WorldWideScience

Sample records for replace dying cells

  1. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  2. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-06-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Die menswaardigheid van die menslike embrio : die debat tot dusver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vorster, J.M

    2011-01-01

    ...), "Stem cell research: the ethical issues". Rakende die gebruik van menslike embrio's in stamselnavorsing, behandel hierdie artikels die potensiaal van die menslike embrio, die morele status (menswaardigheid...

  4. Fuel cells in mobile applications; Die Brennstoffzelle im mobilen Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.K.H. [Daimler Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    The contribution presents the new electric vehicle developed by Daimler Benz AG, NECAR II (New Electric Car), which is fuelled by fuel cells. The future prospects of this technology are discussed. (MM) [Deutsch] Berichtet wird kurz ueber das von Daimler Benz AG vorgestellte Brennstoffzellen-Elektrofahrzeug NECAR II - New Electric Car - sowie ueber die Zukunftsaussichten dieses Antriebs. (MM) (MM)

  5. Reliability Testing the Die-Attach of CPV Cell Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, N.; Sweet, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    Results and progress are reported for a course of work to establish an efficient reliability test for the die-attach of CPV cell assemblies. Test vehicle design consists of a ~1 cm2 multijunction cell attached to a substrate via several processes. A thermal cycling sequence is developed in a test-to-failure protocol. Methods of detecting a failed or failing joint are prerequisite for this work; therefore both in-situ and non-destructive methods, including infrared imaging techniques, are being explored as a method to quickly detect non-ideal or failing bonds.

  6. Inosine Released from Dying or Dead Cells Stimulates Cell Proliferation via Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMany antitumor therapies induce apoptotic cell death in order to cause tumor regression. Paradoxically, apoptotic cells are also known to promote wound healing, cell proliferation, and tumor cell repopulation in multicellular organisms. We aimed to characterize the nature of the regenerative signals concentrated in the micromilieu of dead and dying cells.MethodsCultures of viable melanoma B16F10 cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS in the presence of dead and dying cells, their supernatants (SNs, or purified agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate the stimulation of proliferation. Viable cell quantification was performed by either flow cytometry of harvested cells or by crystal violet staining of adherent cells. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of cell SNs were deployed to identify the nature of growth-promoting factors. Coimplantation of living cells in the presence of SNs collected from dead and dying cells and specific agonists was used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo.ResultsThe stimulation of proliferation of few surviving cells by bystander dead cells was confirmed for melanoma cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary FLS. We found that small soluble molecules present in the protein-free fraction of SNs of dead and dying cells were responsible for the promotion of proliferation. The nucleoside inosine released by dead and dying cells acting via adenosine receptors was identified as putative inducer of proliferation of surviving tumor cells after irradiation and heat treatment.ConclusionInosine released by dead and dying cells mediates tumor cell proliferation via purinergic receptors. Therapeutic strategies surmounting this pathway may help to reduce the rate of recurrence after radio- and chemotherapy.

  7. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  8. The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, G; Hayashi, I

    1976-12-01

    The replacement of serum by hormones in cell culture media. (Reemplazo del suero por hormonas en el medio de cultivo de células). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 120-121, 1976. The serum used in cell culture media can be replaced by a mixture of hormones and some accesory blood factors. The pituitary cell line GH3 can be grown in a medium in which serum is replaced by triiodothyronine, transferrin, parathormone, tyrotrophin releasing hormone and somatomedins. Hela and BHK cell strains can also be grown in serum free medium supplemented with hormones. Each cell type appears to have different hormonal requirements yet it may found that some hormones are required for most cell types.

  9. Prospects for replacement of auditory neurons by stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fuxin; Edge, Albert S B

    2013-03-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is caused by degeneration of hair cells or auditory neurons. Spiral ganglion cells, the primary afferent neurons of the auditory system, are patterned during development and send out projections to hair cells and to the brainstem under the control of largely unknown guidance molecules. The neurons do not regenerate after loss and even damage to their projections tends to be permanent. The genesis of spiral ganglion neurons and their synapses forms a basis for regenerative approaches. In this review we critically present the current experimental findings on auditory neuron replacement. We discuss the latest advances with a focus on (a) exogenous stem cell transplantation into the cochlea for neural replacement, (b) expression of local guidance signals in the cochlea after loss of auditory neurons, (c) the possibility of neural replacement from an endogenous cell source, and (d) functional changes from cell engraftment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dying cells protect survivors from radiation-induced cell death in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Bilak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a phenomenon wherein induction of cell death by a variety of means in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila larvae resulted in the activation of an anti-apoptotic microRNA, bantam. Cells in the vicinity of dying cells also become harder to kill by ionizing radiation (IR-induced apoptosis. Both ban activation and increased protection from IR required receptor tyrosine kinase Tie, which we identified in a genetic screen for modifiers of ban. tie mutants were hypersensitive to radiation, and radiation sensitivity of tie mutants was rescued by increased ban gene dosage. We propose that dying cells activate ban in surviving cells through Tie to make the latter cells harder to kill, thereby preserving tissues and ensuring organism survival. The protective effect we report differs from classical radiation bystander effect in which neighbors of irradiated cells become more prone to death. The protective effect also differs from the previously described effect of dying cells that results in proliferation of nearby cells in Drosophila larval discs. If conserved in mammals, a phenomenon in which dying cells make the rest harder to kill by IR could have implications for treatments that involve the sequential use of cytotoxic agents and radiation therapy.

  11. Cell replacement therapy for central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danju Tso; Randall D. McKinnon

    2015-01-01

    The brain and spinal cord can not replace neurons or supporting glia that are lost through trau-matic injury or disease. In pre-clinical studies, however, neural stem and progenitor cell transplants can promote functional recovery. Thus the central nervous system is repair competent but lacks endogenous stem cell resources. To make transplants clinically feasible, this ifeld needs a source of histocompatible, ethically acceptable and non-tumorgenic cells. One strategy to generate pa-tient-speciifc replacement cells is to reprogram autologous cells such as ifbroblasts into pluripotent stem cells which can then be differentiated into the required cell grafts. However, the utility of pluripotent cell derived grafts is limited since they can retain founder cells with intrinsic neoplastic potential. A recent extension of this technology directly reprograms ifbroblasts into the ifnal graft-able cells without an induced pluripotent stem cell intermediate, avoiding the pluripotent caveat. For both types of reprogramming the conversion efficiency is very low resulting in the need to amplify the cells in culture which can lead to chromosomal instability and neoplasia. Thus to make reprogramming biology clinically feasible, we must improve the efifciency. The ultimate source of replacement cells may reside in directly reprogramming accessible cells within the brain.

  12. Engineering Replacement Tissues with Amniotic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    chondrogenic conditions (2D) formed tight nodes after 14 days. From left to right, nodes stained positive for alcian blue, safranin -O, and collagen II. 3...potential (alcian blue, safranin -O, collagen II staining) and colony forming ability were established (Figure 2). We were able to expand the cell...groups appear to be negative for Safranin -O stain (Figure 16) and weakly positive for alcian blue stain (Figure 17). Upon examination at a higher

  13. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Battery Replacement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    Electrochemical Society Meeting, ABS#1089, Oct. 16th 2008, Hawaii, USA. 2. Hall, T.D.; Grice, C.R.; Swenson, L.R.; Smotkin, E.S., “Reversible and irreversible...degradation modes of DMFC anode catalysts”, 212th Electrochemical Society Meeting, ABS#819, Oct. 14th 2008, Hawaii, USA. 3. Yuan Zhang, James Cooper...Paul McGinn “Combinatorial Screening of Fuel Cell Catalysts” 211th Electrochemical Society Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, May, 2008 4. Hall, T.D.; Grice, Corey

  14. Myelin restoration: progress and prospects for human cell replacement therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Gregory B; Rowitch, David H; Petryniak, Magdalena A

    2011-06-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the primary source of myelin in the adult central nervous system (CNS), and their dysfunction or loss underlies several diseases of both children and adults. Dysmyelinating and demyelinating diseases are thus attractive targets for cell-based strategies since replacement of a single presumably homogeneous cell type has the potential to restore functional levels of myelin. To understand the obstacles that cell-replacement therapy might face, we review oligodendrocyte biology and emphasize aspects of oligodendrocyte development that will need to be recapitulated by exogenously transplanted cells, including migration from the site of transplantation, axon recognition, terminal differentiation, axon wrapping, and myelin production and maintenance. We summarize studies in which different types of myelin-forming cells have been transplanted into the CNS and highlight the continuing challenges regarding the use of cell-based therapies for human white matter disorders.

  15. New protein involved in the replacement of cell molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with colleagues from La Trobe University, Australia, scientists at Aarhus University have discovered and defined a novel enzyme involved in the replacement and renewal of cell molecules. The enzyme exerts its function within the so-called mitochondria - small “enclosed” compartme......In collaboration with colleagues from La Trobe University, Australia, scientists at Aarhus University have discovered and defined a novel enzyme involved in the replacement and renewal of cell molecules. The enzyme exerts its function within the so-called mitochondria - small “enclosed...

  16. New protein involved in the replacement of cell molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Buchhave

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with colleagues from La Trobe University, Australia, scientists at Aarhus University have discovered and defined a novel enzyme involved in the replacement and renewal of cell molecules. The enzyme exerts its function within the so-called mitochondria - small “enclosed......” compartments in the human cell - where most cellular energy is produced. The findings may ultimately explain the cause of certain diseases with relation to the mitochondria....

  17. Mitochondrial gene replacement in primate offspring and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Ma, Hong; Clepper, Lisa; Woodward, Joy; Li, Ying; Ramsey, Cathy; Kolotushkina, Olena; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2009-09-17

    Mitochondria are found in all eukaryotic cells and contain their own genome (mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Unlike the nuclear genome, which is derived from both the egg and sperm at fertilization, the mtDNA in the embryo is derived almost exclusively from the egg; that is, it is of maternal origin. Mutations in mtDNA contribute to a diverse range of currently incurable human diseases and disorders. To establish preclinical models for new therapeutic approaches, we demonstrate here that the mitochondrial genome can be efficiently replaced in mature non-human primate oocytes (Macaca mulatta) by spindle-chromosomal complex transfer from one egg to an enucleated, mitochondrial-replete egg. The reconstructed oocytes with the mitochondrial replacement were capable of supporting normal fertilization, embryo development and produced healthy offspring. Genetic analysis confirmed that nuclear DNA in the three infants born so far originated from the spindle donors whereas mtDNA came from the cytoplast donors. No contribution of spindle donor mtDNA was detected in offspring. Spindle replacement is shown here as an efficient protocol replacing the full complement of mitochondria in newly generated embryonic stem cell lines. This approach may offer a reproductive option to prevent mtDNA disease transmission in affected families.

  18. Zirconium phosphate containing membranes for the methanol fuel cell; Zirkoniumphosphathaltige Membranen fuer die Methanol-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugaro, M.

    2004-07-01

    Successful applications of the direct methanol fuel cell depend on the development of suitable membranes for separating gas spaces. Suitable polymers must be found as membrane matrix materials. The polymermatrix must be modified for achieving optimum pervaporation characteristics and sufficient conductivity. Doping with colloidal particles with good proton conductivity is an interesting option. Protonated zirconium phosphate was selected because of its high proton conductivity and was doped additionally with bivalent, trivalent and tetravalent ions. The electrokinetic mobility, surface charge density, particle size and particle size distribution were measured as well as the swelling characteristics. Dispersions prepared in aqueous solvents did not yield useful membranes. Better results, and even quite good results in some cases, were achieved with water-free dispersions in DMF. Initially, zirconium hydrogen phosphates were modified with Ti4+ and Ti3+. Y3+ doped membranes were not sufficiently stable, so that bleaching chloride was used. Results were better with this modification, so that a combination of lead and titanium doping (Ti4+, Ti3+) was tried. No further improvement was possible. The best results were obtained with combinations of lead and aerosil. [German] Ein erfolgreicher Einsatz der Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzelle ist an die Entwicklung geeigneter Membranen gebunden, die die Gasraeume voneinander trennen. Ohne geeignete Membranen ist ein dauerhafter Einsatz unmoeglich. Probleme bereitet einmal die Auswahl geeigneter Polymere als Matrix der Membran. Um das richtige Pervaporationsverhalten und eine ausreichende Leitfaehigkeit zu erhalten, muss die Polymermatrix modifiziert werden. Eine der aussichtsreichen Moeglichkeiten ist der Einbau kolloidaler Teilchen, die eine Protonenleitfaehigkeit aufweisen. Ausgewaehlt wurde Zirkoniumphosphat in der protonierten Form, da diese Schichtverbindung eine beachtliche Protonenleitfaehigkeit besitzt. Um die

  19. Stem cell-derived hepatocytes for functional liver replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eChrist

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC represent an alternate cell source to substitute for primary hepatocytes in hepatocyte transplantation because of their multiple differentiation potential and nearly unlimited availability. They may differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and maintain specific hepatocyte functions also after transplantation into the regenerating livers of mice or rats both under injury and non-injury conditions. Depending on the underlying liver disease their mode of action is either to replace the diseased liver tissue or to support liver regeneration through their anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic as well as their pro-proliferative action.

  20. Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer; Cunha, Larissa D; Park, Sunmin; Yang, Mao; Lu, Qun; Orchard, Robert; Li, Quan-Zhen; Yan, Mei; Janke, Laura; Guy, Cliff; Linkermann, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W; Green, Douglas R

    2016-05-01

    Defects in clearance of dying cells have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mice lacking molecules associated with dying cell clearance develop SLE-like disease, and phagocytes from patients with SLE often display defective clearance and increased inflammatory cytokine production when exposed to dying cells in vitro. Previously, we and others described a form of noncanonical autophagy known as LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), in which phagosomes containing engulfed particles, including dying cells, recruit elements of the autophagy pathway to facilitate maturation of phagosomes and digestion of their contents. Genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in the Atg5 (ref. 8) and possibly Atg7 (ref. 9) genes, involved in both canonical autophagy and LAP, as markers of a predisposition for SLE. Here we describe the consequences of defective LAP in vivo. Mice lacking any of several components of the LAP pathway show increased serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies, glomerular immune complex deposition, and evidence of kidney damage. When dying cells are injected into LAP-deficient mice, they are engulfed but not efficiently degraded and trigger acute elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines but not anti-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-10. Repeated injection of dying cells into LAP-deficient, but not LAP-sufficient, mice accelerated the development of SLE-like disease, including increased serum levels of autoantibodies. By contrast, mice deficient in genes required for canonical autophagy but not LAP do not display defective dying cell clearance, inflammatory cytokine production, or SLE-like disease, and, like wild-type mice, produce IL-10 in response to dying cells. Therefore, defects in LAP, rather than canonical autophagy, can cause SLE-like phenomena, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE.

  1. Regulation of VH replacement by B cell receptor-mediated signaling in human immature B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Lange, Miles D; Hong, Sang Yong; Xie, Wanqin; Xu, Kerui; Huang, Lin; Yu, Yangsheng; Ehrhardt, Götz R A; Zemlin, Michael; Burrows, Peter D; Su, Kaihong; Carter, Robert H; Zhang, Zhixin

    2013-06-01

    VH replacement provides a unique RAG-mediated recombination mechanism to edit nonfunctional IgH genes or IgH genes encoding self-reactive BCRs and contributes to the diversification of Ab repertoire in the mouse and human. Currently, it is not clear how VH replacement is regulated during early B lineage cell development. In this article, we show that cross-linking BCRs induces VH replacement in human EU12 μHC(+) cells and in the newly emigrated immature B cells purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors or tonsillar samples. BCR signaling-induced VH replacement is dependent on the activation of Syk and Src kinases but is inhibited by CD19 costimulation, presumably through activation of the PI3K pathway. These results show that VH replacement is regulated by BCR-mediated signaling in human immature B cells, which can be modulated by physiological and pharmacological treatments.

  2. Histones from Dying Renal Cells Aggravate Kidney Injury via TLR2 and TLR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Scherbaum, Christina Rebecca; Darisipudi, Murthy Narayana; Mulay, Shrikant R.; Hägele, Holger; Lichtnekert, Julia; Hagemann, Jan Henrik; Rupanagudi, Khader Valli; Ryu, Mi; Schwarzenberger, Claudia; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian; Uhl, Bernd; Reichel, Christoph A.; Krombach, Fritz; Monestier, Marc; Liapis, Helen; Moreth, Kristin; Schaefer, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    In AKI, dying renal cells release intracellular molecules that stimulate immune cells to secrete proinflammatory cytokines, which trigger leukocyte recruitment and renal inflammation. Whether the release of histones, specifically, from dying cells contributes to the inflammation of AKI is unknown. In this study, we found that dying tubular epithelial cells released histones into the extracellular space, which directly interacted with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 (TLR2) and TLR4 to induce MyD88, NF-κB, and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling. Extracellular histones also had directly toxic effects on renal endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, direct injection of histones into the renal arteries of mice demonstrated that histones induce leukocyte recruitment, microvascular vascular leakage, renal inflammation, and structural features of AKI in a TLR2/TLR4-dependent manner. Antihistone IgG, which neutralizes the immunostimulatory effects of histones, suppressed intrarenal inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and tubular cell necrosis and improved excretory renal function. In summary, the release of histones from dying cells aggravates AKI via both its direct toxicity to renal cells and its proinflammatory effects. Because the induction of proinflammatory cytokines in dendritic cells requires TLR2 and TLR4, these results support the concept that renal damage triggers an innate immune response, which contributes to the pathogenesis of AKI. PMID:22677551

  3. Enhanced lentiviral transduction of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the presence of conditioned medium from dying monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masurier, C; Boutin, S; Veron, P; Bernard, J; Danos, O; Davoust, J

    2007-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are attractive vehicles for the transduction of human dendritic cells (DCs) in order to mobilize their endogenous antigen presentation pathways. We analyzed here how to improve the efficiency of LV transduction, which we performed at the initial stages of the differentiation of purified monocytes into dendritic cells (Mo-DCs). Using LVs pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope G glycoprotein (VSV-G), we found that a conditioned medium derived from dying monocytes (MCM) improved by 2- to 10- fold the proportion of transduced Mo-DCs. This enhanced transduction efficiency requires the presence of MCM during the initial stage of LV transduction and does not affect the phenotype and antigen presentation function of terminally differentiated Mo-DCs. Importantly, we found that MCM derived from a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1, was equally effective. The MCM activity was heat stable (56 degrees C) and was present in the soluble fraction after high-speed centrifugation. Altogether our results show that a soluble factor present in dying monocyte cultures can replace advantageously facilitating agents such as Polybrene, to achieve high LV transductions levels. This protocol can be performed with autologous monocytes and is therefore applicable in clinical settings.

  4. Stable algorithms for magnetotomography of fuel cells; Stabile Algorithmen fuer die Magnetotomographie an Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannert, Martin

    2010-07-01

    For optimum fuel cell operation, the power distribution must be as homogeneous as possible. It is therefore important for research, diagnosis and maintenance to be able to measure the power distribution inside a fuel cell. The book presents a non-invasive measuring method that reconstructs the internal power distribution from the magnetic field outside the fuel cell. Reconstruction algorithms are developed and tested for stability. The algorithms comprise a certain prior knowledge of the real power distribution; on the other hand, the magnetic field is split up numerically into different part-fields in order to reduce the complexity of the problem. [German] Um einen optimalen Brennstoffzellenbetrieb zu gewaehrleisten, ist es notwendig, eine moeglichst homogene Stromverteilung sicher zu stellen. Daher ist es aus Forschungs-, Diagnose- und Wartungszwecken von Interesse, die Stromverteilung in einer Zelle messen zu koennen. In diesem Buch wird ein nicht-invasives Messverfahren vorgestellt, das aus dem Magnetfeld ausserhalb der Brennstoffzelle die innere Stromverteilung rekonstruiert. Dabei werden Rekonstruktionsalgorithmen entwickelt und auf ihre Stabilitaet hin analysiert. Die Algorithmen beinhalten zum einen ein gewisses Vorwissen ueber die wahre Stromverteilung, zum anderen wird zuerst das Magnetfeld numerisch in unterschiedliche Teilfelder aufgespaltet, um so die Komplexitaet des Problems zu reduzieren.

  5. Cleaning of solar cell arrays; Rausgeputzt fuer die Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Katrin

    2010-07-01

    The degree of soiling of solar cell arrays depends on the installation site, which may involve, e.g., animal shelter air, bird droppings or desert sand. Heavy rain has a cleaning effect, or else professional cleaning with osmotic water will be necessary. (orig.)

  6. How we live and why we die the secret lives of cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Cells are the basis of all life in the universe. Our bodies are made up of billions of them: an incredibly complex society that governs everything, from movement to memory and imagination. When we age, it is because our cells slow down; when we get ill, it is because our cells mutate or stop working. In "How We Live and Why we Die", Wolpert provides a clear explanation of the science that underpins our lives. He explains how our bodies function and how we derived from a single cell - the embryo. He examines the science behind the topics that are much discussed but rarely understood - stem-cell research, cloning, DNA - and explains how all life evolved from just one cell. Lively and passionate, "How We Live and Why we Die" is an accessible guide to understanding the human body and, essentially, life itself.

  7. Perspectives for computational modeling of cell replacement for neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Aimone

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of anatomically-constrained neural networks has provided significant insights regarding the response of networks to neurological disorders or injury. A logical extension of these models is to incorporate treatment regimens to investigate network responses to intervention. The addition of nascent neurons from stem cell precursors into damaged or diseased tissue has been used as a successful therapeutic tool in recent decades. Interestingly, models have been developed to examine the incorporation of new neurons into intact adult structures, particularly the dentate granule neurons of the hippocampus. These studies suggest that the unique properties of maturing neurons can impact circuit behavior in unanticipated ways. In this perspective, we review the current status of models used to examine damaged CNS structures with particular focus on cortical damage due to stroke. Secondly, we suggest that computational modeling of cell replacement therapies can be made feasible by implementing approaches taken by current models of adult neurogenesis. The development of these models is critical for generating hypotheses regarding transplant therapies and improving outcomes by tailoring transplants to desired effects.

  8. Perspectives for computational modeling of cell replacement for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimone, James B.; Weick, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of anatomically-constrained neural networks has provided significant insights regarding the response of networks to neurological disorders or injury. A logical extension of these models is to incorporate treatment regimens to investigate network responses to intervention. The addition of nascent neurons from stem cell precursors into damaged or diseased tissue has been used as a successful therapeutic tool in recent decades. Interestingly, models have been developed to examine the incorporation of new neurons into intact adult structures, particularly the dentate granule neurons of the hippocampus. These studies suggest that the unique properties of maturing neurons, can impact circuit behavior in unanticipated ways. In this perspective, we review the current status of models used to examine damaged CNS structures with particular focus on cortical damage due to stroke. Secondly, we suggest that computational modeling of cell replacement therapies can be made feasible by implementing approaches taken by current models of adult neurogenesis. The development of these models is critical for generating hypotheses regarding transplant therapies and improving outcomes by tailoring transplants to desired effects.

  9. Perspectives for computational modeling of cell replacement for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimone, James B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weick, Jason P. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In mathematical modeling of anatomically-constrained neural networks we provide significant insights regarding the response of networks to neurological disorders or injury. Furthermore, a logical extension of these models is to incorporate treatment regimens to investigate network responses to intervention. The addition of nascent neurons from stem cell precursors into damaged or diseased tissue has been used as a successful therapeutic tool in recent decades. Interestingly, models have been developed to examine the incorporation of new neurons into intact adult structures, particularly the dentate granule neurons of the hippocampus. These studies suggest that the unique properties of maturing neurons, can impact circuit behavior in unanticipated ways. In this perspective, we review the current status of models used to examine damaged CNS structures with particular focus on cortical damage due to stroke. Secondly, we suggest that computational modeling of cell replacement therapies can be made feasible by implementing approaches taken by current models of adult neurogenesis. The development of these models is critical for generating hypotheses regarding transplant therapies and improving outcomes by tailoring transplants to desired effects.

  10. Stem cells for cell replacement therapy: a therapeutic strategy for HD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Anne; Svendsen, Clive N

    2014-09-15

    Much interest has been expressed over the last couple of decades in the potential application of stem cells to medicine, both for research and diagnostic tools and as a source of donor cells for therapeutic purposes. Potential therapeutic applications include replacement of cells in many body organs where the capacity for intrinsic repair is limited, including the pancreas, heart, and brain. A key challenge is to generate the relevant donor cell types, and this is particularly challenging in the brain where the number of different neuronal subtypes is so great. Although dopamine neuron replacement in Parkinson's disease has been the focus of most clinical studies, great interest has been shown in this approach for other disorders, including Huntington's disease. Replacing complete neural circuits in the adult brain is clearly challenging, and there are many other complexities with regard to both donor cells and host. This article presents the pros and cons of taking a cell therapy approach in Huntington's disease. It considers the implantation both of cells that are already of the same neural subtype as those lost in the disease process (ie, primary fetal cells derived from the developing striatum) and those derived from stem cells, which require "directing" toward that phenotype.

  11. Influence of microglia on retinal progenitor cell turnover and cell replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, A D

    2009-10-01

    Microglia within the retina are continually replaced from the bone marrow and are the resident myeloid-derived cells within the retina. Throughout life, microglial function is conditioned by the microenvironment affording immunomodulation to control inflammation as well as functioning to enable normal development and, during adulthood, maintain normal retinal function. In adulthood, recent evidence supports the concept that the retina continues to replace cells to maintain optimal function. Although in some cases after injury, degeneration, or inflammation there remains an inextricable decline in visual function inferring a deficit in cell replacement, the deficit could be explained by microglial cell activation influencing the ability of either retinal progenitor cells or recruited progenitor cells to integrate and differentiate appropriately. Myeloid cell response differs depending on insult: it is evident that during inflammation microglia and the infiltrating myeloid cell function are conditioned by the cytokine environment. Indeed, modulating myeloid cell function therapeutically suppresses disease in experimental models of autoimmunity, whereas in non-inflammatory models microglia have little or no effect on the course of degeneration. The extent of myeloid activation can help determine retinal progenitor cell turnover. Retinal progenitor cells may be isolated from adult human retina, which, albeit limited, display mitotic activity and can differentiate. Microglial activation secreting IL-6 limits progenitor cell turnover and the extent to which differentiation to post-mitotic retinal cells occurs. Such experimental data illustrate the need to develop methods to replenish normal retinal myeloid cell function facilitating integration, either by cell transplantation or by encouraging retinal progenitor cells to recover retinal function.

  12. Symposium on hydrogen technology and fuel cells - opportunities for the economy; Symposium Wassertechnologie und Brennstoffzellen - Chancen fuer die Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This volume contains 17 contributions on fuel cell technology and on the infrastructure required for hydrogen production and supply, in the form of abstracts and short reports. [German] Dieser Band enthaelt 17 Beitraege zum Themenkreis Brennstoffzellentechnologie und die dazu erforderliche Infrastruktur fuer die Wasserstofferzeugung und -versorgung in Form von Kurzfassungen und Vortragsfolien.

  13. Die binding van die konfessie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  14. Programmed cell death in floral organs: how and why do flowers die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hilary J

    2006-03-01

    Flowers have a species-specific, limited life span with an irreversible programme of senescence, which is largely independent of environmental factors, unlike leaf senescence, which is much more closely linked with external stimuli. Life span of the whole flower is regulated for ecological and energetic reasons, but the death of individual tissues and cells within the flower is co-ordinated at many levels to ensure correct timing. Some floral cells die selectively during organ development, whereas others are retained until the whole organ dies. Pollination is an important floral cell death trigger in many species, and its effects are mediated by the plant growth regulator (PGR) ethylene. In some species ethylene is a major regulator of floral senescence, but in others it plays a very minor role and the co-ordinating signals involved remain elusive. Other PGRs such as cytokinin and brassinosteroids are also important but their role is understood only in some specific systems. In two floral cell types (the tapetum and the pollen-tube) there is strong evidence for apoptotic-type cell death, similar to that in animal cells. However, in petals there is stronger evidence for an autophagous type of cell death involving endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles and the vacuole. Proteases are important, and homologues to animal caspases, key regulators of animal cell death, exist in plants. However, their role is not yet clear. There are similarities to cell death in other plant organs, and many of the same genes are up-regulated in both leaf and petal senescence; however, there are also important differences for example in the role of PGRs. Understanding gene regulation may help to understand cell death in floral organs better, but alone it cannot provide all the answers.

  15. Die instelling van die doop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Venter

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Die eerste plek in die evangeliebeskrywings waar daar van die doop as ’n opdrag van Jesus Christus gepraat word en waar die betekenis die duidelikste uitkristalliseer, staan in Matteus 28 : 16 - 20. Heilshistories gesien, is dit die begin van kerklike inlywing van die wat gehoor het hoedat Jesus sy koninkryk proklameer, die evangelie aanvaar en tot bekering kom. Vir die doel van hierdie artikel word hierdie gedeelte ondersoek om te sien hoe die instelling geskied het, wat die plek en betekenis van die Christelike doop is.

  16. PEM Fuel Cell System Replacement for BA-559O Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    H Power Corp. developed a fuel cell system to demonstrate that fuel cells can be effectively designed for missions requiring a high degree of...equivalent in size to that of a BA-5590 battery. The system comprised an air-cooled fuel cell stack, a metal-hydride-based fuel storage section, and a

  17. Potential application of induced pluripotent stem cells in cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L W; Kuang, F; Wei, L C; Ding, Y X; Yung, K K L; Chan, Y S

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a common degenerative disease in humans, is known to result from loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and is characterized by severe motor symptoms of tremor, rigidity, bradykinsia and postural instability. Although levodopa administration, surgical neural lesion, and deep brain stimulation have been shown to be effective in improving parkinsonian symptoms, cell replacement therapy such as transplantation of dopamine neurons or neural stem cells has shed new light on an alternative treatment strategy for PD. While the difficulty in securing donor dopamine neurons and the immuno-rejection of neural transplants largely hinder application of neural transplants in clinical treatment, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) derived from somatic cells may represent a powerful tool for studying the pathogenesis of PD and provide a source for replacement therapies in this neurodegenerative disease. Yamanaka et al. [2006, 2007] first succeeded in generating iPS cells by reprogramming fibroblasts with four transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc in both mouse and human. Animal studies have further shown that iPS cells from fibroblasts could be induced into dopamine neurons and transplantation of these cells within the central nervous system improved motor symptoms in the 6-OHDA model of PD. More interestingly, neural stem cells or fibroblasts from patients can be efficiently reprogrammed and subsequently differentiated into dopamine neurons. Derivation of patient-specific iPS cells and subsequent differentiation into dopamine neurons would provide a disease-specific in vitro model for disease pathology, drug screening and personalized stem cell therapy for PD. This review summarizes current methods and modifications in producing iPS cells from somatic cells as well as safety concerns of reprogramming procedures. Novel reprogramming strategies that deter abnormal permanent genetic and epigenetic alterations are essential for

  18. Cell Competition Promotes Phenotypically Silent Cardiomyocyte Replacement in the Mammalian Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Villa del Campo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous anabolic capacity in cell populations can trigger a phenomenon known as cell competition, through which less active cells are eliminated. Cell competition has been induced experimentally in stem/precursor cell populations in insects and mammals and takes place endogenously in early mouse embryonic cells. Here, we show that cell competition can be efficiently induced in mouse cardiomyocytes by mosaic overexpression of Myc during both gestation and adult life. The expansion of the Myc-overexpressing cardiomyocyte population is driven by the elimination of wild-type cardiomyocytes. Importantly, this cardiomyocyte replacement is phenotypically silent and does not affect heart anatomy or function. These results show that the capacity for cell competition in mammals is not restricted to stem cell populations and suggest that stimulated cell competition has potential as a cardiomyocyte-replacement strategy.

  19. Die topkwark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tegen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van die belangrikheid van die onlangs ontdekte topkwark by Fermilab in Chicago word gegee. Daar word aangetnon dat die topkwark belangrik is in fisika van die Oerknal, oftewel "Big Bang", en in die Standaard Model van Elementêredeeltjie-fisika. Toepaslike literatuur vir verdere studie kan van die lys van verwysings in hierdie kort, nietegniese artikel, nagegaan word.

  20. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Battery Replacement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    required for maximum performance of electrochemical flow reactors . A reactant stream will favor the path of least resistance, potentially starving re...gions of the electrode assembly and lowering reactor efficiency. Array fuel cells are ideal for evaluation of catalytic layers, gas diffusion...layers, solid electrolytes , electrode fabrica- tion methods and flow uniformity. The coupling of Array fuel cell analysis with a modular flow-field

  1. Pulmonary heart valve replacement using stabilized acellular xenogeneic scaffolds; effects of seeding with autologous stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpa Marius Mihai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We hypothesized that an ideal heart valve replacement would be acellular valve root scaffolds seeded with autologous stem cells. To test this hypothesis, we prepared porcine acellular pulmonary valves, seeded them with autologous adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs and implanted them in sheep and compared them to acellular valves.

  2. Acquisition of cell polarity during cell cycle and oral replacement in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczanowska, Janina; Kaczanowski, Szymon; Kiersnowska, Mauryla; Fabczak, Hanna; Tulodziecka, Karolina; Kaczanowski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to search for a mechanism responsible for the acquisition of cell polarity in a ciliate Tetrahymena. Homologs of the mammalian genes coding for CDC42-GSK3beta- MARK/PAR1-MAPs proteins were found in the Tetrahymena genome (Eisen et al., 2006, and this study). These proteins belong to a pathway which controls assembly and disassembly of microtubule bundles and cell polarity in neural cells. In Tetrahymena, there are two types of morphogenesis: divisional and oral replacement (OR). In divisional morphogenesis, an elongation of longitudinal microtubule bundles (LMs) takes place during cell division. In contrast, in OR type morphogenesis, which occurs in starved non-dividing cells, a polar retraction of LMs occurs. In T. pyriformis, the frequency of developmental switch to OR morphogenesis increases in the presence of wortmannin, an inhibitor of the CDC42-GSK3beta-MARK pathway. In contrast, wortmannin when applied to dividing cells does not affect divisional morphogenesis. Using immunostaining with the antibody against mammalian mitotic phosphoproteins (MPM-2) we show that these proteins co-localize with the LMs and are distributed along the anterior-posterior gradient. In addition, we show that during OR type morphogenesis, the fate of LMs correlates with the anterior-posterior gradient of instability of the cortical structures. We used the conditional mouth-less mutant of T. thermophila (Tiedtke et al., 1988) to test if the presence of the oral apparatus is required for the maintenance of cell polarity. We discuss our results in relation to the hypothesis of GSK3-beta-MARK pathway involvement in the acquisition of cell polarity in Tetrahymena.

  3. Safe Replacement For Asbestos In Nickel/Hydrogen Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.

    1993-01-01

    Polyethylene fibers and potassium titanate particles perform as well as asbestos. New material for separators of nickel-hydrogen electrochemical cells offers performance similar to that of asbestos separator material without adverse health effects. In one version, separator contains pure polyethylene fibers, and may or may not contain supplementary latices as bonding agents. In standard wet-laying papermaking process, fibers pressed into mat, then dried. Mat used as is or pressed further in hot calender stack to soften and fuse fibers at crossing points. Treatment reduces porosity and increases resistance of mat to passage of air bubbles under pressure. In alternative version, matrix of 20 to 40 percent polyethylene fibers and 60 to 80 percent potassium titanate particles formed on paper machine, then dried. It, too, can be treated by hot calendering.

  4. Tooth replacement and putative odontogenic stem cell niches in pharyngeal dentition of medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduweli, Dawud; Baba, Otto; Tabata, Makoto J; Higuchi, Kazunori; Mitani, Hiroshi; Takano, Yoshiro

    2014-04-01

    The small-sized teleost fish medaka, Oryzias latipes, has as many as 1000 pharyngeal teeth undergoing continuous replacement. In this study, we sought to identify the tooth-forming units and determine its replacement cycles, and further localize odontogenic stem cell niches in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka to gain insights into the mechanisms whereby continuous tooth replacement is maintained. Three-dimensional reconstruction of pharyngeal epithelium and sequential fluorochrome labeling of pharyngeal bones and teeth indicated that the individual functional teeth and their successional teeth were organized in families, each comprising up to five generations of teeth and successional tooth germs, and that the replacement cycle of functional teeth was approximately 4 weeks. BrdU label/chase experiments confirmed the existence of clusters of label-retaining epithelial cells at the posterior end of each tooth family where the expression of pluripotency marker Sox2 was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Label-retaining cells were also identified in the mesoderm immediately adjacent to the posterior end of each tooth family. These data suggest the importance of existence of slow-cycling dental epithelial cells and Sox2 expressions at the posterior end of each tooth family to maintain continuous tooth formation and replacement in the pharyngeal dentition of medaka.

  5. Receptors for T cell-replacing factor/interleukin 5. Specificity, quantitation, and its implication

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    T cell-replacing factor (TRF)/IL-5 is a glycosylated polypeptide that acts as a key factor for B cell growth and differentiation. Since IL-5 action is probably mediated by specific cell surface receptor(s), we have characterized the binding of IL-5 to cells using biosynthetically [35S]methionine-labeled IL-5 and 125I-IL-5 that had been prepared using Bolton-Hunter reagent. The radiolabeled IL-5 binds specifically to BCL1- B20 (in vitro line) (a murine chronic B cell leukemic cell line previou...

  6. Effects of leptin replacement therapy on pancreatic β-cell function in patients with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniyappa, Ranganath; Brown, Rebecca J; Mari, Andrea; Joseph, Jalaja; Warren, Mary A; Cochran, Elaine K; Skarulis, Monica C; Gorden, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Leptin administration is known to directly modulate pancreatic β-cell function in leptin-deficient rodent models. However, human studies examining the effects of leptin administration on β-cell function are lacking. In this study, we examined the effects (16-20 weeks) of leptin replacement on β-cell function in patients with lipodystrophy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective, open-label, currently ongoing study, we studied the effects of leptin replacement on β-cell function in 13 patients with congenital or acquired lipodystrophy. Insulin secretory rate (ISR) was calculated by C-peptide deconvolution from plasma glucose and C-peptide levels measured during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed at baseline and after 16-20 weeks of leptin replacement. β-Cell glucose sensitivity and rate sensitivity were assessed by mathematical modeling of OGTT. RESULTS There was a significant decrease in triglycerides, free fatty acids, and glycosylated hemoglobin levels (A1C) after leptin therapy. Patients with lipodystrophy have high fasting and glucose-stimulated ISR. However, leptin therapy had no significant effect on fasting ISR, total insulin secretion during OGTT, β-cell glucose sensitivity, rate sensitivity, or insulin clearance. CONCLUSIONS In contrast to the suppressive effects of leptin on β-cell function in rodents, 16-20-week treatment with leptin in lipodystrophy patients did not significantly affect insulin secretion or β-cell function in leptin-deficient individuals with lipodystrophy.

  7. The role of cell replacement in benthic–pelagic coupling by suspension feeders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Benthic–pelagic coupling through suspension feeders and their detrital pathways is integral to carbon transport in oceans. In food-poor ecosystems however, a novel mechanism of carbon recycling has been proposed that involves direct uptake of dissolved carbon by suspension feeders followed by shedding of cells as particulate carbon. We studied cell replacement rates in a range of cold-water sponge species to determine how universal this mechanism might be. We show that cell replacement rates of feeding epithelia in explants vary from 30 hours up to 7 days, and change during different seasons and life-history stages. We also found that feeding epithelia are not replaced through direct replication but instead arise from a population of stem cells that differentiate and integrate into epithelial tissues. Our results reveal a surprising amount of complexity in the control of cell processes in sponges, with cell turnover depending on environmental conditions and using stem cells as rate-limiting mechanisms. Our results also suggest that for species in cold water with high particulate organic matter, cell turnover is not the mechanism delivering carbon flux to surrounding communities. PMID:28018632

  8. The use of Xenopus oocytes and embryos as a route towards cell replacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J B Gurdon

    2005-02-01

    When nuclei of somatic cells are transplanted to enucleated eggs of Xenopus, a complete reprogramming of nuclear function can take place. To identify mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming, somatic nuclei can be transplanted to growing meiotic oocytes of Xenopus, and stem cell genes activated without DNA replication. The combination of somatic cell nuclear transfer with morphogen signalling and the community effect may lead towards the possibility of cell replacement therapy. When mechanisms of nuclear reprogramming are understood, it may eventually be possible to directly reprogramme human somatic cell nuclei without the use of eggs.

  9. In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of silver-palladium galvanic replacement reactions on silver nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutter, E; Jungjohann, K; Bliznakov, S; Courty, A; Maisonhaute, E; Tenney, S; Sutter, P

    2014-01-01

    .... In situ observations by liquid-cell electron microscopy can provide insight into mechanisms, rates and possible modifications of galvanic replacement reactions in the native solution environment...

  10. REPLACEMENT OF DENDRITIC CELLS IN THE AIRWAYS OF RAT LUNG ALLOGRAFTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    UYAMA, T; Winter, Jobst; SAKIYAMA, S; MONDEN, Y; GROEN, Greetje; PROP, J

    1993-01-01

    It is unknown whether dendritic cells are able to migrate normally from the recipient into the allogeneic lung graft. Using monoclonal antibodies to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens (OX6 for both donor and recipient types; HIS19 for recipient type), we studied the replacement of do

  11. Die Creol Taal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossem, van Cefas; Voort, van der Hein

    1996-01-01

    Negerhollands is the original creole language, lexically closely related to Dutch, of the Virgin Islands. It emerged as a separate language around 1700 and died out completely only a few years ago, having gradually been replaced by English in the course of the nineteenth century. Apart from giving i

  12. Analysis of human protein replacement stable cell lines established using snoMEN-PR vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoharu Ono

    Full Text Available The study of the function of many human proteins is often hampered by technical limitations, such as cytotoxicity and phenotypes that result from overexpression of the protein of interest together with the endogenous version. Here we present the snoMEN (snoRNA Modulator of gene ExpressioN vector technology for generating stable cell lines where expression of the endogenous protein can be reduced and replaced by an exogenous protein, such as a fluorescent protein (FP-tagged version. SnoMEN are snoRNAs engineered to contain complementary sequences that can promote knock-down of targeted RNAs. We have established and characterised two such partial protein replacement human cell lines (snoMEN-PR. Quantitative mass spectrometry was used to analyse the specificity of knock-down and replacement at the protein level and also showed an increased pull-down efficiency of protein complexes containing exogenous, tagged proteins in the protein replacement cell lines, as compared with conventional co-expression strategies. The snoMEN approach facilitates the study of mammalian proteins, particularly those that have so far been difficult to investigate by exogenous expression and has wide applications in basic and applied gene-expression research.

  13. Smart Metering in public utilities at Celle; In Celle spielt die (Zukunfts-) Musik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiede, Ingo; Gottschling, Florian; Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Public utilities at Celle have start-up a pilot project to introduce Smart Metering. Presented is the system Meterus of EVB Energie AG by which meter data of power meters can be registered automatically during short time intervals and transmitted via the power grid. It is possible to integrate four meters in the system by the RF system ''M-bus RF receiver E''. (GL)

  14. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(VOxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik C. Krebs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrated vanadium(Voxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R processing of all layers. The devices were prepared on flexible polyethyleneterphthalate (PET and had the structure PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/V2O5·(H2On/Ag. The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing. The zinc oxide, P3HT:PCBM and vanadium(Voxide layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium(Voxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide (VTIP. Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium(Voxide layer by varying the concentration of the VTIP precursor over two orders of magnitude. Hydrated vanadium(Voxide layers were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering. The power conversion efficiency (PCE for completed modules was up to 0.18%, in contrast to single cells where efficiencies of 0.4% were achieved. Stability tests under indoor and outdoor conditions were accomplished over three weeks on a solar tracker.

  15. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  16. Penile urethra replacement with autologous cell-seeded tubularized collagen matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Roger E; Kornitzer, Benjamin S; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Acellular collagen matrices have been used as an onlay material for urethral reconstruction. However, cell-seeded matrices have been recommended for tubularized urethral repairs. In this study we investigated whether long segmental penile urethral replacement using autologous cell-seeded tubularized collagen-based matrix is feasible. Autologous bladder epithelial and smooth muscle cells from nine male rabbits were grown and seeded onto preconfigured tubular matrices constructed from decellularized bladder matrices obtained from lamina propria. The entire anterior penile urethra was resected in 15 rabbits. Urethroplasties were performed with tubularized matrices seeded with cells in nine animals, and with matrices without cells in six. Serial urethrograms were performed at 1, 3 and 6 months. Retrieved urethral tissues were analysed using histo- and immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and organ bath studies. The urethrograms showed that animals implanted with cell-seeded matrices maintained a wide urethral calibre without strictures. In contrast, the urethras with unseeded scaffolds collapsed and developed strictures. Histologically, a transitional cell layer surrounded by muscle was observed in the cell-seeded constructs. The epithelial and smooth muscle phenotypes were confirmed with AE1/AE3 and α-actin antibodies. Organ bath studies of the neourethras confirmed both physiological contractility and the presence of neurotransmitters. Tubularized collagen matrices seeded with autologous cells can be used successfully for long segmental penile urethra replacement, while implantation of tubularized collagen matrices without cells leads to poor tissue development and stricture formation. The cell-seeded collagen matrices are able to form new tissue, which is histologically similar to native urethra.

  17. Autologous adipose stem cells and polylactide discs in the replacement of the rabbit temporomandibular joint disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtiainen, Katja; Mauno, Jari; Ellä, Ville; Hagström, Jaana; Lindqvist, Christian; Miettinen, Susanna; Ylikomi, Timo; Kellomäki, Minna; Seppänen, Riitta

    2013-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc lacks functional replacement after discectomy. We investigated tissue-engineered bilayer polylactide (PLA) discs and autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) as a potential replacement for the TMJ disc. These ASC discs were pre-cultured either in control or in differentiation medium, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for one week. Prior to implantation, expression of fibrocartilaginous genes was measured by qRT-PCR. The control and differentiated ASC discs were implanted, respectively, in the right and left TMJs of rabbits for six (n = 5) and 12 months (n = 5). Thereafter, the excised TMJ areas were examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histology. No signs of infection, inflammation or foreign body reactions were detected at histology, whereas chronic arthrosis and considerable condylar hypertrophy were observed in all operated joints at CBCT. The left condyle treated with the differentiated ASC discs appeared consistently smoother and more sclerotic than the right condyle. The ASC disc replacement resulted in dislocation and morphological changes in the rabbit TMJ. The ASC discs pre-treated with TGF-β1 enhanced the condylar integrity. While adverse tissue reactions were not shown, the authors suggest that with improved attachment and design, the PLA disc and biomaterial itself would hold potential for TMJ disc replacement. PMID:23720535

  18. Autologous adipose stem cells and polylactide discs in the replacement of the rabbit temporomandibular joint disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtiainen, Katja; Mauno, Jari; Ellä, Ville; Hagström, Jaana; Lindqvist, Christian; Miettinen, Susanna; Ylikomi, Timo; Kellomäki, Minna; Seppänen, Riitta

    2013-08-06

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc lacks functional replacement after discectomy. We investigated tissue-engineered bilayer polylactide (PLA) discs and autologous adipose stem cells (ASCs) as a potential replacement for the TMJ disc. These ASC discs were pre-cultured either in control or in differentiation medium, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for one week. Prior to implantation, expression of fibrocartilaginous genes was measured by qRT-PCR. The control and differentiated ASC discs were implanted, respectively, in the right and left TMJs of rabbits for six (n = 5) and 12 months (n = 5). Thereafter, the excised TMJ areas were examined with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and histology. No signs of infection, inflammation or foreign body reactions were detected at histology, whereas chronic arthrosis and considerable condylar hypertrophy were observed in all operated joints at CBCT. The left condyle treated with the differentiated ASC discs appeared consistently smoother and more sclerotic than the right condyle. The ASC disc replacement resulted in dislocation and morphological changes in the rabbit TMJ. The ASC discs pre-treated with TGF-β1 enhanced the condylar integrity. While adverse tissue reactions were not shown, the authors suggest that with improved attachment and design, the PLA disc and biomaterial itself would hold potential for TMJ disc replacement.

  19. Optimal Fluxes, Reaction Replaceability, and Response to Enzymopathies in the Human Red Blood Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Martino

    2010-01-01

    most harmful reaction knockouts. The integration of combinatorial methods with sampling techniques to explore the space of viable flux states may provide crucial insights on this issue. We assess the replaceability of every metabolic conversion in the human red blood cell by enumerating the alternative paths from substrate to product, obtaining a complete map of he potential damage of single enzymopathies. Sampling the space of optimal steady state fluxes in the healthy and in the mutated cell reveals both correlations and complementarity between topologic and dynamical aspects.

  20. Phenotypic evolutionary models in stem cell biology: replacement, quiescence, and variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Mangel

    Full Text Available Phenotypic evolutionary models have been used with great success in many areas of biology, but thus far have not been applied to the study of stem cells except for investigations of cancer. We develop a framework that allows such modeling techniques to be applied to stem cells more generally. The fundamental modeling structure is the stochastic kinetics of stem cells in their niche and of transit amplifying and fully differentiated cells elsewhere in the organism, with positive and negative feedback. This formulation allows graded signals to be turned into all or nothing responses, and shows the importance of looking beyond the niche for understanding how stem cells behave. Using the deterministic version of this framework, we show how competition between different stem cell lines can be analyzed, and under what circumstances stem cells in a niche will be replaced by other stem cells with different phenotypic characteristics. Using the stochastic version of our framework and state dependent life history theory, we show that the optimal behavior of a focal stem cell will involve long periods of quiescence and that a population of identical stem cells will show great variability in the times at which activity occurs; we compare our results with classic ones on quiescence and variability in the hematopoietic system.

  1. Delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negates estrogen-induced augmentation of post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Gary; Iqbal, Sobia; Hubbard, Andrew; Hamilton, Victoria; Bombardier, Eric; Tiidus, Peter M

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of a delay in post-ovariectomy replacement of 17β-estradiol (estrogen) on the post-exercise proliferation of muscle satellite cells. Nine-week-old, ovariectomized, female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64) were distributed among 8 groups based on estrogen status (0.25 mg estrogen pellet or sham), exercise status (90 min run at 17 m·min(-1) and a grade of -13.5° or unexercised), and estrogen replacement ("proximal", estrogen replacement within 2 weeks; or "delayed", estrogen replacement at 11 weeks following ovariectomy). Significant increases in satellite cells were found in the soleus and white gastrocnemius muscle (immunofluorescent colocalization of nuclei with Pax7) 72 h following eccentric exercise (p exercised groups. Proximal E2 replacement resulted in a further augmentation of muscle satellite cells in exercised rats (p estrogen replacement group. Expression of PI3K was unaltered and phosphorylation of Akt relative to total Akt increased following estrogen supplementation and exercise. Exercise alone did not alter the expression levels of Akt. An 11 week delay in post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement negated the augmenting influence seen with proximal (2 week delay) post-ovariectomy estrogen replacement on post-exercise muscle satellite cell proliferation. This effect appears to be independent of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.

  2. Glial-restricted precursors as potential candidates for ALS cell-replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruminis-Kaszkiel, Ewa; Wojtkiewicz, Joanna; Maksymowicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a multifactorial progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to severe disability and death within 3-5 years after diagnosis. The main mechanisms underlying the disease progression are poorly known but according to the current knowledge, neuroinflammation is a key player in motor neurons damage. Astrocytes constitute an important cell population involved in neuroinflammatory reaction. Many studies confirmed their striking connection with motor neuron pathology and therefore they might be a target for the treatment of ALS. Cell-based therapy appears to be a promising strategy. Since direct replacement or restoring of motor neurons using various stem cells is challenging, enrichment of healthy donor-derived astrocytes appears to be a more realistic and beneficial approach. The effects of astrocytes have been examined using transplantation of glial-restricted precursors (GRPs) that represent one of the earliest precursors within the oligodendrocytic and astrocytic cell lineage. In this review, we focused on evidence-based data on astrocyte replacement transplantation therapy using GRPs in animal models of motor neuron diseases. The efficacy of GRPs engrafting is very encouraging. Furthermore, the lesson learned from application of lineage-restricted precursors in spinal cord injury (SCI) indicates that differentiation of GRPs into astrocytes before transplantation might be more advantageous in the context of axon regeneration. To sum up, the studies of glial-restricted precursors have made a step forward to ALS research and might bring breakthroughs to the field of ALS therapy in the future.

  3. Cyclosporin promotes neurorestoration and cell replacement therapy in pre-clinical models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, Anna; Churchill, Madeline J; Wan, Oi W; Colino-Sanguino, Yolanda; Ippolito, Rossana; Bergstrand, Sofie; Wolf, Daniel A; Herz, Niculin J; Sconce, Michelle D; Björklund, Anders; Meshul, Charles K; Decressac, Mickael

    2015-12-14

    The early clinical trials using fetal ventral mesencephalic (VM) allografts in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have shown efficacy (albeit not in all cases) and have paved the way for further development of cell replacement therapy strategies in PD. The preclinical work that led to these clinical trials used allografts of fetal VM tissue placed into 6-OHDA lesioned rats, while the patients received similar allografts under cover of immunosuppression in an α-synuclein disease state. Thus developing models that more faithfully replicate the clinical scenario would be a useful tool for the translation of such cell-based therapies to the clinic. Here, we show that while providing functional recovery, transplantation of fetal dopamine neurons into the AAV-α-synuclein rat model of PD resulted in smaller-sized grafts as compared to similar grafts placed into the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum. Additionally, we found that cyclosporin treatment was able to promote the survival of the transplanted cells in this allografted state and surprisingly also provided therapeutic benefit in sham-operated animals. We demonstrated that delayed cyclosporin treatment afforded neurorestoration in three complementary models of PD including the Thy1-α-synuclein transgenic mouse, a novel AAV-α-synuclein mouse model, and the MPTP mouse model. We then explored the mechanisms for this benefit of cyclosporin and found it was mediated by both cell-autonomous mechanisms and non-cell autonomous mechanisms. This study provides compelling evidence in favor for the use of immunosuppression in all grafted PD patients receiving cell replacement therapy, regardless of the immunological mismatch between donor and host cells, and also suggests that cyclosporine treatment itself may act as a disease-modifying therapy in all PD patients.

