diet was not significantly different to that achieved (171% in fish fed Diet I. Specific growth rate percent, SGR (2.79%, feed conversion ratio FCR (1.40 and protein efficiency ratio PER (1.79 recorded in fish fed Diet II were also more less comparable to those fed control diet. Mortality was not recorded in the period of the feeding trial. Body composition of the fish fed soybean meal based diet (Diet II was also comparable to that fed control diet. Significantly higher fat content was noted in fish fed Diet II. However, the protein contents were not changed in fish fed Diet I and II. Similarly, no significant differences (P > 0.05 in protein productive value were noted between the two groups. However, ash content differed significantly (P < 0.05 in fish fed Diet I and II. Although soybean meal-based diet depressed growth and feed conversion efficiencies of the fish to some extent, inclusion of soybean meal was found to be cost-effective alternative to fish meal.

  6. Replacing Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils in Salmon Feed Increases Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtbø, Lisa Kolden

    Background: Due to a growing global aquaculture production, fish oil (FO) and fish meal (FM) are partly replaced with vegetable ingredients in aqua feed for Atlantic salmon. These replacements in the feed lead to an altered fatty acid composition in the salmon fillet. We aimed to investigate how...... these changes affects obesity development and insulin sensitivity in mice eating the salmon. In addition, we wanted to investigate how the background diet affects the antiobesity effect of FO. Results: Western diets (WDs) were produced containing salmon fed either FO (WD-FO), or with partly replacement (80......%) of FO with different vegetable oils (VOs); rape seed oil (WDRO), olive oil (WD-OO) or soybean oil (WD-SO). These diets were given to C57BL/6J mice, and mice had higher hepatic lipid accumulation and lower insulin sensitivity when given WD-SO compared with WD-FO. Mice given WD-SO had higher hepatic...

  7. A meal replacement regimen improves blood glucose levels in prediabetic healthy individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Daniel; Kookhan, Sadaf; Schaffner, Denise; Deibert, Peter; Berg, Aloys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-wk intervention with either lifestyle intervention (increased physical activity and a low-calorie diet) or a meal replacement regimen on glycemic control in patients who are prediabetic and have impaired fasting glucose. Forty-two overweight or obese men and women (age 54 ± 8 y; weight 95.1 ± 11.9 kg; body mass index [BMI] 32.8 ± 2.89 kg/m(2)) were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients in the lifestyle group (LS; n = 14) received dietary counseling sessions (fat-restricted low-calorie diet) and instructions on how to increase physical activity. Patients in the meal replacement group (MR; n = 28) were instructed to replace two daily meals with a low-calorie, high soy-protein drink with a low glycemic index. Both interventions resulted in a significant decrease in body weight and BMI, although the reduction was more pronounced (P meal replacement is an effective intervention for rapid improvement of elevated fasting glucose and increased insulin concentrations, these being important biomarkers of the prediabetic state. The 6-wk intervention has shown that the effect of meal replacement on fasting blood glucose was comparable to the effect of lifestyle intervention. The alterations in BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly more pronounced following the meal replacement regimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Digestibility of a new diet for captive short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Hayley J; Bekkers, Jamie M; Old, Julie M; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Shaw, Michelle E

    2017-01-01

    Short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) are myrmecophages, or ant and termite insectivore specialists, and replicating their exact diet in captivity is problematic. Diets for captive animals often incorporate raw meat, eggs and cat food mixed together with water, and vitamin and mineral supplements. These diets have promoted a number of health problems in captive echidnas, such as gastritis, cystitis, gut impaction, obesity, and diarrhea. A manufactured diet was designed and three echidnas from two zoos were transitioned onto this diet to assess the acceptability and digestibility of this diet for echidnas. The new "test" diet was readily accepted by the echidnas with a 1 week transition period. Daily digestible energy intake was 280 kJ kg -0.75 d -1 , similar to another myrmecophagous species. Digestibility values were above 74% for all macronutrients. It was determined that this diet was an acceptable replacement for the previous diets and it was decided that the remaining echidnas at both institutions would be transitioned to the new diet. The diet will also be used for wild echidnas being rehabilitated in the zoo hospitals prior to release and commercially available within Australia. Further data are being collected to assess the use of this diet for seasonal weight management, transitioning hand-reared puggles and effects on gastrointestinal tract health. Zoo Biol. 36:56-61, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Helen; Munas, Zahra; Griffin, Hayley; Rooney, Kieron; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for women 19-60 years. An alternative higher protein (HP) plan was adapted from the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. Vegan and lacto-ovo versions of these plans were also modelled and compared to the appropriate vegetarian NRVs. Both animal protein diets met the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) for all nutrients analysed. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) was also satisfied, except for iron. HC met 75±30% and HP 81±31% of the iron RDI when red meat and iron fortified cereal were both included three days a week, and remained below the RDI even when red meat was increased to seven days. Iron for the modified vegan (57±5% HC; 66±4% HP) and lacto-ovo (48±6% HC; 59±7% HP) plans was below the RDI and zinc below the EAR for the vegan (76±8% HC; 84±9% HP) plans. The 6000 kJ/d animal protein meal plans met the RDI for all nutrients except iron. Iron and zinc failed to meet the vegetarian RDI and EAR respectively for the vegan plans.

