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Sample records for replaced mixed-species forests

  1. Dominance of legume trees alters nutrient relations in mixed species forest restoration plantings within seven years

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    Ilyas Siddique; Vera Lex Engel; David Lamb; Gabriela B. Nardoto; Jean P.H.B. Ometto; Luiz A. Martinelli; Susanne. Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    Failures in reforestation are often attributed to nutrient limitation for tree growth. We compared tree performance and nitrogen and phosphorus relations in adjacent mixed-species plantings of contrasting composition, established for forest restoration on Ultisol soil, originally covered by tropical semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest in Southeast Brazil. Nutrient relations...

  2. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  3. Allometric equations for estimating tree biomass in restored mixed-species Atlantic Forest stands

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    Lauro Rodrigues Nogueira; Vera Lex Engel; John A. Parrotta; Antonio Carlos Galvão de Melo; Danilo Scorzoni Ré

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic Forests is receiving increasing attention because of its role in both biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration for global climate change mitigation. This study was carried out in an Atlantic Forest restoration project in the south-central region of São Paulo State – Brazil to develop allometric equations to estimate tree biomass of...

  4. Red oak in southern New England and big-leaf mahogany in the Yucatan Peninsula: can mixed-species forests be sustainably managed for single-species production?

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    M. Kelty; L. Camara-Cabrales; J. Grogan

    2011-01-01

    Complex mixed-species forests are the focus of conservation efforts that seek to maintain native biodiversity. However, much of this forestland is privately owned and is managed for timber income as well as for conservation. Management of these high-diversity forests is particularly difficult when only one tree species produces the majority of high-value timber. We...

  5. Effects of stand composition and thinning in mixed-species forests : a modeling approach applied to Douglas-fir and beech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Models estimating growth and yield of forest stands provide important tools for forest management. Pure stands have been modeled extensively and successfully for decades; however, relatively few models for mixed-species stands have been developed. A spatially explicit, mechanistic model (COMMIX) is

  6. Quantifying climate-growth relationships at the stand level in a mature mixed-species conifer forest.

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    Teets, Aaron; Fraver, Shawn; Weiskittel, Aaron R; Hollinger, David Y

    2018-03-11

    A range of environmental factors regulate tree growth; however, climate is generally thought to most strongly influence year-to-year variability in growth. Numerous dendrochronological (tree-ring) studies have identified climate factors that influence year-to-year variability in growth for given tree species and location. However, traditional dendrochronology methods have limitations that prevent them from adequately assessing stand-level (as opposed to species-level) growth. We argue that stand-level growth analyses provide a more meaningful assessment of forest response to climate fluctuations, as well as the management options that may be employed to sustain forest productivity. Working in a mature, mixed-species stand at the Howland Research Forest of central Maine, USA, we used two alternatives to traditional dendrochronological analyses by (1) selecting trees for coring using a stratified (by size and species), random sampling method that ensures a representative sample of the stand, and (2) converting ring widths to biomass increments, which once summed, produced a representation of stand-level growth, while maintaining species identities or canopy position if needed. We then tested the relative influence of seasonal climate variables on year-to-year variability in the biomass increment using generalized least squares regression, while accounting for temporal autocorrelation. Our results indicate that stand-level growth responded most strongly to previous summer and current spring climate variables, resulting from a combination of individualistic climate responses occurring at the species- and canopy-position level. Our climate models were better fit to stand-level biomass increment than to species-level or canopy-position summaries. The relative growth responses (i.e., percent change) predicted from the most influential climate variables indicate stand-level growth varies less from to year-to-year than species-level or canopy-position growth responses. By

  7. Evaluation of alternative approaches for landscape-scale biomass estimation in a mixed-species northern forest

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    Coeli M. Hoover; Mark J. Ducey; R. Andy Colter; Mariko Yamasaki

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in estimating and mapping biomass and carbon content of forests across large landscapes. LiDAR-based inventory methods are increasingly common and have been successfully implemented in multiple forest types. Asner et al. (2011) developed a simple universal forest carbon estimation method for tropical forests that reduces the amount of required...

  8. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

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    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  9. An imputation/copula-based stochastic individual tree growth model for mixed species Acadian forests: a case study using the Nova Scotia permanent sample plot network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. KershawJr

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background A novel approach to modelling individual tree growth dynamics is proposed. The approach combines multiple imputation and copula sampling to produce a stochastic individual tree growth and yield projection system. Methods The Nova Scotia, Canada permanent sample plot network is used as a case study to develop and test the modelling approach. Predictions from this model are compared to predictions from the Acadian variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, a widely used statistical individual tree growth and yield model. Results Diameter and height growth rates were predicted with error rates consistent with those produced using statistical models. Mortality and ingrowth error rates were higher than those observed for diameter and height, but also were within the bounds produced by traditional approaches for predicting these rates. Ingrowth species composition was very poorly predicted. The model was capable of reproducing a wide range of stand dynamic trajectories and in some cases reproduced trajectories that the statistical model was incapable of reproducing. Conclusions The model has potential to be used as a benchmarking tool for evaluating statistical and process models and may provide a mechanism to separate signal from noise and improve our ability to analyze and learn from large regional datasets that often have underlying flaws in sample design.

  10. Mixed species flocking of tits (Parus spp.): a field experiment.

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    Székely, T; Szép, T; Juhász, T

    1989-03-01

    We tested two general models of flocking behaviour, namely the antipredation model and foraging efficiency model on mixed-species tit flocks (Parus spp.). After food addition the size of mixed-species flocks was significantly less than in the control samples. In the presence of extra food significantly more birds were observed either in monospecific flocks or solitary, than during the control observations. In the presence of a living predator the birds foraged in larger mixed-specifies flocks than during the control observations. In addition, the social behaviour of Great Spotted Woodpecker, Middle Spotted Woodpecker and Nuthatch shifted to mixed-specific flocking. The size of monospecific flocks was independent of both treatments. The density of birds increased significantly after food addition, while in the predator presence the birds tended to leave the forest. These results support the view that both the antipredation model and foraging efficiency model seem to be valid for mixed-species flocking. However, in the case of monospecific flocks, the territory maintenance could be the most important factor.

  11. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean

  12. Surface forcing of non-stand-replacing fires in Siberian larch forests

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    Chen, Dong; Loboda, Tatiana V.

    2018-04-01

    Wildfires are the dominant disturbance agent in the Siberian larch forests. Extensive low- to mediate-intensity non-stand-replacing fires are a notable property of fire regime in these forests. Recent large scale studies of these fires have focused mostly on their impacts on carbon budget; however, their potential impacts on energy budget through post-fire albedo changes have not been considered. This study quantifies the post-fire surface forcing for Siberian larch forests that experienced non-stand-replacing fires between 2001 and 2012 using the full record of MODIS MCD43A3 albedo product and a burned area product developed specifically for the Russian forests. Despite a large variability, the mean effect of non-stand-replacing fires imposed through albedo is a negative forcing which lasts for at least 14 years. However, the magnitude of the forcing is much smaller than that imposed by stand-replacing fires, highlighting the importance of differentiating between the two fire types in the studies involving the fire impacts in the region. The results of this study also show that MODIS-based summer differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) provides a reliable metric for differentiating non-stand-replacing from stand-replacing fires with an overall accuracy of 88%, which is of considerable importance for future work on modeling post-fire energy budget and carbon budget in the region.

  13. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

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    Margolis, E.Q.; Swetnam, T.W.; Allen, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842–1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century.

  14. The nature of the beast: examining climate adaptation options in forests with stand-replacing fire regimes

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    Joshua S. Halofsky; Daniel C. Donato; Jerry F. Franklin; Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson; Brian J. Harvey

    2018-01-01

    Building resilience to natural disturbances is a key to managing forests for adaptation to climate change. To date, most climate adaptation guidance has focused on recommendations for frequent-fire forests, leaving few published guidelines for forests that naturally experience infrequent, stand-replacing wildfires. Because most such forests are inherently resilient to...

  15. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance : Insights from a global process-based vegetation model

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    Yue, Chao; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, Patricia; Harden, J. L.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and

  16. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  17. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Klemish, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector

  18. Stand-replacing wildfires increase nitrification for decades in southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

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    Kurth, Valerie J; Hart, Stephen C; Ross, Christopher S; Kaye, Jason P; Fulé, Peter Z

    2014-05-01

    Stand-replacing wildfires are a novel disturbance within ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of the southwestern United States, and they can convert forests to grasslands or shrublands for decades. While most research shows that soil inorganic N pools and fluxes return to pre-fire levels within a few years, we wondered if vegetation conversion (ponderosa pine to bunchgrass) following stand-replacing fires might be accompanied by a long-term shift in N cycling processes. Using a 34-year stand-replacing wildfire chronosequence with paired, adjacent unburned patches, we examined the long-term dynamics of net and gross nitrogen (N) transformations. We hypothesized that N availability in burned patches would become more similar to those in unburned patches over time after fire as these areas become re-vegetated. Burned patches had higher net and gross nitrification rates than unburned patches (P < 0.01 for both), and nitrification accounted for a greater proportion of N mineralization in burned patches for both net (P < 0.01) and gross (P < 0.04) N transformation measurements. However, trends with time-after-fire were not observed for any other variables. Our findings contrast with previous work, which suggested that high nitrification rates are a short-term response to disturbance. Furthermore, high nitrification rates at our site were not simply correlated with the presence of herbaceous vegetation. Instead, we suggest that stand-replacing wildfire triggers a shift in N cycling that is maintained for at least three decades by various factors, including a shift from a woody to an herbaceous ecosystem and the presence of fire-deposited charcoal.

  19. Response of mountain Picea abies forests to stand-replacing bark beetle outbreaks: Neighbourhood effects lead to self-replacement

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    Thorsten Zeppenfeld; Miroslav Svoboda; R. Justin DeRose; Marco Heurich; Jorg Muller; Pavla Cizkova; Martin Stary; Radek Bace; Daniel C. Donato

    2015-01-01

    Large, severe disturbances drive many forest ecosystems over the long term, but pose management uncertainties when human experience with them is limited. Recent continent-scale outbreaks of bark beetles across the temperate Northern Hemisphere have raised major concerns as to whether coniferous forests will regenerate back towards pre-outbreak condition and...

  20. Replacing carbon lost from forests. An assessment of insurance, reserves, and expiring credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subak, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Concern over the 'non-permanence' or reversibility of carbon sequestration projects has been prominent in discussions over how to develop guidelines for forest project investments under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol. Accordingly, a number of approaches have been proposed that aim to help ensure that parties do not receive credit for carbon that is lost before project obligations are fulfilled. These approaches include forest carbon insurance, land reserves, and issuance of expiring credits. The potential costs of each of these different approaches are evaluated using a range of assumptions about project length, risk and discount rate, and a comparison of costs is ventured based on the estimated reduction in value of these credits compared with uninsured, and permanent credits. Obstacles to participation in the different approaches are discussed related to problems of long-term commitments, project scale, rising replacement costs, and low credit value. It is concluded that a system of expiring credits, which could be coupled with insurance or reserves, could guarantee obligations that span time-scales longer than that of conventional insurance policies while maintaining incentives for long-term sequestration

  1. Tree Regeneration Spatial Patterns in Ponderosa Pine Forests Following Stand-Replacing Fire: Influence of Topography and Neighbors

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    Justin P. Ziegler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shifting fire regimes alter forest structure assembly in ponderosa pine forests and may produce structural heterogeneity following stand-replacing fire due, in part, to fine-scale variability in growing environments. We mapped tree regeneration in eighteen plots 11 to 15 years after stand-replacing fire in Colorado and South Dakota, USA. We used point pattern analyses to examine the spatial pattern of tree locations and heights as well as the influence of tree interactions and topography on tree patterns. In these sparse, early-seral forests, we found that all species were spatially aggregated, partly attributable to the influence of (1 aspect and slope on conifers; (2 topographic position on quaking aspen; and (3 interspecific attraction between ponderosa pine and other species. Specifically, tree interactions were related to finer-scale patterns whereas topographic effects influenced coarse-scale patterns. Spatial structures of heights revealed conspecific size hierarchies with taller trees in denser neighborhoods. Topography and heterospecific tree interactions had nominal effect on tree height spatial structure. Our results demonstrate how stand-replacing fires create heterogeneous forest structures and suggest that scale-dependent, and often facilitatory, rather than competitive, processes act on regenerating trees. These early-seral processes will establish potential pathways of stand development, affecting future forest dynamics and management options.

  2. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

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    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forests. They leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. This forest age dynamics must be included in vegetation models to accurately quantify the role of fire in the historical and current regional forest carbon balance. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate the CO2 emissions from boreal forest fire and the subsequent recovery after a stand-replacing fire; the model represents postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against observations of three clusters of postfire forest chronosequences in Canada and Alaska. The variables evaluated include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index, and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). When forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history at each chronosequence site, the model simulations generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with the measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m−2 yr−1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m−2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m−2). We find that the current postfire forest carbon sink at the evaluation sites, as observed by chronosequence methods, is mainly due to a combination of historical CO2 increase and forest succession. Climate change and variability during this period offsets some of these expected carbon gains. The negative impacts of climate were a likely consequence of increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increases that were not matched by concurrent increases in precipitation. Our simulation

  3. Canopy gap replacement failure in a Pennsylvania forest preserve subject to extreme deer herbivory

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    Brian S. Pedersen; Angela M. Wallis

    2003-01-01

    While research has demonstrated the adverse effects of deer herbivory on forest regeneration in forests managed for timber production, less study has been devoted to the long term effects of deer on the dynamics of forests set aside as natural areas. At sufficiently high population densities, deer could interrupt the typical cycle of canopy gap formation and...

  4. Antibiofilm Effect of DNase against Single and Mixed Species Biofilm

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    Sharma, Komal

    2018-01-01

    Biofilms are aggregates of microorganisms that coexist in socially coordinated micro-niche in a self-produced polymeric matrix on pre-conditioned surfaces. The biofilm matrix reduces the efficacy of antibiofilm strategies. DNase degrades the extracellular DNA (e-DNA) present in the matrix, rendering the matrix weak and susceptible to antimicrobials. In the current study, the effect of DNase I was evaluated during biofilm formation (pre-treatment), on preformed biofilms (post-treatment) and both (dual treatment). The DNase I pre-treatment was optimized for P. aeruginosa PAO1 (model biofilm organism) at 10 µg/mL and post-treatment at 10 µg/mL with 15 min of contact duration. Inclusion of Mg2+ alongside DNase I post-treatment resulted in 90% reduction in biofilm within only 5 min of contact time (irrespective of age of biofilm). On extension of these findings, DNase I was found to be less effective against mixed species biofilm than individual biofilms. DNase I can be used as potent antibiofilm agent and with further optimization can be effectively used for biofilm prevention and reduction in situ. PMID:29562719

  5. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

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    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biofilm extracellular DNA enhances mixed species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans.

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    Pammi, Mohan; Liang, Rong; Hicks, John; Mistretta, Toni-Ann; Versalovic, James

    2013-11-14

    Polymicrobial infections are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in adults and children. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans are the most frequent combination of organisms isolated from polymicrobial infections. Vascular indwelling catheters are sites for mixed species biofilm formation and pose a significant risk for polymicrobial infections. We hypothesized that enhancement of biofilms in a mixed species environment increases patient mortality and morbidity. Mixed species biofilms of S. epidermidis and C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in a subcutaneous catheter infection model in vivo. Mixed species biofilms were enhanced compared to single species biofilms of either S. epidermidis or C. albicans. A mixed species environment increased catheter infection and increased dissemination of S. epidermidis in mice. Microarrays were used to explore differential gene expression of S. epidermidis in the mixed species biofilms. In mixed species biofilms, compared to single species S. epidermidis biofilms, 2.7% of S. epidermidis genes were upregulated and 6% were down regulated. Staphylococcal autolysis repressors lrgA and lrgB were down regulated 36-fold and 27-fold respectively. The role of biofilm extracellular DNA was investigated by quantitation and by evaluating the effects of DNAse in a concentration and time dependent manner. S. epidermidis specific eDNA was increased in mixed species biofilms and further confirmed by degradation with DNAse. Mixed-species biofilms are enhanced and associated with increased S. epidermidis-specific eDNA in vitro and greater systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis in vivo. Down regulation of the lrg operon, a repressor of autolysis, associated with increased eDNA suggests a possible role for bacterial autolysis in mixed species biofilms. Enhancement and systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis may explain adverse outcomes after clinical polymicrobial infections of S. epidermidis and C. albicans.

  7. Biofilm extracellular DNA enhances mixed species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Polymicrobial infections are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in adults and children. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans are the most frequent combination of organisms isolated from polymicrobial infections. Vascular indwelling catheters are sites for mixed species biofilm formation and pose a significant risk for polymicrobial infections. We hypothesized that enhancement of biofilms in a mixed species environment increases patient mortality and morbidity. Results Mixed species biofilms of S. epidermidis and C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in a subcutaneous catheter infection model in vivo. Mixed species biofilms were enhanced compared to single species biofilms of either S. epidermidis or C. albicans. A mixed species environment increased catheter infection and increased dissemination of S. epidermidis in mice. Microarrays were used to explore differential gene expression of S. epidermidis in the mixed species biofilms. In mixed species biofilms, compared to single species S. epidermidis biofilms, 2.7% of S. epidermidis genes were upregulated and 6% were down regulated. Staphylococcal autolysis repressors lrgA and lrgB were down regulated 36-fold and 27-fold respectively. The role of biofilm extracellular DNA was investigated by quantitation and by evaluating the effects of DNAse in a concentration and time dependent manner. S. epidermidis specific eDNA was increased in mixed species biofilms and further confirmed by degradation with DNAse. Conclusions Mixed-species biofilms are enhanced and associated with increased S. epidermidis-specific eDNA in vitro and greater systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis in vivo. Down regulation of the lrg operon, a repressor of autolysis, associated with increased eDNA suggests a possible role for bacterial autolysis in mixed species biofilms. Enhancement and systemic dissemination of S. epidermidis may explain adverse outcomes after clinical polymicrobial infections of S

  8. Does mixed-species flocking influence how birds respond to a gradient of land-use intensity?

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    Mammides, Christos; Chen, Jin; Goodale, Uromi Manage; Kotagama, Sarath Wimalabandara; Sidhu, Swati; Goodale, Eben

    2015-07-22

    Conservation biology is increasingly concerned with preserving interactions among species such as mutualisms in landscapes facing anthropogenic change. We investigated how one kind of mutualism, mixed-species bird flocks, influences the way in which birds respond to different habitat types of varying land-use intensity. We use data from a well-replicated, large-scale study in Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, in which flocks were observed inside forest reserves, in 'buffer zones' of degraded forest or timber plantations, and in areas of intensive agriculture. We find flocks affected the responses of birds in three ways: (i) species with high propensity to flock were more sensitive to land use; (ii) different flock types, dominated by different flock leaders, varied in their sensitivity to land use and because following species have distinct preferences for leaders, this can have a cascading effect on followers' habitat selection; and (iii) those forest-interior species that remain outside of forests were found more inside flocks than would be expected by chance, as they may use flocks more in suboptimal habitat. We conclude that designing policies to protect flocks and their leading species may be an effective way to conserve multiple bird species in mixed forest and agricultural landscapes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Spatial patterns with memory: tree regeneration after stand-replacing disturbance in Picea abies mountain forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wild, Jan; Kopecký, Martin; Svoboda, M.; Zenáhlíková, J.; Edwards-Jonášová, Magda; Herben, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2014), s. 1327-1340 ISSN 1100-9233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0843; GA MŽP SP/2D2/111/08 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : bark beetle * spatial pattern * mountain spruce forest Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2014

  10. Foraging intention affects whether willow tits call to attract members of mixed-species flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how individual behaviour influences the spatial and temporal distribution of other species is necessary to resolve the complex structure of species assemblages. Mixed-species bird flocks provide an ideal opportunity to investigate this issue, because members of the flocks are involved in a variety of behavioural interactions between species. Willow tits ( Poecile montanus ) often produce loud calls when visiting a new foraging patch to recruit other members of mixed-species flocks. The costs and benefits of flocking would differ with individual foraging behaviours (i.e. immediate consumption or caching); thus, willow tits may adjust the production of loud calls according to their foraging intention. In this study, we investigated the link between foraging decisions and calling behaviour in willow tits and tested its influence on the temporal cohesion with members of mixed-species flocks. Observations at experimental foraging patches showed that willow tits produced more calls when they consumed food items compared with when they cached them. Playback experiments revealed that these calls attracted flock members and helped to maintain their presence at foraging patches. Thus, willow tits adjusted calling behaviour according to their foraging intention, thereby coordinating the associations with members of mixed-species flocks. Our findings demonstrate the influence of individual decision-making on temporal cohesion with other species and highlight the importance of interspecific communication in mixed-species flocking dynamics.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 exopolysaccharides are important for mixed species biofilm community development and stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan ePeriasamy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produces three polysaccharides, alginate, Psl and Pel that play distinct roles in attachment and biofilm formation for monospecies biofilms. Considerably less is known about their role in the development of mixed species biofilm communities. This study has investigated the roles of alginate, Psl and Pel during biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa in a defined and experimentally informative mixed species biofilm community, consisting of P. aeruginosa, Pseudomonas protegens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide had the biggest impact on the integration of P. aeruginosa in the mixed species biofilms, where the percent composition of the psl mutant was significantly lower (0.06% than its wild-type parent (2.44%. In contrast, loss of the Pel polysaccharide had no impact on mixed species biofilm development. Loss of alginate or its overproduction resulted in P. aeruginosa representing 8.4% and 18.11%, respectively, of the mixed species biofilm. Dual species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were not affected by loss of alginate, Pel or Psl, while the mucoid P. aeruginosa strain achieved a greater biomass than its parent strain. When P. aeruginosa was grown with P. protegens, loss of the Pel or alginate polysaccharides resulted in biofilms that were not significantly different from biofilms formed by the wild-type PAO1. In contrast, overproduction of alginate resulted in biofilms that were comprised of 35-40% of P. aeruginosa, which was significantly higher than the wild-type (5-20%. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly reduced the percentage composition of P. aeruginosa in dual species biofilms with P. protegens (<1%. Loss of the Psl polysaccharide significantly disrupted the communal stress resistance of the three species biofilms. Thus, the polysaccharide composition of an individual species significantly impacts mixed species biofilm development and the emergent properties of such

  12. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-01-01

    , aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet...... as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance...

  13. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation and group living often evolves through kin selection. However, associations between unrelated organisms, such as different species, can evolve if both parties benefit from the interaction. Group living is rare in spiders, but occurs in cooperative, permanently social spiders, as well...... as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance...

  14. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  15. A mixed-species microarray for identification of food spoilage bacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, M.P.M.; Schuren, F.H.J.; Zuijlen, van A.C.M.; Brul, S.; Montijn, R.C.; Abee, T.; Kort, R.

    2011-01-01

    Failure of food preservation is frequently caused by thermostable spores of members of the Bacillaceae family, which show a wide spectrum of resistance to cleaning and preservation treatments. We constructed and validated a mixed-species genotyping array for 6 Bacillus species, including Bacillus

  16. A mixed-species microarray for identification of food spoilage bacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, Martien P M; Schuren, Frank H J; van Zuijlen, Andre C M; Brul, Stanley; Montijn, Roy C; Abee, Tjakko; Kort, Remco

    Failure of food preservation is frequently caused by thermostable spores of members of the Bacillaceae family, which show a wide spectrum of resistance to cleaning and preservation treatments. We constructed and validated a mixed-species genotyping array for 6 Bacillus species, including Bacillus

  17. Changes in forest species composition and structure after stand-replacing wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu

    2005-01-01

    A wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona apparently altered the long-term structure of the forest. The pre-fire canopy forest, which had not burned for 100 years, was an even mixture of Arizona pines and Rocky Mountain Douglas-firs. A decade later the new forest was numerically dominated by quaking aspen seedlings in clumps separated by persistent...

  18. Pinus albicaulis Engelm. (Whitebark Pine in Mixed-Species Stands throughout Its US Range: Broad-Scale Indicators of Extent and Recent Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Goeking

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We used data collected from >1400 plots by a national forest inventory to quantify population-level indicators for a tree species of concern. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis has recently experienced high mortality throughout its US range, where we assessed the area of land with whitebark pine present, size-class distribution of individual whitebark pine, growth rates, and mortality rates, all with respect to dominant forest type. As of 2016, 51% of all standing whitebark pine trees in the US were dead. Dead whitebark pines outnumbered live ones—and whitebark pine mortality outpaced growth—in all size classes ≥22.8 cm diameter at breast height (DBH, across all forest types. Although whitebark pine occurred across 4.1 million ha in the US, the vast majority of this area (85% and of the total number of whitebark pine seedlings (72% fell within forest types other than the whitebark pine type. Standardized growth of whitebark pines was most strongly correlated with the relative basal area of whitebark pine trees (rho = 0.67; p < 0.01, while both standardized growth and mortality were moderately correlated with relative whitebark pine stem density (rho = 0.39 and 0.40; p = 0.031 and p < 0.01, respectively. Neither growth nor mortality were well correlated with total stand basal area, total stem density, or stand mean diameter. The abundance, extent, and relative growth vs. mortality rates of whitebark pine in multiple forest types presents opportunities for management to encourage whitebark pine recruitment in mixed-species stands. The lodgepole pine forest type contained more whitebark pine seedlings (35% than any other forest type, suggesting that this forest type represents a potential management target for silvicultural treatments that seek to facilitate the recruitment of whitebark pine seedlings into larger size classes. National forest inventories in other countries may use a similar approach to assess species of concern.

