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Sample records for repetitive motor behavior

  1. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience.

  2. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  3. Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task

    OpenAIRE

    Coq, Jacques-Olivier; Barr, Ann E.; Strata, Fabrizio; Russier, Michael; Kietrys, David M; Merzenich, Michael M.; Byl, Nancy N; Barbe, Mary F

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive motion disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal hand dystonia, can be associated with tasks that require prolonged, repetitive behaviors. Previous studies using animal models of repetitive motion have correlated cortical neuroplastic changes or peripheral tissue inflammation with fine motor performance. However, the possibility that both peripheral and central mechanisms coexist with altered motor performance has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relat...

  4. Motor learning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: activation in superior parietal lobule related to learning and repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G; Kana, Rajesh K; Klinger, Laura G; Klein, Christopher L; Klinger, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Motor-linked implicit learning is the learning of a sequence of movements without conscious awareness. Although motor symptoms are frequently reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), recent behavioral studies have suggested that motor-linked implicit learning may be intact in ASD. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is one of the most common measures of motor-linked implicit learning. The present study used a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner to examine the behavioral and neural correlates of real-time motor sequence learning in adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 15) compared with age- and intelligence quotient-matched individuals with typical development (n = 15) during an SRT task. Behavioral results suggested less robust motor sequence learning in individuals with ASD. Group differences in brain activation suggested that individuals with ASD, relative to individuals with typical development, showed decreased activation in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and right precuneus (Brodmann areas 5 and 7, and extending into the intraparietal sulcus) during learning. Activation in these areas (and in areas such as the right putamen and right supramarginal gyrus) was found to be significantly related to behavioral learning in this task. Additionally, individuals with ASD who had more severe repetitive behavior/restricted interest symptoms demonstrated greater decreased activation in these regions during motor learning. In conjunction, these results suggest that the SPL may play an important role in motor learning and repetitive behavior in individuals with ASD.

  5. Excitability and firing behavior of single slow motor axons transmitting natural repetitive firing of human motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudina, Lydia P; Andreeva, Regina E

    2017-08-01

    Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function, i.e., transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibers. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored. It was shown that axons displayed an early irresponsive period (within the first ~2-5 ms of a target ISI) that was followed by a responsive period (for the next 5-17 ms of the ISI), in which MUs fired axonal doublets, and a later irresponsive period. At the beginning of the responsive period, M-responses showed small latency delays. However, since at that ISI moment, MUs displayed excitability recovery with high firing index, slight latency changes may be considered as a functionally insignificant phenomenon. The duration of axonal doublet ISIs did not depend on motoneuron firing frequencies (range 4.3-14.6 imp/s). The question of whether or not traditionally described axonal recovery excitability cycle is realistic in natural motor control is discussed. In conclusion, the present approach, exploring, for the first time, excitability recovery in single slow axons during motoneuron natural activation, can provide further insight into axonal firing behavior in normal states and diseases.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Excitability of single slow axons was estimated by motor unit firing index in response to motor nerve stimulation, and its changes throughout a target interspike interval were explored during transmitting human motoneuron natural firing. It was found that axons exhibited early irresponsive

  6. Relationship between early motor milestones and severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljarević, Mirko; Hedley, Darren; Alvares, Gail A; Varcin, Kandice J; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2017-03-16

    This study explored the relationships between the later age of achievement of early motor milestones, current motor atypicalities (toe walking), and the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents of 147 children and adolescents with ASD (Mage  = 8.09 years, SD = 4.28; 119 males) completed an early developmental milestones questionnaire and the Social Responsiveness Scale as a measure of Insistence on Sameness (IS) and Repetitive Mannerisms (RM). Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test whether RM and IS behaviors were predicted by early motor milestones, or current toe walking. The final model predicting RM accounted for 15% of the variance (F = 3.02, p = .009), with toe walking as a unique and independent predictor of RM scores (t = 3.568, p = .001). The final model predicting IS accounted for 19.1% of variance in IS scores (F = 4.045, p = .001), with chronological age (CA) (t = 2.92, p = .004), age when first standing (t = 2.09, p = .038), and toe walking (t = 2.53, p = .013) as unique independent predictors. Toe walking (t = 2.4, p = .018) and age when first sitting (t = 2.08, p = .04) predicted the severity of RRBs on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (F = 2.334, p = .036). Our study replicates previous findings on the relationship between concurrent motor impairments and RRBs, and provides the first evidence for the association between RRBs and age of attainment of early motor milestones. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Repetitive maladaptive behavior: beyond repetition compulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-09-01

    Maladaptive behavior that repeats, typically known as repetition compulsion, is one of the primary reasons that people seek psychotherapy. However, even with psychotherapeutic advances it continues to be extremely difficult to treat. Despite wishes and efforts to the contrary repetition compulsion does not actually achieve mastery, as evidenced by the problem rarely resolving without therapeutic intervention, and the difficulty involved in producing treatment gains. A new framework is proposed, whereby such behavior is divided into behavior of non-traumatic origin and traumatic origin with some overlap occurring. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of non-traumatic origin arises from an evolutionary-based process whereby patterns of behavior frequently displayed by caregivers and compatible with a child's temperament are acquired and repeated. It has a familiarity and ego-syntonic aspect that strongly motivates the person to retain the behavior. Repetitive maladaptive behavior of traumatic origin is characterized by defensive dissociation of the cognitive and emotional components of trauma, making it very difficult for the person to integrate the experience. The strong resistance of repetitive maladaptive behavior to change is based on the influence of both types on personality, and also factors specific to each. Psychotherapy, although very challenging at the best of times, can achieve the mastery wished and strived for, with the aid of several suggestions provided.

  8. Language and Motor Abilities of Preschool Children Who Stutter: Evidence from Behavioral and Kinematic Indices of Nonword Repetition Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and…

  9. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior : of mice…

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Kas, Martien J H; Staal, Wouter G; van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive and stereotyped behavior is a prominent element of both animal and human behavior. Similar behavior is seen across species, in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders and in key phases of typical development. This raises the question whether these similar classes of behavior are caused by simi

  10. Subcategories of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L.; Hus, Vanessa; Duncan, Amie; Huerta, Marisela; Gotham, Katherine; Pickles, Andrew; Kreiger, Abba; Buja, Andreas; Lund, Sabata; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) can be subdivided into Repetitive Sensory Motor (RSM) and Insistence on Sameness (IS) behaviors. However, because the majority of previous studies have used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), it is not clear whether these subcategories reflect the actual organization…

  11. The Prevalence and Phenomenology of Repetitive Behavior in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence and phenomenology of repetitive behavior in genetic syndromes to detail profiles of behavior. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire (RBQ) provides fine-grained identification of repetitive behaviors. The RBQ was employed to examine repetitive behavior in Angelman (N = 104), Cornelia de Lange (N = 101), Cri-du-Chat…

  12. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Primary Motor Cortex Interferes with Motor Learning by Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Liana E.; Wilson, Elizabeth T.; Gribble, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Neural representations of novel motor skills can be acquired through visual observation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the idea that this "motor learning by observing" is based on engagement of neural processes for learning in the primary motor cortex (M1). Human subjects who observed another person learning…

  13. Evidence-Based Behavioral Interventions for Repetitive Behaviors in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Bodfish, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There has been an increased research emphasis on repetitive behaviors; however, this research primarily has focused on phenomenology and mechanisms. Thus, the knowledge base on interventions is lagging behind other areas of research. The literature…

  14. Relationship between postural control and restricted, repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Krestin eRadonovich; Fournier, Kimberly A.; Christopher J. Hass

    2013-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with...

  15. Neural Correlates of Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder . Authors: T.Q.Nguyen, B...Manoach. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predicts Restrictive Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder We...Introduction: Although restricted , repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a highly disabling core feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), they

  16. Reversal learning in C58 mice: Modeling higher order repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Cristina M; Curry-Pochy, Lisa S; Shafer, Robin; Rudy, Joseph; Lewis, Mark H

    2017-08-14

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism and prevalent in other neurodevelopmental disorders. These behaviors cluster as repetitive sensory-motor behaviors and behaviors reflecting resistance to change. The C58 mouse strain is a promising model for these behaviors as it emits high rates of aberrant repetitive sensory-motor behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to extend characterization of the C58 model to resistance to change. This was done by comparing C58 to C57BL/6 mice on a reversal learning task under either a 100% or 80%/20% probabilistic reinforcement schedule. In addition, the effect of environmental enrichment on performance of this task was assessed as this rearing condition markedly reduces repetitive sensory-motor behavior in C58 mice. Little difference was observed between C58 and control mice under a 100% schedule of reinforcement. The 80%/20% probabilistic schedule of reinforcement generated substantial strain differences, however. Importantly, no strain difference was observed in acquisition, but C58 mice were markedly impaired in their ability to reverse their pattern of responding from the previously high density reinforcement side. Environmental enrichment did not impact acquisition under the probabilistic reinforcement schedule, but enriched C58 mice performed significantly better than standard housed C58 mice in reversal learning. Thus, C58 mice exhibit behaviors that reflect both repetitive sensory motor behaviors as well as behavior that reflects resistance to change. Moreover, both clusters of repetitive behavior were attenuated by environmental enrichment. Such findings, along with the reported social deficits in C58 mice, increase the translational value of this mouse model to autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Repetitive behavior profile and supersensitivity to amphetamine in the C58/J mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Sheryl S; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Teng, Brian L; Agster, Kara L; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Baker, Lorinda K; Nadler, Jessica J; Bodfish, James W

    2014-02-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors are core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The range of symptoms encompassed by the repetitive behavior domain includes lower-order stereotypy and self-injury, and higher-order indices of circumscribed interests and cognitive rigidity. Heterogeneity in clinical ASD profiles suggests that specific manifestations of repetitive behavior reflect differential neuropathology. The present studies utilized a set of phenotyping tasks to determine a repetitive behavior profile for the C58/J mouse strain, a model of ASD core symptoms. In an observational screen, C58/J demonstrated overt motor stereotypy, but not over-grooming, a commonly-used measure for mouse repetitive behavior. Amphetamine did not exacerbate motor stereotypy, but had enhanced stimulant effects on locomotion and rearing in C58/J, compared to C57BL/6J. Both C58/J and Grin1 knockdown mice, another model of ASD-like behavior, had marked deficits in marble-burying. In a nose poke task for higher-order repetitive behavior, C58/J had reduced holeboard exploration and preference for non-social, versus social, olfactory stimuli, but did not demonstrate cognitive rigidity following familiarization to an appetitive stimulus. Analysis of available high-density genotype data indicated specific regions of divergence between C58/J and two highly-sociable strains with common genetic lineage. Strain genome comparisons identified autism candidate genes, including Cntnap2 and Slc6a4, located within regions divergent in C58/J. However, Grin1, Nlgn1, Sapap3, and Slitrk5, genes linked to repetitive over-grooming, were not in regions of divergence. These studies suggest that specific repetitive phenotypes can be used to distinguish ASD mouse models, with implications for divergent underlying mechanisms for different repetitive behavior profiles.

  18. Repetition suppression in auditory-motor regions to pitch and temporal structure in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rachel M; Chen, Joyce L; Hollinger, Avrum; Penhune, Virginia B; Palmer, Caroline; Zatorre, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    Music performance requires control of two sequential structures: the ordering of pitches and the temporal intervals between successive pitches. Whether pitch and temporal structures are processed as separate or integrated features remains unclear. A repetition suppression paradigm compared neural and behavioral correlates of mapping pitch sequences and temporal sequences to motor movements in music performance. Fourteen pianists listened to and performed novel melodies on an MR-compatible piano keyboard during fMRI scanning. The pitch or temporal patterns in the melodies either changed or repeated (remained the same) across consecutive trials. We expected decreased neural response to the patterns (pitch or temporal) that repeated across trials relative to patterns that changed. Pitch and temporal accuracy were high, and pitch accuracy improved when either pitch or temporal sequences repeated over trials. Repetition of either pitch or temporal sequences was associated with linear BOLD decrease in frontal-parietal brain regions including dorsal and ventral premotor cortex, pre-SMA, and superior parietal cortex. Pitch sequence repetition (in contrast to temporal sequence repetition) was associated with linear BOLD decrease in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) while pianists listened to melodies they were about to perform. Decreased BOLD response in IPS also predicted increase in pitch accuracy only when pitch sequences repeated. Thus, behavioral performance and neural response in sensorimotor mapping networks were sensitive to both pitch and temporal structure, suggesting that pitch and temporal structure are largely integrated in auditory-motor transformations. IPS may be involved in transforming pitch sequences into spatial coordinates for accurate piano performance.

  19. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

    2011-01-01

    Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Ex...

  20. Breakdown behavior of electronics at variable pulse repetition rates

    OpenAIRE

    Korte, S.; H. Garbe

    2006-01-01

    The breakdown behavior of electronics exposed to single transient electromagnetic pulses is subject of investigations for several years. State-of-the-art pulse generators additionally provide the possibility to generate pulse sequences with variable pulse repetition rate. In this article the influence of this repetition rate variation on the breakdown behavior of electronic systems is described. For this purpose microcontroller systems are examined during line-led exposure to pulses with repe...

  1. Relationship Between Subtypes of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Sleep Disturbance in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Rachel J; Shui, Amy; Malow, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association of two types of restricted and repetitive behaviors, repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS), with sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 532 children (aged 2-17) who participated in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network research registry. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised detected the presence of RSM and IS. RSM behaviors were positively associated with parent-reported sleep problems, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for anxiety symptoms. IS was not significantly associated with sleep problems. Better understanding of the relationship between specific types of repetitive behaviors and sleep problems may allow providers to tailor interventions to the individual presentations of their patients with ASD.

  2. Motor Control and Nonword Repetition in Specific Working Memory Impairment and SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Munson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Debate around the underlying cognitive factors leading to poor performance in the repetition of nonwords by children with developmental impairments in language has centered around phonological short-term memory, lexical knowledge, and other factors. This study examines the impact of motor control demands on nonword repetition in groups of…

  3. Motor Control and Nonword Repetition in Specific Working Memory Impairment and SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Munson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Debate around the underlying cognitive factors leading to poor performance in the repetition of nonwords by children with developmental impairments in language has centered around phonological short-term memory, lexical knowledge, and other factors. This study examines the impact of motor control demands on nonword repetition in groups of…

  4. Measurement of motor evoked potentials following repetitive magnetic motor cortex stimulation during isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, V; Krombach, G A; Baumert, J H; Kreitschmann-Andermahr, I; Weinzierl, M; Gilsbach, J M

    2003-10-01

    Isoflurane and propofol reduce the recordability of compound muscle action potentials (CMAP) following single transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (sTCMS). Repetition of the magnetic stimulus (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, rTCMS) might allow the inhibition caused by anaesthesia with isoflurane or propofol to be overcome. We applied rTCMS (four stimuli; inter-stimulus intervals of 3, 4, 5 ms (333, 250, 200 Hz), output 2.5 Tesla) in 27 patients and recorded CMAP from the hypothenar and anterior tibial muscle. Anaesthesia was maintained with fentanyl 0.5-1 microg kg(-1) x h(-1) and either isoflurane 1.2% (10 patients) or propofol 5 mg kg(-1) x h(-1) with nitrous oxide 60% in oxygen (17 patients). No CMAP were detected during isoflurane anaesthesia. During propofol anaesthesia 333 Hz, four-pulse magnetic stimulation evoked CMAP in the hypothenar muscle in 75%, and in the anterior tibial muscle in 65% of the patients. Less response was obtained with 250 and 200 Hz stimulation. In most patients, rTCMS can overcome suppression of CMAP during propofol/nitrous oxide anaesthesia, but not during isoflurane anaesthesia. A train of four magnetic stimuli at a frequency of 333 Hz is most effective in evoking potentials from the upper and lower limb muscles. The authors conclude that rTCMS can be used for evaluation of the descending motor pathways during anaesthesia.

  5. Nonword Repetition and Speech Motor Control in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Reuterskiöld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how familiarity of word structures influenced articulatory control in children and adolescents during repetition of real words (RWs and nonwords (NWs. A passive reflective marker system was used to track articulator movement. Measures of accuracy were obtained during repetition of RWs and NWs, and kinematic analysis of movement duration and variability was conducted. Participants showed greater consonant and vowel accuracy during RW than NW repetition. Jaw movement duration was longer in NWs compared to RWs across age groups, and younger children produced utterances with longer jaw movement duration compared to older children. Jaw movement variability was consistently greater during repetition of NWs than RWs in both groups of participants. The results indicate that increases in phonological short-term memory demands affect articulator movement. This effect is most pronounced in younger children. A range of skills may develop during childhood, which supports NW repetition skills.

  6. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  7. Oxotremorine treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR T+ tf/J mice

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    Dionisio A. Amodeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6 mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD.

  8. Spatial Concept Learning in Preschool Children: Motoric Experiences and Verbal Repetition as Adjuncts to Passive Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Worthington, R. Kirby

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-two preschool children were matched by age, sex, and pretest scores on spatial concept knowledge. Four groups were (1) instruction (see and hear) only, (2) verbal repetition, (3) fine motor treatment (hand manipulation), and (4) gross motor treatment (body movement). There was no difference in performance between groups given instruction…

  9. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11

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    Jon E. Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compulsive and related disorders category, as this is how most clinicians see these behaviors, and as this may optimize clinical utility. The descriptions of these disorders should largely mirror those in DSM-5, given the evidence from recent field surveys. The recommendations regarding ICD-11 and body-focused repetitive behavior disorders should promote the global identification and treatment of these conditions in primary care settings.