  10. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  11. Diet and Atherosclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-14

    Aug 14, 1974 ... Animal experiments have demonstrated the possibility of producing lesions ... countries. Mortality statistics, hospital records and necropsy ... opportunity to study possible associations between diet .... risk of American men.".

  12. Diet - clear liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group. Clear liquid diet. In: Morrison. Manual of Clinical Nutrition Management. Updated 2013. bscn2k15.weebly.com/uploads/1/2/9/2/12924787/manual_of_clinical_nutrition2013.pdf . Accessed August 20, 2016. Schattner MA, ...

  13. Diets that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get all the nutrients they need. Most vegetarians eat fewer calories than non-vegetarians. A vegetarian diet can help fight heart disease and high blood pressure. Sample Dinner Menu Vegetarian Spaghetti with Mushroom-Tomato-Asiago Cheese ...

  14. Sea Lion Diet Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  15. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002417.htm Chloride in diet To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances ...

  16. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  17. Fabrication and replacement work of beryllium frame and gamma-ray shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watahiki, Shunsuke; Hanawa, Yoshio; Asano, Norikazu; Hiyama, Kazuhisa; Ito, Sachito; Tsuboi, Kazuaki; Fukasaku, Akitomi

    2012-03-01

    This replacement work was carried out under refurbishment plan of JMTR for beryllium distortion draw to acceptable limit. And gamma-ray shield refurbishment was carried out the view point of prevention maintenance in consideration of operation plan. Fabrication of beryllium frame and gamma-ray shield was spent for two years it was finished in February, 2010. It took five months to replacement work from January 2010. In this report is presented fabrication and replacement work of beryllium frame and gamma-ray shield. (author)

  18. Renal replacement lipomatosis: multidetector-row computed tomography findings in one case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisir, C.; Can, C.; Kebapci, M.

    2007-01-01

    Replacement lipomatosis of the kidney is the result of severe atrophy of the renal parenchyma often caused by chronic calculus disease with secondary marked benign proliferation of fibrofatty tissue replacing atrophied renal parenchyma. Different radiological modalities have been used to illustrate this entity, with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, intravenous pyelogram, and computed tomography (CT) used most frequently. We report multidedector CT (MDCT) findings of replacement lipomatosis in a 50-year-old woman. We think that it accurately provides a complete one-step diagnostic workup and appropriate pre-surgical planning for patients for whom there is a suspicion of replacement lipomatosis

  19. The welfare implications of using exotic tortoises as ecological replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Christine J; Zuël, Nicolas; Tatayah, Vikash; Jones, Carl G; Griffiths, Owen; Harris, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Ecological replacement involves the introduction of non-native species to habitats beyond their historical range, a factor identified as increasing the risk of failure for translocations. Yet the effectiveness and success of ecological replacement rely in part on the ability of translocatees to adapt, survive and potentially reproduce in a novel environment. We discuss the welfare aspects of translocating captive-reared non-native tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea and Astrochelys radiata, to two offshore Mauritian islands, and the costs and success of the projects to date. Because tortoises are long-lived, late-maturing reptiles, we assessed the progress of the translocation by monitoring the survival, health, growth, and breeding by the founders. Between 2000 and 2011, a total of 26 A. gigantea were introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, and in 2007 twelve sexually immature A. gigantea and twelve male A. radiata were introduced to Round Island, Mauritius. Annual mortality rates were low, with most animals either maintaining or gaining weight. A minimum of 529 hatchlings were produced on Ile aux Aigrettes in 11 years; there was no potential for breeding on Round Island. Project costs were low. We attribute the success of these introductions to the tortoises' generalist diet, habitat requirements, and innate behaviour. Feasibility analyses for ecological replacement and assisted colonisation projects should consider the candidate species' welfare during translocation and in its recipient environment. Our study provides a useful model for how this should be done. In addition to serving as ecological replacements for extinct Mauritian tortoises, we found that releasing small numbers of captive-reared A. gigantea and A. radiata is cost-effective and successful in the short term. The ability to release small numbers of animals is a particularly important attribute for ecological replacement projects since it reduces the potential risk and controversy associated with