  4. Ocular Fluid As a Replacement for Serum in Cell Cryopreservation Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Phani Varma

    Full Text Available Cryostorage is of immense interest in biomedical research, especially for stem cell-based therapies and fertility preservation. Several protocols have been developed for efficient cryopreservation of cells and tissues, and a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and fetal bovine serum (FBS is commonly used. However, there is a need for an alternative to FBS because of ethical reasons, high cost, and risk of contamination with blood-borne diseases. The objective of the present study was to examine the possibility of using buffalo (Bubalus bubalis ocular fluid (BuOF to replace FBS in cryomedia. Frozen-thawed cells, which were cryopreserved in a cryomedia with BuOF, were assessed for viability, early and late apoptosis, and proliferation. Three cell lines (CHO, HEK, and C18-4, mouse embryonic stem (mES cells, and primary cells, such as mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs, and mouse bone marrow cells (mBMCs, were cryopreserved in cryomedia containing 10% DMSO (D10 with 20% FBS (D10S20 or D10 with 20% BuOF (D10O20. For all three cell lines and mES cells cryopreserved in either D10S20 or D10O20, thawed cells showed no difference in cell viability or cell recovery. Western blot analysis of frozen-thawed-cultured cells revealed that the expression of Annexin V and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA proteins, and the ratio of BAX/BCL2 proteins were similar in all three cell lines, mES cells, and hPBMCs cryopreserved in D10S20 and D10O20. However, initial cell viability, cell recovery after culture, and PCNA expression were significantly lower in MEF cells, and the BAX/BCL2 protein ratio was elevated in mBMCs cryopreserved in D10O20. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of BuOF showed the presence of several components that may have roles in imparting the cryoprotective property of BuOF. These results encourage further research to develop an efficient serum-free cryomedia for several cell types

  5. Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Schabort

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem. Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van 1960; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van 1979; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van 1983; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van 1987 en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van 1987. Eersdaags sal dit moontlik ook ’n Manifes vir die Regte van Kinders insluit wat vermoedelik geskoei sal wees op die W O se Konvensie vir die Regte van die Kind (1989 w a arv an die RSA tan s nog nie ’n ondertekenaar is nie.

  6. Characterization of spermatogonial stem cells lacking intercellular bridges and genetic replacement of a mutation in spermatogonial stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Iwamori

    Full Text Available Stem cells have a potential of gene therapy for regenerative medicine. Among various stem cells, spermatogonial stem cells have a unique characteristic in which neighboring cells can be connected by intercellular bridges. However, the roles of intercellular bridges for stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation remain to be elucidated. Here, we show not only the characteristics of testis-expressed gene 14 (TEX14 null spermatogonial stem cells lacking intercellular bridges but also a trial application of genetic correction of a mutation in spermatogonial stem cells as a model for future gene therapy. In TEX14 null testes, some genes important for undifferentiated spermatogonia as well as some differentiation-related genes were activated. TEX14 null spermatogonial stem cells, surprisingly, could form chain-like structures even though they do not form stable intercellular bridges. TEX14 null spermatogonial stem cells in culture possessed both characteristics of undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia. Long-term culture of TEX14 null spermatogonial stem cells could not be established likely secondary to up-regulation of CDK4 inhibitors and down-regulation of cyclin E. These results suggest that intercellular bridges are essential for both maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells and their proliferation. Lastly, a mutation in Tex14(+/- spermatogonial stem cells was successfully replaced by homologous recombination in vitro. Our study provides a therapeutic potential of spermatogonial stem cells for reproductive medicine if they can be cultured long-term.

  7. Characterization of Spermatogonial Stem Cells Lacking Intercellular Bridges and Genetic Replacement of a Mutation in Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamori, Naoki; Iwamori, Tokuko; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells have a potential of gene therapy for regenerative medicine. Among various stem cells, spermatogonial stem cells have a unique characteristic in which neighboring cells can be connected by intercellular bridges. However, the roles of intercellular bridges for stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation remain to be elucidated. Here, we show not only the characteristics of testis-expressed gene 14 (TEX14) null spermatogonial stem cells lacking intercellular bridges but also a trial application of genetic correction of a mutation in spermatogonial stem cells as a model for future gene therapy. In TEX14 null testes, some genes important for undifferentiated spermatogonia as well as some differentiation-related genes were activated. TEX14 null spermatogonial stem cells, surprisingly, could form chain-like structures even though they do not form stable intercellular bridges. TEX14 null spermatogonial stem cells in culture possessed both characteristics of undifferentiated and differentiated spermatogonia. Long-term culture of TEX14 null spermatogonial stem cells could not be established likely secondary to up-regulation of CDK4 inhibitors and down-regulation of cyclin E. These results suggest that intercellular bridges are essential for both maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells and their proliferation. Lastly, a mutation in Tex14+/− spermatogonial stem cells was successfully replaced by homologous recombination in vitro. Our study provides a therapeutic potential of spermatogonial stem cells for reproductive medicine if they can be cultured long-term. PMID:22719986

  8. B7-H4 Pathway in Islet Transplantation and β-Cell Replacement Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a chronic autoimmune disease and characterized by absolute insulin deficiency. β-cell replacement by islet cell transplantation has been established as a feasible treatment option for T1D. The two main obstacles after islet transplantation are alloreactive T-cell-mediated graft rejection and recurrence of autoimmune diabetes mellitus in recipients. T cells play a central role in determining the outcome of both autoimmune responses and allograft survival. B7-H4, a newly identified B7 homolog, plays a key role in maintaining T-cell homeostasis by reducing T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. The relationship between B7-H4 and allograft survival/autoimmunity has been investigated recently in both islet transplantation and the nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse models. B7-H4 protects allograft survival and generates donor-specific tolerance. It also prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes. More importantly, B7-H4 plays an indispensable role in alloimmunity in the absence of the classic CD28/CTLA-4 : B7 pathway, suggesting a synergistic/additive effect with other agents such as CTLA-4 on inhibition of unwanted immune responses.

  9. In situ liquid cell electron microscopy of Ag-Au galvanic replacement reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli A; Sutter, Peter W

    2017-01-19

    Galvanic replacement reactions are important as they transform nanoparticle templates into complex porous and hollow metal or alloy nanostructures with interesting properties for a variety of applications. Real-time liquid cell electron microscopy (LCEM) observations of the transformation of solid nanoparticles into hollow shell and cage bimetallic nanostructures are challenging because the high-energy electron beam strongly affects the galvanic process via species such as aqueous electrons and hydroxyl radicals generated through the radiolysis of water in the liquid cell. As a result the galvanic reactions are modified by the introduction of additional pathways that can decouple the oxidation of the nanoparticles from the reduction of the metal ion complexes in solution. Here we demonstrate that changing the pH of the solution provides an effective approach to alter the balance of radiolysis products. In situ observations of the transformation of Ag nanocubes in Au salt containing neutral and acidic aqueous solutions demonstrate that a lowering of the pH by addition of H2SO4 significantly lessens radical-induced modifications of redox reactions by avoiding the excessive reduction of metal-chloro complexes by aqueous electrons (eaq(-)) and making the process sufficiently slow to be observed. As a result, the different stages of galvanic replacement reactions on nanoparticles can be imaged in real-time by LCEM.

  10. Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A specific cell-based potency assay to replace the mouse bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Ester; Wang, Joanne; Molina, Yanira; Nelson, Jeremy B; Jacky, Birgitte P S; Aoki, K Roger

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A), a potent therapeutic used to treat various disorders, inhibits vesicular neurotransmitter exocytosis by cleaving SNAP25. Development of cell-based potency assays (CBPAs) to assess the biological function of BoNT/A have been challenging because of its potency. CBPAs can evaluate the key steps of BoNT action: receptor binding, internalization-translocation, and catalytic activity; and therefore could replace the current mouse bioassay. Primary neurons possess appropriate sensitivity to develop potential replacement assays but those potency assays are difficult to perform and validate. This report describes a CBPA utilizing differentiated human neuroblastoma SiMa cells and a sandwich ELISA that measures BoNT/A-dependent intracellular increase of cleaved SNAP25. Assay sensitivity is similar to the mouse bioassay and measures neurotoxin biological activity in bulk drug substance and BOTOX® product (onabotulinumtoxinA). Validation of a version of this CBPA in a Quality Control laboratory has led to FDA, Health Canada, and European Union approval for potency testing of BOTOX®, BOTOX® Cosmetic, and Vistabel®. Moreover, we also developed and optimized a BoNT/A CBPA screening assay that can be used for the discovery of novel BoNT/A inhibitors to treat human disease.

  11. Antibody repertoire diversification through VH gene replacement in mice cloned from an IgA plasma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bach, Martina P; Mainoldi, Federica; Maruya, Mikako; Kishigami, Satoshi; Jumaa, Hassan; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kanagawa, Osami; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Casola, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    In mammals, VDJ recombination is responsible for the establishment of a highly diversified preimmune antibody repertoire. Acquisition of a functional Ig heavy (H) chain variable (V) gene rearrangement is thought to prevent further recombination at the IgH locus. Here, we describe VHQ52(NT); Vκgr32(NT) Ig monoclonal mice reprogrammed from the nucleus of an intestinal IgA(+) plasma cell. In VHQ52(NT) mice, IgA replaced IgM to drive early B-cell development and peripheral B-cell maturation. In VHQ52(NT) animals, over 20% of mature B cells disrupted the single productive, nonautoimmune IgH rearrangement through VH replacement and exchanged it with a highly diversified pool of IgH specificities. VH replacement occurred in early pro-B cells, was independent of pre-B-cell receptor signaling, and involved predominantly one adjacent VH germ-line gene. VH replacement was also identified in 5% of peripheral B cells of mice inheriting a different productive VH rearrangement expressed in the form of an IgM H chain. In summary, editing of a productive IgH rearrangement through VH replacement can account for up to 20% of the IgH repertoire expressed by mature B cells.

  12. Die Heimkunft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Romer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En hommage amical à René Gallet.Die HeimkunftRuhig glänzen indes die silberen Höhen darüber,Voll mit Rosen ist schon droben der leuchtende Schnee.- HölderlinAnd then one day the young master returnsfrom a dark placeand birdsong leads the wanderer inand the cat yawns and curls againin the headiness of this instantthe house is fragrantwith woodsmoke and honeysucklewhich is a kind of accomplishment.Returning from dogmahome to the humanehe lays asideknapsack, alpenstock and hat,goes straight to t...

  13. Stem cell therapy. Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells as replacement therapy for treating disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Ira J; Daley, George Q; Goldman, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    treatment of diabetes, some forms of liver disease and neurologic disorders, retinal diseases, and possibly heart disease. Although an unlimited supply of specific cell types is needed, other barriers must be overcome. This review of the state of cell therapies highlights important challenges. Successful...... cell transplantation will require optimizing the best cell type and site for engraftment, overcoming limitations to cell migration and tissue integration, and occasionally needing to control immunologic reactivity, as well as a number of other challenges. Collaboration among scientists, clinicians...

  14. Calvyn en die Skrifgesag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Schulze

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Die probleem van die Skrifgesag het die (teologiese geeste nog altyd in beroering — vandag (ná die Aufklarung! nog meer as gedurende die sestiende eeu. Gedurende die laaste paar jaar is ons in Suid-Afrika hardhandig uit ons isolement geruk en skielik lewensgroot gekonfronteer met die probleem van die Skrifgesag.

  15. β-cell replacement sources for type 1 diabetes: a focus on pancreatic ductal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corritore, Elisa; Lee, Yong-Syu; Sokal, Etienne M; Lysy, Philippe A

    2016-08-01

    Thorough research on the capacity of human islet transplantation to cure type 1 diabetes led to the achievement of 3- to 5-year-long insulin independence in nearly half of transplanted patients. Yet, translation of this technique to clinical routine is limited by organ shortage and the need for long-term immunosuppression, restricting its use to adults with unstable disease. The production of new bona fide β cells in vitro was thus investigated and finally achieved with human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Besides ethical concerns about the use of human embryos, studies are now evaluating the possibility of circumventing the spontaneous tumor formation associated with transplantation of PSCs. These issues fueled the search for cell candidates for β-cell engineering with safe profiles for clinical translation. In vivo studies revealed the regeneration capacity of the exocrine pancreas after injury that depends at least partially on facultative progenitors in the ductal compartment. These stimulated subpopulations of pancreatic ductal cells (PDCs) underwent β-cell transdifferentiation through reactivation of embryonic signaling pathways. In vitro models for expansion and differentiation of purified PDCs toward insulin-producing cells were described using cocktails of growth factors, extracellular-matrix proteins and transcription factor overexpression. In this review, we will describe the latest findings in pancreatic β-cell mass regeneration due to adult ductal progenitor cells. We will further describe recent advances in human PDC transdifferentiation to insulin-producing cells with potential for clinical translational studies.

  16. Aspekte van die siekepastoraat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. C. Pieterse

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Die siekepastoraat vra ons aandag in hierdie tyd omdat die versorging van siekes ’n kenmerk is van die koms van die koninkryk van God. God se barmhartigheid het in sy volheid tot gelding gekom in die optrede van Jesus Christus. Die volle seën van die heil van die Ryk van God hou ook die versorging van die siekes in. Deur die heilswerk van Christus sien die blindes weer, loop die kreupeles, word melaatses gereinig, hoor die dowes, word dooies opgewek (Luk. 7:22.

  17. Efficient replacement of plasma membrane outer leaflet phospholipids and sphingolipids in cells with exogenous lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangtao; Kim, JiHyun; Huang, Zhen; St Clair, Johnna R; Brown, Deborah A; London, Erwin

    2016-12-06

    Our understanding of membranes and membrane lipid function has lagged far behind that of nucleic acids and proteins, largely because it is difficult to manipulate cellular membrane lipid composition. To help solve this problem, we show that methyl-α-cyclodextrin (MαCD)-catalyzed lipid exchange can be used to maximally replace the sphingolipids and phospholipids in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells with exogenous lipids, including unnatural lipids. In addition, lipid exchange experiments revealed that 70-80% of cell sphingomyelin resided in the plasma membrane outer leaflet; the asymmetry of metabolically active cells was similar to that previously defined for erythrocytes, as judged by outer leaflet lipid composition; and plasma membrane outer leaflet phosphatidylcholine had a significantly lower level of unsaturation than phosphatidylcholine in the remainder of the cell. The data also provided a rough estimate for the total cellular lipids residing in the plasma membrane (about half). In addition to such lipidomics applications, the exchange method should have wide potential for investigations of lipid function and modification of cellular behavior by modification of lipids.

  18. Die prediking oor die historiese stof van die Ou Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. N. Lion-Cachet

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Uit ’n steekproef wat gedoen is uit die preke wat in Die Kerkblad (1986- 1987 verskyn het, blyk dit dat 40% van hierdie preke historiese stof uit die Ou Testament as teks gebruik het.

  19. Die gesag van die Heilige Skrif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.W. Duvenage

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit geld nie maar t.o.v. ’n ongeloofsbeskouing soos dié van Karl Jaspers nie wat beweer: „Die Bibel ist das Depositum eines Jahrtausends menschlicher Grenzerfahrung” of van die Rooms-Katolieke skrifbeskouing nie wat die kerklike leertradisie, soos dogmaties op die konsilie van Trente vasgelê is, beskou as die enigste gesaghebbende kriterium vir die kanonisering en interpretasie van die Skrif.

  20. A Distinct Subpopulation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Muse Cells, Directly Commit to the Replacement of Liver Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, H; Kushida, Y; Nojima, M; Kuroda, Y; Wakao, S; Ishida, K; Endo, F; Kume, K; Takahara, T; Nitta, H; Tsuda, H; Dezawa, M; Nishizuka, S S

    2016-02-01

    Genotyping graft livers by short tandem repeats after human living-donor liver transplantation (n = 20) revealed the presence of recipient or chimeric genotype cases in hepatocytes (6 of 17, 35.3%), sinusoidal cells (18 of 18, 100%), cholangiocytes (15 of 17, 88.2%) and cells in the periportal areas (7 of 8, 87.5%), suggesting extrahepatic cell involvement in liver regeneration. Regarding extrahepatic origin, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been suggested to contribute to liver regeneration but compose a heterogeneous population. We focused on a more specific subpopulation (1-2% of BM-MSCs), called multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, for their ability to differentiate into liver-lineage cells and repair tissue. We generated a physical partial hepatectomy model in immunodeficient mice and injected green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human BM-MSC Muse cells intravenously (n = 20). Immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization and species-specific polymerase chain reaction revealed that they integrated into regenerating areas and expressed liver progenitor markers during the early phase and then differentiated spontaneously into major liver components, including hepatocytes (≈74.3% of GFP-positive integrated Muse cells), cholangiocytes (≈17.7%), sinusoidal endothelial cells (≈2.0%), and Kupffer cells (≈6.0%). In contrast, the remaining cells in the BM-MSCs were not detected in the liver for up to 4 weeks. These results suggest that Muse cells are the predominant population of BM-MSCs that are capable of replacing major liver components during liver regeneration.

  1. A case of sodium chlorite toxicity managed with concurrent renal replacement therapy and red cell exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovsky, Adam; Djogovic, Dennis; Chin, Dat

    2013-03-01

    Sodium chlorite is a powerful oxidizing agent with multiple commercial applications. We report the presentation and management of a single case of human toxicity of sodium chlorite. A 65-year-old man presented to hospital after accidentally ingesting a small amount of a sodium chlorite solution. His principal manifestations were mild methemoglobinemia, severe oxidative hemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and anuric acute kidney injury. He was managed with intermittent hemodialysis, followed by continuous venovenous hemofiltration for management of acute kidney injury and in an effort to remove free plasma chlorite. Concurrently, he underwent two red cell exchanges, as well as a plasma exchange, to reduce the burden of red cells affected by chlorite. These interventions resulted in the cessation of hemolysis with stabilization of serum hemoglobin and platelets. The patient survived and subsequently recovered normal renal function. This is only the second case of sodium chlorite intoxication reported in the medical literature and the first to report the use of renal replacement therapy in combination with red cell exchange in its management.

  2. Challenge of replacing CdS in CuInSe{sub 2}-based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, L.C.; Addis, F.W.; Lei, W.; Aguilar, H. [Washington State University at Tri-Cities, 100 Sprout Rd., Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses some key issues concerning the replacement of CdS buffer layers in CIS solar cell structures, and describes investigations of alternative buffer layers deposited by MOCVD. One apparently unique property of CdS buffer layers grown by CBD is that a ZnO TCO can be deposited on top of a CdS/CIS structure without significantly degrading the photovoltaic properties of the CdS-CIS junction. Investigation of alternative buffer materials such as high resistance ZnO (i-ZnO), ZnSe and InSe have first identified MOCVD growth procedures that yield Al/X/CIS test structures (X=i-ZnO, ZnSe and InSe) with good properties, and then addressed the challenge of fabricating efficient, complete cells with conductive ZnO top contact layers. These studies have been conducted with Siemens CIS and CIGSS substrates, and with NREL CIGS substrates. A total area efficiency of 12.7{percent} and estimated active area efficiency of 13.4{percent} is reported for a CIGS cell with an i-ZnO buffer layer grown by MOCVD. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. AN ULTRASTRUTURAL STUDY OF HUMAN LUMINAL ENDOMETRIAL CELLS FOLLOWING DIFFERENT DOSES OF OESTROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARANI SH.A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of different doses of oestrogen on the endometrium of women with premature ovarian failure have been examined in this study. Materials and Methods: Four groups of women of reproductive age were studied; 1 normal fertile controls 2. patients given a standard, variable hormone replacement therapy (HRT 3. a group given a fixed daily dose of 1 mg of oestrogen and 4. a group given a fixed daily dose of 4 mg of oestrogen. Endrometrial diposises were taken at a bout 5-6 days after ovulation and tissue was prepared for light and electron microscopy. Morphometry was used to evaluate quantitatively various features of endometrial luminal epithelial cells. The volume fraction (Vv of nucleus to cell in the standard group was significantly larger than the 4 mg group. Results: The Vv of euchromatin to nucleus was larger in the controls and 4 mg group than the 1 mg subjects. The Vv of mitochondria to cell was largest in the control group. The ratio of desmosomes to surface membrane was increased (P<0.05 in the 1 mg subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that, while standard HRT is generally a good mimic of controls, the 1 mg fixed dose delayed some membrane features and the fixed 4 mg group showed advancement in some organelle growth.

  4. Challenge of replacing CdS in CuInSe2-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Larry C.; Addis, F. William; Lei, Wenhua; Aguilar, Heriberto

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses some key issues concerning the replacement of CdS buffer layers in CIS solar cell structures, and describes investigations of alternative buffer layers deposited by MOCVD. One apparently unique property of CdS buffer layers grown by CBD is that a ZnO TCO can be deposited on top of a CdS/CIS structure without significantly degrading the photovoltaic properties of the CdS-CIS junction. Investigation of alternative buffer materials such as high resistance ZnO (i-ZnO), ZnSe and InSe have first identified MOCVD growth procedures that yield Al/X/CIS test structures (X=i-ZnO, ZnSe and InSe) with good properties, and then addressed the challenge of fabricating efficient, complete cells with conductive ZnO top contact layers. These studies have been conducted with Siemens CIS and CIGSS substrates, and with NREL CIGS substrates. A total area efficiency of 12.7% and estimated active area efficiency of 13.4% is reported for a CIGS cell with an i-ZnO buffer layer grown by MOCVD.

  5. HIV-specific CD8+ T cells: serial killers condemned to die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovas, Constantinos; Mueller, Yvonne M; Katsikis, Peter D

    2004-04-01

    An increasing body of evidence supports a key role for cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTL) in controlling HIV infection. Although a vigorous HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response is raised during the primary infection, these cells ultimately fail to control virus and prevent disease progression. The failure of CTL to control HIV infection has been attributed to a number of strategies HIV employs to evade the immune system. Recently, intrinsic defects in the CTL themselves have been proposed to contribute to the failure of CTL to control HIV. HIV-specific CD8+ T cells differ in their effector/memory phenotype from other virus-specific CD8+ T cells indicating that their differentiation status differs. This altered differentiation may affect effector functions as well as homing properties of these cells. Other studies have indicated that activation of HIV-specific CTL may be impaired and this contributes to their dysfunction. The effector function of these CTL may also be affected. There are conflicting reports about their ability to kill, whereas IFNgamma production does not appear to be impaired in these cells. In this review we focus on recent work indicating that apoptosis may be an important mechanism through which HIV evades the CTL response. In particular, HIV-specific CD8+ T cells are highly susceptible to CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis. This leads to the hypothesis that virus-specific cytotoxic T cells can be eliminated upon binding CD95L/FasL on HIV-infected cells. Understanding the intrinsic defects of CTL in HIV infection could lead to new therapeutic strategies and optimized vaccination protocols that enhance the HIV-specific cytotoxic response.

  6. Die ontwrigting van die Afrikanervolk en volkseenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. du Plessis

    1946-03-01

    Full Text Available Die gevare wat ons Afrikanerdom voor die deur staan, is baie en ernstig. Daar is die gevaar van immigrasie van buitelanders, daar is die al driester geroep om gelykstelling tussen blank en gekleurd, daar is die dreigende oorheersing van ’n oppervlakkige Amerikaanse „jazz”-gees.

  7. The significance of microRNAs or the cellular response in endothelium cells; Die Bedeutung von microRNAs fuer die zellulaere Strahlenantwort in Endothelzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moertl, Simone; Heider, Theresa [Helmholtz Center Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Clinical Radiation Biology

    2016-08-01

    Ionizing radiation causes a variety of cell damages. Several cell constituents like DNA, mitochondria, proteins or membranes are affected. Cells have developed numerous and cross-linked radiation response processes for counteraction. In case of failure of the repair mechanism cell proliferation or cell death are the consequences. Many proteins in these processes are controlled by microRNAs (miRNAs). The accurate knowledge of miRNA functions is therefore importance not only for radiation protection but also the therapeutic use of ionizing radiations.

  8. Establishment of alternative culture method for spermatogonial stem cells using knockout serum replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Aoshima

    Full Text Available Since spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs are capable of both self-renewal and differentiation to daughter cells for subsequent spermatogenesis, the development of an efficient in vitro culture system is essential for studies related to spermatogenesis. Although the currently available system is serum-free and contains only chemically-defined components, it highly relies upon bovine serum albumin (BSA, a component with batch-to-batch quality variations similar to those of fetal bovine serum. Thus, we searched for an alternative BSA-free culture system that preserved the properties of SSCs. In this study, we utilized Knockout Serum Replacement (KSR in the SSC culture medium, as a substitute for BSA. The results demonstrated that KSR supported the continuous growth of SSCs in vitro and the SSC activity in vivo without BSA, in a feeder-cell combination with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The addition of BSA to KSR further facilitated cell cycle progression, whereas a transplantation assay revealed that the addition of BSA did not affect the number of SSCs in vivo. The combination of KSR with BSA also allowed the elimination of GFRA1 and FGF2, and the reduction of the GDNF concentration from 20 ng/ml to 5 ng/ml, while maintaining the growth rate and the expression of SSC markers. Furthermore, KSR was also useful with SSCs from non-DBA/2 strains, such as C57BL/6 and ICR. These results suggested that KSR is an effective substitute for BSA for long-term in vitro cultures of SSCs. Therefore, this method is practical for various studies related to SSCs, including spermatogenesis and germ stem cell biology.

  9. Adapt or die: how eukaryotic cells respond to prolonged activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossio, Valentina; Galati, Elena; Piatti, Simonetta

    2010-12-01

    Many cancer-treating compounds used in chemotherapies, the so-called antimitotics, target the mitotic spindle. Spindle defects in turn trigger activation of the SAC (spindle assembly checkpoint), a surveillance mechanism that transiently arrests cells in mitosis to provide the time for error correction. When the SAC is satisfied, it is silenced. However, after a variable amount of time, cells escape from the mitotic arrest, even if the SAC is not satisfied, through a process called adaptation or mitotic slippage. Adaptation weakens the killing properties of antimitotics, ultimately giving rise to resistant cancer cells. We summarize here the mechanisms underlying this process and propose a strategy to identify the factors involved using budding yeast as a model system. Inhibition of factors involved in SAC adaptation could have important therapeutic applications by potentiating the ability of antimitotics to cause cell death.

  10. Is there a place for human fetal-derived stem cells for cell replacement therapy in Huntington's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precious, Sophie V; Zietlow, Rike; Dunnett, Stephen B; Kelly, Claire M; Rosser, Anne E

    2017-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease that offers an excellent paradigm for cell replacement therapy because of the associated relatively focal cell loss in the striatum. The predominant cells lost in this condition are striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Transplantation of developing MSNs taken from the fetal brain has provided proof of concept that donor MSNs can survive, integrate and bring about a degree of functional recovery in both pre-clinical studies and in a limited number of clinical trials. The scarcity of human fetal tissue, and the logistics of coordinating collection and dissection of tissue with neurosurgical procedures makes the use of fetal tissue for this purpose both complex and limiting. Alternative donor cell sources which are expandable in culture prior to transplantation are currently being sought. Two potential donor cell sources which have received most attention recently are embryonic stem (ES) cells and adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, both of which can be directed to MSN-like fates, although achieving a genuine MSN fate has proven to be difficult. All potential donor sources have challenges in terms of their clinical application for regenerative medicine, and thus it is important to continue exploring a wide variety of expandable cells. In this review we discuss two less well-reported potential donor cell sources; embryonic germ (EG) cells and fetal neural precursors (FNPs), both are which are fetal-derived and have some properties that could make them useful for regenerative medicine applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Creeping, drinking, dying: the cinematic portal and the microscopic world of the twentieth-century cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landecker, Hannah

    2011-09-01

    Film scholars have long posed the question of the specificity of the film medium and the apparatus of cinema, asking what is unique to cinema, how it constrains and enables filmmakers and audiences in particular ways that other media do not. This question has rarely been considered in relation to scientific film, and here it is posed within the specific context of cell biology: What does the use oftime-based media such as film coupled with the microscope allow scientists to experience that other visualization practices do not? Examining three episodes in the twentieth-century study of the cell, this article argues that the apparatus ofmicrocinematography constitutes what might be thought of as a technical portal to another world, a door that determines the experience of the world that lies on the other side of it. In this case, the design of apparatuses to capture time-lapsed images enabled the acceleration of cellular time, bringing it into the realm of human perception and experience. Further, the experience of the cellular temporal world was part of a distinct kind of cell biology, one that was focused on behavior rather than structure, focused on the relation between cells, and between the cell and its milieu rather than on cell-intrinsic features such as chromosomes or organelles. As such, the instruments and technical design of the microcinematographic apparatus may be understood as a kind of materialized epistemology, the history of which can elucidate how cinema was and is used to produce scientific knowledge.

  12. Die Nasionale Vakterminologiediens (NVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Genis

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Nasionale Vakterminologiediens (NVD ressorteer onder die Hoofdirektoraat Kultuur en Vakkundige Hulp- dienste van die Departement van Nasionale Opvoeding. Die hoofdoelwit van die NVD is die skepping van ’n fijnksionele vakwoordeskat in veral Afrikaans, parallel met die inter- nasionaal gebruikte terminologieë.

  13. Myogenic Precursors from iPS Cells for Skeletal Muscle Cell Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isart Roca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of adult myogenic stem cells as a cell therapy for skeletal muscle regeneration has been attempted for decades, with only moderate success. Myogenic progenitors (MP made from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are promising candidates for stem cell therapy to regenerate skeletal muscle since they allow allogenic transplantation, can be produced in large quantities, and, as compared to adult myoblasts, present more embryonic-like features and more proliferative capacity in vitro, which indicates a potential for more self-renewal and regenerative capacity in vivo. Different approaches have been described to make myogenic progenitors either by gene overexpression or by directed differentiation through culture conditions, and several myopathies have already been modeled using iPSC-MP. However, even though results in animal models have shown improvement from previous work with isolated adult myoblasts, major challenges regarding host response have to be addressed and clinically relevant transplantation protocols are lacking. Despite these challenges we are closer than we think to bringing iPSC-MP towards clinical use for treating human muscle disease and sporting injuries.

  14. Differentiate or Die: 3-Bromopyruvate and Pluripotency in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Pluripotent embryonic stem cells grown under standard conditions (ESC have a markedly glycolytic profile, which is shared with many different types of cancer cells. Thus, some therapeutic strategies suggest that pharmacologically shifting cancer cells towards an oxidative phenotype, using glycolysis inhibitors, may reduce cancer aggressiveness. Given the metabolic parallels between cancer and stemness would chemotherapeutical agents have an effect on pluripotency, and could a strategy involving these agents be envisioned to modulate stem cell fate in an accessible manner? In this manuscript we attempted to determine the effects of 3-bromopyruvate (3BrP in pluripotency. Although it has other intracellular targets, this compound is a potent inhibitor of glycolysis enzymes thought to be important to maintain a glycolytic profile. The goal was also to determine if we could contribute towards a pharmacologically accessible metabolic strategy to influence cell differentiation.Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC grown under standard pluripotency conditions (in the presence of Leukemia Inducing Factor- LIF were treated with 3BrP. As a positive control for differentiation other mESCs were grown without LIF. Overall our results demonstrate that 3BrP negatively affects pluripotency, forcing cells to become less glycolytic and with more active mitochondria. These changes in metabolism are correlated with increased differentiation, even under pluripotency conditions (i.e. in the presence of LIF. However, 3BrP also significantly impaired cell function, and may have other roles besides affecting the metabolic profile of mESCs.Treatment of mESCs with 3BrP triggered a metabolic switch and loss of pluripotency, even in the presence of LIF. Interestingly, the positive control for differentiation allowed for a distinction between 3BrP effects and changes associated with spontaneous differentiation/loss of pluripotency in the absence of LIF. Additionally, there was a

  15. Die kritiese taak van die literator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Combrink

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Die beoefening van die literêre kritiek was aanvanklik slegs ’n deeltydse aktiwiteit. Die vroegste literêre kritici was nie as sodanig kritici nie maar het as deel van hulle totale intellektuele aktiwiteit hulle ook uitgelaat oor die letterkunde. Die motivering wat hulle hiertoe gehad het sou in ons dag heeltemal verdag voorkom: ’n uitgesproke didaktiese of moraliserende houding was die reel.

  16. Live and let die: a REM complex promotes fertilization through synergid cell death in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marta Adelina; Guerra, Rosalinda Fiorella; Castelnovo, Beatrice; Silva-Velazquez, Yuriria; Morandini, Piero; Manrique, Silvia; Baumann, Nadine; Groß-Hardt, Rita; Dickinson, Hugh; Colombo, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Fertilization in flowering plants requires a complex series of coordinated events involving interaction between the male and female gametophyte. We report here molecular data on one of the key events underpinning this process - the death of the receptive synergid cell and the coincident bursting of the pollen tube inside the ovule to release the sperm. We show that two REM transcription factors, VALKYRIE (VAL) and VERDANDI (VDD), both targets of the ovule identity MADS-box complex SEEDSTICK-SEPALLATA3, interact to control the death of the receptive synergid cell. In vdd-1/+ mutants and VAL_RNAi lines, we find that GAMETOPHYTIC FACTOR 2 (GFA2), which is required for synergid degeneration, is downregulated, whereas expression of FERONIA (FER) and MYB98, which are necessary for pollen tube attraction and perception, remain unaffected. We also demonstrate that the vdd-1/+ phenotype can be rescued by expressing VDD or GFA2 in the synergid cells. Taken together, our findings reveal that the death of the receptive synergid cell is essential for maintenance of the following generations, and that a complex comprising VDD and VAL regulates this event.

  17. The fuel cell in Germany: Future or utopia?; Die Brennstoffzelle in Deutschland. Zukunft oder Utopie?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzer, Guillem; Gross, Bodo [IZES gGmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    What means a sustainable energy sector? The advancement of innovative technologies to decrease the dependency of fossil, dwindling fuels and the prevention of greenhouse gases? Sure. Is in Germany to this topic really volition of policy and economy? The answer should be: partly. Renewable Energies are in a continued increase due to the Renewable Energy Sources Act, the fuel cell is in contrast an ineffectual initiative, the hold on the nuclear industry is a return to the last century. Fuel cells are one of the technologies with the greatest potential: Whether for the home-supply, for industry- or mobile applications (e-mobility), fuel cells are perfect heat- and electricity plants, scalable for a large power range. In conjunction with the supply of pure- or chemical bounded hydrogen by renewable energies, fuel cells could be the plants of the future. Finally the technology must be controlled. This occurred constricted, there is (yet) no durability and cost effectiveness given. Here it is the challenge of the policy, the r and d and the industry respectively the manufacturers to develop this technology to marketability with the help of target-oriented research programs and subsidies or to fail. (orig.)

  18. Testosterone replacement therapy can increase circulating endothelial progenitor cell number in men with late onset hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C-H; Wu, Y-N; Lin, F-Y; Tsai, W-K; Liu, S-P; Chiang, H-S

    2013-07-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived cells required for endothelial repair. A low EPC number can be considered as an independent predictor of endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Recent evidence shows that patients with hypogonadal symptoms without other confounding risk factors have a low number of circulating progenitor cells (PCs) and EPCs, thus highlighting the role of testosterone in the proliferation and differentiation of EPCs. Here, we investigate if testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) can increase circulating EPC number in men with late onset hypogonadism. Forty-six men (age range, 40-73 years; mean age, 58.3 years) with hypogonadal symptoms were recruited, and 29 men with serum total testosterone (TT) levels less than 350 ng/dL received TRT using transdermal testosterone gel (Androgel; 1% testosterone at 5 g/day) for 12 months. Circulating EPC numbers (per 100 000 monocytes) were calculated using flow cytometry. There was no significant association between serum TT levels and the number of circulating EPCs before TRT. Compared with the number of mean circulating EPCs at baseline (9.5 ± 6.2), the number was significantly higher after 3 months (16.6 ± 11.1, p = 0.027), 6 months (20.3 ± 15.3, p = 0.006) and 12 months (27.2 ± 15.5, p = 0.017) of TRT. Thus, we conclude that serum TT levels before TRT are not significantly associated with the number of circulating EPCs in men with late onset hypogonadism. However, TRT can increase the number of circulating EPCs, which implies the benefit of TRT on endothelial function in hypogonadal men.

  19. Taliglucerase alfa: an enzyme replacement therapy using plant cell expression technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Gregory A; Golembo, Myriam; Shaaltiel, Yoseph

    2014-05-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a rare, genetic lysosomal storage disorder caused by functional defects of acid β-glucosidase that results in multiple organ dysfunction. Glycosylation of recombinant acid human β-glucosidase and exposure of terminal mannose residues are critical to the success of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for the treatment of visceral and hematologic manifestations in GD. Three commercially available ERT products for treatment of GD type 1 (GD1) include imiglucerase, velaglucerase alfa, and taliglucerase alfa. Imiglucerase and velaglucerase alfa are produced in different mammalian cell systems and require production glycosylation modifications to expose terminal α-mannose residues, which are needed for mannose receptor-mediated uptake by target macrophages. Such modifications add to production costs. Taliglucerase alfa is a plant cell-expressed acid β-glucosidase approved in the United States and other countries for ERT in adults with GD1. A plant-based expression system, using carrot root cell cultures, was developed for production of taliglucerase alfa and does not require additional processing for postproduction glycosidic modifications. Clinical trials have demonstrated that taliglucerase alfa is efficacious, with a well-established safety profile in adult, ERT-naïve patients with symptomatic GD1, and for such patients previously treated with imiglucerase. These included significant improvements in organomegaly and hematologic parameters as early as 6months, and maintenance of achieved therapeutic values in previously treated patients. Ongoing clinical trials will further characterize the long-term efficacy and safety of taliglucerase alfa in more diverse patient populations, and may help to guide clinical decisions for achieving optimal outcomes for patients with GD1.

  20. Die Via Dolorosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. van der Merwe

    1957-03-01

    Full Text Available In die hartjie van Jerusalem, die heilige stad vir Jood, Mohammedaan en Christen staan daar ’n boog, die ,,Ecce Homoboog” genaamd, en 'n klein endjie daarvandaan, die Heilige Grafkerk.

  1. Developments in fuel cell systems for automotive application; Entwicklungstendenzen von Brennstoffzellensystemen fuer die Anwendung im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treffinger, P.; Thalau, O. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugkonzepte; Friedrich, K.A. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, fuel cell systems for passenger cars have reached a high technological level leading to attractive vehicle concepts. It is expected that the future progress regarding power density increase will be slower. However, there are still a number of open questions, e.g. if the combination of cost targets and requested life time will be achieved. Also there is no final evidence, whether the actual operating parameters will meet customer's requirements. A progress in fundamental technology, e.g. improved electrolyte membranes, would be very beneficial for commercialisation. (orig.)

  2. Novel ceramic bone replacement material CeraBall seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, T.E.L.; Liu, Q.; Humpe, A.; Wiltfang, J.; Sivananthan, S.; Warnke, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) are two very common ceramic materials for bone replacement. A recently developed material for bone replacement is CeraBall, which is a mixed HA-TCP scaffold available as porous spherical scaffolds of diameter 4 and 6 mm. Before their use

  3. Soluble mediators can replace helper T cells in the activation of resting B lymphocytes: evidence for a human B cell activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diu, A; Février, M; Moreau, J L; Gougeon, M L; Abadie, A; Thèze, J

    1988-01-01

    We were interested in studying the participation of T cell-derived soluble factors in the early steps of B cell activation. Thus supernatants containing such factors were obtained following activation of human T cell clones and their effects on isolated B cells investigated. These supernatants induced activation, blastogenesis and proliferation of purified resting human B cells. Our results strongly suggest the existence of a B cell Activating Factor (BCAF) of apparent molecular weight (m.w.) of 12,000-15,000 daltons which acts directly on resting B cells and replaces helper T cells in B cell activation.

  4. RED-BLOOD-CELL TRANSFUSIONS FOR TOTAL HIP-REPLACEMENT IN A REGIONAL-HOSPITAL - A 6-YEAR ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesma, Douwe H.; van Iperen, Charlotte E.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Marx, Joannes J. M.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.; van De Wiel, Albert

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate changes in the need for homologous blood and to assess the imp act of autologous blood transfusion, red cell transfusions in unilateral total hip replacement surgery, performed electively in the period 1986-1991, were studied in a regional hospital. Transfusion data, perioperative blood

  5. Luther die prediker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. van der Walt

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available ’n Prediker moet ’n getroue herder wees wat magtig is in die Heilige Skrif, want die Woord bring die kerk voort. Daarom moet die prediker in sy bediening aan mense ’n woord van sekerheid hê deur seker te wees hy het die Woord van God. Met hierdie gedagtegang het Luther se pastorale besorgdheid vaste bodem vir die prediking in die gesag van die Woord van God.

  6. ‘I can die today, I can die tomorrow’: lay perceptions of sickle cell disease in Kumasi, Ghana at a point of transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis-Antwi, Jemima A.; Culley, Lorraine; Hiles, David R.; Dyson, Simon M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the lay meanings of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Design. Depth interviews with 31 fathers of people with SCD; a focus group with health professionals associated with the newborn sickle cell screening programme, and a focus group with mothers of children with SCD. Results. Whilst there are discourses that associate sickle cell with early or recurrent death, with supernatural undermining of family well-being, and with economic challenges in purchasing medical care, other discourses that value children and other family practices that resist stigma are also in evidence. Conclusion. Lay perspectives on SCD are constructed in the contexts of enduring culture (the high value placed on children); changing culture (medicine and research as available alternative discourses to supernatural ones); altered material circumstances (newborn screening producing cohorts of children with SCD); changing political situations (insurance-based treatment); enhanced family resources (the experience of a cohort of young people with SCD). Above all the praxis of successfully caring for a child with SCD, and the political experience of sharing that praxis, stands in opposition to discourses of death and helps parents resist stigma and despair. PMID:21797730

  7. Pressure cell engine - engine of the future?; Der Druckzellenmotor - die Motor-Alternative der Zukunft ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzhoff, A. [Hochschule Wismar, Fachbereich Maschinenbau, Verfahrens- und Umwelttechnik (Germany); Reitz, J. [Initiativkreis Druckzellenmotor e.V., Heilbronn (Germany); Windisch, H. [Fachhochschule Heilbronn (Germany); Mueller, H.

    2004-07-01

    Can the growing demand for inexpensive mobile or steady state traction units still be met in 50 years? Limited resources of crude oil and changes of the earth climate by an increasing greenhouse gas pollution are calling the established stroke piston engine more and more into question. Now an evolutionary method of resolution was made out of characteristics from the Otto-, the Diesel-, the Wankel engine and the gas turbine. The new ''Druckzellen-Motor DZM'' (Pressure Cell Engine) is a thermodynamical engine, working after the basic Otto-engine rules, but significantly enhancing efficiency by functionally separating the single working processes into dedicated function units. The compression ratio and the expansion ratio are independently variable from each other. The continous isochorous combustion in a thermal accumulator only requires a low quality in fuel conditioning. Starting the engine from zero r.p.m. can be achieved by the charged thermal accumulator at maximum torque similar to a steam engine or a DC motor. (orig.)

  8. In situ liquid-cell electron microscopy of silver-palladium galvanic replacement reactions on silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, E.; Jungjohann, K.; Bliznakov, S.; Courty, A.; Maisonhaute, E.; Tenney, S.; Sutter, P.

    2014-09-01

    Galvanic replacement reactions provide an elegant way of transforming solid nanoparticles into complex hollow morphologies. Conventionally, galvanic replacement is studied by stopping the reaction at different stages and characterizing the products ex situ. In situ observations by liquid-cell electron microscopy can provide insight into mechanisms, rates and possible modifications of galvanic replacement reactions in the native solution environment. Here we use liquid-cell electron microscopy to investigate galvanic replacement reactions between silver nanoparticle templates and aqueous palladium salt solutions. Our in situ observations follow the transformation of the silver nanoparticles into hollow silver-palladium nanostructures. While the silver-palladium nanocages have morphologies similar to those obtained in ex situ control experiments the reaction rates are much higher, indicating that the electron beam strongly affects the galvanic-type process in the liquid-cell. By using scavengers added to the aqueous solution we identify the role of radicals generated via radiolysis by high-energy electrons in modifying galvanic reactions.

  9. Implications of Parkinson's disease pathophysiology for the development of cell replacement strategies and drug discovery in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan-Montojo, Francisco; Funk, Richard H W

    2012-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder traditionally characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) at the midbrain. The potential use of adult or embryonic stem cells, induced pluriputent stem (iPS) cells and endogenous neurogenesis in cell replacement strategies has lead to numerous studies and clinical trials in this direction. It is now possible to differentiate stem cells into dopaminergic neurons in vitro and clinical trials have shown an improvement in PD-related symptoms after intra-striatal embryonic transplants and acceptable cell survival rates on the mid term. However, clinical improvement is transitory and associated with a strong placebo effect. Interestingly, recent pathological studies in PD patients who received embryonic stem cells show that in PD patients, grafted neurons show PD-related pathology. In this manuscript we review the latest findings regarding PD pathophysiology and give an outlook on the implications of these findings in how cell replacement strategies for PD treatment should be tested. These include changes in the type of animal models used, the preparation/conditioning of the cells before intracerebral injection, specially regarding backbone chronic diseases in iPS cells and determining the optimal proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration capacity of the grafted cells.

  10. Qualitative dynamic models for materials development of solid oxide fuel cells; Qualitative dynamische Modelle fuer die Werkstoffentwicklung von Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, K.; Krebs, V. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Inst. fuer Regelungs- und Steuerungssysteme (IRS); Ivers-Tiffee, E. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (DE). Forschungszentrum Umwelt (FZU), Inst. fuer Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik

    2002-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are high-temperature all-ceramic devices for electrochemical energy conversion at high electrical efficiency and almost zero emissions. However, high production coast and immature development states are hindering a soon market launch of fuel cell systems. This paper shows that systems and control theory methods not only are necessary for controlling fuel cell systems, but also can support materials development. (orig.) [German] Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mit keramischen Festelektrolyt stellen als elektrochemische Energiewandler eine zukunftsweisende Technologie zur wirtschaftlichen und umweltfreundlichen Erzeugung elektrischer Energie dar. Einer schnellen Markteinfuehrung stehen jedoch derzeit die hohen Kosten sowie der noch nicht ausgereifte technische Entwicklungsstand der Zellen im Wege. In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass der Einsatz moderner Methoden der Regelungs- und Systemtheorie nicht nur beim spaeteren Betrieb von Brennstoffzellen-Anlagen notwendig, sondern bereits bei der Werkstoffentwicklung fuer die Zellen selbst von substantiellem Nutzen ist. (orig.)

  11. Revisiting the identification and cDNA cloning of T cell-replacing factor/interleukin-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi eTakatsu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a perspective based on the paper Cloning of complementary DNA encoding T cell replacing factor and identity with B cell growth factor II, by Kinashi T, Harada N, Severinson E, Tanabe T, Sideras P, Konishi M, Azuma C, Tominaga A, Bergstedt-Lindqvist S, Takahashi M, Matsuda F, Yaoita Y, Takatsu K, and Honjo, T. Nature (1986 32(6092: 70-3. We have been interested in understanding the molecular basis of T-B cell cooperation for antibody formation. Although many investigators had described a number of different soluble factors that appeared to have biological relevance to T-B cell interactions, molecular basis of such active substances remained unknown for a long period of time. In this perspective, I will briefly summarize the history of the initial discovery of T cell-replacing factor/B cell growth factor II that appeared to be involved in B-cell growth and differentiation, and outline the discovery and characterization of interleukin-5. Studies of interleukin-5 have provided strong evidence that a single cytokine exerts a variety of activities on diverse target cells.

  12. Wêreldmededingendheid en die tegnologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. I. Pistorius

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Afgesien van die interne uitdagings wat die Heropbou- en Ontwikkelingsprogram (HOP aan Suid-Afrika bied, moet die land ook tred hou met die veranderende globale omgewing, spesifiek die toenemende belangrikheid van ekonomiese sekuriteit as komponent van nasionale sekuriteit. Die konsep van mededingendheid vergestalt die doelwit wat nagestreef moet word ten einde die ontluikende globale ekonomiese stryd aan te durf. As ’n belangrike drywer van ekonomiese welvaart is tegnologie een van die belangrikste sleutels tot internasionale mededingendheid. Tegnologiese innovasie is die proses wat as hefboom hiervoor gebruik moet word. Dit is egter nodig dat tegnologie, en spesifiek die proses van tegnologiese innovasie, formeel en gestruktureerd bestuur moet word, sowel op nasionale as firmavlak. Op nasionale vlak is die voorsiene Nasionale Innovasiestelsel beslis ’n stap in die regte rigting.

  13. Die rol van die blanke werker in die motivering van die swart werker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Oosthuizen

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the Black worker can not be studied in isolation since the White worker still holds many executive positions and therefore has an influence on the Black workers' motivation. The role of the White worker in motivating the Black worker in a specific organisation and the attitude and leadership approach of the White worker on the existence/nonexistence and relative satisfaction of the needs of Black workers are discussed.Opsomming Die motivering van die Swart werker kan nie in die huidige situasie in isolasie bestudeer word nie, omdat die Blanke werker steeds in die bestuursposisie is en daarom die motivering van die Swart werker kan beïnvloed. Hierdie ondersoek was daarop gerig om die rol van die Blanke werker in die motivering van die Swart werker nader te ondersoek. Die houding en die leierskapsbenadering van die Blanke werker teenoor die Swart werker is gemeet, asook die behoeftes wat volgens die Blanke werker by die Swart werker bestaan, bevredig is, of nie bestaan nie. Die behoeftes van Swart werkers, soos deur hulleself gesien, is ook ondersoek. Ten opsigte van sekere aspekte is beduidende verskille gevind.

  14. Die verbondeling in verband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A.L. Taljaard

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Daar is dikwels en deur groot outoriteite al geskryf oor die mens in die samelewing. Hier wil ons egter die saak probeer aanraak uit ’n nuwe hoek, veral om die Skrifbeligting van die siening te benader. Vanselfsprekend verg hierdie benaming ’n skrifmatige mensbeskouing, maar ook ’n skrifmatige verbandsbeskouing. Die mens staan egter nie slegs in verhouding tot sy medemens nie maar ook in verhou­ ding tot stof, plant en dier. Boweal staan die mens in verhouding tot God, en hierdie verhouding is deurslaggewend vir al die ander verhoudinge waarin die mens hom bevind. Tog staan die mens ook in verhouding tot homself; wie kan die diepere roersele van die menslike siel peil, wie weet van die wroeginge, vreugde, leed en genot van die mens beter as hyself? Ook hierdie aspek verdien ons aandag. Op volledigheid kan nie aanspraak gemaak word nie, dit is ook nie my bedoeling nie. Die bedoeling is maar om die omvang van die tema aan te dui, die gedagtes te prikkel en veral om aan te spoor tot nuwe denkoriëntering waarin ook terminologies gebreek behoort te word met die neo-skolastiek binne reformatoriese lyn.

  15. Platelet-rich plasma can replace fetal bovine serum in human meniscus cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, V.K.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Boer, T. den; Hannink, G.; Tienen, T.G. van; Heerde, W.L. van; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over fetal bovine serum (FBS) limit the clinical application of cultured tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, we investigated if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can fully replace FBS for meniscus tissue engineering purposes. Human PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were isolated from three h

  16. A Stem Cell-Seeded Nanofibrous Scaffold for Auditory Nerve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    biopolymer scaffold within the internal auditory meatus (IAM) of the guinea pig. (A) The lateral wall of an intact guinea pig temporal bone is shown......Nanofibrous Scaffold for Auditory Nerve Replacement 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0492 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Betty Diamond

  17. Wege in die Zukunft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  18. Die Gewalt der Frauen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Ebrecht

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand historischer Beispiele aus der Zeit der letzten Jahrhundertwende in Europa stellt die Autorin den Zusammenhang von Transgression, Aggression und Inversion dar. Gegen die gängige Auffassung, Gewalt sei männlich, setzt sie Selbst- und Fremdentwürfe von Frauen, die als Duellantinnen, Soldatinnen und Mörderinnen die gesellschaftlich festgelegten Grenzen der Gewalt verletzten. Sie interpretiert dies als Versuch, die Geschlechtergrenzen zu überschreiten und sich eine Subjektposition anzueignen.