  10. The neurobiology of repetitive behavior: …and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Marieke; Durston, Sarah; Kas, Martien J H; van Engeland, Herman; Staal, Wouter G

    2011-01-01

    In young, typically developing children, repetitive behavior similar to that in certain neuropsychiatric syndromes is common. Whereas this behavior is adaptive in typical development, in many disorders it forms a core component of symptoms and causes prominent impairment in the daily life of affecte

  11. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

  12. Rehabilitation interventions for chronic motor deficits with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Paquette, C; Thiel, A

    2012-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive electrophysiological method to modulate cortical excitability. As such, rTMS can be used in conjunction with conventional physiotherapy or occupational therapy to facilitate rehabilitation of motor function in patients with focal brain lesions. This review summarizes the rationale for using rTMS in the rehabilitation of motor deficits as derived from imaging and electrophysiological studies of the human motor system. rTMS methodology and its various stimulation modalities are introduced and current evidence for rTMS as supportive therapy for the rehabilitation of chronic motor deficits is discussed.

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

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    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  14. Relationship Between Postural Control and Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krestin eRadonovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation.Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R in children with ASD and typically developing controls (TD ages 3-16. All subjects had Nonverbal IQ>70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self–selected stance width for 15 seconds. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all 6 subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs.Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this diverse

  15. Relationship between postural control and restricted, repetitive behaviors in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonovich, K J; Fournier, K A; Hass, C J

    2013-01-01

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation. Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP) sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) controls ages 3-16. All subjects had Non-verbal IQ > 70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self-selected stance width for 20 s. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all six subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs. Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this very diverse disorder.

  16. Motor and Executive Control in Repetitive Timing of Brief Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Linus; Ullen, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments,…

  17. Repetition priming of motor activity mediated by a central pattern generator: the importance of extrinsic vs. intrinsic program initiators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Michael J; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Jing, Jian; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2016-10-01

    Repetition priming is characterized by increased performance as a behavior is repeated. Although this phenomenon is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in a model system, the feeding network of Aplysia This network generates both ingestive and egestive motor programs. Previous data suggest a chemical coding model: ingestive and egestive inputs to the feeding central pattern generator (CPG) release different modulators, which act via different second messengers to prime motor activity in different ways. The ingestive input to the CPG (neuron CBI-2) releases the peptides feeding circuit activating peptide and cerebral peptide 2, which produce an ingestive pattern of activity. The egestive input to the CPG (the esophageal nerve) releases the peptide small cardioactive peptide. This model is based on research that focused on a single aspect of motor control (radula opening). Here we ask whether repetition priming is observed if activity is triggered with a neuron within the core CPG itself and demonstrate that it is not. Moreover, previous studies demonstrated that effects of modulatory neurotransmitters that induce repetition priming persist. This suggests that it should be possible to "prime" motor programs triggered from within the CPG by first stimulating extrinsic modulatory inputs. We demonstrate that programs triggered after ingestive input activation are ingestive and programs triggered after egestive input activation are egestive. We ask where this priming occurs and demonstrate modifications within the CPG itself. This arrangement is likely to have important consequences for "task" switching, i.e., the cessation of one type of motor activity and the initiation of another. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Perseveration and other repetitive verbal behaviors: functional dissociations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Sarah S; Boutsen, Frank R; Buckingham, Hugh W

    2004-11-01

    This article will review types of perseveration from a neurolinguistic perspective. During the course of the article, continuous, stuck-in-set, and recurrent perseveration will be placed in contradistinction to several other types of repetitive behaviors commonly associated with neurogenic communication disorders. These include echolalia in mixed transcortical aphasia; conduite d'approche and conduite d'ecart in fluent aphasias; lexical and nonlexical automatisms in nonfluent aphasias; palilalia in neuromotor disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD); and sound, syllable, word, and phrase repetitions in neurogenic stuttering. When differentiating these phenomena from perseveration, it is helpful to consider the salient factors that condition observed behaviors in individual patients, such as overall speech fluency, inventory of available utterances, nature of eliciting tasks, and propositionality of responses. Information such as communication disorder diagnosis, underlying etiology, and known sites of lesion from each patient's total clinical profile may also assist with differentiation.

  19. Striatal development in autism: repetitive behaviors and the reward circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Kohls, Gregor; Yerys, Benjamin; Schultz, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by two essential features – impaired social communication abilities, including deficits with social reciprocity, nonverbal communication and establishing relationships, and by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (RRBIs). Social deficits get the majority of attention both in science and in the popular media, but RRBIs are equally important in understanding autism. Although RRBIs are also seen in typically...

  20. Continuous rotary motor electro-hydraulic servo system based on the improved repetitive controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-jing; JIANG ji-hai; LI Shang-yi

    2010-01-01

    In order to suppress the periodic interference of the continuous rotary electro-hydraulic servo motor,this paper makes the motor tracking the periodic signals with high accuracy,and improves the influence of friction interference to the performance of continuous rotary electro-hydraulic servo motor.The mathematic model of the electro-hydraulic position servo system of the continuous rotary motor was established,and the compound control method was adopted based on the repetitive control,feed forward and PID to suppress the friction interference.Through the simulation,the result confirms that the compound control method decreases the tracking error of the system,increases the robust performance of the system and improves the performance of the continuous rotary electro-hydraulic servo motor.

  1. Comparison of Sensory-motor Rhythm and Movement Related Cortical Potential during Ballistic and Repetitive Motor Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ren; JIANG Ning; MRACHACZ-KERSTING Natalie; DREMSTRUP Kim; FARINA Dario

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared two types of EEG modalities, sensory-motor rhythms (SMR) and movement related cortical potentials (MRCP), on four healthy subjects performing ballistic or repetitive movement imagination. The EEG waveform morphology across subjects was similar for MRCPs, whereas there was not a clear pattern for SMRs. The rank-sum test showed a significant difference between the amplitude of baseline and that of the MRCP as early as 2 s prior to imagery onset, for both types of motor imageries, indicating strong discriminative power of MRCPs for predicting movement onset. For SMR, this type of discriminative power was relatively weak and highly subject-specific. On the other hand, the SMR landscape under the two movement imagery types was distinctive, holding a potential for discriminating the two movement imagery types. These preliminary results presented different characteristics of SMR and MRCP under different motor imageries, providing valuable information regarding the design and implementation of motor imagery based on BCI system.

  2. Characterizing Caregiver Responses to Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. This descriptive study documented the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors in 85 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder as they interacted with their caregiver in a play interaction. For each child restricted and repetitive behavior, a caregiver…

  3. Active Vibration Suppression of a Motor-Driven Piezoelectric Smart Structure Using Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control and Repetitive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ying Lin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the use of piezoelectric sensors and actuators for the active suppression of vibrations associated with the motor-driven rotation of thin flexible plate held vertically. Motor-driven flexible structures are multi-input multi-output systems. The design of active vibration-suppression controllers for these systems is far more challenging than for flexible structures with a fixed end, due to the effects of coupling and nonlinear vibration behavior generated in structures with poor damping. To simplify the design of the controller and achieve satisfactory vibration suppression, we treated the coupling of vibrations caused by the rotary motion of the thin flexible plate as external disturbances and system uncertainties. We employed an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control algorithm in the design of a single-input–single-output controller for the suppression of vibrations using piezoelectric sensors and actuators. We also used a repetitive control system to reduce periodic vibrations associated with the repetitive motions induced by the motor. Experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid intelligent control approach proposed in this study can suppress complex vibrations caused by modal excitation, coupling effects, and periodic external disturbances.

  4. Repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia increases growth/neurotrophic factor expression in non-respiratory motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriotomo, I; Nichols, N L; Dale, E A; Emery, A T; Dahlberg, J M; Mitchell, G S

    2016-05-13

    Repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia (rAIH) increases growth/trophic factor expression in respiratory motor neurons, thereby eliciting spinal respiratory motor plasticity and/or neuroprotection. Here we demonstrate that rAIH effects are not unique to respiratory motor neurons, but are also expressed in non-respiratory, spinal alpha motor neurons and upper motor neurons of the motor cortex. In specific, we used immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to assess growth/trophic factor protein expression in spinal sections from rats exposed to AIH three times per week for 10weeks (3×wAIH). 3×wAIH increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), and phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB) immunoreactivity in putative alpha motor neurons of spinal cervical 7 (C7) and lumbar 3 (L3) segments, as well as in upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex (M1). 3×wAIH also increased immunoreactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), the high-affinity VEGFA receptor (VEGFR-2) and an important VEGF gene regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Thus, rAIH effects on growth/trophic factors are characteristic of non-respiratory as well as respiratory motor neurons. rAIH may be a useful tool in the treatment of disorders causing paralysis, such as spinal injury and motor neuron disease, as a pretreatment to enhance motor neuron survival during disease, or as preconditioning for cell-transplant therapies.

  5. Examining Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Two Observational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, Sheri; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study of the FIRST WORDS® Project examined restricted and repetitive behaviors in a sample of 55 toddlers at a mean age of 20 months who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Restricted and repetitive behaviors were coded using the Repetitive Movement and Restricted Interest Scales in two video-recorded observation…

  6. Repetitive peripheral magnetic neurostimulation of multifidus muscles combined with motor training influences spine motor control and chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé-Alarie, Hugo; Beaulieu, Louis-David; Preuss, Richard; Schneider, Cyril

    2017-03-01

    The study tested whether combining repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (RPMS) and motor training of the superficial multifidus muscle (MF) better improved the corticomotor control of spine than training alone in chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twenty-one participants with CLBP were randomly allocated to [RPMS+training] and [Sham+training] groups for three sessions (S1-S3) over a week where MF was stimulated before training (volitional contraction). Training was also home-practiced twice a day. Changes were tested at S1 and S3 for anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) of MF and semi-tendinosus (ST), MF EMG activation, cortical motor plasticity (transcranial magnetic stimulation) and pain/disability. The RPMS group showed immediate decrease of pain at S1, then improvement of MF activation, ST APA, M1 facilitation, and pain/disability at S3. Changes were larger when brain excitability was lower at baseline. Disability index remained improved one month later. Combining RPMS with training of MF in CLBP impacted motor planning, MF and lumbopelvic spine motor control and pain/disability one week after the onset of protocol. Brain plasticity might have favoured motor learning and improved daily lumbopelvic spine control without pain generation. Clinically, RPMS impacted the function by improving the gains beyond those reached by training alone in CLBP. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Time of day does not modulate improvements in motor performance following a repetitive ballistic motor training task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V; Ridding, Michael C; Nordstrom, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive performance of a task can result in learning. The neural mechanisms underpinning such use-dependent plasticity are influenced by several neuromodulators. Variations in neuromodulator levels may contribute to the variability in performance outcomes following training. Circulating levels of the neuromodulator cortisol change throughout the day. High cortisol levels inhibit neuroplasticity induced with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm that has similarities to use-dependent plasticity. The present study investigated whether performance changes following a motor training task are modulated by time of day and/or changes in endogenous cortisol levels. Motor training involving 30 minutes of repeated maximum left thumb abduction was undertaken by twenty-two participants twice, once in the morning (8 AM) and once in the evening (8 PM) on separate occasions. Saliva was assayed for cortisol concentration. Motor performance, quantified by measuring maximum left thumb abduction acceleration, significantly increased by 28% following training. Neuroplastic changes in corticomotor excitability of abductor pollicis brevis, quantified with TMS, increased significantly by 23% following training. Training-related motor performance improvements and neuroplasticity were unaffected by time of day and salivary cortisol concentration. Although similar neural elements and processes contribute to motor learning, training-induced neuroplasticity, and TMS-induced neuroplasticity, our findings suggest that the influence of time of day and cortisol differs for these three interventions.

  8. Time of Day Does Not Modulate Improvements in Motor Performance following a Repetitive Ballistic Motor Training Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V. Sale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive performance of a task can result in learning. The neural mechanisms underpinning such use-dependent plasticity are influenced by several neuromodulators. Variations in neuromodulator levels may contribute to the variability in performance outcomes following training. Circulating levels of the neuromodulator cortisol change throughout the day. High cortisol levels inhibit neuroplasticity induced with a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS paradigm that has similarities to use-dependent plasticity. The present study investigated whether performance changes following a motor training task are modulated by time of day and/or changes in endogenous cortisol levels. Motor training involving 30 minutes of repeated maximum left thumb abduction was undertaken by twenty-two participants twice, once in the morning (8 AM and once in the evening (8 PM on separate occasions. Saliva was assayed for cortisol concentration. Motor performance, quantified by measuring maximum left thumb abduction acceleration, significantly increased by 28% following training. Neuroplastic changes in corticomotor excitability of abductor pollicis brevis, quantified with TMS, increased significantly by 23% following training. Training-related motor performance improvements and neuroplasticity were unaffected by time of day and salivary cortisol concentration. Although similar neural elements and processes contribute to motor learning, training-induced neuroplasticity, and TMS-induced neuroplasticity, our findings suggest that the influence of time of day and cortisol differs for these three interventions.

  9. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-20

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive behaviors. In this review, we summarize the repetitive behaviors of the ASD mouse models and variations found in their neural mechanisms including molecular and electrophysiological features. We also propose potential neuronal mechanisms underlying these repetitive behaviors, focusing on the role of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits and brain regions associated with both social and repetitive behaviors. Further understanding of molecular and circuitry mechanisms of the repetitive behaviors associated with ASD is necessary to aid the development of effective treatments for these disorders.

  10. Verbal behavior in Alzheimer disease patients: Analysis of phrase repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Francisca Cecato

    Full Text Available Abstract Language problems in the elderly with AD are due to the fact that deterioration occurs not only in semantic memory, but in a group of cognitive factors, evidenced by a deficiency in search strategies for linguistic information. Objectives: To evaluate phrase repetition in two cognitive tests, the MMSE and MoCA, in a group of Alzheimer disease patients (AD and normal controls. Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted involving 20 patients who sought medical assistance at a geriatric institute in Jundiaí, São Paulo. The subjects underwent a detailed clinical examination and neuropsychometric evaluation. All subjects with AD met DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Ten patients received a diagnosis of AD and 10 were healthy subjects, forming the control group (CG. Results: All participants correctly answered the phrase from the MMSE (phrase 1. The MoCA phrases (phrases 2 and 3 were correct in 80% and 90%, respectively in the CG and in 40% and 50%, respectively in the AD group. Conclusions: The MoCA test proved more effective in evaluating the echoic behavior in AD patients compared to the MMSE. The simpler phrase repetition task in the MMSE was found to be less sensitive in detecting mild language decline in AD patients.

  11. Acquisition of Motor and Cognitive Skills through Repetition in Typically Developing Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Magallón

    Full Text Available Procedural memory allows acquisition, consolidation and use of motor skills and cognitive routines. Automation of procedures is achieved through repeated practice. In children, improvement in procedural skills is a consequence of natural neurobiological development and experience.The aim of the present research was to make a preliminary evaluation and description of repetition-based improvement of procedures in typically developing children (TDC. Ninety TDC children aged 6-12 years were asked to perform two procedural learning tasks. In an assembly learning task, which requires predominantly motor skills, we measured the number of assembled pieces in 60 seconds. In a mirror drawing learning task, which requires more cognitive functions, we measured time spent and efficiency. Participants were tested four times for each task: three trials were consecutive and the fourth trial was performed after a 10-minute nonverbal interference task. The influence of repeated practice on performance was evaluated by means of the analysis of variance with repeated measures and the paired-sample test. Correlation coefficients and simple linear regression test were used to examine the relationship between age and performance.TDC achieved higher scores in both tasks through repetition. Older children fitted more pieces than younger ones in assembling learning and they were faster and more efficient at the mirror drawing learning task.These findings indicate that three consecutive trials at a procedural task increased speed and efficiency, and that age affected basal performance in motor-cognitive procedures.

  12. 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the ipsilesional sensory cortex enhances motor learning after stroke

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    Sonia M Brodie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is critical for motor learning, and thus to neurorehabilitation after stroke. Whether enhancing sensory feedback by applying excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the ipsilesional primary sensory cortex (IL-S1 might enhance motor learning in chronic stroke has yet to be investigated. The present study investigated the effects of 5 Hz rTMS over IL-S1 paired with skilled motor practice on motor learning, hemiparetic cutaneous somatosensation, and motor function. Individuals with unilateral chronic stroke were pseudo-randomly divided into either Active or Sham 5 Hz rTMS groups (n=11/group. Following stimulation, both groups practiced a Serial Tracking Task (STT with the hemiparetic arm; this was repeated for 5 days. Performance on the STT was quantified by response time, peak velocity, and cumulative distance tracked at baseline, during the 5 days of practice, and at a no-rTMS retention test. Cutaneous somatosensation was measured using two-point discrimination. Standardized sensorimotor tests were performed to assess whether the effects might generalize to impact hemiparetic arm function. The active 5Hz rTMS + training group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in STT performance [response time (F1,286.04=13.016, p< 0.0005, peak velocity (F1,285.95=4.111, p=0.044, and cumulative distance (F1,285.92=4.076, p=0.044] and cutaneous somatosensation (F1,21.15=8.793, p=0.007 across all sessions compared to the sham rTMS + training group. Measures of upper extremity motor function were not significantly different for either group. Our preliminary results suggest that, when paired with motor practice, 5Hz rTMS over IL-S1 enhances motor learning related change in individuals with chronic stroke, potentially as a consequence of improved cutaneous somatosensation, however no improvement in general upper extremity function was observed.