  19. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  20. Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas W.; Keeley, Jon E.; Stephens, Scott L.; Roller, Gary B.

    2010-01-01

    Typically, after large stand-replacing fires in mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests, dense shrub fields occupy sites formerly occupied by mature conifers, until eventually conifers overtop and shade out shrubs. Attempting to reduce fuel loads and expedite forest regeneration in these areas, the USDA Forest Service often disrupts this cycle by the logging of fire-killed trees, replanting of conifers and killing of shrubs. We measured the effects of these treatments on live and dead fuel loads and alien species and modeled potential fire behavior and fire effects on regenerating forests. Sampling occurred in untreated, logged and herbicide-treated stands throughout the Sierra Nevada in four large fire areas 4–21 years after stand-replacing fires. Logging fire-killed trees significantly increased total available dead fuel loads in the short term but did not affect shrub cover, grass and forb cover, alien species cover or alien species richness. Despite the greater available dead fuel loads, fire behavior was not modeled to be different between logged and untreated stands, due to abundant shrub fuels in both logged and untreated stands. In contrast, the herbicide treatment directed at shrubs resulted in extremely low shrub cover, significantly greater alien species richness and significantly greater alien grass and forb cover. Grass and forb cover was strongly correlated with solar radiation on the ground, which may be the primary reason that grass and forb cover was higher in herbicide treated stands with low shrub and tree cover. Repeat burning exacerbated the alien grass problem in some stands. Although modeled surface fire flame lengths and rates of spread were found to be greater in stands dominated by shrubs, compared to low shrub cover conifer plantations, surface fire would still be intense enough to kill most trees, given their small size and low crown heights in the first two decades after planting.

  1. Estimation and mapping of above-ground biomass of mangrove forests and their replacement land uses in the Philippines using Sentinel imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jose Alan A.; Apan, Armando A.; Maraseni, Tek N.; Salmo, Severino G.

    2017-12-01

    The recent launch of the Sentinel-1 (SAR) and Sentinel-2 (multispectral) missions offers a new opportunity for land-based biomass mapping and monitoring especially in the tropics where deforestation is highest. Yet, unlike in agriculture and inland land uses, the use of Sentinel imagery has not been evaluated for biomass retrieval in mangrove forest and the non-forest land uses that replaced mangroves. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Sentinel imagery for the retrieval and predictive mapping of above-ground biomass of mangroves and their replacement land uses. We used Sentinel SAR and multispectral imagery to develop biomass prediction models through the conventional linear regression and novel Machine Learning algorithms. We developed models each from SAR raw polarisation backscatter data, multispectral bands, vegetation indices, and canopy biophysical variables. The results show that the model based on biophysical variable Leaf Area Index (LAI) derived from Sentinel-2 was more accurate in predicting the overall above-ground biomass. In contrast, the model which utilised optical bands had the lowest accuracy. However, the SAR-based model was more accurate in predicting the biomass in the usually deficient to low vegetation cover non-forest replacement land uses such as abandoned aquaculture pond, cleared mangrove and abandoned salt pond. These models had 0.82-0.83 correlation/agreement of observed and predicted value, and root mean square error of 27.8-28.5 Mg ha-1. Among the Sentinel-2 multispectral bands, the red and red edge bands (bands 4, 5 and 7), combined with elevation data, were the best variable set combination for biomass prediction. The red edge-based Inverted Red-Edge Chlorophyll Index had the highest prediction accuracy among the vegetation indices. Overall, Sentinel-1 SAR and Sentinel-2 multispectral imagery can provide satisfactory results in the retrieval and predictive mapping of the above-ground biomass of mangroves and the replacement

  2. Streptococcus mutans Protein Synthesis during Mixed-Species Biofilm Development by High-Throughput Quantitative Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marlise I.; Xiao, Jin; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M.; Yates, John R.; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v) was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA) and glucan-binding (gbpB) during this transition (Pmutans up-regulates specific adaptation mechanisms to cope with acidic environments (F1F0-ATPase system, fatty acid biosynthesis, branched chain amino acids metabolism), and molecular chaperones (GroEL). Interestingly, the protein levels and gene expression are in general augmented when S. mutans form mixed-species biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms) demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm maintenance in the presence of other

  3. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-12-01

    Cooperation and group living often evolves through kin selection. However, associations between unrelated organisms, such as different species, can evolve if both parties benefit from the interaction. Group living is rare in spiders, but occurs in cooperative, permanently social spiders, as well as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance, aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet undescribed Chikunia sp. Females defended territories and did not engage in cooperative prey capture, but interestingly, both species seemed to provide extended maternal care of young and indiscriminate care for foreign brood. Future studies may reveal whether these species adopt only intra-specific young, or also inter-specifically. We classify both Chikunia species subsocial and intra- and interspecifically colonial, and discuss the evolutionary significance of a system where one or both species may potentially benefit from mutual tolerance and brood adoption.

  4. Mixed species flock, nest height, and elevation partially explain avian haemoparasite prevalence in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie D González

    Full Text Available The high avian biodiversity present in the Neotropical region offers a great opportunity to explore the ecology of host-parasite relationships. We present a survey of avian haemoparasites in a megadiverse country and explore how parasite prevalences are related to physical and ecological host characteristics. Using light microscopy, we documented the presence of haemoparasites in over 2000 individuals belonging to 246 species of wild birds, from nine localities and several ecosystems of Colombia. We analysed the prevalence of six avian haemoparasite taxa in relation to elevation and the following host traits: nest height, nest type, foraging strata, primary diet, sociality, migratory behaviour, and participation in mixed species flocks. Our analyses indicate significant associations between both mixed species flocks and nest height and Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon prevalence. The prevalence of Leucocytozoon increased with elevation, whereas the prevalence of Trypanosoma and microfilariae decreased. Plasmodium and Haemoproteus prevalence did not vary significantly with elevation; in fact, both parasites were found up to 3300 m above sea level. The distribution of parasite prevalence across the phylogeny of bird species included in this study showed little host phylogenetic signal indicating that infection rates in this system are evolutionarily labile. Vector distribution as well as the biology of transmission and the maintenance of populations of avian haemoparasites deserve more detailed study in this system.

  5. Composition of Mix Species Foraging Flocks of Birds in Riverstan of Montane Region, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.G.D.D.M. Shermila

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Montane zone mixed-species bird flock system is distinct from that of low-land wet zone of SriLanka, although some species are present in both systems. The present study identified the mixed speciesflocks of birds in Riverstan at Knuckles Region, Sri Lanka. Monthly transect counts and opportunisticobservations were made between January and May, 2012. A total of 78 flocks and 27 bird species wereencountered at Riverstan during the study period. The flock size varied between 2 to 13 species and 4 to58 individuals. The mean number of species per flock was 6.03 ± 2.25 and the mean number ofindividuals in a flock was 18.41±9.87. The flock size was positively correlated with the number of speciespresent (r = 0.756, P <0.05. Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher was the most abundant species (mean2.68±1.02 birds per flocks while Sri Lanka White-eye was the most frequent species (mean 5.69±3.92birds per flocks. Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher and Sri Lanka Scimitar-babbler were the nuclear speciesin Riverstan. The leading species were Sri Lanka white-eye and Sri Lanka Yellow-eared Bulbul. Differentbird species used different heights within flocks.Keywords: Mixed-species flock, Nuclear species, Abundance, Foraging flocks

  6. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  7. Impact of interspecific interactions on the soil water uptake depth in a young temperate mixed species plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Berger, Sigrid; Bréchet, Claude; Hentschel, Rainer; Hommel, Robert; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bonal, Damien

    2014-11-01

    Interactions between tree species in forests can be beneficial to ecosystem functions and services related to the carbon and water cycles by improving for example transpiration and productivity. However, little is known on below- and above-ground processes leading to these positive effects. We tested whether stratification in soil water uptake depth occurred between four tree species in a 10-year-old temperate mixed species plantation during a dry summer. We selected dominant and co-dominant trees of European beech, Sessile oak, Douglas fir and Norway spruce in areas with varying species diversity, competition intensity, and where different plant functional types (broadleaf vs. conifer) were present. We applied a deuterium labelling approach that consisted of spraying labelled water to the soil surface to create a strong vertical gradient of the deuterium isotope composition in the soil water. The deuterium isotope composition of both the xylem sap and the soil water was measured before labelling, and then again three days after labelling, to estimate the soil water uptake depth using a simple modelling approach. We also sampled leaves and needles from selected trees to measure their carbon isotope composition (a proxy for water use efficiency) and total nitrogen content. At the end of the summer, we found differences in the soil water uptake depth between plant functional types but not within types: on average, coniferous species extracted water from deeper layers than did broadleaved species. Neither species diversity nor competition intensity had a detectable influence on soil water uptake depth, foliar water use efficiency or foliar nitrogen concentration in the species studied. However, when coexisting with an increasing proportion of conifers, beech extracted water from progressively deeper soil layers. We conclude that complementarity for water uptake could occur in this 10-year-old plantation because of inherent differences among functional groups (conifers

  8. PRODUCTIVITY OF A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM UNDER INTENSIVE MIXED SPECIES GRAZING BY CATTLE AND SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Yalid Manriquez-Mendoza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of forage trees in pastures enhances yield and nutritional quality of forage available for animal feeding. We assessed forage yield and nutritional quality, and weight gain of cattle and sheep foraging in a silvopastoral system containing Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. and the grasses Digitaria eriantha Stent (cv. Pangola, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf (cv. Insurgentes and Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs (cv. Tanzania, during three seasons (windy, dry and rainy in two grazing treatments: 1 mixed species grazing by four to five Criollo Lechero Tropical heifers and six female Pelibuey lambs, and 2 simple species grazing by 12 female Pelibuey lambs. Weight gain was greater (P

  9. From single-species advice to mixed-species management: taking the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Reeves, S.A.; Patterson, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    Fishery management advice has traditionally been given on a stock-by-stock basis. Recent problems in implementing this advice, particularly for the demersal fisheries of the North Sea, have highlighted the limitations of the approach. In the long term, it would be desirable to give advice...... that accounts for mixed-fishery effects, but in the short term there is a need for approaches to resolve the conflicting management advice for different species within the same fishery, and to generate catch or effort advice that accounts for the mixed-species nature of the fishery. This paper documents...... a recent approach used to address these problems. The approach takes the single-species advice for each species in the fishery as a starting point, then attempts to resolve it into consistent catch or effort advice using fleet-disaggregated catch forecasts in combination with explicitly stated management...

  10. Competitive Interactions in Mixed-Species Biofilms Containing the Marine Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dhana; Webb, Jeremy S.; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2005-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas tunicata is a biofilm-forming marine bacterium that is often found in association with the surface of eukaryotic organisms. It produces a range of extracellular inhibitory compounds, including an antibacterial protein (AlpP) thought to be beneficial for P. tunicata during competition for space and nutrients on surfaces. As part of our studies on the interactions between P. tunicata and the epiphytic bacterial community on the marine plant Ulva lactuca, we investigated the hypothesis that P. tunicata is a superior competitor compared with other bacteria isolated from the plant. A number of U. lactuca bacterial isolates were (i) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, (ii) characterized for the production of or sensitivity to extracellular antibacterial proteins, and (iii) labeled with a fluorescent color tag (either the red fluorescent protein DsRed or green fluorescent protein). We then grew single- and mixed-species bacterial biofilms containing P. tunicata in glass flow cell reactors. In pure culture, all the marine isolates formed biofilms containing microcolony structures within 72 h. However, in mixed-species biofilms, P. tunicata removed the competing strain unless its competitor was relatively insensitive to AlpP (Pseudoalteromonas gracilis) or produced strong inhibitory activity against P. tunicata (Roseobacter gallaeciensis). Moreover, biofilm studies conducted with an AlpP− mutant of P. tunicata indicated that the mutant was less competitive when it was introduced into preestablished biofilms, suggesting that AlpP has a role during competitive biofilm formation. When single-species biofilms were allowed to form microcolonies before the introduction of a competitor, these microcolonies coexisted with P. tunicata for extended periods of time before they were removed. Two marine bacteria (R. gallaeciensis and P. tunicata) were superior competitors in this study. Our data suggest that this dominance can be attributed to the ability of

  11. Cranberry Flavonoids Modulate Cariogenic Properties of Mixed-Species Biofilm through Exopolysaccharides-Matrix Disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyeop Kim

    Full Text Available The exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by Streptococcus mutans-derived glucosyltransferases (Gtfs are essential virulence factors associated with the initiation of cariogenic biofilms. EPS forms the core of the biofilm matrix-scaffold, providing mechanical stability while facilitating the creation of localized acidic microenvironments. Cranberry flavonoids, such as A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs and myricetin, have been shown to inhibit the activity of Gtfs and EPS-mediated bacterial adhesion without killing the organisms. Here, we investigated whether a combination of cranberry flavonoids disrupts EPS accumulation and S. mutans survival using a mixed-species biofilm model under cariogenic conditions. We also assessed the impact of cranberry flavonoids on mechanical stability and the in situ pH at the biofilm-apatite interface. Topical application of an optimized combination of PACs oligomers (100-300 μM with myricetin (2 mM twice daily was used to simulate treatment regimen experienced clinically. Treatments with cranberry flavonoids effectively reduced the insoluble EPS content (>80% reduction vs. vehicle-control; p<0.001, while hindering S. mutans outgrowth within mixed-species biofilms. As a result, the 3D architecture of cranberry-treated biofilms was severely compromised, showing a defective EPS-matrix and failure to develop microcolonies on the saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA surface. Furthermore, topical applications of cranberry flavonoids significantly weaken the mechanical stability of the biofilms; nearly 90% of the biofilm was removed from sHA surface after exposure to a shear stress of 0.449 N/m2 (vs. 36% removal in vehicle-treated biofilms. Importantly, in situ pH measurements in cranberry-treated biofilms showed significantly higher pH values (5.2 ± 0.1 at the biofilm-apatite interface vs. vehicle-treated biofilms (4.6 ± 0.1. Altogether, the data provide important insights on how cranberry flavonoids treatments modulate

  12. Size-dependence of tree growth response to drought for Norway spruce and European beech individuals in monospecific and mixed-species stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Pretzsch, H; Schütze, G; Rötzer, T

    2017-09-01

    Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores. Linear mixed models were developed to estimate the influence of drought periods. The results show that ageing-related growth decline is significant in drought years. Drought resilience and resistance decrease significantly with growth size among Norway spruce individuals. Evidence is also provided for robustness in the resilience capacity of European beech during drought stress. Spruce benefits from species mixing with deciduous beech, with over-yielding spruce in pure stands. The importance of the influence of size-dependence within tree growth studies during disturbances is highlighted and should be considered in future studies of disturbances, including drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large East African mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Kioko, John; Leweri, Cecilia; Krause, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease) of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups.

  14. Mixed species biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show enhanced resistance to benzalkonium chloride and peracetic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der S.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the formation of single and mixed species biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes strains EGD-e and LR-991, with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 as secondary species, and their resistance to the disinfectants benzalkonium chloride and peracetic acid. Modulation of growth, biofilm formation,

  15. The status of oak and hickory regeneration in forests of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita K. Rose

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that eastern U.S. forests dominated by oak (Quercus spp.) and hickory (Carya spp.) may be shifting to more maple- (Acer spp.) and mixed-species dominated forests. Data from the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to describe the status of oak and hickory...

  16. Attempted integration of multiple species of turaco into a mixed-species aviary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valuska, Annie J; Leighty, Katherine A; Ferrie, Gina M; Nichols, Valerie D; Tybor, Cheryl L; Plassé, Chelle; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2013-03-01

    Mixed-species exhibits offer a variety of benefits but can be challenging to maintain due to difficulty in managing interspecific interactions. This is particularly true when little has been documented on the behavior of the species being mixed. This was the case when we attempted to house three species of turaco (family: Musophagidae) together with other species in a walk-through aviary. To learn more about the behavior of great blue turacos, violaceous turacos, and white-bellied gray go-away birds, we supplemented opportunistic keeper observations with systematic data collection on their behavior, location, distance from other birds, and visibility to visitors. Keepers reported high levels of aggression among turacos, usually initiated by a go-away bird or a violaceous turaco. Most aggression occurred during feedings or when pairs were defending nest sites. Attempts to reduce aggression by temporarily removing birds to holding areas and reintroducing them days later were ineffective. Systematic data collection revealed increased social behavior, including aggression, during breeding season in the violaceous turacos, as well as greater location fidelity. These behavioral cues may be useful in predicting breeding behavior in the future. Ultimately, we were only able to house three species of turaco together for a short time, and prohibitively high levels of conflict occurred when pairs were breeding. We conclude that mixing these three turaco species is challenging and may not be the most appropriate housing situation for them, particularly during breeding season. However, changes in turaco species composition, sex composition, or exhibit design may result in more compatible mixed-turaco species groups. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reproductive Disorders and Leptospirosis: A Case Study in a Mixed-Species Farm (Cattle and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Mori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal leptospirosis, exempt in rodents, manifests as peculiar biology where the animal can function, simultaneously or not, as a susceptible host or reservoir. In the first case, clinical symptoms are likely. In the second case, infection is subclinical and manifestations are mild or absent. Mild clinical symptoms encompass reproductive failure in production animals for host-adapted Leptospira sp. serovars. This work presents a study on Leptospira sp. infection in a mixed-species (bovine and swine farm with documented reproductive disorders in the cattle unit. A long calving interval (above 450 days was the hallmark observed in cows. Some cows (2/26 tested presented a high titre of antibodies against Leptospira sp. serogroup Sejroe, but the overall within-herd prevalence was low (11.5% and 7.7% for cut-off titres of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively. The in-herd prevalence of leptospirosis in the sow unit (determined for 113/140 animals was high when using a lowered cut-off threshold (32.7% vs. 1.8% for cut-off titre of 1:30 and 1:100, respectively. In this unit, the most prevalent serogroup was Autumnalis. The final diagnostic confirmation of Leptospira sp. maintenance within the farm was obtained through detection by PCR of Leptospira sp. DNA in an aborted swine litter. Despite the fact that a common causative infective agent was diagnosed in both species, the direct link between the two animal units was not found. Factors such as drinking from the same water source and the use of manure prepared with the swine slurry might raise suspicion of a possible cross-contamination between the two units. In conclusion, this work suggests that leptospirosis be included in the differential diagnosis of reproductive disorders and spontaneous abortions in production animals and provides data that justify the use of a lowered threshold cut-off for herd diagnosis.

  18. Seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large East African mammals.

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    Christian Kiffner

    Full Text Available Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups.

  19. Nest survival is influenced by parental behaviour and heterospecifics in a mixed-species colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Brianne E.; Coates, Peter S.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of avian nest success often focus on examining influences of variation in environmental and seasonal factors. However, in-depth evaluations can also incorporate variation in individual incubation behaviour to further advance our understanding of avian reproductive ecology. We examined these relationships in colonially nesting Black-crowned Night-Herons Nycticorax nycticorax using intensive video-monitoring methods to quantify incubation behaviours. We modelled nest survival as a function of both extrinsic factors and incubation behaviours over a 3-year period (2010–12) on Alcatraz Island, USA. Model-averaged parameter estimates indicated that nest survival increased as a function of greater incubation constancy (% of time spent incubating eggs within a 24-h period), and average daily precipitation throughout the nesting stage. Common Ravens Corvus corax are the only known nest predator of Night-Herons on Alcatraz Island, as on many other coastal Pacific islands. We also investigated the effects of heterospecific nesting of California Gulls Larus californicus and Western Gulls Larus occidentalis in a mixed-species colony with Night-Herons, based on nesting proximity data collected over a 2-year period (2011–12). This second analysis indicated that, in addition to incubation behaviours, nesting heterospecifics are an important factor for explaining variation in Night-Heron nest survival. However, contrary to our original expectation, we found that Night-Herons experienced increased nest survival with increasing distance from gull colony boundaries. These results may apply to other areas with multiple colonial nesting species and similar predator communities and climatic patterns.

  20. Efficacy of cleansing agents in killing microorganisms in mixed species biofilms present on silicone facial prostheses-an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariani, Nina; Visser, Anita; Teulings, Margot R. I. M.; Dijk, Melissa; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W.; Vissink, Arjan; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of different cleansing agents in killing mixed species biofilms on silicone facial prostheses. Two bacterial and three yeast strains, isolated from silicone facial prostheses, were selected for the mixed species biofilms. A variety of agents used

  1. Factors influencing organic-horizon carbon pools in mixed-species stands of central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Shawn Fraver; Ivan J. Fernandez; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Laura S. Kenefic; Randy Kolka; Marie-Cecile Gruselle

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation of multiple abiotic and biotic factors with organic-horizon (O-horizon) carbon (C) content on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in central Maine, USA. O-horizon samples were collected and their associated depths were recorded from stands managed with a range of silvicultural and harvesting treatments (i.e...

  2. Ecological impact of Prosopis species invasion in Turkwel riverine forest, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, G.M.; Poorter, L.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Kigomo, B.N.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Prosopis species invasion in the Turkwel riverine forest in Kenya was investigated under three contrasting: Acacia, Prosopis and Mixed species (Acacia and Prosopis) canopies. Variation amongst canopies was assessed through soil nutrients and physical properties, tree characteristics

  3. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  4. Native and exotic plant cover vary inversely along a climate gradient 11 years following stand-replacing wildfire in a dry coniferous forest, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Erich K; Root, Heather T

    2015-02-01

    Community re-assembly following future disturbances will often occur under warmer and more moisture-limited conditions than when current communities assembled. Because the establishment stage is regularly the most sensitive to climate and competition, the trajectory of recovery from disturbance in a changing environment is uncertain, but has important consequences for future ecosystem functioning. To better understand how ongoing warming and rising moisture limitation may affect recovery, we studied native and exotic plant composition 11 years following complete stand-replacing wildfire in a dry coniferous forest spanning a large gradient in climatic moisture deficit (CMD) from warm and dry low elevation sites to relatively cool and moist higher elevations sites. We then projected future precipitation, temperature and CMD at our study locations for four scenarios selected to encompass a broad range of possible future conditions for the region. Native perennials dominated relatively cool and moist sites 11 years after wildfire, but were very sparse at the warmest and driest (high CMD) sites, particularly when combined with high topographic sun exposure. In contrast, exotic species (primarily annual grasses) were dominant or co-dominant at the warmest and driest sites, especially with high topographic sun exposure. All future scenarios projected increasing temperature and CMD in coming decades (e.g., from 4.5% to 29.5% higher CMD by the 2080's compared to the 1971-2000 average), even in scenarios where growing season (May-September) precipitation increased. These results suggest increasing temperatures and moisture limitation could facilitate longer term (over a decade) transitions toward exotic-dominated communities after severe wildfire when a suitable exotic seed source is present. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Species mixing effects on forest productivity in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Huicui

    2017-01-01

    Many monoculture forests (dominated by a single tree species) have been converted to mixed-species forests (dominated by more than one tree species) in Europe over the last decades. The main reason for this conversion was to increase productivity, including timber production, and enhance other

  6. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  7. Canopy treatment influences growth of replacement tree species in Fraxinus nigra forests threatened by the emerald ash borer in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak

    2017-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash), a dominant tree species of wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, is imperiled by the invasive insect emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888). Regeneration of associated tree species is generally low in F. nigra forests and could be impacted...

  8. Mixed-Species Effects on Soil C and N Stocks, C/N Ratio and pH Using a Transboundary Approach in Adjacent Common Garden Douglas-Fir and Beech Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Muhie Dawud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed forest of Douglas-fir and beech has been suggested as one of the possible future forest types in Northwest Europe but the effects of this mixed forest on soil properties relative to monoculture stands are unknown. In a transboundary investigation of adjacent common garden Douglas-fir and beech stands, we determined the effects on topsoil properties. However, responses of C and N stocks, the C/N ratio and pH were site- and soil layer-specific and were mainly single-sided and without synergistic effects. Beech reduced the soil C and N stocks in Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site, caused an increase in the C/N ratio in the forest floor and mineral soil at both nutrient-poor and -rich sites, and reduced the acidifying effect of Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site. These results do not support the hypothesis that mixture effects would be consistent across sites and soil layers. The lack of synergistic effects may be attributed to the relatively similar litter quality or rooting depth that prevented any larger niche differentiation and complementarity. The results indicate that the transboundary approach within a mature common garden proved useful as a platform to test tree species interactions, and this approach could be explored in soil studies until dedicated mixed-species common gardens reach maturity.