  20. The welfare implications of using exotic tortoises as ecological replacements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine J Griffiths

    Full Text Available Ecological replacement involves the introduction of non-native species to habitats beyond their historical range, a factor identified as increasing the risk of failure for translocations. Yet the effectiveness and success of ecological replacement rely in part on the ability of translocatees to adapt, survive and potentially reproduce in a novel environment. We discuss the welfare aspects of translocating captive-reared non-native tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea and Astrochelys radiata, to two offshore Mauritian islands, and the costs and success of the projects to date.Because tortoises are long-lived, late-maturing reptiles, we assessed the progress of the translocation by monitoring the survival, health, growth, and breeding by the founders. Between 2000 and 2011, a total of 26 A. gigantea were introduced to Ile aux Aigrettes, and in 2007 twelve sexually immature A. gigantea and twelve male A. radiata were introduced to Round Island, Mauritius. Annual mortality rates were low, with most animals either maintaining or gaining weight. A minimum of 529 hatchlings were produced on Ile aux Aigrettes in 11 years; there was no potential for breeding on Round Island. Project costs were low. We attribute the success of these introductions to the tortoises' generalist diet, habitat requirements, and innate behaviour.Feasibility analyses for ecological replacement and assisted colonisation projects should consider the candidate species' welfare during translocation and in its recipient environment. Our study provides a useful model for how this should be done. In addition to serving as ecological replacements for extinct Mauritian tortoises, we found that releasing small numbers of captive-reared A. gigantea and A. radiata is cost-effective and successful in the short term. The ability to release small numbers of animals is a particularly important attribute for ecological replacement projects since it reduces the potential risk and controversy

  1. Vocational Planning: The Great Swindle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardner, Steve R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The first article argues that systematic career planning should be abandoned, and replaced by a "good theory of non-rationality." That is, counselors should consider what actually influences career decisions, instead of bemoaning their lack of logical planning. Several other authors respond to this idea in separate articles. (Author/BP)

  2. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  3. Vegan diets and hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary

    2013-11-20

    Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22-1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64-1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  4. Impact of a plant-based diet on behavioural and physiological traits in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Benhaim, David; Begout, Marie-laure; Pean, Samuel; Manca, Michael; Prunet, Patrick; Chatain, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Replacing aquaculture feeds based on fisheries-derived resources with plant-based diets could be a relevant strategy to improve the sustainability of aquaculture. Recent studies on sea bass have shown that the total and early replacement of marine products by plant products would have a moderate effect on fish growth and body lipid content. Whether a plant-based diet impacts behavioural and physiological traits possibly linked to fish welfare, is not known, however. Here, we studied the effec...

  5. Nutrition and diet services actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimenta, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    The paper stresses the difficulties to establish nutritional standard due to the fact that non-existent previous parameters because it is an new type of accident, becoming necessary an elaboration and use of nutritional plans coherent with probable demands, needs and complications of the patients. It is shown how that was accomplished without any prejudice to the other inpatients. The role of the nutritionists in all evolutional phase of the contaminated persons is described ed, introducing many types of diets used in accordance with individual and general demands. One case in which parenteral nutrition was utilized is analysed. The patients discharge from hospital conditions is explained and was a fact that all patients gained weight, concluding the writer says that was not possible to perform a deeper evaluation because of the great risk of contamination always present. (author)

  6. A dieta hospitalar na perspectiva dos sujeitos envolvidos em sua produção e em seu planejamento Hospital diet from the perspective of those involved in its production and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Wanda Diez Garcia