  13. Sensory-to-motor integration during auditory repetition: A combined fMRI and lesion study

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    ‘Ōiwi eParker Jones

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the neurological underpinnings of auditory-to-motor translation during auditory repetition of unfamiliar pseudowords. We tested two different hypotheses. First we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 25 healthy subjects to determine whether a functionally defined area in the left temporo-parietal junction, referred to as Spt (Sylvian-parietal-temporal region, reflected the demands on auditory-to-motor integration during the repetition of pseudowords relative to a semantically mediated nonverbal sound-naming task. The experiment also allowed us to test alternative accounts of Spt function, namely that Spt is involved in subvocal articulation or auditory processing that can be driven either bottom-up or top-down. The results did not provide convincing evidence that activation increased in either Spt or any other cortical area when non-semantic auditory inputs were being translated into motor outputs. Instead, the results were most consistent with Spt responding to bottom up or top down auditory processing, independent of the demands on auditory-to-motor integration. Second, we investigated the lesion sites in 8 patients who had selective difficulties repeating heard words but with preserved word comprehension, picture naming and verbal fluency (i.e. conduction aphasia. All 8 patients had white-matter tract damage in the vicinity of the arcuate fasciculus and only one of the 8 patients had additional damage to the Spt region, defined functionally in our fMRI data. Our results are therefore most consistent with the neurological tradition that emphasizes the importance of the arcuate fasciculus in the non-semantic integration of auditory and motor speech processing.

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2009-03-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability.

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to improve mood and motor function in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmich, Rick C; Siebner, Hartwig R; Bakker, Maaike; Münchau, Alexander; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2006-10-25

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that can produce lasting changes in excitability and activity in cortical regions underneath the stimulation coil (local effect), but also within functionally connected cortical or subcortical regions (remote effects). Since the clinical presentation of Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to abnormal neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cortical regions, including the primary motor cortex, the premotor cortex and the prefrontal cortex, several studies have used rTMS to improve brain function in PD. Here, we review the studies that have investigated the possible therapeutic effects of rTMS on mood and motor function in PD patients. We highlight some methodological inconsistencies and problems, including the difficulty to define the most effective protocol for rTMS or to establish an appropriate placebo condition. We finally propose future directions of research that may help to improve the therapeutic efficacy of rTMS in PD.

  16. Mechanisms of human motor cortex facilitation induced by subthreshold 5-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Martin; Rummel, Milena; Norden, Christoph; Rothkegel, Holger; Lang, Nicolas; Paulus, Walter

    2013-06-01

    Our knowledge about the mechanisms of human motor cortex facilitation induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is still incomplete. Here we used pharmacological conditioning with carbamazepine, dextrometorphan, lorazepam, and placebo to elucidate the type of plasticity underlying this facilitation, and to probe if mechanisms reminiscent of long-term potentiation are involved. Over the primary motor cortex of 10 healthy subjects, we applied biphasic rTMS pulses of effective posterior current direction in the brain. We used six blocks of 200 pulses at 5-Hz frequency and 90% active motor threshold intensity and controlled for corticospinal excitability changes using motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes and latencies elicited by suprathreshold pulses before, in between, and after rTMS. Target muscle was the dominant abductor digiti minimi muscle; we coregistered the dominant extensor carpi radialis muscle. We found a lasting facilitation induced by this type of rTMS. The GABAergic medication lorazepam and to a lesser extent the ion channel blocker carbamazepine reduced the MEP facilitation after biphasic effective posteriorly oriented rTMS, whereas the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-antagonist dextrometorphan had no effect. Our main conclusion is that the mechanism of the facilitation induced by biphasic effective posterior rTMS is more likely posttetanic potentiation than long-term potentiation. Additional findings were prolonged MEP latency under carbamazepine, consistent with sodium channel blockade, and larger MEP amplitudes from extensor carpi radialis under lorazepam, suggesting GABAergic involvement in the center-surround balance of excitability.

  17. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in motor rehabilitation after stroke: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomjai, W; Lackmy-Vallée, A; Roche, N; Pradat-Diehl, P; Marchand-Pauvert, V; Katz, R

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of adult motor disability. The number of stroke survivors is increasing in industrialized countries, and despite available treatments used in rehabilitation, the recovery of motor functions after stroke is often incomplete. Studies in the 1980s showed that non-invasive brain stimulation (mainly repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation [rTMS] and transcranial direct current stimulation [tDCS]) could modulate cortical excitability and induce plasticity in healthy humans. These findings have opened the way to the therapeutic use of the 2 techniques for stroke. The mechanisms underlying the cortical effect of rTMS and tDCS differ. This paper summarizes data obtained in healthy subjects and gives a general review of the use of rTMS and tDCS in stroke patients with altered motor functions. From 1988 to 2012, approximately 1400 publications were devoted to the study of non-invasive brain stimulation in humans. However, for stroke patients with limb motor deficit, only 141 publications have been devoted to the effects of rTMS and 132 to those of tDCS. The Cochrane review devoted to the effects of rTMS found 19 randomized controlled trials involving 588 patients, and that devoted to tDCS found 18 randomized controlled trials involving 450 patients. Without doubt, rTMS and tDCS contribute to physiological and pathophysiological studies in motor control. However, despite the increasing number of studies devoted to the possible therapeutic use of non-invasive brain stimulation to improve motor recovery after stroke, further studies will be necessary to specify their use in rehabilitation.

  18. Measuring Repetitive Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Halladay, Alycia K.; Bishop, Somer L.; Bodfish, James W.; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Jones, Nancy; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; McCracken, James T.; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Restricted interests and repetitive behaviors vary widely in type, frequency, and intensity among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. They can be stigmatizing and interfere with more constructive activities. Accordingly, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors may be a target of intervention. Several standardized…

  19. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kristen S. L.; Aman, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we…

  20. Environmental conditions associated with repetitive behavior in a group of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenjager, Matthew J; Bergl, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive movement patterns are commonly observed in zoo elephants. The extent to which these behaviors constitute a welfare concern varies, as their expression ranges from stereotypies to potentially beneficial anticipatory behaviors. Nevertheless, their occurrence in zoo animals is often viewed negatively. To better identify conditions that prompt their performance, observations were conducted on six African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo. Individuals spent most of their time engaged in feeding, locomotion, resting, and repetitive behavior. Both generalized estimating equation and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to identify factors associated with increased rates of repetitive behavior. Time of day in conjunction with location on- or off-exhibit best explained patterns of repetitive behavior. Repetitive behaviors occurred at a lower rate in the morning when on-exhibit, as compared to afternoons on-exhibit or at any time of day off-exhibit. Increased repetitive behavior rates observed on-exhibit in the afternoon prior to the evening transfer and feeding were possibly anticipatory responses towards those events. In contrast, consistently elevated frequencies of repetitive behavior off-exhibit at all times of day could be related to differences in exhibit complexity between off-exhibit and on-exhibit areas, as well as a lack of additional foraging opportunities. Our study contributes valuable information on captive elephant behavior and represents a good example of how behavioral research can be employed to improve management of zoo animals.

  1. Novel Object Exploration as a Potential Assay for Higher Order Repetitive Behaviors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Jessica M; Garza, Elizabeth T; Ryan, Bryce C

    2016-08-20

    Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disrupt the lives of affected individuals. RRBs are commonly split into lower-order and higher-order components, with lower order RRBs consisting of motor stereotypies and higher order RRBs consisting of perseverative and sequencing behaviors. Higher order RRBs are challenging to model in mice. Current assays for RRBs in mice focus primarily on the lower order components, making basic biomedical research into potential treatments or interventions for higher-order RRBs difficult. Here we describe a new assay, novel object exploration. This assay uses a basic open-field arena with four novel objects placed around the perimeter. The test mouse is allowed to freely explore the arena and the order in which the mouse investigates the novel objects is recorded. From these data, patterned sequences of exploration can be identified, as can the most preferred object for each mouse. The representative data shared here and past results using the novel object exploration assay illustrate that inbred mouse strains do demonstrate different behavior in this assay and that strains with elevated lower order RRBs also show elevated patterned behavior. As such, the novel object exploration assay appears to possess good face validity for higher order RRBs in humans and may be a valuable assay for future studies investigating novel therapeutics for ASD.

  2. Effect of daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor performance in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Eman M; Rothwell, John C; Shawky, Ola A; Ahmed, Mohamed A; Hamdy, Ahmed

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies in patients with Parkinson's disease have reported that a single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve some or all of the motor symptoms for 30 to 60 minutes. A recent study suggested that repeated sessions of rTMS lead to effects that can last for at least 1 month. Here we report data that both confirm and extend this work. Fifty-five unmedicated PD patients were classified into four groups: two groups (early and late PD) received 25 Hz rTMS bilaterally on the motor arm and leg areas; other groups acted as control for frequency (10 Hz) and for site of stimulation (occipital stimulation). All patients received six consecutive daily sessions (3,000 pulses for each session). The first two groups then received a further three booster sessions (3 consecutive days of rTMS) after 1, 2, and 3 months, while the third group had only one additional session after the first month. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), walking time, key-tapping speed, and self-assessment scale were measured for each patient before and after each rTMS session and before and after the monthly sessions. Compared to occipital stimulation, 25 Hz rTMS over motor areas improved all measures in both early and late groups; the group that received 10 Hz rTMS improved more than the occipital group but less than the 25 Hz groups. The effect built up gradually during the sessions and was maintained for 1 month after, with a slight reduction in efficacy. Interestingly, the effect was restored and maintained for the next month by the booster sessions. We conclude that 25 Hz rTMS can lead to cumulative and long-lasting effects on motor performance.

  3. Adaptive coding of orofacial and speech actions in motor and somatosensory spaces with and without overt motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Vilain, Coriandre; Lamalle, Laurent; Grabski, Krystyna

    2015-02-01

    Studies of speech motor control suggest that articulatory and phonemic goals are defined in multidimensional motor, somatosensory, and auditory spaces. To test whether motor simulation might rely on sensory-motor coding common with those for motor execution, we used a repetition suppression (RS) paradigm while measuring neural activity with sparse sampling fMRI during repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions. RS refers to the phenomenon that repeated stimuli or motor acts lead to decreased activity in specific neural populations and are associated with enhanced adaptive learning related to the repeated stimulus attributes. Common suppressed neural responses were observed in motor and posterior parietal regions in the achievement of both repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions, including the left premotor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, the superior parietal cortex and adjacent intraprietal sulcus, and the left IC and the SMA. Interestingly, reduced activity of the auditory cortex was observed during overt but not covert speech production, a finding likely reflecting a motor rather an auditory imagery strategy by the participants. By providing evidence for adaptive changes in premotor and associative somatosensory brain areas, the observed RS suggests online state coding of both orofacial and speech actions in somatosensory and motor spaces with and without motor behavior and sensory feedback.

  4. P300 Source Localization Contrasts in Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors and Tic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Sauvé

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tic disorders (TD and body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB have similar phenotypes that can be challenging to distinguish in clinical settings. Both disorders show high rates of comorbid psychiatric conditions, dysfunctional basal ganglia activity, atypical cortical functioning in the prefrontal and motor cortical regions, and cognitive deficits. Clinicians frequently confound the two disorders and it is important to find reliable objective methods to discriminate TD and BFRB. Neuropsychological tests and event-related potential (ERP studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding a possible context updating deficit in TD and BFRB patients. However, most previous studies did not control for the presence of comorbid psychiatric condition and medication status, which might have confounded the findings reported to date. Hence, we aimed to investigate the psychophysiology of working memory using ERP in carefully screened TD and BFRB patients excluding those with psychiatric comorbidity and those taking psychoactive medication. The current study compared 12 TD patients, 12 BRFB patients, and 15 healthy control participants using a motor oddball task (button press. The P300 component was analyzed as an index of working memory functioning. Results showed that BFRB patients had decreased P300 oddball effect amplitudes over the right hemisphere compared to the TD and control groups. Clinical groups presented different scalp distributions compared to controls, which could represent a potential endophenotype candidate of BFRB and TD.

  5. Theta-burst repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation suppresses specific excitatory circuits in the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, V; Pilato, F; Saturno, E; Oliviero, A; Dileone, M; Mazzone, P; Insola, A; Tonali, P A; Ranieri, F; Huang, Y Z; Rothwell, J C

    2005-06-15

    In four conscious patients who had electrodes implanted in the cervical epidural space for the control of pain, we recorded corticospinal volleys evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex before and after a 20 s period of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS). It has previously been reported that this form of repetitive TMS reduces the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), with the maximum effect occurring at 5-10 min after the end of stimulation. The present results show that cTBS preferentially decreases the amplitude of the corticospinal I1 wave, with approximately the same time course. This is consistent with a cortical origin of the effect on the MEP. However, other protocols that lead to MEP suppression, such as short-interval intracortical inhibition, are characterized by reduced excitability of late I waves (particularly I3), suggesting that cTBS suppresses MEPs through different mechanisms, such as long-term depression in excitatory synaptic connections.

  6. The Association between Repetitive, Self-Injurious and Aggressive Behavior in Children with Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chris; Petty, Jane; Ruddick, Loraine; Bacarese-Hamilton, Monique

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the independent association between adaptive behavior, communication and repetitive or ritualistic behaviors and self-injury, aggression and destructive behavior to identify potential early risk markers for challenging behaviors. Data were collected for 943 children (4-18 years, M = 10.88) with severe intellectual disabilities. Odds…

  7. Neuronal mechanisms and circuits underlying repetitive behaviors in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyopil; Lim, Chae-Seok; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by three central behavioral symptoms: impaired social interaction, impaired social communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. However, the symptoms are heterogeneous among patients and a number of ASD mouse models have been generated containing mutations that mimic the mutations found in human patients with ASD. Each mouse model was found to display a unique set of repetitive b...

  8. Suppression of motor cortical excitability in anesthetized rats by low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Muller

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a widely-used method for modulating cortical excitability in humans, by mechanisms thought to involve use-dependent synaptic plasticity. For example, when low frequency rTMS (LF rTMS is applied over the motor cortex, in humans, it predictably leads to a suppression of the motor evoked potential (MEP, presumably reflecting long-term depression (LTD -like mechanisms. Yet how closely such rTMS effects actually match LTD is unknown. We therefore sought to (1 reproduce cortico-spinal depression by LF rTMS in rats, (2 establish a reliable animal model for rTMS effects that may enable mechanistic studies, and (3 test whether LTD-like properties are evident in the rat LF rTMS setup. Lateralized MEPs were obtained from anesthetized Long-Evans rats. To test frequency-dependence of LF rTMS, rats underwent rTMS at one of three frequencies, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 Hz. We next tested the dependence of rTMS effects on N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR, by application of two NMDAR antagonists. We find that 1 Hz rTMS preferentially depresses unilateral MEP in rats, and that this LTD-like effect is blocked by NMDAR antagonists. These are the first electrophysiological data showing depression of cortical excitability following LF rTMS in rats, and the first to demonstrate dependence of this form of cortical plasticity on the NMDAR. We also note that our report is the first to show that the capacity for LTD-type cortical suppression by rTMS is present under barbiturate anesthesia, suggesting that future neuromodulatory rTMS applications under anesthesia may be considered.

  9. Fuzzy Adaptive Repetitive Control for Periodic Disturbance with Its Application to High Performance Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Speed Servo Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For reducing the steady state speed ripple, especially in high performance speed servo system applications, the steady state precision is more and more important for real servo systems. This paper investigates the steady state speed ripple periodic disturbance problem for a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM servo system; a fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller is designed in the speed loop based on repetitive control and fuzzy information theory for reducing periodic disturbance. Firstly, the various sources of the PMSM speed ripple problem are described and analyzed. Then, the mathematical model of PMSM is given. Subsequently, a fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller based on repetitive control and fuzzy logic control is designed for the PMSM speed servo system. In addition, the system stability analysis is also deduced. Finally, the simulation and experiment implementation are respectively based on the MATLAB/Simulink and TMS320F2808 of Texas instrument company, DSP (digital signal processor hardware platform. Comparing to the proportional integral (PI controller, simulation and experimental results show that the proposed fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller has better periodic disturbance rejection ability and higher steady state precision.

  10. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2015-01-01

    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  11. Health behavior change among office workers: an exploratory study to prevent repetitive strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Els R

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this evidence-based study is to investigate the impact of a multi-component intervention on health behavior change among office/computer workers in preventing repetitive strain injuries. Forty office workers employed in an administrative office in Michigan participated in this project. The subjects completed a comprehensive questionnaire at three different times in 1994 and 1995. The intervention took place between time 2 and time 3 and included posters, e-mail tips, mini-workshops, and activities of a Wellness Ergonomic Team. A theoretical model was tested to identify factors influencing healthy behaviors. Study findings revealed positive behavior change for 62% of the participants. The factors most strongly related to health behavior change appear to be self-efficacy, the intention to change one's behavior, and perceived health status. Better understanding of health behavior change coupled with ergonomic modifications is a significant step toward the prevention of repetitive strain injuries resulting from computer use.

  12. Two distinct interneuron circuits in human motor cortex are linked to different subsets of physiological and behavioral plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Masashi; Galea, Joseph M; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Paolo; Ziemann, Ulf; Rothwell, John C

    2014-09-17

    How does a single brain region participate in multiple behaviors? Here we argue that two separate interneuron circuits in the primary motor cortex (M1) contribute differently to two varieties of physiological and behavioral plasticity. To test this in human brain noninvasively, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of M1 hand area to activate two independent sets of synaptic inputs to corticospinal neurons by changing the direction of current induced in the brain: posterior-to-anterior current (PA inputs) and anterior-to-posterior current (AP inputs). We demonstrate that excitability changes produced by repetitive activation of AP inputs depend on cerebellar activity and selectively alter model-based motor learning. In contrast, the changes observed with repetitive stimulation of PA inputs are independent of cerebellar activity and specifically modulate model-free motor learning. The findings are highly suggestive that separate circuits in M1 subserve different forms of motor learning.