  19. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with Morquio A syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatsu, Shunji; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Shimada, Tsutomu; Bober, Michael B; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Montaño, Adriana M; Giugliani, Roberto; Kubaski, Francyne; Yasuda, Eriko; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Espejo-Mojica, Angela J; Sánchez, Oscar F; Mason, Robert W; Barrera, Luis A; Mackenzie, William G; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) can present with systemic skeletal dysplasia, leading to a need for multiple orthopedic surgical procedures, and often become wheelchair bound in their teenage years. Studies on patients with MPS IVA treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) showed a sharp reduction on urinary keratan sulfate, but only modest improvement based on a 6-minute walk test and no significant improvement on a 3-minute climb-up test and lung function test compared with the placebo group, at least in the short-term. Surgical remnants from ERT-treated patients did not show reduction of storage materials in chondrocytes. The impact of ERT on bone lesions in patients with MPS IVA remains limited. ERT seems to be enhanced in a mouse model of MPS IVA by a novel form of the enzyme tagged with a bone-targeting moiety. The tagged enzyme remained in the circulation much longer than untagged native enzyme and was delivered to and retained in bone. Three-month-old MPS IVA mice treated with 23 weekly infusions of tagged enzyme showed marked clearance of the storage materials in bone, bone marrow, and heart valves. When treatment was initiated at birth, reduction of storage materials in tissues was even greater. These findings indicate that specific targeting of the enzyme to bone at an early stage may improve efficacy of ERT for MPS IVA. Recombinant N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) (erGALNS) and in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (prGALNS) has been produced as an alternative to the conventional production in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Recombinant GALNS produced in microorganisms may help to reduce the high cost of ERT and the introduction of modifications to enhance targeting. Although only a limited number of patients with MPS IVA have been treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), beneficial effects have been reported. A wheelchair-bound patient with a severe form of MPS

  20. Urgent replacement of a mechanical mitral prosthesis in an anticoagulated patient with Bombay red blood cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Travis K; Giulivi, Antonio; Neurath, Doris; Tokessy, Melanie; Sia, Ying T; Ruel, Marc; Wilkes, Peter R H

    2010-06-01

    Bombay red blood cell phenotype is an extremely rare blood type for which patients can receive only autologous or Bombay phenotype red blood cells. We report a case of urgent repeat sternotomy for replacement of a mechanical mitral prosthesis in a patient with Bombay phenotype anticoagulated with warfarin, to emphasize the transfusion challenges in such patients. A male of Indian descent presented to hospital with New York Heart Association IV symptoms. His medical history revealed previous mitral valve replacement with a mechanical prosthesis in 2005 and Bombay phenotype blood. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated thrombus obstruction of the mitral prosthesis despite anticoagulation with warfarin. Right ventricular systolic pressure was >100 mmHg with 3+ tricuspid regurgitation. The patient's condition was temporized with diuretics, bronchodilators, and bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation while transfusion medicine and cardiac surgery were consulted for urgent surgery. The patient received vitamin K and prothrombin complex concentrate prior to repeat sternotomy and successful mitral prosthesis replacement. After cardiopulmonary bypass, heparinization was corrected with protamine and followed by a second dose of prothrombin complex concentrate and recombinant activated factor VIIa. Postoperatively, the patient received four units of packed red blood cells, two autologous units and two units of Bombay specific red blood cells. Right ventricular pressures stabilized at 40 mmHg following surgery. The patient recovered following several days of inotropic support with milrinone, diuretics, and bronchodilators. Patients with Bombay phenotype red blood cells present as type O, but they are unable to receive red blood cells from any phenotype other than Bombay phenotype. They are able to receive all other blood products, including fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, platelets, prothrombin complex concentrate, and recombinant activated factor

  1. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  2. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  3. Materials on dies for pressure die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution the stress of die materials of thermal fatigue is defi ned and material life is derived theoretically and compared with the measured values. The important properties of the die materials as thermal conductivity, coeffi cient of thermal expansivity, modulus of elasticity and mechanical properties are described. Binding to it single die materials as carbon steels and chrome-tungsten steels are analyzed. As the perspective die material for pressure die casting of ferrous metals appears molybdenum with regard to advantageous properties.

  4. Antiglobalisierung die Andere Globalisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Ljiljana Croce

    2006-01-01

    Das Ziel der Arbeit ist, ein je größeres Interesse an diesem Thema zu erwecken und auf die Gefahren hinzuweisen, denen wir alle verlaufen, wie die Armen, sowie auch die Reichen und die kleine Gruppe der zum mittleren Stand gehörenden, die immer mehr in die offene Armut versinken. Es wäre zu viel, in einer Welt solcher Globalisierung, die soziale Empfi ndlichkeit der Menschen zueinander zu erwarten. In Wirklichkeit geht sie immer mehr verloren. Der Mensch als Einzelperson, sowie auch die Völke...

  5. Verrekening van die kragveld van die verbond in die inkleding van die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen teks, hoorder en prediker

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In hierdie artikel word die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen die Bybelse teks, die hoorders en die prediker homileties verken. Die probleemstelling waarmee gewerk word handel oor potensiële versteurings wat kan plaasvind in hierdie driehoeksverhouding wanneer die hoorders en die prediker in hulle menslike beperktheid in verbinding gebring word met die ewige Woord van God soos dit in die Bybelse teks na vore kom. In die loop van die artikel word die volgende aspekte verken: ’n Ideale...

  6. The structure-specific endonuclease Ercc1–Xpf is required for targeted gene replacement in embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Essers, Jeroen; Weeda, Geert; Beverloo, Berna; de Wit, Jan; Muijtjens, Manja; Odijk, Hanny; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Kanaar, Roland

    2001-01-01

    The Ercc1–Xpf heterodimer, a highly conserved structure-specific endonuclease, functions in multiple DNA repair pathways that are pivotal for maintaining genome stability, including nucleotide excision repair, interstrand crosslink repair and homologous recombination. Ercc1–Xpf incises double-stranded DNA at double-strand/single-strand junctions, making it an ideal enzyme for processing DNA structures that contain partially unwound strands. Here we demonstrate that although Ercc1 is dispensable for recombination between sister chromatids, it is essential for targeted gene replacement in mouse embryonic stem cells. Surprisingly, the role of Ercc1–Xpf in gene targeting is distinct from its previously identified role in removing nonhomologous termini from recombination intermediates because it was required irrespective of whether the ends of the DNA targeting constructs were heterologous or homologous to the genomic locus. Our observations have implications for the mechanism of gene targeting in mammalian cells and define a new role for Ercc1–Xpf in mammalian homologous recombination. We propose a model for the mechanism of targeted gene replacement that invokes a role for Ercc1–Xpf in making the recipient genomic locus receptive for gene replacement. PMID:11707424

  7. Lineage plasticity and cell biology of fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage: Its significance in cartilage repair and replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemont, Anthony J. [Regenerative Medicine Research Group, University of Manchester, England (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: Tony.freemont@man.ac.uk; Hoyland, Judith [Regenerative Medicine Research Group, University of Manchester, England (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    Cartilage repair is a major goal of modern tissue engineering. To produce novel engineered implants requires a knowledge of the basic biology of the tissues that are to be replaced or reproduced. Hyaline articular cartilage and meniscal fibrocartilage are two tissues that have excited attention because of the frequency with which they are damaged. A basic strategy is to re-engineer these tissues ex vivo by stimulating stem cells to differentiate into the cells of the mature tissue capable of producing an intact functional matrix. In this brief review, the sources of cells for tissue engineering cartilage and the culture conditions that have promoted differentiation are discussed within the context of natural cartilage repair. In particular, the role of cell density, cytokines, load, matrices and oxygen tension are discussed.

  8. Die voorspellingswaarde van die takseersentrum: 'n Oorsig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Pietersen

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment centre: a brief review of predictive value. Factors such as the rise of the professional manager, industrialization and worker expectations have, over the last few decades, increasingly placed managers in the limelight as a key occupational group. In this regard the assessment centre has become prominent as a method for the identification of managerial potential. However, a brief review of the relevant research literature indicates low predictive variances for the managerial assessment centre. This fact, together with the limited scope of the assessment centre, therefore necessitates, amongst other things, a wider research perspective which will include other work and non-work related factors as well. Opsomming Verskynsels soos die opkoms van die professionele bestuurder, industrialisering en stygende werkerverwagtinge het meegebring dat die kollig die afgelope paar dekades al hoe meer op bestuurders as sleutelberoepskategone geplaas is. In hierdie verband het veral die takseersentrum aandag gekry as 'n metode vir die identifisering van bestuurs- potensiaal 'n Kort oorsig van die betrokke navorsingsliteratuur toon egter lae voorspellingsvariansiesyfers vir die takseersentrum aan. Hierdie feit, tesame met die beperkte fokus van die takseersentrum, noodsaak, onder andere, 'n wyer navorsingsperspektief wat ook ander relevante werk- en nie-werkverwante faktore msluit.

  9. Improved Laser Manipulation for On-chip Fabricated Microstructures Based on Solution Replacement and Its Application in Single Cell Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yue

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the fabrication and assembly of microstructures inside a microfluidic device based on a photocrosslinkable resin and optical tweezers. We also report a method of solution replacement inside the microfluidic channel in order to improve the manipulation performance and apply the assembled microstructures for single cell cultivation. By the illumination of patterned ultraviolet (UV through a microscope, microstructures of arbitrary shape were fabricated by the photocrosslinkable resin inside a microfluidic channel. Based on the microfluidic channel with both glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surfaces, immovable and movable microstructures were fabricated and manipulated. The microstructures were fabricated at the desired places and manipulated by the optical tweezers. A rotational microstructure including a microgear and a rotation axis was assembled and rotated in demonstrating this technique. The improved laser manipulation of microstructures was achieved based on the on-chip solution replacement method. The manipulation speed of the microstructures increased when the viscosity of the solvent decreased. The movement efficiency of the fabricated microstructures inside the lower viscosity solvent was evaluated and compared with those microstructures inside the former high viscosity solvent. A novel cell cage was fabricated and the cultivation of a single yeast cell (w303 was demonstrated in the cell cage, inside the microfluidic device.

  10. Simultaneous multilayer formation of the polymer solar cell stack using roll-to-roll double slot-die coating from water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andreasen, Birgitta; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2012-01-01

    Double slot-die coating using aqueous inks was employed for the simultaneous coating of the active layer and the hole transport layer (HTL) in fully roll-to-roll (R2R) processed polymer solar cells. The double layer film was coated directly onto an electron transport layer (ETL) comprising doped...... zinc oxide that was processed by single slot-die coating from water. The active layer comprised poly-3-hexylthiophene:Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) as a dispersion of nanoparticles with a radius of 46 nm in water characterized using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission...... electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The HTL was a dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) in water. The films were analyzed using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) as chemical probe and X-ray reflectometry...

  11. Die ontwikkeling van die bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ: Several criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation are reported in the literature. This study aimed at developing a new psychometrically sound instrument, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory. The preliminary MMQ was systematically shortened and refined until the final MMQ of 98 items was composed. This was based on social desirability and semantic appraisal, item analysis and factor analysis of the questionnaire. The results indicate that it was possible to develop a final MMQ that was relatively free of social desirability. It further demonstrated satsifactory internal consistencies on two samples (a = 0/90, N = 360; a = 0/91, N = 535, where all subscale items were found to be relatively pure measures of the isolated factors. Although some evidence was found providing support for the reliability of the MMQ, a need for further research on the construct validity of managerial motivation still exists. Opsomming In die literatuur word verskeie punte van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering gerapporteer. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was dus om aan die hand van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering, en die rolmotiveringsteorie as algemene verwysingsraamwerk, 'n nuwe psigometries aanvaarbare meetinstrument, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV, te ontwikkel. Op grond van sosiale wenslikheids- en semantiese beoordeling, itemontleding en faktorontleding van die voorlopige BMV is die vraelys stelselmatig verkort en verfyn totdat die finale BMV van 98 items saamgestel is. Die resultate dui daarop dat hierdie studie wel daarin geslaag het om 'n finale BMV te ontwikkel wat relatief vry van sosiale wenslikheid is, bevredigende interne

  12. A look at the current status of the fuel cell technology: Test buying and operation of fuel cell stacks; Wo steht die Brennstoffzellentechnik? Erfahrungen beim Testkauf und -betrieb von BZ-Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheppat, Birgit [Hochschule RheinMain, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    In a recent projects, scientists of RheinMain university analyzed the challenges facing potential customers who intend to replace a battery or another electric power supply unit by fuel cell stack. (orig.)

  13. Die sestienpersoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys as hulpmiddel by die takseersentrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The 16PF Personality Test as an aid to the assessment centre Assessment centres still remains costly and thime consuming. This study investigates the reduction of time and costs by the use of the 16 PF Personality Test as a method for measuring management dimensions. Promising results were obtained with a relatively small sample for the prediction of initiative and perseverance. Significant multiple correlations were also found for three criteria of management success. Further research may establish the use of the 16 PF as an aid to management assessment and thereby reduce the costs and time involved in assessment centres. Opsomming Takseersentrums se grootste probleem is gelee in die koste en tyd wat dit behels. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid om beide te verminder deur die aanwending van die 16 PF Persoonlikheidsvraelys vir die meting van bestuursdimensies. Belowende resultate is met 'n relatiewe klein steekproef bevind ten opsigte van die voorspelling van inisiatiefen deursettingsvermoe. Beduidende meervoudige korrelasies is ook ten opsigte van drie kriteria van bestuursukses bevind. Verdere navorsing kan die gebruik van die 16 PF as hulpmiddel by bestuursevaluering vestig en sodoende die tydsduur en koste van takseersentrums verminder.

  14. DIE HEDENDAAGSE SIENING VAN DIE NORMERING VAN DUITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    norm aan die een kant en deur die S^^eeksnorm aan die ander." (ibid. 384). ...... grondslag, hoewel die groot aantal voorbeelde uit die werke van Thomas Mann ...... Mentrup, W., & P. Kuhn, (1980) "Deutsche Sprache in Osterreich und in der.

  15. Ideologiese normverplasings en die Afrikaanse handwoordeboek van die negentigerjare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carstens

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Ideological norm replacement and the Afrikaans desk dictionary of the ninetiesIn South Africa the past decade has been marked by extensive sociopolitical changes and by concomitant linguistic changes. These changes may be regarded as instances of norm replacement - a process during the course of which a norm or a set of norms is gradually replaced by another norm or set of norms. It is maintained that the standard synchronic dictionaries of a language not only have the obligation to reflect lexicalised norm replacements, but also to make projections with regard to future use. Two standard synchronic desk dictionaries of Afrikaans, namely the eighth edition of Verklarende Afrikaanse Woordeboek (1992 and the third edition of Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal (1994 are explored with special regard to their reflection of norm replacements within the domains of race and political ideology. It is shown that the compilers of these dictionaries consciously and sincerely aimed at removing all racial bias but that they failed to record the diversity of meaning within the political lexicon and the semantic shifts which have occurred within that lexicon during the past decade.

  16. Polymer solar cell modules prepared using roll-to-roll methods: Knife-over-edge coating, slot-die coating and screen printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2009-01-01

    complete polymer solar cell module prepared in the ambient atmosphere using all-solution processing with no vacuum steps and full roll-to-roll (R2R) processing is presented. The modules comprise five layers that were prepared on a 175-μm flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) substrate with an 80......-nm layer of transparent conducting indium–tin oxide (ITO). The ITO layer was first patterned by screen printing an etch resist followed by etching. The second layer was applied by either knife-over-edge (KOE) coating or slot-die coating a solution of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-nps) followed...... was patterned into stripes and juxtaposed with the ITO layer. The fourth layer comprised screen-printed or slot-die-coated PEDOT:PSS and the fifth and the final layer comprised a screen-printed or slot-die-coated silver electrode. The final module dimensions were 28 cm×32 cm and presented four individual solar...

  17. Die etiek van Luther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Dink ons aan die etiek van Luther dan spring onmiddellik ’n paar boeiende uitsprake van hom na vore soos o.a. dat Christene vanuit die gemeenskap met Christus nuwe dekaloë moet maak wat helderder as die van Moses kan wees, of dat ons in bepaalde sin vir ons naaste ’n Christus moet word. Die bydrae van Luther 'tot die Christelike etiek is sonder twyfel van groot betekenis en die bestudering daarvan die moeite werd. Luther is geprys as rewolusionêr en verguis as konserwatis, hy is geëer as iemand wat weer die ware be­tekenis van godsdiens ontdek het toe die lewe vervloei het in etiek. Of dit egter korrek is om sy etiek as konserwatief te tipeer, soos White doen, moet betwyfel word.

  18. New and viable cells to replace lost and malfunctioning myocardial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, R J; Passier, R; Goumans, M J; Mummery, C L; Doevendans, P A

    2004-10-01

    The use of stem cells for cardiac repair is a promising opportunity for developing new treatment strategies as the applications are theoretically unlimited and lead to actual cardiac tissue regeneration. Human embryonic stem cells were only recently cloned and their capacity to differentiate into true cardiomyocytes makes them in principle an unlimited source of transplantable cells for cardiac repair, although practical and ethical constraints exist. Also, the study of embryonic stem cells and their differentiation into cardiomyocytes will bring forth new insights into the molecular processes involved in cardiomyocyte-development and -proliferation, which could lead to the development of other strategies to augment in vivo cardiomyocyte numbers. On the other hand, somatic stem cells are alternative cell sources that can be used for cell transplantation purposes. They do not evoke ethical issues and bear less ethical constraints. However, they also appear to be much more restricted in their differentiation potential than the embryonic stem cells. Here we discuss the use of both cell types, embryonic and somatic stem cells, in relation with their importance for the clarification of cardiomyocyte-development and their possible usefulness for clinical therapy.

  19. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  20. Ex vivo expansion of human T cells for adoptive immunotherapy using the novel Xeno-free CTS Immune Cell Serum Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Corey; Økern, Grethe; Rehan, Sweera; Beagley, Leone; Lee, Sau K; Aarvak, Tanja; Schjetne, Karoline W; Khanna, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    The manufacture of clinical grade cellular products for adoptive immunotherapy requires ex vivo culture and expansion of human T cells. One of the key components in manufacturing of T cell therapies is human serum (HS) or fetal bovine serum (FBS), which can potentially expose immunotherapy recipient to adventitious infectious pathogens and are thus considered as non-cGMP compliant for adoptive therapy. Here we describe a novel xeno-free serum replacement (SR) with defined components that can be reproducibly used for the production of clinical grade T-cell therapies in combination with several different cell culture media. Dynabeads CD3/CD28 Cell Therapy System (CTS)-activated or antigen-specific T cells expanded using the xeno-free SR, CTS Immune Cell SR, showed comparable growth kinetics observed with cell culture media supplemented with HS or FBS. Importantly the xeno-free SR supplemented medium supported the optimal expansion of T cells specific for subdominant tumour-associated antigens and promoted expansion of T cells with central memory T-cell phenotype, which is favourable for in vivo survival and persistence following adoptive transfer. Furthermore, T cells expanded using xeno-free SR medium were highly amenable to lentivirus-mediated gene transduction for potential application for gene-modified T cells. Taken together, the CTS Immune Cell SR provides a novel platform strategy for the manufacture of clinical grade adoptive cellular therapies.

  1. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(V)Oxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Nieves Espinosa; Dam, Henrik Friis; Tanenbaum, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of hydrated vanadium(V)oxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full...

  2. Ambrosius en die virginitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Malan

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambrosius het met reg die benaming “Leraar van Maagdelikheid” ontvang (Dooley, 1948:119. Die opmerking van Thamin: “C’est une vertu proprement chrétienne que la vertu de virginité, proclame tout d’abord saint Ambroise” (1895:344, gee dadelik aanleiding tot die vraag of Ambrosius dan geen waardering vir die huwelik gehad het nie. Hierdie vraag word nog meer dringend as sy beskrywing van die kruis van die getroude lewe nagegaan word.

  3. Stem cells to replace or regenerate the diabetic pancreas: Huge potential & existing hurdles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Bhartiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various stem cell sources are being explored to treat diabetes since the proof-of-concept for cell therapy was laid down by transplanting cadaveric islets as a part of Edmonton protocol in 2000. Human embryonic stem (hES cells derived pancreatic progenitors have got US-FDA approval to be used in clinical trials to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. However, these progenitors more closely resemble their foetal counterparts and thus whether they will provide long-term regeneration of adult human pancreas remains to be demonstrated. In addition to lifestyle changes and administration of insulin sensitizers, regeneration of islets from endogenous pancreatic stem cells may benefit T2DM patients. The true identity of pancreatic stem cells, whether these exist or not, whether regeneration involves reduplication of existing islets or ductal epithelial cells transdifferentiate, remains a highly controversial area. We have recently demonstrated that a novel population of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs is involved during regeneration of adult mouse pancreas after partial-pancreatectomy. VSELs (pluripotent stem cells in adult organs should be appreciated as an alternative for regenerative medicine as these are autologous (thus immune rejection issues do not exist with no associated risk of teratoma formation. T2DM is a result of VSELs dysfunction with age and uncontrolled proliferation of VSELs possibly results in pancreatic cancer. Extensive brainstorming and financial support are required to exploit the potential of endogenous VSELs to regenerate the pancreas in a patient with diabetes.

  4. Replacement of lateral line sensory organs during tail regeneration in salamanders: identification of progenitor cells and analysis of leukocyte activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J E; Corwin, J T

    1993-03-01

    It has been proposed that supporting cells may be the progenitors of regenerated hair cells that contribute to recovery of hearing in birds, but regeneration is difficult to visualize in the ear, because it occurs deep in the skull. Hair cells and supporting cells that are comparable to those in the ear are present in lateral line neuromasts, and in axolotl salamanders these cells are accessible to microscopic observation in vivo. After amputation of a segment of the tail that contains neuromasts, cells from the posteriormost neuromast on the tail stump divide rapidly and form a migratory regenerative placode. The cells of the regenerative placode represent a lineage that eventually produces both hair cells and supporting cells in replacement neuromasts. We sought to identify the progenitors of the regenerative placode by using differential interference contrast microscopy combined with time-lapse video recording in living axolotl salamanders. In response to amputation, the mantle-type supporting cells at the posteroventral edge of the neuromast that is nearest to the wound increased their frequency of cell division, and gave rise to the first cells of the placode. The increase in mitotic activity of mantle-type supporting cells was accompanied by an unexplained decrease in the frequency of divisions in the same neuromast's population of internal supporting cells. The time-lapse records suggested that the changes in the mitotic activity of supporting cells might have been linked to the presence of phagocytic leukocytes in the vicinity of the neuromast that was nearest to the wound. Leukocytes were evenly distributed around control neuromasts, but during regeneration leukocyte activity increased significantly in the vicinity of the posterior half of the posteriormost neuromast. The redistribution of leukocytes occurred early in the regenerative response, but a causal role for the leukocytes has not been conclusively established. It is possible that the leukocytes

  5. DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE MILITÊRE AKADEMIE, 1950 - 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Visser

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African Military Academy was established on 1 April 1950 with a view to placing candidate officer training in the Union Defence Force on par with standards abroad and at the same time to elevating it to the level of a university degree. In addition, the Minister of Defence, F.C. Erasmus, wanted to use the Academy as an instrument enabling Afrikaners to take up their rightful place alongside English-speaking citizens in the officer corps. In so doing, he hoped, eventually, to replace the predominant British character of the Union Defence Force with a unique South African, and more particularly an Afrikaner, character. Despite strong resistance to change from within the officer corps, motivated by political sentiment and more so by opposition to the novel idea of degree studies for officers, the Academy developed into a viable training institution. Broadly based on the training systems of Sandhurst and West Point, and following the example of the Indian National Defence Academy, the Military Academy became a joint training institution for all four arms of the service. Yet financial constraints, a lack of suitable candidates, as well as the conflicting sentiments and training needs of the arms of the service, prevented the formative training of all candidate officers from being assigned to the Academy.   The absence of formative training, together with the admittance of junior officers, instead of solely candidate officers, resulted in the Academy gaining the character of a military university rather than a traditional military academy. The Academy was deprived of a distinct function in the overall officers' development system, which put its survival in the balance and triggered a series of investigations into its role and function. The opposing subcultures that developed between the Dean and the Faculty of Military Science on the one hand, and the Officer Commanding and the Military Training Branch on the other, formed

  6. Navorsing op die gebied van die sosiale wetenskappe*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Robbertse

    1958-03-01

    Full Text Available In Hollands is die woord scientia vertaal met wetenskap, wat sowel die natuur- as die geesteswetenskappe insluit, waardeur die woordsy oorspronklike betekenis behou. Die neiging bestaan om die Engels science met wetenskap in Afrikaans te vertaal, waarmee dan eintlik die natuurwetenskap bedoel word.

  7. Foute in die meting van die aarde se magneetveld met die protonmagnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Hancke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Die tipiese foute wat voorkom wanneer die metode van periode-meting gebruik word vir die bepaling van die presessiefrekwensie van die magnetiese moment van protone, word bespreek, en metodes om dit teen te werk word voorgestel. Belangrike gevolgtrekkings wat sal lei tot die optimale funksionering van die periodemeter, word gemaak — veral ten opsigte van die meettyd, polarisasietyd en die eienskappe van die sensorvloeistof.

  8. Characterization of Spermatogonial Stem Cells Lacking Intercellular Bridges and Genetic Replacement of a Mutation in Spermatogonial Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells have a potential of gene therapy for regenerative medicine. Among various stem cells, spermatogonial stem cells have a unique characteristic in which neighboring cells can be connected by intercellular bridges. However, the roles of intercellular bridges for stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, and proliferation remain to be elucidated. Here, we show not only the characteristics of testis-expressed gene 14 (TEX14) null spermatogonial stem cells lacking intercellular bridges but...

  9. Wake up and Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia......Anmeldelse af den colombianske gyserfilm Volver a morir (eng. titel Wake Up and Die) af Miguel Urrutia...

  10. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  11. Replacement of retinyl esters by polyunsaturated triacylglycerol species in lipid droplets of hepatic stellate cells during activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Testerink

    Full Text Available Activation of hepatic stellate cells has been recognized as one of the first steps in liver injury and repair. During activation, hepatic stellate cells transform into myofibroblasts with concomitant loss of their lipid droplets (LDs and production of excessive extracellular matrix. Here we aimed to obtain more insight in the dynamics and mechanism of LD loss. We have investigated the LD degradation processes in rat hepatic stellate cells in vitro with a combined approach of confocal Raman microspectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis of lipids (lipidomics. Upon activation of the hepatic stellate cells, LDs reduce in size, but increase in number during the first 7 days, but the total volume of neutral lipids did not decrease. The LDs also migrate to cellular extensions in the first 7 days, before they disappear. In individual hepatic stellate cells. all LDs have a similar Raman spectrum, suggesting a similar lipid profile. However, Raman studies also showed that the retinyl esters are degraded more rapidly than the triacylglycerols upon activation. Lipidomic analyses confirmed that after 7 days in culture hepatic stellate cells have lost most of their retinyl esters, but not their triacylglycerols and cholesterol esters. Furthermore, we specifically observed a large increase in triacylglycerol-species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, partly caused by an enhanced incorporation of exogenous arachidonic acid. These results reveal that lipid droplet degradation in activated hepatic stellate cells is a highly dynamic and regulated process. The rapid replacement of retinyl esters by polyunsaturated fatty acids in LDs suggests a role for both lipids or their derivatives like eicosanoids during hepatic stellate cell activation.

  12. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  13. Hydroxycinnamate Conjugates as Potential Monolignol Replacements: In vitro Lignification and Cell Wall Studies with Rosmarinic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuki, Tobimatsu; Sasikumar, Elumalai; Grabber, John H.; Davidson, Christy L.; Xuejun, Pan; John, Ralph

    2012-04-01

    The plasticity of lignin biosynthesis should permit the inclusion of new compatible phenolic monomers, such as rosmarinic acid (RA) and analogous catechol derivatives, into cell-wall lignins that are consequently less recalcitrant to biomass processing. In vitro lignin polymerization experiments revealed that RA readily underwent peroxidase-catalyzed copolymerization with monolignols and lignin oligomers to form polymers with new benzodioxane inter-unit linkages. Incorporation of RA permitted extensive depolymerization of synthetic lignins by mild alkaline hydrolysis, presumably by cleavage of ester intra-unit linkages within RA. Copolymerization of RA with monolignols into maize cell walls by in situ peroxidases significantly enhanced alkaline lignin extractability and promoted subsequent cell wall saccharification by fungal enzymes. Incorporating RA also improved cell wall saccharification by fungal enzymes and by rumen microflora even without alkaline pretreatments, possibly by modulating lignin hydrophobicity and/or limiting cell wall cross-linking. Consequently, we anticipate that bioengineering approaches for partial monolignol substitution with RA and analogous plant hydroxycinnamates would permit more efficient utilization of plant fiber for biofuels or livestock production.

  14. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  15. Die verhouding doop en geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available By die aanvalle wat op die kinderdoop geloods word, kom telkens die verhouding doop en geloof ter sprake. Die geloof is so wesentlik met die doop verbonde, sodat daar nie gedoop mag word waar die geloof nie aanwesig is nie. 0ns lees inderdaad dwarsdeur die Nuwe Testament van ’n innige samehang wat daar tussen geloof en doop beslaan.

  16. Reprogramming amacrine and photoreceptor progenitors into retinal ganglion cells by replacing Neurod1 with Atoh7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chai-An; Cho, Jang-Hyeon; Wang, Jing; Gao, Zhiguang; Pan, Ping; Tsai, Wen-Wei; Frishman, Laura J; Klein, William H

    2013-02-01

    The specification of the seven retinal cell types from a common pool of retina progenitor cells (RPCs) involves complex interactions between the intrinsic program and the environment. The proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional regulators are key components for the intrinsic programming of RPCs and are essential for the formation of the diverse retinal cell types. However, the extent to which an RPC can re-adjust its inherent program and the mechanisms through which the expression of a particular bHLH factor influences RPC fate is unclear. Previously, we have shown that Neurod1 inserted into the Atoh7 locus activates the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) program in Atoh7-expressing RPCs but not in Neurod1-expressing RPCs, suggesting that Atoh7-expressing RPCs are not able to adopt the cell fate determined by Neurod1, but rather are pre-programmed to produce RGCs. Here, we show that Neurod1-expressing RPCs, which are destined to produce amacrine and photoreceptor cells, can be re-programmed into RGCs when Atoh7 is inserted into the Neurod1 locus. These results suggest that Atoh7 acts dominantly to convert a RPC subpopulation not destined for an RGC fate to adopt that fate. Thus, Atoh7-expressing and Neurod1-expressing RPCs are intrinsically different in their behavior. Additionally, ChIP-Seq analysis identified an Atoh7-dependent enhancer within the intronic region of Nrxn3. The enhancer recognized and used Atoh7 in the developing retina to regulate expression of Nrxn3, but could be forced to use Neurod1 when placed in a different regulatory context. The results indicate that Atoh7 and Neurod1 activate distinct sets of genes in vivo, despite their common DNA-binding element.

  17. Die gebruik van parallelplaatreologie vir die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Vorster

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat word bemoeilik deur die feit dat daar tans slegs twee metodes in gebruik is. In die eerste metode word die bepaling deur middel van oplossingsviskometrie gedoen, maar die toksisiteit van die oplosmiddel, asook die tydperk wat dit neem om die bepaling te doen, is ’n probleem. Die tweede metode word beperk deur die kompleksiteit en beskikbaarheid van die apparatuur in Suid-Afrika. In hierdie studie word ’n alternatiewe metode, gebaseer op parallelplaatreologie, voorgestel wat albei hierdie probleme oorkom en die resultate sodoende verkry, word vergelyk met dié wat met bestaande metodes verkry is.

  18. Die invloed van die neo-marxistiese kultuuranalise op die Wêreldraad van Kerke en die Gereformeerde Kerke van Nederland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vorster

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Toe die studente dwarsoor die VSA en Europa in die laat sestigerjare ’n plotselinge en radikale verset openbaar het teen die bestaande orde, het hulle die deur geopen vir ’n nuwe mededinger om die hart van die Westerse kultuur. Dit is die nou reeds bekende neo-Marxisme. Sedertdien het hierdie jongeling sy voetspore op vele vlakke van die Westerse kultuur gelaat.

  19. Partial Restoration of CFTR Function in cftr-Null Mice following Targeted Cell Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesneau, Pascal; Besla, Rickvinder; Derouet, Mathieu F; Guo, Li; Karoubi, Golnaz; Silberberg, Amanda; Wong, Amy P; Waddell, Thomas K

    2017-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal recessive genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the gene encoding CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Alteration in CFTR leads to thick airway mucus and bacterial infection. Cell therapy has been proposed for CFTR restoration, but efficacy has been limited by low engraftment levels. In our previous studies, we have shown that using a pre-conditioning regimen in combination with optimization of cell number and time of delivery, we could obtain greater bone marrow cell (BMC) retention in the lung. Here, we found that optimized delivery of wild-type (WT) BMC contributed to apical CFTR expression in airway epithelium and restoration of select ceramide species and fatty acids in CFTR(-/-) mice. Importantly, WT BMC delivery delayed Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection and increased survival of CFTR(-/-) recipients. Only WT BMCs had a beneficial effect beyond 6 months, suggesting a dual mechanism of BMC benefit: a non-specific effect early after cell delivery, possibly due to the recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils, and a late beneficial effect dependent on long-term CFTR expression. Taken together, our results suggest that BMC can improve overall lung function and may have potential therapeutic benefit for the treatment of CF.

  20. In vitro Induction of primary antibody responses to particulate and soluble protein antigens in T cell—replaced murine spleen cell cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuKun

    1990-01-01

    Specific antibody responses could be induced in serumfree condition.Specific anti-SRBC or anti-SRBC ghost antibody were induced from anti-Thy treated (T-depleted) murine spleen cells in serum-free culture in the presence of Con A conditioned medium.This induction system may facilitate the study of lymphokine functions on antigen triggered B cells. In T cell-replaced cultures,the antibody responses of B cells could be successfully induced when soluble SRBC membrane proteins were used as antigens.It thus indicates that antigen together with lymphokines are sufficient to drive B cells to become antibody secreting cells in the absence of T cells.The T cell-replaced system provides a more stable way for in vitro immunization and may be applied to monoclonal antibody production when in vivo immunization is difficult to be carried out.

  1. Decreased lung carcinoma cell density on select polymer nanometer surface features for lung replacement therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lijuan Zhang1, Young Wook Chun2, Thomas J Webster21Department of Chemistry and 2Division of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI USAAbstract: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA has been widely used as a biomaterial in regenerative medicine because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability properties. Previous studies have shown that cells (such as bladder smooth muscle cells, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts respond differently to nanostructured PLGA surfaces compared with nanosmooth surfaces. The purpose of the present in vitro research was to prepare PLGA films with various nanometer surface features and determine whether lung cancer epithelial cells respond differently to such topographies. To create nanosurface features on PLGA, different sized (190 nm, 300 nm, 400 nm, and 530 nm diameter polystyrene beads were used to cast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS molds which were used as templates to create nanofeatured PLGA films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images and root mean square roughness (RMS values indicated that the intended spherical surface nanotopographies on PLGA with RMS values of 2.23, 5.03, 5.42, and 36.90 nm were formed by employing 190, 300, 400, and 530 nm beads. A solution evaporation method was also utilized to modify PLGA surface features by using 8 wt% (to obtain an AFM RMS value of 0.62 nm and 4 wt% (to obtain an AFM RMS value of 2.23 nm PLGA in chloroform solutions. Most importantly, lung cancer epithelial cells adhered less on the PLGA surfaces with RMS values of 0.62, 2.23, and 5.42 nm after four hours of culture compared with any other PLGA surface created here. After three days, PLGA surfaces with an RMS value of 0.62 nm had much lower cell density than any other sample. In this manner, PLGA with specific nanometer surface features may inhibit lung cancer cell density which may provide an important biomaterial for the treatment of lung cancer (from drug delivery to regenerative medicine.Keywords: nanotechnology

  2. Die lebensvision des semonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoj Sironić

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Autor analysiert die Weibersatire des Semonides und andere seiner kurzen Fragmente. Dabei kommt er zu der Schlussfolgerung, dass sich die Verse der Satire durch eine gute Technik auszeich­ nen, dass aber auch eine unnötige Weitschweifigkeit nicht zu Ubersehen ist. Trotzdem kann man jedoch dem Dichter nicht die künstlerische Überzeugungskraft absprechen, wie auch die Ten­ denz nach Detailschilderungen und die Feinheit geistreicher Charakterisierungen. Die Aussage beinhaltet manchmal eine be­ stimmte innere Ironie in der Einfachheit der Wörter.In kurzen Fragmenten wird die Fähigkeit des Semonides sichtbar, sich sehr präzise auszudrücken. Seine ironisch-epische Sprache ist sehr reich  und verdient vom linguistischen Standpunkt aus Auf­ merksamkeit wegen ihres reichhaltigen lexischen und termino­ logischen Materials, insbesondere was die Bereiche der Tier­ welt und des Essens anbelangt.Die Weltanschauung des Dichters ist in dem ersten Fragment recht deutlich erkennbar. Da sieht man, dass er düster und pessimistisch auf das Leben blickt. Das Fehlen jeglicher positiven Einstellung hat dann den Sar­ kasmus zur Folge, mit dem der Dichter die Darstellung der Weiber einkleidet, ihn aber auch auf die Menschen schlechthin ausweitet.

  3. Verskuiwing in die moraal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. van der Walt

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Modewoorde het ons deesdae oorgenoeg in die Christelike sedeleer en hulle kan nogal verwarring stig. U moet my vergun om met u te spreek oor een so ’n modewoord nl „verskuiwing’’ in die moraal. Dis nogal ’n mooi woord, wat so dikwels gebruik word op baie terreine en tog meer wil aandui as maar net ’n veranderde sienswyse, ’n wysiging in opvattinge of nuwe riglyne wat al gangbaar geword het in die praktyk. Die begrip wil eintlik die ewolusionêre gang beklemtoon, want dit is dan eintlik net die ou norme wat effens anders bekyk word of nie meer so nou geneem of dik onderstreep word nie. Die verskuiwing beteken dan dat alles nog dieselfde bly, net die posisie of plek het verander. Verskuiwing beteken tog plekverandering of plekwisseling en dan sekerlik nie in die sin dat die plekke ver uitmekaar lê nie. Verskuiwing beteken net maar vlak langs die vorige te staan kom. As dit dan ’n beter plek is, is dit ewolusie, ontwikkeling, verbetering.

  4. Enzyme Replacement Therapy With Elosulfase Alfa Decreases Storage of Glycosaminoglycan in White Blood Cells of Patients With Morquio A Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Baldo PhD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA; Morquio A syndrome is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficient N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase activity, leading to cellular storage of undegraded keratan sulfate. Recently enzyme replacement therapy (ERT was approved for MPS IVA, but some of ERT effects are still unknown. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of elosulfase alfa upon glycosaminoglycan (GAG storage in peripheral blood white blood cells of patients with MPS IVA treated for 6 months, comparing samples from patients who received weekly infusions of enzyme (ERT-W versus infusions every other week (ERT-EOW versus placebo. A significant reduction in GAG storage was observed in both ERT-treated groups, with weekly ERT showing slightly better performance than ERT-EOW.

  5. A Stem Cell-Seeded Nanofibrous Scaffold for Auditory Nerve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    bundle cell-seeded scaffolds in small, defined polymer sheaths. Surgical approaches were generated to facilitate implantation in chemically deafened... manipulate BMP signaling in order to limit high-BMP fates (epidermis) and BMP-inhibited fates (neural plate). Moderate inhibition of BMP signaling...scaffold’s conduit, but the IAM of the guinea pig and limits imposed by the surgical approach make this difficult. Alternatives are being pursued

  6. The tele-robotics system MT200-TAO replaces mechanical tele-manipulators in COGEMA/AREVA-La Hague hot cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrec, Philippe; Lamy-Perbal, Sylvie; Friconneau, Jean-Pierre [CEA France (France); Piolain, Gerard [COGEMA/AREVA-Hague (France)

    2006-07-01

    We present here for the first time the tele-robotics system for hot-cells MT200-TAO (TAO stands for Teleoperation Assistee par Ordinateur or Computer Assisted Tele-robotics), able to replace a conventional telescopic medium tele-manipulator (extension 4 m; capacity 20 kg). The system is currently under evaluation in COGEMA/AREVA- La Hague hot-cells. (authors)

  7. Die karst-ekologie van die Bakwenagrot (Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Durand

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Bakwenagrot huisves ’n verskeidenheid organismes wat ’n ingewikkelde en verweefde voedselweb vorm. ’n Kolonie Natalse langvingervlermuise gebruik hierdie grot regdeur die jaar as blyplek. Die vlermuisguano en dooie plantmateriaal wat van buite in die grot inval, vorm die basis van die ekologie in die grot wat ook as ’n tipiese detritus-gedrewe ekostelsel beskryf kan word. Afbrekers soos bakterieë en swamme wat vir die afbraak van die guano en plantreste verantwoordelik is, word deur ’n verskeidenheid organismes, insluitend nematode en myte, as voedselbron benut. Hierdie organismes wat die volgende trofiese vlak vorm, word deur predatoriese artropode as voedselbron benut. Die Bakwenagrot is een van die weinige dolomietiese grotte in Suid-Afrika wat dit vir ‘n mens moontlik maak om tot by die grondwatervlak te kom. Die grondwater huisves verskeie tipes organismes waaronder bakterieë, swamme en diere – hoofsaaklik nematode en krustaseë. Die Bakwenagrot is ook die hoofvindplek waar varswater-amfipode in Suider-Afrika gevind is. Hierdie besondere en sensitiewe ekostelsel is hoofsaaklik van guano van die vlermuiskolonie afhanklik. Die grasveld in die gebied rondom die grot, wat as voedingsarea vir die vlermuiskolonie dien, word tans deur voorstedelike ontwikkeling en die gevolglike habitatfragmentasie en -vernietiging bedreig. Indien die vlermuise die grot sou verlaat, sal dit ’n hele domino-effek van uitsterwing van die grotbewonende organismes tot gevolg hê.

  8. Die voorgeskiedenis van kwantumberekening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Potgieter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Die hoofidees wat tans gestalte vind in die teorie en tegnologie van kwantumberekening is in die laat 1970’s en vroeg 1980’s deur fisici in die Weste en ’n wiskundige in die voormalige Sowjetunie neergelˆ e. Dat di´ e teorie ook wortels in die Russiestalige vakliteratuur het, is nie algemeen bekend in die Weste nie. Daar word kortliks gekyk na die idee soos deur Benioff en (veral Feynman in die Weste versprei, asook die voorstel van di´ e rekengrondslag deur Manin in die Russiese literatuur. Die outeur hoop om hiermee so ’n onpartydig moontlike sintese van die vroe ¨ e gedagtegeskiedenis rondom kwantumberekening aan te bied. Die rol van omkeerbare en onomkeerbare berekeningsprosesse word vlugtig bekyk soos dit verband hou met die ontstaan van kwantumberekening, asook die sogenaamde Inligtingsparadoks in die fisika. Die inligtingsteorie en die fisika het heelwat met mekaar te kommunikeer, soos hierdie paradoks uitwys.

    Abstract

    The pre-history of quantum computation

    The main ideas behind developments in the theory and technology of quantum computation were formulated in the late 1970s and early 1980s by two physicists in the West and a mathematician in the former Soviet Union. It is not generally known in the West that the subject has roots in the Russian technical literature. The idea, as propagated by Benioff and (especially Feynman, is reviewed along with the proposition of a foundation for this kind of computation by Manin in the Russian literature. The author hopes to present as impartial a synthesis as possible of the early history of thought on this subject. The role of reversible and irreversible computational processes will be examined briefly as it relates to the origins of quantum computing and the so-called Information Paradox in physics. Information theory and physics, as this paradox shows, have much to communicate to each other.

  9. Die benutting van water in die landbou: strategie vir die toekoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. van der Merwe

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available ’n Uiteensetting word gegee van die faktore wat die hoofrol in die toekomstige waterbenutting in die landbou gaan speel. Hierdie faktore is die hoeveelheid water beskikbaar vir landboudoeleindes; die toenemende mineraiisasie van besproeiingswater; en die invloed wat energiebehoeftes op besproeiing sal hê. Navorsing is nodig om die situasie na wense te hanteer, en die aanbevelings van besproeiingsnavorsingswerksessies in hierdie verband word kortliks aangedui en bespreek.

  10. Large-Scale Hematopoietic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Provides Granulocytes or Macrophages for Cell Replacement Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Lachmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-3 (IL-3 is capable of supporting the proliferation of a broad range of hematopoietic cell types, whereas granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF and macrophage CSF (M-CSF represent critical cytokines in myeloid differentiation. When this was investigated in a pluripotent-stem-cell-based hematopoietic differentiation model, IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF exposure resulted in the continuous generation of myeloid cells from an intermediate myeloid-cell-forming complex containing CD34+ clonogenic progenitor cells for more than 2 months. Whereas IL-3/G-CSF directed differentiation toward CD45+CD11b+CD15+CD16+CD66b+ granulocytic cells of various differentiation stages up to a segmented morphology displaying the capacity of cytokine-directed migration, respiratory burst response, and neutrophil-extracellular-trap formation, exposure to IL-3/M-CSF resulted in CD45+CD11b+CD14+CD163+CD68+ monocyte/macrophage-type cells capable of phagocytosis and cytokine secretion. Hence, we show here that myeloid specification of human pluripotent stem cells by IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF allows for prolonged and large-scale production of myeloid cells, and thus is suited for cell-fate and disease-modeling studies as well as gene- and cell-therapy applications.

  11. Replacing Burning of Fossil Fuels with Solar Cell and Wind Energy: How Important and How Soon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partain, L., II; Hansen, R. T.; Hansen, S. F.; Bennett, D.; Newlands, A.

    2016-12-01

    The IPCC indicated that atmospheric CO2 rise should stop to control global climate change. CO2 is the longest lived, most problematic anthropogenic greenhouse emission from burning fossil fuel. For 2000 years atmospheric CO2 concentration remained 280 ppm until 1870, when it rose sharply and nonlinearly to 400 ppm, correlated with a 1oC global mean temperature rise. Antarctic ice core data for the past 400,000 years indicate, 80 ppm shifts in atmospheric CO2 concentrations with 10,000-30,000 year interglacial periods at 280 ppm, were between ice-age glacial periods of 75,000-100,000 years at 200 ppm. The last 12,000-year interglacial "Goldilocks" period so far spans 4 civilizations: 6000 years of Western, 4000-5000 years of Inca and Aztec and 7000-8000 years of Chinese civilizations. The UN-led 2015 Paris Agreement set a goal limiting temperature rise to 2oC to prevent devastating climate change. Unfortunately IPCC modeling found a substantial probability of a rise by 4oC or more should all current fossil fuels be burned by 2100. This would result in weather extremes, rising oceans, storm surges and temperatures where low-lying coastal regions, Pacific Islands and large equatorial regions of the world could become uninhabitable. By Swanson's Law, an empirical learning curve observation, solar cell production costs drop 50% for every 10X increase in their cumulative production. After 40 years and over 5 orders-of-magnitude cumulative production increase, solar cells currently provide over 1% of the world's electricity generating capacity at a cost competitive with electricity generated from burning fossil fuels. If their cumulative generating capacity keeps doubling every 2 years (similar to Moore's Law), energy equivalent to all the world's electricity generating capacity could be provided by solar cells by 2028. The variability of solar cell energy can be mitigated by combining it with wind power, storage, super grids, space mirrors, and demand response.

  12. Esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Shaun M; Coran, Arnold G

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on esophageal replacement as a surgical option for pediatric patients with end-stage esophageal disease. While it is obvious that the patient׳s own esophagus is the best esophagus, persisting with attempts to retain a native esophagus with no function and at all costs are futile and usually detrimental to the overall well-being of the child. In such cases, the esophagus should be abandoned, and the appropriate esophageal replacement is chosen for definitive reconstruction. We review the various types of conduits used for esophageal replacement and discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages that are relevant for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Dying and death in societal transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Andreas; Wegleitner, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Dying and death in modern societies are subject to profound social, professional and cultural-religious changes. Secularization and a stronger differentiation of societies have led to a change in the way humans handle the dying process. Normatively ritualized collective behaviour has been replaced by an individual, subjectivized approach. In late modern societies there are many different views of what "successful" or "good" dying means.In the article this change is described by the following seven theses: 1. We live longer and we die longer. 2. We no longer die suddenly and unexpectedly but slowly and foreseeably. 3. Even though our biological life on earth has become longer, our life has been shortened by the loss of eternity. 4. We no longer die on the stage of ritualized relationships with our family and neighbours but behind the curtains of organizations. 5. We live and die in a society of organizations and have to get organized for the final phase of our life. 6. Living and dying are no large, state-owned enterprises but small, private enterprises. 7. The hospice movement as well as palliative medicine have created public awareness, made dying a matter of discussion and offered a new set of options.In late modernism end-of-life care requires new approaches based on individual and shared responsibility as well as cooperation between professional institutions and community-based voluntary care.A change towards community care is visible. Thus "dying" is a topic in the discussion about the future of public health and societal solidarity.

  14. A micro-solid oxide fuel cell system as battery replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieberle-Hütter, Anja; Beckel, Daniel; Infortuna, Anna; Muecke, Ulrich P.; Rupp, Jennifer L. M.; Gauckler, Ludwig J.; Rey-Mermet, Samuel; Muralt, Paul; Bieri, Nicole R.; Hotz, Nico; Stutz, Michael J.; Poulikakos, Dimos; Heeb, Peter; Müller, Patrik; Bernard, André; Gmür, Roman; Hocker, Thomas

    The concept and the design of a micro-solid oxide fuel cell system is described and discussed. The system in this study is called the ONEBAT system and consists of the fuel cell PEN (positive electrode - electrolyte - negative electrode) element, a gas processing unit, and a thermal system. PEN elements of free-standing multi-layer membranes are fabricated on Foturan ® and on Si substrates using thin film deposition and microfabrication techniques. Open circuit voltages of up to 1.06 V and power of 150 mW cm -2 are achieved at 550 °C. The membranes are stable up to 600 °C. The gas processing unit allows butane conversion of 95% and hydrogen selectivity of 83% at 550 °C in the reformer and efficient after-burning of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and lower hydrocarbons in the post-combustor. Thermal system simulations prove that a large thermal gradient of more than 500 °C between the hot module and its exterior are feasible. The correlation between electrical power output - system size and thermal conductivity - heat-transfer coefficient of the thermal insulation material are shown. The system design studies show that the single sub-systems can be integrated into a complete system and that the requirements for portable electronic devices can be achieved with a base unit of 2.5 W and a modular approach.

  15. Tracking of iron-labeled human neural stem cells by magnetic resonance imaging in cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gómez, Milagros; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) derived from the ventral mesencephalon are powerful research tools and candidates for cell therapies in Parkinson's disease. However, their clinical translation has not been fully realized due, in part, to the limited ability to track stem cell regional localization and survival over long periods of time after in vivo transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging provides an excellent non-invasive method to study the fate of transplanted cells in vivo. For magnetic resonance imaging cell tracking, cells need to be labeled with a contrast agent, such as magnetic nanoparticles, at a concentration high enough to be easily detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Grafting of human neural stem cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles allows cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging without impairment of cell survival, proliferation, self-renewal, and multipotency. However, the results reviewed here suggest that in long term grafting, activated microglia and macrophages could contribute to magnetic resonance imaging signal by engulfing dead labeled cells or iron nanoparticles dispersed freely in the brain parenchyma over time.

  16. Openbaring, teologie en die regswetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Postma

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste tyd is telkens en weer gewaarsku teen die gevare van oorspesialisasie en die hipertrofie van professionalisme. Die gemis aan ’n totaliteitsvisie wat hiermee gepaard gaan, word dan ook tereg teengegaan en wel deur aan die Wysbegeerte as die Wetenskap van die totaliteit van die kosmos in toenemende mate sy regmatige plek as wetenskapsintegreerder te gun. Hierdie grootmoedige gun van ’n plek in die son van geleerdheid kan egter ook uit bedenklike motiewe plaasvind. Die vakwetenskaplike kan nie of wil nie die plek en betekenis van sy spesifieke vak bepaal en bepeins nie en vind dit in elk geval moeilik om die verband tussen Gods Woord en sy besondere vak in duidelike perspektief te sien; vandaar dan ’n grootmoedige toelaat dat die wysbegeerte die „veritas” dien terwyl die eie ek tevrede is om die „utilitas” onderdanig te wees.

  17. Current automated 3D cell detection methods are not a suitable replacement for manual stereologic cell counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph eSchmitz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stereologic cell counting has had a major impact on the field of neuroscience. A major bottleneck in stereologic cell counting is that the user must manually decide whether or not each cell is counted according to three-dimensional (3D stereologic counting rules by visual inspection within hundreds of microscopic fields-of-view per investigated brain or brain region. Reliance on visual inspection forces stereologic cell counting to be very labor-intensive and time-consuming, and is the main reason why biased, non-stereologic two-dimensional (2D cell counting approaches have remained in widespread use. We present an evaluation of the performance of modern automated cell detection and segmentation algorithms as a potential alternative to the manual approach in stereologic cell counting. The image data used in this study were 3D microscopic images of thick brain tissue sections prepared with a variety of commonly used nuclear and cytoplasmic stains. The evaluation compared the numbers and locations of cells identified unambiguously and counted exhaustively by an expert observer with those found by three automated 3D cell detection algorithms: nuclei segmentation from the FARSIGHT toolkit, nuclei segmentation by 3D multiple level set methods, and the 3D object counter plug-in for ImageJ. Of these methods, FARSIGHT performed best, with true-positive detection rates between 38–99% and false-positive rates from 3.6–82%. The results demonstrate that the current automated methods suffer from lower detection rates and higher false-positive rates than are acceptable for obtaining valid estimates of cell numbers. Thus, at present, stereologic cell counting with manual decision for object inclusion according to unbiased stereologic counting rules remains the only adequate method for unbiased cell quantification in histologic tissue sections.

  18. Effects of noxious environmental particulate matter on the immune response of monocyte cells; Wirkung von partikulaeren Umweltnoxen auf die Immunabwehr monozytaerer Zellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, T.