    2006-04-01

    social construction, a product of the conceptions and practices of professionals who determine and reproduce them directly or indirectly. METHOD: A qualitative survey was carried out involving 32 intensity, half-structured interviews, applied to individuals participating in the process of producing hospital diets cooks, maids, nutritionists, doctors (medical, nurses and their auxiliaries and clinical and administrative directors and field observation in two kinds of hospital, private and public. RESULTS: The analysis of the content of the interviews and of the field observation data was organized into two categories: nutritional aspects separate from those of the food in which a valorization of the nutritional aspect was noted, principally in nutritional support actions, in detriment of the sensory and symbolic aspects of the hospital food; and the hospital diet in which a lack of technical information about available hospital diets was observed; the actual hospitalization, as referring to the conditions of control and discipline and the limited autonomy and right to speak of the patients, were reflected in their social representation. The importance given to hospital diets is limited and the attention given to nutrition embryonic. CONCLUSION: Attempts must be made to change the hospital food culture in order to install the idea of hospital nutritional assistance in which the hospital diet and attention to nutrition become an important part of the patient's treatment, collaborating with the quality of the hospitalization experience.

  7. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  8. Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake as replacement for maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwukaelo, A K; Aladi, N O; Okeudo, N J; Obikaonu, H O; Ogbuewu, I P; Okoli, I C

    2018-03-01

    Performance and meat quality characteristics of broilers fed fermented mixture of grated cassava roots and palm kernel cake (FCP-mix) as a replacement for maize were studied. One hundred and eighty (180), 7-day-old broiler chickens were divided into six groups of 30 birds, and each group replicated thrice. Six experimental diets were formulated for both starter and finisher stages with diets 1 and 6 as controls. Diet 1 contained maize whereas diet 6 contained a 1:1 mixture of cassava root meal (CRM) and palm kernel cake (PKC). In diets 2, 3, 4, and 5, the FCP-mix replaced maize at the rate of 25, 50, 75, and 100%, respectively. Each group was assigned to one experimental diet in a completely randomized design. The proximate compositions of the diets were evaluated. Live weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), carcass weight, and sensory attributes of the meats were obtained from each replicate and data obtained was analyzed statistically. The results showed that live weight, average daily weight gain (ADWG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and FCR of birds on treatment diets were better than those on the control diets (Diets 1 and 6). The feed cost per kilogram weight gained decreased with inclusion levels of FCP-mix. Birds on diet 1 recorded significantly (p  0.05) affected by the inclusion of FCP-mix in the diets. FCP-mix is a suitable substitute for maize in broiler diet at a replacement level of up to 100% for best live weight, carcass weight yield, and meat quality.

  9. In Defense of Artificial Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Derek

    2017-06-01

    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Meal replacements as a strategy for weight loss in obese hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassemillante, Annie-Claude M; Oliver, Veronica; Hickman, Ingrid; Murray, Eryn; Campbell, Katrina L

    2016-10-01

    Introduction There is currently limited evidence on the use or safety of meal replacements as part of a low- or very-low-calorie diet in patients with renal insufficiency; however, these are occasionally used under dietetic supervision in clinical practice to achieve the desired weight loss for kidney transplant. This case series reports on the safety and efficacy of a weight loss practice utilizing meal replacements among hemodialysis patients, who needed to lose weight for kidney transplant. Methods Five hemodialysis patients were prescribed a modified low-calorie diet (950 kcal and 100 g protein per day) comprising three meal replacements (Optifast ® ), one main meal, and two low-potassium fruits per day. Dietary requirements and restrictions were met for all participants. Dialysis prescriptions, weight (predialysis and postdialysis), interdialytic weight gain, biochemistry, and medications were monitored during the study period for up to 12 months. Findings Participants were aged between 46 and 61 years, and the median time on the low-calorie diet was 364 days. Phosphate binders were temporarily ceased for one participant for reasons unrelated to this program and no other safety concerns were recorded. The low-calorie diet resulted in energy deficits ranging from 1170 kcal to 2160 kcal, and all participants lost weight (median 7% [range 5.2%-11.4%]). The most dramatic weight change appeared to occur by week 12, and declining adherence led to erratic weight change thereafter. Discussion This modified low-calorie diet was safe and effective to use in this population. Meal replacements are a useful weight loss strategy in hemodialysis patients, therefore, offering an alternative to usual weight loss protocols. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  11. Effects of shrimp head meal in the diets on growth, feed efficiency and pigmentation of sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimolrat, P.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp head meal (SHM was used to replace fish meal as a protein source in practical diets for sexreversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein or 0, 6.92, 13.84, 20.76 and 27.68% by weight of diet respectively. Catfish feed that contained protein content 37.22±0.10% was included as a reference diet. The experimental diets were fed to the fish with mean initial weight of 3.13±0.05 g for 8 weeks in 70 l aquaria. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed 50% of fishmeal protein replacement or diet 3 was not significant by different from those of fish on control diet (p>0.05. The data of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and productive protein value of fish fed diet 3 were equal to those fed control diet (p>0.05. The lowest growth rate and feed efficiency showed on fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement. The production cost of fish fed diet 3 was equal to those fed the control diet and the reference diet (p>0.05. Total carotenoid content in fish skin was significantly highest (p<0.05 in fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement diet. The result indicates that the use of SHM at the level of 50% replacement or 13.84% by weight of diet is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diet.