  13. Adult-onset stereotypical motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltête, D

    Stereotypies have been defined as non-goal-directed movement patterns repeated continuously for a period of time in the same form and on multiple occasions, and which are typically distractible. Stereotypical motor behaviors are a common clinical feature of a variety of neurological conditions that affect cortical and subcortical functions, including autism, tardive dyskinesia, excessive dopaminergic treatment of Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia. The main differential diagnosis of stereotypies includes tic disorders, motor mannerisms, compulsion and habit. The pathophysiology of stereotypies may involve the corticostriatal pathways, especially the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulated cortices. Because antipsychotics have long been used to manage stereotypical behaviours in mental retardation, stereotypies that present in isolation tend not to warrant pharmacological intervention, as the benefit-to-risk ratio is not great enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Repetitive self-grooming behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jill L; Tolu, Seda S; Barkan, Charlotte L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2010-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including well-replicated deficits in reciprocal social interactions and social approach, unusual patterns of ultrasonic vocalization, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. These phenotypes offer straightforward behavioral assays for translational investigations of pharmacological compounds. Two suggested treatments for autism were evaluated in the BTBR mouse model. Methyl-6-phenylethynyl-pyridine (MPEP), an antagonist of the mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor, blocks aberrant phenotypes in the Fmr1 mouse model of Fragile X, a comorbid neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features. Risperidone has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of irritability, tantrums, and self-injurious behavior in autistic individuals. We evaluated the actions of MPEP and risperidone on two BTBR phenotypes, low sociability and high repetitive self-grooming. Open field activity served as an independent control for non-social exploratory activity and motor functions. C57BL/6J (B6), an inbred strain with high sociability and low self-grooming, served as the strain control. MPEP significantly reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, at doses that had no sedating effects on open field activity. Risperidone reduced repetitive self-grooming in BTBR, but only at doses that induced sedation in both strains. No overall improvements in sociability were detected in BTBR after treatment with either MPEP or risperidone. Our findings suggest that antagonists of mGluR5 receptors may have selective therapeutic efficacy in treating repetitive behaviors in autism.

  15. The Neuronal Network Orchestration behind Motor Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter Christian

    In biological networks, millions of neurons organize themselves from microscopic noisy individuals to robust macroscopic entities. These entities are capable of producing higher functions like sensory processing, decision-making, and elaborate behavioral responses. Every aspect of these behaviors...... is the outcome of an advanced orchestration of the activity of populations of neurons. Through spiking activity, neurons are able to interact; yet we know little about how this interaction occurs in spinal networks. How is the activity distributed across the population? What is the composition of synaptic input...... that is received by the individual neurons and how is the synaptic input processed? This thesis focuses on aspects of these questions for spinal networks involved in the generation of stereotypical motor behaviors. The thesis consists of two studies. In the first study, I investigated the synaptic input...

  16. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  17. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  18. Cognitive Set Shifting Deficits and Their Relationship to Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Haylie L.; Ragozzino, Michael E.; Cook, Edwin H.; Sweeney, John A.; Mosconi, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive impairments associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are not yet clear. Prior studies indicate that individuals with ASD show reduced cognitive flexibility, which could reflect difficulty shifting from a previously learned response pattern or a failure to maintain a new…

  19. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Research in the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekam, Susan R.; Prior, Margot R.; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorders. They constitute a major barrier to learning and social adaptation, but research on their definition, cause, and capacity for change has been relatively neglected. The last decade of research has brought new measurement techniques that have improved the…

  20. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer; Bishop, Somer L.; Kleinke, Jennifer R.; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised (ADI-R: Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur (1994) were examined in 165 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), 49 children with non-spectrum developmental disorders (DD), and 65 children with typical development (TD) at approximately 2 years of age. A factor…

  1. Age-Related Differences in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Anna J.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Bodfish, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) were examined in a large group of children, adolescents and adults with ASD in order to describe age-related patterns of symptom change and association with specific contextual factors, and to examine if the patterns of change are different for the various types of RRBs. Over 700 individuals with ASD were…

  2. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  3. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors as Predictors of Outcome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyb, Eva; Knoch, Kelley; Herlihy, Lauren; Stevens, Michael C.; Chen, Chi-Ming; Barton, Marianne; Treadwell, Kimberli; Fein, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Questions have been raised about the significance of restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in predicting outcomes of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Previous studies have yielded mixed findings, but some suggest that the presence of RRBs during preschool years is a negative prognostic indicator for later childhood. This study…

  4. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Individuals with a History of ASDs Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Fein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) suggest that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are particularly difficult to remediate. We examined present and past RRBs in 34 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes (OOs; lost their ASD diagnosis), 45 high-functioning individuals with ASD (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) peers. The OO…

  5. Autism, DRD3 and repetitive and stereotyped behavior, an overview of the current knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, W.G.

    2015-01-01

    The SNP rs167771 of the dopamine-3-receptor gene (DRD3) has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in samples from the United Kingdom, The Netherlands and Spain. The DRD3 polymorphisms of rs167771 are significantly associated with a specific type of repetitive and stereotyped behavior,

  6. The Impact of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Event-Related Potentials in Patients with Tic Disorders or Body-Focused Repetitive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eMorand-Beaulieu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tic disorders (TD are characterized by the presence of non-voluntary contractions of functionally related groups of skeletal muscles in one or multiple body parts. Patients with body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRB present frequent and repetitive behaviors, such as nail biting or hair pulling. TD and BFRB can be treated with a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT that regulates the excessive amount of sensorimotor activation and muscular tension. Our CBT, which is called the cognitive-psychophysiological therapy (CoPs, targets motor execution and inhibition, and it was reported to modify brain activity in TD. However, psychophysiological effects of therapy are still poorly understood in TD and BFRB patients. Our goals were to compare the event-related potentials (ERP of TD and BFRB patients to control participants, and to investigate the effects of the CoPs therapy on the P200, N200 and P300 components during a motor and non-motor oddball task.Method: ERP components were compared in 26 TD patients, 27 BFRB patients and 27 control participants. ERP were obtained from 63 EEG electrodes during two oddball tasks. In the non-motor task, participants had to count rare stimuli. In the motor task, participants had to respond with a left or right button press for rare and frequent stimuli, respectively. ERP measures were recorded before and after therapy in both patients groups.Results: CoPs therapy improved symptoms similarly in both clinical groups. Before therapy, TD and BFRB patients had lower P300 oddball effect during the non-motor task, in comparison with controls participants. An increase in the P300 oddball effect was observed post therapy. This increase was distributed over the whole cortex in BFRB patients, but localized in the parietal area in TD patients.Discussion: These results suggest a modification of neural processes following CoPs therapy in TD and BFRB patients. CoPs therapy seems to impact patients’ attentional processes

  7. Association between restricted and repetitive behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L; Richler, Jennifer; Lord, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    The present study explored the relationship between nonverbal IQ and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in 830 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The role of chronological age as a moderator of this relationship was also investigated. For many behaviors, there was a significant interaction between nonverbal IQ and chronological age, such that nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children. For the majority of such behaviors (e.g. repetitive use of objects, hand and finger mannerisms), RRB prevalence was negatively associated with NVIQ. However, the prevalence of certain behaviors (e.g. circumscribed interests) showed positive relationships with NVIQ, which provides some support for the idea of different classes of RRBs. For the severity of different RRBs, there were several significant effects for age and NVIQ, but few interactions.

  8. Functional connectivity of human premotor and motor cortex explored with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munchau, A.; Bloem, B.R.; Irlbacher, K.; Trimble, M.R.; Rothwell, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Connections between the premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex are dense and are important in the visual guidance of arm movements. We have shown previously that it is possible to engage these connections in humans and to measure the net amount of inhibition/facilitation from premotor to motor

  9. Change in the ipsilateral motor cortex excitability is independent from a muscle contraction phase during unilateral repetitive isometric contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Uehara

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in a muscle contraction phase dependence between ipsilateral (ipsi- and contralateral (contra-primary motor cortex (M1 excitability during repetitive isometric contractions of unilateral index finger abduction using a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS technique. Ten healthy right-handed subjects participated in this study. We instructed them to perform repetitive isometric contractions of the left index finger abduction following auditory cues at 1 Hz. The force outputs were set at 10, 30, and 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. Motor evoked potentials (MEP were obtained from the right and left first dorsal interosseous muscles (FDI. To examine the muscle contraction phase dependence, TMS of ipsi-M1 or contra-M1 was triggered at eight different intervals (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 300, or 500 ms after electromyogram (EMG onset when each interval had reached the setup triggering level. Furthermore, to demonstrate the relationships between the integrated EMG (iEMG in the active left FDI and the ipsi-M1 excitability, we assessed the correlation between the iEMG in the left FDI for the 100 ms preceding TMS onset and the MEP amplitude in the resting/active FDI for each force output condition. Although contra-M1 excitability was significantly changed after the EMG onset that depends on the muscle contraction phase, the modulation of ipsi-M1 excitability did not differ in response to any muscle contraction phase at the 10% of MVC condition. Also, we found that contra-M1 excitability was significantly correlated with iEMG in all force output conditions, but ipsi-M1 excitability was not at force output levels of below 30% of MVC. Consequently, the modulation of ipsi-M1 excitability was independent from the contraction phase of unilateral repetitive isometric contractions at least low force output.

  10. Antagonistic control of social versus repetitive self-grooming behaviors by separable amygdala neuronal subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weizhe; Kim, Dong-Wook; Anderson, David J

    2014-09-11

    Animals display a range of innate social behaviors that play essential roles in survival and reproduction. While the medial amygdala (MeA) has been implicated in prototypic social behaviors such as aggression, the circuit-level mechanisms controlling such behaviors are not well understood. Using cell-type-specific functional manipulations, we find that distinct neuronal populations in the MeA control different social and asocial behaviors. A GABAergic subpopulation promotes aggression and two other social behaviors, while neighboring glutamatergic neurons promote repetitive self-grooming, an asocial behavior. Moreover, this glutamatergic subpopulation inhibits social interactions independently of its effect to promote self-grooming, while the GABAergic subpopulation inhibits self-grooming, even in a nonsocial context. These data suggest that social versus repetitive asocial behaviors are controlled in an antagonistic manner by inhibitory versus excitatory amygdala subpopulations, respectively. These findings provide a framework for understanding circuit-level mechanisms underlying opponency between innate behaviors, with implications for their perturbation in psychiatric disorders.

  11. Repetitive bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing improves motor function in chronic hemiparetic stroke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitall, J; McCombe Waller, S; Silver, K H; Macko, R F

    2000-01-01

    ...) will improve motor function in the hemiparetic arm of stroke patients. In this single group pilot study we determined the effects of 6 weeks of BATRAC on 14 patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke...

  12. Distinct changes in cortical and spinal excitability following high-frequency repetitive TMS to the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartarone, Angelo; Bagnato, Sergio; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Morgante, Francesca; Sant'angelo, Antonio; Battaglia, Fortunato; Messina, Corrado; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Girlanda, Paolo

    2005-02-01

    It has been shown that high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the human primary motor hand area (M1-HAND) can induce a lasting increase in corticospinal excitability. Here we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseus muscle to investigate how sub-threshold high-frequency rTMS to the M1-HAND modulates cortical and spinal excitability. In a first experiment, we gave 1500 stimuli of 5 Hz rTMS. At an intensity of 90% of active motor threshold, rTMS produced no effect on MEP amplitude at rest. Increasing the intensity to 90% of resting motor threshold (RMT), rTMS produced an increase in MEP amplitude. This facilitatory effect gradually built up during the course of rTMS, reaching significance after the administration of 900 stimuli. In a second experiment, MEPs were elicited during tonic contraction using weak anodal electrical or magnetic test stimuli. 1500 (but not 600) conditioning stimuli at 90% of RMT induced a facilitation of MEPs in the contracting FDI muscle. In a third experiment, 600 conditioning stimuli were given at 90% of RMT to the M1-HAND. Using two well-established conditioning-test paradigms, we found a decrease in short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI), and a facilitation of the first peak of facilitatory I-waves interaction (SICF). There was no correlation between the relative changes in SICI and SICF. These results demonstrate that subthreshold 5 Hz rTMS can induce lasting changes in specific neuronal subpopulations in the human corticospinal motor system, depending on the intensity and duration of rTMS. Short 5 Hz rTMS (600 stimuli) at 90% of RMT can selectively shape the excitability of distinct intracortical circuits, whereas prolonged 5 Hz rTMS (> or =900 stimuli) provokes an overall increase in excitability of the corticospinal output system, including spinal motoneurones.

  13. Spinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) induced phrenic motor facilitation after repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Erica A; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2013-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in the CNS. We recently demonstrated that VEGF, EPO and their receptors (VEGF-R2, EPO-R) are expressed in phrenic motor neurons, and that cervical spinal VEGF-R2 and EPO-R activation elicit long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF). Since VEGF, VEGF-R, EPO, and EPO-R are hypoxia-regulated genes, and repetitive exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia (rAIH) up-regulates these molecules in phrenic motor neurons, we tested the hypothesis that 4 weeks of rAIH (10 episodes per day, 3 days per week) enhances VEGF- or EPO-induced pMF. We confirm that cervical spinal VEGF and EPO injections elicit pMF. However, neither VEGF- nor EPO-induced pMF was affected by rAIH pre-conditioning (4 wks). Although our data confirm that spinal VEGF and EPO may play an important role in respiratory plasticity, we provide no evidence that rAIH amplifies their impact. Further experiments with more robust protocols are warranted.

  14. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex in the treatment of motor signs in Parkinson's disease: A quantitative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Anosha; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Chen, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive disorder characterized by the emergence of motor deficits. In light of the voluminous and conflicting findings in the literature, the aim of the present quantitative review was to examine the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the primary motor cortex (M1) in the treatment of motor signs in PD. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed using meta-analytic techniques and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) sections II and III were used as outcome measures. In order to determine the treatment effects of rTMS, the UPDRS II and III scores obtained at baseline, same day, to 1 day post rTMS treatment (short-term follow-up) and 1-month post stimulation (long-term follow-up) were compared between the active and sham rTMS groups. Additionally, the placebo effect was evaluated as the changes in UPDRS III scores in the sham rTMS groups. A placebo effect was not demonstrated, because sham rTMS did not improve motor signs as measured by UPDRS III. Compared with sham rTMS, active rTMS targeting the M1 significantly improved UPDRS III scores at the short-term follow-up (Cohen's d of 0.27, UPDRS III score improvement of 3.8 points). When the long-term follow-up UPDRS III scores were compared with baseline scores, the standardized effect size between active and sham rTMS did not reach significance. However, this translated into a significant nonstandardized 6.3-point improvement on the UPDRS III. No significant improvement in the UPDRS II was found. rTMS over the M1 may improve motor signs. Further studies are needed to provide a definite conclusion.

  15. Cognition and behavior in motor neuron disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor neuron loss, leading to weakness of the muscles of arms and legs, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Depending on the involvement of the lower and the upper motor neuron, amyotrophic lateral sclero

  16. Asynchronous recruitment of low-threshold motor units during repetitive, low-current stimulation of the human tibial nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eDean

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons receive a barrage of inputs from descending and reflex pathways. Much of our understanding about how these inputs are transformed into motor output in humans has come from recordings of single motor units during voluntary contractions. This approach, however, is limited because the input is ill-defined. Herein, we quantify the discharge of soleus motor units in response to well-defined trains of afferent input delivered at physiologically-relevant frequencies. Constant frequency stimulation of the tibial nerve (10-100 Hz for 30 s, below threshold for eliciting M-waves or H-reflexes with a single pulse, recruited motor units in 7/9 subjects. All 25 motor units recruited during stimulation were also recruited during weak (<10% MVC voluntary contractions. Higher frequencies recruited more units (n=3/25 at 10 Hz; n=25/25 at 100 Hz at shorter latencies (19.4±9.4 s at 10 Hz; 4.1±4.0 s at 100 Hz than lower frequencies. When a second unit was recruited, the discharge of the already active unit did not change, suggesting that recruitment was not due to increased synaptic drive. After recruitment, mean discharge rate during stimulation at 20 Hz (7.8 Hz was lower than during 30 Hz (8.6 Hz and 40 Hz (8.4 Hz stimulation. Discharge was largely asynchronous from the stimulus pulses with time-locked discharge occurring at an H-reflex latency with only a 24% probability. Motor units discharged after the stimulation ended in 89% of trials, although at a lower rate (5.8 Hz than during the stimulation (7.9 Hz. This work supports the idea that the afferent volley evoked by repetitive stimulation recruits motor units through the integration of synaptic drive and intrinsic properties of motoneurons, resulting in physiological recruitment which adheres to Henneman's size principle and results in relatively low discharge rates and asynchronous firing.