    2000-07-01

    The effects of ultrafine particles on the immune response of alveolar macrophages of mice was investigated. The findings are presented and discussed in this report. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Wirkung ultrafeiner Partikel auf die Immunabwehr an Alveolarmakrophagen der Maus untersucht. Die Ergebnisse werden dargestellt und diskutiert. (orig/MG)

  19. Hepatic Carcinoma—Associated Fibroblasts Promote an Adaptative Response in Colorectal Cancer Cells That Inhibit Proliferation and Apoptosis: Nonresistant Cells Die by Nonapoptotic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Berdiel-Acer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs are important contributors of microenvironment in determining the tumor’s fate. This study aimed to compare the influence of liver microenvironment and primary tumor microenvironment on the behavior of colorectal carcinoma. Conditioned medium (CM from normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs, CAFs from primary tumor (CAF-PT or liver metastasis (CAF-LM were obtained. We performed functional assays to test the influence of each CM on colorectal cell lines. Microarray and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA were performed in DLD1 cells cultured in matched CM. In DLD1 cells, CAF-LM CM compared with CAF-PT CM and NCF led to a more aggressive phenotype, induced the features of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition more efficiently, and stimulated migration and invasion to a greater extent. Sustained stimulation with CAF-LM CM evoked a transient G2/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by a reduction of apoptosis, inhibition of proliferation, and decreased viability of SW1116, SW620, SW480, DLD1, HT-29, and Caco-2 cells and provoked nonapoptotic cell death in those cells carrying KRAS mutations. Cells resistant to CAF-LM CM completely changed their morphology in an extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-dependent process and depicted an increased stemness capacity alongside the Wnt pathway stimulation. The transcriptomic profile of DLD1 cells treated with CAF-LM CM was associated with Wnt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways activation in GSEA. Therefore, the liver microenvironment induces more efficiently the aggressiveness of colorectal cancer cells than other matched microenvironments do but secondarily evokes cell death. Resistant cells displayed higher stemness capacity.

  20. Die tug oor ampsdraers tydens die doleansie van 1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Visser

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In art 29 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis word bely: “Die merktekens om die ware Kerk te ken is die volgende: As die Kerk die suiwere prediking van die evangelie uitoefen, as dit die suiwer bediening van die sakramente gebruik soos Christus dit ingestel het, as die kerklike tug gebruik word om die sondes te straf.” Dit spreek vanself dat wanneer ampsdraers, aan wie Christus sy kudde toevertrou het (Hand 20 : 28, met leer en /of lewenswandel in sonde volhard en nie daarin met tug gestuit word nie, word die ware kerk nie gebou nie maar afgebreek. 0ns sal later in hierdie artikel aantoon hoedanig die suiwer tug oor ampsdraers, veral leertug, tydens die Doleansie tot skade van die kerk van Christus agterweë gebly het.

  1. Die koste van vrywillige, beheerbare arbeidomset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roodt

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The cost of voluntary, controllable labour turnover. Labour turnover for individuals can be classified as voluntary or non-voluntary, whereas labour turnover in organisations can be categorised as controllable or non-controllable. Data on total labour turnover in a particular service organisation indicated the existence of a possible problem. Voluntary, controllable labour turnover between 1 January 1988 and 31 March 1991 for technicians only within this particular organisation was closely scrutinised by calculating the direct recruitment, training, and separation costs for this period. The replacement costs of the technical population alone (N = 1594 for the last-mentioned period were approximately R94 million and could possibly increase to as high as R470 million if the hidden costs are also considered. If these costs are projected to the period 1980-1991 in which there were 60284 voluntary leavers, the total labour turnover costs for this organisation could be astronomical. It is clear from the above that preventative strategies by management could reduce the negative consequences of labour turnover and improve the prospects of a positive outcome. Opsomming Arbeidomset kan vir individue as vrywillig of nie-vrywillig geklassifiseer word; daarenteen kan arbeidomset vir organisasies as beheerbaar of nie-beheerbaar gekategoriseer word. Gegewens oor totale arbeidomset in "n bepaalde diensorganisasie het op die bestaan van 'n moontlike probleem gewys. Die koste van vrywillige, beheerbare arbeidomset van slegs tegnici is vir die periode 1 Januarie 1988 tot 31 Maart 1991 in die betrokke organisasie nader ondersoek, deur die direkte verkrygings-, opieidings- en skeidingskoste van tegniciverlaters vir hierdie tydperk te bereken. Die vervangingskoste van slegs die tegnicipopulasie (N = 1594 vir die laasgenoemde tydperk het sowat R94 miljoen beloop en kon selfs so hoog soos R470 miljoen wees as die verskuilde kostes ook verreken is. Indien hierdie kostes

  2. Towards a cell-based mechanostat theory of bone: the need to account for osteocyte desensitisation and osteocyte replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerebours, Chloé; Buenzli, Pascal R

    2016-09-06

    Bone׳s mechanostat theory describes the adaptation of bone tissues to their mechanical environment. Many experiments have investigated and observed such structural adaptation. However, there is still much uncertainty about how to define the reference mechanical state at which bone structure is adapted and stable. Clinical and experimental observations show that this reference state varies both in space and in time, over a wide range of timescales. We propose here an osteocyte-based mechanostat theory that encodes the mechanical reference state in osteocyte properties. This theory assumes that osteocytes are initially formed adapted to their current local mechanical environment through modulation of their properties. We distinguish two main types of physiological processes by which osteocytes subsequently modify the reference mechanical state at different timescales. One is cell desensitisation, which occurs rapidly and reversibly during an osteocyte׳s lifetime. The other is the replacement of osteocytes during bone remodelling, which occurs over the long timescales of bone turnover. The novelty of this theory is to propose that long-lasting morphological and genotypic osteocyte properties provide a material basis for a long-term mechanical memory of bone that is gradually reset by bone remodelling. We test this theory by simulating long-term mechanical disuse (modelling spinal cord injury), and short-term mechanical loadings (modelling daily exercises) with a mathematical model. The consideration of osteocyte desensitisation and of osteocyte replacement by remodelling is able to capture a number of phenomena and timescales observed during the mechanical adaptation of bone tissues, lending support to this theory.

  3. Die sterwende kindjie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. De Jongh van Arkel

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available The thought of a child dying appears as an antithesis and thus the feelings evoked by the dying child are stronger than when older persons are dying. Around the child’s death bed there is no place for detached spectators and all become involved in caring for and supporting him. Caregivers also have a supporting responsibility towards the members of the child’s family.

  4. Somatic mosaicism caused by monoallelic reversion of a mutation in T cells of a patient with ADA-SCID and the effects of enzyme replacement therapy on the revertant phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada-Vélez, M; Vélez-Ortega, A; Orrego, J; Santisteban, I; Jagadeesh, J; Olivares, M; Olaya, N; Hershfield, M; Candotti, F; Franco, J

    2011-11-01

    Patients with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency exhibit spontaneous and partial clinical remission associated with somatic reversion of inherited mutations. We report a child with severe combined immunodeficiency (T-B- SCID) due to ADA deficiency diagnosed at the age of 1 month, whose lymphocyte counts including CD4+ and CD8+ T and NK cells began to improve after several months with normalization of ADA activity in Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), as a result of somatic mosaicism caused by monoallelic reversion of the causative mutation in the ADA gene. He was not eligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or gene therapy (GT); therefore he was placed on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with bovine PEG-ADA. The follow-up of metabolic and immunologic responses to ERT included gradual improvement in ADA activity in erythrocytes and transient expansion of most lymphocyte subsets, followed by gradual stabilization of CD4+ and CD8+ T (with naïve phenotype) and NK cells, and sustained expansion of TCRγδ+ T cells. This was accompanied by the disappearance of the revertant T cells as shown by DNA sequencing from PBL. Although the patient's clinical condition improved marginally, he later developed a germinal cell tumour and eventually died at the age of 67 months from sepsis. This case adds to our current knowledge of spontaneous reversion of mutations in ADA deficiency and shows that the effects of the ERT may vary among these patients, suggesting that it could depend on the cell and type in which the somatic mosaicism is established upon reversion.

  5. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  6. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  7. Islet neogenesis potential of human adult stem cells and its applications in cell replacement therapy for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhonde RR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years regenerative biology has reached to greater heights due to its therapeutic potential in treating degenerative diseases; as they are not curable by modern medicine. With the advent of research in stem cells and developmental biology the regenerative potential of adult resident stem cells is becoming clearer. The long term objective of regenerative medicine or cell therapy is to treat patients with their own stem cells. These stem cells could be derived from the diseased organs such as skin, liver, pancreas etc. or from reservoirs of multipotent stem cells such as bone marrow or cord blood.Manipulating the ability of tissue resident stem cells as well as from multipotent reservoirs such as bone marrow, umbilical cord and cord blood to give rise to endocrine cells may open new avenues in the treatment of diabetes. A better understanding of stem cell biology would almost certainly allow for the establishment of efficient and reliable cell transplantation experimental programs in the clinic. We show here that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from various sources such as the bone marrow, placenta, umbilical cord. Upon stimulation with specific growth factors they differentiate into islet like clusters (ILCs. When ILCs obtained from the above mentioned sources were transplanted in experimental diabetic mice, restoration of normoglycemia was observed within three weeks of transplantation with concomitant increase in the body weight. These euglycemic mice exhibited normal glucose tolerance test indicating normal utilization of glucose. Allthough the MSCs isolated from all the sources had the same characteristics; they showed significant differences in their islet differentiation potential. ILCs isolated for the human bone marrow did not show any pancreatic hormones in vitro, but upon transplantation they matured into insulin and somatostatin producing hormones. Placental MSCs as well as ILCs showed insulin trascripts

  8. Low-cost fuel cells for the market; Low-Cost-Brennstoffzellen fuer den Markt. Gestanzte Folien verguenstigen die Produktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumey, B.; Hoeckel, M. [Berner Fachhochschule Technik und Informatik (BFH-TI), Biel (Switzerland); Jud, S.; Santis, M. [Ceka Elektrowerkzeuge AG und Co. KG, Wattwil (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This article takes a look at how the costs of fuel cells can be reduced. As an example, a fuel cell developed by the electrical tool manufacturer CEKA and the Bernese University of Applied Sciences in Switzerland with support from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is described. The fuel cell forms part of the drive for a three-wheel light vehicle called 'SAM' which was originally powered solely by conventional batteries. The performance and low fuel consumption of the vehicle is discussed, as is the work still necessary to transfer the technology to a marketable mass-production product. The functioning of the fuel cell is described. Other application areas for the fuel cell are looked at, including portable power supplies for exhibitions and mobile applications.

  9. Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het ’n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as ’n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandrië toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geëwenaar is.

  10. The metal wrap through solar cell. Developement and characterisation; Die metal wrap through Solarzelle. Entwicklung und Charakterisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Florian

    2009-03-20

    This work focuses on the development and the optimization of the metal wrap through (MWT) solar cell. Primary goal of this work has been the development of an appropriate process flow for MWT solar cells, which generates only insignificant extra costs compared to the conventional process flow, however, achieves a significant efficiency increase for MWT cells compared to conventionally processed cells. The latter was one of the main challenges of this work. For this purpose MWT solar cells have been studied and characterized in detail. Loss mechanisms have been detected and improvements evaluated as well as transferred to the cell process. Furthermore, the assembling process for MWT solar cells in the module has been optimized focusing on less series resistance losses. A comparison with the conventional module assembling process is presented. A process flow similar to the one for the conventional process has been developed for MWT solar cells. Merely two additional laser process steps for hole drilling and rear contact isolation as well as one screen printing step for the through connection turn out to be necessary. It is shown that the additional screen printing process can be omitted without significant efficiency losses, if the through connection and solder pad metallization is done in a single process step. Furthermore, a fast and reliable through connection process has been developed and characterized in detail. Moreover, a gauge mounting block for MWT solar cells has been constructed, analyzed and calibrated for current-voltage-characteristic measurements. With multi crystalline MWT silicon solar cells an efficiency gain up to 0.5% absolute has been achieved compared to conventionally processed solar cells - thereby reaching a maximum cell efficiency of more than 16.7%. Due to a novel MWT module technology developed in this work the efficiency compared to the conventional technology could be improved further by another 0.3% absolute. The primary loss

  11. Prediking oor die poëtiese stof van die Ou Testament - Die Psalms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Smit

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available ’n Belangrike rede waarom die prediking uit die Psalms ’n aparte bespreking regverdig, is die feit dat die Psalms die omvangrykste verteenwoordiging van poetiese stof in die Ou Testament be vat. Dit is nie vir almal ewe maklik om poesie te lees en te verklaar nie.

  12. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  13. Die hebsugtige seekoei en Rooikappie: Die groteske in sprokies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dineke van der Walt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n vergelykende lees van twee volksverhale wat ook as kinderverhale getipeer kan word (een vanuit Venda-folklore en die ander ’n populêre Europese narratief met die oog daarop om spesifieke ooreenkomste uit te lig – soos die eet van mensvleis, goedgelowige mense wat deur ‘n maskerspel om die bos gelei word en ander ‘onetiese’ en ‘immorele’ aktiwiteite. In Die hebsugtige seekoei boots die monster byvoorbeeld die stem van die jong seun na om sy suster te flous en toegang tot hulle hut te verkry, terwyl die wolf in Rooikappie op sy beurt die ouma flous om die huis te kan betree sodat hy later ook vir Rooikappie kan mislei. In albei stories word die jong meisies (asook Rooikappie se ouma deur ’n seekoei óf ’n wolf opgeëet. Soos gewoonlik in sprokies, word die slagoffers gered of ontsnap en die verhale het ’n gelukkige einde. Alhoewel dit absurd mag voorkom dat kinderverhale elemente van die groteske bevat, argumenteer ek dat dit inderdaad ’n bruikbare doel dien. Hierdie verhale betrek kinders nie net op ’n emosionele vlak nie (as gevolg van die skokwaarde van die groteske; die groteske dien ook as objek van fassinasie. Sodoende word die waarskuwingsboodskap in die verhale beter oorgedra en onthou deur die kinders.

  14. Die entwicklung, die metamorphose, die entstehung: Die konzepte des organismus von Aristoteles bis Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamerer Eva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz versuche ich, die Elemente verschiedener Konzepte des Organismus in der Philosophie und in der Wissenschaft zu analysieren. Die Deutungen des Organismus und der Einheit der Natur bei Aristoteles, Kant und Goethe werden als ein Beispiel der Bewegung von einem finalistischen zum antifinalistischen Bild der Natur verstanden.

  15. Die Gattung Oerstedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny-Wijnhoff, G.

    1930-01-01

    Die vorliegenden Individuen von Oerstedia dorsalis (Abildg.) wurden in den Helder an der holländischen Küste gesammelt; die Art war in frühern Jahren im Hafen sehr allgemein. Sie lebte zwischen Tubularien und Muschelbrut, welche in der Gezeitenzone den Schiffsrümpfen angewachsen sind und enthielt im

  16. Die Mollusken der Njalindungschichten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.

    1909-01-01

    Die Versteinerungen, welche im folgenden behandelt sind, sammelten meine Frau und ich im Jahre 1910 in den Preanger-Regentschappen von Java, in der Gegend von Njalindung ¹). Sie stammen aus Sedimenten, für welche ich den Namen Njalindungschichten einführte, und für die Gastropoden wurde bereits eine

  17. The fenestrin antigen in submembrane skeleton of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila is proposed as a marker of cell polarity during cell division and in oral replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczanowska, Janina; Joachimiak, Ewa; Kiersnowska, Mauryla; Krzywicka, Anna; Golinska, Krystyna; Kaczanowski, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    Tetrahymena thermophila cells have two types of polarized morphogenesis: divisional morphogenesis and oral reorganization (OR). The aim of this research is the analysis of cortical patterns of immunostaining during cell division and in OR using previously characterized antibodies against fenestrin and epiplasm B proteins. During cell division, the anarchic field of basal body proliferation of the new developing oral apparatus (AF) showed concomitant strong binding of the fenestrin antigen and withdrawal of a signal of the epiplasm B antigen. At a specific stage, the fenestrin antigen also appeared as a character of the anterior cortex pole, with a co-localized decrease in the detected epiplasm B antigen. The fenestrin antigen also showed a polarity of duplicating basal bodies in ciliary rows. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling experiments were performed in the absence and presence of an inhibitor of activity of serine/threonine kinases, 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) as an inducer of the oral replacement process. In the presence of 6-DMAP, one class of cells started OR, and some others were trapped and affected in cell division. Both types of cells showed an instability of oral structures and formed enlarged primordial oral fields. These anarchic fields (AFs) bind the fenestrin antigen, with disappearance of epiplasmic antigen staining. Only one protein (about 64 kDa) is detected in western blots by the anti-fenestrin antibody and it accumulated in 6-DMAP-treated cells that are involved in uncompleted morphogenetic activity. At a defined stage of oral development, both during cell division and in OR, the fenestrin antigen served as a marker of polarity of the cell of the anterior pole character.

  18. Die oorsake vir die ontstaan en besondere aard van die Zion Christian Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kruger

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Aanvanklik het die Z.C.C. geen opsienbarende groei getoon nie, maar veral sedert die veertigerjare het hulle getalle skerp toegeneem en versprei oor die hele land. In 1963 is Edward Lekganyane toegelaat tot die Stofberg Teologiese Skool van die N.G. Kerk. Sedert die stigting van die Z.C.C. het die groep al verder van die Woord af weg beweeg, maar met hierdie toetrede tot die skool het daar by Edward self ’n mate van verandering gekom.

  19. Slot-die Coating of a High Performance Copolymer in a Readily Scalable Roll Process for Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgesen, Martin; Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    Copolymers based on dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole (DTS) and dithienylthiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole (TTz) are synthesized and tested in an all-solution roll process for polymer solar cells (PSCs). Fabrication of polymer:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) solar cells is done on a previously...... above 200 nm. Power conversion efficiencies of up to 3.5% can be reached with the roll-coated PDTSTTz-4:PCBM solar cells that, together with good process control and high device yield, designate PDTSTTz-4 as a convincing candidate for high-throughput roll-to-roll production of PSCs....... on the device yield and process control. The most successful processing is accomplished with the polymer, PDTSTTz-4, that has the side-chains situated in the 4-position on the thiophene units. Inverted PSCs based on PDTSTTz-4 demonstrate high fill factors, up to 59%, even with active layer thicknesses well...

  20. Tweedetaalteorie vir die eerstetaalonderwyser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludolph Botha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die eerstetaalonderwyser se aandag op tweedetaalteorie gevestig. Krashen se tweedetaalteorie word uitgesonder en die implikasies van sy werk vir eerstetaalonderwysersword ondersoek. Die oordrewe beklemtoning van vormen struktuur in moedertaalklasse ( oor die taal praatl lees/ skryf word vanuit die gesigspunt van Krashen se taalverwerwingsteorie beskou en die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat daar veel meer klem op gebruiksvaardigheid behoort te val (in die taal praat!lees!skryf. In this article the first language teacher is made aware of second language teaching theory. Particularly Krashen' s second language theory is referred to and implications of his work for mother tongue teachers are discussed. The over-emphasis on form and structure in first language classes (talking/reading/writing about the language is looked at in terms of Krashen' s theory and it is concluded that the emphasis in first language classes should be far more on the functional use of the language (talking/reading/writing in the language.

  1. Die kairos van die New Age: 'n Kultuurhistoriese skets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the whole universe, manifesting the two aspects of spirit and matter, .... vestiging van die Christendom het hierdie leer uit die Westerse kultuur verdwyn tot- ... Hegel (1770-1831) het die Simboliste aangespreek (Mathews 1986:30-31, 33). Sy.

  2. Oor die einders van die bladsy as konseptuele kuns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M.C. Swanepoel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n filosofies-besinnende oorsig oor konseptuele kuns. Ek argumenteer dat, soos wat die projek Oor die einders van die bladsy die grense van boekwees oorskry en konseptueel uitbrei, dit in geheel ’n konseptuele en taalgebaseerde kunsinstallasie is wat uit verskeie komponente, naamlik kunstenaarsboeke,bestaan. Hierdie saamgestelde konseptuele kunsinstallasie daag vanweë die interdissiplinêre aard daarvan, die grense van konseptuele kuns uit. Hierdie projek en uitstallings bevestig dat kunstenaarsboeke ’n ideale medium is om kunstenaars uit verskillende dissiplines by die spel met en ontdekking van die moontlikhede van die boek te betrek. Die projek kan in die geheel as konseptuele kuns getipeer word omdat die konsep boek herdink, herskep en oor gefilosofeer word.

  3. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roeleveld

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  4. A randomized double-blind study of testosterone replacement therapy or placebo in testicular cancer survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency (Einstein-intervention)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Mikkel; Jorgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -controlled study, designed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Seventy subjects will be randomized to receive either testosterone replacement therapy or placebo. The subjects will be invited for an information meeting where informed......Background: Elevated serum levels of luteinizing hormone and slightly decreased serum levels of testosterone (mild Leydig cell insufficiency) is a common hormonal disturbance in testicular cancer (TC) survivors. A number of studies have shown that low serum levels of testosterone is associated...... with low grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, so far, no studies have evaluated whether testosterone substitution improves metabolic dysfunction in TC survivors with mild Leydig cell insufficiency. Methods/design: This is a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo...

  5. Replacement of Fishmeal by Single Cell Protein Derived from Yeast Grown on Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Industry Waste in the Diet of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2013-10-02

    Isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (32% protein, 4.3 Kcal/g) were formulated to replace fishmeal by single cell protein (SCP) from two yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis, grown on date (Phoenix dactylifera) processing waste in diets for two size groups (avg 15.39 g and 25.14 g) of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A control diet (T1) with fishmeal and six experimental diets (S1, S2, and S3 with S. cerevisiae, and C1, C2, and C3 with C. utilis) each containing 11.6%, 23.2%, and 34.2% yeast as SCP were prepared to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of fishmeal, respectively. Tilapia fed on the control and experimental diets (S1, S2, C1, C2) with 25% and 50% replacement of fishmeal showed better growth and feed utilization. Fish fed on diets S3 and C3 (75% fishmeal replacement) had significantly (p < 0.05) poorer growth suggesting that yeast SCP can replace up to 50% of fishmeal in juvenile tilapia diets. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men is associated with increased expression of LAMP-2 (CD107b) by circulating monocytes and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, J J; Almeida, M; Martín-Martín, L; Miralles, J M; Orfao, A

    2014-04-01

    Accumulated experimental data indicates that androgen therapy has effects on inflammation and protects from autoimmune disorders. Despite this, the in vivo effects of testosterone replacement therapy on human antigen-presenting cells-for example, monocytes and dendritic cells- remain unknown. We monitored the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on the number and the functionality -as assessed by the expression of CD107b (lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, LAMP-2)- of resting and in vitro-stimulated peripheral blood (classical and nonclassical) monocytes and dendritic cells (myeloid and plasmacytoid) from hypogonadal men. Our results show that testosterone replacement therapy induces overexpression of CD107b by circulating monocytes and dendritic cells from hypogonadal men, both under resting (i.e. nonstimulated) conditions and after in vitro stimulation. CD107b overexpression mostly involved monocytes and in vitro stimulation with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides. Of note, a strong correlation was found between CD107b expression on monocytes and serum gonadotrophins levels. These results support the existence of an effect of testosterone therapy, and potentially also of gonadotrophins, on circulating antigen-presenting cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Stanz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to design a measuring instrument with acceptable metric characteristics for the strength of the psychological contract within the South African context, and to determine empirically the relation between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The Dhammanungune Model served as foundation for the design of the Strength of the Psychological Contract Questionnaire which consists of two scales namely, a needs expectation scale and a needs fulfilment expectation scale. The items of each scale have been formulated in the manner that ensures that the respondent reacts consecutively to two instructions namely, (a the level of the expectation and (b the importance of the expectation. This questionnaire was administered together with the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire to two population groups within the military environment. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment and the significance of the correlations was evaluated. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is om 'n meetinstrument met aanvaarbare metriese eienskappe vir die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vir Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede te ontwerp en om empirics die verband tussen die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid te bepaal. Die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vraelys is op grond van die Dhammanungune-model ontwerp en het uit twee skale naamlik, die behoefteverwagting- en vervullingsverwagtingskale bestaan. Items vir eike skaal is sodanig geformuleer dat die respondent agteropeenvolgens op twee instruksies naamlik (a die vlak van die verwagting en (b die belangrikheid van die verwagting moet reageer. Die vraelys is saam met die organisasieverbondenheidsvraelys op twee populasies uit 'n militere omgewing toegepas. Die Pearson

  8. Testosterone replacement therapy does not promote priapism in hypogonadal men with sickle cell disease: 12-month safety report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, B F; Reid, M; Madden, W; Burnett, A L

    2013-07-01

    Hypogonadism, which is highly prevalent in men with sickle cell disease (SCD), affects quality of life and causes great morbidity. The safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in SCD in relation to priapism episodes is relatively unknown. Our aim was to monitor the safety of TRT in a cohort of seven hypogonadal men with SCD. Testosterone undecanoate (Nebido) 1 g was administered intramuscularly to adult men with homozygous SCD (Hb SS) having hypogonadism [serum total testosterone ≤12.0 nmol/L (346 ng/dL), reference range 12.5-38.1 nmol/L (360-1098 ng/dL)] for 12 months. Serum total testosterone, haemoglobin, haematocrit, renal and liver function tests, glucose and PSA measurements were done at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Trough serum total testosterone, haemoglobin and haematocrit were measured three monthly. Priapism events and adverse drug events were assessed every 3 months. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Androgen Deficiency in the Ageing Male (ADAM) and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires were administered at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Seven men with a mean age of 34.4 years were treated. Median total testosterone increased from 10.6 to 11.2 nmol/L (p = 0.46). Median serum lactate dehydrogenase levels decreased from 1445 to 1143.5 IU/L (p testosterone undecanoate with eugonadal intent for hypogonadism appears to be safe in men with SCD. This treatment does not appear to promote priapism occurrences and rather it possibly improves sexual function. Future prospective evaluations in larger groups of hypogonadal men with SCD are necessary to confirm these findings.

  9. Recombinant messenger RNA technology and its application in cancer immunotherapy, transcript replacement therapies, pluripotent stem cell induction, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallazza, Britta; Petri, Sebastian; Poleganov, Marco A; Eberle, Florian; Kuhn, Andreas N; Sahin, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in using messenger RNA (mRNA) as a therapeutic means to tackle different diseases has enormously increased. This holds true not only for numerous preclinical studies, but mRNA has also entered the clinic to fight cancer. The advantages of using mRNA compared to DNA were recognized very early on, e.g., the lack of risk for genomic integration, or the expression of the encoded protein in the cytoplasm without the need to cross the nuclear membrane. However, it was generally assumed that mRNA is just not stable enough to give rise to sufficient expression of the encoded protein. Yet, an initially small group of mRNA aficionados could demonstrate that the stability of mRNA and the efficiency, by which the encoded protein is translated, can be significantly increased by selecting the right set of cis-acting structural elements (including the 5'-cap, 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions, poly(A)-tail, and modified building blocks). In parallel, significant advances in RNA packaging and delivery have been made, extending the potential for this molecule. This paved the way for further work to prove mRNA as a promising therapeutic for multiple diseases. Here, we review the developments to optimize mRNA regarding stability, translational efficiency, and immune-modulating properties to enhance its functionality and efficacy as a therapeutic. Furthermore, we summarize the current status of preclinical and clinical studies that use mRNA for cancer immunotherapy, for the expression of functional proteins as so-called transcript (or protein) replacement therapy, as well as for induction of pluripotent stem cells.

  10. Die postpolitische Stadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Polis ist tot, es lebe die kreative Stadt! Während die Stadt, zumindest in Teilen des städtischen Raums, blüht und gedeiht, scheint die Polis im idealisierten griechischen Sinn dem Untergang geweiht; in diesem Verständnis ist sie der Ort der öffentlichen politischen Auseinandersetzung und demokratischen Unterhandlung und somit eine Stätte (oft radikaler Abweichung und Unstimmigkeit, an der die politische Subjektivierung buchstäblich ihren Platz hat. Diese Figur einer entpolitisierten (oder postpolitischen und postdemokratischen Stadt im Spätkapitalismus bildet das Leitmotiv des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ich lehne mich dabei an Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Chantal Mouffe, Mustafa Dikeç, Alain Badiou und andere Kritiker jenes zynischen Radikalismus an, der dafür gesorgt hat, dass eine kritische Theorie und eine radikale politische Praxis ohnmächtig und unfruchtbar vor jenen entpolitisierenden Gesten stehen, die in der polizeilichen Ordnung des zeitgenössischen neoliberalen Spätkapitalismus als Stadtentwicklungspolitik [urban policy] und städtische Politik [urban politics] gelten. Ziel meiner Intervention ist es, das Politische wieder in den Mittelpunkt der zeitgenössischen Debatten über das Urbane zu stellen. [...

  11. "Superman" Star Christopher Reeve Dies at 52

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jim Fitzgerald; 李邦珍

    2004-01-01

    @@ Superman actor Christopher Reeve, who turned personal tragedy into a public crusade① and from his wheelchair became the nation's most recognizable spokesman for spinal cord research, has died. He was 52. Reeve died Sunday of complications② from an infection caused by a bedsore③. He went into cardiac arrest④ Saturday, while at his Pound Ridge home, then fell into a coma⑤ and died Sunday at a hospital surrounded by his family, his publicist said. His advocacy for stem cell research helped it emerge as a major campaign issue between President Bush and Sen. John Kerry. His name was even mentioned by Kerry during the second presidential debate on Friday.

  12. Die Anima in Eschenbachs Parzival

    OpenAIRE

    Kitunen, S. (Sakari)

    2014-01-01

    In meiner Pro-Gradu -Arbeit untersuche ich die Darstellung und Entwicklung des Jungschen Animabegriffes im Parzival von Wolfram von Eschenbach. Ich werde die in Parzival vorkommenden Charaktere als Anima- und Animus-Figuren analysieren und untersuchen, wie die Interaktion zwischen ihnen die Entwicklung des Helden beeinflusst. Viele Werke, die das Thema Frauen bzw. Weiblichkeit im Mittelalter behandeln, gehen oft davon aus, dass die Frauen in der mittelalterlichen Literatur als Objekte behande...

  13. Ultra Fast and Parsimonious Materials Screening for Polymer Solar Cells Using Differentially Pumped Slot-Die Coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Jan; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Medford, Andrew James

    2010-01-01

    itself takes less than 4−8 min and requires 15−30 mg each of donor and acceptor material. The optimum donor−acceptor composition of P3HT and PCBM was found to be a broad maximum centered on a 1:1 ratio. We demonstrate how the optimal thickness of the active layer can be found by the same method...... and materials usage by variation of the layer thickness in small steps of 1.5−4 nm. Contrary to expectation we did not find oscillatory variation of the device performance with device thickness because of optical interference. We ascribe this to the nature of the solar cell type explored in this example...... that employs nonreflective or semitransparent printed electrodes. We further found that very thick active layers on the order of 1 μm can be prepared without loss in performance and estimate the active layer thickness could easily approach 4−5 μm while maintaining photovoltaic properties....

  14. Die liefde wat die son beweeg en die ander sterre: Digterlike transendering – tot die vermenigvuldigde lewe ontroer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. (Rensia Robinson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available T.T. Cloete se oeuvre word onder andere gekenmerk deur fyn waarneming van ’n mistieke vervlegtheid in die skepping. Dit word op vele maniere ontgin en geïnterpreteer. Die poëtiese potensiaal van die vrou, in uiteenlopende gestaltes, is een van die sentrale temas waardeur die digter hieraan vorm gee. In die kunstige, bibliofiele uitgawe Uit die wit lig van my land gesny val die lig op die vrou se kreatiewe rol in die groter skepping wat haar onder andere identifiseer as haarveer vir digterlike insig en vormgewing. Vrou (alternatief Anna Perenna, universele moeder, is nie slegs draer van die lewenskiem wat tot gees transendeer nie, maar sy funksioneer as ligbron (’sonvrou’ wat selfs kosmiese insig verwesenlik. Dit raak meervoudige vorms en patrone waarin die mens ingeweef is in die universele hologram van lewe. Vir die digter is hierdie patroonvorming vergelykbaar met die maak van Persiese tapyte waarvan die patrone vasgelê is in die geheue van voorouers, en oorgedra word na opeenvolgende geslagte. In dié verkenning word digterlike transendering ontgin as ’n proses waarin die kleurvolheid van lewe en dood in en deur individuele sowel as universele vroulikheid geïnspireer word.

  15. Die liefde wat die son beweeg en die ander sterre: Digterlike transendering – tot die vermenigvuldigde lewe ontroer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. (Rensia Robinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available T.T. Cloete se oeuvre word onder andere gekenmerk deur fyn waarneming van ’n mistieke vervlegtheid in die skepping. Dit word op vele maniere ontgin en geïnterpreteer. Die poëtiese potensiaal van die vrou, in uiteenlopende gestaltes, is een van die sentrale temas waardeur die digter hieraan vorm gee. In die kunstige, bibliofiele uitgawe Uit die wit lig van my land gesny val die lig op die vrou se kreatiewe rol in die groter skepping wat haar onder andere identifiseer as haarveer vir digterlike insig en vormgewing. Vrou (alternatief Anna Perenna, universele moeder, is nie slegs draer van die lewenskiem wat tot gees transendeer nie, maar sy funksioneer as ligbron (’sonvrou’ wat selfs kosmiese insig verwesenlik. Dit raak meervoudige vorms en patrone waarin die mens ingeweef is in die universele hologram van lewe. Vir die digter is hierdie patroonvorming vergelykbaar met die maak van Persiese tapyte waarvan die patrone vasgelê is in die geheue van voorouers, en oorgedra word na opeenvolgende geslagte. In dié verkenning word digterlike transendering ontgin as ’n proses waarin die kleurvolheid van lewe en dood in en deur individuele sowel as universele vroulikheid geïnspireer word.

  16. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  17. Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nel

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus word beskryf. ’n Dun bindweefselkapsel omring die lewer. Die hepatosietrangskikking vertoon as lobules, met die koorde van hepatosiete wat vanaf ’n sentrale vene uitradieer en met mekaar anastomaseer. Indiwiduele lewerlohules vertoon nie duidelike grense nie, maar enkele duidelike triades word wel in die lewer van O. mossambicus aangetref. Die hepatosiete bevat ’n enkele ronde kern met ’n duidelike nukleolus en die growwe endoplasmiese retikula kom in twee of meer rye om die kerne en teen die selgrense van die hepatosiete voor. Die ander sitoplasmiese organelle kom verspreid in die hepatosietsitoplasma voor. Die eksokriene pankreasselle is om die portale venes gesetel. Die kerne van hierdie selle is rond en is hasaal in die kubies- tot silindervormige selle gelee. ’n Goedontwikkelde growwe endoplasmiese retikulum — vesikulêr, tubulêr en sirkulêr in vorm — en sektretoriese granules wat apikaal in die sel gelee is, kom voor.

  18. [Estrogen replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  19. Diskussie oor die millenium en die herstel van Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Engelbrecht van Waverley

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Dit verheug my dat daar eindelik gereageer word op my boekie. Behalwe telefoonoproepe en briewe van medechiliaste was daar tot dusver geen kommentaar van anti-chiliastiese kant. Ek het die boekie aan ongeveer 1800 predikante en professore gestuur en vriendelik uitgenooi tot nuwe besinning. Net soos oor die soteriologie, is die Bybel nêrens in teëspraak met homself oor die eskatologie nie. God gee in sy Woord nie vir ons drie verskillende toekomsbeelde om uit te kies nie. God is een en sy profetiese Woord is deurgaans eenstemmig m.b.t. die raad van God oor Israel, die nasies en die kerk.

  20. A case of severe chlorite poisoning successfully treated with early administration of methylene blue, renal replacement therapy, and red blood cell transfusion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardtova, Andrea; Vavrinec, Peter; Vavrincova-Yaghi, Diana; Seelen, Mark; Dobisova, Anna; Flassikova, Zora; Cikova, Andrea; Henning, Robert H; Yaghi, Aktham

    2014-08-01

    The case of a 55-year-old man who attempted suicide by ingesting blue (10% after 29 hours).To remove the toxin, and because of the anuric acute renal failure, the patient received renal replacement therapy. Despite these therapeutic measures, the patient developed hemolytic anemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which were treated with red blood cell transfusion and intermittent hemodialysis. These interventions led to the improvement of his condition and the patient eventually fully recovered. Patient gave written informed consent.This is the third known case of chlorite poisoning that has been reported. Based upon this case, we suggest the management of sodium chlorite poisoning to comprise the early administration of methylene blue, in addition to renal replacement therapy and transfusion of red blood cells.

  1. GDNF secreting human neural progenitor cells protect dying motor neurons, but not their projection to muscle, in a rat model of familial ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Suzuki

    improvement in ipsilateral limb use. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential to maintain dying motor neurons by delivering GDNF using neural progenitor cells represents a novel and powerful treatment strategy for ALS. While this approach represents a unique way to prevent motor neuron loss, our data also suggest that additional strategies may also be required for maintenance of neuromuscular connections and full functional recovery. However, simply maintaining motor neurons in patients would be the first step of a therapeutic advance for this devastating and incurable disease, while future strategies focus on the maintenance of the neuromuscular junction.

  2. Synergy Between Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cell-Conditioned Medium and Knockout Serum Replacement Converts Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Dopamine-Secreting Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroujeni, Mahdi Eskandarian; Gardaneh, Mossa; Shahriari, Mehrnoosh Hasan; Aliaghaei, Abbas; Hasani, Sanaz

    2017-08-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) have great capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origins as well as nonmesodermal lineages, including neural cells. This valuable feature paves the way for the therapeutic application of hADSCs for neurodegenerative maladies such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested the capacity of choroid plexus epithelial cell-conditioned medium (CPEC-CM) alone or cocktailed with knockout serum (KS) to induce dopaminergic (DAergic) differentiation of hADSCs. To this end, hADSCs from lipoaspirate were phenotypically characterized and shown to maintain mesodermal multipotency so that selected media easily differentiated them into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. To begin inducing hADSC neuronal differentiation, we isolated CPECs from rat brain and expanded them in culture to obtain CPEC-CM. We then treated hADSCs with optimized quantities of collected CPEC-CM, KS, or both. The ADSCs treated with either CPEC-CM or CPEC-CM and KS displayed morphological changes typical of neuron-like phenotypes. As revealed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and immunostaining analyses, hADSCs cotreated with CPEC-CM and KS expressed significantly higher levels of neuronal and DAergic markers in comparison with single-treated groups. Moreover, the hADSCs began expressing dopamine-biosynthesizing enzymes mainly after cotreatment with CPEC-CM and KS. Consequently, only cotreated hADSCs were capable of synthesizing and releasing dopamine detectable by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Finally, hADSCs growing in an ordinary medium were found positive for astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), but stopped GFAP expression on either single or cotreatments. These combined results suggest that CPEC-CM and KS can synergize to remarkably augment DAergic induction of hADSCs, an effect that has implications for cell replacement therapy for PD and related disorders.

  3. Die kerk en die kommunisme, uitgangspunt en perspektief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Murray

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available Waar ons onmiddellike opdrag is om die konkrete taak van die kerk in die bestryding van Kommunisme en Marxisme te beskrywe, is ons gedwing om terug te dink aan die eerste grondslae van die vyandelike aanslag — die grondslae waarop sy leer en sy beleid van gewelddadige optrede berus. Want ons het nie te doen met ’n opportunistiese onderneming of ’n imperialistiese waagstuk as dit oor die Kommunisme gaan nie, en ook nie met die blinde opbruising van laere en agterlike volksklasse nie, maar wel met ’n deurdagte en afgeronde heelal-filosofie wat oor die aardbol versprei is en wat op sistematiese wyse en met wetenskaplike strategie ’n aanval op die bestaande Christelike orde maak.

  4. Die Psychosen bei Epilepsie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauninger G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In einer Übersicht werden die verschiedenen Formen psychotischer Zustandsbilder bei Epilepsiepatienten, deren Ätiopathogenese und Möglichkeiten der Behandlung dieser Störungen beschrieben. Risikofaktoren finden sich durch neurobiologische Gegebenheiten - besonders bei Mitbeteiligung des Temporallappens, durch psychosoziale Einflüsse und manchmal auch durch medikamentöse Behandlung. Anhand von Fallbeispielen sollen dem Leser typische Krankheitsverläufe von psychotischen Episoden bei Epilepsiepatienten, die zumeist erst bei einer schon länger dauernden Epilepsie auftreten, nähergebracht werden. Es wird deutlich, daß sich die Beschwerden von Patienten mit Epilepsie nicht auf iktale Phänomene beschränken. Bei der Behandlung dieser Patienten kommt einer guten interdisziplinären Zusammenarbeit besondere Bedeutung zu.

  5. Wêreldgebeure gedurende die jaar 1954.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. du Toit

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available Die jaar 1954 het begin sonder Stalin, die magtigste diktator van die modeme tyd, en dit wa s nog onseker hoe die nuwe regime sou optree.Teen die einde van die ja a r weet ons nou dat hulle oënskynlik meer toeskietlik is maar in wese nog net so geheimsinnig en nog net so geslepe. Die Petrof-gesjriedenis in Australië het weereens laat blyk dat daar oordie hele aarde ’n netwerk van spioene is.

  6. Die voorspelling van akademiese prestasie na die eerste universiteitsjaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Huysamen

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of academic performance after the first year at university. In agreement with findings elsewhere, the correlations of high school performance (Swedish Formula Point and the verbal and nonverbal GSAT scores with the mean percentage marks (MPMs gradually decreased from the first through sixth semester at university, whereas the decrease in the corresponding correlations with the cumulative mean percentage marks (CMPMs was less pronounced. The later the semester for which either an MPM or a CMPM was used as a predictor, the higher the latter tended to correlate with the MPMs of subsequent semesters but these correlations also decreased in size over the ensuing semesters. The best predictor of the MPM of any given semester was either the MPM of the immediately preceding semester or the CMPM of all the preceding semesters. Opsomming In ooreenstemming met bevindings elders, het die korrelasies van hoërskoolprestasie (Sweedse Formulepunt en verbale en nie-verbale ASAT-tellings met die gemiddelde persentasiepunte (GPP's geleidelik van die eerste tot die sesde semester op Universiteit afgeneem, terwyl die afname in die ooreenstemmende korrelasies met die kumulatiewe gemiddelde persentasiepunte (KGP's minder opvallend was. Hoe later die semester waarvan die GGP of KGP as voorspeller gebruik is, hoe hoër was dit geneig om met die GGP's van die daaropvolgende semesters te korreleer, maar die korrelasies het: eweneens met die toename in laasgenoemde semesters in grootte afgeneem. Die beste voorspeller van die GPP van enige gegewe semester was of die GPP van die pas afgelope semester, of die KGP van al die voorafgaande semesters.

  7. Die menswaardigheid van die menslike embrio: die debat tot dusver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vorster

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The human dignity of the human embryo: the debate thus farThis article examines some recent arguments regarding the ethics of stem cell research as they are discussed in the various essays in the publication of Gruen et al. (2007, “Stem cell research: the ethical issues”. Regarding the use of human embryos in stem cell research, these essays discuss among other things the potential of the human embryo, the moral status (human dignity of the human embryo, the creation of chimeras, the sale of ocytes and other ethical issues in modern bioethics. Eventually the article draws attention to the main ethical problems at stake to be dealt with by Christian ethics using a deontological ethical theory. Christian ethics should focus on these problems in the on-going ethical debate regarding stem cell research.

  8. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  9. Die skool en die onderwyser as faktore in die geestesgesondheid van die kind*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons hou geestesgesondheidsweke, stig beroepsentrums, samel geld in om mense wat geestelik siek is te genees, klae oor die tekort aan psigiaters, kliniese sielkundiges, bedryfsielkundiges, voorligters, skoolpsigoloë,ens. ’n Karige kwarteeu gelede het ons aan al hierdie dinge slegs akademiese aandag gewy. In hierdie kursus wordverskeie tipes kinders bespreek en geleer hoe om hulle probleme te benader.

  10. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  11. Die andere Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf

    2005-05-01

    War Kopernikus der größte Revolutionär des naturwissenschaftlichen Weltbildes? Seine Erkenntnisse waren der Beginn eines jahrhundertelangen Denkprozesses, welcher zur Einsicht führte, dass im Weltall die gleichen physikalischen Gesetze gelten wie auf der Erde.

  12. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  13. Die ontwikkeling van 'n instrument vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepte-orientasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. De Jager

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of an instrument (the RD-Depth Questionnaire, Form B for measuring the construct psychological depth orientation is discussed. Results show that the questionnaire has satisfactory internal consistency and that the items of the questionnaire in general measure the same characteristic. Further research is needed to refine and improve the questionnaire until it meets all the psychometric requirements of a good measuring instrument.OpsommingDie ontwikkeling van 'n instrument (die RD-Diepte Vraelys, Vorm B vir die meting van die konstruk sielkundige diepteoriëntasie word bespreek. Resultate dui daarop dat die vraelys bevredigende interne bestendigheid toon en dat die items van die vraelys oor die algemeen dieselfde eienskap meet. Verdere navorsing word egter nog vereis om die vraelys te verfyn en te verbeter sodat dit aan al die psigometriese vereistes van 'n goeie meetinstrument sal voldoen.

  14. Improvement of die life in high speed injection die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiro Arisuda; Akihito Hasuno; Junji Yoshida; Kazunari Tanii

    2008-01-01

    High-speed injection die casting is an efficient manufacturing technology for upgrading aluminum die-cast products. However, deficiencies (such as die damage in eady period) due to larger load on the molding die compared with conventional technology have brought new challenges. In this study, the cause of damage generated in super high-speed injection was investigated by the combination of experimental observation of the dies and CAE simulation (e.g. die temperature analysis, flow analysis and thermal stress analysis). The potential countermeasures to solve the above problems were also proposed.

  15. Improvement of die life in high speed injection die casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Hasuno

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available High-speed injection die casting is an effi cient manufacturing technology for upgrading aluminum die-cast products. However, defi ciencies (such as die damage in early period due to larger load on the molding die compared with conventional technology have brought new challenges. In this study, the cause of damage generated in super high-speed injection was investigated by the combination of experimental observation of the dies and CAE simulation (e.g. die emperature analysis, fl ow analysis and thermal stress analysis. The potential countermeasures to solve the above problems were also proposed.

  16. Die Wiege stand doch in Africka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Kaum ein Forschungsgebiet ist so umstritten wie die Palaeoanthropologie, die Lehre yore Ursprung der Menschheit. Nicht nur die Vorgeschichte, ouch die unmittelbare Entstebung des Homo sapiens entzweit die Experten: Die einen verrnuten die Wiege in Afrika,die anderen gehen davon aus, dass sich tier moderne Mensch auf mehreren Kontinenten gleichzeifig aus Vorfahren eatwickelte,

  17. Real-Time Dynamics of Galvanic Replacement Reactions of Silver Nanocubes and Au Studied by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Fen; Lin, Guanhua; Bosman, Michel; Mirsaidov, Utkur; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-08-23

    We study the galvanic replacement reaction of silver nanocubes in dilute, aqueous ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA)-capped gold aurate solutions using in situ liquid-cell electron microscopy. Au/Ag etched nanostructures with concave faces are formed via (1) etching that starts from the faces of the nanocubes, followed by (2) the deposition of an Au layer as a result of galvanic replacement, and (3) Au deposition via particle coalescence and monomer attachment where small nanoparticles are formed during the reaction as a result of radiolysis. Analysis of the Ag removal rate and Au deposition rate provides a quantitative picture of the growth process and shows that the morphology and composition of the final product are dependent on the stoichiometric ratio between Au and Ag.

  18. Die Tambaniprojek: ’n rekenaaranimasie van Die hebsugtige seekoei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M.C. Swanepoel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel bied ’n ondersoek na en refleksie op die tegnieke en die produksieprosesse wat gebruik is in die omskakeling van ’n tradisionele Ngano-Venda-volksverhaal, Die hebsugtige seekoei, vanaf borduurwerk in ’n digitale animasiefilm. Die artikel word gerig deur ’n metode wat afgelei is uit ’n praktykgebaseerde navorsingsmodel vir skeppende uitsette. Hierdie navorsingsmodel omskryf wyses waarvolgens skeppende uitsette as geldige navorsingsopsies gereken kan word. Die metode bestaan uit die dokumentering van en refleksie ten opsigte van die projek in drie fases, naamlik pre-produksie, produksie en post-produksie. Die Tambani-borduurwerkprojek is ’n gemeenskapsuitreikingsinisiatief wat deur Ina le Roux van stapel laat loop is. Ngano is die versamelwoord vir tradisionele Vendavolksverhale. In hierdie artikel argumenteer ons dat rekenaaranimasietegnieke wel suksesvol geïmplementeer word in die digitale omskakeling van ’n Venda-volksverhaal wat oorspronklik uit ’n mondelinge tradisie stam. Ons demonstreer hierdie argument aan die hand van Christiaan van der Westhuizen se omskakeling van Die hebsugtige seekoei in ’n rekenaaranimasie.

  19. Impact of enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with Morquio A syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomatsu S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shunji Tomatsu,1,2 Kazuki Sawamoto,1 Carlos J Alméciga-Díaz,3 Tsutomu Shimada,1 Michael B Bober,1 Yasutsugu Chinen,4 Hiromasa Yabe,5 Adriana M Montaño,6 Roberto Giugliani,7 Francyne Kubaski,1,8 Eriko Yasuda,1 Alexander Rodríguez-López,3 Angela J Espejo-Mojica,3 Oscar F Sánchez,9 Robert W Mason,1 Luis A Barrera,3 William G Mackenzie,1 Tadao Orii2 1Nemours/Alfred I duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan; 3Institute for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, School of Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia; 4Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 5Department of Cell Transplantation and Regenerative Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan; 6Department of Pediatrics, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA; 7Medical Genetics Service/HCPA and Department of Genetics/UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 8Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 9School of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA can present with systemic skeletal dysplasia, leading to a need for multiple orthopedic surgical procedures, and often become wheelchair bound in their teenage years. Studies on patients with MPS IVA treated by enzyme replacement therapy (ERT showed a sharp reduction on urinary keratan sulfate, but only modest improvement based on a 6-minute walk test and no significant improvement on a 3-minute climb-up test and lung function test compared with the placebo group, at least in the short-term. Surgical remnants from ERT-treated patients did not show reduction of storage materials in chondrocytes. The impact of ERT on bone lesions in patients with MPS IVA remains limited. ERT seems to be enhanced in a mouse model of MPS IVA by a novel form of the enzyme tagged with a bone

  20. Die historiese betroubaarheid van die aartsvadervertellinge. 'n Beknopte bespreking van die huidige debat na aanleiding van die jongste publikasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vosloo

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Die afgelope twintig jaar was daar �n toenemende belangstelling in die aartsvadervertellinge in Genesis. Benewens die talle tydskrifartikels het skrywers soos die volgende ook boeke oor die onderwerp die lig laat sien: A. Parrot (1962, W. M. Clark (1964, R. Kilian (1966, R. E. Clements (1967, N. Lohfink (1967, H. Weidemann (1968, R. Martin-Achard (1969, T. L. Thompson (1974, J. van Seters (1975, J. P. Fokkelman (1975, C. Westermann (1976, R. Rendtorff (1977, J. Bright (1977, W. McKane (1979 en A. R. Millard en D. J. Wiseman (1980.

  1. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  2. Gedagtes oor die begin van die kerk - 'n geskiedenis van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriously, affirm, and thankfully acknowledge Christendom, the. Church. We must ... In all this we at least approached the theology and practice of a spiritual partisan ..... Hegel se geskiedsfilosofie hou juis 'sintese' voor as die eindpunt van die.

  3. The road we travelled: discovery, choreography, and significance of brain replaceable neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottebohm, Fernando

    2004-06-01

    Neurons are constantly added to the telencephalon of songbirds. In the high vocal center (HVC), where this has been studied, new neurons replace older ones that died. Peaks in replacement are seasonal and affect some neuronal classes but not others. Peaks in replacement coincide with peaks in information acquisition. The new neurons are produced by division of cells in the wall of the lateral ventricle. Where studied closely, the neuronal stem cells proved to be radial glia. Life expectancy of the new neurons ranges from weeks to months. New neuron survival is regulated by vacancies, hormones, and activity. The immediate agent of new neuron survival is, in some cases, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The effect of BDNF is maximal 14-20 days after the cells are born, when they are establishing their connections. These observations are now being extended to other vertebrates and may apply, to varying degrees, to all of them. The function of neuronal replacement in healthy adult brain remains unclear. If synaptic number and efficacy sufficed as mechanisms for long-term memory storage and could be adjusted again and again to incorporate new memories, then neuronal replacement would seem unnecessary. Since it occurs, it seems reasonable to suppose that replacement serves to maintain learning potential in a way that could not be done just by synaptic change. Long-term memories may be encoded by long-term changes in gene expression akin to a last step in cell differentiation. If so, neuronal replacement may be the adult brain's way of striking a balance between limited memory space and the need to acquire new memories. The testing of this hypothesis remains in the future. This chapter tells how neuronal replacement was discovered in the adult songbird brain.

  4. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  5. Film Presentation: Die Urknallmaschine

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Die Urknallmaschine, an Austrian film by Gerd Baldauf, narrated by Norbert Frischauf (Alpha Österreich - ORF, 2009).  In CERN’s gigantic complex particles are accelerated to almost the speed of light, brought to collision and made to divide into even smaller particles. Public opinion of CERN’s research is also divided. Sceptics fear that black holes may be created. Might the goal to study the origin of the world lead to its destruction? The Austrian researcher Norbert Frischauf worked at CERN for many years. With his guidance it is possible to explore the world’s largest research centre, get a glimpse of the fascinating work the scientists do there and take a crash course in particle physics. Die Urknallmaschine will be presented on Friday, 25 June from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium. Language: German

  6. Dying for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchan, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  7. Dying for Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  8. Dying from cardiac tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powari Manish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the causes of cardiac tamponade (CT, focussing especially on haemopericardium (HP, as a terminal mode of death, within a 430,000 rural English population. Methods Our hospital mortuary register and, all postmortem reports between 1995 and 2004 inclusive, were interrogated for patients dying of CT or HP. The causes of CT/HP and selected morphological characteristics were then determined. Results 14,368 postmortems were performed in this period: of these, 461 patients died of CT. Three cases were due to non-haemorrhagic pericardial effusion. HP accounted for the remaining 458 cases of which, five were post-traumatic, 311 followed rupture of an acute myocardial infarction (RAMI, 138 after intra-pericardial rupture of dissecting ascending aortic aneurysms (RD3A and four were due to miscellaneous causes. HP was more commonly due to RAMI. Men tended to die from RAMI or RD3A earlier than women. RAMI or RD3A were commoner in men Two thirds of RAMI were associated with coronary artery thrombosis. Anterior free wall rupture was commonest overall, and in women, but posterior free wall rupture was commoner in men. The volume of intrapericardial blood in RAMI (mean = 440 ml and RD3A (mean = 498 ml varied between 150 and 1000 ml: intrapericardial blood volume was greater in men than in women dying from either RAMI or RD3A. Conclusion At postmortem, CT is most often related to HP, attributable to either RAMI or intrapericardial RD3A. Post-traumatic and other causes of CT are infrequent.