  12. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  13. Skilled nursing facilities after joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care providers in the weeks before your joint replacement. They can advise you about whether going directly ... of many people who have had a joint replacement? Can they tell you how many? A good ...

  14. Risks of hip and knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is normal to lose blood during and after hip or knee replacement surgery. Some people need a ... clot form are higher during and soon after hip or knee replacement surgery. Sitting or lying down ...

  15. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  16. Long-life slab replacement concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Concrete slab replacement projects in Florida have demonstrated a high incidence of : replacement slab cracking. Causes of cracking have not been reliably determined. University of South Florida researchers : sought to identify the factors or : param...

  17. Long-life slab replacement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This research was initiated following reports of high incidence of cracking on FDOT concrete pavement replacement : slab projects. Field slabs were instrumented for data acquisition from high-early-strength concrete pavement : replacement slabs place...

  18. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  19. Evaluation of cassava leaf meal protein in fish and soybean meal-based diets for young pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The unavailability and high cost of traditional ingredients calls for more research into alternative sources for pig feeding in the South Pacific region. The effect of replacing feed protein with cassava leaf meal (CLM protein in weaner and growing pigs’ diets was investigated in two experiments. In experiment 1, three diets in which CLM protein replaced 0, 15 and 30% of feed protein were fed each to five replicate pens of weaner pigs. Feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved and feed cost of gain reduced (P<0.05 on 30% while dressing percentage was maximized (P<0.05 on 15% protein replacement diets. In experiment 2, three diets containing 0, 30 and 45% CLM protein as replacement for feed protein were fed as in experiment 1 to grower pigs. FI and BWG were reduced while FCR and feed cost of gain were increased (P<0.05 above 30% protein replacement. Dressing percentage assumed the highest value (P<0.05 on 30% replacement. It was concluded that replacing 30% of feed protein with sun-dried CLM protein will maintain growth and reduce cost of pork production. Efficient use of CLM in the diet will be an alternative way of value addition to this by-product.

  20. Simulated reductions in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages improves diet quality in Lower Mississippi Delta adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Thomson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the effects of replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs with water on energy intake and body weight have been reported, little is known about how these replacements affect diet quality.To simulate the effects of replacing SSBs with tap water on diet quality and total energy intake of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD adults.Retrospective analysis of cross-sectional dietary intake data using a representative sample of LMD adults (n=1,689. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005 scores that were computed using the population ratio method. The effects of substituting SSBs with water on diet quality were simulated by replacing the targeted items’ nutrient profile with tap water's profile.Simulating the replacement of SSBs with tap water at 25, 50, and 100% levels resulted in 1-, 2.3-, and 3.8-point increases, respectively, in the HEI-2005 total score. Based on a mean daily intake of 2,011 kcal, 100% substitution of SSBs with tap water would result in 11% reduction in energy intake.Replacing SSBs with water could substantially improve the diet quality of the LMD adult population and potentially lead to significant weight loss overtime. Prioritizing intervention efforts to focus on the replacement of SSBs with energy-free drinks may be the most efficacious approach for conveying potentially substantial health benefits in this and similar disadvantaged populations.

  1. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  2. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  3. New Nordic diet versus average Danish diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic and N-aspartic acids, and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender- and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy...... metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis, formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects higher levels of vaccenic acid...