  17. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  18. Priming Hand Motor Training with Repetitive Stimulation of the Fingertips; Performance Gain and Functional Imaging of Training Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze, Martin; Ladda, Aija Marie; Roschka, Sybille; Platz, Thomas; Dinse, Hubert R

    Application of repetitive electrical stimulation (rES) of the fingers has been shown to improve tactile perception and sensorimotor performance in healthy individuals. To increase motor performance by priming the effects of active motor training (arm ability training; AAT) using rES. We compared the performance gain for the training increase of the averaged AAT tasks of both hands in two groups of strongly right-handed healthy volunteers. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) before and after AAT was assessed using three tasks for each hand separately: finger sequence tapping, visually guided grip force modulation, and writing. Performance during fMRI was controlled for preciseness and frequency. A total of 30 participants underwent a two-week unilateral left hand AAT, 15 participants with 20 minutes of rES priming of all fingertips of the trained hand, and 15 participants without rES priming. rES-primed AAT improved the trained left-hand performance across all training tasks on average by 32.9%, non-primed AAT improved by 29.5%. This gain in AAT performance with rES priming was predominantly driven by an increased finger tapping velocity. Functional imaging showed comparable changes for both training groups over time. Across all participants, improved AAT performance was associated with a higher contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) fMRI activation magnitude during the grip force modulation task. This study highlights the importance of S1 for hand motor training gain. In addition, it suggests the usage of rES of the fingertips for priming active hand motor training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of Non-Pharmacological Interventions on Stereotyped and Repetitive Behaviors of Pre-school Children With Autism: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshan, Hadi; Salmanian, Maryam; Aghamohammadi, Soudeh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to review the literature on non-pharmacological interventions used to treat stereotyped and repetitive behaviors by a systematic method. Two authors independently performed a search strategy on Medline/PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO on English articles published up to April 23, 2014 with relevant search keywords. We also reviewed the bibliographies of retrieved articles and conference proceedings to obtain additional citations and references. We examined those articles that addressed non-pharmacological interventions on reducing stereotyped and repetitive behaviors in preschool children with autism. Four independent reviewers screened relevant articles for inclusion criteria and assessed the quality of eligible articles with CONSORT checklist. In our search, 664 relevant articles were found. After removing duplicates and screening based on title, abstract, and full text, 15 high-quality studies were finally included in data analyses. The included articles were published from 1987 to 2013. Three studies were designed as A-B, two as A-B-A, and reminders as A-B-A-B. The data and results of 3 clinical trials were synthesized; two of them were parallel randomized clinical trial and another one was designed as cross-over. Interventions were completely heterogeneous in case studies, including non-contingent auditory stimulation, response interruption and redirection, teaching the children to request assistance on difficult tasks, family-implemented treatment for behavioral inflexibility with treatment approach, vocal or motor response interruption and redirection, brushing, water mist treatment, exposure response prevention, tangible reinforcement or social reinforcement, and music. Interventions in clinical trials included touch therapy, kata techniques training program, and aerobic exercise. The results of our review indicate that different kinds of non-pharmacological interventions can be used to treat repetitive behaviors in children with autism

  20. Variable training does not lead to better motor learning compared to repetitive training in children with and without DCD when exposed to active video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Emmanuel; Jelsma, Dorothee; Ferguson, Gillian; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the influence of practice schedules on motor learning and skills transfer in children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Understanding how practice schedules affect motor learning is necessary for motor skills development and rehabilitation. The study investigated whether active video games (exergames) training delivered under variable practice led to better learning and transfer than repetitive practice. 111 children aged 6-10 years (M=8.0, SD=1.0) with no active exergaming experience were randomized to receive exergames training delivered under variable (Variable Game Group (VGG), n=56) or repetitive practice schedule (Repetitive Game Group (RGG), n=55). Half the participants were identified as DCD using the DSM-5 criteria, while the rest were typically developing (TD), age-matched children. Both groups participated in two 20min sessions per week for 5 weeks. Both participant groups (TD and DCD) improved equally well on game performance. There was no significant difference in positive transfer to balance tasks between practice schedules (Repetitive and Variable) and participant groups (TD and DCD). Children with and without DCD learn balance skills quite well when exposed to exergames. Gains in learning and transfer are similar regardless of the form of practice schedule employed. This is the first paper to compare the effect of practice schedules on learning in children with DCD and those with typical development. No differences in motor learning were found between repetitive and variable practice schedules. When children with and without DCD spend the same amount of time on exergames, they do not show any differences in acquisition of motor skills. Transfer of motor skills is similar in children with and without DCD regardless of differences in practice schedules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Repetitive behavior profiles: Consistency across autism spectrum disorder cohorts and divergence from Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Cindi G; Valcante, Gregory; Guter, Steve; Zaytoun, Annette; Wray, Emily; Bell, Lindsay; Jacob, Suma; Lewis, Mark H; Driscoll, Daniel J; Cook, Edwin H; Kim, Soo-Jeong

    2011-12-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is a group of heterogeneous maladaptive behaviors. RRB is one of the key diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and also commonly observed in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In this study, we assessed RRB using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) in two ASD samples (University of Illinois at Chicago [UIC] and University of Florida [UF]) and one PWS sample. We compared the RBS-R item endorsements across three ASD cohorts (UIC, UF and an ASD sample from Lam, The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: independent validation and the effect of subject variables, PhD thesis, 2004), and a PWS sample. We also compared the mean RBS-R subscale/sum scores across the UIC, UF and PWS samples; across the combined ASD (UIC + UF), PWS-deletion and PWS-disomy groups; and across the combined ASD sample, PWS subgroup with a Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) score ≥15, and PWS subgroup with a SCQ score samples (UIC, UF and Lam's) showed a similar pattern of the RBS-R endorsements, and the mean RBS-R scores were not different between the UIC and UF samples. However, higher RRB was noted in the ASD sample compared with the PWS sample, as well as in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ≥15 compared with the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score sample size, a wide age range of our participants, and not controlling for potential covariates. A future replication study using a larger sample and further investigation into the genetic bases of overlapping ASD and RRB phenomenology are needed, given the higher RRB in the PWS subgroup with a SCQ score ≥15.

  2. Post-Coma Persons with Motor and Communication/Consciousness Impairments Choose among Environmental Stimuli and Request Stimulus Repetitions via Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Oliva, Doretta; Megna, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether a program based on microswitch and computer technology would enable three post-coma participants (adults) with motor and communication/consciousness impairments to choose among environmental stimuli and request their repetition whenever they so desired. Within each session, 16 stimuli (12 preferred and 4 non-preferred)…

  3. Modified Exposure and Response Prevention to Treat the Repetitive Behaviors of a Child with Autism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case study of a school-aged child with autism whose repetitive behaviors were treated with a modified version of a technique routinely used in cognitive behavior therapy (i.e., exposure response prevention to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. A trained behavioral therapist administered the modified ERP treatment over the course of an intensive two-week treatment period with two therapy sessions occurring daily. The treatment was successful at decreasing the amount of child distress and cooccurring problem behavior displayed; however, the child's interest in the repetitive behavior eliciting stimulus (i.e., puzzles remained. The case study demonstrates specific ways that exposure response prevention strategies can be adapted to the unique kinds of repetitive behaviors that present clinically in autism. A larger clinical trial is needed to substantiate these findings.

  4. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Paige; Bashaw, Meredith J

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic behaviors, no published reports describe otter housing and management or characterize how these variables relate to abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) occurrence. The first author developed surveys to gather data on housing, individual history, management, and the prevalence of ARBs in otters housed in facilities accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Consistent with anecdotal evidence that otters are prone to ARBs, 46% of river otters in the study exhibit them. ARBs were mostly locomotor and often preceded feeding. Exhibits where otters were fed and trained housed a greater percentage of nonhuman animals with ARBs. This study supports the Tarou, Bloomsmith, and Maple (2005) report that more hands-on management is associated with higher levels of ARBs because management efforts are only for animals with ARBs. Escape motivation, breeding season, feeding cues, and ability to forage may affect ARBs in river otters and should be investigated.

  5. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates supplementary motor area in coordinated unimanual motor behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Asemi, Avisa; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Burgess, Ashley; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Steven L Bressler

    2015-01-01

    Motor control is integral to all types of human behavior, and the dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) is thought to play an important role in the brain network underlying motor control. Yet the role of the dACC in motor control is under-characterized. Here we aimed to characterize the dACC’s role in adolescent brain network interactions during a simple motor control task involving visually coordinated unimanual finger movements. Network interactions were assessed using both undirected and...

  6. D1 and D2 dopamine receptor antagonists decrease behavioral bout duration, without altering the bout's repeated behavioral components, in a naturalistic model of repetitive and compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kurt L; Rueda Morales, Rafael I

    2012-04-21

    Nest building behavior in the pregnant female rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a model for compulsive behavior in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). This behavior comprises a cycle of repeated, stereotyped components (collecting straw, entering nest box and depositing the straw there, returning to collect more straw), which itself is repeated 80+ times in a single bout that lasts approximately 50min. The bout, in turn, is repeated if necessary, according to the rabbit's perception of whether or not the nest is finished. We administered SCH23390 (5-100μg/kg; D1/D5 antagonist) or raclopride (0.05-1.0mg/kg; D2/D3 antagonist), subcutaneously to day 28 pregnant female rabbits, 30 or 60min before placing straw inside their home cage. At doses that minimally affected ambulatory behavior in open field (5-12.5μg/kg SCH23390, 0.5-1.0mg/kg raclopride), both antagonists dramatically reduced bout duration while not significantly affecting the initiation of straw carrying behavior, the sequential performance of the individual cycle components, maximum cycle frequency, or the total number of bouts performed. These results point to an important role for dopamine neurotransmission for the prolonged expression of a normal, repetitive and compulsive-like behavior. Moreover, the finding that dopamine receptor antagonists decrease the time spent engaged in repetitive behavior (without significantly altering the form of the repetitive behavior itself) suggests a possible explanation for why neuroleptics can be clinically effective for treating OCD.

  7. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  8. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Behavioral Recovery during Early Stage of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Chung, Pil-Wook; Lee, Yun Kyung; Kim, Dae Yul; Chun, Min Ho

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising technique that modulates neural networks. However, there were few studies evaluating the effects of rTMS in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Herein, we assessed the effectiveness of rTMS on behavioral recovery and metabolic changes using brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a rat model of TBI. We also evaluated the safety of rTMS by measuring brain swelling with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent lateral fluid percussion and were randomly assigned to the sham (n=10) or the rTMS (n=10) group. rTMS was applied on the fourth day after TBI and consisted of 10 daily sessions for 2 weeks with 10 Hz frequency (total pulses=3,000). Although the rTMS group showed an anti-apoptotic effect around the peri-lesional area, functional improvements were not significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, rTMS did not modulate brain metabolites in MRS, nor was there any change of brain lesion or edema after magnetic stimulation. These data suggest that rTMS did not have beneficial effects on motor recovery during early stages of TBI, although an anti-apoptosis was observed in the peri-lesional area.

  9. Fuzzy Adaptive Repetitive Control for Periodic Disturbance with Its Application to High Performance Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Speed Servo Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Junxiao Wang

    2016-01-01

    .... Then, the mathematical model of PMSM is given. Subsequently, a fuzzy adaptive repetitive controller based on repetitive control and fuzzy logic control is designed for the PMSM speed servo system...

  10. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates supplementary motor area in coordinated unimanual motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avisa eAsemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor control is integral to all types of human behavior, and the dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC is thought to play an important role in the brain network underlying motor control. Yet the role of the dACC in motor control is under-characterized. Here we aimed to characterize the dACC’s role in adolescent brain network interactions during a simple motor control task involving visually coordinated unimanual finger movements. Network interactions were assessed using both undirected and directed functional connectivity analysis of fMRI BOLD signals, comparing the task with a rest condition. The relation between the dACC and Supplementary Motor Area (SMA was compared to that between the dACC and Primary Motor Cortex (M1. The directed signal from dACC to SMA was significantly elevated during motor control in the task. By contrast, the directed signal from SMA to dACC, both directed signals between dACC and M1, and the undirected functional connections of dACC with SMA and M1, all did not differ between task and rest. Undirected coupling of dACC with both SMA and dACC, and only the dACC-to-SMA directed signal, were significantly greater for a proactive than a reactive task condition, suggesting that dACC plays a role in motor control by maintaining stimulus timing expectancy. Overall, these results suggest that the dACC selectively modulates the SMA during visually coordinated unimanual behavior in adolescence. The role of the dACC as an important brain area for the mediation of task-related motor control may be in place in adolescence, continuing into adulthood. The task and analytic approach described here should be extended to the study of healthy adults to examine network profiles of the dACC during basic motor behavior.

  11. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates supplementary motor area in coordinated unimanual motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Avisa; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Burgess, Ashley; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Bressler, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Motor control is integral to all types of human behavior, and the dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) is thought to play an important role in the brain network underlying motor control. Yet the role of the dACC in motor control is under-characterized. Here we aimed to characterize the dACC's role in adolescent brain network interactions during a simple motor control task involving visually coordinated unimanual finger movements. Network interactions were assessed using both undirected and directed functional connectivity analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals, comparing the task with a rest condition. The relation between the dACC and Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) was compared to that between the dACC and Primary Motor Cortex (M1). The directed signal from dACC to SMA was significantly elevated during motor control in the task. By contrast, the directed signal from SMA to dACC, both directed signals between dACC and M1, and the undirected functional connections of dACC with SMA and M1, all did not differ between task and rest. Undirected coupling of dACC with both SMA and dACC, and only the dACC-to-SMA directed signal, were significantly greater for a proactive than a reactive task condition, suggesting that dACC plays a role in motor control by maintaining stimulus timing expectancy. Overall, these results suggest that the dACC selectively modulates the SMA during visually coordinated unimanual behavior in adolescence. The role of the dACC as an important brain area for the mediation of task-related motor control may be in place in adolescence, continuing into adulthood. The task and analytic approach described here should be extended to the study of healthy adults to examine network profiles of the dACC during basic motor behavior.

  12. How Are Child Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors Associated with Caregiver Stress over Time? A Parallel Process Multilevel Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McBee, Matthew; Boyd, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of raising a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is frequently accompanied by elevated caregiver stress. Examining the variables that predict these elevated rates will help us understand how caregiver stress is impacted by and impacts child behaviors. This study explored how restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) contributed…

  13. Changes in Restricted Repetitive Behaviors with Age: A Study of High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Benson, Betsey A.; Hillier, Ashleigh

    2010-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that while impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) continue into adulthood, some behavioral symptoms tend to abate with age. However, there is a dearth of research examining changes in ASD symptoms from childhood to adulthood, especially for Restricted Repetitive Behaviors (RRBs). We examined age-related…

  14. Repetitive negative thinking predicts depression and anxiety symptom improvement during brief cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2015-05-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseung eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA, an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits.

  16. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  17. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to treat substance use disorders and compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protasio, Maria I B; da Silva, João P L; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Cruz, Marcelo S

    2015-01-01

    Compulsions, like pathological gambling, binge-eating disorder, alcohol, tobacco or cocaine abuse and compulsive shopping have similar neurophysiological processing. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in improving patient control over compulsive behavior. The rTMS modulatory role in cortical mesolimbic pathways possibly implies improvement of the inhibitory control system and compulsive consumption drive. Thus, craving reduction would be a component for control achievement. Within this context, 17 studies were found. Most studies applied rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Craving reduction was observed in 10 studies and was associated with improved control of compulsion in two of them. In one study reduction in consumption was found without reduction in craving. In addition, improvement in decision making was found in one study.

  18. Elevated levels of the vesicular monoamine transporter and a novel repetitive behavior in the Drosophila model of fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Tauber

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is characterized by mental impairment and autism in humans, and it often features hyperactivity and repetitive behaviors. The mechanisms for the disease, however, remain poorly understood. Here we report that the dfmr1 mutant in the Drosophila model of FXS grooms excessively, which may be regulated differentially by two signaling pathways. Blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling enhances grooming in dfmr1 mutant flies, whereas blocking the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT suppresses excessive grooming. dfmr1 mutant flies also exhibit elevated levels of VMAT mRNA and protein. These results suggest that enhanced monoamine signaling correlates with repetitive behaviors and hyperactivity associated with FXS.

  19. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Blackmon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC. Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1 blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2 quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC, also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  20. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R.; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly. PMID:26693400

  1. Periventricular white matter abnormalities and restricted repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Karen; Ben-Avi, Emma; Wang, Xiuyuan; Pardoe, Heath R; Di Martino, Adriana; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Kuzniecky, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are found at higher rates in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than in healthy controls on postmortem neuropathological evaluation but are more variably observed on visual review of in-vivo MRI brain scans. This may be due to the visually elusive nature of many malformations on MRI. Here, we utilize a quantitative approach to determine whether a volumetric measure of heterotopic gray matter in the white matter is elevated in people with ASD, relative to typically developing controls (TDC). Data from a primary sample of 48 children/young adults with ASD and 48 age-, and gender-matched TDCs, selected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) open-access database, were analyzed to compare groups on (1) blinded review of high-resolution T1-weighted research sequences; and (2) quantitative measurement of white matter hypointensity (WMH) volume calculated from the same T1-weighted scans. Groupwise WMH volume comparisons were repeated in an independent, multi-site sample (80 ASD/80 TDC), also selected from ABIDE. Visual review resulted in equivalent proportions of imaging abnormalities in the ASD and TDC group. However, quantitative analysis revealed elevated periventricular and deep subcortical WMH volumes in ASD. This finding was replicated in the independent, multi-site sample. Periventricular WMH volume was not associated with age but was associated with greater restricted repetitive behaviors on both parent-reported and clinician-rated assessment inventories. Thus, findings demonstrate that periventricular WMH volume is elevated in ASD and associated with a higher degree of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. Although the etiology of focal WMH clusters is unknown, the absence of age effects suggests that they may reflect a static anomaly.