  9. Effect of heavy metals and benzene on porphyrin synthesis of human epithelial larynx carcinoma cells (HEp-2); Wirkung von Schwermetallen und Benzol auf die Porphyrinsynthese von Humanen epithelialen Larynxkarzinomzellen (HEp-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumat, C.; Kath, H.G.; Perlewitz, J.; Manuwald, O. [Institut fuer Umweltmedizin, Erfurt (Germany); Herbarth, O. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Sektion Expositionsforschung und Epidemiologie

    2001-07-01

    Aim of the investigation was to prepare an environmental epidemiological test to detect the effects of pollutants by a pattern of porphyrin excretion in the urine. The task was to test whether lead, mercury, copper, zinc and benzene in environmentally relevant concentrations influence porphyrin synthesis of cells. The model used was the permanent epithelial larynx carcinoma cell line HEp-2, which was stimulated to synthesize porphyrins by adding {delta}-amino-levulinic acid ({delta}-ALA) in excess. 8- to 4-carboxyporphyrins and protoporphyrin IX were measured both in the cells and in the culture medium by means of high performance liqid cromatography (HPLC). The following pollutant effects were found: lead: extracellular increase of hexacarboxyporphyrin and intracellular decrease of heptacarboxy- and copro-porphyrin; mercury: extracellular decrease of heptacarboxyporphyrin and intracellular increase of coproporphyrin; copper: extracellular decrease of uro-, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin IX, extracellular increase of heptacarboxyporphyrin and intracellular decrease of uro-, heptacarboxy- and coproporphyrin; zinc: extracellular increase of coproporphyrin; benzene: a tendency to extracellular increase of hexacarboxyporphyrin. The main result is the decrease in the concentrations of porphyrins caused by copper. This result is possibly linked to gastro-intestinal diseases among children due to drinking water from copper water pipes. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Untersuchungen war es, Vorarbeit zu leisten fuer die Entwicklung eines umwelt-epidemiologischen Tests, der es ermoeglicht, geringe Schadstoffwirkungen durch ein Porphyrin-Ausscheidungsmuster im Urin nachzuweisen. In diesem Zusammenhang bestand die Aufgabe zu pruefen, ob Blei, Quecksilber, Kupfer, Zink und Benzol in umweltmedizinisch relevanten Konzentrationen die Porphyrinsythese von Zellen beeinflussen. Als Untersuchungsmodell wurde die permanente humane epitheliale Larynxkarzinomzelllinie HEp-2 genutzt, die

  10. Die medizinische Diskussion um die Fettleibigkeit 1800-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Holstermann, Inga Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Gegenstand der Untersuchung ist die medizinische Diskussion um die Fettleibigkeit von 1800 bis 1914. Dargestellt werden die unterschiedlichen Betrachtungsweisen der Fettleibigkeit beeinflusst durch gesellschaftliche, industrielle und medizinische Entwicklungen im Untersuchungszeitraum unter den Aspekten der Ursachen (Lebensführung, erbliche Veranlagung, Geschlecht, Alter, Stoffwechselstörungen) und Folgen (Gesundheitsgefahren, Ästhetik, psychische Auswirkungen). Des weiteren werden Konzepte z...

  11. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Fiami

    2005-01-01

    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.

  12. Geslagsverskille in die ouditiewe ontlokte potensiaal van die brein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the auditory evoked potential of the brain. Based on literature indications of an association between temperament characteristics and the evoked potential of the brain, and indications of gender differences in certain temperament traits, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether evoked responses also differentiated between the genders. A sample of 81 male and 210 female students was randomly selected. Two auditory evoked potential procedures were applied. The results indicated statistically significant differences in evoked potential responses between the genders. The results are interpreted against the background of sensory and neurological sources of the evoked potential responses and linked to the neurophysiological foundations of temperament. Opsomming: Gegrond op aanduidings in die literatuur van ’n assosiasie tussen temperamentskenmerke en die ontlokte potensiaal van die brein, sowel as aanduidings van geslagsverskille in sekere temperamentstrekke, was die doel van die huidige studie om te bepaal of ontloktepotensiaal-response ook tussen die geslagte onderskei. ’n Steekproef van 81 manlike en 210 vroulike studente is ewekansig geselekteer. Twee ouditiewe ontloktepotensiaal- prosedures is toegepas. Die resultate het op statisties beduidende verskille tussen die geslagte gedui. Die bevindinge word teen die agtergrond van die sensoriese en neurologiese oorsprong van ontloktepotensiaal–response geïnterpreteer en verbind aan die neurofisiologiese verankering van temperament.

  13. Nano-calciumphosphate scaffold generation for bone repair/replacement: elucidating the signalling response and cell cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wepnener, I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available applications: A picture for the next 20 years. Journal of the european ceramic society, 29(7):1245-55. 4. dorozhkin, s.V. 2007. Bioceramics based on calcium orthophosphates (review). Glass and ceramics, 64(11):442-7. 5. schilling A... requirements for bone repair and replacement due to some characteristics such as: • Lack of collagen fibres2-4 • Very brittle, therefore not prone for use in load-bearing circumstances • General bioactivity needs improvement • Most applications...

  14. SOFC high-temperature fuel cell for decentralised energy supply - state of the art and first operating experiences; Die Hochtemperatur Brennstoffzelle SOFC in der dezentralen Energieversorgung - Technischer Stand und erste Betriebserfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, L. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Sukkel, J. [NUON Milieubedrijf, Arnheim (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    Due to its high efficiency and environmental friendliness, which is accounted for by its perfect adaptability to natural gas, the SOFC high-temperature fuel cell is especially well suited for decentralised power and heat supply systems. While the planar SOFC version is still largely in the development stage, with units of up to 10kW under study at various research institutions, the pipe version of Siemens Westinghouse has already reached a more advanced technical stage. A first 100 kW demonstration plant is being operated in the Netherlands by the Dutch/Danish EDB/ELSAM consortium. Despite certain starting difficulties the first 6,000 operating hours showed a very satisfactory behaviour. Net electrical efficiency reached 46%, a globally unrivalled achievement for a plant of this size. Using this concept as a starting point Siemens plans to put demonstration plants of up to 3 MW into operation in the course of the next three years. [German] Die Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzelle SOFC ist aufgrund ihres hohen Wirkungsgrades und ihrer Umweltfreundlichkeit und durch den problemlosen Einsatzes von Erdgas besonders gut fuer die dezentrale Versorgung mit Strom und Waerme geeignet. Waehrend sich die planare SOFC noch weitgehend im Entwicklungsstadium von Einheiten bis 10 kW befindet und in Deutschland vorwiegend an Forschungseinrichtungen untersucht wird hat das Roehrenkonzept von Siemens Westinghouse bereits einen fortgeschrittenen technischen Stand erreicht. Eine erste 100 kW Demo-Anlage wird in den Niederlanden von dem hollaendisch/daenischen Konsortium EDB/ELSAM betrieben. Trotz einiger Startschwierigkeiten zeigten die ersten 6000 Betriebsstunden ein sehr zufriedenstellendes Verhalten. Mit 46% elektrischem Nettowirkungsgrad wurde ein fuer Anlagen dieser Groessenordnung bislang weltweit einmaliger Wert erreicht. Die Siemens AG plant, basierend auf diesem Konzept, in den naechsten drei Jahren Demonstrationsanlagen bis 1 MW in Betrieb zu nehmen. (orig.)

  15. Verrekening van die kragveld van die verbond in die inkleding van die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen teks, hoorder en prediker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich W. de Wet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die kommunikatiewe driehoeksverhouding tussen die Bybelse teks, die hoorders en die prediker homileties verken. Die probleemstelling waarmee gewerk word handel oor potensiële versteurings wat kan plaasvind in hierdie driehoeksverhouding wanneer die hoorders en die prediker in hulle menslike beperktheid in verbinding gebring word met die ewige Woord van God soos dit in die Bybelse teks na vore kom. In die loop van die artikel word die volgende aspekte verken: ’n Ideale tipering van die verhouding tussen die teks, hoorders en prediker waarin al drie faktore ’n regmatige plek het; die maniere waarop die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die spanningsveld tussen teks, hoorders en prediker kan skeeftrek; en pneumatologiese verankering van die kommunikatiewe driehoek in die kragveld van die verbondsruimte, waarin Jesus Christus versoenend (integrerend teenwoordig is. Die gevolgtrekking waartoe gekom word, is dat die prediker in die kragveld van die verbond in staat gestel word om getrou te bly aan die teks (waarin God aan die Woord kom, aan die hoorders (as mededeelgenote in die genade van God sowel as – in missionêre konteks – mense wat geroep word om deelgenote in hierdie genade te word en aan hom- of haarself (as nuwe mens in Christus sonder dat die verbintenis aan een element in die  kommunikatiewe driehoek die verbintenis aan die ander versteur of laat disintegreer.Reckoning with the force field of the covenant in aligning the communicative triangle between text, listener and preacher. In this article the communicative triangular relationship between the Biblical text, the listeners and the preacher is reflected upon from a homiletic point of view. The problem statement deals with potential distortions in this triangular relationship when the listeners and preacher (in their human finitude are brought into contact with the eternal Word of God as it proceeds from the Biblical text. In the course of the article the

  16. Slot-Die-Coated V2O5 as Hole Transport Layer for Flexible Organic Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beliatis, Michail; Helgesen, Martin; Garcia Valverde, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide has been proposed as a good alternative hole transport layer for improving device lifetime of organic photovoltaics. The article presents a study on the optimization of slot-die-coated vanadium oxide films produced with a roll coating machine with the aim of achieving scalable ...

  17. Die amtliche Kinder- und Jugendhilfestatistik

    OpenAIRE

    Schilling, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Unter Rückgriff auf verschiedene wissenschaftliche Methoden umfasst die Dissertation eine differenzierte Untersuchung der amtlichen Kinder- und Jugendhilfestatistik (KJH-Statistik). Da die wissenschaftliche Sozialpädagogik erst langsam und zögerlich beginnt, die amtliche Statistik der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe wahrzunehmen, liegt das Forschungsinteresse darin, dass eine grundlegende und umfassende wissenschaftliche Analyse der Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der KJH-Statistik vorgenommen wird. Die KJ...

  18. Alienation in As I lay Dying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪倩

    2013-01-01

    The enormous change of the earlier 20th century has not only brought false prosperity to the society but also pushed people into spiritual wasteland. Indifference and alienation have replaced communication and trust among people or between one and self. By analyzing the alienation among people, the self-split of oneself and the reasons resulting these in William Faulkner ’s As I lay Dying, the concern of Faulkner about the social phenomenon and his pursuit of transcending the personal to a universal level will be better presented to us.

  19. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  20. Gods hand in die natuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Duvenage

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Kan ons van so iets spreek? Daaroor bestaan daar seker geen verskil nie. Die Bybel is vol daarvan van Genesis tot Openbaring. God is Skepper. ’n Ander vraag is of ons God ook kan ken uit wat daar in die natuur gebeur? Verloop alles nie maar volgens ewige natuurwette waaraan tog niks verander kan word nie? Ons bely egter dat die Here nie net in die hart van die mens gelê het wat ons noem die „saad van die religie” nie (semen religionis, maar dat ons Hom ook ken deur die skep- ping, onderhouding en regering van die hele wêreld, aangesien dit voor ons oë is soos ’n mooi boek waarin alle skepsels, groot en klein, die letters is wat ons die onsigbare dinge van God duidelik laat sien, nl. sy ewige krag en Goddelikheid ...; dinge wat almal genoegsaam is om die mense te oortuig en hulle alle verontskuldiging te ontneem (Art. 2 Ned. Gel. Bel..

  1. Die eunug in die klassieke mitologie en samelewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Retief

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die konsep, eunug, wat na ’n gekastreerde persoon (gewoonlik manlik verwys, het sy oorsprong in die mitologie. Van hier word dit deurgevolg na die Klassieke tydperk. Kastrering vir religieuse redes was deel van godsdiensrituele gekoppel aan verering van aardgodinne en fertiliteit. Die kultusse wat aan die godinne Kubele, Hekate, Atargatis-Dea, Astarte, Artemis en Innana-Ishtar gewy was en wat deur eunugpriesters bedien was, word beskryf. Kastrering vir niereligieuse redes, oorwegend weens sosio-ekonomiese oorwegings, het waarskynlik tydens die 2de millennium v.C. sy oorsprong in Midde-Oosterse lande gehad vanwaar dit teen ongeveer die 5de eeu v.C. na Griekeland, en twee eeue later na Rome uitgebrei het. ’n Oorsig word gelewer van die invloed en rol van die eunug ten tye van die klassieke beskawing. Die sogenaamde “kongenitale eunug” waar hipogonadisme weens ’n aangebore letsel ontstaan, ’n baie seldsame verskynsel, word nie verder bespreek nie.

  2. The Gene Targeting Approach of Small Fragment Homologous Replacement (SFHR Alters the Expression Patterns of DNA Repair and Cell Cycle Control Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pierandrei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular responses and molecular mechanisms activated by exogenous DNA that invades cells are only partially understood. This limits the practical use of gene targeting strategies. Small fragment homologous replacement (SFHR uses a small exogenous wild-type DNA fragment to restore the endogenous wild-type sequence; unfortunately, this mechanism has a low frequency of correction. In this study, we used a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line with a stably integrated mutated gene for enhanced green fluorescence protein. The restoration of a wild-type sequence can be detected by flow cytometry analysis. We quantitatively analyzed the expression of 84 DNA repair genes and 84 cell cycle control genes. Peculiar temporal gene expression patterns were observed for both pathways. Different DNA repair pathways, not only homologous recombination, as well as the three main cell cycle checkpoints appeared to mediate the cellular response. Eighteen genes were selected as highly significant target/effectors of SFHR. We identified a wide interconnection between SFHR, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. Our results increase the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in cell invasion by exogenous DNA and SFHR. Specific molecular targets of both the cell cycle and DNA repair machineries were selected for manipulation to enhance the practical application of SFHR.

  3. Aard, funksie en invloed van die Literatuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Elst

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Binne die raam werk van die tema van hierdie simposium gaan dit om twee komponente:die Literatuur, meer bepaald die letterkundige werk of woordkunswerk met sy drie genres endie gemeenskap, die onlvangers of belewers van die Literatuur of doodgewoon die lesers.

  4. Videobasierte Unterrichtsbeobachtung: die Quadratur des Zirkels?

    OpenAIRE

    Fankhauser, Regula

    2012-01-01

    Seit einigen Jahren wird Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt videobasiert angegangen. Die methodologische Diskussion, die die Weiterentwicklung des Instrumentariums begleitet, kreist dabei zentral um die Frage der Invasivität der Aufzeichnungstechnik und möglicher Kameraeffekte. Je nach methodologischer Ausrichtung wird diesem Problem anders begegnet: So versucht die abbildtheoretische Unterrichtsvideografie, die Invasivität zu kontrollieren. Qualitative Methoden wie die Kameraethnografie dagegen m...

  5. Die wisselende rol van kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit in die geskiedenis van die filosofie en die wiskunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie F.M. Strauss

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel wil lig werp op die onvermydelikheid van diskreetheid en kontinuïteit as primitiewe (ondefinieerbare verklaringswyses in die geskiedenis van die filosofie en die wiskunde. Dit beliggaam die algemene uitdaging om rekenskap van die samehang van iets wat uniek is te gee. Gödel beklemtoon die samehang van ‘primitiewe begrippe’. Die Griekse filosofie het reeds die ruimtelike geheel-dele-relasie – en die oneindige verdeelbaarheid daarvan – ontdek. Gedurende en na die Middeleeue het filosowe wipplank gery tussen ’n atomistiese waardering van die kontinuum en die teenoorgestelde daarvan, wat byvoorbeeld in die denke van Leibniz aangetref word as die gepostuleerde wet van kontinuïteit (lex continui. Die ontdekking van ‘inkommensurabiliteit’ (irrasionale getalle deur die Grieke het aanleiding gegee tot die eerste grondslagkrisis van die wiskunde en die geometrisering daarvan. Leibniz en Newton kon die probleme rondom die limietbegrip nie besleg nie en spoedig sou dit tot die derde grondslagkrisis van die wiskunde aanleiding gee. Dit het Frege en die ‘kontinuum-teoretici’ daartoe gebring om prioriteit aan die kontinuum te gee – diskreetheid is ’n katastrofe. Onlangs waardeer Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis kontinuïteit as iets wat ’n ‘ongebroke en ononderbroke geheel’ daarstel. Die intuïsionistiese wiskunde het opnuut aangesluit by die klem op die ruimtelike geheel-dele-relasie. Ondanks pogings om kontinuïteit eksklusief aritmeties en ruimtelik te verstaan bevestig die geskiedenis van die filosofie en die wiskunde onmiskenbaar dat die medekondisionerende rol van hierdie twee wyses van verklaring ’n konstante metgesel in die nadenke oor kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit sou bly. (Die rol van kontinuïteit en diskontinuïteit in die fisika en biologie sal in ’n aparte artikel ondersoek word.

  6. Reuchlin und die Kabbala

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Auszug: Hundert Jahre nachdem Johannes Reuchlin sein wissenschaftliches Werk vollendet hatte, war der von ihm hinterlassene Eindruck auf die europäische Wissenschaft und das europäische Denken so nachdrücklich, daß er - liebe- oder vorwurfsvoll - einmal >Rabbi Capnion< genannt wurde. Und wirklich - so meint Joseph Blau in seiner Darstellung der christlichen Kabbala - habe Reuchlin der hebräischen Literatur mehr gedient als mancher ordentliche Rabbiner. Ähnlich hat Gershom Scholem, der Begründ...

  7. Die Mythosphilosophie Ernst Cassirers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esther Oluffa

    Bogen undersøger Ernst Cassirers filosofiske hovedværk - Die Philosophie der symbolischen Formen - for at finde frem til, hvilken betydning det har, at Cassirer inddrager myten som den menneskelige kulturs grundform og dermed på mange måder sidestillet med videnskab, sprog og kunst. Der...... argumenteres for, at netop arbejdet med myten muliggjorde en frugtbar åbning af erkendelsesteorien i retning af udtryksfænomenet og følelsers betydning for menneskets livsverden. Bogens anden del ser nærmere på, hvordan Cassirer bruger sin mytefilosofi fra 1920'erne til at forstå 1940'ernes fascistiske...

  8. Die ideaal van die spreker in die satiriese gedig: M.M. Walters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Cameron

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available Wanneer van die satirikus gepraat word, word eintlik die spreker in die satiriese gedig veronderstel. “For the Muse ought always to be our reminder that it is not the author as man who casts these shadows on our printed page, but the author as poet” (Mack, 1971:193.

  9. A Case of Severe Chlorite Poisoning Successfully Treated With Early Administration of Methylene Blue, Renal Replacement Therapy, and Red Blood Cell Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardtova, Andrea; Vavrinec, Peter; Vavrincova-Yaghi, Diana; Seelen, Mark; Dobisova, Anna; Flassikova, Zora; Cikova, Andrea; Henning, Robert H.; Yaghi, Aktham

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The case of a 55-year-old man who attempted suicide by ingesting sodium chlorite solution is presented. On arrival in the intensive care unit, the patient appeared cyanotic with lowered consciousness and displayed anuria and chocolate brown serum. Initial laboratory tests revealed 40% of methemoglobin. The formation of methemoglobin was effectively treated with methylene blue (10% after 29 hours). To remove the toxin, and because of the anuric acute renal failure, the patient received renal replacement therapy. Despite these therapeutic measures, the patient developed hemolytic anemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which were treated with red blood cell transfusion and intermittent hemodialysis. These interventions led to the improvement of his condition and the patient eventually fully recovered. Patient gave written informed consent. This is the third known case of chlorite poisoning that has been reported. Based upon this case, we suggest the management of sodium chlorite poisoning to comprise the early administration of methylene blue, in addition to renal replacement therapy and transfusion of red blood cells. PMID:25144325

  10. Changes in adipocyte cell size, gene expression of lipid metabolism markers, and lipolytic responses induced by dietary fish oil replacement in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Garcia, Lourdes; Sánchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Bouraoui, Lamia; Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Navarro, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The effects of fish oil (FO) substitution by 66% vegetable oils in a diet with already 75% vegetable protein (66VO) on adipose tissue lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream were analysed after a 14-month feeding trial. In the last 3 months of the experiment, a FO diet was administrated to a 66VO group (group 66VO/FO) as a finishing diet. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity was measured in adipose tissue and adipocyte size, and HSL, lipoprotein lipase and liver X receptor gene expression in isolated adipocytes, on which lipolysis and glucose uptake experiments were also performed. Lipolysis was measured after incubation with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), linoleic acid, and two conjugated linoleic acid isomers. Glucose uptake was analysed after TNFα or insulin administration. Our results show that FO replacement increased lipolytic activity and adipocyte cell size. The higher proportion of large cells observed in the 66VO group could be involved in their observed lower response to fatty acid treatments and lower insulin sensitivity. The 66VO/FO group showed a moderate return to the FO conditions. Therefore, FO replacement can affect the morphology and metabolism of gilthead sea bream adipocytes which could potentially affect other organs such as the liver.

  11. Replacement of Retinyl Esters by Polyunsaturated Triacylglycerol Species in Lipid Droplets of Hepatic Stellate Cells during Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testerink, N.; Ajat, M.A.; Houweling, M.; Brouwers, J.F.; Pully, V.V.; Manen, van H.J.; Otto, C.; Helms, J.B.; Vaandrager, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells has been recognized as one of the first steps in liver injury and repair. During activation, hepatic stellate cells transform into myofibroblasts with concomitant loss of their lipid droplets (LDs) and production of excessive extracellular matrix. Here we aimed t

  12. Die historiese Jesus, die Jesus-beweging en die vorming van die kerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries van Aarde

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical Jesus, the Jesus movement and the birth of the church. The article focuses on the birth of the church. The point at which the church began its existence is located within the boundaries of fonnative Judaism. The parting of the ways is explained as a movement from faction to sect, to the eventual fonnation of the church in its own right as distinct from the synagogue. The historical Jesus should therefore not be seen as the founder of the church. However, the article argues that the relation of the life and death of the historical Jesus to the resurrection belief of the post-paschal Jesus movement constitutes the cradle of the church. This continuum between Jesus and New Testament Christendom is referred to by means of the Gennan phrase die Sache Jesu. Reconsideration of this trajectory results in the conviction that the vision and program of the historical Jesus cannot be neglected when one reflects on the nature of the church in the New Testament or on the vocation of the church through history to the present day. Two thought complexes form the kernel of die Sache Jesu: God's unbounded presence and the concept that everyone has unmediated and non-hierarchical access to the grace of God.

  13. Die hermeneutiek van gereformeerde kerkreg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries le Roux du Plooy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel het op die belangrikheid en noodsaaklikheid van ‘n hermeneutiek vir die gereformeerde kerkreg gefokus. Die kerkregtelike dokument wat besonderlik ter sake was, is die kerkorde van die Gereformeerde kerke in Suid-Afrika, met sy besondere band met die Dordtse kerkorde van 1618 en 1619. Agtereenvolgens is aandag gegee aan die volgende aspekte soos (1 die eiesoortige aard van ‘n kerkorde as ‘n teologiese dokument en teks, in onderskeiding van regsdokumente; (2 die aard van die hermeneutiek van kerkreg; (3 enkele teorieë oor die interpretasie of uitleg van tekste, veral regstekste en (4 normatiewe vooronderstellings en reëls vir die interpretasie en verstaan van die teks en artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite van kerklike vergaderinge. Die gevolgtrekking was dat weinig indringende navorsing gedoen is oor die saak van hermeneutiek vir kerkreg, hoewel dit noodsaaklik is. Duidelike hermeneutiese reëls is gesuggereer en verduidelik, wat sou kon meehelp dat kerke en kerklike vergaderinge die artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite en reglemente wat daarop berus het, kan interpreteer en toepas.The hermeneutics of reformed church polity. The article focused on the importance and urgency of a design for reformed hermeneutics on church polity. The Church Order referred to in the article is the Church Order of the Reformed Churches in South Africa, which are closely related to the Church Order of Dordt of 1618 and 1619. The following aspects received attention namely (1  the unique character of a Church Order, in comparison to and distinguished from legal documents and statutes; (2 the character and nature of hermeneutics of church polity; (3 theories of interpretation in the common law tradition and their relevance to church polity and (4 normative presuppositions and marks for the interpretation and understanding of the text and articles of the Church Order, as well as the resolutions of church assemblies. It was found that

  14. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het.Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  15. Die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werks prestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Coetzer

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. These constructs were selected by virtue of the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship between them. The Locus of Control Scale of Schepers (1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Work performance was measured by the commission earned per month by the marketer, the number of policies generated by the marketer, as well as the percentage of lapsed policies. The relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 149 black marketing personnel. The results indicated a modest but statistically significant relationship between external locus of control and the work performance of black marketers. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf te bepaal. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies op grond van die gebrek aan empiriese navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband tussen genoemde konstrukte. Die Lokus van Beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Werksprestasie is aan die hand van kommissie per maand verdien, aantal polisse gegenereer deur 'n bemarker en die persentasie vervalde polisse, gemeet. Die tersaaklike metinge is verkry ten opsigte van 'n steekproef van 149 swart bemarkers. Die resultate toon 'n klein, dog statisties beduidende verband tussen eksterne lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf.

  16. Neural stem cells may be uniquely suited for combined gene therapy and cell replacement: Evidence from engraftment of Neurotrophin-3-expressing stem cells in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kook In; Himes, B Timothy; Stieg, Philip E; Tessler, Alan; Fischer, Itzhak; Snyder, Evan Y

    2006-05-01

    Previously, we reported that, when clonal neural stem cells (NSCs) were transplanted into brains of postnatal mice subjected to unilateral hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury (optimally 3-7 days following infarction), donor-derived cells homed preferentially (from even distant locations) to and integrated extensively within the large ischemic areas that spanned the hemisphere. A subpopulation of NSCs and host cells, particularly in the penumbra, "shifted" their differentiation towards neurons and oligodendrocytes, the cell types typically damaged following asphyxia and least likely to regenerate spontaneously and in sufficient quantity in the "post-developmental" CNS. That no neurons and few oligodendrocytes were generated from the NSCs in intact postnatal cortex suggested that novel signals are transiently elaborated following HI to which NSCs might respond. The proportion of "replacement" neurons was approximately 5%. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is known to play a role in inducing neuronal differentiation during development and perhaps following injury. We demonstrated that NSCs express functional TrkC receptors. Furthermore, the donor cells continued to express a foreign reporter transgene robustly within the damaged brain. Therefore, it appeared feasible that neuronal differentiation of exogenous NSCs (as well as endogenous progenitors) might be enhanced if donor NSCs were engineered prior to transplantation to (over)express a bioactive gene such as NT-3. A subclone of NSCs transduced with a retrovirus encoding NT-3 (yielding >90% neurons in vitro) was implanted into unilaterally asphyxiated postnatal day 7 mouse brain (emulating one of the common causes of cerebral palsy). The subclone expressed NT-3 efficiently in vivo. The proportion of NSC-derived neurons increased to approximately 20% in the infarction cavity and >80% in the penumbra. The neurons variously differentiated further into cholinergic, GABAergic, or glutamatergic subtypes, appropriate to the cortex. Donor

  17. Does globalisation threaten a sustainable environmental protection?; Gefaehrdet die Globalisierung den nachhaltigen Umweltschutz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, K. [DELIWA Berufsvereinigung fuer das Energie- und Wasserfach e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    1997-02-01

    Social and environmental-orientated achievements and the knowledge of the last decades are repealed by globalisation. If inefficient national regulations are not replaced by international rules, our `Blue Planet` will be overstressed in the near future. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Globalisierung setzt die sozialen und umweltbezogenen Errungenschaften und Erkenntnisse, die in den zurueckliegenden Dekaden erarbeitet wurden, ausser Kraft. Wenn es nicht gelingt, anstelle der wirkungslos gewordenen nationalen Regularien internationale Regeln zu setzen, wird unser `Blauer Planet` bald ueberfordert sein. (orig.)

  18. The continental drift of the market; Die Kontinentaldrift des Marktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-08

    After overproduction and artificially low module prices, market observers believe that the industry is stabilized until 2017. In this case, the market activities move away from Europe to Asia-Pacific region and the United States. The consolidation still holds in solar cell and module manufacturers. [German] Nach der Ueberproduktion und kuenstlich niedrig gehaltener Modulpreise gehen Marktbeobachter davon aus, dass sich die Branche bis 2017 stabilisiert. Dabei verschieben sich die Marktaktivitaeten weg von Europa in den asiatischen, pazifischen Raum sowie in die USA. Noch haelt die Konsolidierung in der Solarindustrie auch bei den Zell- und Modulherstellern an.

  19. Serum replacement with albumin-associated lipids prevents excess aggregation and enhances growth of induced pluripotent stem cells in suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiguchi, Ikki; Sakai, Yasuyuki

    2016-07-08

    Suspension culture systems are currently under investigation for the mass production of pluripotent stem (PS) cells for tissue engineering; however, the control of cell aggregation in suspension culture remains challenging. Existing methods to control aggregation such as microwell culture are difficult to scale up. To address this issue, in this study a novel method that incorporates the addition of KnockOut Serum Replacement (KSR) to the PS cell culture medium was described. The method regulated cellular aggregation and significantly improved cell growth (a 2- to 10-fold increase) without any influence on pluripotency. In addition, albumin-associated lipids as the major working ingredient of KSR responsible for this inhibition of aggregation were identified. This is one of the simplest methods described to date to control aggregation and requires only chemically synthesizable reagents. Thus, this method has the potential to simplify the mass production process of PS cells and thus lower their cost. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1009-1016, 2016.

  20. Sedimentêre omgewings van die Inhaca-eilandstelsel met spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Peché

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Inhaca-eilandstelsel is geleë langs die suidooskus van Mosambiek. Die oostekant van die stelsel grens aan die Indiese Oseaan en die westekant aan die Baai van Maputo. Hierdie eilandstelsel bestaan uit Inhaca- en Portugese eiland, asook ’n groep sandbanke wat van die noordlike punt van Inhaca na Portugese eiland strek. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die verskillende moderne en oer-sedimentêre omgewings op die eilandstelsel te identifiseer en te beskryf, die invloed van getye en golfaksie op die moderne sedimentêre omgewing vas te stel en die geochemiese en petrografiese samestelling van die geologiese eenhede te bepaal.

  1. Die gebruik van metode in die filosofie, spesiaal in die reformatoriese tra­disie 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. van der Merwe

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Die onderw erp van my voordrag, Die gebruik van metode in die fílosofie, verg ’n paar verduidelikende opinerkings vooraf. Ek dink u verm oed alreeds dat hierdie fomulering ’n versuikerde pil is om u in so ’n mate nuuskierig te maak dat una ’n heerlike vrye filosofiese ‘onderonsie’ gedurende die teepouse darem vir ’n tw eede sessie terugkeer. Want is dit nie twee smaaklike heuningdruppels nie: filosofie en sy metode’ en ‘metode in die Reformatoriese filosofiese tradisie'?! Veral as in gedagte gehou word dat in teenstelling met wat ’n mens sou verw ag, daaroor dié onderwerp as sodanig relatief maar heel weinig geskrywe is en word, selfs as die ‘Inleidings in die Metodologie’ daarby gereken word.

  2. Die derivation der slowenischen substantive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ]ože Toporišič

    1975-11-01

    Full Text Available Von der traditionellen slowenischen Wortbildungslehre von Substantiven mit den Suffixen (s. g. Derivation wird die betreffende Problematik so dargestellt, dass man - nach Miklošič's Vorbild - von Suffixen mit einem charakteristischen Konsonanten (oder mit eine charakteristischen Konsonantengruppe aus gehend bei verschiedenen Wortartbasen (Zeitwort, Adjektiv, Substantiv die semantischen kategorien von Wortbildungen mit »demselben« Suffix aufzählt. Aber schon bei A. Bajec (Besedotvorje slovenskega jezika, 1950 findet man auch das Kapitel »Die Suffixe nach ihren Bedeutungen, worin Suffixe für 24 Bedeutungsgruppen festgehalten sind. In der Slovenska slovnica (1956 gibt es 16, im Slovenski knjižni jezik 2 (1966 aber 13 solcher Gruppen von Suffixen. Der vorliegende Ausatz geht ebenfalls von den semantischen Kategorien aus, versucht aber die Zahl der Bedeutungskategorien, die aus verhalen, adjekvsehen oder substantiviseher Basen mit Hilfe von Suffixen gebildet werden, auf 6 grosse Gruppen zu reduzieren. Diese 6 Gruppen sind: 1. die Namen der Agenten, des Eigenschaftstragers und der Verbundenheit; 2. die Namen der Werkzeuge, 3. die Namen der Handlung, der Eigenschaft und des Zustandes, 4. die Namen der vergegenständlichten Tat oder Eigenschaft, 5. die Namen der Lokalisierung und 6. Verschiedene. Nur bei den Wortbildungen aus einer substantivischen Basis gibt es noch eine besondere, die s. g. Modifikationsbedeutungsgruppe (Feminativa und Maskulinativa, Kollektiva, Gradativa, Iuvenalia, Diminutiva, Diminutivhipokoristika, Diminutivpeirotiva und Peiorativa. - Dabei wird keine Riick­ sicht darauf genommen, ob diese Suffixe genain slowenisch oder aus anderen Sprachen übernommen sind. Die Berechtigung dafiir gibt uns nicht nur die produktive Wortbildung mit den entlehnten (nichtautochtonen Suffixen im gegenwärtigen Slowenisch, sondern (was noch wichtiger ist auch das richtige Verständnisvermögen der Sprecher für solche Wortbildungen im

  3. Die invloed van herbivorie en vuur op die oorlewing van sekere meerjarige kruide langs die Sabierivier, Kruger Nasionale Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Myburgh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die groot vloede wat in die jaar 2000 in die Kruger Nasionale Park plaasgevind het, het dierivieroewerplantegroei versteur. Dit het die geleentheid gebied om heinings op te rig langsdie Sabierivier om herbivore uit sekere gebiede uit te sluit en sodoende die herstel van die rivieroewerekosisteme te monitor.

  4. Die heelal en sy onstaan (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Van Rooy

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons kennis en wetenskap van die hemelliggame word volkome bepaal deur die lig wat ons van hulle ontvang, d.w.s. as ons die feite wat die Bybel daaromtrent meedeel, buite rekening laat.

  5. Spearman se G en die faktorstrukture van die senior aanlegtoetse en die algemene skolastiese aanlegtoets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. De Bruin

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Spearman's G and the factor structures of the Senior Aptlitude Test and the General Scholastic Aptitude Test. Scores of 1507 university students on the six subtests of the General Scholastic Aptitude Test (GSAT and on nine subtests of the Senior Aptitude Tests (SAT were subjected to a joint confirmatory factor analysis. This procedure was followed to examine (a the extent to which scores in respect of the two batteries of tests, are explained by a general factor (Spearman's g, and (b the relationship between the two general factors. Scores on the GSAT subtests were adequately explained by just one factor. With regard to the SAT three group factors could be distinguished, namely Verbal Ability, Visual-Spatial Ability and Numerical Ability. The correlations between the group factors were so high that the influence of a general factor was evident. The general factors underlying the SAT and GSAT respectively, also correlated significantly. In view of findings suggesting the general intelligence is the best single predictor of criteria such as academic success and work performance, the GSAT is recommended for selection purposes. Opsomming Tellings van 1507 universiteitstudente op die ses subtoetse van die ASAT en nege subtoetse van die SAT, is gesamentlik aan 'n bevestigende faktorontleding onderwerp. Hierdie prosedure is gevolg om ondersoek in te stel na (a die mate waartoe 'n algemene faktor (Spearman se g die tellings op die twee batterye toetse onderskeidelik onderle, en (b wat die verwantskap tussen die twee algemene faktore sou wees. Ten opsigte van die ASAT is dit duidelik dat slegs een faktor tellings op al ses subtoetse verklaar. Ten opsigte van die SAT kon drie groepsfaktore onderskei word/ naamlik Verbale Vermoe, Visueel-Ruimtelike Vermoe en Numeriese Vermoe. Die korrelasies tussen die drie groepsfaktore was egter so hoog dat dit duidelik is dat daar 'n algemene faktor onderliggend is aan die nege subtoetse. Die algemene faktore wat die

  6. Die MCI im Wandel: User Experience als die zentrale Herausforderung?

    OpenAIRE

    Jetter, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Die Informationstechnologie hat heute einen Reifegrad erlangt, der stark umkämpfte Massenmärkte von interaktiven Produkten hervorgebracht hat. In diesen sind - wie auch in den herkömmlichen Konsumgütermärkten - nicht nur die pragmatische Produktqualität, sondern auch das Benutzungserlebnis und die Gesamtwirkung auf den Käufer entscheidend für den Markterfolg. Eine erfolgreiche Gestaltung dieser "User Experience" geht dabei über die reine Softwareergonomie hinaus und erfordert interdisziplinär...

  7. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  8. Meganisisme, vitalisme en holisme in die Biologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Botha

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Biologie word omskryf as die wetenskap van die lewende wesens (organismes. Die lewe staan dus in die brandpunt van die biologiese studie en ondersoek. Vra ons ons egter af wat onder „lewe” verstaan word, besef ons dadelik dat ons hier met ’n uiters moeilik definieerbare begrip te doen het. In verband met die aard van lewe het daar onder die bioloë en natuurfilosowe veral twee denkrigtings posgevat, nl. meganisisme en vitalism.

  9. Executive Summary of IPITA-TTS Opinion Leaders Report on the Future of β-Cell Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markmann, James F; Bartlett, Stephen T; Johnson, Paul; Korsgren, Olle; Hering, Bernhard J; Scharp, David; Kay, Thomas W H; Bromberg, Jonathan; Odorico, Jon S; Weir, Gordon C; Bridges, Nancy; Kandaswamy, Raja; Stock, Peter; Friend, Peter; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Cooper, David K C; Park, Chung-Gyu; OʼConnell, Philip J; Stabler, Cherie; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Ludwig, Barbara; Choudhary, Pratik; Khovatchev, Boris; Rickels, Michael R; Sykes, Megan; Wood, Kathryn; Kraemer, Kristy; Hwa, Albert; Stanley, Edward; Ricordi, Camillo; Zimmerman, Mark; Greenstein, Julia; Montanya, Eduard; Otonkoski, Timo

    2016-07-01

    The International Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association (IPITA), in conjunction with the Transplantation Society (TTS), convened a workshop to consider the future of pancreas and islet transplantation in the context of potential competing technologies that are under development, including the artificial pancreas, transplantation tolerance, xenotransplantation, encapsulation, stem cell derived beta cells, beta cell proliferation, and endogenous regeneration. Separate workgroups for each topic and then the collective group reviewed the state of the art, hurdles to application, and proposed research agenda for each therapy that would allow widespread application. Herein we present the executive summary of this workshop that focuses on obstacles to application and the research agenda to overcome them; the full length article with detailed background for each topic is published as an online supplement to Transplantation.

  10. Optimization of chemically defined cell culture media--replacing fetal bovine serum in mammalian in vitro methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Valk, J; Brunner, D; De Smet, K

    2010-01-01

    , reproducible and reduce the use of experimental animals. Good cell culture practice (GCCP) is an attempt to develop a common standard for in vitro methods. The implementation of the use of chemically defined media is part of the GCCP. This will decrease the dependence on animal serum, a supplement......Quality assurance is becoming increasingly important. Good laboratory practice (GLP) and good manufacturing practice (GMP) are now established standards. The biomedical field aims at an increasing reliance on the use of in vitro methods. Cell and tissue culture methods are generally fast, cheap...... with an undefined and variable composition. Defined media supplements are commercially available for some cell types. However, information on the formulation by the companies is often limited and such supplements can therefore not be regarded as completely defined. The development of defined media is difficult...

  11. Die Vergangenheit nationalisieren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Tea

    2014-01-01

    regimes and new national borders. Yugoslavia’s dissolution process was accompanied by years of warfare in various parts of the former federation. Indeed, the replacing of the Yugoslav federation by national states had cost dearly in most post-Yugoslav republics, though in some states much more so than...... on analyses of schoolbooks of contemporary history and history writing, especially historical syntheses, in Croatia, Serbia and, more briefly, Bosnia. I argue that the early post-Yugoslav representations of Yugoslav history were enveloped in descriptions of internal conflicts, while periods of peaceful...

  12. Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dishaw, Laura V. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Powers, Christina M. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Ryde, Ian T.; Roberts, Simon C. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M., E-mail: heather.stapleton@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants.

  13. Die mites rondom die val van Troje en Vergilius se uitbeelding daarvan in die tweede boek van die Aeneïs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Swanepoel

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available Die mites oor die val van Troje vertel ’n aangrypende verhaal en in die tweede boek van die Aeneïs gee Vergilius op ’n besondere wyse gestalte daaraan. Maar Vergilius se vergestalting daarvan is slegs een van die variante van die verhaal.

  14. The effect of perfusion culture on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on biocorrodible bone replacement material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farack, J., E-mail: jana.farack@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Budapester Str. 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Wolf-Brandstetter, C. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Budapester Str. 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Glorius, S.; Nies, B. [InnoTERE GmbH, Tatzberg 47-49, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Standke, G. [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS), Winterbergstr. 28, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Quadbeck, P. [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Winterbergstr. 28, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Worch, H.; Scharnweber, D. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Budapester Str. 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Biocorrodible iron foams were coated with different calcium phosphate phases (CPP) to obtain a bioactive surface and controlled degradation. Further adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of SaOs-2 and human mesenchymal stem cells were investigated under both static and dynamic culture conditions. Hydroxyapatite (HA; [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}]) coated foams released 500 {mu}g/g iron per day for Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) and 250 {mu}g/g iron per day for McCoys, the unmodified reference 1000 {mu}g/g iron per day for DMEM and 500 {mu}g/g iron per day for McCoys, while no corrosion could be detected on brushite (CaHPO{sub 4}) coated foams. Using a perfusion culture system with conditions closer to the in vivo situation, cells proliferated and differentiated on iron foams coated with either brushite or HA while in static cell culture cells could proliferate only on Fe-brushite. We conclude that the degradation behaviour of biocorrodible iron foams can be varied by different calcium phosphate coatings, offering opportunities for design of novel bone implants. Further studies will focus on the influence of different modifications of iron foams on the expression of oxidative stress enzymes. Additional information about in vivo reactions and remodelling behaviour are expected from testing in implantation studies.

  15. High Mobility, Hole Transport Materials for Highly Efficient PEDOT:PSS Replacement in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Neophytou, Marios

    2017-04-24

    Perovskite solar cells are one of the most promising photovoltaic technologies, due to their rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (3.8% to 21.1%) in a very short period of time and the relative ease of their fabrication compared to traditional inorganic solar cells. One of the drawbacks of perovskite solar cells is their limited stability in non-inert atmospheres. In the inverted device configuration this lack of stability can be attributed to the inclusion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate(PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transporting layer. Herein we report the synthesis of two new triarylamine based hole transporting materials, synthesised from readily available starting materials. These new materials show increased power conversion efficiencies, of 13.0% and 12.1%, compared to PEDOT:PSS (10.9%) and exhibit increased stability achieving lifetimes in excess of 500 hours. Both molecules are solution processible at low temperatures and offer potential for low cost, scalable production on flexible substrates for large scale perovskite solar cells.

  16. Improved Efficiency in Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells Employing a Novel Diarylamino-Substituted Molecule as PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    KAUST Repository

    El Labban, Abdulrahman

    2016-03-15

    An approach to fabricate high-efficiency inverted planar perovskites solar cells using solution-processed organic small molecules hole transporting layer is reported. Devices using CH3NH3PbI3 as photoactive layer and PC60BM as electron transport layer show power conversion efficiencies exceeding 12% and open-circuit voltages (VOC) higher than 1 V.

  17. Destruction, regeneration and replacement of beta-cells and aspects of immune-intervention in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, in close collaboration with my research colleagues, I have shown that T-cell recruitment in both spontaneous autoimmune diabetes and islet transplantation requires presence of a cognate antigen, which could be used as an argument in favour of further pursuing antigen-specific therapi

  18. Lady Di - Die moderne Madonna

    OpenAIRE

    Steuten, Ulrich; Strasser, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Die authentischen Bekundungen von Trauer und Wertschätzung, die der bei einem Autounfall in Paris ums Leben gekommenen Prinzessin Diana weltweit entgegengebracht und seit Jahren von mehreren Seiten instrumentalisiert werden, sind unübersehbar. Das Leben und Sterben der Prinzessin von Wales ist nach Ansicht der Autoren geeignet, einer populären Mythenbildung in der modernen Gesellschaft Substanz zu verleihen. Vor allem bietet es die Möglichkeit, einen modernen Kult zu etablieren, der sich im Z...

  19. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  20. Neurokognitiewe integrasie en die leerproses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan J. Du Preez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article, "Neuro-cognitive integration and the learning process'; is to find principles and strategies for the development of brain potential and the optimal integration of subject matter. Eight neuro-cognitive systems are identified and their importance to the integration of subject matter is emphasized. These systems are cortical energy, coding, planning and controlling, as well as the verbal sequential, non-verbal holistic, physical-motor, social effective and the subconscious. The relevant principles and strategies can serve as basis for mainstream and special education, guidance as well as psychotherapy. Die doe! met hierdie artikel is om beginsels en strategiee te vind om breinpotensiaal te ontsluit en leerstof optimaal te integreer. Aan die hand van 'n neurokognitiewe model word 'n aantal beginsels en strategiee bespreek en die verband met die leerproses word aangetoon. Agt neurokognitiewe sisteme is gei'dentifiseer en die belangrike rot wat dit speel ten opsigte van die integrasie van leerstof word beklemtoon. Genoemde sisteme sluit die volgende in: kortikale energie, kodering, beplanning en kontrolering, asook die verbaal-sekwensiele, nieverbaal- holistiese, fisiek-motoriese, sosio-affektiewe en die subbewuste. Genoemde beginsels en strategiee kan oak dien as grondslag vir hoofstroomonderwys, spesialiseringsonderwys, voorligting sowel as psigoterapie.

  1. Op die grens van vakwetenskap en filosofie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Elaine Botha

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Die begrip “grens” soos dit voorkom in die titel is vir meerdere uitleg vatbaar. Eerstens sou dit kon dui op ’n onoorskreibare punt tussen die filosofie en die vakwetenskappe, so iets soos ’n grenspaal of baken, met ander woorde ’n punt van waterdigte skeiding tussen die domein van die filosofie en die vakwetenskappe. As ’n mens soms die dramatiese grensgevegte tussen die filo­ sofie en die vakwetenskappe in die wetenskaplike literatuur beskou1 dan blyk dit kennelik noodsaaklik te wees om wel sodanige grens te stel, veral ten einde die gevaar van weten­ skaplike terrorisme van die een of die ander kant die hoof te bied.

  2. het die reformasie die leer gered en aanbidding verloor?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. Spoelstra, emeritusprofessor in Diakoniologiese Vakke, Fakulteit Teo- logie, P.U. vir C.H.O. (Skool vir ... Van der Leeuw sê liturgiek en leer is verwant en die geskiedenis van liturgie weerspieël die ...... VAN LEEUWEN G. 1946. Liturgiek.

  3. The effect of the deterioration of insulin sensitivity on beta-cell function in growth-hormone-deficient adults following 4-month growth hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Fisker, S; Hilsted, Jannik

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the combined effect of GH treatment on body composition and glucose metabolism, with special focus on beta-cell function in adult GHD patients. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 24 GHD adults (18M/6F), were randomized to 4 months treatment.......7 and after 14.6 +/- 16.1 pmol/l, Psensitivity index SI, estimated by Bergmans Minimal Model, decreased significantly [before GH 1.1 +/- 0.7 and after 0.4 +/- 0.2 10(-4)(min x pmol/l), P....07). One patient developed impaired glucose tolerance. Short-term GH replacement therapy in a dose of about 2 IU/m2 daily in GHD adults induces a reduction in insulin sensitivity, despite favourable changes in body composition, and an inadequate enhancement of insulin secretion....

  4. Die wysgerige konsepsie van Thomas van Aquino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Van Aquino

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Samevattend is tot dusver die volgende aangetoon: Die werklikheid vertoon volgens Thomas 'n hierargiese struktuur. Daar is verskillende grade van syn. God is die hoogste, die volheid van syn, en by die laere synsniveaus is daar steeds 'n verdere verwydering van hierdie synsvolmaaktheid in die rigting van absolute afwesigheid van syn. Hierdie synshiërargie is volgens die vorm-materieskema opgebou. Die materie in die hoëre synslaag word vorm vir die laere, of omgekeerd: die vorm van die laere is die materie vir die hoëre dinge. God is absoluut suiwer vorm of wet (essensie. Die vorme van die dinge is die goddelike wet (genoem exemplar, similitudo, ratio, verbum of imago wat deur God daarin geskape is. God druk op dié wyse sy gelykenis op kreatuur.like wyse uit. Sy absolute volmaaktheid kan alleen tot uitdrukking gebring word deur 'n veelheid en verskeidenheid van geskape dinge. God word deur Thomas die causa effiaiens en exemplaris genoem. Die verhouding tussen Skepper en geskape werklikheid is dus dié van oorsaak en gevolg. As gevolg van sy wetsidee word daar deur Thomas dus nie duidelik tussen Skepper en skepping onderskei nie, want skepping beteken volgens hom onder andere dat God iets goddeliks (die wet in die dinge lê. Via die goddelike wet in die dinge ingeskape, is daar 'n sekere kontinuiteit tussen God en kosmos.

  5. Testosterone replacement effectively inhibits the development of experimental autoimmune orchitis in rats: evidence for a direct role of testosterone on regulatory T cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijak, Monika; Schneider, Eva; Klug, Jörg; Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Hackstein, Holger; Schuler, Gerhard; Wygrecka, Malgorzata; Gromoll, Jörg; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Despite the immune-privileged status of the male genital tract, infection and inflammation of the male genital tract are important etiological factors in male infertility. A common observation in clinical and experimental orchitis as well as in systemic infection and inflammation are decreased levels of testosterone. Emerging data point to an immunosuppressive role of testosterone. In our study, we substituted testosterone levels in experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in rat by s.c. testosterone implants. EAO development was reduced to 17% when animals were treated with low-dose testosterone implants (3 cm long, EAO+T3) and to 33% when rats were supplied with high-dose testosterone implants (24 cm, EAO+T24) compared with 80% of animals developing disease in the EAO control group. In the testis, testosterone replacement in EAO animals prevented the accumulation of macrophages and significantly reduced the number of CD4(+) T cells with a strong concomitant increase in the number of regulatory T cells (CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)) compared with EAO control. In vitro testosterone treatment of naive T cells led to an expansion of the regulatory T cell subset with suppressive activity and ameliorated MCP-1-stimulated chemotaxis of T lymphocytes in a Transwell assay. Moreover, expression of proinflammatory mediators such as MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the testis and secretion of Th1 cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-2 by mononuclear cells isolated from testicular draining lymph nodes were decreased in the EAO+T3 and EAO+T24 groups. Thus, our study shows an immunomodulatory and protective effect of testosterone substitution in the pathogenesis of EAO and suggests androgens as a new factor in the differentiation of regulatory T cells.

  6. Numerical optimization of die geometry in open die forging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical optimization of open die forging of large metallic ingots made by casting implying risk of defects, e.g. central pores. Different material hardening properties and die geometries are combined in order to investigate, which geometry gives rise to maximum closure...... of a centreline hole in a single compression operation. Friction is also taken into account. The numerical analysis indicates that a lower die angle of approximately 140o results in the largest centreline hole closure for a wide range of material hardening. The value of optimum die angle is not influenced...... by friction, which was found only to change the degree of centreline porosity closure in case of small lower die angle....