  4. Unique method of tooth replacement in durophagous placodont marine reptiles, with new data on the dentition of Chinese taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neenan, James M; Li, Chun; Rieppel, Olivier; Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Muscio, Giuseppe; Scheyer, Torsten M

    2014-05-01

    The placodonts of the Triassic period (~252-201 mya) represent one of the earliest and most extreme specialisations to a durophagous diet of any known reptile group. Exceptionally enlarged crushing tooth plates on the maxilla, dentary and palatine cooperated to form functional crushing areas in the buccal cavity. However, the extreme size of these teeth, combined with the unusual way they occluded, constrained how replacement occurred. Using an extensive micro-computed tomographic dataset of 11 specimens that span all geographic regions and placodont morphotypes, tooth replacement patterns were investigated. In addition, the previously undescribed dental morphologies and formulae of Chinese taxa are described for the first time and incorporated into the analysis. Placodonts have a unique tooth replacement pattern and results follow a phylogenetic trend. The plesiomorphic Placodus species show many replacement teeth at various stages of growth, with little or no discernible pattern. On the other hand, the more derived cyamodontoids tend to have fewer replacement teeth growing at any one time, replacing teeth unilaterally and/or in functional units, thus maintaining at least one functional crushing area at all times. The highly derived placochelyids have fewer teeth and, as a result, only have one or two replacement teeth in the upper jaw. This supports previous suggestions that these taxa had an alternative diet to other placodonts. Importantly, all specimens show at least one replacement tooth growing at the most posterior palatine tooth plates, indicating increased wear at this point and thus the most efficient functional crushing area. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  5. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement units. 970.31 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement units. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, replacement public housing units may be built on the original public...

  6. Diagenetic replacement of Micas by Carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1961-01-01

    In the Ordovician sandstones of the Cantabrian Mountains a replacement of the micas by carbonate minerals could be observed. The absence of metamorphic minerals suggests a diagenetic replacement. This is supported by the finding of the same type of replacement in some undisturbed Pliocene sediments

  7. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... request a replacement. The application must be accompanied by the required fee and submitted to the...

  8. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  9. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  10. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...

  11. Healthy diets with reduced environmental impact? - The greenhouse gas emissions of various diets adhering to the Dutch food based dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; van Dooren, Corné; Hollander, Anne; Geurts, Marjolein; Brink, Elizabeth J; van Rossum, Caroline; Biesbroek, Sander; de Valk, Elias; Toxopeus, Ido B; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-01

    To determine the differences in environmental impact and nutrient content of the current Dutch diet and four healthy diets aimed at lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions (as proxy for environmental impact) and nutrient content of the current Dutch diet and four diets adhering to the Dutch food based dietary guidelines (Wheel of Five), were compared in a scenario study. Scenarios included a healthy diet with or without meat, and the same diets in which only foods with relatively low GHG emissions are chosen. For the current diet, data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were used. GHG emissions (in kg CO 2 -equivalents) were based on life cycle assessments. Results are reported for men and women aged 19-30years and 31-50years. The effect on GHG emissions of changing the current Dutch diet to a diet according to the Wheel of Five (corresponding with the current diet as close as possible), ranged from -13% for men aged 31-50years to +5% for women aged 19-30years. Replacing meat in this diet and/or consuming only foods with relatively low GHG emissions resulted in average GHG emission reductions varying from 28-46%. In the scenarios in which only foods with relatively low GHG emissions are consumed, fewer dietary reference intakes (DRIs) were met than in the other healthy diet scenarios. However, in all healthy diet scenarios the number of DRIs being met was equal to or higher than that in the current diet. Diets adhering to food based dietary guidelines did not substantially reduce GHG emissions compared to the current Dutch diet, when these diets stayed as close to the current diet as possible. Omitting meat from these healthy diets or consuming only foods with relatively low associated GHG emissions both resulted in GHG emission reductions of around a third. These findings may be used to expand food based dietary guidelines with information on how to reduce the environmental impact of healthy diets. Copyright © 2017 The