  9. A Quantum Non-Demolition Parity measurement in a mixed-species trapped-ion quantum processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Matteo; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Lo, Hsiang-Yu; Flühmann, Christa; Mehta, Karan; Home, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Quantum non-demolition measurements of multi-qubit systems are an important tool in quantum information processing, in particular for syndrome extraction in quantum error correction. We have recently demonstrated a protocol for quantum non-demolition measurement of the parity of two beryllium ions by detection of a co-trapped calcium ion. The measurement requires a sequence of quantum gates between the three ions, using mixed-species gates between beryllium hyperfine qubits and a calcium optical qubit. Our work takes place in a multi-zone segmented trap setup in which we have demonstrated high fidelity control of both species and multi-well ion shuttling. The advantage of using two species of ion is that we can individually manipulate and read out the state of each ion species without disturbing the internal state of the other. The methods demonstrated here can be used for quantum error correcting codes as well as quantum metrology and are key ingredients for realizing a hybrid universal quantum computer based on trapped ions. Mixed-species control may also enable the investigation of new avenues in quantum simulation and quantum state control. left the group and working in a company now.

  10. Investigation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in pure and mixed-species culture for bioleaching of Theisen sludge from former copper smelting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, C; Eisen, S; Daus, B; Heim, J; Schlömann, M; Schopf, S

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of bioleaching for the treatment of an environmentally hazardous waste, a blast-furnace flue dust designated Theisen sludge. Bioleaching of Theisen sludge was investigated at acidic conditions with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in pure and mixed-species culture with Acidiphilium. In shaking-flask experiments, bioleaching parameters (pH, redox potential, zinc extraction from ZnS, ferrous- and ferric-iron concentration) were controlled regularly. The analysis of the dissolved metals showed that 70% zinc and 45% copper were extracted. Investigations regarding the arsenic and antimony species were performed. When iron ions were lacking, animonate (Sb(V)) and total arsenic concentration were highest in solution. The bioleaching approach was scaled up in stirred-tank bioreactors resulting in higher leaching efficiency of valuable trace elements. Concentrations of dissolved antimony were approx. 23 times, and of cobalt, germanium, and rhenium three times higher in comparison to shaking-flask experiments, when considering the difference in solid load of Theisen sludge. The extraction of base and trace metals from Theisen sludge, despite of its high content of heavy metals and organic compounds, was feasible with iron-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria. In stirred-tank bioreactors, the mixed-species culture performed better. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first providing an appropriate biological technology for the treatment of Theisen sludge to win valuable elements. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Mixed species biofilms of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii impair the oxidative response of bovine neutrophils in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Joey S; Buret, Andre G; Ceri, Howard; Storey, Douglas G; Anderson, Stefanie J; Morck, Douglas W

    2017-10-01

    Biofilms composed of anaerobic bacteria can result in persistent infections and chronic inflammation. Host immune cells have difficulties clearing biofilm-related infections and this can result in tissue damage. Neutrophils are a vital component of the innate immune system and help clear biofilms. The comparative neutrophilic response to biofilms versus planktonic bacteria remains incompletely understood, particularly in the context of mixed infections. The objective of this study was to generate mixed species anaerobic bacterial biofilms composed of two opportunistic pathogens, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii, and evaluate neutrophil responses to extracellular fractions from both biofilms and planktonic cell co-cultures of the same bacteria. Purified bovine neutrophils exposed to culture supernatants from mixed species planktonic bacteria showed elevated oxidative activity compared to neutrophils exposed to biofilms composed of the same bacteria. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide plays a significant role in the stimulation of neutrophils; biofilms produced substantially more lipopolysaccharide than planktonic bacteria under these experimental conditions. Removal of lipopolysaccharide significantly reduced neutrophil oxidative response to culture supernatants of planktonic bacteria. Oxidative responses to LPS-removed biofilm supernatants and LPS-removed planktonic cell supernatants were similar. The limited neutrophil response to biofilm bacteria observed in this study supports the reduced ability of the innate immune system to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Lipopolysaccharide is likely important in neutrophil response; however, the presence of other extracellular, immune modifying molecules in the bacterial media also appears to be important in altering neutrophil function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Amazonian forest restoration: an innovative system for native species selection based on phenological data and performance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver H. Knowles; John A. Parrotta

    1995-01-01

    One hundred and sixty taxa of upland moist forest trees were studied with reference to their suitability for forest restoration on bauxite mined Iands in western Para State, Brazil. Over a 14-year period, field observations in native primary forests, nursery studies, and evaluations of over 600 ha of mixed-species reforestation areas were used to characterize fruiting...

  13. Leadership of Winter Mixed-Species Flocks by Tufted Titmice (Baeolophus bicolor: Are Titmice Passive Nuclear Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor, TUTI is a nuclear species in winter foraging flocks whose antipredator calls are used to manage predation risk by diverse heterospecifics. We hypothesized that satellite species in mixed flocks follow TUTI (not vice versa, thereby defining the role of TUTI as a “passive” nuclear species. We followed 20 winter mixed-species flocks in North-Central Florida and assessed angular-angular correlations between overall flock, TUTI, and satellite species movement directions. We observed significant correlations between overall flock movement directions and those of TUTI, confirming our central prediction. Within flocks, however, fine-scale movement directions of satellite species were often more highly correlated with those of other satellites than with TUTI movements. We conclude that TUTI are passive nuclear species whose movements define flock paths, but within flocks, TUTI movements may have less influence on satellite movements than do other factors.

  14. Overstory treatment and planting season affect survival of replacement tree species in emerald ash borer threatened Fraxinus nigra forests in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Looney; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Robert A. Slesak

    2015-01-01

    Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) wetland forests in northern Minnesota, USA, are threatened by the invasive insect, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (EAB)). A potential management option is promoting regeneration of tree species that are not EAB hosts to maintain ecosystem functions. Using an operational-scale...

  15. Responses of cavity-nesting birds to stand-replacement fire and salvage logging in ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests of southwestern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria A. Saab; Jonathan G. Dudley

    1998-01-01

    From 1994 to 1996, researchers monitored 695 nests of nine cavity-nesting bird species and measured vegetation at nest sites and at 90 randomly located sites in burned ponderosa pine forests of southwestern Idaho. Site treatments included two types of salvage logging, and unlogged controls. All bird species selected nest sites with higher tree densities, larger...

  16. Eastern hemlock response to even- and uneven-age management in the Acadian forest: results from the Penobscot Experimental Forest long-term silviculture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Brissette; Laura S. Kenefic

    2000-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is an important tree species in the mixed-species conifer forests of northern New England and adjacent Canada. Hemlock is very tolerant of understory conditions; consequently, it responds differently to various silvicultural treatments. In a long-term study at the Penobscot Experimental Forest in east-...

  17. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  18. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions, and management. In this regional-scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): home garden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across 4 climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of home garden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture SOC stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in home garden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  19. Streptococcus mutans Displays Altered Stress Responses While Enhancing Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus casei in Mixed-Species Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zezhang T; Liao, Sumei; Bitoun, Jacob P; De, Arpan; Jorgensen, Ashton; Feng, Shihai; Xu, Xiaoming; Chain, Patrick S G; Caufield, Page W; Koo, Hyun; Li, Yihong

    2017-01-01

    Like Streptococcus mutans , lactobacilli are commonly isolated from carious sites, although their exact role in caries development remains unclear. This study used mixed-species models to analyze biofilm formation by major groups of oral lactobacilli, including L. casei, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius ssp. salivarius , and L. gasseri . The results showed that lactobacilli did not form good biofilms when grown alone, although differences existed between different species. When grown together with S. mutans , biofilm formation by L. gasseri and L. rhamnosus was increased by 2-log ( P L. fermentum reduced by >1-log ( P L. casei enhanced biofilm formation by ~2-log when grown with S. mutans wild-type, but no such effects were observed with S. mutans deficient of glucosyltransferase GtfB and adhesin P1. Both S. mutans and L. casei in dual-species enhanced resistance to acid killing with increases of survival rate by >1-log ( P survival rates following exposure to hydrogen peroxide ( P L. casei as either up- or down-regulated when compared to those grown alone. The up-regulated genes include those for superoxide dismutase, NADH oxidase, and members of the mutanobactin biosynthesis cluster. Among the down-regulated genes were those for GtfB and alternative sigma factor SigX. These results further suggest that interactions between S. mutans and oral lactobacilli are species-specific and may have significant impact on cariogenic potential of the community.

  20. Development of a laboratory model of a phototroph-heterotroph mixed-species biofilm at the stone/air interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eVilla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent scientific investigations have shed light on the ecological importance and physiological complexity of subaerial biofilms (SABs inhabiting lithic surfaces. In the field of sustainable cultural heritage (CH preservation, mechanistic approaches aimed at investigation of the spatiotemporal patterns of interactions between the biofilm, the stone, and the atmosphere are of outstanding importance. However, these interactions have proven difficult to explore with field experiments due to the inaccessibility of samples, the complexity of the ecosystem under investigation and the temporal resolution of the experiments.To overcome these limitations, we aimed at developing a unifying methodology to reproduce a fast-growing, phototroph-heterotroph mixed species biofilm at the stone/air interface. Our experiments underscore the ability of the dual-species SAB model to capture functional traits characteristic of biofilms inhabiting lithic substrate such as: i microcolonies of aggregated bacteria; ii network like structure following surface topography; iii cooperation between phototrophs and heterotrophs and cross feeding processes; iv ability to change the chemical parameters that characterize the microhabitats; v survival under desiccation and vi biocide tolerance. With its advantages in control, replication, range of different experimental scenarios and matches with the real ecosystem, the developed model system is a powerful tool to advance our mechanistic understanding of the stone-biofilm-atmosphere interplay in different environments.

  1. Streptococcus mutans Displays Altered Stress Responses While Enhancing Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus casei in Mixed-Species Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zezhang T.; Liao, Sumei; Bitoun, Jacob P.; De, Arpan; Jorgensen, Ashton; Feng, Shihai; Xu, Xiaoming; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Caufield, Page W.; Koo, Hyun; Li, Yihong

    2017-01-01

    Like Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli are commonly isolated from carious sites, although their exact role in caries development remains unclear. This study used mixed-species models to analyze biofilm formation by major groups of oral lactobacilli, including L. casei, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius ssp. salivarius, and L. gasseri. The results showed that lactobacilli did not form good biofilms when grown alone, although differences existed between different species. When grown together with S. mutans, biofilm formation by L. gasseri and L. rhamnosus was increased by 2-log (P 1-log (P mutans wild-type, but no such effects were observed with S. mutans deficient of glucosyltransferase GtfB and adhesin P1. Both S. mutans and L. casei in dual-species enhanced resistance to acid killing with increases of survival rate by >1-log (P mutans in dual-species with L. casei as either up- or down-regulated when compared to those grown alone. The up-regulated genes include those for superoxide dismutase, NADH oxidase, and members of the mutanobactin biosynthesis cluster. Among the down-regulated genes were those for GtfB and alternative sigma factor SigX. These results further suggest that interactions between S. mutans and oral lactobacilli are species-specific and may have significant impact on cariogenic potential of the community. PMID:29326887

  2. Preconcentration and Separation of Mixed-Species Samples Near a Nano-Junction in a Convergent Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Hsien Chiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluidic microchip incorporating a convergent microchannel and a Nafion-nanoporous membrane is proposed for the preconcentration and separation of multi-species samples on a single platform. In the device, sample preconcentration is achieved by means of the ion concentration polarization effect induced at the micro/nano interface under the application of an external electric field, while species separation is achieved by exploiting the different electrophoretic mobilities of the sample components. The experimental results show that the device is capable of detecting C-reactive protein (CRP with an initial concentration as low as 9.50 × 10−6 mg/L given a sufficient preconcentration time and driving voltage. In addition, it is shown that a mixed-species sample consisting of three negatively-charged components (bovine serum albumin (BSA, tetramethylrhodamine(TAMRA isothiocyanate-Dextran and fluorescent polymer beads can be separated and preconcentrated within 20 min given a driving voltage of 100 V across 1 cm microchannel in length. In general, the present results confirm the feasibility of the device for the immunoassay or detection of various multi-species samples under low concentration in the biochemical and biomedical fields. The novel device can therefore improve the detection limit of traditional medical facilities.

  3. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Medications prescribed by your doctor should help control pain. During the hospital stay, you'll be encouraged to move your ... exercise your new knee. After you leave the hospital, you'll continue physical ... mobility and a better quality of life. And most knee replacements can be ...

  4. Streptococcus mutans Displays Altered Stress Responses While Enhancing Biofilm Formation by Lactobacillus casei in Mixed-Species Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezhang T. Wen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Like Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli are commonly isolated from carious sites, although their exact role in caries development remains unclear. This study used mixed-species models to analyze biofilm formation by major groups of oral lactobacilli, including L. casei, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. salivarius ssp. salivarius, and L. gasseri. The results showed that lactobacilli did not form good biofilms when grown alone, although differences existed between different species. When grown together with S. mutans, biofilm formation by L. gasseri and L. rhamnosus was increased by 2-log (P < 0.001, while biofilms by L. fermentum reduced by >1-log (P < 0.001. L. casei enhanced biofilm formation by ~2-log when grown with S. mutans wild-type, but no such effects were observed with S. mutans deficient of glucosyltransferase GtfB and adhesin P1. Both S. mutans and L. casei in dual-species enhanced resistance to acid killing with increases of survival rate by >1-log (P < 0.001, but drastically reduced the survival rates following exposure to hydrogen peroxide (P < 0.001, as compared to the respective mono-species cultures. When analyzed by RNA-seq, more than 134 genes were identified in S. mutans in dual-species with L. casei as either up- or down-regulated when compared to those grown alone. The up-regulated genes include those for superoxide dismutase, NADH oxidase, and members of the mutanobactin biosynthesis cluster. Among the down-regulated genes were those for GtfB and alternative sigma factor SigX. These results further suggest that interactions between S. mutans and oral lactobacilli are species-specific and may have significant impact on cariogenic potential of the community.

  5. Red Alder-Conifer Stands in Alaska: An Example of Mixed Species Management to Enhance Structural and Biological Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Deal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There is worldwide interest in managing forests to improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An increasingly important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity and improve wildlife and aquatic habitat. Well-planned silvicultural systems containing a mixture of broadleaf-conifer species have potential to enhance stand diversity and provide other ecosystem services earlier than typical even-aged conifer plantations. Here, we use the example of mixed Sitka spruce/western hemlock and red alder in young, managed stands in southeast Alaska to achieve these goals. We briefly describe the silvics of Sitka spruce, western hemlock and red alder plantations as pure conifer stands or pure broadleaf stands. Then, we synthesize studies of mixed red alder-Sitka spruce/western hemlock stands in southeast Alaska and present their potential for improving stand structural complexity, biodiversity and other ecosystem services over pure conifer forests. Finally, we discuss some of the opportunities and potential tradeoffs for managing mixed broadleaf-conifer stands for providing a number of natural resources and the influence of these broadleaf-conifer forests on ecosystem linkages and processes.

  6. Replacement rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes in an elongated replacement rod for use with fuel assemblies of the type having two end fittings connected by guide tubes with a plurality of rod and guide tube cell defining spacer grids containing rod support features and mixing vanes. The grids secured to the guide tubes in register between the end fittings at spaced intervals. The fuel rod comprising: an asymmetrically beveled tip; a shank portion having a straight centerline; and a permanently diverging portion between the tip and the shank portion

  7. European Mixed Forests: definition and research perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Bravo-Oviedo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We aim at (i developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii review the research perspectives in mixed forests.Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide.Material and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests.Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients. The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used for specific objectives. A variety of structures and patterns of mixtures can occur, and the interactions between the component species and their relative proportions may change over time.The research perspectives identified are (i species interactions and responses to hazards, (ii the concept of maximum density in mixed forests, (iii conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests.Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields of research indicate that gradient studies, experimental design approaches, and model simulations are key topics providing new research opportunities.Keywords: COST Action; EuMIXFOR; mixed-species forests; admixtures of species.

  8. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  9. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  10. Quantifying Trade-Offs Between Economic and Ecological Objectives in Uneven-Aged Mixed- Species Forests in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Benedict Schulte; Kenneth E. Skog

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes research on the management of uneven-aged loblolly pine-hardwood stands in the southern United States. This research was composed of three elements: (1) modeling of biological growth of uneven-aged stands of mixed loblolly pine and hardwood trees, (2) optimization to discover sustainable regimes that would best meet economic and ecological...

  11. Transpiration and water-use efficiency in mixed-species forests versus monocultures: effects of tree size, stand density and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, David I

    2015-03-01

    Mixtures can be more productive than monocultures and may therefore use more water, which may make them more susceptible to droughts. The species interactions that influence growth, transpiration and water-use efficiency (WUE, tree growth per unit transpiration) within a given mixture vary with intra- and inter-annual climatic variability, stand density and tree size, but these effects remain poorly quantified. These relationships were examined in mixtures and monocultures of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Acacia mearnsii de Wildeman. Growth and transpiration were measured between ages 14 and 15 years. All E. globulus trees in mixture that were growing faster than similar sized trees in monocultures had higher WUE, while trees with similar growth rates had similar WUE. By the age of 14 years A. mearnsii trees were beginning to senesce and there were no longer any relationships between tree size and growth or WUE. The relationship between transpiration and tree size did not differ between treatments for either species, so stand-level increases in transpiration simply reflected the larger mean tree size in mixtures. Increasing neighbourhood basal area increased the complementarity effect on E. globulus growth and transpiration. The complementarity effect also varied throughout the year, but this was not related to the climatic seasonality. This study shows that stand-level responses can be the net effect of a much wider range of individual tree-level responses, but at both levels, if growth has not increased for a given species, it appears unlikely that there will be differences in transpiration or WUE for that species. Growth data may provide a useful initial indication of whether mixtures have higher transpiration or WUE, and which species and tree sizes contribute to this effect. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of tree species on soil properties in a forest of the Northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Large differences in soil pH and available Ca in the surface soil exist among tree species growing in a mixed hardwood forest in northwestern Connecticut. The observed association between tree species and specific soil chemical properties within mixed-species stands implies that changes in

  13. Foliar responses of understorey Abies lasiocarpa to different degrees of release cutting of Betula papyrifera and conifer mixed species stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.R.; Letchford, T. [Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada). Red Rock Research Station; Comeau, P.G. [BC Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC (Canada); Coopersmith, D. [BC Ministry of Forests, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Foliar responses of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) to thinning were studied in a 35-yr-old mixed stand of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and conifers. The stand regenerated naturally after a wildfire with a canopy dominated by paper birch (average height 9.8 m) and an understorey dominated by subalpine fir (average height 1.6 m). The stand was thinned to four densities of birch: 0, 600 and 1200 stems ha{sup -1} and control (Unthinned at 2300-6400 stems ha{sup -1}) in the autumn of 1995. The understorey conifers, mainly subalpine fir, were thinned to 1200 stems ha{sup -1}. The study used a completely randomized split-plot design. Three sample trees were systematically selected from each treatment replicate and each tree stratum (upper, intermediate and lower understorey). One-year-old and older age class needles were collected from one south-facing branch within the fifth whorl from the tree top. Thinning of paper birch significantly (p<0.001) increased leaf area and dry weight per 100 needles for intermediate and short trees except in the 0 birch treatment. Understorey subalpine fir trees in 600 stems ha{sup -1} birch (T3) had the largest leaf area and leaf dry weight per 100 1-yr-old needles. Specific leaf area (SLA) decreased from unthinned (T1) to 0 birch (T4). Lower understorey trees had the largest SLA. One-year-old needles had significantly higher N, P and K concentrations in all the thinning treatments. These responses are consistent with the shade tolerance of subalpine fir. The results suggest that when managing a paper birch-conifers mixed wood forest it may be of benefit to understorey conifers to leave a birch canopy as a nursing crop.

  14. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  15. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB ... PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or ...

  16. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  17. Conversion of natural forest to managed forest plantations decreases tree resistance to prolonged droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; John S. King; Eric Ward; A. Christopher Oishi; Sari Palmroth; Andrew Radecki; Dave M. Bell; Guofang Miao; Michael Gavazzi; Daniel M. Johnson; Steve G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Asko. Noormets

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the southern US, past forest management practices have replaced large areas of native forests with loblolly pine plantations and have resulted in changes in forest response to extreme weather conditions. However, uncertainty remains about the response of planted versus natural species to drought across the geographical range of these forests. Taking...

  18. Malaria diagnosis by PCR revealed differential distribution of mono and mixed species infections by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwal, Nisha; Singh, Upasana Shyamsunder; Dash, Manoswini; Kar, Sonalika; Rani, Swati; Rawal, Charu; Singh, Rajkumar; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Pande, Veena; Das, Aparup

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease, caused by five different species of the genus Plasmodium, and is endemic to many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the globe. At present, malaria diagnosis at the primary health care level in India is conducted by either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT). In recent years, molecular diagnosis (by PCR assay), has emerged as the most sensitive method for malaria diagnosis. India is highly endemic to malaria and shoulders the burden of two major malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Previous studies using PCR diagnostic assay had unraveled several interesting facts on distribution of malaria parasites in India. However, these studies had several limitations from small sample size to limited geographical areas of sampling. In order to mitigate these limitations, we have collected finger-prick blood samples from 2,333 malaria symptomatic individuals in nine states from 11 geographic locations, covering almost the entire malaria endemic regions of India and performed all the three diagnostic tests (microscopy, RDT and PCR assay) and also have conducted comparative assessment on the performance of the three diagnostic tests. Since PCR assay turned out to be highly sensitive (827 malaria positive cases) among the three types of tests, we have utilized data from PCR diagnostic assay for analyses and inferences. The results indicate varied distributional prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum according to locations in India, and also the mixed species infection due to these two species. The proportion of P. falciparum to P. vivax was found to be 49:51, and percentage of mixed species infections due to these two parasites was found to be 13% of total infections. Considering India is set for malaria elimination by 2030, the present malaria epidemiological information is of high importance.

  19. Social interaction with non-averse group-mates modifies a learned food aversion in single- and mixed-species groups of tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, M J; Buchanan-Smith, H M; Smith, A C

    2005-04-01

    For social species, being a member of a cohesive group and performing activities as a coordinated unit appear to provide a mechanism for the efficient transmission of information about food. Social learning about food palatability was investigated in two captive primates, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. labiatus, which form stable and cohesive mixed-species groups in the wild. We explored whether an induced food aversion toward a preferred food is modified during and after social interaction with non-averse conspecifics or congeners. Sets of intra- and interspecific pairs were presented with two foods, one of which was considered distasteful by one of the pairs (the other was palatable), and their behavior was compared pre-interaction, during interaction, and post-interaction. For the aversely-conditioned individuals of both species, the change in social context corresponded to a change in their preference for the food that they considered unpalatable, regardless of whether they had interacted with a conspecific or congeneric pair, and the change in food preference was maintained post-interaction. In a control condition, in which averse individuals did not have the opportunity to interact with non-averse animals, S. fuscicollis sampled the preferred food, but not as quickly as when given the opportunity to interact. We conclude that the social learning demonstrated here may allow individual tamarins to track environmental change, such as fruit ripening, more efficiently than asocial learning alone, because social learners can more quickly and safely focus on appropriate behavior by sharing up-to-date foraging information. Furthermore, since the behavior of congeners, as well as conspecifics, acts to influence food choice in a more adaptive direction, social learning about food palatability may be an advantage of mixed-species group formation to tamarins of both species. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  20. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  1. Role of decaying logs and other organic seedbeds in natural regeneration of Hawaiian forest species on abandoned montane pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft

    1992-01-01

    Natural regeneration is one mechanism by which native mixed-species forests become reestablished on abandoned pasture. This study was done to determine patterns of and requirement for natural regeneration of native species in an open woodland after removal of cattle. Ten 50- by 50-m quadrats were randomly selected within a 16-ha exclosure located at 1,700-m elevation...

  2. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  3. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  4. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  5. Where do forests influence rainfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; van der Ent, Ruud; Fetzer, Ingo; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert; Gordon, Line

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a major role in hydrology. Not only by immediate control of soil moisture and streamflow, but also by regulating climate through evaporation (i.e., transpiration, interception, and soil evaporation). The process of evaporation travelling through the atmosphere and returning as precipitation on land is known as moisture recycling. Whether evaporation is recycled depends on wind direction and geography. Moisture recycling and forest change studies have primarily focused on either one region (e.g. the Amazon), or one biome type (e.g. tropical humid forests). We will advance this via a systematic global inter-comparison of forest change impacts on precipitation depending on both biome type and geographic location. The rainfall effects are studied for three contemporary forest changes: afforestation, deforestation, and replacement of mature forest by forest plantations. Furthermore, as there are indications in the literature that moisture recycling in some places intensifies during dry years, we will also compare the rainfall impacts of forest change between wet and dry years. We model forest change effects on evaporation using the global hydrological model STEAM and trace precipitation changes using the atmospheric moisture tracking scheme WAM-2layers. This research elucidates the role of geographical location of forest change driven modifications on rainfall as a function of the type of forest change and climatic conditions. These knowledge gains are important at a time of both rapid forest and climate change. Our conclusions nuance our understanding of how forests regulate climate and pinpoint hotspot regions for forest-rainfall coupling.

  6. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  7. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  8. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17810 Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  9. Below and above-ground carbon distribution along a rainfall gradient. A case of the Zambezi teak forests, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Justine; Moors, Eddy; Kruijt, Bart; Speer, James H.; Vinya, Royd; Chidumayo, Emmanuel N.; Leemans, Rik

    2018-02-01

    Understanding carbon (C) stocks or biomass in forests is important to examine how forests mitigate climate change. To estimate biomass in stems, branches and roots takes intensive fieldwork to uproot, cut and weigh the mass of each component. Different models or equations are also required. Our research focussed on the dry tropical Zambezi teak forests and we studied their structure at three sites following a rainfall gradient in Zambia. We sampled 3558 trees at 42 plots covering a combined area of 15ha. Using data from destructive tree samples, we developed mixed-species biomass models to estimate above ground biomass for small (forests, thereby adversely affecting their mitigating role in climate change.