  7. Statues Also Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Philippe Fraiture

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available “African thinking,” “African thought,” and “African philosophy.” These phrases are often used indiscriminately to refer to intellectual activities in and/or about Africa. This large field, which sits at the crossroads between analytic philosophy, continental thought, political philosophy and even linguistics is apparently limitless in its ability to submit the object “Africa” to a multiplicity of disciplinary approaches. This absence of limits has far-reaching historical origins. Indeed it needs to be understood as a legacy of the period leading to African independence and to the context in which African philosophy emerged not so much as a discipline as a point of departure to think colonial strictures and the constraints of colonial modes of thinking. That the first (self-appointed exponents of African philosophy were Westerners speaks volumes. Placide Tempels but also some of his predecessors such as Paul Radin (Primitive Man as Philosopher, 1927 and Vernon Brelsford (Primitive Philosophy, 1935 were the first scholars to envisage this extension of philosophy into the realm of the African “primitive.” The material explored in this article – Statues Also Die (Marker, Resnais, and Cloquet, Bantu Philosophy (Tempels, The Cultural Unity of Negro Africa (Cheikh Anta Diop, and It For Others (Duncan Campbell - resonates with this initial gesture but also with the ambition on part of African philosophers such as VY Mudimbe to challenge the limits of a discipline shaped by late colonialism and then subsequently recaptured by ethnophilosophers. Statues Also Die is thus used here as a text to appraise the limitations of African philosophy at an early stage.  The term “stage,” however, is purely arbitrary and the work of African philosophers has since the 1950s often been absorbed by an effort to retrieve African philosophizing practices before, or away from, the colonial matrix. This activity has gained momentum and has been

  8. Die Presbiter by Lukas en Paulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Floor

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available In die jongste navorsing oor Lukas word die skrywer van die derde evangelieverhaal en die Handelinge van die Apostels aan ons bekend gestel as ’n teoloog wat uit die ‘Sitz im Leben’ (uit die situasie van sy eie tyd die boodskap aangaande Christus interpreteer . Lukas sou hom by sy interpretasie van die Christusboodskap laat lei het deur ’n bepaalde dogmatiese ‘Verstandnis’ waardeur hy homself verraai as ’n teoloog van die na-apostoliese tyd.

  9. Testosterone Replacement Therapy in Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease Reverses Hypogonadism Without Promoting Priapism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Delayed puberty secondary to hypogonadism is commonly seen in sickle cell disease (SCD, affecting normal growth and development. The condition is rarely treated in SCD for fear of inducing priapism episodes. We present a case report of an Afro-Jamaican adolescent male at 16 years of age who presented with symptoms of delayed puberty as well as frequent stuttering priapism episodes. Endocrinological assessment revealed low serum total testosterone levels. Treatment was commenced monthly with testosterone enanthate which resulted in improved symptoms of delayed puberty, improvement in anthropometric parameters while apparently ameliorating priapism episodes.

  10. Assessment of yeast cell wall as replacements for antibiotic growth promoters in broiler diets: effects on performance, intestinal histo-morphology and humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T K; Haldar, S; Bedford, M R; Muthusami, N; Samanta, I

    2012-04-01

    The study compared the effects of an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast cell wall (YCW) on performance, microbiology and histo-morphology of the small intestine and humoral immune responses in Ross 308 broilers. The treatments (eight replicates/treatment, n = 12/replicate) were negative control (NC, without AGP), positive control (PC, supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate, 400 mg/kg), Y and YCW (supplemented with yeast and YCW, respectively, 1000 mg/kg). Live weight at 42 days improved (p = 0.086) in the PC, Y and YCW groups. Feed conversion ratio was better (p = 0.039) in the YCW group compared with the other groups. Antibiotic growth promoter in the PC group shortened the villi in duodenum (p = 0.044). Mucosal Escherichia coli number was higher in the PC group (p Yeast cell wall -treated birds exhibited better (p yeast and the yeast cell wall may have effects identical to BMD on performance of broilers and thus may constitute an effective replacement strategy in the dietary regimens for broiler chickens.

  11. Awareness of Dying Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently The New York Times reported: “VERY ILL CHILDREN TOLD OF DISEASE; Leukemia Patients at N.I.H. Not Shielded From Truth. . . . A child should always be told the truth, even when he has an incurable disease such as leukemia, according to two researchers who interviewed 51 children hospitalized at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, for treat¬ment of leukemia.” This kind of news item reflects the growing concern among researchers and public about matters which touch on morality as much as on the technical aspects of medi¬cine. The rapidly increasing proportion of elderly people in the American population presents a range of personal and social questions; not the least is how they view their newly won longevity (often including anticipated years of chronic disease as well as their attitudes toward death. In consequence, many geriatric specialists are beginning to study American attitudes toward death, while others, spurred on by what seems a sense-less prolonging of life within hospital walls by medical tech¬nology run wild, are raising questions about death and dying in American life.

  12. Adapt or die?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management.

  13. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shoulder Replacement Options Shoulder replacement surgery is highly technical. It should be performed by a surgical team ... area and will meet a doctor from the anesthesia department. You, your anesthesiologist, and your surgeon will ...

  14. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  15. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pallotta, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. DIE SANSUI CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cornwell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available EGYPT ON THE OUTBREAK OF WAR 1916On 6 November 1914, after three months of steadily worsening relations, France and Britain declared war on the Ottoman Empire. This state of affairs found Britain with no comprehensive plan for defending her intorostJ in the Middle East, indeed tho prob- 10m3 posed so suddenly by Germany's onslaught in Belgium and France found the Empire with few trained troops to use elsewhere. Within two months of Britain's entry to the war she had pulled her regular regiments out of Egypt, and replaced them largely with Indian troops, who were eventually to bear the brunt of much of the fighting in this theatre." The defence of the Suez canal was of prime importance if the war effort of the British Empire was to be properly coordinated.

  17. Die Vergangenheit nationalisieren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Tea

    2014-01-01

    The abandonment of Communism in Yugoslavia in 1990 was followed shortly afterwards by the break-up of the Yugoslav federal state and the establishment of new more or less national states out of the formerly federal republics. The establishment of formally democratic nation states led to new demands...... statehood. The period as fairly independent republics within Yugoslavia therefore constitutes an essential part of their history as states. On the other hand, the new national histories were to contribute to the consolidation of the new states by legitimising both the establishment of new ideological...... regimes and new national borders. Yugoslavia’s dissolution process was accompanied by years of warfare in various parts of the former federation. Indeed, the replacing of the Yugoslav federation by national states had cost dearly in most post-Yugoslav republics, though in some states much more so than...

  18. Die etiek van Karl Barth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. van Wyk

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Die etiek van Barth kan nie reg verstaan word sonder begrip van sy ganse teologiese agtergrond en opset, en ek wil byvoeg: sonder die besondere tydsomstandighede (oorlog! waarin hy geleef en gewerk het nie. Dit is verder bekend dat in sy teologiese ontwikkeling verskillende figure groot invloed op hom uitgeoefen het.

  19. Die Parlamentswahlen 2008 in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie; Knirsch, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Nach den Parlamentswahlen vom März 2008 in Malaysia deutet manches auf einen politischen Umbruch hin: Die regierende Barisan Nasional (BN), die sich bislang einer komfortablen Zweidrittelmehrheit von 91,4 Prozent der Sitze im Parlament des Landes erfreut hatte, rutschte auf 63,1 Prozent ab und das...

  20. Leierskapstyl en die lerende organisasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Victor

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Leadership style and the learning organisation. In the present highly competitive environment, it has become increasingly important for organisational leaders to establish a learning organisation. In this study the focus was on the extent of influence that the evolution of organisations, as determined by their relative level of leadership practises (leadership style, has on the establishment of a learning organisation. Opsomming Die daarstel van ’n lerende organisasie deur bedryfsleiers word toenemend belangrik in die hedendaagse hoogskompeterende omgewing. In hierdie studie is gefokus op die mate van beinvloeding wat die evolusie van organisasies, soos deur hul relatiewe vlak van demokratiese leierskapspraktyke (leierskapstyl bepaal, op die daarstelling van’n lerende organisasie het.

  1. n ureum/ bytsoda-kombinasie tydens die baalproses op die voedi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of prolonged treatment of wheat straw with urea or a urea/caustic soda combination during baling on the .... soda per 400 I oplossing oor die strooi gespuit teen 400 I c1 ...... nitrogen associated with plant cell wall in the stomach and.

  2. Montessori-skole: die ander kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viljoen

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van die artikel “Die invloed van die New Age-beweging op die onderwysagenda van die toekoms” deur Lien van Niekerk en Corinne Meier van die Departement Historiese Opvoedkunde van Unisa (vgl. Koers, 59 (1 1994:69-84 wil ek graag ’n ander sy van Montessori-skole onder die aandag van Koers lesers bring.

  3. Filosofiese tendense in die wordinggeskiedenis van ons verstaan van die fisiese natuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. M. Strauss

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Die ontstaan van ’n lang tradisie van natuurwetenskaplike denke is in antieke Griekeland te vind – die bakermat van die Westerse beskawing en die bron van geartikuleerde rasionele besinning. Die vroegste fases van die Griekse kultuur het reeds geboorte geskenk aan ’n teoretiese nadenke oor die heelal. Die Pythagoreërs is veral bekend vir hul klem op die verklaringskrag van getalsverhoudinge. In hul tese dat “alles getal is” het hulle egter slegs rasionale getalle (breuke erken en gevolglik uiteindelik vasgeloop in die ontdekking van irrasionale getalle wat tot die geometrisering van die Griekse wiskunde gelei het en tegelyk die bedding gevorm het van waaruit ’n magtige tradisie van ruimte-metafisika gegroei het wat die hele middeleeuse tydperk omspan het. Die vermeende statiese syn is in die mees ekstreme geval – die skool van Parmenides en die argumente van Zeno teen veelheid en beweging – tot in die uiteindelike antinomiese konsekwensies daarvan deurdink. Dit was egter eers die vroeg-moderne tyd – die voorgangers en nakomelinge van Galilei – wat naas getal en ruimte ’n waardering ontwikkel het vir die verklaringskrag van beweging (vergelyk die klassieke meganistiese wêreldbeeld van die heelal as ’n meganisme van stofdeeltjies in beweging. Maar ook hierdie meganistiese reduksie (waardeur alle fisiese verskynsels herlei is tot die beweging van al of niegelade massapunte sou uiteindelik misluk omdat dit nie van die onomkeerbaarheid van fisiese prosesse rekenskap kon gee nie. Gevolglik beliggaam eers die fisika van die 20ste eeu ’n erkenning van die deurslaggewend-stempelende rol van energie-werking (dus van die fisiese aspek in die aard van stoflike dinge en prosesse. Die artikel word afgesluit met ’n vlugtige verduideliking van die implikasies van die voorafgaande argumentasie vir ’n benadering van die misterie van die bestaan van materie.

  4. Die rym in Jukstaposisie (T.T. Cloete en die regverdiging van enkele fonologiese begrippe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Wissing

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Die taalkundige hon daarvan om te kan se dat die goeie literator sonder taalkundige insigte geen volledige cn behoorlike teksanalise kan docn nie. Maar die situasic kan ook omgekeerd wees: die letterkunde (eintlik die woordkunswerk kan ook vir die taalkunde van waarde wees. In hierdie stuk wil ek meer in die besonder probeer aantoon dat en hoe die taalkundige ook ondersteuning vir die invoering van bepaalde fonologiese begrippe uit die gedig kan vind. Vir die doel beperk ek my tot die bunde Jukstaposisie van T.T. Cloete.

  5. Replacing 5-fluorouracil by capecitabine in localised squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Karla T; Pereira, Allan AL; Araujo, Raphael L; Oliveira, Suilane Coelho Ribeiro; Hoff, Paulo M; Riechelmann, Rachel P

    2016-01-01

    Background The standard treatment for localised squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) is chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin. Because 5-FU and capecitabine have offered similar efficacy in many phase-III trials of solid tumours, studies have tested capecitabine in this setting of SCCAC. However, these studies are small and have reported variable results. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Methods Medline, Scopus and Embase were searched for studies that evaluated the efficacy outcomes of capecitabine used as a substitute of 5-FU in the CRT of localised SCCAC. The primary endpoint was complete response rate (CRR) at 6 months. Metaprop analysis of reported CRR-based on pooled estimates of proportions with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated on the base of the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. Results We retrieved 300 studies, of which six met our eligibility criteria. The capecitabine dose ranged from 500 mg/m2 to 825 mg/m2 BID for 5 days per week during radiation. With a total of 218 patients, the median follow-up was 21.5 months (14–23). The pooled analysis of three trials (N = 132 patients) reported a CRR at 6 months of 88% (83%–94%), considering all clinical stages. The pooled analysis of overall CRR (N = 218 patients), evaluated at different intervals, showed an overall CRR of 91% (87%–95%). Rates of locoregional relapse varied from 3.2% to 21%. The majority of patients completed the planned radiotherapy dose (93.5%–100%) and any chemotherapy interruption was reported in up to 55.8% of patients. Conclusions Capecitabine is an acceptable and more convenient alternative to infusional 5-FU in the CRT for localised SCCAC, offering similar clinical CRR to those reported by phase-III trials. PMID:28105070

  6. A replacement of the active-site aspartic acid residue 293 in mouse cathepsin D affects its intracellular stability, processing and transport in HEK-293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Sanna; Storch, Stephan; Löffler, Hans-Gerhard; Hasilik, Andrej; Tyynelä, Jaana; Braulke, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The substitution of an active-site aspartic acid residue by asparagine in the lysosomal protease cathepsin D (CTSD) results in a loss of enzyme activity and severe cerebrocortical atrophy in a novel form of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in sheep [Tyynelä, Sohar, Sleat, Gin, Donnelly, Baumann, Haltia and Lobel (2000) EMBO J. 19, 2786-2792]. In the present study we have introduced the corresponding mutation by replacing aspartic acid residue 293 with asparagine (D293N) into the mouse CTSD cDNA to analyse its effect on synthesis, transport and stability in transfected HEK-293 cells. The complete inactivation of mutant D293N mouse CTSD was confirmed by a newly developed fluorimetric quantification system. Moreover, in the heterologous overexpression systems used, mutant D293N mouse CTSD was apparently unstable and proteolytically modified during early steps of the secretory pathway, resulting in a loss of mass by about 1 kDa. In the affected sheep, the endogenous mutant enzyme was stable but also showed the shift in its molecular mass. In HEK-293 cells, the transport of the mutant D293N mouse CTSD to the lysosome was delayed and associated with a low secretion rate compared with wild-type CTSD. These data suggest that the mutation may result in a conformational change which affects stability, processing and transport of the enzyme. PMID:12350228

  7. Live and let die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Lundin, Ana Luisa

    When cells are in suspension they can be easily perceived as particles randomly distributed in three dimensions and if the aim is to measure physical and chemical characteristics of these single cells, a flow cytometer is probably the best choice for the job. Concisely, this machine will order...... was collected. Results show clearly that the biosensor’s growth dependent GFP expression is consistent with the observation of metabolic activity and that the strain is clearly more stressed in acetate than in glucose. The data analysis approach used highlighted and exposed heterogeneity in a more complete way...... than more traditional data analysis techniques. Analogously, in manuscript 3, a reporter system was developed to investigate physiological heterogeneity by mapping growth and cell membrane robustness towards freeze-thaw stress at different phases of the cell cultivation. A strong inverse correlation...

  8. Adapt or Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role non-adaptivity plays in maintaining dynamic data structures. Roughly speaking, a data structure is non-adaptive if the memory locations it reads and/or writes when processing a query or update depend only on the query or update and not on the contents of previously...... read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost......: the highest lower bound proved for any data structure problem is only polylogarithmic. Our main result is to demonstrate that one can in fact obtain polynomial cell probe lower bounds for non-adaptive data structures. To shed more light on the seemingly inherent polylogarithmic lower bound barrier, we study...

  9. Ekumeniese kerkreg: Die aangewese weg?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Strauss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Die argument word gehoor dat kerkregeringstelsels soos dié van die Rooms-Katolieke, Lutherse en gereformeerde kerke van ’n transendentale aard was en is. Daardeur word geïmpliseer dat hierdie stelsels een transendentale, unieke vaste beginsel gebruik om ’n hele stelsel van kerkregering van buite af te bepaal. Volgens Leo Koffeman, ’n voorstander van ’n ekumeniese kerkreg, plaas hierdie stelsels hulself hiermee buite die diskoers oor kerkreg en kerkregering en die beweging van die Heilige Gees. ’n Ekumeniese kerkreg, daarenteen, is ten gunste van ’n gemeenskaplike kerkreg tussen kerke. Omdat dit verskillende tradisies bymekaar bring, is dit ’n kritiese en daarom beter benadering. Die skrywer oorweeg hierdie argumente krities in die lig van ’n gereformeerde benadering tot kerkreg.The argument is used that church political systems like that of the Roman Catholic, Lutheran and reformed churches were of a transcendental character. By that it is implied that it used one transcendental and unique ‘hard principle’ from outside to direct a system of church government. Such uniqueness, according to Leo Koffeman who advocates an ecumenical church polity, places it outside the church political discourse and the way of the Holy Spirit. An ecumenical church polity seeks a combined polity between churches and is, by bringing different traditions together, a critical and therefore better undertaking. The author examines these arguments critically in the light of a reformed church polity.

  10. 'n Begronde bedieningsmodel vir die diakonia van die gemeente

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 Feb 2012 ... This work is licensed under the ... Grobler & Van der Walt 2008; Lingenfelter 2005; Armour & Browning 2000) en daarmee saam die ...... missionary structure of the church', Swedish Missiological Themes 93(3), 433–447.

  11. Die Valenz als textgrammatische Kategorie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojan Bračič

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Vor mehr als dreißig Jahren kam der französische Linguist Lucien Tesnière auf die geniale Idee, die gegenseitigen Relationen zwischen dem Verb eines Satzes einerseits und den anderen Satzteilen andererseits mit den chemischen Relationen in der Struktur eines Moleküls zu vergleichen. Die Eigenschaft des Verbs, andere Wörter an sich zu binden, nannte er Verbvalenz. Tesnière schreibt (schon 1959 wörtlich: "Man kann das Verb mit einem Atom vergleichen, an dem Häkchen angebracht sind, so daß es -je nach der Anzahl der Häkchen - eine wechselnde Zahl von Aktanten an sich ziehen und in Abhängigkeit halten kann. Die Anzahl der Häkchen, die ein Verb aufweist, und dementsprechend die Zahl der Aktanten, die es regieren kann, ergibt das, was man die Valenz des Verbs nennt" (Tesnière 1980: 161. Und weiter: "Aufgrund der strukturalen Konnexionen bestehen Dependenzbeziehungen (Abhängigkeitsbeziehungen zwischen den Wörtem. Jede Konnexion verbindet im Prinzip einen übergeordneten mit einem untergeordneten Term" (ibid., 27. Schematisch hat Tesnière diese Relationen bekannt­ lich in den sogenannten Stemmata (Strukturbaumen, graphischen Darstellungen von Konnexionsstrukturen; ibid., 384 wiedergegeben. Im Satz "Mon vieil ami chante cette chanson fort jolie" ist das Verb "chante" als "régissant" allen anderen Wortkonstituenten iibergeordnet, wobei die üntergeordneten Elemente "ami" und "chanson" in einer zweiten Rangstufe wiederum den untergeordneten Elementen "mon", "vieil", "cette", "jolie" übergeordnet sind. (Vgl. Greule 1982: 99.

  12. Die Dankesrede bei der Preisverleihung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenmari Pletikos Olof

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Festliche Preisverleihungen sind Gelegenheiten, bei denen von den Preisträgerneine kurze Rede erwartet wird. Obwohl die Dankesrede eine kleinere Randgattung innerhalb des epideiktischen Genres ist, steht sie im Mittelpunkt des Ereignisses. Rhetorikhandbücher geben zahlreiche Ratschläge, wie eine gute Festrede vorbereitet werden soll, um zu unterhalten, zu bewegen und zu belehren. Ziel dieser Untersuchung ist es festzustellen, welche Eigenschaften der Dankesrede die Zuhörer als erwünscht oder unerwünscht wahrnehmen und welche Charakteristika am meisten zur Qualität festlicher Dankesreden beitragen. Das Korpus der gesprochenen Texte bilden 30 Dankesreden anlässlich kroatischer Preisverleihungen in den Bereichen Schauspiel, Sport, Musik, Fernsehen, Literatur und Wirtschaft. Die Audio-Aufnahmen der Dankesreden wurden einer Gruppe von Hörern zur Bewertung in folgenden Kategorien vorgelegt: interessant, geistreich, hoher Sprachstil, feierlich, emotiv, persönlich, originell, bescheiden, vorbereitet und spontan. Zusätzlich wurde zu jeder Rede die offene Frage gestellt, was dem Zuhörer an der Rede gefallen oder nicht gefallen habe. Die Resultate der Perzeptionsanalye lassen erkennen, dass die Interessantheit einer Rede mit der Eigenschaft des Geistreichen, des Originellen, des Emotionalen und des Persönlichen in Verbindung gebracht wird und die Eigenschaft des Festlichen im Wesentlichen nur mit dem hohen Sprachstil und der Vorbereitetheit des Textes korreliert. Einige Eigenschaften können sowohl erwünscht als auch unerwünscht sein, z. B. Dialekt, Persönliches und Kürze. Die besten Dankesreden haben Eigenschaften, die im Grunde schwer miteinander zu verbinden sind: Einerseits soll der Text vorbereitet sein (hoher Stil, Wortwahl, Figuren, Originalität der Geschichte, Humor, andererseits wird bei der Ausführung Spontaneität (Aufrichtigkeit, Emotionalität, Persönlichkeit erwartet.

  13. Die wêreld en ons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Kruger

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die jaar 1949 het Sowjet-Rusland twee groot suksesse behaal, n.l. die oorwinning van die Komniunisnie in China en die vervaardiging van die atoombom, albei gebeurtenisse wat vir sy westerse teenstanders ’n groot ontngtering was.

  14. Ueber die Neoperla-Arten aus Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapálek, Fr.

    1910-01-01

    Die Anregung zum Versuche die bisher aus Java bekannten Neoperla-Arten zusammenzustellen, gab mir die Sendung des Herrn E. Jacobson aus Semarang. Sie enthielt zwei Arten, von welchen die eine für mich neu war; ich nehme mir die Freiheit dieselbe ihrem Entdecker zu widmen. Bei dieser Gelegenheit habe

  15. Vraagstelling vir bemagtiging: die tradisionele klaskamer as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    ... loep geneem aan die hand van kwalitatiewe data wat tydens 'n empiriese studie op die voor- .... stelling in die klas opgelei, wat die hantering van die leerders se ant- ..... tent, but as part of the meta-communication in the classroom. Reasons.

  16. Afrika die Onbekende: Die Federasie van Rhodesie Njassaland (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. van der Merwe

    1960-03-01

    Full Text Available Die grondgebied van die Federasie van Rhodesië en Njassaland strek oor 14° 15’ in ’n N.-S.-rigting (vanaf22“ 30’ S. to t 8° 15’ S. en ongeveervanaf 22° 0 to t 36° 0. Dit verteenwoordig afstande in albei gevalle van tussen 900 en 1000 myl.

  17. Tracking of iron-labeled human neural stem cells by magnetic resonance imaging in cell replacement therapy for Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Ramos-Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural stem cells (hNSCs derived from the ventral mesencephalon are powerful research tools and candidates for cell therapies in Parkinson′s disease. However, their clinical translation has not been fully realized due, in part, to the limited ability to track stem cell regional localization and survival over long periods of time after in vivo transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging provides an excellent non-invasive method to study the fate of transplanted cells in vivo. For magnetic resonance imaging cell tracking, cells need to be labeled with a contrast agent, such as magnetic nanoparticles, at a concentration high enough to be easily detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Grafting of human neural stem cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles allows cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging without impairment of cell survival, proliferation, self-renewal, and multipotency. However, the results reviewed here suggest that in long term grafting, activated microglia and macrophages could contribute to magnetic resonance imaging signal by engulfing dead labeled cells or iron nanoparticles dispersed freely in the brain parenchyma over time.

  18. Decorative pleats; Falten, die schmuecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfurt, P. [Sulzer Rueti AG, Rueti (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    Pleated fabrics - also known as plisses - are very popular in the fashion industry. The pleats are normally created in a process which involves pressing and heat-setting. The Sulzer Ruti G6200 rapier weaving machine is now available with special equipment, which allows the pleats to be woven directly into the fabric. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im modischen Bereich sind Faltengewebe - sogenannte Plissees - sehr beliebt. Ueblicherweise entstehen die Falten in einem Press- und Thermofixiervorgang. Die Greiferwebmaschine G6200 von Sulzer Rueti ist jetzt mit einer speziellen Ausruestung lieferbar, mit deren Hilfe die Falten direkt in den Stoff gewebt werden koennen. (orig.)

  19. Die rol van persoonlikheidstrekke in die weerstand teen stres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja V. R. van Oudtshoorn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of personality characteristics in resistance to stress: A study was conducted to establish whether certain personality characteristics contribute to resistance to stress. Rescue brigadesmen, performing dangerous rescue operations in the goldmining industry, served as basis for the study. The sample consisted of 63 current, 56 ex- and 50 non-brigadesmen. Results indicate that brigadesmen, on the basis of their personality structure, are better equipped to cope with stress. Scores on the 16PF show that they have a lower level of interpersonal anxiety (Factor Q4 and that they are more practical (Factor I, emotionally stable (Factor C, and conscientious (Factor G. These findings support existing knowledge of the 16PF. Opsomming Ten einde vas te stel ofdaar sekere persoonlikheidstrekke bestaan wat bydra tot weerstand teen stres, is 'n studie uitgevoer met reddingspanlede, wat lewensgevaarlike reddingsdiens in die goudmynbedryf verrig, as ondersoekgroep. Die streekproefhet uit 63 huidige, 56 oud-reddingspanlede en 50 amptenare, wat nog nooit aan die span behoort het nie, bestaan. Dit blyk dat reddingspanlede, op grond van hulle persoonlikheidstruktuur, beter toegerus is om stres te hanteer. Tellings op die 16PF toon dat hulle oor 'n laervlakvan interpersoonlike angs beskik, (Faktor Q4, dat hulle meer prakties (Faktor I, emosioneel stabiel (Faktor C en konsensieus is (Faktor G. Hierdie bevindinge sluit aan by die reeds bestaande kennis oor die 16PF.

  20. Quantenfische die Stringtheorie und die Suche nach Weltformel

    CERN Document Server

    Lüst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Lässt sich das Verhalten aller Dinge, von den kleinsten Teilchen bis zum Universum, einheitlich beschreiben? Der heißeste Kandidat für die Entwicklung einer Weltformel, die alle physikalischen Phänomene erklären kann, ist die Stringtheorie. Sollte sie sich als richtig erweisen, so würde das unser Verständnis über den Ursprung der Naturgesetze dramatisch verändern. Denn das von uns beobachtete Universum wäre dann vermutlich eine winzige Blase in einem viel größeren Gebilde, dem Multiversum. Um die Stringtheorie und die Idee des Multiversums plausibel zu machen, greift der international bekannte theoretische Physiker Dieter Lüst auf ein Modell zurück: das Leben von Fischen in einem Teich. Eines Tages gelingt es den Fischen, die kleinsten Teilchen zu identifizieren, aus denen alles im Fischteich besteht - eingeschlossen sie selbst. Sie nennen diese Urbausteine Quantenfische, da ihr Verhalten nahelegt, dass sie auch eine Art von Lebewesen sind. Doch der ersten folgt eine weitere Entdeckung der Fisch...

  1. Effects of Single Cell Protein Replacing Fish Meal in Diet on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID of amino acids (AA of fish meal, and the effects of single cell protein (Prosin and Protide replacing fish meal in diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, twenty-four barrows with initial BW of 30.8±2.6 kg were allotted to one of four dietary treatments. Diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 20% of the corn in diet 1 with one of the three protein feeds (fish meal, Prosin and Protide, and the DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, eight barrows (initial BW of 25.6±3.2 kg were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the protein feeds as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, one hundred and eighty piglets (initial BW of 7.95±1.59 kg weaned at 28±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of five treatments for a 28-d growth performance study, each treatment was fed to six pens with six pigs (three barrows and three gilts per pen. The five treatments consisted of the control group (CON, which was a corn-soybean meal diet containing 5% fish meal, and the other four treatments, which replaced a set amount of fish meal with either Prosin (2.5% or 5% or Protide (2.5% or 5%. The diets were formulated to provide same nutrient levels. The results showed that on a DM basis, both of the DE and ME contents were lower in Prosin and Protide than that of fish meal (p<0.05. The SID of CP and all essential AA were greater in fish meal than in Prosin and Protide (p<0.05. The pigs fed CON diet had greater weight gain and lower feed conversion rate (FCR than pigs fed 5% Prosin and 5% Protide diets (p<0.05. The digestibility of CP was greater in pigs fed CON, 2

  2. Die plek van goud in die huidige internasionale monetêre stelsel en die rol wat dit kan speel in die herstel van die internasionale monetêre orde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Erasmus

    1964-03-01

    Full Text Available Die vrye wêreld het sedert die oorloggedwonge opskorting van die goudstandaard in 1914, ’n groot agteruitgang in die internasionale betalingsmeganisme beleef. Hoewel die inter- nasionale goudstandaard in die laaste helfte van die twintiger- jare herstel is, was meeste lande nie langer gedwee om hulle aan die monetêre dissipline van dié stelsel te onderwerp nie en vind ons dat die een land na die ander onder die druk van die depressie in die dertigerjare die goudstandaard laat vaar het. Die Verenigde State van Amerika was die enigste uitson- dering. Geleidelik moes wisselkoersstabiliteit en die vrye inter­ nasionale betalingsverkeer vir wisselkoersmanipulasie en valu- tabeheer plek maak. Hierdie transformasie was ’n weerspieë- ling van die sterker opkoms van ekonomiese nasionalisme en die begeerte van die onderskeie lande om elkeen vir homself die beste voordeel in die internasionale ekonomiese en finan- siële terrein toe te eien. Die daarstelling van die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds te Bretton Woods in 1944, was ’n simptoom van die wêreldwye kommer oor die vooroorlogse neigings op monetêre gebied en terselfdertyd ’n poging om meer dissi­ pline in die internasionale betalingsverkeer te skep. Feit is egter dat ondanks sy positiewe resultate op sommige gebiede, die Internasionale Monetêre Fonds nie heeltemal 'n geskikte substituut vir die goudstandaard daargestel het nie. Wat meer is, die skok van die internasionale monetêre steurnisse word nog steeds deur die lande met die internasionale geldeenhede, naamlik die pond sterling en die dollar ondervind.

  3. Tracking of iron-labeled human neural stem cells by magnetic resonance imaging in cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milagros Ramos-Gmez; Alberto Martnez-Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) derived from the ventral mesencephalon are powerful research tools and candidates for cell therapies in Parkinson’s disease. However, their clinical translation has not been fully realized due, in part, to the limited ability to track stem cell regional localization and survival over long periods of time afterin vivo transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging provides an excellent non-invasive method to study the fate of transplanted cellsin vivo. For magnetic resonance imaging cell tracking, cells need to be labeled with a contrast agent, such as magnetic nanoparticles, at a concentration high enough to be easily detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Grafting of human neural stem cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles allows cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging without impairment of cell survival, prolif-eration, self-renewal, and multipotency. However, the results reviewed here suggest that in long term grafting, activated microglia and macrophages could contribute to magnetic resonance imaging signal by engulifng dead labeled cells or iron nanoparticles dispersed freely in the brain parenchyma over time.

  4. Adapt or Die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost...... several different notions of non-adaptivity and identify key properties that must be dealt with if we are to prove polynomial lower bounds without restrictions on the data structures. Finally, our results also unveil an interesting connection between data structures and depth-2 circuits. This allows us...... to translate conjectured hard data structure problems into good candidates for high circuit lower bounds; in particular, in the area of linear circuits for linear operators. Building on lower bound proofs for data structures in slightly more restrictive models, we also present a number of properties of linear...

  5. Die verbond - van Ou Testament na Nuwe Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. van Rooy

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available Die verbondsbegrip het in die Ou Testamentiese wetenskap weer ’n plek gekry op grond van die werk van Eichrodt en die studie van ooreenkomste tussen die verbond in die Ou Testament en die buite-Bybelse staatsverdrae, sedert die werk van Korosec,Mendenhall en baie ander. Natuurlik bestaan hieroor nie eenstemmigheid nie, veral omdat oor die ouderdom van die verbondsgedagte in die Ou Testament nie eenstemmigheid bestaan onder geleerdes nie. Die studie van die verbond in die Nuwe Testament het egter nie naastenby dieselfde aandag gekry nie - iets wat miskien as een van die redes vir die ontkenning van die waarde van die verbond vir Nuwe Testamentiese gelowiges beskou kan word. In hierdie studie word drie sake aangeraak, nl. die terminologie vir verbond in die Ou en Nuwe Testament, die agtergrond vir en belangrikste vorme van die verbond in die Ou Testament en enkele opmerkings oor die verbond in die Nuwe Testament.

  6. Verlossing en die verbeelding van die kinderjare: Dickens se voorstelling van kinders in A Christmas Carol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel oorweeg die uitbeelding van kinders in Dickens se bekendste Kersboek. Sentraal in hierdie staan die oorweging van die historiese omstandighede waarin hierdie boek geskryf is, asook Dickens se eie kinderjare en die moontlikheid van verlossing, deur die mag van die verbeelding, uit die negatiewe gevolge van sosiale omstandighede en persoonlike keuses. Die veranderende opvatting van die Victoriaanse kind, van die idee dat kinders van nature sondig is tot die idee dat hulle suiwer en onskuldig is, plaas hierdie literêre werk histories en teoreties. Die rol van Dickens se herinneringe aan sy kinderdae en die invloed daarvan op sy werk word bespreek. Die werk van Edmund Wilson en die kenner van kinderliteratuur, Adrienne Gavin, word ingesluit in hierdie oorweging van die kort roman.

  7. Die Last mit der Lust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Sauerteig

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Jütte legt mit Lust ohne Last eine umfassende, allgemeinverständliche und spannend zu lesende Geschichte der Empfängnisverhütung von der Antike bis in die unmittelbare Gegenwart vor.

  8. Nuwe patogene in die voedselbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ehlers

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n “Nuwe generasie” voedselpatogene het die afgelope jare hul verskyning gemaak en kan 'n ernstige gevaar vir die voedselbedryf inhou. Hierdie organismes is uiters aanpasbaar en bestaande voedselprosesseringstegnieke, veral die verkoeling van voedsel, is nie altyd volkome effektief om hul groei te voorkom nie. Clostridium botulinum tipe E, enterotoksigeniese Eschsrichia coli. Listeria monocytogenes en Aeromonas hydrophila is in staat om in voedsel by 5 °C te groei. Campylobacter jejuni en Brucella kan weer by 5 °C oorleef en 'n derde groep organismes, naamlik Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus en Vibrio vulnificus kan by temperature tussen 5 °C en 12 °C groei en hul teenwoordigheid is ’n aanduiding dat die koueketting verbreek is.

  9. Planarians as a model of aging to study the interaction between stem cells and senescent cells in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M. Perrigue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of stem cell pools and the accumulation of senescent cells in animal tissues are linked to aging. Planarians are invertebrate flatworms and are unusual in that their stem cells, called neoblasts, are constantly replacing old and dying cells. By eliminating neoblasts in worms via irradiation, the biological principles of aging are exposed in the absence of wound healing and regeneration, making planaria a powerful tool for aging research.

  10. CEA develops organic photovoltaic cells that might replace silicon cells; La promesse du plastique. Le CEA developpe des cellules photovoltaiques organiques qui pourraient detroner le silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnars, O.

    2003-01-01

    The program ''plastic photovoltaic solar cells'' was launched in june 2002 at LCOF (laboratory of functional organic components - CEA). The aim of this program is to show the feasibility of efficient organic photovoltaic cells. At the moment the most efficient organic cells reach a conversion rate of 3,5 % compared to the average value of 16 % for silicon cells. This program sets a term of 4 years to reach a conversion rate of 5 % and an operating life of 5000 hours. Plastics (or polymers) are less expensive than silicon, are available on an unlimited basis and are environment friendly. Plastics are easy to handle and a sole technology (serigraphy) is necessary for all the stages of the fabrication process of the organic cells: serigraphy technology is used for the deposition of the substrate, of the material in which the conversion takes place, and of the protective skin. (A.C.)

  11. Die gesetzliche Frauenquote in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Amling, Svenja

    2011-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird auf eine per Gesetz vorgeschriebene Frauenquote in Deutschland eingegangen. Im Fokus steht die Frage, ob Frauendiskriminierung durch eine solche Vorschrift tatsächlich bekämpft werden kann oder ob vielmehr die Männer diskriminiert würden. Zudem werden mögliche Unterschiede in den Führungsstilen zwischen Frauen und Männern untersucht sowie einige bereits vorhandene Frauenquoten in Politik und Wirtschaft vorgestellt.

  12. Dies irae ~Acta est Fabula~

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    从2007年11月的Diesirae Also sprach Zarathstra到2009年的7月的Dies irae Also sprach Zarathustra—die Wieder kunfl-,Light社的Diesirae的完全版可说是时隔两年的大坑,发行了两个非完全版的游戏吊足玩家们的胃口后。

  13. Gedagtes oor die onbepaaldheidsbeginsel van Heisenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Stoker

    1955-03-01

    Full Text Available Van filosofiesc syde en ook deur populariserende skrywers is daar al baie geskryf oor die onbepaaldheidsbeginsel in die Fisika, wat deur Heisenberg in die twintiger jare na vore gebring is.

  14. Videobasierte Unterrichtsbeobachtung: die Quadratur des Zirkels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Fankhauser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seit einigen Jahren wird Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt videobasiert angegangen. Die methodologische Diskussion, die die Weiterentwicklung des Instrumentariums begleitet, kreist dabei zentral um die Frage der Invasivität der Aufzeichnungstechnik und möglicher Kameraeffekte. Je nach methodologischer Ausrichtung wird diesem Problem anders begegnet: So versucht die abbildtheoretische Unterrichtsvideografie, die Invasivität zu kontrollieren. Qualitative Methoden wie die Kameraethnografie dagegen machen mögliche Kameraeffekte wie die Performanz vor der Kamera oder die Blickrichtung, die durch das Kameraauge fixiert wird, zum Ausgangspunkt neuer, ästhetischer Verfahrensweisen. Der vorliegende Artikel geht einen dritten Weg: Anhand eines Rückgriffs auf den Wissenschaftssoziologen LATOUR und anhand der methodologischen Reflexion eines forschungspraktischen Beispiels sollen grundsätzliche Probleme der Unterrichtsforschung herausgearbeitet werden, die sich mit dem Einsatz der Videografie besonders deutlich zeigen und mit der sich die Unterrichtsforschung vermehrt auseinandersetzen müsste. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1301241

  15. Dying at the best time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, C; Addington-Hall, J

    1995-03-01

    These are the results of two surveys of relatives, and others who knew people who had died, describing events in the year before death and their views on the time of the person's death. Those surveyed were identified from death certificates in England. The main focus is on a sample of 3696 people dying in 1990 in 20 health authorities, with supporting analysis from an earlier national sample of 639 people dying in 1987. Variation in peoples' views about whether an earlier death would have been better is reported, in the context of debate about euthanasia. Spouses were less likely than others to feel that it would have been better if the person had died earlier, and this held true even when controlling for the deceaseds' levels of pain, distress, dependency and age. Spouses were more likely than others to say that a later death would have been better, though not in cases where the deceased was reported as having said they wanted to die sooner. Spouses were influenced by the loss which the death of the person represented for them, being more likely than others to say they missed the person who died a great deal, and feel loneliness was a big problem. Non spouses (children and other relatives of the deceased, friends, neighbours and a few officials) on the other hand were more likely than spouses to say an earlier death would have been better, even when levels of pain, distress, dependency and age were controlled for.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Uitdagings in die onderrig van evolusie in die lewenswetenskappeklaskamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef J. de Beer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel skryf die outeurs oor navorsing wat hulle gedoen het oor onderwysers se siening van die onderrig van evolusie, wat in 2008 as ’n tema in lewenswetenskappe in Suid-Afrikaanse skole ingesluit is. Hierdie vernuwing in die kurrikulum is met gemengde reaksies begroet. Terwyl sommige onderwysers dit met entoesiasme onderrig, is baie gekant teen die onderrig van evolusie. Die artikel is gebaseer op ’n navorsingsprojek waarby 255 onderwysers betrek is. Vraelyste is gebruik om kwalitatiewe data, wat vir diskoers ontleed is, in te samel. Die diskoers van die onderwysers het getoon dat ’n groot getal van hulle nie hul onderrigopdrag kan versoen met hul geloof nie en konsepte oor evolusie as ‘feite’ verduidelik, maar seker maak dat evolusie as ’n teorie gediskrediteer word. Dit het verreikende implikasies vir sowel onderwyseropleiding as kurrikulumontwikkeling. Konseptuele veranderingsteorie word as ’n lens gebruik om na hierdie problematiek te kyk. Challenges in the teaching of evolution in the life sciences classroom. In this article the authors report on research that was conducted about teachers’ views on evolution, which was introduced as a theme in the school life sciences curriculum in 2008. This innovation in the curriculum has been met with mixed reactions. Whereas some teachers embrace this new theme, many teachers are opposed to the teaching of evolution. The article reports on an inquiry that was conducted amongst 255 teachers and in which survey questionnaires were used to collect qualitative data, which was analysed for its discourse. The discourse of the teachers shows that many of them cannot reconcile their religious faith with their teaching and that they may teach the ‘facts’ of evolution, but make sure that they discredit evolution as a theory. This raises serious concerns about teacher education and curriculum development. The authors examine these issues through the lens of conceptual change

  17. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  18. Lysosomotropic REV-ERB antagonism: A metabolic connection between circadian rhythm and autophagy may tell cancer cells "it's time to die".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that inhibition of a circadian regulator enhances autophagy-dependent cancer cell death reveals potential avenues for the development of new multifunctional anticancer agents. Further studies may elucidate novel crosstalk between circadian rhythm, metabolism, and autophagy that determines cancer cell viability.

  19. Die Departement Godsdiens- en Sending- wetenskap (Afd A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van die teologiese leergang aan die Transvaalse Universiteitskollege (TUK). Die. ISSN 0259 9422 = m s 4 ... Die Universiteit van Pretoria neem in 1916 'n eerste tree met die onderrig van teo- logie. In die TUK ...... Van Leeuwen, A T 1966.

  20. Tailoring the photovoltaic performance of inverted hybrid solar cells by replacing PEDOT:PSS with V2Ox as hole-extraction layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hock Beng; Tan, Sin Tee; Ginting, Riski Titian; Tan, Chun Hui; Oleiwi, Hind Fadhil; Yap, Chi Chin; Jumali, Mohd. Hafizuddin Haji

    2016-11-01

    For nanoscale fabrication of organic photovoltaic device, the utilization of a hole extraction layer (HEL) is essential to prevent the wrong flow of charge carriers and overcome the Schottky barrier at electrode-polymer interface. In recent years, the degradation issue of PEDOT:PSS based device which arises from its acidic nature and extremely hygroscopic properties has prompted researchers to find an appropriate transition metal oxide as replacement. In current work, we introduced an entirely solution-processed substoichiometric vanadium oxide (V2Ox) as HEL in inverted polymer:fullerene based device. We demonstrated the efficiency of substoichiometric V2Ox layer in enhancing the device performance of inverted organic solar cells, with the PCE of the device increased from 1.91 to 2.89%. The V2Ox prepared herein was found to exhibit broad optical absorption, highly selective charge transporting properties and excellent film transparency. A robust correlation between the hole extraction nature and electronic band structure of V2Ox was also established in this work.

  1. Tuning the physical properties of organic sensitizers by replacing triphenylamine with new donors for dye sensitized solar cells - a theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Sekar; Manidurai, Paulraj

    2017-02-01

    New donor molecules with low ionization potential have been theoretically designed by replacing the benzene moieties in triphenylamine (TPA) with thiophene as well as furan. The designed new donors also exhibited planar structure, making an angle of 120° around the nitrogen atom that results in resonance effects through π-bonds of aryl rings. New sensitizers have been theoretically studied using DFT and TD-DFT by adopting these designed donors. UV-Vis absorption spectra, light harvesting ability (LHE) and electron injection ability (ΔGinject) of the designed sensitizers have been calculated by taking L0 as reference. Orbital overlapping between donor and acceptor facilitates intra-molecular charge transfer, thereby increasing the interfacial electron injection from the sensitizer to the semiconductor nanoparticles. Our theoretical results demonstrate that sensitizers DTPA-AA and DFPA-AA have broader absorption and lower ΔGinject respectively compare to L0, this opens a new way for designing sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). All the dyes designed were found to be good light harvesters.

  2. Kantaantekeninge by die formele en materiële beginsels van die Suid-Afrikaanse kerkgeskiedskrywing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Brown

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Die totstandkoming van ons Kerkhistoriese Werkgemeenskap staan sekerlik in die teken van ’n ‘geschichtliche Bevifusstsein’ met betrekking tot die kerkgeskiedenis in ons land. In die geskiedenis van die ecclesia patria val dit nie sonder rede met die toenemende pleitredes vir ’n krities (teologiese beoefening van hierdie vakgebied saam nie.

  3. Die Energiesicherheit Europas in Bezug auf Erdgas und die Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung im Gassektor

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Luis-Martín

    2011-01-01

    Die Dissertation untersucht die aktuelle Sicherheit der europaeischen Erdgasversorgung. Sie beruecksichtigt zudem die moeglichen Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung auf die europaeische Gasversorgungssicherheit. Die Arbeit besteht aus einer detaillierten empirischen Studie und darauf aufbauender Szenarioanalyse. Hierzu wird auf den Interdependenzansatz von Robert O. Keohane und Joseph Nye zurueckgegriffen. Zur Darstellung des komplexen Themenbereichs wird auf die Darstellungspraxis der Dichten ...

  4. Die Literêre Sisteem Van Dertig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Viljoen

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available In die literatuurgeskiedenis is daar onteenseglik ’n behoefte aan sistematiek. ’n Vinnige oorsig oor byvoorbeeld die geskiedenis v an die Afrikaanse poesie kan die leser erg verward laat. Daar is verskeie redes daarvoor. Eerstens word verskillende kategorieë gebruik om die verskillende generasies mee te beskryf — as dit al hoegenaamd duidelik is waar die grense tussen generasies nou eintlik lê. Die leser word as belangrike kategorie beskou by die poësie voor 1900, bewuste kunstenaarskap by Dertig, stad en oorlog (tematiese dinge by Veertig. Standaardbegrippe is nodig waarmee verskillende generasies vergelyk kan word.

  5. Die filosofie van Smuts en Boodin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. de Wet

    1936-03-01

    Full Text Available Die werk van generaal Smuts, baie goed bekend omder die titel ,,Holism and Evolution” , en sy artikel oor ,,Some recent scientificadvances in their bearing on philosophy” in ,,Our Changing worldview”, as ook die werke van J. E. Boodin, professor in die wysbegeerteaan die Universiteit van California, Los Angeles, ,,Cosmic Evolution 1925, ,,Three interpretations of the Universe” 1934 en ,,God” 1934, toon die besondere en kenmerkende gedagtegamg vandie filosofie van die laaste tiental jare aan. Die kenmerkende is dit dat dit ’in filosofie is van sintese of, soos Whitehead

  6. Strategieë om die implementering van die Suid-Afrikaanse professionele leergemeenskapmodel te bevorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. van Staden

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Die Geïntegreerde Strategiese Beplanningsraamwerk vir Onderwyseropleiding en -ontwikkeling in Suid-Afrika 2011–2025 vereis dat vakverwante professionele leergemeenskappe tussen 2011 en 2017 op skool- en distriksvlak gevestig word. Die doel daarvan is om onderwysers van geleenthede te voorsien om hul eie leerbehoeftes te identifiseer en te vervul. Slegs sommige van die Distriksonderwysersontwikkelingsentra wat as vergaderplekke moet dien, hoef egter teen 2025 gereed te wees. Die gaping tussen beleid en die implemetering daarvan kan die vestiging van professionele leergemeenskappe rem en selfs verhoed. Drie implementeringsprobleme wat die professionele leergemeenskapmodel op die berugte onderwyshervormingsiklus kan stuur, word geïdentifiseer ten einde strategieë aan die hand te doen om die probleme op te los. Die ondersoek het tot die voorstel gelei dat ’n gekoördineerde benadering noodsaaklik geword het ten einde te verhoed dat die professionele leergemeenskapmodel die prooi van die berugte onderwyshervormingsiklus word.

  7. Die rol van die onderwys in die handhawing en uitbouing van ons volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Jordaan

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Op die oog af lyk dit ’n baie maklike onderwerp, maar hoe meer 'n mens daaroor nadink hoe ingewikkelder en omvangryker word die implikasies wat verband hou. Dit is veral so omdat dit hier voor alles gaan om eerste fundamentele uitgangspunte, dit wil sê, om lewens- en wêreldbeskouing. Dit geld van albei komponente — van onderwys sowel as van kultuur.

  8. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement Therapy (GRT) In Sickle Cell Anemia. ... manifesting clinical disease, while the heterozygoste(AS) are clinically ... medicine, we argue here the case for Bone marrow transplantation

  9. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  10. Live and let die

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Lundin, Ana Luisa

    techniques in environmental microbiology. In manuscript 4 these techniques are employed in the evaluation of the application of gamma radiation in wastewater treatment, as the technology inactivates microorganisms even when particle associated, promotes pollutants oxidation and odor nuisance. Among others...... elsewhere. Although this machine and its associated methods have been around for a while it is only relatively recently that it has been applied in environmental and industrial microbiology. This dissertation is about flow cytometry in general and its applications in environmental microbiology...... cytometry. Aiming to develop a simple toolbox of combined single cell techniques for the assessment of cellular heterogeneity in industrial scale fermentations, a biosensor strain of E. coli MG1655 was grown with two different carbon sources (glucose and acetate) and metabolic, growth and physiology data...

  11. Die anderen Ausdrucksweisen: subtile Offensiven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Jasiowka

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Was passiert, wenn der „Herrscher des filmischen Blickes“ eine Frau ist? Anhand zweier jeweils sehr unterschiedlicher Beispiele „weiblicher“ Filmkunst zeigt die Autorin, dass es nötig ist, herkömmliche Interpretationsmuster zu überwinden, um dem Filmschaffen einzelner Künstler und Künstlerinnen auf den Grund zu gehen. Da es nicht die „feministische Kunst“ an sich gibt, muß man für das Werk so unterschiedlicher Künstlerinnen wie Sally Potter und Jane Campion jeweils unterschiedliche Schlüssel suchen, um ihnen gerecht zu werden. Dies tut Radkiewicz in ihrem Werk – aus feministischer Perspektive. Sie holt jeweils verschieden weit aus, wenn es darum geht, künstlerische Herkunft, Biographie, Vorbilder und Ziele der Künstlerinnen zu deren Werk in Bezug zu setzten. Ohne zu bahnbrechend neuen Erkenntnissen zu kommen, gelingt es ihr doch, ein komplexes Bild der von ihr behandelten Filmemacherinnen und den Filmen zu entwerfen, das einen umfassenden Gesamteindruck vermittelt. Die Kürze des Buches bringt dabei eine Konzentration mit sich, die zu einer Weiterbeschäftigung und Vertiefung einlädt.

  12. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  13. A Novel Combination RNAi toward Warburg Effect by Replacement with miR-145 and Silencing of PTBP1 Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Takai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to control. We explored the use of a novel RNA-interference method for a driver oncogene regulating cancer specific energy metabolism by the combination treatment with a small interfering RNA (siRNA and a microRNA. After transfection of T24 and 253JB-V cells with miR-145 and/or siR-PTBP1, we examined the effects of cell growth and gene expression by performing the trypan blue dye exclusion test, Western blot, Hoechst 33342 staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and electron microscopy. The anti-cancer effects of xenograft model mice with miR-145 and/or siR-PTBP1 were then assessed. The combination treatment induced the deeper and longer growth inhibition and reduced the levels of both mRNA and protein expression of c-Myc and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1 (PTBP1 more than each single treatment. Notably, the combination treatment not only impaired the cancer specific energy metabolism by inhibiting c-Myc/PTBP1/PKMs axis but also inactivated MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways examined in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the combination treatment induced apoptosis or autophagy; but, in some cells, apoptotic cell death was accompanied by autophagy, because the condensation of chromatin and many autophagosomes were coexistent. This combination treatment could be a novel RNA-interference strategy through the systemic silencing of the Warburg effect-promoting driver oncogene PTBP1 in bladder cancer cells.

  14. A portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE with dual top-bottom capacitive coupled contactless conductivity detector in replaceable cell cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Kambiz; Ying, Jasmine Yuen Shu; Hauser, Peter C; de Rooij, Nico F; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    A new design for a compact portable lab-on-a-chip instrument based on MCE and dual capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (dC(4) D) is described. The instrument is battery powered with total dimension of 14 × 25 × 8 cm(3) (w × l × h), and weighs 1.2 kg. The device consists of a front electrophoresis compartment which has the chip holder and the chip, the associated high-voltage electrodes for electrophoresis injection and separation and the detector. The detection cell is integrated into the device housing with an exchangeable plug-and-play cartridge format. The design of the dC(4) D cell has been optimized for maximum performance. The cartridge includes the top-bottom excitation and pick up electrodes incorporated into the cell and connected to push-pull self-latching pins that are insulated with plastic. The metal frame of the cartridge is grounded completely to eliminate electronic interferences. The cartridge is designed to clamp a thin fluidic chip at the detection point. The cartridges are replaceable whereby different cartridges have different detection electrode configurations to employ according to the sensitivity or resolution needed in the specific analytical application. The second compartment consists of all the electronics, data acquisition card, high-voltage modules of up to ±5 kV both polarity, and batteries for 10 h of operation. The improved detector performance is illustrated by the electrophoresis analysis of six cations (NH4 (+) , K(+) , Ca(2+) , Na(+) , Mg(2+) , Li(+) ) with a detection limit of approximately 5 μM and the analysis of the anions (Br(-) , Cl(-) , NO2 (-) , NO3 (-) , SO4 (2-) , F(-) ) with a detection limit of about 3 μM. Analytical capabilities of the instrument for food and medical applications were evaluated by simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic acids in fruit juice and inorganic cations and anions in rabbit blood samples and human urine samples are also demonstrated.