  2. The impact of caregiver-mediated JASPER on child restricted and repetitive behaviors and caregiver responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-12-02

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to the social-communication impairments, we know considerably less about why children engage in RRBs and if and how to intervene with these behaviors. As a result, early intervention has typically focused on social-communication. In this study, we were interested in understanding how child RRBs changed following an intervention targeting social-communication behaviors and if caregiver training changed how they responded to their child's RRBs. Eighty-six toddlers with ASD and their caregivers received one of two interventions: caregivers were either actively coached while playing with their child (JASPER) or attended information sessions about ASD. On three different occasions (when they entered the study, following 10 weeks of intervention and 6-months after) caregivers were filmed playing with their child. From these recordings, we coded child RRBs and caregiver responses to these behaviors. Child RRBs remained relatively stable following intervention in both groups, but increased when the children returned at 6-months. Caregivers who received one-on-one coaching (JASPER) responded to a greater number of their child's RRBs and their responses were rated as more successful. Our study showed that a short-term social-communication intervention delivered through caregivers had "spillover effects" on how they also responded to their child's RRBs. Interventions targeting social-communication behaviors should also examine how these treatments affect child RRBs and how caregiver responses to these behaviors may change following training. Autism Res 2017, 0: 000-000. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Acoustic evaluation of short-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor aspects of speech in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasova, I; Mekyska, J; Kostalova, M; Marecek, R; Smekal, Z; Rektorova, I

    2013-04-01

    Hypokinetic dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD) can be characterized by monotony of pitch and loudness, reduced stress, variable rate, imprecise consonants, and a breathy and harsh voice. Using acoustic analysis, we studied the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the primary orofacial sensorimotor area (SM1) and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on motor aspects of voiced speech in PD. Twelve non-depressed and non-demented men with PD (mean age 64.58 ± 8.04 years, mean PD duration 10.75 ± 7.48 years) and 21 healthy age-matched men (a control group, mean age 64 ± 8.55 years) participated in the speech study. The PD patients underwent two sessions of 10 Hz rTMS over the dominant hemisphere with 2,250 stimuli/day in a random order: (1) over the SM1; (2) over the left DLPFC in the "on" motor state. Speech examination comprised the perceptual rating of global speech performance and an acoustic analysis based upon a standardized speech task. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare acoustic speech variables between controls and PD patients. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare data prior to and after each stimulation in the PD group. rTMS applied over the left SM1 was associated with a significant increase in harmonic-to-noise ratio and net speech rate in the sentence tasks. With respect to the vowel task results, increased median values and range of Teager-Kaiser energy operator, increased vowel space area, and significant jitter decrease were observed after the left SM1 stimulation. rTMS over the left DLPFC did not induce any significant effects. The positive results of acoustic analysis were not reflected in a subjective rating of speech performance quality as assessed by a speech therapist. Our pilot results indicate that one session of rTMS applied over the SM1 may lead to measurable improvement in voice quality and intensity and an increase in speech rate and tongue movements

  4. mGluR5-antagonist mediated reversal of elevated stereotyped, repetitive behaviors in the VPA model of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mili V Mehta

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are highly disabling developmental disorders with a population prevalence of 1-3%. Despite a strong genetic etiology, there are no current therapeutic options that target the core symptoms of ASD. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of glutamatergic signaling, in particular through metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 receptors, may contribute to phenotypic deficits and may be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. This study assessed the therapeutic potential of 2-methyl-6-phenylethyl-pyrididine (MPEP, an mGluR5-receptor antagonist, on repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors in the valproic acid (VPA mouse model of autism. Mice were exposed prenatally on day E13 to VPA and assessed for repetitive self-grooming and marble burying behaviors as adults. Anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity were measured in an open-field. VPA-exposed mice displayed increased repetitive and anxiety-like behaviors, consistent with previously published results. Across both marble burying and self-grooming assays, MPEP significantly reduced repetitive behaviors in VPA-treated mice, but had no effect on locomotor activity. These results are consistent with emerging preclinical literature that mGluR5-antagonists may have therapeutic efficacy for core symptoms of autism.

  5. Video analysis of motor events in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauscher, Birgit; Gschliesser, Viola; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Ulmer, Hanno; Peralta, Cecilia M; Müller, Jörg; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2007-07-30

    In REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), several studies focused on electromyographic characterization of motor activity, whereas video analysis has remained more general. The aim of this study was to undertake a detailed and systematic video analysis. Nine polysomnographic records from 5 Parkinson patients with RBD were analyzed and compared with sex- and age-matched controls. Each motor event in the video during REM sleep was classified according to duration, type of movement, and topographical distribution. In RBD, a mean of 54 +/- 23.2 events/10 minutes of REM sleep (total 1392) were identified and visually analyzed. Seventy-five percent of all motor events lasted <2 seconds. Of these events, 1,155 (83.0%) were classified as elementary, 188 (13.5%) as complex behaviors, 50 (3.6%) as violent, and 146 (10.5%) as vocalizations. In the control group, 3.6 +/- 2.3 events/10 minutes (total 264) of predominantly elementary simple character (n = 240, 90.9%) were identified. Number and types of motor events differed significantly between patients and controls (P < 0.05). This study shows a very high number and great variety of motor events during REM sleep in symptomatic RBD. However, most motor events are minor, and violent episodes represent only a small fraction.

  6. A Framework to Describe, Analyze and Generate Interactive Motor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrassé, Nathanaël; Charalambous, Themistoklis; Burdet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    While motor interaction between a robot and a human, or between humans, has important implications for society as well as promising applications, little research has been devoted to its investigation. In particular, it is important to understand the different ways two agents can interact and generate suitable interactive behaviors. Towards this end, this paper introduces a framework for the description and implementation of interactive behaviors of two agents performing a joint motor task. A taxonomy of interactive behaviors is introduced, which can classify tasks and cost functions that represent the way each agent interacts. The role of an agent interacting during a motor task can be directly explained from the cost function this agent is minimizing and the task constraints. The novel framework is used to interpret and classify previous works on human-robot motor interaction. Its implementation power is demonstrated by simulating representative interactions of two humans. It also enables us to interpret and explain the role distribution and switching between roles when performing joint motor tasks. PMID:23226231

  7. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…

  8. Brief report: the dopamine-3-receptor gene (DRD3) is associated with specific repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, W.G.; Krom, M. de; Jonge, M.V. de

    2012-01-01

    Recently the DRD3 gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Di

  9. GABAB Receptor Agonist R-Baclofen Reverses Social Deficits and Reduces Repetitive Behavior in Two Mouse Models of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD.

  10. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD…

  11. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…

  12. Receptive and Expressive Language as Predictors of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Subramanian, Corey E.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether language skills and nonverbal cognitive skills were associated with clinician-observed restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in a sample of 115 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at ages 2 and 3. By age 3, RRBs were significantly negatively correlated with receptive and expressive language, as well as…

  13. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD…

  14. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  15. Successful Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain by 1 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Affected Supplementary Motor Complex: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hoo; Byun, Jeong-Hyun; Choe, Yu-Ri; Lim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Ka-Young

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old man with a right transfemoral amputation suffered from severe phantom limb pain (PLP). After targeting the affected supplementary motor complex (SMC) or primary motor cortex (PMC) using a neuro-navigation system with 800 stimuli of 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at 85% of resting motor threshold, the 1 Hz rTMS over SMC dramatically reduced his visual analog scale (VAS) of PLP from 7 to 0. However, the 1 Hz rTMS over PMC failed to reduce pain. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a successfully treated severe PLP with a low frequency rTMS over SMC in affected hemisphere. PMID:26361601

  16. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  17. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  18. Is There a Relationship between Restricted, Repetitive, Stereotyped Behaviors and Interests and Abnormal Sensory Response in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Robin L.; Agnew, John A.; Miller, Lucy Jane; Gralla, Jane; Pan, Zhaoxing; Goldson, Edward; Ledbetter, James C.; Dinkins, Juliet P.; Hooks, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors and interests (RBs) and sensory responses in a group of 70 children and adolescents diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Caregivers completed the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) and the Sensory Profile. Controlling for IQ and age,…

  19. Motor-behavioral episodes in REM sleep behavior disorder and phasic events during REM sleep

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manni, Raffaele; Terzaghi, Michele; Glorioso, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    ...% of the motor-behavioral episodes recorded. Sleeptalking was significantly more associated with purposeful/semi-purposeful motor activity than crying and/or incomprehensible muttering (71.0% versus 21.4%, P<0.005). In 58.2...

  20. Prediction of electrical behavior in deteriorating induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trutt, F.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). College of Engineering); Santa Cruz, C. (Minera Yanacocha S.A., Lima (Peru)); Kohler, J.L. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Mine Electrical Lab.); Sottile, J. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    Methods for the prediction of electrical behavior in deteriorating induction machines are surveyed. Generally, these procedures require the assumption of a specific motor speed. The electrical operating parameters are then calculated using a model developed for this purpose. These models normally allow an arbitrary number of winding deterioration processes to be simulated on the stator and/or rotor. Forms of deterioration might include high- or low-impedance leakage between phases, between coils in a single phase, or between a phase and ground. In this paper, experimental data for a three-phase, wound rotor induction motor with stator deterioration is compared with the predictions of a specific model of that motor. Procedures are then developed for the prediction of deterioration trends in classes of motors. One application of such an analysis would be in the generation of data bases required to design and develop performance monitoring, deterioration detection, or deterioration classification systems for critical motor installations without the need to develop a predictive model for each motor type.

  1. Masked repetition priming hinders subsequent recollection but not familiarity: A behavioral and event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Wang, Wei; Gao, Chuanji; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study used the masked repetition priming paradigm in the study phase and the R/K paradigm in the test phase to investigate whether repetition priming can hinder recognition memory and which recognition process (familiarity or recollection) is hindered. Event-related potentials (ERPs) in the study and test phase were recorded to explore the temporal course of how repetition priming hinders subsequent recognition memory and which old/new effect (FN400 or LPC) is affected. Converging behavioral and ERP results indicated that masked repetition priming hindered subsequent recollection but not familiarity. The analysis of ERP priming effects in the study phase indicated that primed words were associated with less negative N400 and less positive LPC compared to unprimed words. The analysis of the priming effect as a function of subsequent memory revealed that only the LPC priming effect was predictive of priming effect on subsequent memory, which suggested that the "prediction-error" account might be a possible explanation of how repetition priming affects subsequent recognition memory.

  2. Effect of robotic-assisted three-dimensional repetitive motion to improve hand motor function and control in children with handwriting deficits: a nonrandomized phase 2 device trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsbo, Susan E; Hood-Szivek, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We explored the efficacy of robotic technology in improving handwriting in children with impaired motor skills. Eighteen participants had impairments arising from cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other disorders. The intervention was robotic-guided three-dimensional repetitive motion in 15-20 daily sessions of 25-30 min each over 4-8 wk. Fine motor control improved for the children with learning disabilities and those ages 9 or older but not for those with CP or under age 9. All children with ASD or ADHD referred for slow writing speed were able to increase speed while maintaining legibility. Three-dimensional, robot-assisted, repetitive motion training improved handwriting fluidity in children with mild to moderate fine motor deficits associated with ASD or ADHD within 10 hr of training. This dosage may not be sufficient for children with CP. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuromuscular electrical stimulation on upper extremity motor recovery in the early period after stroke: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Aliye; Türe, Sabiha; Askin, Ayhan; Yardimci, Engin Ugur; Demirdal, Secil Umit; Kurt Incesu, Tülay; Tosun, Ozgur; Kocyigit, Hikmet; Akhan, Galip; Gelal, Fazıl Mustafa

    2017-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on upper extremity motor function in patients with acute/subacute ischemic stroke. Twenty-five ischemic acute/subacute stroke subjects were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Experimental group 1 received low frequency (LF) rTMS to the primary motor cortex of the unaffected side + physical therapy (PT) including activities to improve strength, flexibility, transfers, posture, balance, coordination, and activities of daily living, mainly focusing on upper limb movements; experimental group 2 received the same protocol combined with NMES to hand extensor muscles; and the control group received only PT. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan was used to evaluate the activation or inhibition of the affected and unaffected primary motor cortex. No adverse effect was reported. Most of the clinical outcome scores improved significantly in all groups, however no statistically significant difference was found between groups due to the small sample sizes. The highest percent improvement scores were observed in TMS + NMES group (varying between 48 and 99.3%) and the lowest scores in control group (varying between 13.1 and 28.1%). Hand motor recovery was significant in both experimental groups while it did not change in control group. Some motor cortex excitability changes were also observed in fMRI. LF-rTMS with or without NMES seems to facilitate the motor recovery in the paretic hand of patients with acute/subacute ischemic stroke. TMS or the combination of TMS + NMES may be a promising additional therapy in upper limb motor training. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to establish their effectiveness in upper limb motor rehabilitation of stroke.

  4. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Hückesfeld; Andreas Schoofs; Philipp Schlegel; Anton Miroschnikow; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands), the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG) and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feedin...

  5. Effect of single-session repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over the hand versus leg motor area on pain after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetté, Fanny; Côté, Isabelle; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Mercier, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Neuropathic pain often follows spinal cord injury (SCI). To compare the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over different motor cortex targets (hand vs leg area) versus sham stimulation on neuropathic pain and local neurophysiological changes in patients with SCI. A total of 16 patients with complete or incomplete motor SCI and chronic neuropathic pain participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized study. Three single sessions of sham or active rTMS (10 Hz, total of 2000 stimuli) were applied in random order over the hand or leg area with a minimal 2-week interval. THE MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: were the numeric rating scale for pain sensation and parameters derived from motor mapping of the first dorsal interosseous muscle, including maximal amplitude of evoked response as well as map area, volume, and location. rTMS applied to either the hand or the leg area, but not sham stimulation, induced a significant but equivalent reduction in pain for the first 48 hours postintervention (P stimulation of the hand area (P = .04) but not for the other conditions. rTMS applied over the hand or leg motor cortex decreased neuropathic pain regardless of any change in cortical excitability, suggesting that the analgesic effect is not associated with local changes at the motor cortex level itself.

  6. Motor-behavioral episodes in REM sleep behavior disorder and phasic events during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Raffaele; Terzaghi, Michele; Glorioso, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    To investigate if sudden-onset motor-behavioral episodes in REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) are associated with phasic events of REM sleep, and to explore the potential meaning of such an association. Observational review analysis. Tertiary sleep center. Twelve individuals (11 males; mean age 67.6 +/- 7.4 years) affected by idiopathic RBD, displaying a total of 978 motor-behavioral episodes during nocturnal in-laboratory video-PSG. N/A. The motor activity displayed was primitive in 69.1% and purposeful/semi-purposeful in 30.9% of the motor-behavioral episodes recorded. Sleeptalking was significantly more associated with purposeful/semi-purposeful motor activity than crying and/or incomprehensible muttering (71.0% versus 21.4%, P<0.005). In 58.2% of the motor-behavioral episodes, phasic EEG-EOG events (rapid eye movements [REMs], alpha bursts, or sawtooth waves [STWs]) occurred simultaneously. Each variable (REMs, STWs, alpha bursts) was associated more with purposefullsemi-purposeful than with primitive movements (P<0.05). Motor-behavioral episodes in RBD were significantly more likely to occur in association with phasic than with tonic periods of REM sleep. The presence of REMs, alpha bursts and STWs was found to be more frequent in more complex episodes. We hypothesize that motor-behavioral episodes in RBD are likely to occur when the brain, during REM sleep, is in a state of increased instability (presence of alpha bursts) and experiencing stronger stimulation of visual areas (REMs).

  7. Dynamical movement primitives: learning attractor models for motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Nakanishi, Jun; Hoffmann, Heiko; Pastor, Peter; Schaal, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems have been used in many disciplines to model complex behaviors, including biological motor control, robotics, perception, economics, traffic prediction, and neuroscience. While often the unexpected emergent behavior of nonlinear systems is the focus of investigations, it is of equal importance to create goal-directed behavior (e.g., stable locomotion from a system of coupled oscillators under perceptual guidance). Modeling goal-directed behavior with nonlinear systems is, however, rather difficult due to the parameter sensitivity of these systems, their complex phase transitions in response to subtle parameter changes, and the difficulty of analyzing and predicting their long-term behavior; intuition and time-consuming parameter tuning play a major role. This letter presents and reviews dynamical movement primitives, a line of research for modeling attractor behaviors of autonomous nonlinear dynamical systems with the help of statistical learning techniques. The essence of our approach is to start with a simple dynamical system, such as a set of linear differential equations, and transform those into a weakly nonlinear system with prescribed attractor dynamics by means of a learnable autonomous forcing term. Both point attractors and limit cycle attractors of almost arbitrary complexity can be generated. We explain the design principle of our approach and evaluate its properties in several example applications in motor control and robotics.

  8. Repetitive behavior and restricted interests in young children with autism: comparisons with controls and stability over 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lisa; Thurm, Audrey; Farmer, Cristan; Shumway, Stacy

    2013-12-01

    Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities [RRBs] are among the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have indicated that RRBs differentiate ASD from other developmental disorders and from typical development. This study examined the presentation of RRBs as reported on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, a caregiver report, in children with ASD [separated into autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified groups] compared with children with nonspectrum developmental delays or typical development. We examined the role of age, cognitive functioning, sex and social communication impairment as they relate to RRBs. The stability of RRBs in children with autism was also examined over the course of 2 years. Results of the study confirmed that the amount and type of RRBs differs by diagnosis. Age, cognitive functioning, sex and social-communication impairment were not significant correlates. Among children with autism, RRBs remained stable over time.

  9. Language, motor skills and behavior problems in preschool years

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mari Vaage

    2014-01-01

    Child language development is a complex process. This process cannot be understood without considering its relationship to other developmental domains. Language development in preschool years is associated with development of motor skills and behavior problems, and these associations are the focus of the current thesis. Despite a large number of studies examining the co-occurrence of such developmental delays and problems, few studies have examined the developmental relationship between these...