  10. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter S.A. Beck; Glenn P. Juday; Claire Alix; Valerie A. Barber; Stephen E. Winslow; Emily E. Sousa; Patricia Heiser; James D. Herriges; Scott J. Goetz

    2011-01-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest...

  11. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  12. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  13. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  14. [FUNCTION OF INTERCELLULAR ADHESION A, FIBRINOGEN BINDING PROTEIN, AND ACCUMULATION-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN GENES IN FORMATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS-CANDIDA ALBICANS MIXED SPECIES BIOFILMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Ying; Huang, Yunchao; Zhou, Youquan; Zhao, Guangqiang; Ye, Lianhua; Lei, Yujie; Tang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of intercellular adhesion A (icaA), fibrinogen binding protein (fbe), and accumulation-associated protein (aap) genes in formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans mixed species biofilms. The experiment was divided into 3 groups: single culture of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC35984 (S. epidermidis group) or Candida albicans ATCC10231 (C. albicans group), and co-culture of two strains (mixed group) to build in vitro biofilm model. Biofilm mass was detected by crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after incubation. XTT assay was performed to determine the growth kinetics in the same time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the ultrastructure of the biofilms after 24 and 72 hours of incubation. The expressions of icaA, fbe, and aap genes were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Crystal violet semi-quantitative adherence assay showed that the biofilms thickened at 12 hours in the S. epidermidis and mixed groups; after co-cultured for 72 hours the thickness of biofilm in mixed group was more than that in the S. epidermidis group, and there was significant difference between 2 groups at the other time (P 0.05). In C. albicans group, the biofilm started to grow at 12 hours of cultivation, but the thickness of the biofilm was significantly lower than that in the mixed group in all the time points (P 0.05) except at 12 hours (P 0.05); the A value of mixed group was significantly higher than that of the C. albicans group after 6 hours (P biofilms with complex structure formed in all groups. The real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR showed the expressions of fbe, icaA, and aap genes in mixed group increased 1.93, 1.52, and 1.46 times respectively at 72 hours compared with the S. epidermidis group (P biofilms have more complex structure and are thicker than single species biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis or Candida albicans, which is related to

  15. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  16. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  17. Partial knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good range of motion in your knee. The ligaments in your knee are stable. However, most people with knee arthritis have a surgery called a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Knee replacement is most often done in people age 60 ...

  18. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  19. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  20. Tool Inventory and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, W. Forrest

    1976-01-01

    Vocational agriculture teachers are encouraged to evaluate curriculum offerings, the new trends in business and industry, and develop a master tool purchase and replacement plan over a 3- to 5-year period. (HD)

  1. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make everyday tasks easier. Practice using a cane, walker , crutches , or a wheelchair correctly. On the ... ask your doctor Knee joint replacement - discharge Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Surgical ...

  2. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    . To shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega...... replacement was chosen in each company. Findings – The study shows that platform replacements primarily challenge managers' existing knowledge about platform architectures. A distinction can be made between “width” and “height” in platform replacements, and it is crucial that managers observe this in order...... to challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...

  3. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  4. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  5. Linking Above- and Belowground Dynamics in Tropical Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, E. E.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2013-12-01

    Secondary forests that emerge after a long history of agriculture can have altered plant community composition and relative abundances of different species. These forests can look and behave differently compared to pre-agricultural forests due changes in primary productivity, resource allocation, and phenology, which can significantly affect processes such as carbon accumulation and nutrient availability. Our research explores how alternative successional trajectories following intensive agricultural use affect linkages among the establishment of novel plant communities, soil nutrient availability and turnover, and soil microbial community composition and function. We hypothesize that different plant species composition due to differing land use legacies and successional trajectories would drive changes in soil microbial community structure and function, affecting soil C and N chemistry and turnover. We conducted this research in the subtropical dry forest life zone of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands where island-wide abandonment of sugarcane resulted in a mosaic of sites in different stages of forest succession. We identified replicate sites with the following post-sugarcane trajectories: 1) natural forest regeneration, 2) low intensity pasture use, followed by reforestation with timber plantation, which are no longer being managed, 3) high intensity pasture use and recent natural forest regeneration, and 4) high intensity pasture use and current active grazing. During 2011-2013, we sampled soils seasonally (0-10 cm) and measured tree species composition. The successional trajectories showed distinct tree species composition. The first two trajectories yielded 40-year old mixed-species secondary forest, dominated by the dry forest tree species Melicoccus bijugatas, Guapira fragrans, Maniklara zapota, and Sideroxylon foetidissimum. The tree species Melicoccus bijugatas primarily drove differences between the first two trajectories (natural forest regeneration vs

  6. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  7. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  8. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  9. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  10. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  11. Can photovoltaic replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    As the French law on energy transition for a green growth predicts that one third of nuclear energy production is to be replaced by renewable energies (wind and solar) by 2025, and while the ADEME proposes a 100 per cent renewable scenario for 2050, this paper proposes a brief analysis of the replacement of nuclear energy by solar photovoltaic energy. It presents and discusses some characteristics of photovoltaic production: production level during a typical day for each month (a noticeable lower production in December), evolution of monthly production during a year, evolution of the rate between nuclear and photovoltaic production. A cost assessment is then proposed for energy storage and for energy production, and a minimum cost of replacement of nuclear by photovoltaic is assessed. The seasonal effect is outlined, as well as the latitude effect. Finally, the authors outline the huge cost of such a replacement, and consider that public support to new photovoltaic installations without an at least daily storage mean should be cancelled

  12. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    not be cited for purposes of advertisement. DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS: Destroy this document when no longer needed. Do not return to the... recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  13. Replacing Recipe Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Saatsi, J

    2017-01-01

    Many realist writings exemplify the spirit of ‘recipe realism’. Here I characterise recipe realism, challenge it, and propose replacing it with ‘exemplar realism’. This alternative understanding of realism is more piecemeal, robust, and better in tune with scientists’ own attitude towards their best theories, and thus to be preferred.

  14. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah B. Lerman; Keith H. Nislow; David J. Nowak; Stephen DeStefano; David I. King; D. Todd. Jones-Farrand

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat...

  15. Glaucoma after corneal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaziak, Monika; Chew, Hall F; Podbielski, Dominik W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    Glaucoma is a well-known complication after corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty, has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with penetrating keratoplasty. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser, or surgical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Horlock, K.

    2001-01-01

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000. This was followed by the completion of the detailed design and an application for a construction licence was made in May 2001. This paper will describe the main elements of the design and their relation to the proposed applications of the reactor. The future stages in the project leading to full operation are also described

  17. Apparatus for fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To support a telescope mast such that no deforming load is applied to it even during massive vibration, it is held fixed at the time of fuel replacement to permit satisfactory remote control operation by automatic operation. Structure: The body of the fuel replacement apparatus is provided with telescope mast fixing means comprising a slide base supported for reciprocal movement with respect to a telescope mast, an operating arm pivoted at the slide base, a wrist member mounted on the free end of the operating arm and an engagement member for restricting the slide base and operating arm at the time of loading and unloading the fuel. When loading and unloading the fuel, the slide base and operating arm are restrained by the engagement member to reliably restrict the vibration of the telescope mast. When the fuel replacement apparatus is moved, the means provided on the operating arm is smoothly displaced to follow the swing (vibration) of the telescope mast to prevent the deforming load from being applied to the support portion or other areas. The wrist member supports the telescope mast such that it can be rotated while restraining movement in the axial direction, and it is provided with revolution drive means for rotating the telescope mast under remote control. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  19. Carbon storage and emissions offset potential in an African dry forest, the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenday, Julia

    2008-07-01

    Concerns about rapid tropical deforestation, and its contribution to rising atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, increase the importance of monitoring terrestrial carbon storage in changing landscapes. Emerging markets for carbon emission offsets may offer developing nations needed incentives for reforestation, rehabilitation, and avoided deforestation. However, relatively little empirical data exists regarding carbon storage in African tropical forests, particularly for those in arid or semi-arid regions. Kenya's 416 km(2) Arabuko-Sokoke Forest (ASF) is the largest remaining fragment of East African coastal dry forest and is considered a global biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000), but has been significantly altered by past commercial logging and ongoing extraction. Forest carbon storage for ASF was estimated using allometric equations for tree biomass, destructive techniques for litter and herbaceous vegetation biomass, and spectroscopy for soils. Satellite imagery was used to assess land cover changes from 1992 to 2004. Forest and thicket types (Cynometra webberi dominated, Brachystegia spiciformis dominated, and mixed species forest) had carbon densities ranging from 58 to 94 Mg C/ha. The ASF area supported a 2.8-3.0 Tg C carbon stock. Although total forested area in ASF did not change over the analyzed time period, ongoing disturbances, quantified by the basal area of cut tree stumps per sample plot, correlated with decreased carbon densities. Madunguni Forest, an adjoining forest patch, lost 86% of its forest cover and at least 76% of its terrestrial carbon stock in the time period. Improved management of wood harvesting in ASF and rehabilitation of Madunguni Forest could substantially increase terrestrial carbon sequestration in the region.

  20. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    , in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  1. Upgrade, rebuild or replace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ageing reactor simulators present some tough decisions for utility managers. Although most utilities have chosen the cheaper, upgrading solution as the best compromise between costs and outage length, some US utilities have found that for them, replacement represents the best option. Simulators may be less than ten years old, but they have limited instructor systems, older low fidelity models that cannot reproduce important training scenarios, and out of date, difficult to maintain computers that do not permit much expansion of the models anyway. Perhaps worse than this is the possibility that the simulator may no longer be a faithful reproduction of the referenced plant, or have poor (or non-existent) documentation. (author)

  2. Growing up with stress - carbon sequestration and allocation dynamics of a broadleaf evergreen forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Anne; Bennett, Lauren T.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2016-04-01

    Evergreen forests have the potential to sequester carbon year-round due to the presence of leaves with a multi-year lifespan. Eucalypt forests occur in warmer climates where temperature and radiation are not imposing a strong seasonality. Thus, unlike deciduous or many coniferous trees, many eucalypts grow opportunistically as conditions allow. As such, many eucalypts do not produce distinct growth rings, which present challenges to the implementation of standard methods and data interpretation approaches for monitoring and explaining carbon allocation dynamics in response to climatic stress. As a consequence, there is a lack of detailed understanding of seasonal growth dynamics of evergreen forests as a whole, and, in particular, of the influence of climatic drivers on carbon allocation to the various biomass pools. We used a multi-instrument approach in a mixed species eucalypt forest to investigate the influence of climatic drivers on the seasonal growth dynamics of a predominantly temperate and moisture-regulated environment in south-eastern Australia. Ecosystem scale observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from a flux tower in the Wombat forest near Melbourne indicated that the ecosystem is a year-round carbon sink, but that intra-annual variations in temperature and moisture along with prolonged heat waves and dry spells resulted in a wide range of annual sums over the past three years (NEE ranging from ~4 to 12 t C ha-1 yr-1). Dendrometers were used to monitor stem increments of the three dominant eucalypt species. Stem expansion was generally opportunistic with the greatest increments under warm but moist conditions (often in spring and autumn), and the strongest indicators of stem growth dynamics being radiation, vapour pressure deficit and a combined heat-moisture index. Differences in the seasonality of stem increments between species were largely due to differences in the canopy position of sampled individuals. The greatest stem increments were

  3. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  4. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  5. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  6. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  7. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  8. Replace with abstract title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coho, Aleksander; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    We use the semidiscrete variational generelized Peierls-Nabarro model to study the effect of Cu alloying on the dislocation properties of Al. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy surface when a plane, on which one in four Al atoms has been replaced with a Cu atom, slips over a pure Al plane. Various dislocation core properties (core width, energy, Peierls stress, dissociation tendency) are investigated and compared with the pure Al case. Cu alloying lowers the intrinsic stacking fault (ISF) energy, which makes dislocations more likely to dissociate into partials. We also try to understand the lowering of ISF energy in terms of Al-Cu and Al-Al bond formation and braking during shearing along the direction. From the above we draw conclusions about the effects of Cu alloying on the mechanical properties of Al.

  9. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  10. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  12. Remote sensing estimates of stand-replacement fires in Russia, 2002–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, Alexander; Potapov, Peter; Loboda, Tatiana; Tyukavina, Alexandra; Turubanova, Svetlana; Hansen, Matthew C; McCarty, Jessica L

    2014-01-01

    The presented study quantifies the proportion of stand-replacement fires in Russian forests through the integrated analysis of Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data products. We employed 30 m Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus derived tree canopy cover and decadal (2001–2012) forest cover loss (Hansen et al 2013 High-resolution global maps of 21st-century forest cover change Science 342 850–53) to identify forest extent and disturbance. These data were overlaid with 1 km MODIS active fire (earthdata.nasa.gov/data/near-real-time-data/firms) and 500 m regional burned area data (Loboda et al 2007 Regionally adaptable dNBR-based algorithm for burned area mapping from MODIS data Remote Sens. Environ. 109 429–42 and Loboda et al 2011 Mapping burned area in Alaska using MODIS data: a data limitations-driven modification to the regional burned area algorithm Int. J. Wildl. Fire 20 487–96) to differentiate stand-replacement disturbances due to fire versus other causes. Total stand replacement forest fire area within the Russian Federation from 2002 to 2011 was estimated to be 17.6 million ha (Mha). The smallest stand-replacement fire loss occurred in 2004 (0.4 Mha) and the largest annual loss in 2003 (3.3 Mha). Of total burned area within forests, 33.6% resulted in stand-replacement. Light conifer stands comprised 65% of all non-stand-replacement and 79% of all stand-replacement fire in Russia. Stand-replacement area for the study period is estimated to be two times higher than the reported logging area. Results of this analysis can be used with historical fire regime estimations to develop effective fire management policy, increase accuracy of carbon calculations, and improve fire behavior and climate change modeling efforts. (paper)

  13. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  14. Forest resources of the Lincoln National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Lincoln National Forest 1997 inventory...

  15. Logging, arboricide treatments and regeneration at Budongo Forest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activity was gradually replaced by the taungya system introduced in ... of this study were to: (i) assess the impact of past logging and arboricide .... effects on Budongo forest. ..... Large size individuals such as Croton, Cordia milenii and.

  16. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  17. Hip Replacement: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive hip replacement (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hip Replacement updates ... replacement - precautions Minimally invasive hip replacement Related Health Topics Hip Injuries and Disorders National Institutes of Health ...

  18. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  19. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  20. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network.

  1. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  2. Restoring fire in lodgepole pine forests of the Intermountain west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Ward W. McCaughey

    1997-01-01

    We are developing new management treatments for regenerating and sustaining lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests through emulation of natural disturbance processes. Lodgepole pine is the principal forest cover on over 26 million hectares in western North America. While infrequent, stand replacing fires following mountain pine beetle outbreaks are common to the...

  3. Silvicultural activities in Pringle Falls Experimental Forest, Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Youngblood; Kim Johnson; Jim Schlaich; Boyd Wickman

    2004-01-01

    Pringle Falls Experimental Forest has been a center for research in ponderosa pine forests east of the crest of the Cascade Range since 1931. Long-term research facilities, sites, and future research opportunities are currently at risk from stand-replacement wildfire because of changes in stand structure resulting from past fire exclusion. At the same time, many of the...

  4. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L.; Ehnstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  5. Patients Unicondylar Knee Replacement vs. Total Knee Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Hedra Eskander

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to analyse the clinical effectiveness of total knee replacement (TKR) compared to unicondylar knee replacement (UKR) on patients. In terms of survival rates, revision rates and postoperative complications. The keywords used were: knee arthroplasty. Nearly three thousand articles were found on 25 August 2016. Of those, only twenty-five were selected and reviewed because they were strictly focused on the topic of this article. Compared with those who have TKR, ...

  6. The history of widespread decrease in oak dominance exemplified in a grassland--forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice B. Hanberry; Daniel C. Dey; Hong S. He

    2014-01-01

    Regionally-distinctive open oak forest ecosystems have been replaced either by intensive agriculture and grazing fields or by denser forests throughout eastern North America and Europe. To quantify changes in tree communities and density in the Missouri Plains, a grassland-forest landscape, we used historical surveys from1815 to 1864 and current surveys from 2004 to...

  7. Modeling impacts of fire severity on successional trajectories and future fire behavior in Alaskan boreal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill F. Johnstone; T. Scott Rupp; Mark Olson; David. Verbyla

    2011-01-01

    Much of the boreal forest in western North America and Alaska experiences frequent, stand-replacing wildfires. Secondary succession after fire initiates most forest stands and variations in fire characteristics can have strong effects on pathways of succession. Variations in surface fire severity that influence whether regenerating forests are dominated by coniferous...

  8. A SEROLOGIC AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION SURVEY OF EQUINE HERPESVIRUS IN BURCHELL'S ZEBRAS (EQUUS QUAGGA), HARTMANN'S MOUNTAIN ZEBRAS (EQUUS ZEBRA HARTMANNAE), AND THOMSON'S GAZELLES (EUDORCAS THOMSONII) IN A MIXED SPECIES SAVANNAH EXHIBIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Karen M; Fleming, Gregory J; Mylniczenko, Natalie D

    2016-12-01

    Reports of equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 and EHV-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. It is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of EHV-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. Concerns about potential interspecies transmission of EHV-1 and EHV-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. Eighteen Burchell's zebras ( Equus quagga ), 11 Hartmann's mountain zebras ( Equus zebra hartmannae), and 14 Thomson's gazelles ( Eudorcas thomsonii ) cohabitating the same exhibit were examined for EHV-1 virus neutralization titers, and evidence of virus via EHV 1-5 polymerase chain reactions. None of the animals had previous exposure to vaccination with EHV-1 or EHV-4. All tested zebras had positive EHV-1 titers, ranging from 4 to 384. All zebras and Thomson's gazelles had negative polymerase chain reaction results for all targeted equine herpesviruses. EHV-9-specific assays are not available but EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 cross-react serologically. Positive serology results indicate a potential latent equine herpesvirus in the zebra population, which prompted initiation of an equine herpesvirus vaccine protocol, changes in pregnant zebra mare management, and equine herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction screening prior to shipment to or from the study site.

  9. Climate and Vegetation Effects on Temperate Mountain Forest ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current forest composition may be resilient to typical climatic variability; however, climate trends, combined with projected changes in species composition, may increase tree vulnerability to water stress. A shift in forest composition toward tree species with higher water use has implications for biogenic emissions and deposition of reactive nitrogen and carbon compounds. Forest evapotranspiration (ET) can vary greatly at daily and seasonal time scales, but compared to carbon fluxes, often exhibits relatively consistent inter-annual behavior. The processes controlling ET involve the combined effects of physical and biological factors. Atmospheric conditions that promote high ET, consisting of high radiation and vapor pressure deficit (D), are often characterized by rainless periods when soil water supply to vegetation may be limiting and plant stomata may close to prevent excessive water loss. In contrast, periods of high ecosystem water availability require frequent precipitation and are characterized by low D. Thus, the combination of these contrasting conditions throughout a growing season may explain some of the consistency in ET. Additionally, vegetation composition is also an important factor in determining ET. In mixed species forests, physiological differences in water use strategies (e.g. isohydric/anisohydric species) can produce conservative water use throughout wet and dry phases of the growing season. Furthermore, transpiration by evergreen specie

  10. Nuclear reactor fuel replacement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hiroyuki; Joge, Toshio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the direction in which a fuel replacement unit is moving to be monitored by the operator. Structure: When a fuel replacement unit approaches an intermediate goal position preset in the path of movement, renewal of data display on a goal position indicator is made every time the goal position is changed. With this renewal, the prevailing direction of movement of the fuel replacement unit can be monitored by the operator. When the control of movement is initiated, the co-ordinates of the intermediate goal point A are displayed on a goal position indicator. When the replacement unit reaches point A, the co-ordinates of the next intermediate point B are displayed, and upon reaching point B the co-ordinates of the (last) goal point C are displayed. (Nakamura, S.)

  11. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  12. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Replacement of sub-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a number of quality aspects related to replacement of important systems or components in a nuclear power station. Reference is given to the steam generator replacement and power uprating performed at Ringhals 2 in Sweden in 1989. Since quality is a wide concept there has been put special emphasis in this paper to the important aspects that traditionally are not connected to quality. (author) 1 fig

  14. Feeder replacement tooling and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, R.; Goslin, R.; Pink, D.; Askari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Primary heat transport system feeder integrity has become a concern at some CANDU nuclear plants as a result of thinning caused by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). Feeder inspections are indicating that life-limiting wall thinning can occur in the region between the Grayloc hub weld and second elbow of some outlet feeders. In some cases it has become necessary to replace thinned sections of affected feeders to restore feeder integrity to planned end of life. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd. (B and W) have developed a new capability for replacement of single feeders at any location on the reactor face without impacting or interrupting operation of neighbouring feeders. This new capability consists of deploying trained crews with specialized tools and procedures for feeder replacements during planned outages. As may be expected, performing single feeder replacement in the congested working environment of an operational CANDU reactor face involves overcoming many challenges with respect to access to feeders, available clearances for tooling, and tooling operation and performance. This paper describes some of the challenges encountered during single feeder replacements and actions being taken by AECL and B and W to promote continuous improvement of feeder replacement tooling and processes and ensure well-executed outages. (author)

  15. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  16. Minnesota's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David Heinzen; Manfred E. Mielke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Ron J. Piva; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 17 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies nearly 30 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 35 percent...

  17. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  18. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  19. Replacement research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ross

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the Australian Government commissioned a review into the need for a replacement research reactor. That review concluded that in about years, if certain conditions were met, the Government could make a decision in favour of a replacement reactor. A major milestone was achieved when, on 3 September 1997, the Australian Government announced the construction of a replacement research reactor at the site of Australia's existing research reactor HIFAR, subject to the satisfactory outcome of an environmental assessment process. The reactor will be have the dual purpose of providing a first class facility for neutron beam research as well as providing irradiation facilities for both medical isotope production and commercial irradiations. The project is scheduled for completion before the end of 2005. (author)

  20. Joint replacement in Zambia: A review of Hip & Knee Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data captured by the different variables entered into the Joint Register covering the pre-op, intra-op and post-op period of all total hip and knee replacement surgery done at the ZIOH from 1998 to 2010 was entered into a spreadsheet after verification with individual patient medical records. This was then imported ...

  1. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  2. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  3. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  4. Insurance for replacement power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, A.

    1980-01-01

    Although careful consideration is given to insurance against physical damage to plant and equipment, little thought is given to the costs that will be incurred in replacing the power that is lost while a relatively efficient system is out of action. The results of an investigation carried out for a generating authority with an installed capacity of about 3000 MW is given. Replacement power costs for different cases of severity of damage range from Pound1.17m per month for damage to central services taking out all four units. (author)

  5. Replacing fuel alignment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetz, F.; Kalthoff, W.

    1991-01-01

    Up to the end of 1989 varying numbers of broken fuel alignment pins were detected in several German PWRs (80 broken pins in all). The distribution of these broken pins over the core cross-section was more or less random. The problem was due to the stress corrosion cracking of the pin material and was restricted to individual pins. It was concluded that all fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X-750 should be replaced. The development of a new pin, more resistant to intergranular stress corrosion, and the replacement technique are outlined. (author)

  6. Time-dependent climate benefits of using forest residues to substitute fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathre, Roger; Gustavsson, Leif

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyze and compare the climate impacts from the recovery, transport and combustion of forest residues (harvest slash and stumps), versus the climate impacts that would have occurred if the residues were left in the forest and fossil fuels used instead. We use cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) as an indicator of climate impacts, and we explicitly consider the temporal dynamics of atmospheric carbon dioxide and biomass decomposition. Over a 240-year period, we find that CRF is significantly reduced when forest residues are used instead of fossil fuels. The type of fossil fuel replaced is important, with coal replacement giving the greatest CRF reduction. Replacing oil and fossil gas also gives long-term CRF reduction, although CRF is positive during the first 10-25 years when these fuels are replaced. Biomass productivity is also important, with more productive forests giving greater CRF reduction per hectare. The decay rate for biomass left in the forest is found to be less significant. Fossil energy inputs for biomass recovery and transport have very little impact on CRF. -- Highlights: → Cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) can measure climate impacts of dynamic systems. → Climate impact is reduced when forest slash and stumps are used to replace fossil fuels. → Forest biofuels may cause short-term climate impact, followed by long-term climate benefit. → Forest residues should replace coal to avoid short-term climate impact. → Fossil energy used for biofuel recovery and transport has very little climate impact.

  7. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  8. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  9. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  10. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  11. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  12. Economics of replacing young-growth ponderosa pine stands . . . a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Teeguarden

    1968-01-01

    Compares the expected capital value growth of five ponderosa pine stands (70 to 80 years old) on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Yuba County, Calif., with the cost of delaying harvest (defined as sum of stock-holding and land-holding costs). Suggests that replacement of all five stands would be financially desirable under constant stumpage prices. Recommends...