  12. Neutron beam facilities at the Replacement Research Reactor, ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.

    2003-01-01

    The exciting development for Australia is the construction of a modern state-of-the-art 20-MW Replacement Research Reactor which is currently under construction to replace the aging reactor (HIFAR) at ANSTO in 2006. To cater for advanced scientific applications, the replacement reactor will provide not only thermal neutron beams but also a modern cold-neutron source moderated by liquid deuterium at approximately -250 deg C, complete with provision for installation of a hot-neutron source at a later stage. The latest 'supermirror' guides will be used to transport the neutrons to the Reactor Hall and its adjoining Neutron Guide Hall where a suite of neutron beam instruments will be installed. These new facilities will expand and enhance ANSTO's capabilities and performance in neutron beam science compared with what is possible with the existing HIFAR facilities, and will make ANSTO/Australia competitive with the best neutron facilities in the world. Eight 'leading-edge' neutron beam instruments are planned for the Replacement Research Reactor when it goes critical in 2006, followed by more instruments by 2010 and beyond. Up to 18 neutron beam instruments can be accommodated at the Replacement Research Reactor, however, it has the capacity for further expansion, including potential for a second Neutron Guide Hall. The first batch of eight instruments has been carefully selected in conjunction with a user group representing various scientific interests in Australia. A team of scientists, engineers, drafting officers and technicians has been assembled to carry out the Neutron Beam Instrument Project to successful completion. Today, most of the planned instruments have conceptual designs and are now being engineered in detail prior to construction and procurement. A suite of ancillary equipment will also be provided to enable scientific experiments at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields. This paper describes the Neutron Beam Instrument Project and gives

  13. Molecular replacement then and now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview, with examples, of the evolution of molecular-replacement methods and models over the past few years is presented. The ‘phase problem’ in crystallography results from the inability to directly measure the phases of individual diffracted X-ray waves. While intensities are directly measured during data collection, phases must be obtained by other means. Several phasing methods are available (MIR, SAR, MAD, SAD and MR) and they all rely on the premise that phase information can be obtained if the positions of marker atoms in the unknown crystal structure are known. This paper is dedicated to the most popular phasing method, molecular replacement (MR), and represents a personal overview of the development, use and requirements of the methodology. The first description of noncrystallographic symmetry as a tool for structure determination was explained by Rossmann and Blow [Rossmann & Blow (1962 ▶), Acta Cryst.15, 24–31]. The term ‘molecular replacement’ was introduced as the name of a book in which the early papers were collected and briefly reviewed [Rossmann (1972 ▶), The Molecular Replacement Method. New York: Gordon & Breach]. Several programs have evolved from the original concept to allow faster and more sophisticated searches, including six-dimensional searches and brute-force approaches. While careful selection of the resolution range for the search and the quality of the data will greatly influence the outcome, the correct choice of the search model is probably still the main criterion to guarantee success in solving a structure using MR. Two of the main parameters used to define the ‘best’ search model are sequence identity (25% or more) and structural similarity. Another parameter that may often be undervalued is the quality of the probe: there is clearly a relationship between the quality and the correctness of the chosen probe and its usefulness as a search model. Efforts should be made by all structural biologists to

  14. The New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomo, Louise Havkrog; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Rix, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: High phosphorus content in the diet may have adverse effect on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether the New Nordic Diet (NND), based mainly on local, organic and less processed food and large amounts of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain and fish, versus an Average Danish Diet (ADD......) would reduce the phosphorus load due to less phosphorus-containing food additives, animal protein and more plant-based proteins. METHODS: Phosphorus and creatinine were measured in plasma and urine at baseline, week 12 and week 26 in 132 centrally obese subjects with normal renal function as part....../10 MJ in the ADD group and decreased less in the NND compared to the ADD (67 ± 36 mg/10 MJ and -266 ± 45 mg/day, respectively, p high phosphorus intake and did not decrease the fractional phosphorus excretion compared with ADD. Further...

  15. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  16. Low-carbohydrate diets for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Chung, Stephanie T

    2018-04-18

    Summarize the physiological effects of low-carbohydrate diets as they relate to weight loss, glycemic control, and metabolic health. Low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective for weight loss as other diets, but claims about increased energy expenditure and preferential loss of body fat are unsubstantiated. Glycemic control and hyperinsulinemia are improved by low-carbohydrate diets, but insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion may be impaired, especially in the absence of weight loss. Fasting lipid parameters are generally improved, but such improvements may depend on the quality of dietary fat and the carbohydrates they replaced. Postprandial hyperlipemia is a potential concern given the high fat content typical of low-carbohydrate diets. Low-carbohydrate diets have several potential benefits for treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes, but more research is required to better understand their long-term consequences as well as the variable effects on the endocrine control of glucose, lipids, and metabolism.