  10. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shakeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%. However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320. Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively. Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001. Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004. Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  11. NEURAL PATHWAYS OF TRIGEMINAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE AFFERENTS COORDINATE ORAL MOTOR BEHAVIORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pifu; Zhang Jingdong; Li Jishuo

    2003-01-01

    neuroanatomical network to elucidate trigeminal proprioceptive afferents coordinate oral motor behaviors.

  12. Stop and Change: Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, M.A.; Staal, W.G.; Houben, R.H.; Jonge, M.V. de

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning

  13. Stop and Change : Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, Mandy A L; Staal, Wouter G.; Houben, Renske H.; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning

  14. Stop and Change: Inhibition and Flexibility Skills Are Related to Repetitive Behavior in Children and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert-Kerckhoffs, M.A.; Staal, W.G.; Houben, R.H.; Jonge, M.V. de

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control dysfunctions, like inhibitory and attentional flexibility deficits are assumed to underlie repetitive behavior in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, prepotent response inhibition and attentional flexibility were examined in 64 high-functioning i

  15. Increase in Short-Interval Intracortical Facilitation of the Motor Cortex after Low-Frequency Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation of the Unaffected Hemisphere in the Subacute Phase after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Arruda Mello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere (UH-LF-rTMS in patients with stroke can decrease interhemispheric inhibition from the unaffected to the affected hemisphere and improve hand dexterity and strength of the paretic hand. The objective of this proof-of-principle study was to explore, for the first time, effects of UH-LF-rTMS as add-on therapy to motor rehabilitation on short-term intracortical inhibition (SICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF of the motor cortex of the unaffected hemisphere (M1UH in patients with ischemic stroke. Eighteen patients were randomized to receive, immediately before rehabilitation treatment, either active or sham UH-LF-rTMS, during two weeks. Resting motor threshold (rMT, SICI, and ICF were measured in M1UH before the first session and after the last session of treatment. There was a significant increase in ICF in the active group compared to the sham group after treatment, and there was no significant differences in changes in rMT or SICI. ICF is a measure of intracortical synaptic excitability, with a relative contribution of spinal mechanisms. ICF is typically upregulated by glutamatergic agonists and downregulated by gabaergic antagonists. The observed increase in ICF in the active group, in this hypothesis-generating study, may be related to M1UH reorganization induced by UH-LF-rTMS.

  16. Effect of inter-train interval on the induction of repetition suppression of motor-evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Minna; Kallioniemi, Elisa; Julkunen, Petro

    2017-01-01

    Repetition suppression (RS) is evident as a weakened response to repeated stimuli after the initial response. RS has been demonstrated in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here, we investigated the effect of inter-train interval (ITI) on the induction of RS of MEPs with the attempt to optimize the investigative protocols. Trains of TMS pulses, targeted to the primary motor cortex by neuronavigation, were applied at a stimulation intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold. The stimulus trains included either four or twenty pulses with an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) of 1 s. The ITI was here defined as the interval between the last pulse in a train and the first pulse in the next train; the ITIs used here were 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 12, and 17 s. RS was observed with all ITIs except with the ITI of 1 s, in which the ITI was equal to ISI. RS was more pronounced with longer ITIs. Shorter ITIs may not allow sufficient time for a return to baseline. RS may reflect a startle-like response to the first pulse of a train followed by habituation. Longer ITIs may allow more recovery time and in turn demonstrate greater RS. Our results indicate that RS can be studied with confidence at relatively short ITIs of 6 s and above.

  17. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  18. Reorganization and enhanced functional connectivity of motor areas in repetitive ankle movements after training in locomotor attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Katiuscia; Katiuscia, Sacco; Cauda, Franco; Franco, Cauda; D'Agata, Federico; Federico, D'Agata; Mate, Davide; Davide, Mate; Duca, Sergio; Sergio, Duca; Geminiani, Giuliano; Giuliano, Geminiani

    2009-11-10

    We examined the functional changes in the activity of the cerebral areas involved in motor tasks, prior to and following a 1-week period of locomotor attention training consisting of physical and mental practice, in normal subjects. In a previous study, we examined the effect of the same kind of training on motor circuits using an fMRI paradigm of motor imagery. In this work, we investigated whether the expanded activations found in the previous study were present also using an overt foot motor task consisting of ankle dorsiflexion; a control task requiring hand movements was also administered. In this article, we also discuss the changes in functional connectivity between the pretraining and posttraining conditions during foot movements. The foot task showed a posttraining reorganization of the sensorimotor areas, which is in line with earlier studies on lower limb motor learning, while the control hand movement task only produced a modification in the left premotor cortex. These results confirm the effect of training on functional reorganization and underline its task specificity. After training, we also observed enhanced connectivity in the sensorimotor areas, suggesting that functional connectivity of the sensorimotor network can be modulated by focusing attention on the movements involved in ambulation.

  19. Effects of intensive repetition of a new facilitation technique on motor functional recovery of the hemiplegic upper limb and hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahira, Kazumi; Shimodozono, Megumi; Etoh, Seiji; Kamada, Katsuya; Noma, Tomokazu; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects on the hemiplegic upper limb of repetitive facilitation exercises (RFEs) using a novel facilitation technique, in which the patient's intention to move the hemiplegic upper limb or finger was followed by realization of the movement using multiple sensory stimulations. Methods Twenty-three stroke patients were enrolled in a cross-over study in which 2-week RFE sessions (100 repetitions each of five-to-eight types of facilitation exercise per day) were alternated with 2-week conventional rehabilitation (CR) sessions, for a total of four sessions. Treatments were begun with the 2-week RFE session in one group and the 2-week CR session in the second group. Results After the first 2-week RFE session, both groups showed improvements in the Brunnstrom stages of the upper limb and the hand, in contrast to the small improvements observed during the first CR session. The Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function (STEF) score, which evaluates the ability of manipulating objects, in both groups improved during both sessions. After the second 2-week RFE and CR sessions, both groups showed little further improvement except in the STEF score. Conclusion The novel RFEs promoted the functional recovery of the hemiplegic upper limb and hand to a greater extent than the CR sessions. PMID:20715890

  20. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hückesfeld

    Full Text Available Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands, the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ. Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system.

  1. A Human Motor Behavior Model for Direct Pointing at a Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Kopper, Regis; Bowman,Doug A.; Silva, Mara G.

    2008-01-01

    Models of human motor behavior are well known as an aid in the design of user interfaces (UIs). Most current models apply primarily to desktop interaction, but with the development of non-desktop UIs, new types of motor behaviors need to be modeled. Direct Pointing at a Distance is such a motor behavior. A model of direct pointing at a distance would be particularly useful in the comparison of different interaction techniques, because the performance of such techniques is highly dependent on ...

  2. Effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combining task-oriented training on upper limb motor function recovery after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-bin WANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS combined with task-oriented training on the recovery of upper limb motor function of stroke patients. Methods A total of 42 patients with hemiplegia after stroke were randomly divided into control group (N = 20 and treatment group (N = 22. Control group received routine rehabilitation training and task-oriented training, and treatment group received low-frequency (1 Hz rTMS over the contralesional cortex addition to routine rehabilitation and task-oriented training. Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT were used to evaluate upper limb motor function of all patients before treatment, after 4-week treatment and 3 months after treatment. The latency and central motor conduction time (CMCT of motor-evoked potential (MEP in the contralesional cortex were recorded and analyzed. Results Compared with control group, FMA-UE score (P = 0.006 and WMFT score (P = 0.024 were significantly increased in treatment group. There was significant difference in FMA-AUE score (P = 0.000 and WMFT score (P = 0.000 at different time points. Compared with before treatment, FMA-UE score (P = 0.000, for all and WMFT score (P = 0.000, for all of patients in both groups were all significantly increased after 4-week treatment and 3 months after treatment. Besides, FMA-UE score (P = 0.000, for all and WMFT score (P = 0.000, for all 3 months after treatment were higher than those after 4-week treatment. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups on the latency (P = 0.979 and CMCT (P = 0.807 of MEP before and after treatment, and so was the difference on the latency (P = 0.085 and CMCT (P = 0.507 of MEP in the contralesional cortex at different time points (before treatment, after 4-week treatment and 3 months after treatment. Conclusions Low-frequency rTMS over the contralesional cortex combined

  3. C. elegans dopaminergic D2-like receptors delimit recurrent cholinergic-mediated motor programs during a goal-oriented behavior.

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    Paola Correa

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation requires coordinated temporal-spatial execution of different motor outputs. During mating, a cloacal circuit consisting of cholinergic sensory-motor neurons and sex muscles maintains the male's position and executes copulatory spicule thrusts at his mate's vulva. However, distinct signaling mechanisms that delimit these behaviors to their proper context are unclear. We found that dopamine (DA signaling directs copulatory spicule insertion attempts to the hermaphrodite vulva by dampening spurious stimulus-independent sex muscle contractions. From pharmacology and genetic analyses, DA antagonizes stimulatory ACh signaling via the D2-like receptors, DOP-2 and DOP-3, and Gα(o/i proteins, GOA-1 and GPA-7. Calcium imaging and optogenetics suggest that heightened DA-expressing ray neuron activities coincide with the cholinergic cloacal ganglia function during spicule insertion attempts. D2-like receptor signaling also attenuates the excitability of additional mating circuits to reduce the duration of mating attempts with unproductive and/or inappropriate partners. This suggests that, during wild-type mating, simultaneous DA-ACh signaling modulates the activity threshold of repetitive motor programs, thus confining the behavior to the proper situational context.

  4. Children with behavioral problems and motor problems have a worse neurological condition than children with behavioral problems only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some evidence suggests that children with specific behavioral problems are at risk for motor problems. It is unclear whether neurological condition plays a role in the propensity of children with behavioral problems to develop Motor problems. Aims: To examine the relation between

  5. Motor neuronal activity varies least among individuals when it matters most for behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullins, Miranda J; Shaw, Kendrick M; Gill, Jeffrey P; Chiel, Hillel J

    2015-02-01

    How does motor neuronal variability affect behavior? To explore this question, we quantified activity of multiple individual identified motor neurons mediating biting and swallowing in intact, behaving Aplysia californica by recording from the protractor muscle and the three nerves containing the majority of motor neurons controlling the feeding musculature. We measured multiple motor components: duration of the activity of identified motor neurons as well as their relative timing. At the same time, we measured behavioral efficacy: amplitude of grasping movement during biting and amplitude of net inward food movement during swallowing. We observed that the total duration of the behaviors varied: Within animals, biting duration shortened from the first to the second and third bites; between animals, biting and swallowing durations varied. To study other sources of variation, motor components were divided by behavior duration (i.e., normalized). Even after normalization, distributions of motor component durations could distinguish animals as unique individuals. However, the degree to which a motor component varied among individuals depended on the role of that motor component in a behavior. Motor neuronal activity that was essential for the expression of biting or swallowing was similar among animals, whereas motor neuronal activity that was not essential for that behavior varied more from individual to individual. These results suggest that motor neuronal activity that matters most for the expression of a particular behavior may vary least from individual to individual. Shaping individual variability to ensure behavioral efficacy may be a general principle for the operation of motor systems. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Application of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised--Italian version--in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulceri, Francesca; Narzisi, Antonio; Apicella, Fabio; Balboni, Giulia; Baldini, Sara; Brocchini, Jenny; Domenici, Ilaria; Cerullo, Sonia; Igliozzi, Roberta; Cosenza, Angela; Tancredi, Raffaella; Muratori, Filippo; Calderoni, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities (RRB) are mandatory features for a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Despite the strong diagnostic role of RRB, their expressiveness and their relationship with other clinical/demographic features in ASD is not fully elucidated. The Italian version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) was applied to a relatively large sample of preschool-aged children with ASD who underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. The relationship between RRB and sex, age, non-verbal IQ, autism severity, as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the RBS-R were explored. Stereotyped and Ritualistic/Sameness behaviors were the most common RRB in preschoolers with ASD, without widespread differences between males and females. No significant correlations between RRB and chronological age, or non-verbal IQ were detected. The expressiveness of ritualistic/sameness behaviors positively correlated with autism severity, assessed through the Calibrated Severity Score (CSS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed high diagnostic accuracy using the Global Rating Score, which represents the judgment of the parents of as the RRB affect the child's life. However, while the Global Rating Score performed well, the remaining subscales did not. This investigation extends the limited research on early pattern and associated features of RRB in young children with ASD. The use of the RBS-R may increase the knowledge of the RRB complexity and variability and in turn improve the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within the autistic spectrum.

  7. Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ("SLC1A1") Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene ("SLC1A1") with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers and/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children…

  8. MicroRNA-128 governs neuronal excitability and motor behavior in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chan Lek; Plotkin, Joshua L.; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard

    2013-01-01

    The control of motor behavior in animals and humans requires constant adaptation of neuronal networks to signals of various types and strengths. We found that microRNA-128 (miR-128), which is expressed in adult neurons, regulates motor behavior by modulating neuronal signaling networks...

  9. Motor planning modulates sensory-motor control of collision avoidance behavior in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Nakagawa

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we examined the collision avoidance behavior of the frog, Rana catesbeiana to an approaching object in the upper visual field. The angular velocity of the frog's escape turn showed a significant positive correlation with the turn angle (r2 = 0.5741, P0.05. Thus, the frog was not able to control the velocity of the large escape turns accurately and did not complete the behavior within a constant time. In the latter case, there was a small but significant positive correlation between the threshold angular size and the angular velocity (r2 = 0.1459, P<0.05. This suggests that the threshold is controlled to compensate for the insufficient escape velocity achieved during large turn angles, and could explain a significant negative correlation between the turn angle and the threshold angular size (r2 = 0.1145, P<0.05. Thus, it is likely that the threshold angular size is also controlled by the turn angle and is modulated by motor planning.

  10. Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Social Participation, Play, Leisure, and Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in People With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies.

  11. Maladaptive and Repetitive Behaviors in Children with Down Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; MacLean, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are recognizing that a subgroup of children with Down syndrome (DS) also present with clinically significant impairments in social-communication and restricted patterns of behavior, such as those that characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Efforts to better describe the behavioral presentation of children with…

  12. Recovery of motor disability and spasticity in post-stroke after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málly, J; Dinya, E

    2008-07-01

    Lately it has been indicated that the stimulation of both sides of the motor cortices with different frequencies of rTMS can improve the behaviour of a paretic arm. We studied the effect of rTMS in severe cases of post-stroke after nearly 10 years. They had wide hemispheric lesion and their paresis had not changed for more than 5 years. The majority of patients could not move their fingers on the affected side. In our study we examined whether the active movement could be induced by rTMS even several years after stroke and which hemisphere (affected or unaffected) stimulated by rTMS would be the best location for attenuating the spasticity and for developing movement in the paretic arm. Sixty-four patients (more than 5 years after stroke in a stable state) were followed for 3 months. They were treated with rTMS with 1 Hz at 30% of 2.3T 100 stimuli per session twice a day for a week. The area to be stimulated was chosen according to the evoked movement by TMS in the paretic arm. That way, four groups were created and compared. In group A, where both hemispheres were stimulated (because of the single stimulation of TMS could induce movement from both sides of hemispheres) the spasticity decreased but the movement could not be influenced. A highly significant improvement in spasticity, in movement induction and in the behaviour of paresis was observed in group B, where before treatment, there was no evoked movement in the paretic arm from stimulating either hemispheres of the brain. For treatment we stimulated the unaffected hemisphere from where the intact arm is moved (ipsilateral to the paretic side). In both groups C (contralateral hemisphere to the paretic arm) and D (ipsilaterally evoked movement in the paretic arm), the spasticity decreased during the first week, but the movement of the paretic arm improved only in group C. It seems that spasticity can be modified by the stimulation either the affected or the unaffected hemisphere, but the induction of movement

  13. Coordination of Orofacial Motor Actions into Exploratory Behavior by Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnikova, Anastasia; Moore, Jeffrey D; Liao, Song-Mao; Deschênes, Martin; Kleinfeld, David

    2017-03-06

    The delineation of sensorimotor circuits that guide exploration begins with an understanding of the pattern of motor outputs [1]. These motor patterns provide a clue to the form of the underlying circuits [2-4] (but see [5]). We focus on the behaviors that rodents use to explore their peripersonal space through goal-directed positioning of their nose, head, and vibrissae. Rodents sniff in response to novel odors, reward expectation, and as part of social interactions [6-12]. Sniffing serves olfaction [13, 14], while whisking synchronized to sniffing serves vibrissa-based touch [6, 15, 16]. We quantify the ethology of exploratory nose and head movements in relation to breathing. We find that sniffing is accompanied by prominent lateral and vertical deflections of the nose, i.e., twitches, which are driven by activation of the deflector nasi muscles [17]. On the timescale of individual breaths, nose motion is rhythmic and has a maximum deflection following the onset of inspiration. On a longer timescale, excursions of the nose persist for several breaths and are accompanied by an asymmetry in vibrissa positioning toward the same side of the face. Such directed deflections can be triggered by a lateralized source of odor. Lastly, bobbing of the head as the animal cranes and explores is phase-locked to sniffing and to movement of the nose. These data, along with prior results on the resetting of the whisk cycle at the onset of inspiration [15, 16, 18], reveal that the onset of each breath initiates a "snapshot" of the orofacial sensory environment. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  14. Is trichotillomania a stereotypic movement disorder? An analysis of body-focused repetitive behaviors in people with hair-pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Flessner, Christopher A; Franklin, Martin; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Woods, Douglas W

    2008-01-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) is characterized by nonfunctional repetitive movements, is typically diagnosed in people with intellectual disability, and by definition excludes people with trichotillomania (TTM). Nevertheless, hair-pulling may be one of a number of body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs) that are seen in the general population. Comorbidity of symptoms might support the idea that they are indicative of an underlying stereotypic disorder, and we therefore explored their frequency in people with hair-pulling. Participants were recruited with the help of the Trichotillomania Learning Center, the largest advocacy group for people with hair-pulling. Participants completed a self-report survey on the Internet, which included questions about the presence of both hair-pulling and other BFRBs. Measures included the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HS), the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania-Adult Version (MIST-A), the Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). The majority of participants with hair-pulling (70%) report the presence of other BFRBs, most commonly skin-picking and nail-biting. There were particularly strong associations between the total number of BFRBs and increased scores on ratings of focused hair-pulling, depression, anxiety, stress, and functional impairment. Similar results were found in participants who met more rigorous criteria for trichotillomania. This study is limited by its self-report nature, and by the lack of detailed information on the phenomenology of comorbid BFRBs. While further nosological research is needed, the high rates of these behaviors in people with hair-pulling, and their association with increased disability, is consistent with previous clinical observations, and supports the argument that trichotillomania can usefully be conceptualized as a stereotypic disorder. Speculatively, this argument may be especially valid in

  15. Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2013-02-17

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research

  16. Links between motor control and classroom behaviors: Moderation by low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Rachel A; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear from past research on effortful control whether one of its components, motor control, independently contributes to adaptive classroom behaviors. The goal of this study was to identify associations between early motor control, measured by the walk-a-line task at age 3, and teacher-reported learning-related behaviors (approaches to learning and attention problems) and behavior problems in kindergarten classrooms. Models tested whether children who were vulnerable to poorer learning behaviors and more behavior problems due to having been born low birth weight benefited more, less, or the same as other children from better motor control. Data were drawn from the national Fragile Families and Child-Wellbeing Study (n = 751). Regression models indicated that motor control was significantly associated with better approaches to learning and fewer behavior problems. Children who were low birth weight benefitted more than normal birth weight children from better motor control with respect to their approaches to learning, but equally with respect to behavior problems. Additionally, for low but not normal birth weight children, better motor control predicted fewer attention problems. These findings suggest that motor control follows a compensatory model of development for low birth weight children and classroom behaviors.