  13. Carbon replacement and stability changes in short-term silvo-pastoralo experiments in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the effects of land use change on soil Carbon stocks in Colombian Amazonia. Such information would be needed to assess the impact of this area on the global C cycle and the sustainability of agricultural systems that are replacing native forest. The aim of this study

  14. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of this...

  15. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  16. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  17. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  18. A Bayesian perspective on some replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Soyer, Refik

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian decision theoretic approach for determining optimal replacement strategies. This approach enables us to formally incorporate, express, and update our uncertainty when determining optimal replacement strategies. We develop relevant expressions for both the block replacement protocol with minimal repair and the age replacement protocol and illustrate the use of our approach with real data

  19. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  20. Fire regimes approaching historic norms reduce wildfire-facilitated conversion from forest to non-forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan B. Walker; Jonathan D. Coop; Sean A. Parks; Laura Trader

    2018-01-01

    Extensive high-severity wildfires have driven major losses of ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests in the southwestern United States, in some settings catalyzing enduring conversions to nonforested vegetation types. Management interventions to reduce the probability of stand-replacing wildfire have included mechanical fuel treatments, prescribed fire, and wildfire...

  1. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  2. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  3. Forest report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  4. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  5. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  6. The use of forest chips in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    International commitments require the industrial world to restrict their greenhouse gas emissions. In Finland, where the annual timber cut per capita is more than ten times the average cut in the other EU countries, the primary means to reduce CO 2 emissions is to replace fossil fuels with forest biomass. The annual consumption of wood-based energy corresponds to 6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) or almost 20% of the total primary energy consumption. The goal is to rise the annual production of wood-based energy to 7.8 million toe by 2010. Substantial part of the targeted increase could be obtained by forest chips produced of unmerchantable small-diameter trees and logging residues. The goal for 2010 is to use 5 million solid m 3 of forest chips, which equals to 0.9 million toe. The use of forest chips is increasing. About 474 000 solid m 3 of forest chips were used as fuel in 1999. At the moment, the growth is rapid especially in cogeneration plants producing both heat and electricity. The growth is based primarily on chips obtained from logging residues. The price of forest chips decreased considerably during the 1990s but the price range remained wide. Chips made of logging residues are cheaper than those made of small trees. The average price of forest chips at the plant, VAT excluded, is about 53 FIM per MWh. In Sweden, the average price is more than 40% higher

  7. Forests and competing land uses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, James; Cox, Pamela M. J.

    1989-03-01

    Indigenous forests in Kenya, as in other developing countries, are under heavy pressure from competing agricultural land uses and from unsustainable cutting. The problem in Kenya is compounded by high population growth rates and an agriculturally based economy, which, even with efforts to control birth rates and industrialize, will persist into the next century. Both ecological and economic consequences of these pressures need to be considered in land-use decision making for land and forest management to be effective. This paper presents one way to combine ecological and economic considerations. The status of principal forest areas in Kenya is summarized and competing land uses compared on the basis of ecological functions and economic analysis. Replacement uses do not match the ecological functions of forest, although established stands of tree crops (forest plantations, fuel wood, tea) can have roughly comparable effects on soil and water resources. Indigenous forests have high, although difficult to estimate, economic benefits from tourism and protection of downstream agricultural productivity. Economic returns from competing land uses range widely, with tea having the highest and fuel wood plantations having returns comparable to some annual crops and dairying. Consideration of ecological and economic factors together suggests some trade-offs for improving land allocation decisions and several management opportunities for increasing benefits or reducing costs from particular land uses. The evaluation also suggests a general strategy for forest land management in Kenya.

  8. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  9. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  10. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  11. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennard, M W [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Pleasantville, NY (United States); Harbottle, J E [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Thornbury, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B{sub 4}C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  12. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B 4 C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  13. Fire intensity impacts on post-fire temperate coniferous forest net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Aaron M.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Boschetti, Luigi; Johnson, Daniel M.; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecological process in forests and impacts the carbon (C) cycle through direct combustion emissions, tree mortality, and by impairing the ability of surviving trees to sequester carbon. While studies on young trees have demonstrated that fire intensity is a determinant of post-fire net primary productivity, wildland fires on landscape to regional scales have largely been assumed to either cause tree mortality, or conversely, cause no physiological impact, ignoring the impacted but surviving trees. Our objective was to understand how fire intensity affects post-fire net primary productivity in conifer-dominated forested ecosystems on the spatial scale of large wildland fires. We examined the relationships between fire radiative power (FRP), its temporal integral (fire radiative energy - FRE), and net primary productivity (NPP) using 16 years of data from the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) for 15 large fires in western United States coniferous forests. The greatest NPP post-fire loss occurred 1 year post-fire and ranged from -67 to -312 g C m-2 yr-1 (-13 to -54 %) across all fires. Forests dominated by fire-resistant species (species that typically survive low-intensity fires) experienced the lowest relative NPP reductions compared to forests with less resistant species. Post-fire NPP in forests that were dominated by fire-susceptible species were not as sensitive to FRP or FRE, indicating that NPP in these forests may be reduced to similar levels regardless of fire intensity. Conversely, post-fire NPP in forests dominated by fire-resistant and mixed species decreased with increasing FRP or FRE. In some cases, this dose-response relationship persisted for more than a decade post-fire, highlighting a legacy effect of fire intensity on post-fire C dynamics in these forests.

  14. dwindling ethiopian forests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    1999-05-26

    May 26, 1999 ... Shelter for animals: Forests are natural “habitats for many wild animals. .... nificance of forest conservation and development in Ethiopia's combat ...... of forests are not, unfortunately, analogues to traffic lights where the impact.

  15. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  16. Indiana's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  17. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  18. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  19. What are the forests worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, L

    1992-05-30

    The Earth is a finite environment, thus growth cannot occur indefinitely. Eventually we will run out of space, resources, or anything else that is also finite. Once this fact is recognized, it becomes clear that we must develop in a sustainable way so that we can endure into the future. Overpopulation, vegetation destruction, and pollution are all serious threats to our finite environment. Traditionally, change has been to expensive and politically destabilizing. However, extensive changes in our modes of living must be made so that they become sustainable. In both developed and developing countries, consumptive growth must be replaced with sustainable development. Many developing countries are currently selling their natural resources to the developed countries. When they run out of resources, they will be truly poor. All governments must recognize the value of forests. It is estimated that in terms of medical uses for forest products alone, they will be worth US$11-12 billion (1990 dollars) by 2050. This constitutes a large portion of developing countries economies. Also, 80% of the population of developing countries rely on natural, traditional medicines made from forest products. Even in the US 25% of prescription drugs are based on phytochemicals. Now the drug companies are actively pursuing these resources for their products. It is estimated that 95% of the world species have not been assayed for their chemical value. Technology and money are not the obstacles to sustainable development and forest conservation. It is will and attitude that must be radically changed in order to protect the forests for the ecological and economic value.

  20. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  1. In Defense of Artificial Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Derek

    2017-06-01

    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  3. Introduction and content of Forest Regulation (1861

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Uroš N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article sheds light on introduction and content of Forest Regulation (1861. The idea of producing new Forest Regulation which would replace the existing act regulating same matter, introduced in 1857, came out as a result of people's discontent with limited opportunities for wood-cutting. The Committee for requests and proposals of so-called Saint Andrew's Day Assembly (1858, on which prince Alexander Karađorđević (1842-1858 had been dethroned and ex-prince Miloš Obrenović (1815-1839 reinstated to the throne, designed directives on which new forest legislation should have been based. Relying on these directives, in 1859 an unknown author made a Draft Forest Regulation consisting of 43 articles. In January 1861, the Draft was revised and supplemented by a three-membered committee formed by the State Council in the very end of 1860. The Council slightly altered the revised draft. Prince Mihailo Obrenović approved the text and it was enacted as Forest Regulation in 1861. In comparison with previous Forest Regulation, the act passed in 1861 was more liberal towards wood-cutting. Taxes on wood-cutting for economic purpose were lowered. Instead of Ministry of finances, district office was now competent to approve cutting wood for fodder. As a local authority, much more familiar with its fellow-inhabitants, district office was more likely to fulfill their exaggered wishes to destroy woods for above-mentioned purpose. The scope of population having right to be awarded piece of land with forest in order to broaden their insuficient landed property was widened. The reason for this step-back in forest protection in Serbia was obvious. New dinasty had to present itself as better than precedent government. At that moment nobody was aware of high toll to be payed for extensive destruction of forests.

  4. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  5. Skilled nursing facilities after joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care providers in the weeks before your joint replacement. They can advise you about whether going directly ... of many people who have had a joint replacement? Can they tell you how many? A good ...

  6. Risks of hip and knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is normal to lose blood during and after hip or knee replacement surgery. Some people need a ... clot form are higher during and soon after hip or knee replacement surgery. Sitting or lying down ...

  7. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  8. Long-life slab replacement concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Concrete slab replacement projects in Florida have demonstrated a high incidence of : replacement slab cracking. Causes of cracking have not been reliably determined. University of South Florida researchers : sought to identify the factors or : param...

  9. Long-life slab replacement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This research was initiated following reports of high incidence of cracking on FDOT concrete pavement replacement : slab projects. Field slabs were instrumented for data acquisition from high-early-strength concrete pavement : replacement slabs place...

  10. Stand model for upland forests of Southern Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, D.L.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

    1978-06-01

    A forest stand growth and composition simulator (FORAR) was developed by modifying a stand growth model by Shugart and West (1977). FORAR is a functional stand model which used ecological parameters to relate individual tree growth to environment rather than using Markov probability matrices or differential equations to determine single tree or species replacement rates. FORAR simulated tree growth and species composition of upland forests of Union County, Ark., by considering 33 tree species on a /sup 1///sub 12/ ha circular plot.

  11. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquetti, Roberto K; Gonçalves, José Francisco C

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  12. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO K. JAQUETTI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  13. Environmental impacts of forest road construction on mountainous terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erhan

    2013-03-15

    Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2) and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient). Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  14. Environmental Impacts of Forest Road Construction on Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Caliskan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are the base infrastructure foundation of forestry operations. These roads entail a complex engineering effort because they can cause substantial environmental damage to forests and include a high-cost construction. This study was carried out in four sample sites of Giresun, Trabzon(2 and Artvin Forest Directorate, which is in the Black Sea region of Turkey. The areas have both steep terrain (30-50% gradient and very steep terrain (51-80% gradient. Bulldozers and hydraulic excavators were determined to be the main machines for forest road construction, causing environmental damage and cross sections in mountainous areas.As a result of this study, the percent damage to forests was determined as follows: on steep terrain, 21% of trees were damaged by excavators and 33% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction, and on very steep terrain, 27% of trees were damaged by excavators and 44% of trees were damaged by bulldozers during forest road construction. It was also determined that on steep terrain, when excavators were used, 12.23% less forest area was destroyed compared with when bulldozers were used and 16.13% less area was destroyed by excavators on very steep terrain. In order to reduce the environmental damage on the forest ecosystem, especially in steep terrains, hydraulic excavators should replace bulldozers in forest road construction activities.

  15. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  16. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  17. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement units. 970.31 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement units. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, replacement public housing units may be built on the original public...

  18. Diagenetic replacement of Micas by Carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1961-01-01

    In the Ordovician sandstones of the Cantabrian Mountains a replacement of the micas by carbonate minerals could be observed. The absence of metamorphic minerals suggests a diagenetic replacement. This is supported by the finding of the same type of replacement in some undisturbed Pliocene sediments

  19. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... request a replacement. The application must be accompanied by the required fee and submitted to the...

  20. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  1. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  2. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...

  3. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  4. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  5. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  6. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  7. Wisconsin's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Vern A. Everson; Ian K. Brown; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Sally E. Dahir; Edward A. Jepsen; Joe Kovach; Michael D. Labissoniere; Terry R. Mace; Eunice A. Padley; Richard B. Rideout; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Wisconsin's forests was completed in 2004 after 6,478 forested plots were visited. There are more than 16.0 million acres of forest land in the Wisconsin, nearly half of the State's land area; 15.8 million acres meet the definition of timberland. The total area of both forest land and timberland continues an upward...

  8. Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm North

    2012-01-01

    There has been widespread interest in applying new forest practices based on concepts presented in U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-220, "An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests." This collection of papers (PSW-GTR-237) summarizes the state of the science in some topics relevant to this forest management approach...

  9. Molecular replacement then and now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview, with examples, of the evolution of molecular-replacement methods and models over the past few years is presented. The ‘phase problem’ in crystallography results from the inability to directly measure the phases of individual diffracted X-ray waves. While intensities are directly measured during data collection, phases must be obtained by other means. Several phasing methods are available (MIR, SAR, MAD, SAD and MR) and they all rely on the premise that phase information can be obtained if the positions of marker atoms in the unknown crystal structure are known. This paper is dedicated to the most popular phasing method, molecular replacement (MR), and represents a personal overview of the development, use and requirements of the methodology. The first description of noncrystallographic symmetry as a tool for structure determination was explained by Rossmann and Blow [Rossmann & Blow (1962 ▶), Acta Cryst.15, 24–31]. The term ‘molecular replacement’ was introduced as the name of a book in which the early papers were collected and briefly reviewed [Rossmann (1972 ▶), The Molecular Replacement Method. New York: Gordon & Breach]. Several programs have evolved from the original concept to allow faster and more sophisticated searches, including six-dimensional searches and brute-force approaches. While careful selection of the resolution range for the search and the quality of the data will greatly influence the outcome, the correct choice of the search model is probably still the main criterion to guarantee success in solving a structure using MR. Two of the main parameters used to define the ‘best’ search model are sequence identity (25% or more) and structural similarity. Another parameter that may often be undervalued is the quality of the probe: there is clearly a relationship between the quality and the correctness of the chosen probe and its usefulness as a search model. Efforts should be made by all structural biologists to

  10. Towards improved understanding of radionuclide transfer in forests and preparedness to handle contaminated forests. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetikko, V.; Rantavaara, A.; Aro, L.; Plamboeck, A.H.; Straelberg, E.

    2009-06-01

    The seminar was planned and arranged by four Nordic organisations and provided a forum for exchange of information for Nordic scientists currently working in the field of forest radioecology or using the data. Presentations of research on nutrient cycling and radionuclide distribution in boreal forests, discussion on the needs for future research and attendance of experts on forestry, forest research and radioecology offered a unique opportunity to disseminate and receive information. The seminar programme was composed of topics of radioecology and forest research, assessment of radionuclide contamination and management of contaminated forests. Also sampling in forests, monitoring and modelling of environmental impact of disposal of spent nuclear fuel, and recent radioecological studies on forests were handled. Future research was emphasised in discussions. Below is a short compilation of these discussions: - Comprehensive planning of research projects contributing to a programme with long-term aims is possible in broadly-based multidisciplinary collaboration. Thereby independent initiatives and less coherent plans can be replaced. - Clear definition of hypotheses, planning and improving the specific methods for sampling and laboratory analyses were found crucial. - Effects of intensive biofuel harvesting on the nutrient and radionuclide flows in forests are major issues in the next decades. - Gaps in knowledge, such as lack of data on processes contributing to radionuclide distributions in forests, and on certain long-lived radionuclides (those of Cl, Tc, Np, etc.) contributing to the environmental impact of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Topical seminars like the one accomplished are welcome in the future; compiling acute issues of multidisciplinary nature for focussed expert review and discussion can be very rewarding in many ways. To support communication and future collaboration, an informal forest network was launched in the seminar. Information is

  11. Towards improved understanding of radionuclide transfer in forests and preparedness to handle contaminated forests. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetikko, V.; Rantavaara, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)); Aro, L. (Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA) (Finland)); Plamboeck, A.H. (The Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway))

    2009-06-15

    The seminar was planned and arranged by four Nordic organisations and provided a forum for exchange of information for Nordic scientists currently working in the field of forest radioecology or using the data. Presentations of research on nutrient cycling and radionuclide distribution in boreal forests, discussion on the needs for future research and attendance of experts on forestry, forest research and radioecology offered a unique opportunity to disseminate and receive information. The seminar programme was composed of topics of radioecology and forest research, assessment of radionuclide contamination and management of contaminated forests. Also sampling in forests, monitoring and modelling of environmental impact of disposal of spent nuclear fuel, and recent radioecological studies on forests were handled. Future research was emphasised in discussions. Below is a short compilation of these discussions: - Comprehensive planning of research projects contributing to a programme with long-term aims is possible in broadly-based multidisciplinary collaboration. Thereby independent initiatives and less coherent plans can be replaced. - Clear definition of hypotheses, planning and improving the specific methods for sampling and laboratory analyses were found crucial. - Effects of intensive biofuel harvesting on the nutrient and radionuclide flows in forests are major issues in the next decades. - Gaps in knowledge, such as lack of data on processes contributing to radionuclide distributions in forests, and on certain long-lived radionuclides (those of Cl, Tc, Np, etc.) contributing to the environmental impact of final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Topical seminars like the one accomplished are welcome in the future; compiling acute issues of multidisciplinary nature for focussed expert review and discussion can be very rewarding in many ways. To support communication and future collaboration, an informal forest network was launched in the seminar. Information is

  12. The Validation of the Mixedwood Growth Model (MGM for Use in Forest Management Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Bokalo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the Mixedwood Growth Model (MGM at a whole model scale for pure and mixed species stands of aspen and white spruce in the western boreal forest. MGM is an individual tree-based, distance-independent growth model, designed to evaluate growth and yield implications relating to the management of white spruce, black spruce, aspen, lodgepole pine, and mixedwood stands in Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Our validation compared stand-level model predictions against re-measured data (volume, basal area, diameter at breast height (DBH, average and top height and density from permanent sample plots using combined analysis of residual plots, bias statistics, efficiency and an innovative application of the equivalence test. For state variables, the model effectively simulated juvenile and mature stages of stand development for both pure and mixed species stands of aspen and white spruce in Alberta. MGM overestimates increment in older stands likely due to age-related pathology and weather-related stand damage. We identified underestimates of deciduous density and volume in Saskatchewan. MGM performs well for increment in postharvest stands less than 30 years of age. These results illustrate the comprehensive application of validation metrics to evaluate a complex model, and provide support for the use of MGM in management planning.

  13. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  14. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosh Farhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. Methods We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Results Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Conclusion Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis

  15. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosh, Farhad; Hodjati, Hossain; Dehghani, Seifollah; Tanideh, Nader; Kumar, Perikala V

    2009-06-09

    Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis.

  16. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org) with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal...... disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) and renal transplantation rates for 2012 are presented. RESULTS: In 2012, the overall unadjusted incidence rate of patients with ESRD receiving RRT was 109.6 per million population (pmp) (n = 69 035), ranging from 219.9 pmp in Portugal to 24.2 pmp...... to 32% between countries. The overall renal transplantation rate in 2012 was 28.3 pmp (n = 15 673), with the highest rate seen in the Spanish region of Catalonia. The proportion of patients ≥65 years receiving a transplant ranged from 0 to 35%. Five-year adjusted survival for all RRT patients was 59...

  17. Computer simulation of replacement sequences in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.; Schwartz, D.W.; Ariyasu, R.G.; Cascadden, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of computer simulations of , , and replacement sequences in copper are presented, including displacement thresholds, focusing energies, energy losses per replacement, and replacement sequence lengths. These parameters are tabulated for six interatomic potentials and shown to vary in a systematic way with potential stiffness and range. Comparisons of results from calculations made with ADDES, a quasi-dynamical code, and COMENT, a dynamical code, show excellent agreement, demonstrating that the former can be calibrated and used satisfactorily in the analysis of low energy displacement cascades. Upper limits on , , and replacement sequences were found to be approximately 10, approximately 30, and approximately 14 replacements, respectively. (author)

  18. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  19. Illinois' Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Illinois' forests, completed in 2010, reports more than 4.8 million acres of forest land and 97 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory and elm/ash/cottonwood forest-type groups, which occupy 93 percent of total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland totals 7.2 billion cubic feet. The average...

  20. Nebraska's Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Greg C. Liknes; Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Nebraska's forests reports more than 1.5 million acres of forest land and 39 tree species. Forest land is dominated by the elm/ash/cottonwood and oak/hickory forest types, which occupy nearly half of the total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland currently totals 1.1 billion cubic feet. The average annual...

  1. New Jersey's forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall; Bill. Zipse

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of New Jersey's forests reports more than 2.0 million acres of forest land and 83 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak-hickory forest types in the north and pitch pine forest types in the south. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since 1956 and currently totals 3.4 billion cubic feet. The average...

  2. Forest Grammar(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    Forest grammar,a new type of high-dimensional grammar,is proposed in this paper,of which both the left and the right parts of every production are concatenations of tree structures.A classification of forest grammar is studied,especially,a subclass of the forest grammar,i.e.the context-sensitive forest grammar,and one of its subclasses is defined,called the weak precedence forest grammar.

  3. New Jersey Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Christopher W. Woodall; William. Zipse

    2017-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of New Jersey’s forests reports more than 2.0 million acres of forest land and 77 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types in the north and pitch pine forest types in the south. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since 1956 and currently totals 3.3 billion cubic feet. Average annual net...

  4. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  5. Michigan's forests 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  6. Cost justification of chiller replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.J.; Baumer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We often hear of products with paybacks that are too good to be true. Just a few weeks ago,a client received a recommendation from a national service company's local office. In the letter the company recommended that open-quotes due to the age and condition of the boiler ... that the school consider replacing the boiler... The cost for the new boiler can usually be recovered by lower fuel bills in 2 to 3 yearsclose quotes. This was for an installation in Southeast Texas where the boiler is only used 4 to 5 months per year. Analysis show the above claims to be nonsense. A new boiler would cost about $47,000 installed. Current total gas bills for the facility are $15,630 per year. They would have to shutoff the gas to the facility to have a three year payback. In fact, only two-thirds of the gas is used to heat the facility so we have only $10, 000 to write off against the new boiler. How much will the greater efficiency save? A 30% savings due to greater efficiency produces $3,000 per year in gas savings to offset the $47,000 cost, a 16 year payback. And much of the efficiency savings can be realized by adjusting the existing boiler. In another care a client wanted to investigate replacement of a twenty year old chiller plant with more efficient equipment. We investigated the project and determined that the payback would be greater than ten years. They did not operate the equipment during the summer and at less than 50% of capacity the balance of the year

  7. Forest Research Nursery Waste Water Management Plan, Integrated Pest Management Plan, and pesticide safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; David L. Wenny

    1992-01-01

    The University of Idaho Forest Research Nursery was established in 1909 to grow bareroot (field-grown) tree and shrub seedlings for conservation. In 1982, the bareroot production was phased out and replaced by growing seedlings in containers in greenhouses. The nursery emphasizes teaching, research and service. Students learn about forest planting; scientists...

  8. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Freund; Jerry F. Franklin; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The rate at which trees regenerate following stand-replacing wildfire is an important but poorly understood process in the multi-century development of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests. Temporal patterns of Douglas-fir establishment reconstructed from old-growth forests (>450 year) have...

  9. Effects of multiple interacting disturbances and salvage logging on forest carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Shawn Fraver; Amy M. Milo; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is anticipated to increase the frequency of disturbances, potentially impacting carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the implications of either multiple disturbances or post-disturbance forest management activities on ecosystem carbon stocks. This study quantified how forest carbon stocks responded to stand-replacing...

  10. Disturbance and net ecosystem production across three climatically distinct forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Campbell; O.J. Sun; B.E. Law

    2004-01-01

    Biometric techniques were used to measure net ecosystem production (NEP) across three climatically distinct forest chronosequences in Oregon. NEP was highly negative immediately following stand-replacing disturbance in all forests and recovered to positive values by 10, 20, and 30 years of age for the mild mesic Coast Range, mesic West Cascades, and semi-arid East...

  11. Comparison of cropland and forest surface temperatures across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global climate models (GCM) investigating the effects of land cover on climate have found that replacing extra-tropical forest with cropland promotes cooling. We compared cropland and forest surface temperatures across the continental United States in 16 cells that were approxim...

  12. Demographic disequilibrium caused by canopy gap expansion and recruitment failure triggers forest cover loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Barrette; Louis Bélanger; Louis De Grandpré; Alejandro A. Royo

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of large-scale stand replacing disturbances, boreal forests can remain in the old-growth stage over time because of a dynamic equilibrium between small-scale mortality and regeneration processes. Although this gap paradigm has been a cornerstone of forest dynamics theory and practice for decades, evidence suggests that it could be disrupted, threatening...

  13. Restoration of tropical moist forest on bauxite mined lands in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A Parrotta; Oliver H. Knowles

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated forest structure and composition in 9- to 13-year-old stands established on a bauxite-mined site at Trombetas (Pará), Brazil, using four different reforestation techniques following initial site preparation and topsoil replacement. These techniques included reliance on natural forest regeneration, mixed commercial species plantings of mostly exotic timber...

  14. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary to address the inadequacies identified by the court...