  17. Use of fish processing waste as protein source in diet for Nile tilapia (Orechromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chotipuntu, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Five diets were prepared using fish processing waste meal (FMFP to replace fish meal (FM at inclusion levels of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Frog diet was used as a control diet. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus were reared in laboratory conditions for 8 weeks. It was found that substitution levels of protein from FMFP in the tested diets reduced growth and feed efficiency of tilapia (p<0.05. However, the differences looks like significant trend especially that between the 100% substitution level and the frog diet. Substitution of FM by FMFD at 75% reduced cost of feed by 15.35%. It was concluded that up to 75% inclusion of FMFD in the diet of tilapia could support normal growth of Nile tilapia with the potential for substitution of FM.

  18. Short-term hunger intensity changes following ingestion of a meal replacement bar for weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothacker, Dana Q; Watemberg, Salo

    2004-05-01

    Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid meal replacements were significantly below baseline for 3 h following consumption (Mattes & Rothacker, 2001) This study uses the same protocol to investigate meal replacement bars designed for overweight consumers. Subjects were prescreened to include only those that normally ate breakfast and liked chocolate. The bar used in this study contained 250 calories (about 30 more than most liquid diet shakes), 4 g dietary fiber, 14 g protein and 8 g fat. Subjects were instructed to consume the entire bar with a glass of water following an overnight fast when they would normally consume their first meal of the day and to assess their hunger on a 1 (not hungry at all) to 9 (as hungry as I have ever felt) scale before consumption, immediately after and hourly for 6 h (only on typical weekdays). Similar assessments were made for the perception of stomach fullness (1=empty, 9=extremely full), strength of the desire to eat (1=no desire, 9=extremely strong) and thirst (1=not at all thirsty, 9=extremely thirsty). One-hundred and eight subjects (23 male and 85 female) completed the study. No gender satiety differences were found. Hunger ratings and desire to eat remained significantly below baseline for 5 h following consumption. Stomach fullness scores were significantly above baseline for 5 h. Thirst scores were significantly below baseline for 3 h. In conclusion, although the meal replacement diet bars contained only 30 additional calories than liquids, they provided an additional 2 h of hunger suppression from baseline that may have an impact on overall weightloss success. These results support superior short-term hunger control with solid meal replacements.

  19. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Tonstad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%] and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%] in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively. Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18. In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant. In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.

  20. Desempenho animal e viabilidade econômica do uso da silagem de capim-Elefante em substituição a silagem de milho para vacas em lactação = Animal performance and economic return from replacing corn silage by elephant grass silage in Holstein cow diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas da raça Holandesa quanto à produção e composição do leite, assim como a eficiência econômica do uso de silagem de milho ou silagens de capim-elefante confeccionadas com inoculantes bacteriano e enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas multíparas no períodointermediário de lactação, e o delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino (3 x 3; três silagens. Foram realizadas análises químico-bromatológicas, e a digestibilidade da MS e FDN das silagens. As análises químico-bromatológicas mostraram valores superiores para asilagem de milho. Entretanto, os resultados não mostraram diferenças (p>0,05 na ingestão de matéria seca, produção e composição do leite entre as silagens. O resultado da análise econômica mostrou-se superior para as silagens de capim-elefante, fato decorrente de seumenor custo de produção aliado ao bom resultado de desempenho. Tal fato pode ter sido favorecido pelo uso dos inoculantes e sua ação sobre a parede celular das silagens de capimelefante, pois a digestibilidade das rações totais foram semelhantes para as três silagens.The objectives of this study were to evaluate Holstein cow performance, considering milk yield and composition, and economic efficiency from replacing corn silage by elephant-grass silages treated with bacterial and enzymebacterial inoculants. Nine multiparous cows, in the middle of lactation were used. Theexperimental design was a Latin square (3 x 3; three silages. Chemical and bromatologic analysis and DM and NDF digestibility were conducted for all the silages. Chemical and bromatologic analysis showed higher values for corn silage. However, there was no difference(P > 0.05 for dry matter intake, milk yield and composition among the silages. Economic analysis showed higher return using elephant-grass silages, fact resulting from lower production costs and milk yield. This could be the result