  15. Tweedimensionele generatorfunksie vir die vektorkardiogram vir gebruik in volume-geleidingsmodelle van die toraks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Geldenhuys

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ’n Elektrokardiogram (EKG meet die elektriese aktiwiteit van die hart op die veloppervlak. Volumegeleidingsmodelle van die toraks kan ontwerp word om hierdie metings te simuleer. ’n Generatorfunksie, wat die elektriese aktiwiteit van die hart beskryf, word benodig om hierdie simulasies aan te dryf. Hoewel soortgelyke simulasies van variërende kompleksiteit in die literatuur bespreek word, is daar ’n behoefte aan ’n vereenvoudigde, dog omvattende benadering wat kan dien as inleiding tot die onderwerp of vir gevalle waar ’n eerste-orde-benadering tot die probleem voldoende is. In hierdie artikel word ’n oorsig gegee oor die vektorinterpretasie van die EKG, ook bekend as ’n vektorkardiogram (VKG, in die tweedimensionele menslike frontale vlak. Die afleiding van die ekwivalente elektriese dipool (met ander woorde die kardiale vektor vanaf die VKG, wat gebruik kan word as ’n stroombron-generatorfunksie vir volumegeleidingsmodelle wat die EKG simuleer, word bespreek. ’n Prosedure om so ’n volume-geleidingsmodel met die eindige-element-tegniek te implementeer en die vereenvoudigde tweedimensionele generatorfunksie te gebruik, sowel as die resultate daarvan, word bespreek. Die algemene kenmerke van gemete EKG-afleidings stem ooreen met dié wat deur die eenvoudige model voorspel word.

  16. Die Meting van die verband tussen geslag en konformiteit as groepdinamiese veranderlikes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. de Villiers

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount and kind of conformity induced by group pressure depend upon the nature of the situation. The nature of the group and the characteristics of the individual. In this particular study the experimental measurement of conformity developed by Asch and Crutchfield was repeated. Confirmation was found that sex operates as one of the determinants of conformity. OpsommingIn die sosiale bedryfsielkunde is die invloed van die groep op die individu een van die vernaamste studieterreine. Die mate waarin ‘n individu konformeer tot groepsdruk hang af van die aard van die situasie, die aard van die groep en die eienskappe van die individu. In hierdie studie is die eksperimentele meting van konformiteit soos ontwikkel deur Asch en Crutchfield herhaal en bevestiging is gevind dat geslag een van die individuele determinante van konformiteit is.

  17. Development of a process for the industrial production of electrodes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells; Verfahrensentwicklung fuer die industrielle Herstellung von Elektroden fuer Polymer-Elektrolyt-Membran Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacksch, C.

    2005-06-30

    The automobile companies as well as the manufacturers of stationary fuel cell systems see the necessity to be able to operate polymer electrolyte fuel cells at temperatures above 100 C. Especially for automotive applications the advantages of so called high-temperature systems (operating temperature 100-200 C) compared to so called low temperature systems (operating temperature 70-90 C) are significant. Using polymer membranes whose proton conductivity is almost independent from water, the expenditure of water management for the fuel cell system is zero. There is no need for a complicated moisture-system, which is not easy to handle and which needs quite a lot of space when it is integrated in the car. Operating a fuel cell at higher temperatures also reduces the heat exchange area needed to dissipate the excess heat. This is also a significant advantage for the overall fuel cell system design. Additionally, a higher operating temperature leads to a higher catalytic activity of the fuel cell electrodes and a decreasing proneness of the catalytic material to impurities in the feed. The recent work deals with the development of a manufacturing process for membrane electrode assemblies based on polybenzimidazol membranes for fuel cells operating at higher temperatures. One of the main interests of this work is the optimization of a screenprinting process with the aim of producing electrodes in a reproducible quality; the main requirement for optimizing the electrode structure and the electrode composition. With varying the electrode structure and composition it should be possible to determine the possible performance of the polybenzimidazol/phosphoric acid system. Different characterization methods were used to investigate and to compare different membrane electrode assemblies. These were made of a polybenzimidazol membrane and selfmade or commercially available electrodes. The characterization methods helped to show significant advantages in the behaviour in

  18. SOFC solid oxide fuel cell power plants for the decentralised electric energy supply; SOFC-Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer die dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogang Tchonla, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    To use the fuel cell economically, the efficiency of the system must still be raised so that it can be set up in the market. Within the scope of analysis on this topic, a 120-kW-SOFC-demonstration power plant was to be considered. Since not enough information about the demonstration power plant from the operator was available for the investigation, we had to calculate with the help of the known technical data of similar power plants. After that a model was build and simulated by means of MATLAB/Simulink. Before that the single power plant components were being described. Two of them (the boost converter as well as the inverter) were looked at more thoroughly. As a result of the analysis, it was found that a standard inverter which had been conceived for other applications, for example, Photovoltaic or Wind Power can also be used for fuel cells. Unfortunately, this was not the case for the added boost converter. It had to be precisely conceived for the used fuel cell type. After this discovery information was won for the realization of a 1-MW-Fuel Cell Power Plant. The topology of the 1-MW-power plant was fixed on the basis of the 120-kW-system. A parallel connection of eight 120-kW SOFC-fuel cell aggregates is intended, as well as a connection at the outlet side 120-kW boost converters. A standard inverter with 1 MW electrical power as well as a 1-MVA-transformer could be used for the realization of the 1-MW-power plant. The binding of the power plant in the three-phase current network was examined in view of the norms, laws and connection conditions. Beside the distinction of the operating forms of the power plant (parallel or isolated operation) the security of the plant was emphasized with regard to quick fault recognition, safe supply line isolation in the fault case as well as a compliance of the prescribed regulations. To verify the calculated results as well as the provided models, a 10-kW-labor sample was built and examined in the lab. This experimental

  19. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  20. Die resepsie van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (Sondag 17 en 22 insake die opstanding in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk sedert 2000 (Deel 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes W. Hofmeyr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Met die 450e herdenking van die Heidelbergse Kategismus as vertrekpunt, word met die huidige en die vorige artikel gepoog om lig te werp op die plek, die rol en die interpretasie van die opstanding van Jesus Christus in veral Sondag 17 en 22, spesifiek in die konteks van twee besondere eras in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde (NG Kerk. In die vorige artikel is allereers ’n bespreking gevoer oor die Heidelbergse Kategismus (HK. Daar is gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die era van Andrew Murray, spesifiek teen die agtergrond van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in Nederland. In die huidige artikel word soortgelyk gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die NG Kerk na 2000, teen die agtergrond van die herverskyning van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in die vorm van die Jesus Seminaar, die Nuwe Hervorming en ondersteuners daarvan binne die NG Kerk. Sowel die negentiende-eeuse liberale stryd in die NG Kerk asook die stryd oor die opstanding in die NG Kerk van die eerste dekade van die een-en-twintigste eeu, soos verder in hierdie artikel sal blyk, was gekenmerk deur kontekstueelbepaalde uniekhede. Die gemene deler was dat albei deel was van tye van teologiese vrysinnigheid. In die lig van hierdie bespreking word tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die NG Kerk tans, betreffende haar identiteit as gereformeerde kerk waarskynlik in ’n kritieke geloofs- en toekomskrisis verkeer. Dit impliseer kommerwekkende gevolge vir haar Skrifverstaan en getuienis as belydenis en belydende kerk van Jesus Christus en haar toekoms. Alleen duidelike visie, verantwoordelike leierskap en ’n herontdekking van die verlossingskrag van Christus se kruis en opstanding sal herstellende, positiewe en dinamiese oplossings kan bied om sodoende die NG Kerk te red van ’n snelwentelende afwaartse spiraal.With the 450th celebrations of the origin of the Heidelberg Catechism (HC in mind, the main aim of this and the

  1. Die «ASEAN-Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft»

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juego, Bonn

    2014-01-01

    Entwicklungsstufen, wie sie unterschiedlicher kaum sein können. Der Autor, Bonn Juego, nimmt die ASEAN Vision 2020 sowie die Debatten, die diesbezüglich in den einzelnen Ländern geführt werden, unter die Lupe. Er geht dem Potenzial des ASEANAnsatzes zu sozialer Teilhabe und wirtschaftlicher Verteilungsgerechtigkeit...

  2. Moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. van Wyk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word aandag gevra vir enkele moderne diskoerse in die teologie vandag. Volgens die outeur staan die vrae oor God, Jesus, die mens en die aarde in die sentrum van belangstelling en oorheers dit in ’n groot mate die teologiese debat. Die opkoms van die moderne aggressiewe ateïsme, die wetenskaplike navorsing oor die historiese Jesus, die groeiende vrae oor die mens en die menslike samelewing, asook die dreigende ekologiese krisis op aarde, sorg vir nuwe debatte van ongekende omvang. Die outeur bespreek hierdie debatte oorsigtelik, met kritiek waar nodig, en sluit af met enkele rigtingwysers van wat hy as ‘goeie teologie’ verstaan.In this article attention is paid to some modern discourses in theology today. According to the author the questions about God, Jesus, man and the earth are in the centre of interest and to a large extent dominate the theological debate. The rise of modern aggressive atheism, the scientific research on the historic Jesus, the growing questions about man and human society as well as the threatening ecological crisis on earth, provide new discourses of unparalleled magnitude. The author provides a broad summary of these discourses, with criticism where necessary, and concludes with some indicators of his view what can be called ‘good theology’.

  3. Die Ökonomik der Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegtmeyer, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Betrachtung der Reputation eines Unternehmens aus ökonomischer Sicht. Die Zusammenfassung von Beurteilungen der Unternehmensaktivitäten durch wirtschaftlich relevante Interessengruppen bildet eine Unternehmensreputation. Die Reputation wird hier mit einem betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten-Nutzen Kalkül betrachtet. Nur mit einer Reputation, die durch eine vorteilhafte Beurteilung der Unternehmensleistung entsteht, kann ein Unternehmen wirtschaftliche Vorteile gen...

  4. Die Ökonomik der Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegtmeyer, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Gegenstand dieser Arbeit ist die Betrachtung der Reputation eines Unternehmens aus ökonomischer Sicht. Die Zusammenfassung von Beurteilungen der Unternehmensaktivitäten durch wirtschaftlich relevante Interessengruppen bildet eine Unternehmensreputation. Die Reputation wird hier mit einem betriebswirtschaftlichen Kosten-Nutzen Kalkül betrachtet. Nur mit einer Reputation, die durch eine vorteilhafte Beurteilung der Unternehmensleistung entsteht, kann ein Unternehmen wirtschaftliche Vorteile gen...

  5. Market introduction of fuel cell products: Effects on mechanical engineering and power plant engineering. Preliminary research on products using alternative power and drive systems. Final report; Markteinfuehrung von Brennstoffzellen-Produkten: Auswirkungen auf den Maschinen- und Anlagenbau. Voruntersuchung zu Forschungsfeldern fuer die Herstellung von Produkten mit alternativen Energie- und Antriebssystemen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The investigations had the following goals: 1. Analysis of the effects of the fuel cell technology on mechanical engineering and power plant engineering, i.e. a qualitative assessment and the development of scenarios for the seven VDMA associations (drives, construction machinery, fluidics, haulage, power systems, agricultural engineering, machine tools); 2. Analysis of research and development requirements, i.e. analysis of the necessary technologies for fuel cell production. [German] Zielsetzung der Untersuchung war 1. die Analyse der Auswirkungen der Brennstoffzellentechnologie auf den Maschinen- und Anlagenbau, d.h. - qualitative Bewertung der Auswirkungen auf den Maschinen-/Anlagenbau, und - Szenarien fuer sieben Fachverbaende des VDMA (d.h. Antriebstechnik, Baumaschinen, Fluidtechnik, Foerdertechnik, Power Systems, Landtechnik, Werkzeugmaschinen), sowie 2. die Analyse des FuE-Bedarfs, d.h. - Analyse der erforderlichen Produktionstechniken fuer die Herstellung von Brennstoffzellen. (orig.)

  6. Die Welt als Fassade : kosmischer Schrecken als Angriff auf die Wirklichkeit

    OpenAIRE

    Zuch, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    "The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown." Mit diesem Satz eröffnet Howard Phillips Lovecraft 1927 seinen berühmten Essay "Supernatural Horror in Literature". In der Phantastik wird oft die Demontage der Erfahrungswirklichkeit durch die Kontaminierung mit dem Wunderbaren thematisiert; die bekannte Welt bekommt Risse, durch die das Unbekannte eindringt. Radikalisiert wird dies in Konzepten, die die gesamte vertrau...

  7. Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) replacement attenuates motor impairments and nigrostriatal dopamine deficits in 12-month-old mice with a partial deletion of GDNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littrell, Ofelia M; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Gerhardt, Greg A; Boger, Heather A

    2013-03-01

    Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been established as a growth factor for the survival and maintenance of dopamine (DA) neurons. In phase I clinical trials, GDNF treatment in Parkinson's disease patients led to improved motor function and GDNF has been found to be down regulated in Parkinson's disease patients. Studies using GDNF heterozygous (Gdnf(+/-)) mice have demonstrated that a partial reduction of GDNF leads to an age-related accelerated decline in nigrostriatal DA system- and motor-function and increased neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress in the substantia nigra (SN). Therefore, the purpose of the current studies was to determine if GDNF replacement restores motor function and functional markers within the nigrostriatal DA system in middle-aged Gdnf(+/-) mice. At 11months of age, male Gdnf(+/-) and wildtype (WT) mice underwent bilateral intra-striatal injections of GDNF (10μg) or vehicle. Locomotor activity was assessed weekly 1-4weeks after treatment. Four weeks after treatment, their brains were processed for analysis of GDNF levels and various DAergic and oxidative stress markers. An intrastriatal injection of GDNF increased motor activity in Gdnf(+/-) mice to levels comparable to WT mice (1week after injection) and this effect was maintained through the 4-week time point. This increase in locomotion was accompanied by a 40% increase in striatal GDNF protein levels and SN GDNF expression in Gdnf(+/-) mice. Additionally, GDNF treatment significantly increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the SN of middle-aged Gdnf(+/-) mice, but not WT mice, which was coupled with reduced oxidative stress in the SN. These studies further support that long-term changes related to the dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway are influenced by GDNF expression and add that this dysfunction appears to be responsive to GDNF treatment. Additionally, these studies suggest that long-term GDNF depletion alters the biological

  8. How Tycho Brahe really died

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Petersen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 we commemorate the 4th centenary of the death of Tycho Brahe, perhaps the first great scientists in a modern sense.This famous Danish astronomer died in Prague on the 24th of October 1601, eleven days after he had attended a banquet at the Bohemian count of Rosenberg. Tycho was too...... courteous to obey the calls of nature during the hour-long dinner and finally his bladder burst, which led to his death. Or so the story goes. But is this the real cause of Tycho's death? Is it at all possible to die from a burst bladder? Or are there more likely explanations of his death?...

  9. Ein Blick hinter die Kulissen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Kempter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In den Games-Workshops der wienXtra-spielebox lernen Kinder zwischen 7 und 12 Jahren empfehlenswerte Computer- und Konsolenspiele kennen und reflektieren nebenbei ihren Spielkonsum. Dieser Beitrag lässt die Leserinnen und Leser einen Blick hinter die Kulissen der Arbeit von wienXtra werfen.wienXtra-spielebox offers gaming workshops for young people between 7 and 12 years. The objective of these workshops is to explore new games that are evaluated as suited for the target group and to let the girls and boys reflect their playing habits. This article describes the work of wienXtra-spielebox.

  10. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  11. Multiple myoma: current recommendations for imaging; Multiples Myelom: Aktuelle Empfehlungen fuer die Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillengass, J. [Medizinische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Haematologie, Onkologie und Rheumatologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung Radiologie E010, Heidelberg (Germany); Delorme, S. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung Radiologie E010, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Imaging in monoclonal plasma cell disease serves to detect end organ damage, i.e., osteoporosis or bone destruction. Diffuse or circumscribed bone marrow infiltration without damage to mineralized bone is so far not regarded as end organ damage. Skeletal plain x-ray film survey to detect bone destruction, osteoporosis or fractures. Whole body low-dose computed tomography (CT) and whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow a more sensitive assessment of both mineralized bone and bone marrow, with greater patient comfort and in the case of MRI without ionizing radiation. According to the literature, cross-sectional imaging is clearly superior to skeletal surveys and MRI is more sensitive than CT. Every locally destructive lesion will be detectable with MRI but for assessing the damage to mineralized bone CT is indispensible. The sensitivities of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and MRI are comparable. If available whole body MRI and whole body low dose CT should replace conventional skeletal surveys. This has already been implemented in several centers in Germany. For the initial diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma or symptomatic multiple myeloma, a whole-body MRI and a whole body low-dose CT should be performed. For MGUS and asymptomatic myeloma, whole body MRI only should be performed for follow-up until detection of first bone destruction. Patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma and known bone destruction will usually have whole body low-dose CT, supplemented by MRI studies where clinically required. (orig.) [German] Aufgabe der bildgebenden Diagnostik monoklonaler Plasmazellerkrankungen ist der Nachweis der Endorganschaedigung, d. h. der Osteoporose oder der Destruktion des mineralisierten Knochens. Die alleinige umschriebene oder diffuse Markrauminfiltration ohne knoecherne Destruktion gilt nach heutiger Konvention nicht als Endorganschaedigung. Konventioneller Roentgenskelettstatus

  12. Energy research programmes on hydrogen and fuel cells for the period 2008 - 2011; Energieforschungsprogramme Wasserstoff und Brennstoffzellen fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, A.; Luzzi, A.; Spirig, M.

    2007-12-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the concept for research in Switzerland in the area of hydrogen and fuel cells for the period 2008 - 2011. The starting position is noted with a short review of the vision of a 'hydrogen economy'. The present-day production of hydrogen for non-energetic purposes is noted and the current state-of-the-art is discussed. The potential in Switzerland for the production of hydrogen and the use of fuel cells is discussed, as are research efforts and pilot projects in these areas. Private and public expenditure in the area is reviewed. The aims and the focal points of research during the period 2008 - 2011 are discussed, as are potentials both in Switzerland as well as world-wide. Further topics dealt with include system integration and hydrogen storage, service life, reliability and cost factors.

  13. Energy. Supermaterial for solar cells, membranes against the global warming, energy conservation in the greenhouse; Energie. Supermaterial fuer Solarzellen, Membranen gegen die globale Erwaermung, Energiesparen im Treibhaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roegener, Wiebke; Frick, Frank; Tillemans, Axel; Stahl-Busse, Brigitte

    2010-07-01

    A kaleidoscope of pictures presents highlights from the research at the Forschungszentrum Juelich - from moving into a new computer era over the development of a detector for dangerous liquids up to a new method of treatment against tinnitus. The highlights of this brochure are: (a) An interview with he director of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the energy mix of the future; (b) Environment friendly power generation by means of fuel cells; (c) Transfer of knowledge from fusion experiments to greater plants using a supercomputer; (d) Development of powerful batteries for electrically powered cars by means of the know-how from fuel cell research; (e) Investigation of contacting used fuel elements with water; (f) Reduction if energy consumption in a greenhouse using a combination of glass and foils; (g) News on the energy research and environmental research.

  14. ’n Etiek van liefde: Die etiese perspektiewe van die Heidelbergse Kategismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koos Vorster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel behandel die etiese perspektiewe van die Heidelbergse Kategismus – een van die prominente belydenisskrifte in die gereformeerde tradisie. Die etiese relevansie is ingebed in die konfessie se verklaring van die tien gebooie. Die artikel verduidelik dat die etiek van die Heidelbergse Kategismus ten diepste ’n karakteretiek is en dat dit gelowiges oproep tot ’n etiek van liefde. Hierdie liefde sluit in liefde vir die verbondsgemeenskap, die bediening van die Woord, die heiligheid van God en die waardigheid van mense, die gemeenskap van die gelowiges, gesag, die lewe, die huwelik, privaatbesit en arbeid asook waarheid en geregtigheid. As gevolg van die sinekdogeekarakter van die wet is hierdie etiek van liefde vandag baie relevant.This article deals with the ethical relevance of one of the prominent confessions in the reformed tradition, namely the Heidelberg Cathechism. The ethical relevance lies in the confession’s elucidation of the ten commandments and its application to moral conduct. The article explains that the ethics of the Heidelberg Catechism is essentially a virtue ethics calling for an ethics of love. This love should include love for the covenantal communion, ministry of the Word, the holiness of God and the dignity of people, the communion of the saints, authority, life, marriage, private property and labour, and truth and justice. Due to the synecdochical character of the ten commandments this ethics of love is highy relevant in the present times.

  15. Shifting wavelengths of ultraweak photon emissions from dying melanoma cells: their chemical enhancement and blocking are predicted by Cosic's theory of resonant recognition model for macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Blake T; Murugan, Nirosha J; Karbowski, Lukasz M; Lafrenie, Robert M; Persinger, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    During the first 24 h after removal from incubation, melanoma cells in culture displayed reliable increases in emissions of photons of specific wavelengths during discrete portions of this interval. Applications of specific filters revealed marked and protracted increases in infrared (950 nm) photons about 7 h after removal followed 3 h later by marked and protracted increases in near ultraviolet (370 nm) photon emissions. Specific wavelengths within the visible (400 to 800 nm) peaked 12 to 24 h later. Specific activators or inhibitors for specific wavelengths based upon Cosic's resonant recognition model elicited either enhancement or diminishment of photons at the specific wavelength as predicted. Inhibitors or activators predicted for other wavelengths, even within 10 nm, were less or not effective. There is now evidence for quantitative coupling between the wavelength of photon emissions and intrinsic cellular chemistry. The results are consistent with initial activation of signaling molecules associated with infrared followed about 3 h later by growth and protein-structural factors associated with ultraviolet. The greater-than-expected photon counts compared with raw measures through the various filters, which also function as reflective material to other photons, suggest that photons of different wavelengths might be self-stimulatory and could play a significant role in cell-to-cell communication.

  16. Product integration of compact roll-to-roll processed polymer solar cell modules: methods and manufacture using flexographic printing, slot-die coating and rotary screen printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Fyenbo, Jan; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    -filter with a cut-off at 390 nm, oxygen and water vapor transmission rates of respectively 0.01 cm3 m−2 bar−1 day−1 and 0.04 g m−2 day−1. The final modules comprised 16 serially connected cells. The technical yield was 89% based on the criterion that the Voc had to be larger than 7.2 V. This set of modules gave...... respectively a voltage, current, fill factor and power conversion efficiency of 8.47 ± 0.41 V, −23.20 ± 4.10 mA, 35.4 ± 2.8% and 1.96 ± 0.34% in the case of modules based on P3HT:[60]PCBM. A total of 1960 modules were prepared for each run and the best power conversion reached was 2.75% for devices based on P3......HT:[70]PCBM. The solar cell modules were used to demonstrate the complete manufacture of a small lamp entirely using techniques of flexible electronics. The solar cell module was used to charge a polymer lithium ion battery through a blocking diode. The entire process was fully automated...

  17. Chirurgie in die Grieks-Romeinse era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François P. Retief

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In die Grieks-Romeinse era het mediese behandeling kenmerkend uit drie elemente bestaan, naamlik regimen (dieet en gesonde leefwyse, geneesmiddels en chirurgie – laasgenoemde alleen toegepas indien regimen en geneesmiddels onsuksesvol was. Bewyse van primitiewe chirurgie dateer terug na die Bronstydperk, en in Homerus se eposse is heelwat vermelding van die chirurgiese hantering van oorlogswonde, met tussenkoms van die gode. Met die koms van empiriese geneeskunde in die 5de eeu v.C. het chirurgie in die Hippokratiese Corpus prominent gefigureer met beduidende bydraes in veral die ortopediese veld en hoofbeserings. Uitbouing van anatomiese en fisiologiese kennis, gebaseer op disseksie van menslike kadawers in Alexandrië vanaf die laat 4de eeu v.C., het chirurgie ’n hupstoot gegee. Teen die Romeinse era vanaf die 2de eeu v.C. het snykundetegnieke (en -instrumente beduidend verbeter, maar is steeds oorwegend deur Griekse geneeshere beoefen. Van geneeshere is steeds verwag om al drie bovermelde terapeutiese modaliteite te bemeester, maar chirurgie het meer aansien verwerf en daar is al meer in onderafdelings van chirurgie soos oogheelkunde, vrouesiektes en verloskunde, blaaskwale en mond- en keelsnykunde gespesialiseer. Militêre geneeskunde was in die Romeinse Ryk ’n belangrike aktiwiteit, en het veral traumachirurgie uitgebou. Betreding van die buik- en toraksholtes was nie meer noodwendig fataal nie, en veeartsenykunde het tot stand gekom. Die eerste beduidende chirurgiehandboek ná die Hippokratiese Corpus is in die 1ste eeu n.C. deur Celsus opgestel. Vanaf die 3de eeu het die chirurgieberoep min vordering gemaak, die beroepstaal het mettertyd van Grieks na Latyn verander en kundigheid is later veral deur Islam-geneeshere na die Middeleeue en later oorgedra.

  18. The Cape Gunsmith / Die Kaapse Geweersmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Otto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In die Verslag van die Kommissie van Ondersoek na die Koordinering van Museums op 'n Nasionale Vlak (RP 113/1975, word vyf kolomme gewy aan historiese vuurwapens. Die kommissie wys op die belangrike plek wat vuurwapens in Suid-Afrika se wordingsgeskiedenis inneem en voeg daaraan toe dat geen museum in Suid-Afrika hierdie belangrike veld in sy uitstallings dek nie.

  19. Dies1/VISTA expression loss is a recurrent event in gastric cancer due to epigenetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Rocha, Sara; Azevedo, Mafalda; Reis, Inês; Camilo, Vânia; Sousa, Bárbara; Valente, Sofia; Paredes, Joana; Almeida, Raquel; Huntsman, David; Oliveira, Carla

    2016-10-10

    Dies1/VISTA induces embryonic stem-cell differentiation, via BMP-pathway, but also acts as inflammation regulator and immune-response modulator. Dies1 inhibition in a melanoma-mouse model led to increased tumour-infiltrating T-cells and decreased tumour growth, emphasizing Dies1 relevance in tumour-microenvironment. Dies1 is involved in cell de/differentiation, inflammation and cancer processes, which mimic those associated with Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT). Despite this axis linking Dies1 with EMT and cancer, its expression, modulation and relevance in these contexts is unknown. To address this, we analysed Dies1 expression, its regulation by promoter-methylation and miR-125a-5p overexpression, and its association with BMP-pathway downstream-effectors, in a TGFβ1-induced EMT-model, cancer cell-lines and primary samples. We detected promoter-methylation as a mechanism controlling Dies1 expression in our EMT-model and in several cancer cell-lines. We showed that the relationship between Dies1 expression and BMP-pathway effectors observed in the EMT-model, was not present in all cell-lines, suggesting that Dies1 has other cell-specific effectors, beyond the BMP-pathway. We further demonstrated that: Dies1 expression loss is a recurrent event in GC, caused by promoter methylation and/or miR-125a-5p overexpression and; GC-microenvironment myofibroblasts overexpress Dies1. Our findings highlight Dies1 as a novel player in GC, with distinct roles within tumour cells and in the tumour-microenvironment.

  20. Ion conductivity and mass spectrometry of methanol diffusion and electroosmotic drag on proton-conducting membranes for the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC); Ionische Leitfaehigkeit und massenspektrometrische Bestimmung der Methanol-Diffusion und des 'Electroosmotic Drag' an protonenleitenden Membranen fuer die Direkt-Methanol-Brennstoffzelle (DMFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztuerk, N.

    2001-07-01

    The methanol permeability of the nafion membrane is one reason why the DMFC is not marketable as yet. As a result of diffusion, permeation and electroosmotic drag, methanol is transferred to the kation side where it will reduce the fuel cell performance. Research is going on world-wide to develop new materials that will prevent methanol crossover. The report describes the development of a measuring cell that will provide the necessary information on diffusion, permeation, electroosmotic drag and conductivity. [German] Ein wesentlicher Grund, der die Einfuehrung der DMFC noch verhindert, ist die Methanoldurchlaessigkeit der Nafion-Membran. Durch Diffusion und Permeation und durch den Electroosmotic Drag gelangt Methanol auf die Kathodenseite und fuehrt dann zu einem Leistungsabfall der Brennstoffzelle. Daher werden weltweit neue Materialien entwickelt, die bei guter lonenleitfaehigkeit den Methanol-crossover unterdruecken. Zur Beurteilung und Weiterentwicklung der neuen Materialien werden Informationen zur Diffusion, Permeation, zum Electroosmotic Drag und zur Leitfaehigkeit benoetigt. Um diese Parameter schnell und einfach zu bestimmen, wurde im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit eine Messzelle weiter entwickelt. Diese Messzelle erlaubt die schnelle Bestimmung aller vier wichtigen Parameter. (orig.)

  1. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels in the tooth pulps are rather large. Drilling down these teeth for crowns may expose the ... porcelain replacement tooth is held in place by metal extensions cemented to the backs of the adjacent ...

  2. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  3. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a ... long. Then your surgeon will: Move your kneecap (patella) out of the way, then cut the ends ...

  4. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  5. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on product platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....

  6. Bevordering van transformerende leer: Die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna R. du Toit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die doel van die artikel is om aan te toon hoe die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe die perspektiewe en denke van onderwysstudente kan transformeer en/of leer kan bevorder. Die studie maak voorspraak vir die gebruik van ’n reflektiewe joernaal as ’n instrument vir studente om betekenis te gee aan die leeromgewing vanuit verskillende perspektiewe deur te leer in praktyk. ’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode is gevolg om die inskrywings in ’n joernaal te analiseer aan die hand van bepaalde indikatore. Die bevindinge toon dat die meeste studente na die praktykervaring positief was en sommiges het tot ander perspektiewe vanweë hul ervaring gekom.

  7. Characterization of materials for the conversion of sunlight to enhance the efficiency of solar cells; Charakterisierung von Materialien fuer die Konversion von Sonnenlicht zur Effizienzsteigerung von Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Katharina

    2011-07-13

    The quantum efficiency (QE) of solar cells in the UV and IR is lower than that in the VIS, due to absorption and transmission losses. These losses can be reduced through the down- and up-conversion of the incoming sun light. A larger fraction of the solar spectrum can be used for electricity generation if the converted sun light is spectrally fitted to the spectral response of the solar cell. In so doing, the efficiency of the solar cell increases. The maximal gain in the short circuit current density of a solar cell by the down-conversion of light within the spectral range of 300 and 400 nm to the visible spectral range amounts to 1.36mA/cm{sup 2}. Using the spectral transfer matrix formalism, the QE of amorphous thin film silicon solar cells with an ideal down-converter doped with the rare earth ions Tb and Eu is simulated. Down-conversion in the spectral range up to 400nm results in a gain in QE. In this work, the down-conversion of the incoming sun light is investigated using the rare earth ions Tb and Eu within various glass matrices. These glass matrices include fluorozirconate(FZ) glasses, fluorochlorozirconate(FCZ) glasses, lithium and sodium borate glasses, and thin silica and alumina films. Tb ions can be excited in the UV between 300 and 380 nm and emit the converted light in the visible spectral range between 370 and 690 nm, which is well suited to the spectral response of amorphous thin film silicon solar cells. Eu ions can be excited in the UV of 300 and 390 nm and emits the converted light in the visible spectral range between 390 and 560 nm. The materials investigated for down-conversion are optimized with regard to their conversion efficiency and were compared to a commercial fluorescence glass doped with the rare earth ion Tb. Using photothermal deflection spectroscopy and classical transmission and reflection measurement, to determine the absorption of the down-converter, the internal conversion efficiency of the down-converter is determined

  8. Structure and implied functions of truncated B-cell receptor mRNAs in early embryo and adult mesenchymal stem cells: Cdelta replaces Cmu in mu heavy chain-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapter, Smadar; Livnat, Idit; Faerman, Alexander; Zipori, Dov

    2007-03-01

    Stem cells exhibit a promiscuous gene expression pattern. We show herein that the early embryo and adult MSCs express B-cell receptor component mRNAs. To examine possible bearings of these genes on the expressing cells, we studied immunoglobulin mu chain-deficient mice. Pregnant mu chain-deficient females were found to produce a higher percentage of defective morulae compared with control females. Structure analysis indicated that the mu mRNA species found in embryos and in mesenchyme consist of the constant region of the mu heavy chain that encodes a recombinant 50-kDa protein. In situ hybridization localized the constant mu gene expression to loose mesenchymal tissues within the day-12.5 embryo proper and the yolk sac. In early embryo and in adult mesenchyme from mu-deficient mice, delta replaced mu chain, implying a possible requirement of these alternative molecules for embryo development and mesenchymal functions. Indeed, overexpression of the mesenchymal-truncated mu heavy chain in 293T cells resulted in specific subcellular localization and in G(1) growth arrest. The lack of such occurrence following overexpression of a complete, rearranged form of mu chain suggests that the mesenchymal version of this mRNA may possess unique functions.

  9. Die invloed van drie kruisbestuiwers op die saadinhoud van Minneola tangelo (Citrus parodist x C reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Esterhuizen

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Die invloed van verskillende kruisbestuiwers (Clementine, Empress en Valencia op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van Minneo­la tangelo is ondersoek. Clementine en Empress as kruisbestuiwers het die grootste invloed op die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte gehad, terwyl dié van Valencia nie noemenswaardig was nie. Die gemiddelde saadinhoud van die vrugte het afgeneem met toename in afstand vanaf die kruisbestuiwer. Indien ’n beperking op die afstand tussen kultivar en kruisbestuiwer geplaas word, sal ’n groter persentasie vrugte aan uitvoerstandaarde ten opsigte van saadinhoud voldoen.

  10. MOOCs; vanwaar al die ophef?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderikx, Maartje; Kreijns, Karel

    2016-01-01

    MOOCs; vanwaar die ophef? Het nog maar zeer recente fenomeen MOOCs (massive open online courses) heeft zich in korte tijd al een onwrikbare positie weten in te nemen in het open online onderwijs. De hype rondom deze nieuwe manier van onderwijs geven bereikte zijn hoogtepunt in 2012, dat prompt werd

  11. Die Suche nach den Gottesteilchen

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    2008 wird der größte jemals gebaute Teilchenbeschleuniger in Betrieb genommen Anlässlich des Mathematik-Jahres 2008 hat der Experimentalphysiker der Universität Hamburg und der designierte Generaldirektor des europäischen Zentrums für Teilchenphysik CERN in Genf, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, die Bedeutung des Dialogs zwischen Naturwissenschaftlern und Philosophen hervorgehoben.

  12. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  13. Unser industrielles Erbe – Bibliotheken und die digitale Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renke Siems

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Im Verlauf des 20. Jahrhunderts erreichte die Industriearbeit Produktivitätsfortschritte größten Ausmaßes und wurde damit zum strukturellen Vorbild der Büroarbeit auch zu einer Zeit, als dort und nicht mehr in der Industriearbeit die meisten Arbeitsplätze versammelt waren. Die Anforderung, zur weiteren wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung nun in der Büroarbeit ähnliche Fortschritte in der Produktivitätsentwicklung zu erzielen, führt im 21. Jahrhundert zur sukzessiven Ablösung von routineorientierten zu kreativitätsorientierten Tätigkeiten in den Informations- und Dienstleistungsberufen, wobei die routineorientierten mit dem Anwachsen digitaler Möglichkeiten zunehmend automatisiert werden. Im hochschulischen Kontext fand dieser Paradigmenwechsel hin zur digital geformten Wissensarbeit in der Weise bislang nicht statt, da diese beiden Paradigmen schon zuvor nebeneinander existierten: In der Funktionsweise von Verwaltung und Bibliothekswesen lässt sich das industrielle Erbe erkennen, während die Wissenschaft, die das Internet begründete, seitdem einen eigenständigen Weg in die Wissensarbeit sucht. Dabei erweist sich allerdings die industriegesellschaftlich und vordigital geprägte hochschulische Governance als Hemmschuh sowohl für die Wissenschaft wie für die Bibliotheken. Für eine produktive Entwicklung der wissenschaftlichen Kommunikation ist daher eine Ablösung vom industriellen Erbe anzustreben, was für die Bibliotheken einen grundlegenden Wandel in Habitus und Dienstleistungsangebot bedeutete und für die Hochschulen eine Veränderung der Governance-Strukturen. In the course of the twentieth century, industrial work achieved gains in productivity of the greatest magnitude. Through this, the structures of industrial work organization became the model for office work, even at a time when most jobs were concentrated there and no longer in the industrial sector. In order to achieve further economic development, in the 21st century

  14. Der Nachlass von Rudolf Virchow und die Stammzelle: ein Beitrag aus Russland / The heritage of Rudolf Virchow and the stem cell: a view from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargin, Sergej V.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last years there were several publications about Rudolf Virchow and the cellular pathology in the former Soviet Union. The authors, who know so much about Virchow, can be informed where his library is. The Virchow’s library, comprising 12,689 volumes, was united in 1909 with the library of Berlin Medical Society. In 1944 the Library was transferred to the castle Boitzenburg (land Brandenburg, and from there, according to some witnesses, it was taken away by Soviet military trucks. Probably, the Library was brought to Moscow, in one of the institutions of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (RAMN. In the RAMN library, several editions are catalogued, which could have originated from the library of the Berlin Medical Society. Some of these catalogued books are not given out to the readers. In the Central Medical Library in Moscow there are books from 19th century with German library stamps. In conclusion, one of the motives of abundant publication about Virchow and the cellular pathology is popularization of the concept of cellular pathology in connection with stem cells and the cell therapy, which has become widespread in Russia.

  15. Characterization of materials for the conversion of sunlight to enhance the efficiency of solar cells; Charakterisierung von Materialien fuer die Konversion von Sonnenlicht zur Effizienzsteigerung von Solarzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Katharina

    2011-07-13

    The quantum efficiency (QE) of solar cells in the UV and IR is lower than that in the VIS, due to absorption and transmission losses. These losses can be reduced through the down- and up-conversion of the incoming sun light. A larger fraction of the solar spectrum can be used for electricity generation if the converted sun light is spectrally fitted to the spectral response of the solar cell. In so doing, the efficiency of the solar cell increases. The maximal gain in the short circuit current density of a solar cell by the down-conversion of light within the spectral range of 300 and 400 nm to the visible spectral range amounts to 1.36mA/cm{sup 2}. Using the spectral transfer matrix formalism, the QE of amorphous thin film silicon solar cells with an ideal down-converter doped with the rare earth ions Tb and Eu is simulated. Down-conversion in the spectral range up to 400nm results in a gain in QE. In this work, the down-conversion of the incoming sun light is investigated using the rare earth ions Tb and Eu within various glass matrices. These glass matrices include fluorozirconate(FZ) glasses, fluorochlorozirconate(FCZ) glasses, lithium and sodium borate glasses, and thin silica and alumina films. Tb ions can be excited in the UV between 300 and 380 nm and emit the converted light in the visible spectral range between 370 and 690 nm, which is well suited to the spectral response of amorphous thin film silicon solar cells. Eu ions can be excited in the UV of 300 and 390 nm and emits the converted light in the visible spectral range between 390 and 560 nm. The materials investigated for down-conversion are optimized with regard to their conversion efficiency and were compared to a commercial fluorescence glass doped with the rare earth ion Tb. Using photothermal deflection spectroscopy and classical transmission and reflection measurement, to determine the absorption of the down-converter, the internal conversion efficiency of the down-converter is determined

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopy for characterisation of catalysts for PEM fuel cells; Roentgenabsorptionsspektroskopie zur Charakterisierung von Katalysatoren fuer die PEM-Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehl, G.

    2001-10-01

    The investigation of bimetallic nanoparticles is of great interest for the development of powerful anode catalysts in PEM fuel cells. The determination of their electronic and geometric structure is crucial for the optimization of the activity and selectivity in the fuel cell. Especially carbon supported PtRu particles have shown superior activity as anode catalysts due to their high CO tolerance. To state the reason on an atomic level, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with synchrotron radiation has been used to examine several Pt and PtRu nanoparticle systems. They were either prepared on the basis of preformed PtRu alloy colloids stabilized by different surfactants or by chemical reduction of precursors, Na{sub 6}Pt(SO{sub 3}){sub 4} and Na{sub 6}Ru(SO{sub 3}){sub 4}. Although a PtRu interaction was observed in all systems, a nonstatistical distribution of Pt and Ru atoms in the nanoparticles could be verified. In additional investigations the reaction mechanism during the synthesis of an organometallic stabilized Pt colloid was examined. In-situ measurements revealed the formation of an hitherto unknown Pt complex as intermediate state prior to the nucleation of the particles. (orig)

  17. Electroreflectance of CuInS{sub 2}-solar cells for the optimization of the process parameters during the absorbers production process; Elektroreflexion an CuInS{sub 2}-Solarzellen im Hinblick auf die Optimierung der Prozessparameter bei der Absorber-Herstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henninger, R.

    2002-07-01

    CuInS{sub 2} thin film solar cells were prepared by a new sequential process. The quality of these layers and the conversion efficiency of the solar cells depends on the process parameters of the sequential process. Electroreflectance measurements are used to characterize these solar cells. This method is suitable to measure optical properties like band gap energy and to detect secondary phases in the vicinity of the heterojunction and defects in the semiconductor. Electroreflectance measurements of the thin film solar cells shows clearly a dependence of film growth from the process parameters copper to indium ratio and sulfurization temperature. From the correlation of electroreflectance results with photoluminescence, X-ray-diffraction and external quantum efficiency measurements a model of film growth was derived. Solar cells made from optimized CuInS{sub 2} films reach an active area efficiency of 12,5%. This is the best efficiency reported so far for this type of solar cell. (orig.) [German] Mit einem neuen sequentiellen Verfahren wurden CuInS{sub 2}-Duennfilme fuer die Solarzellen-Anwendung hergestellt. Die Qualitaet dieser Schichten und damit der Solarzellenwirkungsgrad haengen von den Prozessparametern des sequentiellen Prozesses ab. Elektroreflexion wurde als Messverfahren zur Charakterisierung der fertigen Solarzellen eingesetzt. Dieses Verfahren ist geeignet um optische Eigenschaften, wie die Bandlueckenenergie, zu bestimmen und Fremdphasen in der Naehe des pn-Ueberganges sowie Defekte im Halbleiter nachzuweisen. In Elektroreflexionsmessungen an den hergestellten Duennfilmsolarzellen zeigte sich deutlich eine Abhaengigkeit des Schichtwachstums von den Prozessparametern Kupfer-Indium-Verhaeltnis und Sulfurisierungstemperatur. Aus der Korrelation der Elektroreflexionsergebnisse mit Photolumineszenz-, Roentgenbeugungs- und Quantenausbeutemessungen wurde ein Modell zur Schichtbildung von CuInS{sub 2} abgeleitet. Solarzellen aus optimierten CuInS{sub 2

  18. The platinum catalyst layer in polymer-electrolyte fuel cells[Dissertation 17127]; Die Platinkatalysatorschicht in Polymerelektrolyt-Brennstoffzellen. Beitraege zum Verstaendnis und zur Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiner, A.

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated, comprehensive dissertation by Dr. Andreas Reiner presents an in-depth analysis of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) and in particular, their platinum catalyst layer. First of all, the thermodynamics and kinetics involved are reviewed, along with components, their efficiencies and the catalyst layer. The methods used, including scanning electron microscope, x-ray and Rutherford spectroscopy are discussed. The structure and composition of co-sputtered catalyst layers and their production are described. Electro-chemical activation and the electro-chemical properties of the layers are discussed. The second part of the dissertation deals with the principle of hydrogen under-potential deposition. This method provides information about the electrochemically active platinum surface fraction. The results of investigations made are presented and discussed.

  19. Die spel van assosiasies in en om 'Die verlossing van die beeld' van Breyten Breytenbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. du Toit

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The play of association in and around 'The liberation of the image' by Breyten Breytenbach This analysis focuses on the conjunction of memory and imagination, which is an important impulse in, and key to, Breytenbach’s work. The play with language and with associations, the foregrounding, in the short story, “Die verlossing van die beeld” (Breytenbach, 1983 with its metafictional title and apparently divergent motifs (rain/water, watch, onion, the death and burial of a grandfather acts, as it were, as an invitation to the reader to become a co-player. The reader ventures on a search for traces, intertextual links within the Breytenbach oeuvre and for already acknowledged influences such as Surrealism (which in turn casts some light on the strange title of the story and the Eastern philosophies such as Zen and the even older Taoism. The analysis also takes into account the context in which “Mouroir” was written, namely Breytenbach’s term in prison (1975-1982. Seeing that the writer had to hand in his manuscripts to the jail authorities regularly, he might have decided, consciously or by intuition, to hide some thoughts and feelings behind a screen or a mask, in, for example in “Die verlossing van die beeld”, a lighter tone and irony.

  20. Die Wissensgesellschaft und die Bildung des Subjekts - ein Widerspruch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hacke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag untersucht, inwiefern sich medienpädagogisch relevante Diskrepanzen zwischen dem Diskurs der Wissensgesellschaft und jugendlichem Medienhandeln nachzeichnen lassen. Dazu werden zunächst einige Aspekte des Konstrukts Wissensgesellschaft skizziert, das in seiner gegenwärtig populären Form ins Fahrwasser an volkswirtschaftlichen Verwertungskalkülen orientierter Denkformen geraten ist. Dies wird in Bezug auf die sich daran gekoppelte Programmatik von Kompetenz diskutiert, welche den «homo oeconomicus» beschwört und sich darin konträr zu klassisch bildungstheoretischen Kategorien verhält. Weitergeführt werden diese Überlegungen anhand der Problematisierung des Medienkompetenztheorems, das sich bis heute damit schwer tut, sich von der Vereinnahmung durch zweckrationale und restringierende Tendenzen zu befreien. Argumentiert wird, dass mit Medienkompetenz zu wenig einer milieuspezifischen Differenzierung Rechnung getragen werden kann, die eine wichtige Prämisse für eine soziale Ungleichheiten ernst nehmende Medienpädagogik ist. Als eine Alternative diskutieren wir, inwieweit sich hier praxeologische Perspektiven zum Verständnis jugendlichen Handelns anbieten. Der Beitrag mündet in einige medienpädagogisch fruchtbare Ideen, in deren Zentrum eine reflexivere, stärker am Habitus von Jugendlichen orientierte Praxis steht.

  1. Die impak van tutoriale op die wiskundeprestasie van eerstejaarstudente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Maree

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Studente uit histories-agtergeblewe gemeenskappe in Suid-Afrika onderpresteer dikwels in wiskunde vanweë ’n verskeidenheid faktore. Aksienavorsing wat aan die (voormalige Technikon Noord-Gauteng uitgevoer is, om ondersoek in te stel na wyses waarop hierdie studente se wiskundeprestasie verbeter kan word, het die implementering van ’n tutoriaalstelsel behels. Kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe data is deur middel van ’n verskeidenheid instrumente ingesamel. Die resultate het sekere tendense in tersiêre wiskundeonderrig, wat in ’n tweede of derde taal geskied, uitgewys.

    Abstract

    The impact of tutorials on achievement in mathematics of first year students

    Historically disadvantaged students in South Africa often underachieve in mathematics due to a number of factors. Action research that was conducted at the (former Technikon Northern Gauteng to investigate ways in which these students’ achievements in mathematics could be improved comprised the implementation of tutorial sessions. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered by means of a variety of instruments. The results revealed certain trends in tertiary mathematics education where learning takes place in a second or third language.

  2. Enzyme Replacement Therapy and/or Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation at diagnosis in patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: results of a European consensus procedure

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Ru, Minke H

    2011-08-10

    Abstract Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder that results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans causing progressive multi-organ dysfunction. Its clinical spectrum is very broad and varies from the severe Hurler phenotype (MPS I-H) which is characterized by early and progressive central nervous system (CNS) involvement to the attenuated Scheie phenotype (MPS I-S) with no CNS involvement. Indication, optimal timing, safety and efficacy of the two available treatment options for MPS I, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), are subject to continuing debate. A European consensus procedure was organized to reach consensus about the use of these two treatment strategies. Methods A panel of specialists, including 8 specialists for metabolic disorders and 7 bone marrow transplant physicians, all with acknowledged expertise in MPS I, participated in a modified Delphi process to develop consensus-based statements on MPS I treatment. Fifteen MPS I case histories were used to initiate the discussion and to anchor decisions around either treatment mode. Before and at the meeting all experts gave their opinion on the cases (YES\\/NO transplantation) and reasons for their decisions were collected. A set of draft statements on MPS I treatment options composed by a planning committee were discussed and revised during the meeting until full consensus. Results Full consensus was reached on several important issues, including the following: 1) The preferred treatment for patients with MPS I-H diagnosed before age 2.5 yrs is HSCT; 2) In individual patients with an intermediate phenotype HSCT may be considered if there is a suitable donor. However, there are no data on efficacy of HSCT in patients with this phenotype; 3) All MPS I patients including those who have not been transplanted or whose graft has failed may benefit significantly from ERT; 4) ERT should be started at diagnosis and may be

  3. Enzyme replacement therapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at diagnosis in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I: results of a European consensus procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykora Karl-Walter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I is a lysosomal storage disorder that results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans causing progressive multi-organ dysfunction. Its clinical spectrum is very broad and varies from the severe Hurler phenotype (MPS I-H which is characterized by early and progressive central nervous system (CNS involvement to the attenuated Scheie phenotype (MPS I-S with no CNS involvement. Indication, optimal timing, safety and efficacy of the two available treatment options for MPS I, enzyme replacement therapy (ERT and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, are subject to continuing debate. A European consensus procedure was organized to reach consensus about the use of these two treatment strategies. Methods A panel of specialists, including 8 specialists for metabolic disorders and 7 bone marrow transplant physicians, all with acknowledged expertise in MPS I, participated in a modified Delphi process to develop consensus-based statements on MPS I treatment. Fifteen MPS I case histories were used to initiate the discussion and to anchor decisions around either treatment mode. Before and at the meeting all experts gave their opinion on the cases (YES/NO transplantation and reasons for their decisions were collected. A set of draft statements on MPS I treatment options composed by a planning committee were discussed and revised during the meeting until full consensus. Results Full consensus was reached on several important issues, including the following: 1 The preferred treatment for patients with MPS I-H diagnosed before age 2.5 yrs is HSCT; 2 In individual patients with an intermediate phenotype HSCT may be considered if there is a suitable donor. However, there are no data on efficacy of HSCT in patients with this phenotype; 3 All MPS I patients including those who have not been transplanted or whose graft has failed may benefit significantly from ERT; 4 ERT should be started at diagnosis and

  4. Die aard en problematiek van vertaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Swanepoel

    1980-05-01

    Full Text Available George Steiner (1975 se onlangse werk oor vertaling dra die treffende titel: After Babel. Dit is met hierdie dilemma wat die mens in sy na-babelse bestaan in sy strewe na sinvolle kommunikasie te kampe het: die bestaan van ’n magdom van tale wat geen individu, hoe begaafd ookal, eers kan droom om te beheers nie. Vandaar die strewe na die totstandbrenging van ’n eenvoudige en universele wereldtaal, Esperanto, of — meer algemeen — die behoefte aan vertaling. Maar vertaling is nie net ’n dilemma nie, dit is ook ’n uitdaging.

  5. Die Felsfassadengräber von Kyrene

    OpenAIRE

    Greve, Anika

    2006-01-01

    Die griechische Kolonie Kyrene wurde im letzten Drittel des 7. Jhs. v. Chr. einige Kilometer vom Mittelmeer entfernt im libyschen Innenland gegründet. Die Siedler waren dorische Griechen aus Thera im Süden der Kykladen. Nicht nur die erhaltenen innerstädtischen Gebäude zeugen von einem einstigen Wohlstand, auch die Nekropole nahm im Laufe der Zeit gewaltige Ausmaße mit aufwendig gestalteten Grabanlagen an, die sich rund um die urbane Bebauung entlang der Ausfallstraßen ausbreitete. Viele Ruhe...

  6. A Newly Defined and Xeno-Free Culture Medium Supports Every-Other-Day Medium Replacement in the Generation and Long-Term Cultivation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian Baghbaderani, Behnam; Tian, Xinghui; Scotty Cadet, Jean; Shah, Kevan; Walde, Amy; Tran, Huan; Kovarcik, Don Paul; Clarke, Diana; Fellner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) present an unprecedented opportunity to advance human health by offering an alternative and renewable cell resource for cellular therapeutics and regenerative medicine. The present demand for high quality hPSCs for use in both research and clinical studies underscores the need to develop technologies that will simplify the cultivation process and control variability. Here we describe the development of a robust, defined and xeno-free hPSC medium that supports reliable propagation of hPSCs and generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from multiple somatic cell types; long-term serial subculturing of hPSCs with every-other-day (EOD) medium replacement; and banking fully characterized hPSCs. The hPSCs cultured in this medium for over 40 passages are genetically stable, retain high expression levels of the pluripotency markers TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, Oct-3/4 and SSEA-4, and readily differentiate into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Importantly, the medium plays an integral role in establishing a cGMP-compliant process for the manufacturing of hiPSCs that can be used for generation of clinically relevant cell types for cell replacement therapy applications.

  7. Intensified Protein Structuring for more sustainable foods: Development of the up-scaled Couette Cell for the production of meat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krintiras, G.

    2016-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for protein-rich food of an ever growing population, plant-based proteins are being utilized in meat products as replacements for animal-based proteins. Legumes such as soy can serve as an alternative protein source, by featuring both high protein content (36%) and protei

  8. The effect of the deterioration of insulin sensitivity on beta-cell function in growth-hormone-deficient adults following 4-month growth hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Fisker, S; Hilsted, J;

    1999-01-01

    .07). One patient developed impaired glucose tolerance. Short-term GH replacement therapy in a dose of about 2 IU/m2 daily in GHD adults induces a reduction in insulin sensitivity, despite favourable changes in body composition, and an inadequate enhancement of insulin secretion....

  9. Intensified Protein Structuring for more sustainable foods: Development of the up-scaled Couette Cell for the production of meat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krintiras, G.