  15. Optimization on replacement period of plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Asano, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of the replacement period of plant equipment is one of the main items to rationalize the activities on plant maintenance. There are several models to replace the equipment and the formulations for optimizing the replacement period are different among these models. In this study, we calculated the optimum replacement periods for some equipment parts based on the replacement models and found that the optimum solutions are not so largely differ from the replacement models as far as the replacement period is not so large. So we will be able to use the most usable model especially in the early phase of rationalization on plant maintenance, since there are large uncertainties in data for optimization. (author)

  16. Forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  17. Effects of tornado damage, prescribed fire, and salvage logging on natural oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in a xeric southern USA Coastal Plain oak/pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; J. Stephen Brewer

    2013-01-01

    Due in large part to fire exclusion, many oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests, woodlands, and savannas throughout eastern North America are being replaced by less diverse forest ecosystems. In the interior coastal plain of the southern United States, these forests are dominated in the mid- and understory by mesophytic species such as Acer...

  18. Forest and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the challenges the French forest has to face, and a brief overview of the status of forests in the world, this report proposes an overview of actions which are implemented to strengthen the carbon sequestration role of forests, at the international level and in France. It discusses the distribution of carbon, the forest carbon stocks (in the world, Europe and France), the actions against climate change, the costs and financing of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the forest sector. It comments the status of international negotiations and how forests are taken into account. It presents the French forest and wood sector (characteristics of the forest in metropolitan France and overseas, wood as material and as energy). It recalls the commitment of the Grenelle de l'Environnement, and indicates the current forest studies

  19. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  20. Forest health in Canada, Montane cordillera ecozone 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.; Garbutt, R.; Hirvonen, H.; Pinnell, H.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the key forest health issues affecting the 6 main forest types in Canada's Montane Cordillera ecozone in the central interior of British Columbia and the Alberta Foothills. In order to protect and conserve biological diversity, the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers adopted national criteria to measure sustainable forest management. This report describes the Montane Cordillera landscape conditions, pre-industrial ecological influences, current ecological influences, and the impact of invasive alien insects and diseases on the diversity of tree species. Pine forests in the Montane Cordillera ecozone are threatened by the mountain pine beetle. Fire suppression has also resulted in ecological changes to forests in the Montane Cordillera, including an increase in Douglas-firs, gradual replacement of Lodgepole pine forests, and reduced health of Ponderosa pine ecosystems. Alien insects are being monitored by provincial forestry agencies through annual surveys. They are also being controlled through localized treatment programs. The impact of land use practices such as forest harvesting on forest structure and composition was also addressed. It was noted that the unrestricted movement of wood and forestry products also increases the threat of invasive alien diseases and insects. The trees in this ecozone have not been damaged by air pollution. refs., tabs., figs.

  1. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  2. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  3. Forest inventory in Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, Sit [Forest Resource Div., Forest Department (Myanmar)

    1993-10-01

    Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships

  4. Forest inventory in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit Bo

    1993-01-01

    Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships

  5. Forest resources of Mississippi’s national forests, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resource characteristics of Mississippi’s national forests, with emphasis on DeSoto National Forest, following the 2006 survey completed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Mississippi’s national forests comprise > 1 million acres of forest land, or about 7 percent of all forest...

  6. Forest report 2013; Waldzustandsbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.

  7. Forest Products: Apparatus for Removing Bark from Whole Logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, Lauren; Recca, Lee

    1999-01-01

    Order this fact sheet now to learn how replacing the ''closed drum'' debarking technology method used in the forest industry with the ''open drum'' method saves time and production costs, and increases the economic value of wood products by inflicting less damage on logs so that they can be used for high-value economic products

  8. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno; Dennis G. Simmerman; Robert E. Keane

    1985-01-01

    Presents classifications of successional community types on four major forest habitat types in western Montana. Classifications show the sequences of seral community types developing after stand-replacing wildfire and clearcutting with broadcast burning, mechanical scarification, or no followup treatment. Information is provided for associating vegetational response to...

  9. Conservation of biodiversity: a useful paradigm for forest ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.B. Carey; R.O. Curtis

    1996-01-01

    The coniferous forests of the Western Hemlock Zone of western Oregon and western Washington are remarkable in the longevity and stature of their trees, long intervals between stand-replacing events, capacity to produce timber, diversity of life forms and species, and controversy over their management. The controversy is hardly new (Overton and Hunt 1974). But the...

  10. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  11. Opportunistic replacement of fusion power system parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.A.; George, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a maintenance problem in a fusion power plant. The problem is to specify which life limited parts should be replaced when there is an opportunity. The objective is to minimize the cost rate of replacement parts and of maintenance actions while satisfying a power plant availability constraint. The maintenance policy is to look ahead and replace all parts that will reach their life limits within a time called a screen. Longer screens yield greater system availabilities because more parts are replaced prior to their life limits

  12. Aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dark John H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims As our population ages and life expectancy increases the number of people aged over 80 and more referred for cardiac surgery is growing. This study sought to identify the outcome of aortic valve replacement (AVR in octogenarians. Methods 68 patients aged 80 years or more underwent AVR at the Freeman Hospital, between April 2001 and April 2004. A retrospective review of the notes and outcomes from the patients' GP and the NHS strategic tracking service was performed. 54% (37 underwent isolated AVR whilst 46% (31 underwent combined AVR and CABG. Results Follow up was 100% complete. The mean age was 83.1 ± s.d. 2.9 years, a mean gradient of 83 ± s.d. 31 mmHg and mean AVA of 0.56 cm2. The mean additive EuroSCORE was 8.6 ± s.d. 1.2, the logistic EuroSCORE mean 12.0 ± s.d. 5.9. In hospital 30 day mortality was 13 %. Survival was 80% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. Median follow up was for 712 days. Stepwise logistic regression identified chronic obstructive airways disease as an independent predictor of mortality (p Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the operative mortality for AVR in the over eighties is good, whilst the mid to long term outcome is excellent There is a very low attrition rate with those undergoing the procedure living as long than their age matched population. This study confirms AVR is a safe, acceptable treatment for octogenarians with excellent mid term outcomes.

  13. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  14. Replacing Fortran Namelists with JSON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. E., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Maintaining a log of input parameters for a climate model is very important to understanding potential causes for answer changes during the development stages. Additionally, since modern Fortran is now interoperable with C, a more modern approach to software infrastructure to include code written in C is necessary. Merging these two separate facets of climate modeling requires a quality control for monitoring changes to input parameters and model defaults that can work with both Fortran and C. JSON will soon replace namelists as the preferred key/value pair input in the GFDL model. By adding a JSON parser written in C into the model, the input can be used by all functions and subroutines in the model, errors can be handled by the model instead of by the internal namelist parser, and the values can be output into a single file that is easily parsable by readily available tools. Input JSON files can handle all of the functionality of a namelist while being portable between C and Fortran. Fortran wrappers using unlimited polymorphism are crucial to allow for simple and compact code which avoids the need for many subroutines contained in an interface. Errors can be handled with more detail by providing information about location of syntax errors or typos. The output JSON provides a ground truth for values that the model actually uses by providing not only the values loaded through the input JSON, but also any default values that were not included. This kind of quality control on model input is crucial for maintaining reproducibility and understanding any answer changes resulting from changes in the input.

  15. Economic analysis of replacement regeneration and coppice regeneration in eucalyptus stands under risk conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Carolina de Lima Guedes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Projects are by their very nature subject to conditions of uncertainty that obstruct the decision-making process. Uncertainties involving forestry projects are even greater, as they are combined with time of return on capital invested, being medium to long term. For successful forest planning, it is necessary to quantify uncertainties by converting them into risks. The decision on whether to adopt replacement regeneration or coppice regeneration in a forest stand is influenced by several factors, which include land availability for new forest crops, changes in project end use, oscillations in demand and technological advancement. This study analyzed the economic feasibility of replacement regeneration and coppice regeneration of eucalyptus stands, under deterministic and under risk conditions. Information was gathered about costs and revenues for charcoal production in order to structure the cash flow used in the economic analysis, adopting the Net Present Value method (VPL. Risk assessment was based on simulations running the Monte Carlo method. Results led to the following conclusions: replacement regeneration is economically viable, even if the future stand has the same productivity as the original stand; coppice regeneration is an economically viable option even if productivity is a mere 70% of the original stand (high-tree planted stand, the best risk-return ratio option is restocking the stand (replacement regeneration by one that is 20% more productive; the probabilistic analysis running the Monte Carlo method revealed that invariably there is economic viability for the various replacement and coppice regeneration options being studied, minimizing uncertainties and consequently increasing confidence in decision-making.

  16. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  17. Forest Grammar (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    The syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence forest grammar has been introduced and the correctness and unambiguity of this algorithm have been proved. An example is given to the syntactic parsing procedure of weak precedence forest grammar.

  18. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  19. Forests and water cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, a review on factors that control water cycle and water use in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is presented, including environmental variables and silvicultural treatments. This important issue is considered in the perspective of sustainable forest management of Mediterranean forests, with special regard to crucial environmental hazards such as forest fires and desertification risks related to climate change.

  20. Maine's forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  1. Iowa Forests, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Matt Brewer; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; Stephen Matthews; William H. McWilliams; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Jim Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full annual inventory of Iowa's forests (2009-2013) indicates that just under 3 million acres of forest land exists in the State, 81 percent of which is in family forest ownership. Almost all of Iowa's forest land is timberland (96 percent), with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet of growing stock per acre on timberland and more than 1,...

  2. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide

  3. Connecticut's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Cassandra Kurtz; Christopher Martin; W. Keith Moser

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Connecticut based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  4. Connecticut's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Christopher Martin

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Connecticut based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  5. Forests of Connecticut, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of forest resources in Connecticut based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design. Results are for the measurement years 2010-2015 with comparisons made to 2005-...

  6. Vermont's Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Morin; R. De Geus

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Vermont based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports...

  7. Forests of Virginia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Brandeis; A.J. Hartsell; K.C. Randolph; C.M. Oswalt

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Virginia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Forestry.

  8. Forests of Kentucky, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the Commonwealth of Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry....

  9. Forests of Alabama, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Hartsell

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Alabama based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Alabama Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  10. Forests of Wisconsin, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  11. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly (see footnote 1 on page 4). Information about...

  12. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; C.J. Barnett

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  13. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  14. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; C.J. Barnett

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  15. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  16. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station (NRS). Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly1(see footnote 1, page 2). Information...

  17. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; C.J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  18. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 6 of...

  19. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based upon inventories conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 1999, FIA has implemented an annual inventory...

  20. Forests of Kansas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory,...

  1. Forests of Iowa, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt Brewer; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kathryne. Clark

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Iowa based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  2. Forests of Nebraska, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on annual inventories conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Northern Research Station (NRS), U.S. Forest Service. The estimates presented in this update are based on field data collected in 2010-2014 with comparisons made to data collected from 2005-...

  3. Forests of Kansas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2016 inventory,...

  4. Forests of Nebraska, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Nebraska based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory...

  5. Forest resources and conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Linda S. Heath; Gordon C. Reese; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the northern United States support a rich mix of floral and faunal communities that provide inestimable benefits to society. Today's forests face a range of biotic and abiotic stressors, not the least of which may be environmental change. This chapter reviews the compositional traits of presettlement forests and traces the major land use patterns...

  6. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  7. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2007-01-01

    Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...

  8. Wisconsin's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  9. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  10. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 57.19122 Section 57.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  12. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylotte, Darren; Osnabrugge, Ruben L J; Windecker, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy.......The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy....

  13. 30 CFR 56.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 56.19122 Section 56.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  14. An abstract machine for module replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Chris; Krl, Dilsun; Gilmore, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we define an abstract machine model for the mλ typed intermediate language. This abstract machine is used to give a formal description of the operation of run-time module replacement from the programming language Dynamic ML. The essential technical device which we employ for module replacement is a modification of two-space copying garbage collection.

  15. Temelin NPP - IandC replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalenka, I.

    1997-01-01

    The original instrumentation and control system of the Temelin nuclear power plant is being upgraded and replaced by a modern Westinghouse-supplied system which meets the requirements imposed on current nuclear power plant designs. The history and purpose of the IandC system replacement is given, and the design of the new system is described in some detail. (A.K.)

  16. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  17. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.14 Soil replacement. (a) Soil...

  18. A useful framework for optimal replacement models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Dekker, Rommert

    1997-01-01

    In this note we present a general framework for optimization of replacement times. It covers a number of models, including various age and block replacement models, and allows a uniform analysis for all these models. A relation to the marginal cost concept is described

  19. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.659 Replacement housing...

  20. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate

  1. Forests and Forest Cover - DCNR - State Forest Lands 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The state forest boundry coverage is being updated frequently. It is derived from survey descriptions and will be, and has been in certain areas, adjusted to GPS...

  2. Management of young forest stands for integrated production of wood fuel and quality timber. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundmark, Tomas; Sahlen, Kenneth; Ulvcrona, Kristina

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this project has been to develop practical silvicultural measures that integrate the optimization of biomass production in dense young mixed stands with production of quality timber later during the rotation period. The results show that annual biomass production can be trippled by keeping young stands dense and adding fertilizers. At the same time by delaying the time for pre-commercial thinning (or replacing it with a biomass harvest) relative branch size in the lower part of the stem will be reduced. This support the hypothesis that biomass production can be improved if young stands are kept dense up to the height of 8-10 m and as a consequence of delayed thinning timber quality can also be improved. Important background data for technical development has also been provided as well as data needed for economical analyses of different silvicultural systems including the treatment of heterogenous dense stands with mixed species composition

  3. The negative influences of the new brazilian forest code on the conservation of riparian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Normandes Matos da

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available More than one million hectares of riparian forests were degraded or altered in Mato Grosso State (Brazil up to 2009. The aim of the research is to set a comparative scenario to show differences in the quantification of environmental liabilities in riparian forest areas resulting from the change in native vegetation protection rules due to the transition between Laws 4771/65 and 12651/2012. Data collection took place in a marginal stretch of Vermelho River in Rondonópolis County, Mato Grosso State. The following data set was taken into consideration: aerial images derived from unmanned aerial vehicle, Rapid Eye satellite images and orbital images hosted at Google Earth. The spatial resolution of those images was compared. The aerial photos composed a mosaic that was photo-interpreted to generate land use and occupation classes. The riparian forest areas of a rural property were used as parameter, and their environmental situation was compared in 05 meter and 100 meter strips. Thus, by taking into consideration the current rules, 23,501 m2 of area ceased to be an environmental liability within the riparian forest and became a consolidated rural area. According to the previous Forest Code, in a different scenario, that is, in a set of rural properties, the public authority would receive USD 68,600.00 in fines. The new Brazilian Forestry Code of 2012, which replaces the previous one made in 1965, exempts those responsible for rural property from regenerating previously deforested native vegetation - an obligation established by older Forest Code. We have shown that the new Forest Code has diminished the legal responsibility of the rural owners in relation to the maintenance of forest fragments in their properties.

  4. Hyperspectral sensing of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash

    2007-11-01

    Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.

  5. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert

    Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves

  6. Pipe replacement in a water supply network: coordinated versus uncoordinated replacement and budget effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van D.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Operators of underground water supply networks are challenged with pipe replacement
    decisions, because pipes are subject to increased failure rates as they age and financial resources
    are often limited.We study the optimal replacement time and optimal number of pipe replacements
    such

  7. Design verification for reactor head replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Whitt, M.S.; Lee, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges of design verification for reactor head replacement for PWR plants and the program for qualification from the prospective of the utility design engineering group. This paper is based on the experience with the design confirmation of four reactor head replacements for two plants, and their interfacing components, parts, appurtenances, and support structures. The reactor head replacement falls under the jurisdiction of the applicable edition of the ASME Section XI code, with particular reference to repair/replacement activities. Under any repair/replacement activities, demands may be encountered in the development of program and plan for replacement due to the vintage of the original design/construction Code and the design reports governing the component qualifications. Because of the obvious importance of the reactor vessel, these challenges take on an added significance. Additional complexities are introduced to the project, when the replacement components are fabricated by vendors different from the original vendor. Specific attention is needed with respect to compatibility with the original design and construction of the part and interfacing components. The program for reactor head replacement requires evaluation of welding procedures, applicable examination, test, and acceptance criteria for material, welds, and the components. Also, the design needs to take into consideration the life of the replacement components with respect to the extended period of operation of the plant after license renewal and other plant improvements. Thus, the verification of acceptability of reactor head replacement provides challenges for development and maintenance of a program and plan, design specification, design report, manufacturer's data report and material certification, and a report of reconciliation. The technical need may also be compounded by other challenges such as widely scattered global activities and organizational barriers, which

  8. Forested wetland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  9. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non...

  10. Bioecological principles of maintaining stability in mountain forest ecosystems of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Parpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The forest cover of the Carpathians has been deeply transformed by productive activities over the past centuries. The forest cover, age and species structure of its ecosystems have been changed. Beech and fir forests were replaced by spruce monocultures. Consequently, nitrogen and mineral elements cycles changed, the genetic and population structures altered and the eco-stabilizing function of forests decreased. These negative trends make it desirable to process the bioecological principles of maintenance the stability of mountain forest ecosystems. The proposed bioecological principles of support and recovery of stability of forest ecosystems are part of the paradigm of mountain dendrology and silviculture. The strategy is based on maintaining bio-ecological and population-genetical features of the main forest forming species, evolutionary typological classification of the forests, landscape and environmental specifics of the mountain part of the Ukrainian Carpathians, features of virgin, old growth and anthropogenically disturbed forest structures, as well as performing the functional role of forest ecosystems. Support for landscape ecosystem stability involves the conservation, selective, health and gradual cutting, formation of forest stands which are close to natural conditions and focusing on natural regeneration (a basis for stable mountain forest ecosystems.

  11. Delirium After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseffi, Jennifer L; Borges, Nyal E; Boehm, Leanne M; Wang, Li; McPherson, John A; Fredi, Joseph L; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased mortality. Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement are at risk for delirium because of comorbid conditions. To compare the incidence, odds, and mortality implications of delirium between patients undergoing transcatheter replacement and patients undergoing surgical replacement. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit were used to assess arousal level and delirium prospectively in all patients with severe aortic stenosis who had transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement at an academic medical center. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between procedure type and occurrence of delirium. Cox regression was used to assess the association between postoperative delirium and 6-month mortality. A total of 105 patients had transcatheter replacement and 121 had surgical replacement. Patients in the transcatheter group were older (median age, 81 vs 68 years; P replacement. Delirium is less likely to develop in the transcatheter group but is associated with higher mortality in both groups. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences.

  13. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  14. The role of forest disturbance in global forest mortality and terrestrial carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Thomas; Arneth, Almut; Smith, Benjamin; Poulter, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale forest disturbance dynamics such as insect outbreaks, wind-throw and fires, along with anthropogenic disturbances such as logging, have been shown to turn forests from carbon sinks into intermittent sources, often quite dramatically so. There is also increasing evidence that disturbance regimes in many regions are changing as a result of climatic change and human land-management practices. But how these landscape-scale events fit into the wider picture of global tree mortality is not well understood. Do such events dominate global carbon turnover, or are their effects highly regional? How sensitive is global terrestrial carbon exchange to realistic changes in the occurrence rate of such disturbances? Here, we combine recent advances in global satellite observations of stand-replacing forest disturbances and in compilations of forest inventory data, with a global terrestrial ecosystem model which incorporates an explicit representation of the role of disturbance in forest dynamics. We find that stand-replacing disturbances account for a fraction of wood carbon turnover that varies spatially from less than 5% in the tropical rainforest to ca. 50% in the mid latitudes, and as much as 90% in some heavily-managed regions. We contrast the size of the land-atmosphere carbon flux due to this disturbance with other components of the terrestrial carbon budget. In terms of sensitivity, we find a quasi log-linear relationship of disturbance rate to total carbon storage. Relatively small changes in disturbance rates at all latitudes have marked effects on vegetation carbon storage, with potentially very substantial implications for the global terrestrial carbon sink. Our results suggest a surprisingly small effect of disturbance type on large-scale forest vegetation dynamics and carbon storage, with limited evidence of widespread increases in nitrogen limitation as a result of increasing future disturbance. However, the influence of disturbance type on soil carbon

  15. How to replace a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1996-01-01

    A potential life extending procedure for a nuclear reactor after, say, 40 years of service life, might in some circumstances be the replacement of the reactor pressure vessel. Neutron induced degradation of the vessel might make replacement by one of a different material composition desirable, for example. Although the replacement of heavy components, such as steam generators, has been possible for many years, the pressure vessel presents a much more demanding task if only because it is highly irradiated. Some preliminary feasibility studies by Siemens are reported for the two removal strategies that might be considered. These are removal of the entire pressure vessel in one piece and dismantling it into sections. (UK)

  16. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  17. Changes in forest productivity across Alaska consistent with biome shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Pieter S A; Juday, Glenn P; Alix, Claire; Barber, Valerie A; Winslow, Stephen E; Sousa, Emily E; Heiser, Patricia; Herriges, James D; Goetz, Scott J

    2011-04-01

    Global vegetation models predict that boreal forests are particularly sensitive to a biome shift during the 21st century. This shift would manifest itself first at the biome's margins, with evergreen forest expanding into current tundra while being replaced by grasslands or temperate forest at the biome's southern edge. We evaluated changes in forest productivity since 1982 across boreal Alaska by linking satellite estimates of primary productivity and a large tree-ring data set. Trends in both records show consistent growth increases at the boreal-tundra ecotones that contrast with drought-induced productivity declines throughout interior Alaska. These patterns support the hypothesized effects of an initiating biome shift. Ultimately, tree dispersal rates, habitat availability and the rate of future climate change, and how it changes disturbance regimes, are expected to determine where the boreal biome will undergo a gradual geographic range shift, and where a more rapid decline. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Dynamics of forest soil chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveteg, M

    1998-11-01

    Acidification caused by emissions of nitrogen and sulphur and associated adverse effects on forest ecosystems has been an issue on the political agenda for decades. Temporal aspects of soil acidification and/or recovery can be investigated using the soil chemistry model SAFE, a dynamic version of the steady-state model PROFILE used in critical loads assessment on the national level, e.g. for Sweden. In this thesis, possibilities to replace the use of apparent gibbsite solubility coefficients with a more mechanistic Al sub-model are investigated and a reconstruction model, MAKEDEP, is presented which makes hindcasts and forecasts of atmospheric deposition and nutrient uptake and cycling. A regional application of SAFE/MAKEDEP based on 622 sites in Switzerland is also presented. It is concluded that the quantitative information on pools and fluxes of Al in forest ecosystems is very limited and that there currently exists no mechanistic alternative in modelling soil solution Al. MAKEDEP is a valuable and operational tool for deriving input to dynamic soil chemistry models such as SMART, MAGIC and SAFE. For multi-layer models, e.g. the SAFE model, including nutrient cycling in MAKEDEP is shown to be important. The strength of the regional assessment strategy presented in this thesis lies in its transparency and modularity. All sub-modules, including models, transfer functions, assumptions in the data acquisition strategy, etc., can be checked and replaced individually. As the presented assessment strategy is based on knowledge and data from a wide range of scientists and fields it is of vital importance that the research community challenge the assumptions made. The many measurable intermediate results produced by the included models will hopefully encourage scientists to challenge the models through additional measurements at the calculation sites. It is concluded that current reduction plans are not sufficient for all forest ecosystems in Switzerland to recover from

  19. Fire-mediated pathways of stand development in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Tepley; F.J. Swanson; T.A. Spies

    2013-01-01

    Forests dominated by Douglas-fir and western hemlock in the Pacific Northwest of the United States have strongly influenced concepts and policy concerning old-growth forest conservation. Despite the attention to their old-growth characteristics, a tendency remains to view their disturbance ecology in relatively simple terms, emphasizing infrequent, stand-replacing (SR...

  20. Estimating forest conversion rates with annual forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The rate of land-use conversion from forest to nonforest or natural forest to forest plantation is of interest for forest certification purposes and also as part of the process of assessing forest sustainability. Conversion rates can be estimated from remeasured inventory plots in general, but the emphasis here is on annual inventory data. A new estimator is proposed...

  1. Forest resources of the Nez Perce National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Disney

    2010-01-01

    As part of a National Forest System cooperative inventory, the Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service conducted a forest resource inventory on the Nez Perce National Forest using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see the section "Inventory methods"). This report presents highlights...

  2. Impact of a drier Early-Mid-Holocene climate upon Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayle, Francis E; Power, Mitchell J

    2008-05-27

    This paper uses a palaeoecological approach to examine the impact of drier climatic conditions of the Early-Mid-Holocene (ca 8000-4000 years ago) upon Amazonia's forests and their fire regimes. Palaeovegetation (pollen data) and palaeofire (charcoal) records are synthesized from 20 sites within the present tropical forest biome, and the underlying causes of any emergent patterns or changes are explored by reference to independent palaeoclimate data and present-day patterns of precipitation, forest cover and fire activity across Amazonia. During the Early-Mid-Holocene, Andean cloud forest taxa were replaced by lowland tree taxa as the cloud base rose while lowland ecotonal areas, which are presently covered by evergreen rainforest, were instead dominated by savannahs and/or semi-deciduous dry forests. Elsewhere in the Amazon Basin there is considerable spatial and temporal variation in patterns of vegetation disturbance and fire, which probably reflects the complex heterogeneous patterns in precipitation and seasonality across the basin, and the interactions between climate change, drought- and fire susceptibility of the forests, and Palaeo-Indian land use. Our analysis shows that the forest biome in most parts of Amazonia appears to have been remarkably resilient to climatic conditions significantly drier than those of today, despite widespread evidence of forest burning. Only in ecotonal areas is there evidence of biome replacement in the Holocene. From this palaeoecological perspective, we argue against the Amazon forest 'dieback' scenario simulated for the future.

  3. Replacement Saltwell Pumping System Document Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELLOMY, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document bibliography is prepared to identify engineering documentation developed during the design of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. The bibliography includes all engineering supporting documents and correspondence prepared prior to the deployment of the system in the field. All documents referenced are available electronically through the Records Management Information System (RMIS). Major components of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System include the Sundyne Canned Motor Pump, the Water Filter Skid, the Injection Water Skid and the Backflow Preventer Assembly. Drawing H-14-104498 provides an index of drawings (fabrication details, PandIDs, etc.) prepared to support development of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. Specific information pertaining to new equipment can be found in Certified Vendor Information (CVI) File 50124. This CVI file has been established specifically for new equipment associated with the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System

  4. The future of rapid bridge deck replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Replacing aging, deteriorated infrastructure often requires road closures and traffic detours which impose : inconvenience and delay on commerce and members of the motoring public. Accelerated bridge construction : techniques often use precast member...

  5. Proper Installation of Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  6. Assessing Window Replacement Options | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  7. Logistic Vehicle System Replacement Cost Estimate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinson, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    The Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) was originally fielded from 1985-1989. Most of the LVS fleet will reach end-of-service life in 2005, therefore the goal of the Logistics Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR...

  8. Steam-generator replacement sets new marks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how, in one of the most successful steam-generator replacement experiences at PWRs worldwide, the V C Summer retrofit exceeded plant goals for critical-path duration, radiation, exposure, and radwaste generation. Intensive planning and teamwork, combined with the firm support of station management and the use of mockups to prepare the work crews for activity in a radiological environment, were key factors in the record performance achieved by South Carolina Electric and Gas Co (SCE and G) in replacing three steam generators at V C Summer nuclear station. The 97-day, two-hour breaker-to-breaker replacement outage -- including an eight-day delay for repair of leak in a small-bore seal-injection line of a reactor coolant pump (unrelated to the replacement activities) -- surpassed the project goal by over one day. Moreover, the outage was only 13 hours shy of the world record held by Virginia Power Co's North Anna Unit 1

  9. Nuclear facilities: repair and replacement technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The oldest operating reactors are more than 35 years old and are now facing major maintenance operations. The first replacement of a pressurizer took place in autumn 2005 at the St-Lucie plant (Usa) while steam generators have been currently replaced since 1983. Nuclear industry has to adapt to this new market by proposing innovative technological solutions in the reactor maintenance field. This document gathers the 9 papers presented at the conference. The main improvements concern repair works on internal components of PWR-type reactors, the replacement of major components of the primary coolant circuit and surface treatments to limit the propagation of damages. The first paper shows that adequate design and feedback experience are good assets to manage the ageing of a nuclear unit. Another paper shows that a new repair method of a relief valve can avoid its replacement. (A.C.)

  10. Guide to optimized replacement of equipment seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, J.F.

    1990-03-01

    A reevaluation of current scheduled replacement intervals of polymeric seals in plant equipment can achieve significant benefits. Information is provided which has the potential for increasing replacement intervals based on better information on how seals have performed through unique nuclear industry tests to qualify equipment, improved elastomers and increased knowledge of the failure mechanisms and related performance. The research was performed by reviewing applications of elastomeric seals in nuclear plants and practice associated with defining seal replacement intervals in the nuclear power and other industries. Performance indicators and how they predict degradation of seals were evaluated. Guidelines and a flow chart for reevaluating seal replacement intervals are provided. 29 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  12. Machine replacement, Network Externalities and Investment Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ruiz

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a model where agents decide on the timing of replacement of ageing machines. The optimal replacement policy for an agent is influenced by other agents' decisions because the productivity of a particular vintage displays network externalities that set in with a lag. In equilibrium, agents follow innovation cycles with a frequency that is lower than optimal, so there is too much delay. One extreme case is the possibility of inefficient collapse: for some parameters there is ...

  13. Equipment Replacement Decision Making: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei (David); Gemar, Mason D.; Machemehl, Randy

    2012-01-01

    The primary function of equipment managers is to replace the right equipment at the right time and at the lowest overall cost. In this paper, the opportunities and challenges associated with equipment replacement optimization (ERO) are discussed in detail. First, a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art and state-of-the practice literature for the ERO problem is conducted. Second, a dynamic programming (DP) based optimization solution methodology is presented to solve the ERO problem. T...

  14. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  15. Infective endocarditis following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Gary; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult.......Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult....

  16. Forest report 2016; Waldzustandsbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  17. 78 FR 18307 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register of January 31, 2013, concering a notice of meeting for the Forest Resource...

  18. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  19. Forest health from different perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Kolb; M. R. Wagner; W. W. Covington

    1995-01-01

    Forest health is an increasingly important concept in natural resource management. However, definition of forest health is difficult and dependent on human perspective. From a utilitarian perspective, forest health has been defined by the production of forest conditions which directly satisfy human needs. From an ecosystem-centered perspective, forest health has been...

  20. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  1. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  2. International examples of steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechmann, K.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1979-1980 a total of twelve nuclear power plants world-wide have had their steam generators replaced. The replacement of the Combustion steam generators in the Millstone-2 plant in the United States was completed very recently. Steam generator replacement activities are going on at present in four plants. In North Anna, the steam generators have been under replacement since January 1990. In Japan, preparations have been started for Genkai-1. Since January 1992, the two projects in Beznau-1, Switzerland, and Doel-3, Belgium, have bee planned and executed in parallel. Why steam generator replacement? There are a number of defect mechanisms which give rise to the need for early steam generator replacement. One of the main reasons is the use of Inconel-600 as material for the heating tubes. Steam generator heating tubes made of Inconel-600 have been known to exhibit their first defects due to stress corrosion cracking after less than one year of operation. (orig.) [de

  3. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  5. Missouri Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dale D. Gormanson; Douglas M. Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full cycle of annual inventories (2009-2013) of Missouri's forests, completed in 2013, reports that there are an estimated 15.5 million acres of forest land in the State. An estimated 60 percent of the forest land area is in sawtimber size stands, 30 percent are pole timber size, and 10 percent are seedling/sapling size or nontstocked. The net volume of...

  6. Maine Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; Thomas Albright; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third 5-year annualized inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2013 after more than 3170 forested plots were measured. Maine contains more than 17.6 million acres of forest land, an area that has been quite stable since 1960, covering more than 82 percent of the total land area. The number of live trees greater than 1 inch in diameter are approaching 24...

  7. Pennsylvania forests 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Albright; William H. McWilliams; Richard H. Widmann; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the third cycle of annualized inventory of Pennsylvania with field data collected from 2009 through 2014. Pennsylvania has 16.9 million acres of forest land dominated by sawtimber stands of oak/hickory and maple/beech/birch forest-type groups. Volumes continue to increase as the forests age with an average of 2,244 cubic feet per acre on...

  8. Ghana's high forests

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35...

  9. Kentucky's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2008-01-01

    Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...

  10. Using urban forest assessment tools to model bird habitat potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Susannah B.; Nislow, Keith H.; Nowak, David J.; DeStefano, Stephen; King, David I.; Jones-Farrand, D. Todd

    2014-01-01

    The alteration of forest cover and the replacement of native vegetation with buildings, roads, exotic vegetation, and other urban features pose one of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. As more land becomes slated for urban development, identifying effective urban forest wildlife management tools becomes paramount to ensure the urban forest provides habitat to sustain bird and other wildlife populations. The primary goal of this study was to integrate wildlife suitability indices to an existing national urban forest assessment tool, i-Tree. We quantified available habitat characteristics of urban forests for ten northeastern U.S. cities, and summarized bird habitat relationships from the literature in terms of variables that were represented in the i-Tree datasets. With these data, we generated habitat suitability equations for nine bird species representing a range of life history traits and conservation status that predicts the habitat suitability based on i-Tree data. We applied these equations to the urban forest datasets to calculate the overall habitat suitability for each city and the habitat suitability for different types of land-use (e.g., residential, commercial, parkland) for each bird species. The proposed habitat models will help guide wildlife managers, urban planners, and landscape designers who require specific information such as desirable habitat conditions within an urban management project to help improve the suitability of urban forests for birds.

  11. Threatened and neglected forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellicane, P.J.; Gutkowski, R.M.; Czarnock, J.

    1997-01-01

    Polands once considerable forest resource suffered destruction during World War II and is now a victim of the legacy of past forest practices, the toxic effects of industrial pollution, and the urgent needs of its people today. Polish forest are threatened by a variety of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. Extremes of climate and declining groundwater tables add to the problem. Pollution is the most serious problem, particularly air pollution. Much of the air pollution in Poland is attributable to mining and burning high-sulfur coal. Besides describing the causes of the forest decline, this article discusses solutions

  12. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  13. Forest report 2014; Waldzustandsbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    This forest report of Hesse (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, and water quality of forest streams.

  14. Complementary models of tree species-soil relationships in old-growth temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    context-dependent tree species-soil relationships occur simultaneouslyinold-grow the temperate forests, with context-dependent relationships strongest for organically cycled elements, and site-independent relationships strongest for weather able elements with in organic cycling phases. These models provide complementary explanations for patterns of nutrient accumulation and cycling in mixed species old-growth temperate forests.

  15. Forest Policy: Theory and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova N. E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on summarizing the experiences of countries with the developed forest sector (Finland, Sweden, Japan, Germany, Canada, USA, and Russia the forest policy concept, objectives, and tools are viewed. Types of forest users- recipients of the forest policy are singled out in order to form a rational structure of the forest industry on the basis of the society’s priorities in forest management by means of institutional measures

  16. Managing the world's forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R

    1992-06-01

    Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing

  17. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in...

  18. Structural considerations in steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertheau, S.R.; Gazda, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion of the tubes and tube-support structures inside pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators has led many utilities to consider a replacement of the generators. Such a project is a major undertaking for a utility and must be well planned to ensure an efficient and cost-effective effort. This paper discusses various structural aspects of replacement options, such as total or partial generator replacement, along with their associated pipe cuts; major structural aspects associated with removal paths through the equipment hatch or through an opening in the containment wall, along with the related removal processes; onsite movement and storage of the generators; and the advantages and disadvantages of the removal alternatives. This paper addresses the major structural considerations associated with a steam generator replacement project. Other important considerations (e.g., licensing, radiological concerns, electrical requirements, facilities for management and onsite administrative activities, storage and fabrication activities, and offsite transportation) are not discussed in this paper, but should be carefully considered when undertaking a replacement project

  19. Hip or knee replacement - in the hospital after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip replacement surgery - after - self-care; Knee replacement surgery - after - self-care ... taking walks in the hallways with help. After knee replacement, some surgeons recommend using a continuous passive ...

  20. Why 'a forest conscienceness'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Calver; H. Bigler-Cole; G. Bolton; J. Dargavel; A. Gaynor; P. Horwitz; J. Mills; G. Wardell-Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The phrase 'a forest conscienceness' was used in a major statement made by Charles Lane Poole, Western Australia's Conservator of Forests from 1916-1921, for the 1920 British Empire Forestry Conference. It is both relevant and contemporary at the beginning of the 21st century. We chose it as the conference theme to encourage engagement with both a...

  1. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  2. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  3. Forest nursery pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Michelle S. Frank; Katy M. Mallams

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Forest Nursery Pests, Agriculture Handbook No. 680, was made possible by the work of many people from around the country. Contributing authors include U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service entomologists and pathologists, university professors and researchers, State extension specialists, consultants, and plant...

  4. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  5. Kansas' forest resources, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Gary J. Brand; Melissa Powers

    2007-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis (NRS-FIA) program is changing to a Web-based, dynamically linked reporting system. As part of the process, this year NRS-FIA is producing this abbreviated summary of 2005 data. This resource bulletin reports on area, volume, and biomass using data from 2001 through 2005. Estimates from...

  6. Why sustain oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  7. Status of Forest Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Michael Dockry

    2013-01-01

    Forest certification systems are voluntary, market-based initiatives to promote the sustainable use of forests. These standards assume that consumers prefer products made from materials grown in an environmentally sustainable fashion, and this in turn creates incentives for companies to adopt responsible environmental practices. One of the major reasons for the...

  8. Forests and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeme Lockaby; Chelsea Nagy; James M. Vose; Chelcy R. Ford; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Pete Caldwell; Erika Cohen; Jennifer Moore Myers

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsForest conversion to agriculture or urban use consistently causes increased discharge, peak flow, and velocity of streams. Subregional differences in hydrologic responses to urbanization are substantial.Sediment, water chemistry indices, pathogens, and other substances often become more concentrated after forest...

  9. Forest, trees and agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Foli, Samson; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Scientific community is concerned to address contemporary issues of food production and conserve tropical forests that support the livelihoods of millions of people. A review of the literature on deforestation, forest utilization, and landscape management for ecosystem services was conducted to i...

  10. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised

  11. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, H. (Hobie) Perry; Gary J. Brand

    2006-01-01

    The annual forest inventory of Wisconsin continues, and this document reports 2001-05 moving averages for most variables and comparisons between 2000 and 2005 for growth, removals, and mortality. Summary resource tables can be generated through the Forest Inventory Mapmaker website at http://ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/index. htm. Estimates from this inventory show a...

  12. Three Steam Generator Replacement Projects in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, R.; Clavier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Since the companies Siemens AG and Framatome S. A. joined their experience and efforts in the field of steam generator replacements and formed a consortium in 1991, the following projects were performed in 1995: Ringhals 3, Tihange 3 and Asco 1. Further projects will follow in 1996, i. e., Doel 4 and Asco 2. Currently, this European consortium is bidding for the contract to replace the steam generators at the Krsko NPP and hopes to be awarded in 1996. An overview of the way the Consortium Siemens and Framatome approaches SG replacement projects is given based on the projects performed in 1995. Various aspects of project planning, management, licensing, personnel qualification and techniques used on site will be discussed. (author)

  13. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  14. Optimal timing for intravascular administration set replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Amanda J; Cooke, Marie L; Gillies, Donna; Marsh, Nicole M; Daud, Azlina; McGrail, Matthew R; O'Riordan, Elizabeth; Rickard, Claire M

    2013-09-15

    The tubing (administration set) attached to both venous and arterial catheters may contribute to bacteraemia and other infections. The rate of infection may be increased or decreased by routine replacement of administration sets. This review was originally published in 2005 and was updated in 2012. The objective of this review was to identify any relationship between the frequency with which administration sets are replaced and rates of microbial colonization, infection and death. We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2012), CINAHL (1982 to June 2012), EMBASE (1980 to June 2012), reference lists of identified trials and bibliographies of published reviews. The original search was performed in February 2004. We also contacted researchers in the field. We applied no language restriction. We included all randomized or controlled clinical trials on the frequency of venous or arterial catheter administration set replacement in hospitalized participants. Two review authors assessed all potentially relevant studies. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors by discussion with a third review author. We collected data for seven outcomes: catheter-related infection; infusate-related infection; infusate microbial colonization; catheter microbial colonization; all-cause bloodstream infection; mortality; and cost. We pooled results from studies that compared different frequencies of administration set replacement, for instance, we pooled studies that compared replacement ≥ every 96 hours versus every 72 hours with studies that compared replacement ≥ every 48 hours versus every 24 hours. We identified 26 studies for this updated review, 10 of which we excluded; six did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and four did not report usable data. We extracted data from the remaining 18 references (16 studies) with 5001 participants: study designs included neonate and adult

  15. Replacement of the JRR-3 computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Suwa, Masayuki; Mineshima, Hiromi; Sato, Mitsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    The JRR-3 computer system contributes to stable operation of JRR-3 since 1990. But now about 10 years have passed since it was designed and some problems have occurred. Under these situations, we should replace the old computer system for safe and stable operation. In this replacement, the system is improved as regards man-machine interface and efficiency about maintenance. The new system consists of three functions, which are 'the function of management for operation information' (renewal function), 'the function of management for facility information' (new function) and the function of management for information publication' (new function). By this replacement, New JRR-3 computer system can contribute to safe and stable operation. (author)

  16. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  17. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  18. Replacement of the JRR-3 computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Suwa, Masayuki; Mineshima, Hiromi; Sato, Mitsugu

    2000-01-01

    The JRR-3 computer system contributes to stable operation of JRR-3 since 1990. But now about 10 years have passed since it was designed and some problems have occurred. Under these situations, we should replace the old computer system for safe and stable operation. In this replacement, the system is improved as regards man-machine interface and efficiency about maintenance. The new system consists of three functions, which are 'the function of management for operation information' (renewal function), 'the function of management for facility information' (new function) and the function of management for information publication' (new function). By this replacement, New JRR-3 computer system can contribute to safe and stable operation. (author)

  19. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  20. Severe Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the incidence of minor heterotopic ossification is probably higher than what is usually expected, severe heterotopic ossification (HO is an extremely rare event following total knee replacement surgery. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman who initially had achieved an excellent range of motion following bilateral uncemented rotating platform total knee replacement, before presenting with pain and loss of range of motion at 2 months after surgery. Severe HO was diagnosed on X-rays. Treatment consisted of nonoperative measures only, including physiotherapy with hydrotherapy and anti-inflammatories. She eventually regained her range of motion when seen at 8 months after operation. This case illustrates that nonoperative treatment without the use of radiotherapy or surgery can be used to safely resolve stiffness caused by HO after total knee replacement.

  1. Imaging techniques in transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaife RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert A Quaife, Jennifer Dorosz, John C Messenger, Ernesto E Salcedo Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Calcific aortic stenosis is now understood as a complex valvular degenerative process sharing many risk factors with atherosclerosis. Once patients develop symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis, the only effective treatment is aortic valve replacement. In the past decade, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR has been developed as an alternative to surgery to treat severe calcific aortic stenosis. Cardiac imaging plays a pivotal role in the contemporary management of patients with calcific aortic stenosis, and particularly in patients being considered for TAVR, who demand detailed imaging of the aortic valve apparatus. In this review, we highlight the role of cardiac imaging for patient selection, procedural guidance, and evaluation of results of TAVR. Keywords: aortic stenosis, cardiovascular imaging, transcutaneous aortic valve replacement

  2. Timber tree regeneration along abandoned logging roads in a tropical Bolivian forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Severiche, W.; Fredericksen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Sustainable management of selectively logged tropical forests requires that felled trees are replaced through increased recruitment and growth. This study compares road track and roadside regeneration with regeneration in unlogged and selectively logged humid tropical forest in north-eastern Boli......Sustainable management of selectively logged tropical forests requires that felled trees are replaced through increased recruitment and growth. This study compares road track and roadside regeneration with regeneration in unlogged and selectively logged humid tropical forest in north......-eastern Bolivia. Some species benefited from increased light intensities on abandoned logging roads. Others benefited from low densities of competing vegetation on roads with compacted soils. This was the case for the small-seeded species Ficus boliviana C.C. Berg and Terminalia oblonga (Ruiz & Pav.) Steud. Some...

  3. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  4. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Radiological evaluation of failed total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspa, V.; Aldrovandi, S.; Pompei, G.

    1988-01-01

    The retrospective study of 50 operated cases of cemented total hip replacement and a review of the literature enabled the authors to define the radiological features of the above-mentioned condition. These features include one or more of the following signs: calcar reabsorption, lacunar erosions, modified relatioships between the prosthesis components, sepsis and loosening, periarticular calcifications dislocation and fracture of prosthesis components. Careful evaluation of these radiological features is extremely important for both an early diagnosis of failed total hip replacement and the choice of an adequate surgical treatment

  6. Criteria for the replacement of restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nairn; Lynch, Christopher; Brunton, Paul Brunton

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of a restoration is one of the most common procedures in dentistry. However, the criteria for such intervention, excluding catastrophic failure and persistent discomfort and pain, continue to be the subject of considerable debate. The decision-making process remains subjective...... on the part of the treating clinician, while the evidence base for refurbishment and repair rather than replacement for the management of defective and failing restorations continues to grow and strengthen. This article, prepared as an Academy of Operative Dentistry European Section consensus publication...

  7. Fuzzy logic application for extruders replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Conde Perez dos Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a scenario of uncertainty and imprecision, before taking the replacement analysis, a manager needs to consider the uncertain reality of a problem. In this scenario, the fuzzy logic makes an excellent option. Therefore, it is necessary to make a decision based on the fuzzy model. This study is based on the comparison of two methodologies used in the problem of asset replacement. The study, thus, was based on a comparison between two extruders for polypropylene yarn bibliopegy, comparing mainly the costs involved in maintaining the equipment.

  8. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Tanner, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings

  9. Forest inventory: role in accountability for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland

    2007-01-01

    Forest inventory can play several roles in accountability for sustainable forest management. A first dimension is accountability for national performance. The new field of Criteria and Indicators is an expression of this need. A more familiar role for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program is for assessment and...

  10. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  11. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against Nplantations increased the soil N concentration under the mixed-species stand (N>0.06%) compared to under the pure eucalypt stand (N1% in the mixed stand and CEucalyptus stand).

  12. Restoring Forests and Associated Ecosystem Services on Appalachian Coal Surface Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E.; Burger, James A.; Skousen, Jeffrey G.; Angel, Patrick N.; Barton, Christopher D.; Davis, Victor; Franklin, Jennifer A.

    2011-05-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia has caused extensive replacement of forest with non-forested land cover, much of which is unmanaged and unproductive. Although forested ecosystems are valued by society for both marketable products and ecosystem services, forests have not been restored on most Appalachian mined lands because traditional reclamation practices, encouraged by regulatory policies, created conditions poorly suited for reforestation. Reclamation scientists have studied productive forests growing on older mine sites, established forest vegetation experimentally on recent mines, and identified mine reclamation practices that encourage forest vegetation re-establishment. Based on these findings, they developed a Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA) that can be employed by coal mining firms to restore forest vegetation. Scientists and mine regulators, working collaboratively, have communicated the FRA to the coal industry and to regulatory enforcement personnel. Today, the FRA is used routinely by many coal mining firms, and thousands of mined hectares have been reclaimed to restore productive mine soils and planted with native forest trees. Reclamation of coal mines using the FRA is expected to restore these lands' capabilities to provide forest-based ecosystem services, such as wood production, atmospheric carbon sequestration, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and water quality protection to a greater extent than conventional reclamation practices.

  13. Winning and losing tree species of reassembly in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice B Hanberry

    Full Text Available We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity.

  14. Winning and Losing Tree Species of Reassembly in Minnesota’s Mixed and Broadleaf Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanberry, Brice B.; Palik, Brian J.; He, Hong S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota’s mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity. PMID:23613911

  15. Winning and losing tree species of reassembly in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanberry, Brice B; Palik, Brian J; He, Hong S

    2013-01-01

    We examined reassembly of winning and losing tree species, species traits including shade and fire tolerance, and associated disturbance filters and forest ecosystem types due to rapid forest change in the Great Lakes region since 1850. We identified winning and losing species by changes in composition, distribution, and site factors between historical and current surveys in Minnesota's mixed and broadleaf forests. In the Laurentian Mixed Forest, shade-intolerant aspen replaced shade-intolerant tamarack as the most dominant tree species. Fire-tolerant white pine and jack pine decreased, whereas shade-tolerant ashes, maples, and white cedar increased. In the Eastern Broadleaf Forest, fire-tolerant white oaks and red oaks decreased, while shade-tolerant ashes, American basswood, and maples increased. Tamarack, pines, and oaks have become restricted to sites with either wetter or sandier and drier soils due to increases in aspen and shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species on mesic sites. The proportion of shade-tolerant species increased in both regions, but selective harvest reduced the applicability of functional groups alone to specify winners and losers. Harvest and existing forestry practices supported aspen dominance in mixed forests, although without aspen forestry and with fire suppression, mixed forests will transition to a greater composition of shade-tolerant species, converging to forests similar to broadleaf forests. A functional group framework provided a perspective of winning and losing species and traits, selective filters, and forest ecosystems that can be generalized to other regions, regardless of species identity.