    2016-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for protein-rich food of an ever growing population, plant-based proteins are being utilized in meat products as replacements for animal-based proteins. Legumes such as soy can serve as an alternative protein source, by featuring both high protein content (36%) and protei

  10. Psychotherapy of the dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedeford, A

    1979-07-01

    The psychotherapeutic aspects of the care of the 49 terminally ill patients described in the preceeding paper are discussed. Their differing ways of coping with the stress of dying and the range of psychotherapeutic strategies used in treatment are described. The work suggests that the therapist's use of psychological insights can improve his understanding of the emotional pain of terminal illness, and well-aimed psychotherapy can contribute to its relief.

  11. Skrifberoep in die vorming van etiese uitsprake, Deel 1: ’n Etiese verstaan van die vrou in die Bybel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan L. Rheeder

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Na 30 jaar kon die grammaties-historiese metode van Skrifondersoek nie daarin slaag om die etiese probleem van die vrou in die kerklike ampte (en homoseksualiteit in die GKSA op te los nie. Hierdie metode kan na alle waarskynlikheid nie meer as die enigste verklaringsmetode gebruik word nie en moet deur ander uitgangspunte aangevul word. In hierdie artikel word twee hermeneutiese uitgangspunte bespreek wat saam met die grammaties-historiese metode in die vertolking van die Skrif gebruik kan word. Hierdie hermeneutiese uitgangspunte sal gedemonstreer word in ‘n bespreking oor die etiese verstaan van die vrou in die Bybel, spesifiek soos dit op die vrou in kerklike ampte toegepas word. In aansluiting by laasgenoemde twee vertrekpunte word in ’n opvolgartikel ’n verdere drie hermeneutiese vertrekpunte behandel. Die twee hermeneutiese vertrekpunte wat in hierdie artikel behandel word, staan as reëldoelwit en analogie bekend. Die eerste hermeneutiese vertrekpunt gaan uit van die veronderstelling dat die reëldoelwit van ’n teks swaarder weeg as die teks self, terwyl analogie van die veronderstelling uitgaan dat analogie as beredenering ’n aanvaarbare en noodsaaklike vertrekpunt is. Bogenoemde hermeneutiese vertrekpunte (vyf in totaal is op twee aannames gegrond. Ten eerste word aanvaar dat die Bybel, alhoewel ’n goddelike boek, ’n besliste kreatuurlike kant het wat in die vertolking daarvan in ag geneem moet word. Tweedens word geredeneer dat die Skrif nie ’n  teologiese boek is nie, wat beteken dat gelowiges in etiese sake waaroor daar twee verstaansmoontlikhede bestaan, die reg gegun moet word om self die Skrif te vertolk. Daar word tot die  gevolgtrekking gekom dat ’n etiese verstaan van die vrou daartoe moet lei dat die vrou as gelykwaardig aan die man beskou en behandel moet word, met die gevolg dat die vrou tot alle ampte in die kerk toegelaat moet word.Appeal to Scripture in the formation of ethical judgments, Part 1: An

  12. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible.

  13. Letting die and mercy killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbekovas, Andrius; Meilius, Kazimieras

    2003-01-01

    We are all called to make moral decisions, not only about preserving life and health, but also about accepting our death and dying. There are situations, when it is morally right, and indeed obligatory, to allow a dying person to die in peace and dignity. But there is a world of difference between allowing a peaceful death, and deliberately setting out to bring death of the person either by acts of commission (s.c. 'active euthanasia'), or by acts of omission (s.c. 'passive euthanasia'). The word "killing" seems proper for euthanasia, because "to kill" does mean " to intentionally cause the death of someone." It can be morally acceptable to withhold or withdraw a treatment precisely because it is reasonably judged as inefficacious (futile), or excessively burdensome for the patient. One's reason for withholding such treatment must not be a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the patient's life, but a judgement about the desirability of putting an end to the treatment, which is futile or burdensome.

  14. Ethnographische Filme und die Darstellung von Frauen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Keilbach

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Filmographie werden ethnographische und koloniale Filme aus dem Bestand des Nederlands Filmmuseum kommentiert, die für die Frage nach der Darstellung von Frauen und Geschlechterverhältnissen von Interesse sind.

  15. [Die Gründung...] / Anders Henriksson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Henriksson, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Rets.: Karsten Brüggemann. Die Gründung der Republik Estland und das Ende des "Einen und unteilbaren Russland" : die Petrograder Front des Russischen Bürgerkrieges, 1918-1920. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz, 2002

  16. Die ausbildung von wertbedeutungen im schuljugendalter*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried Heusinger

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available Die folgenden Darlegungen stützen sich auf Untersuchungsergebnisse des Verlassers zur Sprachentwicklung in der Ontogenese. Angeregt wurde die UnterSuchung durch die besonders in den letzten Jahren in mehreren Ländern verstärkt erhobenen Forderungen, nicht nur die Sprache des Klein­ kindes, sondern vornehmlich den Entwicklungsstand der Schülersprache auf den einzelnen Klassenstufen zu erforschen und den Prozeß der Sprachentwicklung des Schülers genauer zu bestimmen. Die Forderungen sind (so z. B. in der DDR durch das Bestreben motiviert, weitere wissenschaftliche Voraussetzungen für die Verbesserung der muttersprachlichen Bildung und Erzliehung zu schaffen. Es geht also vor allem um Bedürfnisse des Muttersprachunterrichts, die aus der gesellschaftlichen Bedeutung der Sprache überhaupt und den steigenden Anforderungen an die gesellschaftliche Kommunikation insbesondere erwachsen.

  17. Robotic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Sahin; Gullu, Ahmet Umit; Kocyigit, Muharrem; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karabulut, Hasan; Alhan, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgical techniques allow surgeons to perform mitral valve surgery. This procedure has gained acceptance, particularly for mitral valve repair in degenerative mitral disease. However, mitral repair may not always be possible, especially in severely calcified mitral valve of rheumatic origin. This study demonstrates the basic concepts and technique of robotic mitral valve replacement for valve pathologies that are not suitable for repair.

  18. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  19. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  20. Die invloed van verpoeiering op die kwikinhoud van verskeie gesertifiseerde verwysingsmateriale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Roelofse

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Die meeste analitiese tegnieke wat gebruik word vir die bepaling van die kwikinhoud van aardmateriale benodig komminusie van monsters voor analise. Dit word gewoonlik bewerkstellig deur die vergruising van die monsters, gevolg deur die verpoeiering daarvan. Dit is bekend dat in konvensionele meule hitte tydens verpoeiering vrygestel word, en dit volg dat kwikverlies verwag kan word weens die element se vlugtigheid. Om kwikverlies tydens verpoeiering te bestudeer het ons nege gesertifiseerde verwysingsmateriale van stolrotse geanaliseer voor verpoeiering, asook na 3 en weer na 10 minute van verpoeiering, met behulp van ’n direkte kwikanaliseerder. Die resultate van die eksperimente dui daarop dat: (1 kwikverlies onbeduidend is na 3 minute van verpoeiering, (2 kwikverlies beduidend raak indien monsters oormatige verpoeiering ondergaan, (3 kwikverlies klaarblyklik nie deur mineralogie beheer word nie en (4 vir monsters met ’n lae kwikinhoud, kontaminasie tydens verpoeiering ’n baie meer beduidende invloed op die geanaliseerde kwikinhoud het as die duur van verpoeiering.

  1. Die tätigkeitstheoretische Perspektive

    OpenAIRE

    Stroh, Wolfgang Martin

    2012-01-01

    Die Perspektive, die der Autor entwickelt, ist die der dialektischen Tätigkeitstheorie. Gemäß dieser Theorie ist Musik eine spezifische Art der Aneignung von Wirklichkeit. SchülerInnen sollten im Musikunterricht lernen, bewusst, selbstbestimmt und sozial zu handeln, wenn sie sich durch Musizieren Wirklichkeit aneignen. Wenn SchülerInnen im Unterricht Musik machen, müssen sie sich daher auch des kulturellen Kontextes bewusst sein, dem die Musik entstammt. Sie sollten auch selbstbestimmt handel...

  2. Aanspreekvorme in die poësie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wybenga

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available By die deurblaai van die Groot Verseboek (hierna GV is dit opvallend dat daar so baie keer van aanspreekvorme in gedigte gebruik gemaak word. Van die heel eerste gedig wat daarin opgeneem is, naamlik Klaas Geswind en sy perd (p. 1 tot ’n gedig van die laaste opgenome digter, André le Roux, (struisbaai-blues, p. 506, gebruik digters telkens hierdie taalmiddel om een of ander spesifieke effek te verkry.

  3. “Ruik die verderf in die kieliebakke”: Breyten Breytenbach se blik op die lyk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Crous

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available “Smell the rot in the armpits”: Breyten Breytenbach’s perspectives on the corpse The purpose of this article is to analyse Breyten Breytenbach’s so-called corpse poem, “bekommernis”, taken from his debut album “die ysterkoei moet sweet” (1964. The theoretical point of departure is the theories of Kristeva, in particular her essay on abjection. Not only does the article focus on Breytenbach’s portrayal of the abject, but also shows to what extent his use of language describing death, decay and the cadaver illustrates what Kristeva calls “a revolution in poetic language”. Given the fact that the poem is situated in a Zen Buddhist context, the Zen philosophy on death and dying is also taken into consideration when analysing aspects such as the dissolution of the ego, the bardos of death, et cetera.

  4. Die waarde van voorafopleiding deur die ouer vir pedo-oudiometrie by drie- en vierjarige kleuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisa Lodewyckx

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Die verkryging van akkurate, betroubare inligting aangaande die gehoorvermoë van jong kinders is van besondere belang vir die oudioloog, maar word dikwels bemoeilik aangesien die kleuter nie goeie samewerking bied in die vreemde pedo-oudiometriese situasie nie. Die oplossing hiervoor is grootliks geleë in die opleiding van die kind voor formele  gehoortoetsing en meer spesifiek  opleiding tuis deur die ouer. Die doel van hierdie studie was om 'n voorbereidende program op te stel wat die ouer tuis met die kind kan uitvoer, voordat formele  toetsing plaasvind. Die waarde en effek van hierdie program in die pedo-oudiometriese situasie is geevalueer by 'n groep drie- en vierjarige kleuters. Resultate dui daarop dat laer en meer akkurate drempels, 'n korter toetstydperk, verminderde angs en beter samewerking verkry is by die kleuters wat vooraf  opleiding ontvang het. Die opleidingsprogram kan dus in die kliniese praktyk benut word as voorafopleiding  vir pedo-oudiometrie.

  5. Die persoonlikheidseienskappe en bestuurspotensiaal van bestuursgemotiveerde persone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The personality traits and managerial potential of managerial motivated persons: In the ligth of criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation a new scale, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ, was developed. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory of Miner. The MMQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency. The aim of this study is to clarify the construct validity of the MMQ. Significant and positive correlations were found between managerial motivation, overall managerial potential, and nine managerial dimensions. The construct validity of the MMQ was further supported by correlations between sixteen personality traits and managerial motivation. Opsomming In die lig van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering is 'n nuwe skaal, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV/ ontwikkel. Dit is gedoen op grond van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering en die rolmotiveringsteorie van Miner. Die BMV vertoon toereikende interne konsekwentheid. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die konstrukgeldigheid van die BMV verder op te klaar. Beduidend positiewe korrelasies is tussen bestuursmotivering/ globale bestuurspotensiaal en nege bestuursdimensies gevind. Hierbenewens het die korrelasies tussen sestien persoonlikheidseienskappe en bestuursmotivering verdere ondersteunende bewyse gelewer van die konstrukgeldigheid van die BMV.

  6. Die Prozessionsspinner Mitteleuropas - Ein Überblick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bräsicke, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Die Auswirkungen des Klimawandels lassen sich bereits auch in Deutschland beobachten. Dabei werden die Waldökosysteme in besonderer Weise betroffen. Waldstandorte sind stärker trockenen Bedingungen ausgesetzt, die zusammen mit höheren Vegetationszeittemperaturen eine erhöhte Stressanfälligkeit der Bäume verursachen. Bei den Insekten beeinflusst eine erhöhte Temperatur u. a. die Entwicklungsdauer, die Populationsdichte und die Verwertbarkeit der Wirtspflanzen als Nahrung (BMLFUW 2003, Petercord et al. 2008. Es ist zu erwarten, dass die Wachstumsrate und die Entwicklung der Insektenarten beeinflusst wird (Netherer & Schopf 2009, die aufgrund eines relativ hohen Populationswachstums und hoher Mobilität durch Migration oder Adaption auf veränderte Klimabedingungen rascher reagieren (Harrington et al. 2001. Bei einigen Schädlingen zeichnet sich eine solche Entwicklung bereits ab. Unter ihnen befinden sich humanpathogene Arten, die zunehmend auch zum Forstschädling avancieren und die Waldbestände existenziell gefährden. Der Eichenprozessionsspinner gehört zu diesen Arten. Ebenfalls relevant für Mitteleuropa sind Thaumetopoea pinivora und Th. pityocampa, die mit dem Beitrag näher betrachtet werden.

  7. Die kuns van Maggie Laubser . 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dekker

    1953-03-01

    Full Text Available Dis vir my ’n groot genoeë om iets te mag sê oor die kuns van 'n vrouw at jare lank haar pad eensaam gegaan het, trou gebly het aan haar kunstenaarsoortuiging en nie toegegee het aan die smaak van die publiek, geenkompromieë daarmee gesluit het terwille van populariteit of stoflike gewin nie.

  8. Eenheid en differensiasie in die onderwys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie tenia van die interíakultêre lesings sny in werkliklieid oor alle fakulteite lieen en is ’11 probleem wal by elke dissipliiie ontstaan, sonder twyfel by almal wat met die mens en met levve te doen het, maar ook by die fisiese wetenskappe waar met die lewelosc skepping gewerk word. Waar ons in ons land en veral in Transvaal deesdae voortdurend te doen het met differensiasie in die onderwys, met A-, B- en C-bane, is hierdie beginsel van eenheid en verskeidenheid, van eeridersheid en ver- skillendbeid, van integrasie en differensiasie, van verdeelde beheer in die onderwys en van ’11 eenheidsheleid en -beheer, van nasionale en inter- nasionale onderwys, van verskillende skooltipes en van komprehensiewe skole e.d.m., voortdurend in die nuus. Saam met die eenheid en differen­ siasie in die volkewêreld van Afrika, is die probleem in die onderwys seker die popnlêrste; dis byna reeds gemeen|laas.

  9. Study on the microstructure and mechanical properties of medium carbon Cr-Si-Mn-Mo-V steel for cast inserted dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Xiao-yan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and mechanical properties of cast inserted dies for automobile covering components were studied. The results show that the as-cast microstructures of cast inserted dies are composed of pearlite, martensite,bainite, and austenite; and that the annealed microstructure is granular pearlite. The mechanical properties of cast inserted dies approach that of forged inserted dies. The tensile strength is 855 MPa, the elongation is 16%, the impact toughness is 177 J/cm2, and the hardness after annealing and quenching are HRC 19 and HRC 60-62. In addition, the cast inserted dies have good hardenability. The depth of the hardening zone and the hardness after flame quenching satisfy the operating requirements. The cast inserted dies could completely replace the forged inserted dies for making the dies of automobile covering components.

  10. Missionale kerkwees en die elektroniese sosiale media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Lazenby

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Die geweldige toename in die benutting van die sosiale media as interaktiewe kommunikasiemiddel wêreldwyd, bied aan die Christelike kerk groot missionale geleenthede, maar stel ook groot uitdagings en eise. Hierdie geleentheid moet benut word om missionaal ’n verskil ten gunste van God se koninkryk te maak. Die inhoud en die kommunikasiestyl kom onder die vergrootglas. Hierdie artikel poog om ’n paar bybels-etiese beginsels aan te dui wat as basis vir die missionale styl van kommunikasie moet dien. As uitgangspunt word die Bybel as die Woord van God gebruik. Daar word geredeneer dat die moreel-etiese beginsels wat in die Bybel aan die gelowige voorgeskryf word, van die grootste belang is om gestalte te gee aan die koninkryk van God in hierdie wêreld wanneer via die sosiale media op horisontale vlak met mense gekommunikeer word. Dit gaan dus vir die gelowige nooit net om humanistiese, sosiale kommunikasie nie, maar altyd dat die beeld van God in hierdie wêreld geëer en sy koninkryk daardeur uitgebou word. Vir die Christen-gelowige gaan dit nooit om die mens nie, maar altyd om God se eer en die manifestasie van sy koninkryk.Being a missional church and the social media. The tremendous increase in using the social media as interactive communication medium worldwide creates the opportunity for the Christian church to make a missional difference in favour of God’s kingdom on earth. It also brings great challenges with it. This means that the way communication via the mass social media is done, becomes of the utmost importance. The content as well as the manner in which the communication is conducted must be considered. This article aims at providing certain basic biblical-ethical principles for communicating in the mass social media that will serve the missional calling of the church. The point of departure is the Word of God. The basic focus of the argument is that the moral-ethical principles given to the believer in the Bible are of the

  11. Straatsburg en artikel 2 van die dordtse kerkorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Schulze

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available In art. 2 K.O. word daar vier soorte kerklike dienste on dcrskei, nl. „dié van die bedienaars van die Woord, dié van die professore aan die teologiese skool, die van die ouderlinge, en dié van die diakens”.

  12. Vapor coating method using small-molecule organic surface modifiers to replace N-type metal oxide layers in inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyosung; Kim, Hak-Beom; Ko, Seo-Jin; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Kim, Jin Young

    2014-05-14

    We investigate a simple fabrication method for vapor coating small-molecule organic interlayers as replacements for metal oxide films. The interfacial layers, which serve both as both surface modifiers to reduce the substrate work function and electron selective layers, maximize light absorption within the active layer while improving electron transport and compatibility between the active layer and cathode, leading to a ∼22% enhancement in power conversion efficiency and similar air stability compared to devices using a ZnO layer.

  13. Tetanus as cause of mass die-off of captive Japanese macaques, Japan, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomomi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Takahashi, Motohide; Une, Yumi

    2012-10-01

    In 2008 in Japan, 15/60 captive Japanese macaques died. Clostridium tetani was isolated from 1 monkey, and 11 had tetanus-specific symptoms. We conclude the outbreak resulted from severe environmental C. tetani contamination. Similar outbreaks could be prevented by vaccinating all monkeys, disinfecting housing areas/play equipment, replacing highly C. tetani-contaminated soil, and conducting epidemiologic surveys.

  14. Thermal Fatigue of Die-Casting Dies: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Hassan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled studies by experimental and numerical simulations are necessary for an increased understanding of the material behaviour as related to the interaction between the thermal and mechanical conditions. This paper focus on the mechanisms of thermal fatigue in the failure of dies and cores used in the die casting of aluminum alloys. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. Samples of various types of H13 steel were compared with a standard H13 steel by testing under identical thermal fatigue cycles. To determine the thermal constraint developed in the sample during the test, a finite difference technique was used to obtain the temperature distribution, based on temperature measurements at the boundaries. The resulting stresses and strains were computed, and the strain calculated at the edge or weakest point of the sample was used to correlate the number of cycles to crack initiation. As the strain at the edge increased, the number of cycles to failure decreased. The influence of various factors on thermal fatigue behavior was studied including austenitizing temperature, surface condition, stress relieving, casting, vacuum melting, and resulfurization. The thermal fatigue resistance improved as the austenitizing temperature increased from 1750 to 2050ºF.

  15. Die effekvan punttoekenningstandaarde op die korrelasie tussen matriek- en universiteitsprestasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Huysamen

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of marking standards on the correlation between matriculation and university performance. Marking standards differ between courses in the sense that the same group of students shows different course means in different courses. Goldman andWidawski (1976 proposed a within-persons procedure to adjust for such differences between university departments and Elliott and Strenta (1988 adjusted this procedure to perform such corrections between courses within departments. In this study the correlation between matriculation performance and university performance has been increased by applying this adjustment not only to university courses but also to matriculation subjects. Opsomming Punttoekenningstandaarde verskil tussen kursusse in die opsig dat dieselfde groep studente verskillende kursusgemiddeldes in verskillende kursusse toon. Goldman en Widawski (1976 het 'n tussenproefpersoonprosedure voorgestel om vir sodanige verskille tussen universiteitsdepartemente te korrigeer en Elliott en Strenta (1988 het dit aangepas om sodanige korreksies tussen kursusse binne departemente uit te voer. In hierdie ondersoek is die korrelasie tussen matriekprestasie en universiteitsprestasie verhoog deur hierdie aanpassing nie slegs op universiteit-kursusse nie, maar ook op matriekvakke toe te pas.

  16. Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling in die gesprek tussen wetenskap en geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Erasmus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis bely dat God deur twee middele geken word, te wete deur middel van die skepping, onderhouding en regering van die wêreld (waaronder die wetenskap en deur die heilige en goddelike Woord (die Bybel. Hierdie belydenis is van groot belang vir die gesprek tussen Wetenskap en Teologie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om die verskille, maar ook die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie twee middele van openbaring uit te lig, elkeen tot sy reg te laat kom, maar hulle ook in balans met mekaar te stel. Die wyse waarop te werk gegaan word, is die volgende: eers word gestel wat vooronderstellings is, asook die plek wat vooronderstellings in die beoefening van wetenskap sowel as geloof inneem. Daarna word nagevors watter perspektiewe artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling vir die wetenskaps- en teologiebeoefening respektiewelik bied. Hieruit word ’n aantal gevolgtrekkings gemaak wat kan help om die problematiek in die wetenskap-geloofsgesprek op te los. Die kernbevinding van hierdie artikel is die volgende: Vanweë die verskil in die aard en die doel tussen Bybelfeite en wetenskaplike navorsingsresultate kan en sal klaarblyklike harmonieprobleme tussen die Skrif en die wetenskap ontstaan. Hierdie is egter slegs klaarblyklike probleme, omdat ’n verrekening van die verskil in die aard en die bedoeling van die wetenskapresultate en die Bybelfeite hierdie probleem sal oplos.Article 2 of the Belgic Confession as faith presupposition in the science-faith debate. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession confesses that God can be known by two means: firstly by studying the creation, preservation and government of the universe (i.e. science and secondly by studying the Word of God (the Bible. This confession is very important for the discussion between science and faith. In this article the similarities, but also the differences between these two means of revelation are researched. The aim is to

  17. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  18. Die rol van kapitaal in die ekonomiese groei en ontwikkeling van onderontwikkelde gebiede*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. du Plessis

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available In die teorie oor ekonomiese groei speel kapitaal ’n besonder prominente rol. Kapitaal met die daarby behorende tegnologiese ontwikkeling, word beskou as die belangrikste enkele faktor verantwoordelik vir die bereiking en instandhouding van ’n „ten voile ontwikkelde” volkshuishouding.

  19. Die persoonlikheidsoriëntasieprofiel van die saluto-genies-funksionerende mens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Viviers

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to integrate the theoretical personality profile of the salutogenic functioning person, drawn from the literature on Salutogenesis, with the personality orientation profile of the optimal functioning employee, as documented in the literature on Organisational and Personnel psychology. The integration is done according to intra- (cognitive affective, conative and physical characteristics and interpersonal characteristics. The two profiles could be integrated, according to these characteristics, into a profile of the salutogenic functioning person who handles life and work stressors effectively and functions optimally in his daily existence. This integration shows a theoretical relationship between the two constructs and confirms a meaningful relationship found in empirical research. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om die teoretiese persoonlikheidsprofiel van die salutogenies-funksionerende mens vanuit die literatuur oor Salutogenese met die persoonlikheidsorientasieprofiel van die optimaal- funksionerende werknemer soos deur die Organisasie- en Personeelsielkunde-literatuur voorgehou, te integreer. Die integrasie word volgens intra- (kognitiewe, affektiewe, konatiewe en fisiese eienskappe en interpersoonlike eienskappe gedoen. Daar is bevind dat die twee profiele volgens die eienskappe geïntegreer kan word tot 'n profiel van die salutogenies-funksionerende mens wat die stressors van die lewe en werk effektief kan hanteer en sodoende optimaal in sy daaglikse bestaan funksioneer. Die integrasie bevind 'n teoretiese verband tussen die twee konstrukte. Dit bevestig empiriese navorsing wat 'n beduidende verband tussen die twee konstrukte bevind het.

  20. Was die neuen Frauen wollen

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Hannah; Meyen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Seit Mitte der 90er Jahre hat sich eine neue Generation von Frauenzeitschriften auf einem als übersättigt geltenden Markt etabliert. Diese Blätter richten sich an Frauen zwischen 20 und 35 Jahren. Glamour aus dem Condé Nast Verlag scheint die Perfektion dieses neuen Zeitschriftentypus zu sein. Das Magazin im Pocket-Format wurde sofort nach seiner Einführung im Februar 2001 Marktführer im Segment der monatlich erscheinenden Frauenzeitschriften. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, wie dieser Erfol...

  1. An Integrated Die Casting Design System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y; K; Woon; K; S; Lee

    2002-01-01

    Die casting process is one of the prime options for m anufacturing precisely dimensioned, sharply defined metal parts. The design of d ie casting dies comprises several stages and entails a large amount of time. Tra ditionally, the different stages of the die design were not integrated but exist as separate entities. Moreover, recurring modifications or even redesigns are r equired due to the complexity in achieving an accurate initial die design. As a result, die design is usually time-consuming and cos...

  2. USING LOGIC COMPONENTS FOR CONCEPTUAL DIE DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Logic components are used to support the conceptual design. Taking the stamping die structure as the research object,several logic components are defined for the conceptual die construction design. A new method-logic assembly modeling is presented to satisfy the characteristic of the top-down die design process. Representing shapes and spatial relations in logic can provide a natural,intuitive method of developing complete computer systems for reasoning about die construction design at the conceptual stage. This method can reflect the designer's thought clearly and provide the designer with a test bed for generating alternatives and performing reasoning work at the conceptual die design stage.

  3. Genl. Koos De La Rey, die krygsman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. du Plessis

    1959-03-01

    Full Text Available 22 Oktober is die geboortedag van genl. Koos de la Rey, wat van dag tot ons heldeverlede behoort. Vanjaargedenk ons ook op 11 Oktober die uitbreek van die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, sestig jaar gelede. Daarom wil ek graag by hierdie geleentheid die persoon van Koos de la Rey in herinnering roepen by wyse van hierdie artikel huldebring aan hom wat God aan ons volkgegee het op ’n tydstip toe sulke mannedringend noodsaaklik was; ’n man wat in die ure van dood en benoudheid leidingkon gee; ’n man sonder wie onsvolksgeskiedenis beslis armer sou gewees het. Aangesien hy by uitstek krygsmanen veldheer.

  4. Anforderungen an die Detektoren von DIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, S. J.

    Neben dem optischen System sind die Detektoren in der Fokalebene die wichtigste Komponente des Instruments eines astrometrischen Minisatelliten. Einer möglichst optimalen Auswahl des Detektorsystems und seiner Operationsmodi kommt daher eine entscheidende Bedeutung zu. In diesem Beitrag werden die Anforderungen vorgestellt, die sich zum gegenwärtigen Stand der Planung eines Interferometrie-Minisatelliten für astrometrische und photometrische Untersuchungen ergeben. Sie basieren auf dem grundlegenden Missionskonzept für die DIVA Mission (Bastian et al., 1996) und dem an der Landessternwarte Heidelberg zusammen mit dem ARI Heidelberg und DSS Ottobrunn erarbeiteten optischen Konzept des Instruments.

  5. Die resepsie van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (Sondag 17 en 22 insake die opstanding in die negentiende-eeuse Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk (Deel 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes W. Hofmeyr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Met die 450e herdenking van die Heidelbergse Kategismus (HK as vertrekpunt word in twee artikels gepoog om lig te werp op die plek, die rol en die interpretasie van die opstanding van Jesus Christus uit veral Sondag 17 en 22, spesifiek in die konteks van twee besondere eras in die Nederduitse Gereformeerde (NG Kerk. Na ’n kort bespreking van die Heidelbergse Kategismus , word in hierdie eerste artikel uitgebreid gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die era van Andrew Murray, spesifiek teen die agtergrond van die negentiende-eeuse liberale teologie in Nederland. In ’n tweede artikel word soortgelyk gekyk na die resepsie van die betrokke HK-geloofsartikels in die NG Kerk na 2000, veral teen die agtergrond van die herverskyning van die liberale teologie in die vorm van die Jesus Seminaar, die Nuwe Hervorming en die aanhangers daarvan se standpunte binne die NG Kerk. Sowel die negentiende-eeuse liberale stryd in die NG Kerk as die stryd rondom die opstanding in die NG Kerk van die eerste dekade van die een-en-twintigste eeu, soos in die tweede artikel duidelik sal blyk, was gekenmerk deur kontekstueelbepaalde uniekhede. Die gemene deler is dat albei deel was van tye van teologiese vrysinnigheid. In die lig van hierdie bespreking, ook ten opsigte van die negentiende eeu, sal tot die gevolgtrekking gekom word dat die NG Kerk, wat sy identiteit as gereformeerde kerk betref, tans waarskynlik in ’n kritieke geloofs- en toekomskrisis verkeer wat kommerwekkende gevolge vir sy Skrifverstaan en getuienis as belydenis en belydende kerk van Jesus Christus en sy toekoms inhou. Alleen ’n duidelike visie, verantwoordelike leierskap en die herontdekking van die kruis en die opstanding as ononderhandelbare heilsgebeure, wat ook deur die HK gehandhaaf word, sal die NG Kerk kan red van ’n snelwentelende afwaartse spiraal. Slegs die pasgenoemde faktore kan ’n herstellende, positiewe en dinamiese oplossing vir hierdie proses bied wat

  6. Ouditiewe aandag by die voorskoolse kind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Niemand

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available Daar is met hierdie navorsingsprojek gepoog om 'n duidelike beeld te vorm van ouditiewe aandagsprosessering by die voorskoolse kind. Aangesien ouditiewe aandagsprosessering van groot belang is vir die kind wat skool toe gaan is daar op die groep wat in die daaropvolgende jaar skool toe gaan besluit. 'n Groep van 64 kinders is geselekteer. Daar is gebruik gemaak van 'n gegradeerde ouditiefgerigte  ondersoekprogram wat so saamgestel is dat dit wetenskaplik verantwoordbaar is. In sy geheel gesien dui die navorsingsresultate daarop dat die basiese ontwikkelingsproses van ouditiewe aandagsprosessering op hierdie ouderdom (5;2 tot 5;8 voltooi is. 'n Verdere evaluering van die resultate in terme van die uiteengesette doelstellings van die navorsingsprojek dui daarop dat kinders in hierdie ouderdomsgroep nog soms moeite ondervind om aan 'n ouditiewe sei binne omgewingslawaai aandag te skenk. Bekende seine verhoog die vermoë om aandag te skenk. Daar kon egter nie vir alle aannames wat in die literatuur gemaak word, bewys gevind word nie.

  7. Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domkin, Konstantin; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Soldering of cast alloys to the dies has been a continuing source of die surface damage in the aluminum die-casting industry. To reduce the repair and maintenance costs, an approach to modeling the damage and predicting the die lifetime is required. The aim of the present study is the estimation...... of the die lifetime based on a quantitative analysis of die soldering in the framework of the numerical simulations of the die-casting process. Full 3D simulations of the process, including the filling. solidification, and the die cooling, are carried out using the casting simulation software MAGMAsoft....... The resulting transient temperature fields on the die surface and in the casting are then post-processed to estimate the die soldering. The present work deals only with the metallurgical/chemical kind of soldering which occurs at high temperatures and involves formation and growth of intermetallic layers...

  8. Comparing the effects of tetrabromobisphenol-A, bisphenol A, and their potential replacement alternatives, TBBPA-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) and bisphenol S, on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid expression in chicken embryonic hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Melissa; Crump, Doug; Farmahin, Reza; Kennedy, Sean W

    2015-02-01

    A market for alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has emerged recently due to the phase out of persistent and inherently toxic BFRs. Several of these replacement compounds have been detected in environmental matrices, including wild birds. A chicken embryonic hepatocyte (CEH) assay was utilized to assess the effects of the BFR, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), and its replacement alternative, tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether [TBBPA-DBPE]) on cell viability and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression. Bisphenol A (BPA) and 1 of its replacement alternatives, bisphenol S (BPS), were also screened for effects. Both TBBPA and BPA decreased CEH viability with calculated median lethal concentration (LC50) values of 40.6 μM and 61.7 μM, respectively. However, the replacement alternatives, TBBPA-DBPE and BPS, did not affect cell viability (up to 300 μM). Effects on mRNA expression were determined using an Avian ToxChip polymerse chain reaction (PCR) array and a real-time (RT)-PCR assay for the estrogen-responsive genes, apolipoproteinII (ApoII) and vitellogenin (Vtg). A luciferase reporter gene assay was used to assess dioxin-like effects. Tetrabromobisphenol-A altered mRNA levels of 4 genes from multiple toxicity pathways and increased luciferase activity in the luciferase reporter gene assay, whereas its alternative, TBBPA-DBPE, only altered 1 gene on the array, Cyp1a4, and increased luciferase activity. At 300 μM, a concentration that decreased cell viability for TBBPA and BPA, the BPA replacement, BPS, altered the greatest number of transcripts, including both ApoII and Vtg. Bisphenol A exposure did not alter any genes on the array but did up-regulate Vtg at 10 μM. Characterization of the potential toxicological and molecular-level effects of these compounds will ideally be useful to chemical regulators tasked with assessing the risk of new and existing chemicals.

  9. Simulating a high pressure die casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldak, J.; Zhou, J.; Downey, D.; Aldea, V.; Li, G.; Mocanita, M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    High pressure die casting is simulated for parts with complex geometry such as a large automotive transmission case. The closed die is filled in approximately 40 ms, the casting cools in the closed die for approximately 40s, to open the die, eject the casting and spray the die cavity surface requires another 40s. This 3D cyclic process is simulated using the following coupled composite solvers: the energy equation in the die and in the casting with solidification; filling of the casting by a droplet or a Navier-Stokes solver, and thermal stress analysis of the casting machine, casting and die during the cycle. This thermal analysis can be done for both starting and stopping transients and for the cyclic steady state. The software enables this analysis to be done almost automatically by designers. (author)

  10. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  11. Feasibility investigations on a novel micro-manufacturing process for fabrication of fuel cell bipolar plates: Internal pressure-assisted embossing of micro-channels with in-die mechanical bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Muammer [NSF I/UCR Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), Richmond, VA (United States); Mahabunphachai, Sasawat [NSF I/UCR Center for Precision Forming (CPF), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), Richmond, VA (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2007-10-25

    In this paper, we present the results of our studies on conceptual design and feasibility experiments towards development of a novel hybrid manufacturing process to fabricate fuel cell bipolar plates that consists of multi-array micro-channels on a large surface area. The premises of this hybrid micro-manufacturing process stem from the use of an internal pressure-assisted embossing process (cold or warm) combined with mechanical bonding of double bipolar plates in a single-die and single-step operation. Such combined use of hydraulic and mechanical forming forces and in-process bonding will (a) enable integrated forming of micro-channels on both surfaces (as anode and cathode flow fields) and at the middle (as cooling channels), (b) reduce the process steps, (c) reduce variation in dimensional tolerances and surface finish, (d) increase the product quality, (e) increase the performance of fuel cell by optimizing flow-field designs and ensuring consistent contact resistance, and (f) reduce the overall stack cost. This paper explains two experimental investigations that were performed to characterize and evaluate the feasibility of the conceptualized manufacturing process. The first investigation involved hydroforming of micro-channels using thin sheet metals of SS304 with a thickness of 51 {mu}m. The width of the channels ranged from 0.46 to 1.33 mm and the height range was between 0.15 and 0.98 mm. Our feasibility experiments resulted in that different aspect ratios of micro-channels could be fabricated using internal pressure in a controllable manner although there is a limit to very sharp channel shapes (i.e., high aspect ratios with narrow channels). The second investigation was on the feasibility of mechanical bonding of thin sheet metal blanks. The effects of different process and material variables on the bond quality were studied. Successful bonding of various metal blanks (Ni201, Al3003, and SS304) was obtained. The experimental results from both

  12. Die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. de Kock

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. These constructs were selected by virtue of their importance in the literature, as well as the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship which exists between them. The Human Sciences Research Council's (HSRC General Scholastic Aptitude Test (ASAT was used for measuring intelligence, Duttweiler's Internal Control Index (ICI was used for determining locus of control and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM was used as a criterion for coping with task complexity. These instruments were administered to 292 subjects to determine whether the relationship between locus of control and task complexity was effected when the effect of intelligence was controlled. The results indicated a significant relationship between locus of control and task complexity, however the relationship was no longer significant after the effect of intelligence was controlled. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taak-kompleksiteit te ondersoek. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies na aanleiding van hulle belangrikheid in die literatuur asook die leemte in empiric se navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband wat tussen hulle bestaan. Die Algemene Skolastiese Aanlegtoets (ASAT van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing (RGN is gebruik vir die meting van intelligensie, die Internal Control Index (ICI van Duttweiler is gebruik vir die meting van lokus van kontrole en die Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM van Raven is gebruik as maatstaf vir die bantering van taakkompleksiteit. Die genoemde meetinstrumente is op 292 proefpersone toegepas om te bepaal of die verband tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit geaffekteer word wanneer daar vir die effek

  13. Die invloed van ‘n intensiewe opleidingsprogram op die Kardio Stres-indeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Claassen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mense ondervind baie stressors in hul alledaagse lewe, wat ‘n groot uitwerking het op daagliksefunksionering. Kardio Stres-indeks (KSI is ‘n nie-indringende mate van die stres wat die hartervaar. KSI (uitgedruk as ‘n persentasie berekeninge word gebaseer op die duur van die QRSkompleks, hart tempo, ritme en standaardafwyking van die RR-interval (RRSD spesifieke parameters.

  14. Implikasies van ontwikkelings in die leerstelling van goddelike genesing binne die Pinksterbeweging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Pinksterbeweging het met verloop van tyd sy begrip van die leer van goddelike genesing verander. Die veranderings is hoofsaaklik as gevolg van vorderings wat deur die mediese wetenskap gemaak is en die pinksterteologie moes opnuut die verhouding tussen versoening en heling definieer. Die veranderings word in terme van die geskiedenis van die wit afdeling van die Apostoliese Geloof Sending van Suid-Afrika (AGS, die grootste pinksterdenominasie in Suid-Afrika, beskryf. Dit dien tot ’n groot mate as verteenwoordigend van veranderings in die res van die AGS, maar ook van die Pinksterbeweging as sodanig. Die ontleding toon dat die veranderde houding teenoor die gebruik van medisyne en inenting sowel as mediese prosedures soos operasies pinksterkerke uiteindelik dwing om toegewings in sy genesingsbediening te maak wat aan sy Skrifbeskouing verwant is. Dat die kerk veranderings aanbring in ’n belangrike leerstelling soos dié van goddelike genesing, hou belangrike implikasies vir die kerk in. Die implikasies hou verband met die wyse waarop die pinkstermense die Bybel lees en benut en dit noodsaak die Pinksterbeweging om ook oor ander leerstellings na te dink wat uitdagings daaraan stel, byvoorbeeld die eskatologie en ekklesiologie.Implications of developments in die doctrine of divine healing in die Pentecostal movement. The Pentecostal movement changed over time its understanding of the doctrine of divine healing. These changes are mainly in the attitude towards the advances made by medical science and reflected in the way pentecostal theology defined the relation between atonement and healing. The changes are described in terms of the history of the white division of the Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa (AFM, the largest pentecostal denomination within South Africa. It serves to a large extent as representative of the changes in the AFM, but also the Pentecostal movement per se. The analysis shows that the changed attitude towards the

  15. Dat die klip kan heers: Pieter Fourie se Die koggelaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Coetser

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Die koggelaar (The teaser, by playwright Pieter Fourie, is generally regarded as exceptional among his recent works. The purpose of this article is to discuss the title and drought as recurring themes in the drama. The teaser is Boet Cronje, but he is of the opinion that everyone teases him. In an ironic twist of events he finally believes that God teases him by not providing the rain he so desperately needs. An investigation of the text reveals the utilization of psychoanalytical theory, i.e. the theory of the collective and the personal unconscious as formulated by Jung. In this case physical drought initiates events which lead to the development of a fully-fledged psychosis in Boet. As a consequence of the interconnection of the personal and the collective unconscious the physical drought surrounding Boet additionally becomes a dramatic metaphor for the figurative drought in the community of which he is part.

  16. Verspreiding en habitats van Unio caffer Krauss, 1848 (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae in Suid-Afrika gebaseer op die rekords in die databasis van die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. de Kock

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Die kosmopolities-verspreide Unionoida bereik hul grootste diversiteit in Noord-Amerika. In Suid-Afrika word twee genera van die familie Unionidae, naamlik Unio en Coelatura wat vier spesies insluit, aangetref. Hierdie artikel handel oor die verspreiding en habitats van Unio caffer Krauss, 1848 gebaseer op die rekords in die Nasionale Varswaterslakversameling (NVWSV van Suid-Afrika. Alhoewel dit elders in Suid-Afrika sporadies aangetref is, is die Wes-Kaap die enigste provinsie waarvan geen monster op rekord in die databasis van die NVWSV is nie. Van die 58 monsters wat op rekord is, is die meerderheid in riviere (32.8% en damme (20.7% versamel en in watertoestande wat as standhoudend, staande, helder en vars beskryf is. ’n Temperatuur-indeks wat vir hierdie spesie bereken is, het dit vyfde in rangorde geplaas van die 12 Bivalvia-spesies wat in die databasis verteenwoordig word op grond van ’n assosiasie met lae omgewingstemperature. ’n Besluitnemingsboom-analise het aangedui dat temperatuur, substratum en waterbronne die mees betekenisvolle bydrae gelewer het tot die daarstelling van die gedokumenteerde geografiese verspreiding van U. caffer. Omdat omvattende opnames van varswater Mollusca deur staatsinstansies reeds in die tagtigerjare van die vorige eeu uitgefaseer is en die meerderheid versamelpunte sedertdien nie weer gemonster is nie, is kennis oor hul huidige stand van bewaring en spesiediversiteit gebrekkig. Negatiewe resultate by drie voormalige lokaliteite van U. caffer wat wel intussen deur die outeurs besoek is, dui egter daarop dat die voortbestaan daarvan, soos van sommige verwante spesies elders in die wêreld, bedreig word. Dit word bepleit dat opnames van varswater Mollusca met die gedokumenteerde verspreiding in die databasis van die NVWSV as riglyn, beplan en uitgevoer behoort te word. Die resultate van sulke opnames behoort ’n groot bydrae te lewer om die huidige stand van die verspreiding en spesiediversiteit van

  17. Bedryf- en organisasiesielkunde - Die grondslag van personeelbestuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Coetzee

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article in People and Profits Whyte (1978 attempts to distinguish between Industrial Psychology and Personnel Management and states that Industrial Psychology is "one specific aspect" of Personnel Management. Whether such difference exists is analysed in terms of Whyte's definition and views of Personnel Management and Industrial Psychology and recent developments in the field of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. It is concluded that differences do exist but that they are not the same as those which Whyte emphasizes. In order to promote common objectives both the similarities and differences should be recognized and close co-operation between Industrial and Organizational psychologists and Personnel Mangers should be encouraged.OpsommingIn 'n onlangse artikel in People and Profits poog Whyte (1978 om 'n onderskeid te tref tussen Bedryfsielkunde en Personeelbestuur en spreek die mening uit dat die Bedryfsielkunde 'n spesifieke aspek van Personeelbestuur is. Of daar wel so 'n onderskeid bestaan word in hierdie artikel ontleed aan die hand van Whyte se definisie en beskouinge van Personeelbestuur en Bedryfsielkunde en die resente ontwikkelinge op die terrein van die Bedryf- en Organisasiesielkunde. Daar word tot die slotsom gekom dat daar wel geringe klemverskille bestaan, maar dat dit nie dieselfde is as die wat Whyte beklemtoon nie. Ten einde die gemeenskaplike doelstellings te bevorder, moet beide die ooreenkomste en verskille erken word en moet noue samewerking tussen Bedryf- en Organisasiesielkundiges en personeelbestuurders aangemoedig word.

  18. Die andersheid van Die verdwaalde land – die waarheid as storie vertel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hattingh

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available Die verdwaalde land was written by Abraham Phillips, a so-called Coloured man from a South African working class background; someone who has no knowledge of literary conventions. The question arises: how can such a text be read without its uniqueness being affected by biased preconceptions? This article shows that post-structurally inspired theories on colonial discourse reveal perspectives on the complexity within the simplicity of this story. In this analysis of Die verdwaalde land particular emphasis is placed on identifying the framing strategies through which images and presentations of the Self and Other are created. Literary conventions are exposed as mechanisms which demarcate meaning, which in principle do not differ much from the manipulative strategies which define identity in the real world.Irrespective of nationality and time the line at which light race meets dark is the line at which human sociality is found at the lowest ebb; and wherever that line conies into existence there arc found the darkest shadows which we humans have cast by our injustice and egoism across the earth. (Olive Schreiner - Thoughts on South Africa

  19. Restoration of tumor suppressor gene function by gene replacement or small molecule strategies for the treatment of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza

    2011-01-01

    as potential therapeutic strategies for SCLC. However, as mutant p53 proteins tend to accumulate in SCLC cells, reintroduction of wild-type p53 may not be effective due to dominant-negative effects of the mutant protein. Therefore, a more effective approach would be to reactivate the endogenous mutant p53...... of FUS1 in SCLC cell lines, cells lacking FUS1 protein expression were transiently transfected with a FUS1 expression vector and the effect of exogenous FUS1 expression on SCLC cell growth and apoptosis was examined. Ectopic expression of FUS1 inhibited growth of the SCLC cell lines by inducing apoptosis...

  20. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... countries. METHODS: A multi-institutional, non-randomized, retrospective analysis was conducted among 2,932 patients who underwent AVR surgery at seven tertiary cardiac surgery centers throughout Europe. Demographic and perioperative variables including valve size and type, body surface area (BSA) and early...

  1. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  2. Die sterwende kind in hospitaalvernand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrika de Villiers

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Illness and death of a child is a crisis situation in the family, affecting all members. Parents experience certain universal problems such as denial, feelings of guilt and withdrawal. The dying child is usually aware of his situation and experiences fear and loneliness. He has diverse physical and psychological needs as a result of his illness which must be met by parents and nurses. In caring for the terminally ill child attention must be given to providing: a physical environment conducive to well-being; a consistent emotional climate; communication which should include therapeutic play; a therapeutic program in which various measures are taken to enhance acceptability; physical care where the child is encouraged to help himself as far as possible; psycological and spiritual care to allay his fears and anxiety.

  3. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  4. Lig op Satan en Satanisme vanuit die Nuwe Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. van Rensburg

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word, in aansluiting by en as voorsetting van prof. Vosloo se "Lig op Satanisme vanuit die Ou Testament" ook in die Nuwe Testament lig op die Satan en Satanisme-verskynsel gesoek. Wat die aard van die inhoud van hierdie artikel betref, probeer ek doelbewus om die stof só aan te bied dat dit gemaklik tot die gemiddelde ernstige Bybelleser kommunikeer. Derhalwe is die aanpak nie akademies-wetenskaplik nie, maar populêr-wetenskaplik.

  5. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  6. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  7. Development of vacuum die-casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masashi Uchida

    2009-01-01

    The vacuum die-casting process, started 25 years ago in Japan, has been widely applied. This technology contributes very much to improvement of castings quality. The main factor causing the defects of die castings is the trapped air in the mold cavity, while the key technology of vacuum die-casting process is to avoid the trapped air effectively by evacuating the cavity before casting. At the same time, due to the shot speed and the casting pressure reduced in half, the service life of the die is prolonged and the productivity is enhanced, as well. Vacuum die-casting process is of great significance in improving the die castings quality and making up the shortcomings of super-high-speed shot casting.

  8. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  9. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  11. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  12. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  13. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  14. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  15. Faster Replacement Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Virginia Vassilevska

    2010-01-01

    The replacement paths problem for directed graphs is to find for given nodes s and t and every edge e on the shortest path between them, the shortest path between s and t which avoids e. For unweighted directed graphs on n vertices, the best known algorithm runtime was \\tilde{O}(n^{2.5}) by Roditty and Zwick. For graphs with integer weights in {-M,...,M}, Weimann and Yuster recently showed that one can use fast matrix multiplication and solve the problem in O(Mn^{2.584}) time, a runtime which would be O(Mn^{2.33}) if the exponent \\omega of matrix multiplication is 2. We improve both of these algorithms. Our new algorithm also relies on fast matrix multiplication and runs in O(M n^{\\omega} polylog(n)) time if \\omega>2 and O(n^{2+\\eps}) for any \\eps>0 if \\omega=2. Our result shows that, at least for small integer weights, the replacement paths problem in directed graphs may be easier than the related all pairs shortest paths problem in directed graphs, as the current best runtime for the latter is \\Omega(n^{2.5...

  16. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  17. Amensie en demensie met verwysing na die intellek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. W. Deppe

    1958-03-01

    Full Text Available ,,Es ist der Geist der sich den Kórper baut” het Goethe gesê en hy het daardeur die monistiese begrip in die psigiatrie beklemtoon. Dwarsdeur die eeue het die ontwikkelingsgeskiedenis van die mens maar telkens getoon hoedat daar by die mens veral, nie anders gedink kan word dan as 'n psigosomatiese eenheid nie. 

  18. MIDCAB Operationen in Wien - die ersten Erfahrungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerny M

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Die sogenannte MIDCAB (minimal invasive direct coronary artery bypass Operation wurde als chirurgische Therapie der koronaren Eingefäßerkrankung in letzter Zeit kontroversiell diskutiert. Ihr klinischer Stellenwert ist weiterhin unklar. Im Zeitraum von April 1996 bis Mai 1998 wurde die MIDCAB-Operation an 57 Patienten an der Abteilung für Herz-Thorax Chirurgie, Universität Wien durchgeführt. Zielgefäße für eine chirurgische Revaskularisierung waren die LAD (n = 52 und die RCA (n = 5. Als arterieller Graft dienten die linke Art. mammaria interna (LAD-Bypass bzw. die Art. gastroepiploica dextra (RCA-Bypass. Als Zugänge wurden limitierte Schnittführungen gewählt, in 91% der Fälle die anterolaterale Thorakotomie und in 9% der subxyphoidale Zugang, die Anastomosierungen erfolgten am schlagenden Herzen ohne Herzlungenmaschine. In 52 Fällen wurde die LIMA (Left internal mammary artery mit der LAD anastomosiert. Bei 3 von 52 Patienten mußte wegen einer intramyokardialen LAD zu einer konventionellen Operation gewechselt werden, in 4 Fällen war eine Revision notwendig. In allen Fällen gab es keinen Todesfall und keinen perioperativen Infarkt. Bei 36 Patienten wurde eine postoperative Kontrollangiographie durchgeführt, es ergab sich eine primäre Offenheitsrate von 96%. In 5 Fällen wurde eine Anastomose zwischen GEA und RCA hergestellt. Es gab keine Konversion, keinen Todesfall und keinen Myokardinfarkt. Drei dieser Patienten wurden postoperativ nachangiographiert, die Bypässe waren gut durchgängig. Zum derzeitigen Zeitpunkt sind alle 57 Patienten klinisch symptomfrei. Nach Überwindung von anfänglichen technischen Schwierigkeiten sind die Ergebnisse mit der MIDCAB-Operation sehr gut. Als potentielles Patientenkollektiv für die Zukunft scheinen sich vor allem Patienten nach multiplen kardiologischen Interventionen an der LAD bzw. der RCA anzubieten.

  19. Hemofilie onder die nasate van koningin Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie bespreek die uitwerking van die sogenaamde Victoriaanse hemofilie op Europese koningshuise gedurende die negentiende en twintigste eeu. Hemofilie as molekulêre defek word verduidelik en die kliniese beeld van die siekte word aangedui. ’n Bespreking van toepaslike terapeutiese ingrepe volg. Dan word ’n historiese oorsig verskaf van die verspreiding van Victoriaanse hemofilie vanaf koningin Victoria (Britse monarg, 1837–1901 via sommige van haar dogters na ander lede van die Britse koningshuis en ook na die Duitse, Russiese en Spaanse koningshuise. Elf bevestigde gevalle van hemofilie onder lede van koningin Victoria se nageslag word vermeld, asook drie ander moontlike gevalle van die siekte. Die effek van hemofilie op die verloop van die geskiedenis word ook ondersoek.Haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria. This study discusses the impact of ‘Victorian haemophilia’ on the royal houses of Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries. Haemophilia as a molecular defect is explained and the clinical picture of the condition is indicated. Applicable therapeutic interventions also receive attention. Next, an historical review is provided of how ‘Victorian haemophilia’ spread from Queen Victoria (British monarch, 1837–1901 via some of her daughters to other members of the British royal family and also to the royal houses of Germany, Russia and Spain. Eleven confirmed cases of haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria are mentioned, as well as three other possible cases. The effect of haemophilia on the course of history is also investigated.

  20. Anfangen, sich die Welt anders vorzustellen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fuchs

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Der Sammelband Butler Matters bezeugt Judith Butlers außerordentliche Bedeutung für feministische und queere Studien und Forschung. In elf Beiträgen wird Butlers (frühes Werk von Gender Trouble und Bodies That Matter über Excitable Speech bis zu The Psychic Life of Power betrachtet und sein weit reichender Einfluss quer durch die wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen nachgewiesen. Dargestellt werden auch die kontroverse Rezeption von Butlers Werk sowie die politischen Wirkungen von Butlers Denken. Besonders anregend ist ein zweiteiliges Interview mit Judith Butler, in dem sie auf ein breites Spektrum von Fragen eingeht, die auch wichtige Themen ihrer aktuelleren Werke betreffen.