  16. A Novel Modelling Approach for Predicting Forest Growth and Yield under Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Irfan Ashraf

    Full Text Available Global climate is changing due to increasing anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. Forest managers need growth and yield models that can be used to predict future forest dynamics during the transition period of present-day forests under a changing climatic regime. In this study, we developed a forest growth and yield model that can be used to predict individual-tree growth under current and projected future climatic conditions. The model was constructed by integrating historical tree growth records with predictions from an ecological process-based model using neural networks. The new model predicts basal area (BA and volume growth for individual trees in pure or mixed species forests. For model development, tree-growth data under current climatic conditions were obtained using over 3000 permanent sample plots from the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Data to reflect tree growth under a changing climatic regime were projected with JABOWA-3 (an ecological process-based model. Model validation with designated data produced model efficiencies of 0.82 and 0.89 in predicting individual-tree BA and volume growth. Model efficiency is a relative index of model performance, where 1 indicates an ideal fit, while values lower than zero means the predictions are no better than the average of the observations. Overall mean prediction error (BIAS of basal area and volume growth predictions was nominal (i.e., for BA: -0.0177 cm(2 5-year(-1 and volume: 0.0008 m(3 5-year(-1. Model variability described by root mean squared error (RMSE in basal area prediction was 40.53 cm(2 5-year(-1 and 0.0393 m(3 5-year(-1 in volume prediction. The new modelling approach has potential to reduce uncertainties in growth and yield predictions under different climate change scenarios. This novel approach provides an avenue for forest managers to generate required information for the management of forests in transitional periods of climate change. Artificial intelligence

  17. Spatiotemporal Change Detection in Forest Cover Dynamics Along Landslide Susceptible Region of Karakoram Highway, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Barira; Iqbal, Javed

    2018-04-01

    Forest Cover dynamics and its understanding is essential for a country's social, environmental, and political engagements. This research provides a methodical approach for the assessment of forest cover along Karakoram Highway. It has great ecological and economic significance because it's a part of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. Landsat 4, 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI imagery for the years 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2016 respectively were subjected to supervised classification in ArcMap 10.5 to identify forest change. The study area was categorized into five major land use land cover classes i.e., Forest, vegetation, urban, open land and snow cover. Results from post classification forest cover change maps illustrated notable decrease of almost 26 % forest cover over the time period of 26 years. The accuracy assessment revealed the kappa coefficients 083, 0.78, 0.77 and 0.85, respectively. Major reason for this change is an observed replacement of native forest cover with urban areas (12.5 %) and vegetation (18.6 %) However, there is no significant change in the reserved forests along the study area that contributes only 2.97 % of the total forest cover. The extensive forest degradation and risk prone topography of the region has increased the environmental risk of landslides. Hence, effective policies and forest management is needed to protect not only the environmental and aesthetic benefits of the forest cover but also to manage the disaster risks. Apart from the forest assessment, this research gives an insight of land cover dynamics, along with causes and consequences, thereby showing the forest degradation hotspots.

  18. The Replacement Operation for CCP Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolino, Marco; Etalle, Sandro; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    1999-01-01

    The Replacement is a very powerful transformation operation which - both within the functional paradigm as well as within the logic programming one - can micic the most common transformation operations such as unfold, fold, switching, distribution. Because of this flexibility , it can be incorrect

  19. Rapid replacement/construction of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Bridges are a key element of the transportation system because they control system capacity and are normally built at : the highest cost to the system. Once a bridge reaches its useful design service life, it needs to be replaced or : reconstructed i...

  20. The Replacement Operation for CCP Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolino, Marco; Bossi, Annalisa; Etalle, Sandro; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2000-01-01

    The Replacement is a very powerful transformation operation which - both within the functional paradigm as well as within the logic programming one - can micic the most common transformation operations such as unfold, fold, switching, distribution. Because of this flexibility , it can be incorrect

  1. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore...

  2. Strategic Capital Budgeting : Asset Replacement Under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlina, G.; Kort, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a firm's decision to replace an existing production technology with a new, more cost-efficient one.Kulatilaka and Perotti [1998, Management Science] nd that, in a two-period model, increased product market uncertainty could encourage the firm to invest strategically in the new

  3. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicvaric, D.; Susnic, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2004-01-01

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  4. of surfactant replacement therapy at Johannesburg Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of surfactant replacement therapy (SRl) on the outcome of ... oxygen requirements) was compared with that of a historical control group of ... The use of SRT added to the total cost of treating a patient ventilated for HMD.

  5. vein thrombosis in elective hip replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consensus forum was convened to evaluate the economic considerations associated with prophylaxis against thrombo-embolic disease in patients undergoing hip replacement therapy in South Africa. This forum consists of orthopaedic surgeons, vascular surgeons and a statistician. Methods. The forum was instructed to ...

  6. Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement in Octogenarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Tasoglu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzes the long-term outcomes of mechanical aortic valve replacement in octogenarian patients. Material and Method: A retrospective review was performed on 23 octogenarian patients who underwent mechanical aortic valve replacement. Hospital mortality, postoperative intensive care unit stay, hospital stay and long-term results was examined. Estimates of the cumulative event mortality rate were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The mean age of all patients was 82.9±2.3 years and most were men (65.22%. The median ejection fraction was 45%. 73.91% of patients were in New York Heart Association class III-IV. Thirteen patients (56.52% in this study underwent combined procedure, the remaining 10 (43.48% patients underwent isolated aortic valve replacement. The most common valve size was 23 mm. The mean intensive care unit stay was 1.76±1.14 days. The mean hospital stay was 9.33±5.06 days. No complications were observed in 56.52% patients during their hospital stay. The overall hospital mortality was 8.7%. Follow-up was completed for all 23 patients. Median follow-up time was 33 months (1-108 months. Actuarial survival among discharged from hospital was 59% at 5 years. Discussion: Mechanical aortic valve replacement is a safe procedure in octogenarian patients and can be performed safely even in combined procedure.

  7. 5/8'' baffle bolt replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinaud, T.; Grypczynski, D.

    1999-01-01

    Both Framatome Nuclear Services in France and its U.S. arm, FT1, are now equipped with baffle bolt inspection and replacement packages. These packages allow them to tackle baffle bold degradation on both two- and three-loop nuclear power plants. Framatome and FT1 together are world leaders in addressing reactor vessel internal bolting concerns

  8. Optimal strategies for a replacement model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, P.B.

    2000-01-01

    We examine a replacement system with discrete-time Markovian deterioration and finite state space $\\{0,\\ldots,N\\}$. State 0 stands for a new system, and the higher the state the worse the system; a system in state $N$ is considered to be in a {\\it bad state}. We impose the condition that the

  9. Who Will Replace Those Vanishing Execs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    2000-01-01

    Many top-level managers are retiring early. Programs to prepare their replacements have been scaled back. Many companies are offering phased retirement plans, redesigning jobs, and paying for spouses to go along on business trips to keep their managers a little longer. (JOW)

  10. Probability Issues in without Replacement Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, A. H.; Al-Sabah, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sampling without replacement is an important aspect in teaching conditional probabilities in elementary statistics courses. Different methods proposed in different texts for calculating probabilities of events in this context are reviewed and their relative merits and limitations in applications are pinpointed. An alternative representation of…

  11. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  12. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  13. Heart valve replacements with regenerative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, P.E.; Fioretta, E.S.; Frese, L.; Pasqualini, F.S.; Hoerstrup, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe valvular dysfunctions (e.g., stenosis and insufficiency) is increasing, leading to over 300,000 valves implanted worldwide yearly. Clinically used heart valve replacements lack the capacity to grow, inherently requiring repetitive and high-risk surgical interventions during

  14. Older Person's Guide to Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who prep for surgery and follow through with physical therapy afterward can further boost their odds of a good outcome. If you’re considering joint replacement surgery, here’s what the experts with the American Geriatrics Society’s Foundation for Health in Aging (FHA) suggest: Ask ...

  15. Continuous vasopressin replacement in diabetes insipidus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, C; Butt, W

    1990-01-01

    Five children who developed diabetes insipidus as a manifestation of severe brain injury received continuous intravenous treatment with a solution containing both aqueous vasopressin and appropriate crystalloid replacement. Polyuria, hypernatraemia, and decreased urine osmolalities were safely corrected in all patients within eight to 28 hours.

  16. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  17. CANDU-PHW fuel channel replacement experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.T.; Kakaria, B.K.

    1982-09-01

    One of the main characteristics of the CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor is the use of pressure tubes rather than one large pressure vessel to contain the fuel and coolant. This provides an inherent design capability to permit their replacement in an expeditious manner, without seriously affecting the high capacity factors of the reactor units. Of th eight Ontario Hydro commercial nuclear generating units, the lifetime performance places seven of them (including two that have had some of their fuel channels replaced), in the top ten positions in the world's large nuclear-electric unit performance ranking. Pressure tube cracks in the rolled joint region have resulted in 70 fuel channels being replaced in three reactor units, the latest being at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A', Unit 2 in February 1982. The rolled joint design and rolling procedures have been modified to eliminate this problem on CANDU units subsequent to Bruce 'A'. This paper describes the CANDU pressure tube performance history and expectations, and the tooling and procedures used to carry out the fuel channel replacement

  18. Telerehabilitation Feasibility in Total Joint Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Nelson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite documented benefits, many Total Joint Replacement (TJR patients find it difficult to access rehabilitation following discharge from hospital. One solution to improve access for TJR patients is telerehabilitation. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of introducing a telerehabilitation program for TJR patients.   TJR patients at QEII Jubilee Hospital were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding their access, feelings towards and preferences in using technology. Seventy-five patients were recruited. Most patients had computer access (72% and internet (69% at home. Sixty-five percent of participants were willing to participate in telerehabilitation. A significant difference was found between older and younger patients. Watching videos on an electronic device was the preferred method for a technology-based home exercise program and phone call the preferred method of communication.  Results indicate telerehabilitation in the TJR population is feasible from the perspective of access to, feelings toward, and preferences for technology. Keywords: Hip replacement, Knee replacement, Telerehabilitation, Telemedicine, Total joint replacement

  19. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma...

  20. Antibiotic Dosing in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alexander R; Mueller, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate antibiotic dosing is critical to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. The addition of continuous renal replacement therapy makes achieving appropriate antibiotic dosing more difficult. The lack of continuous renal replacement therapy standardization results in treatment variability between patients and may influence whether appropriate antibiotic exposure is achieved. The aim of this study was to determine if continuous renal replacement therapy effluent flow rate impacts attaining appropriate antibiotic concentrations when conventional continuous renal replacement therapy antibiotic doses were used. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effect of effluent flow rate variance on pharmacodynamic target attainment for cefepime, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam. Published demographic and pharmacokinetic parameters for each antibiotic were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. Monte Carlo simulations of 5000 patients were evaluated for each antibiotic dosing regimen at the extremes of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommended effluent flow rates (20 and 35 mL/kg/h). The probability of target attainment was calculated using antibiotic-specific pharmacodynamic targets assessed over the first 72 hours of therapy. Most conventional published antibiotic dosing recommendations, except for levofloxacin, reach acceptable probability of target attainment rates when effluent rates of 20 or 35 mL/kg/h are used. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Joint Replacement Email to a friend * required fields ...

  2. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  3. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  4. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  5. The Challenge of Forest Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Nagendra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists and practitioners have conventionally used forest plots or transects for monitoring changes in attributes of forest condition over time. However, given the difficulty in collecting such data, conservation practitioners frequently rely on the judgment of foresters and forest users for evaluating changes. These methods are rarely compared. We use a dataset of 53 forests in five countries to compare assessments of forest change from forest plots, and forester and user evaluations of changes in forest density. We find that user assessments of changes in tree density are strongly and significantly related to assessments of change derived from statistical analyses of randomly distributed forest plots. User assessments of change in density at the shrub/sapling level also relate to assessments derived from statistical evaluations of vegetation plots, but this relationship is not as strong and only weakly significant. Evaluations of change by professional foresters are much more difficult to acquire, and less reliable, as foresters are often not familiar with changes in specific local areas. Forester evaluations can instead better provide valid single-time comparisons of a forest with other areas in a similar ecological zone. Thus, in forests where local forest users are present, their evaluations can be used to provide reliable assessments of changes in tree density in the areas they access. However, assessments of spatially heterogeneous patterns of human disturbance and regeneration at the shrub/sapling level are likely to require supplemental vegetation analysis.

  6. Forests of North Dakota, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Paulson

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  7. Forests of North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  8. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service... and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding... review proposals for forest projects and recommending funding. DATES: The meeting will be held Thursday...

  9. International Trade In Forest Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Joseph Buongiomo; David N. Wear; Jacek P. Siry

    2003-01-01

    The 21st century continues a trend of rapid growth in both international trade of forest products and a concern for forests. These two trends are connected. Forces causing trade growth are linked to the loss of native forest resources in some countries and the accumulation of nonnative forest resources in other countries. Factors increasing trade...

  10. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  11. Forests of east Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Dooley

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  12. Climate change and forest diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.N. Sturrock; Susan Frankel; A. V. Brown; Paul Hennon; J. T. Kliejunas; K. J. Lewis; J. J. Worrall; A. J. Woods

    2011-01-01

    As climate changes, the effects of forest diseases on forest ecosystems will change. We review knowledge of relationships between climate variables and several forest diseases, as well as current evidence of how climate, host and pathogen interactions are responding or might respond to climate change. Many forests can be managed to both adapt to climate change and...

  13. Forests of North Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  14. Forests of North Carolina, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  15. Forests of North Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  16. Forests of North Carolina, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown; Samuel Lambert

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  17. Steam generator replacement from ALARA aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, I.; Breznik, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is going to consider radiological related parameters important for steam generator replacement (SGR) implementation. These parameters are identified as ALARA related parameters, owner-contractor relationship, planning, health physics with logistic services, and time required for the replacement. ALARA related parameters such as source or initial dose rate and plant system configuration define the initial conditions for the planning. There is room to optimise work planning. managerial procedures and also the staff during the implementation phase. The overview of these general considerations is based on the following background: using internationally available data and the experience of one of the vendors, i.e. Siemens-Framatome, and management experience of SG replacement which took place at Krsko NPP in the spring of 2000. Generally plant decisions on maintenance or repair procedures under radiation conditions take into account ALARA considerations. But in the main it is difficult to adjudge the results of an ALARA study, usually in the form of a collective dose estimate, because a comparison standard is missing. That is, very often the planned work is of a one-off nature so comparisons are not possible or the scopes are not the same. In such a case the collective doses for other types of work are looked at and a qualitative evaluation is made. In the case of steam generator replacement this is not the case. Over years of steam generator replacements world-wide a standard has been developed gradually. The first part of the following displays an overview of SGR and sets the Krsko SGR in perspective by applying dose analysis. The second part concentrates on the Krsko SGR itself and its ALARA aspects. (authors)

  18. Roles of birds and bats in early tropical-forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-Domene, Marinés; Martínez-Garza, Cristina; Palmas-Pérez, Sebastián; Rivas-Alonso, Edith; Howe, Henry F

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of tropical forest depended in large part on seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals that transported seeds into planted forest patches. We tested effectiveness of dispersal agents as revealed by established recruits of tree and shrub species that bore seeds dispersed by birds, bats, or both. We documented restoration of dispersal processes over the first 76 months of experimental restoration in southern Mexico. Mixed-model repeated-measures randomized-block ANOVAs of seedlings recruited into experimental controls and mixed-species plantings from late-secondary and mature forest indicated that bats and birds played different roles in the first years of a restoration process. Bats dispersed pioneer tree and shrub species to slowly regenerating grassy areas, while birds mediated recruitment of later-successional species into planted stands of trees and to a lesser extent into controls. Of species of pioneer trees and shrubs established in plots, seven were primarily dispersed by birds, three by bats and four by both birds and bats. Of later-successional species recruited past the seedling stage, 13 were of species primarily dispersed by birds, and six were of species dispersed by both birds and bats. No later-successional species primarily dispersed by bats established in control or planted plots. Establishment of recruited seedlings was ten-fold higher under cover of planted trees than in grassy controls. Even pre-reproductive trees drew fruit-eating birds and the seeds that they carried from nearby forest, and provided conditions for establishment of shade-tolerant tree species. Overall, after 76 months of cattle exclusion, 94% of the recruited shrubs and trees in experimental plots were of species that we did not plant.

  19. Roles of birds and bats in early tropical-forest restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinés de la Peña-Domene

    Full Text Available Restoration of tropical forest depended in large part on seed dispersal by fruit-eating animals that transported seeds into planted forest patches. We tested effectiveness of dispersal agents as revealed by established recruits of tree and shrub species that bore seeds dispersed by birds, bats, or both. We documented restoration of dispersal processes over the first 76 months of experimental restoration in southern Mexico. Mixed-model repeated-measures randomized-block ANOVAs of seedlings recruited into experimental controls and mixed-species plantings from late-secondary and mature forest indicated that bats and birds played different roles in the first years of a restoration process. Bats dispersed pioneer tree and shrub species to slowly regenerating grassy areas, while birds mediated recruitment of later-successional species into planted stands of trees and to a lesser extent into controls. Of species of pioneer trees and shrubs established in plots, seven were primarily dispersed by birds, three by bats and four by both birds and bats. Of later-successional species recruited past the seedling stage, 13 were of species primarily dispersed by birds, and six were of species dispersed by both birds and bats. No later-successional species primarily dispersed by bats established in control or planted plots. Establishment of recruited seedlings was ten-fold higher under cover of planted trees than in grassy controls. Even pre-reproductive trees drew fruit-eating birds and the seeds that they carried from nearby forest, and provided conditions for establishment of shade-tolerant tree species. Overall, after 76 months of cattle exclusion, 94% of the recruited shrubs and trees in experimental plots were of species that we did not plant.

  20. Influence of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Gait Mechanics of the Replaced and Non-Replaced Limb During Stair Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standifird, Tyler W; Saxton, Arnold M; Coe, Dawn P; Cates, Harold E; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Songning

    2016-01-01

    This study compared biomechanics during stair ascent in replaced and non-replaced limbs of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with control limbs of healthy participants. Thirteen TKA patients and fifteen controls performed stair ascent. Replaced and non-replaced knees of TKA patients were less flexed at contact compared to controls. The loading response peak knee extension moment was greater in control and non-replaced knees compared with replaced. The push-off peak knee abduction moment was elevated in replaced limbs compared to controls. Loading and push-off peak hip abduction moments were greater in replaced limbs compared to controls. The push-off peak hip abduction moment was greater in non-replaced limbs compared to controls. Future rehabilitation protocols should consider the replaced knee and also the non-replaced knee and surrounding joints. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sustainable forest-based bioenergy in Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kraxner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the Russian forest biomass-based bioenergy sector. It is shown that presently – although given abundant resources – the share of heat and electricity from biomass is very minor. With the help of two IIASA models (G4M and BeWhere, future green-field bioenergy plants are identified in a geographically explicit way. Results indicate that by using 3.78 Mt (or 6.16 M m3, twice as much heat and electricity than is presently available from forest biomass could be generated. This amount corresponds to 3.3 % of the total annual wood removals or 12 % of the annually harvested firewood, or about 11 % of illegal logging. With this amount of wood, it is possible to provide an additional 444 thousand households with heat and 1.8 M households with electricity; and at the same time to replace 2.7 Mt of coal or 1.7 Mt of oil or 1.8 G m3 of natural gas, reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels by 716 Mt of CO2-equivalent per year. A multitude of co-benefits can be quantified for the socio-economic sector such as green jobs linked to bioenergy. The sustainable sourcing of woody biomass for bioenergy is possible as shown with the help of an online crowdsourcing tool Geo-Wiki.org for forest certification.

  2. Predicting stem total and assortment volumes in an industrial Pinus taeda L. forest plantation using airborne laser scanning data and random forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos Alberto Silva; Carine Klauberg; Andrew Thomas Hudak; Lee Alexander Vierling; Wan Shafrina Wan Mohd Jaafar; Midhun Mohan; Mariano Garcia; Antonio Ferraz; Adrian Cardil; Sassan Saatchi

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in the management of pine plantations result in multiple industrial and environmental benefits. Remote sensing techniques can dramatically increase the efficiency of plantation management by reducing or replacing time-consuming field sampling. We tested the utility and accuracy of combining field and airborne lidar data with Random Forest, a supervised...

  3. 49 CFR 541.6 - Requirements for replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for replacement parts. 541.6 Section....6 Requirements for replacement parts. (a) Each replacement part for a part specified in § 541.5(a) must have the registered trademark of the manufacturer of the replacement part, or some other unique...

  4. 30 CFR 800.30 - Replacement of bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement of bonds. 800.30 Section 800.30... REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.30 Replacement... replacement performance bonds. Replacement of a performance bond pursuant to this section shall not constitute...

  5. 31 CFR 361.8 - Claim for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim for replacement. 361.8 Section... § 361.8 Claim for replacement. Claim for replacement shall be made in writing to the Secretary, to the..., Parkersburg, WV 26106-1328. The claim, accompanied by a recommendation regarding the manner of replacement...

  6. 7 CFR 3015.167 - Replacement of equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement of equipment. 3015.167 Section 3015.167..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Property § 3015.167 Replacement of equipment. (a) If needed, equipment may be exchanged for replacement equipment. Replacement of equipment may be...

  7. Age replacement models: A summary with new perspectives and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa N.; Magid Hamouda, Abdel; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Age replacement models are fundamental to maintenance theory. This paper summarizes our new perspectives and hods in age replacement models: First, we optimize the expected cost rate for a required availability level and vice versa. Second, an asymptotic model with simple calculation is proposed by using the cumulative hazard function skillfully. Third, we challenge the established theory such that preventive replacement should be non-random and only corrective replacement should be made for the unit with exponential failure. Fourth, three replacement policies with random working cycles are discussed, which are called overtime replacement, replacement first, and replacement last, respectively. Fifth, the policies of replacement first and last are formulated with general models. Sixth, age replacement is modified for the situation when the economical life cycle of the unit is a random variable with probability distribution. Finally, models of a parallel system with constant and random number of units are taken into considerations. The models of expected cost rates are obtained and optimal replacement times to minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically. Further studies and potential applications are also indicated at the end of discussions of the above models. - Highlights: • Optimization of cost rate for availability level is discussed and vice versa. • Asymptotic and random replacement models are discussed. • Overtime replacement, replacement first and replacement last are surveyed. • Replacement policy with random life cycle is given. • A parallel system with random number of units is modeled.

  8. Decadal-Scale Reduction in Forest Net Ecosystem Production Following Insect Defoliation Contrasts with Short-Term Impacts of Prescribed Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Clark; Heidi J. Renninger; Nicholas Skowronski; Michael Gallagher; Karina V.R.  Schäfer

    2018-01-01

    Understanding processes underlying forest carbon dynamics is essential for accurately predicting the outcomes of non-stand-replacing disturbance in intermediate-age forests. We quantified net ecosystem production (NEP), aboveground net primary production (ANPP), and the dynamics of major carbon (C) pools before and during the decade following invasive insect...

  9. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  10. Forest decline through radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, G.; Kollert, R.

    1985-01-01

    Is more serious damage of forest observed in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. How are those decline patterns to be explained. Does the combined effect of radioactivity and different air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxidants etc.) have an influence in the decline of the forest. In what way do synergisms, i.e. mutually enhanced effects, participate. How does natural and artificial radioactivity affect the chemistry of air in the polluted atmosphere. What does this mean for the extension of nuclear energy, especially for the reprocessing plant planned. Damage in the forests near nuclear and industrial plants was mapped and the resulting hypotheses on possible emittors were statistically verified. Quantitative calculations as to the connection between nuclear energy and forest decline were carried through: they demand action. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  12. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  13. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  14. An economic valuation of the recreational benefits associated with nature-based forest management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Busse; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas Hedemark

    2007-01-01

    The presented study aimed at identifying and assessing public preferences for variations in tree species composition, tree height structure, and presence of dead trees left for natural decay – forest characteristics which are likely to be affected when subjecting stands to nature-based forest...... of the mentioned three forest characteristics. The highest WTP (1939 DKK, approx. 262 EUR) was found for a scenario of replacing the baseline case stand of even-aged conifers with no dead trees left for natural decay with a mixture of conifers and broadleaves of varying heights, and leaving a few dead trees...

  15. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  16. Estimating the shear strength of concrete with coarse aggregate replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Folagbade Olusoga Peter ORIOLA; George MOSES; Jacob Oyeniyi AFOLAYAN; John Engbonye SANI

    2017-01-01

    For economic, environmental and practical reasons, it is desirable to replace the constituents of concrete with wastes and cheaper alternative materials. However, it is best when such replacements are done at optimum replacement levels. In view of this, a laboratory investigative test was carried out to evaluate the shear strength of concrete with coarse aggregate replacement by Coconut Shell and by Waste Rubber Tyre. The coarse aggregate replacement was done at recommended optimum proportion...

  17. New focus on forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Unger; Divya Abhat.; Constance Millar; Greg [featured scientists] McPherson

    2010-01-01

    It would appear that forests are finally having their day—and not a moment too soon. Around the world, trees are dying at an alarming rate, besieged by illegal logging, agricultural conversion, wildfire, and drought. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 13 million  hectares of the world’s forests are now lost to deforestation every year....

  18. Forest Microclimate Characteristics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    1123–32. This study area was located in the coastal mountain range of the Serra do Palmital, Saquarema, in the State of Rio de Janeiro , Brazil...the Atlantic forest in Rio de Janeiro . The objective of the study was to reveal whether forest fragmentation produces biotic and abiotic differences...Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina North Carolina percentage cover of individual species, percentage cover of exotic species, species richness

  19. Forests and carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Forests store much carbon and their growth can be a carbon sink if disturbance or harvesting has killed or removed trees or if trees that can now regrow are planted where they did not historically occur. Forests and long-lived wood products currently offset 310 million metric tons of U.S. fossil fuel emissions of carbon--20 percent of the total (Pacala et al. 2007)....

  20. Maryland's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Lister; J.L Perdue; C.J. Barnett; B.J. Butler; S.J. Crocker; G.M. Domke; D. Griffith; M.A. Hatfield; C.M. Kurtz; A.J. Lister; R.S. Morin; W.K. Moser; M.D. Nelson; C.H. Perry; R.J. Piva; R. Riemann; R. Widmann; C.W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of Maryland's forests reports approximately 2.5 million acres of forest land, which covers 40 percent of the State's land area and with a total volume of more than 2,100 cubic feet per acre. Nineteen percent of the growing-stock volume is yellow-poplar, followed by red maple (13 percent) and loblolly pine (10 percent). All...