  17. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere leg motor area in patients with subacute stroke and substantial leg impairment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nung; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Chi, Ju-yang; Lin, Li-Fong; Yen, Tze-Hsun; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on mobility among patients with substantial leg impairment after subacute stroke. Double-blinded, stratified, randomized trial involving a sham control group. Patients who developed unilateral hemiplegia after first-ever subacute stroke and underwent inpatient stroke rehabilitation. The 15-day intervention programme used in the present study included the application of rTMS (1 Hz, 15 min) over the leg motor area of the unaffected hemisphere, followed by 45 min physical therapy. Overall, 32 participants were randomly assigned to receive either real rTMS or sham stimulation. Clinical assessments, including the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS), balance subscale of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA-b), Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Barthel Index (BI), and Timed Up and Go test, were performed immediately before and after the intervention. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in all the test results over time. At the post-test assessment, the patients in the real rTMS group demonstrated greater improvements in the PASS, POMA, and BI scores than did the patients in the sham rTMS group. In addition, a significantly higher number of patients in the real rTMS group regained mobility at the post-test assessment compared with the corresponding number of patients in the sham rTMS group. Application of 1-Hz rTMS may improve mobility among patients with substantial leg impairment after subacute stroke.

  18. Deficient grip force control in schizophrenia: behavioral and modeling evidence for altered motor inhibition and motor noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teremetz, Maxime; Amado, Isabelle; Bendjemaa, Narjes; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Lindberg, Pavel G; Maier, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Whether upper limb sensorimotor control is affected in schizophrenia and how underlying pathological mechanisms may potentially intervene in these deficits is still being debated. We tested voluntary force control in schizophrenia patients and used a computational model in order to elucidate potential cerebral mechanisms underlying sensorimotor deficits in schizophrenia. A visuomotor grip force-tracking task was performed by 17 medicated and 6 non-medicated patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and by 15 healthy controls. Target forces in the ramp-hold-and-release paradigm were set to 5 N and to 10% maximal voluntary grip force. Force trajectory was analyzed by performance measures and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A computational model incorporating neural control signals was used to replicate the empirically observed motor behavior and to explore underlying neural mechanisms. Grip task performance was significantly lower in medicated and non-medicated schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Three behavioral variables were significantly higher in both patient groups: tracking error (by 50%), coefficient of variation of force (by 57%) and duration of force release (up by 37%). Behavioral performance did not differ between patient groups. Computational simulation successfully replicated these findings and predicted that decreased motor inhibition, together with an increased signal-dependent motor noise, are sufficient to explain the observed motor deficits in patients. PCA also suggested altered motor inhibition as a key factor differentiating patients from control subjects: the principal component representing inhibition correlated with clinical severity. These findings show that schizophrenia affects voluntary sensorimotor control of the hand independent of medication, and suggest that reduced motor inhibition and increased signal-dependent motor noise likely reflect key pathological mechanisms of the sensorimotor deficit.

  19. A framework for understanding the emerging role of corticolimbic-ventral striatal networks in OCD-associated repetitive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eWood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant interest in the mechanistic underpinnings of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has fueled research on the neural origins of compulsive behaviors. Converging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that abnormal repetitive behaviors are driven by dysfunction in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC circuits. These findings suggest that compulsive behaviors arise, in part, from aberrant communication between lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and dorsal striatum. An important body of work focused on the role of this network in OCD has been instrumental to progress in the field. Disease models focused primarily on these regions, however, fail to capture an important aspect of the disorder: affective dysregulation. High levels of anxiety are extremely prevalent in OCD, as is comorbidity with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, deficits in processing rewards and abnormalities in processing emotional stimuli are suggestive of aberrant encoding of affective information. Accordingly, OCD can be partially characterized as a disease in which behavioral selection is corrupted by exaggerated or dysregulated emotional states. This suggests that the networks producing OCD symptoms likely expand beyond traditional lateral OFC and dorsal striatum circuit models, and highlights the need to cast a wider net in our investigation of the circuits involved in generating and sustaining OCD symptoms. Here, we address the emerging role of medial OFC, amygdala, and ventral tegmental area projections to the ventral striatum (VS in OCD pathophysiology. The VS receives strong innervation from these affect and reward processing regions, and is therefore poised to integrate information crucial to the generation of compulsive behaviors. Though it complements functions of dorsal striatum and lateral OFC, this corticolimbic-VS network is less commonly explored as a potential source of the pathology underlying OCD. In this review we discuss this network

  20. The compensatory interaction between motor unit firing behavior and muscle force during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Paola; De Luca, Carlo J; Kline, Joshua C

    2016-10-01

    Throughout the literature, different observations of motor unit firing behavior during muscle fatigue have been reported and explained with varieties of conjectures. The disagreement amongst previous studies has resulted, in part, from the limited number of available motor units and from the misleading practice of grouping motor unit data across different subjects, contractions, and force levels. To establish a more clear understanding of motor unit control during fatigue, we investigated the firing behavior of motor units from the vastus lateralis muscle of individual subjects during a fatigue protocol of repeated voluntary constant force isometric contractions. Surface electromyographic decomposition technology provided the firings of 1,890 motor unit firing trains. These data revealed that to sustain the contraction force as the muscle fatigued, the following occurred: 1) motor unit firing rates increased; 2) new motor units were recruited; and 3) motor unit recruitment thresholds decreased. Although the degree of these adaptations was subject specific, the behavior was consistent in all subjects. When we compared our empirical observations with those obtained from simulation, we found that the fatigue-induced changes in motor unit firing behavior can be explained by increasing excitation to the motoneuron pool that compensates for the fatigue-induced decrease in muscle force twitch reported in empirical studies. Yet, the fundamental motor unit control scheme remains invariant throughout the development of fatigue. These findings indicate that the central nervous system regulates motor unit firing behavior by adjusting the operating point of the excitation to the motoneuron pool to sustain the contraction force as the muscle fatigues. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Cooperative behavior of molecular motors: Cargo transport and traffic phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard; Beeg, Janina; Dimova, Rumiana; Klumpp, Stefan; Müller, Melanie J. I.

    2010-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells including those of our own body contain complex transport systems based on molecular motors which walk along cytoskeletal filaments. These motors are rather small and make discrete mechanical steps with a step size of the order of 10 nm but are able to pull cargo particles over much larger distances, from micrometers up to meters. In vivo, the intracellular cargos include large membrane-bounded organelles, smaller vesicles, a subset of mRNAs, cytoskeletal filaments, and various protein building blocks, which are transported between different cell compartments. This cargo transport is usually performed by teams of motors. If all motors belong to the same molecular species, the cooperative action of the motors leads to uni-directional transport with a strongly increased run length and with a characteristic force dependence of the velocity distributions. If two antagonistic teams of motors pull on the same cargo particle, they perform a stochastic tug-of-war, which is characterized by a subtle force balance between the two motor teams and leads to several distinct patterns of bi-directional transport. So far, all experimental observations on bi-directional transport are consistent with such a tug-of-war. If many motors and/or cargo particles are transported along the filaments, one encounters various traffic phenomena. Depending on their mutual interactions and the compartment geometry, the motors form various spatio-temporal patterns such as traffic jams, and undergo nonequilibrium phase transitions between different patterns of transport.

  2. MicroRNA-128 governs neuronal excitability and motor behavior in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chan Lek; Plotkin, Joshua L.; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard

    2013-01-01

    The control of motor behavior in animals and humans requires constant adaptation of neuronal networks to signals of various types and strengths. We found that microRNA-128 (miR-128), which is expressed in adult neurons, regulates motor behavior by modulating neuronal signaling networks...... and excitability. miR-128 governs motor activity by suppressing the expression of various ion channels and signaling components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK2 network that regulate neuronal excitability. In mice, a reduction of miR-128 expression in postnatal neurons causes increased motor...... activity and fatal epilepsy. Overexpression of miR-128 attenuates neuronal responsiveness, suppresses motor activity, and alleviates motor abnormalities associated with Parkinson's-like disease and seizures in mice. These data suggest a therapeutic potential for miR-128 in the treatment of epilepsy...

  3. Studies in Motor Behavior: 75 Years of Research in Motor Development, Learning, and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Beverly D.; Reeve, T. Gilmour

    2005-01-01

    Research focused on human motor development, learning, and control has been a prominent feature in the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) since it was first published in 1930. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the papers in the RQES that demonstrate the journal's contributions to the study of motor development,…

  4. The Effects of Gender and Age on Repetitive and/or Restricted Behaviors and Interests in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of repetitive and/or restricted behaviors and interests (RRBIs) was assessed in 140 adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and severe or profound intellectual disability (ID). The associations of gender and age range were analyzed with RRBI frequency which was obtained using the Stereotypies subscale of the "Diagnostic…

  5. Evidence-Based, Parent-Mediated Interventions for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Case of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders. While there has been an increase in research into this domain in recent years, compared to social-communication impairments experienced by children with autism spectrum disorders, much less is known about their development, etiology, and management.…

  6. Cerebrolysin prevents deficits in social behavior, repetitive conduct, and synaptic inhibition in a rat model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Banerjee, Anwesha; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Bringas, María Elena; Kilgard, Michael P; Flores, Gonzalo; Atzori, Marco

    2017-06-13

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases of growing incidence characterized by repetitive conduct and impaired social behavior and communication for which effective pharmacological treatment is still unavailable. While the mechanisms and etiology of ASD are still unknown, a consensus is emerging about the synaptic nature of the syndrome, suggesting a possible avenue for pharmacological treatment with synaptogenic compounds. The peptidic mixture cerebrolysin (CBL) has been successfully used during the last three decades in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Animal experiments indicate that at least one possible mechanism of action of CBL is through neuroprotection and/or synaptogenesis. In the present study, we tested the effect of CBL treatment (daily injection of 2.5 mL/Kg i.p. during 15 days) on a rat model of ASD. This was based on the offspring (43 male and 51 female pups) of a pregnant female rat injected with valproic acid (VPA, 600 mg/Kg) at the embryonic day 12.5, which previous work has shown to display extensive behavioral, as well as synaptic impairment. Comparison between saline vs. CBL-injected VPA animals shows that CBL treatment improves behavioral as well as synaptic impairments, measured by behavioral performance (social interaction, Y-maze, plus-maze), maximal response of inhibitory γ-amino butyric acid type A receptor (GABAA R)-mediated synaptic currents, as well as their kinetic properties and adrenergic and muscarinic modulation. We speculate that CBL might be a viable and effective candidate for pharmacological treatment or co-treatment of ASD patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Behavior of high efficiency electric motors; Comportamiento de motores electricos de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Austin H. [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The energy efficiency is one of the main parameters in the design of the industrial motors of general purpose; nevertheless, it is avoided that it is at the cost of the reliability or to the global performance of the motor. Exist user groups of this equipment that consider that, in the search of a greater efficiency, the useful life period is diminished and the characteristics of operation of the motor are affected. During the past last years, the author has studied the aspects of quality and reliability, as well as the operative advantages of the high efficiency motors and written down the increasing interest for these aspects. Also he has detected that a great number of users has realized that, additionally to the obvious energy saving, the efficient motor offers a greater reliability and a longer useful life in most of the industrial applications. The objective of this article is to present the differences in the quality levels, reliability and operation parameters of high efficiency squirrel cage type electrical motors with those of the motors of standard manufacture. [Spanish] La eficiencia energetica es uno de los principales parametros en el diseno de los motores industriales de proposito general; sin embargo, se evita que sea a costa de la confiabilidad o del desempeno global del motor. Existen grupos de usuarios de estos equipos que consideran que, en la busqueda de una mayor eficiencia, se disminuye el periodo de vida util y se afectan las caracteristicas de operacion del motor. Durante los ultimos anos, el autor ha estudiado los aspectos de calidad y confiabilidad, asi como las ventajas operativas de los motores de alta eficiencia y anotado el incremento del interes por estos aspectos. Tambien ha detectado que un gran numero de usuarios se ha dado cuenta que, adicionalmente a los obvios ahorros de energia, el motor eficiente ofrece una mayor confiabilidad y una vida util mas larga en la mayoria de las aplicaciones industriales. El objetivo de este

  8. Social Motor Synchronization: Insights for Understanding Social Behavior in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L.; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J.; Schmidt, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in social interaction and communication are critical features of ASD but the underlying processes are poorly understood. An under-explored area is the social motor synchronization that happens when we coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we explored the relationships between dynamical measures of social motor synchronization and…

  9. A comparison of the effects of rhythm and robotic interventions on repetitive behaviors and affective states of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Park, Isabel K; Neelly, Linda B; Bhat, Anjana N

    2015-10-01

    Repetitive behaviors and poor affect regulation are commonly seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared the effects of two novel interventions - rhythm and robotic therapies, with those of a standard-of-care intervention, on the repetitive behaviors and affective states of 36 children with ASD between 5 and 12 years using a randomized controlled trial design. We coded for frequencies of sensory, negative, and stereotyped behaviors and the duration of positive, negative, and interested affective states in children during early, mid, and late training sessions. In terms of repetitive behaviors, in the early session, the rhythm and robot groups engaged in greater negative behaviors, whereas the comparison group engaged in greater sensory behaviors. With training, the rhythm group reduced negative behaviors whereas there were no training-related changes in the other groups. In terms of affective states, the rhythm and robot groups showed greater negative affect, whereas the comparison group demonstrated greater interested affect across all sessions. With training, the rhythm group showed a reduction in negative affect and an increase in interested affect whereas the robot group showed a reduction in positive affect. Overall, it appears that rhythm-based interventions are socially engaging treatment tools to target core impairments in autism.

  10. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  11. Adaptive and maladaptive correlates of repetitive behavior and restricted interests in persons with down syndrome and developmentally-matched typical children: a two-year longitudinal sequential design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Evans

    Full Text Available We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI in children with and without Down syndrome (DS over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA levels: "younger" 2-4 years; "older" 5-11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior.

  12. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  13. Sensory gating of an embryonic zebrafish interneuron during spontaneous motor behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Danielle Knogler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In all but the simplest monosynaptic reflex arcs, sensory stimuli are encoded by sensory neurons that transmit a signal via sensory interneurons to downstream partners in order to elicit a response. In the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio, cutaneous Rohon-Beard (RB sensory neurons fire in response to mechanical stimuli and excite downstream glutamatergic CoPA (commissural primary ascending interneurons to produce a flexion response contralateral to the site of stimulus. In the absence of sensory stimuli, zebrafish spinal locomotor circuits are spontaneously active during development due to pacemaker activity resulting in repetitive coiling of the trunk. Self-generated movement must therefore be distinguishable from external stimuli in order to ensure the appropriate activation of touch reflexes. Here, we recorded from CoPAs during spontaneous and evoked fictive motor behaviors in order to examine how responses to self-movement are gated in sensory interneurons. During spontaneous coiling, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs coincident with contralateral flexions that shunted firing for the duration of the coiling event. Shunting inactivation of CoPAs was caused by a slowly deactivating chloride conductance that resulted in lowered membrane resistance and increased action potential threshold. During spontaneous burst swimming, which develops later, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs that arrived in phase with excitation to ipsilateral motoneurons and provided persistent shunting. During a touch stimulus, short latency glutamatergic inputs produced cationic currents through AMPA receptors that drove a single, large amplitude action potential in the CoPA before shunting inhibition began, providing a brief window for the activation of downstream neurons. We compared the properties of CoPAs to those of other spinal neurons and propose that glycinergic signalling onto CoPAs acts as a corollary discharge signal for reflex inhibition during movement.

  14. Sensory gating of an embryonic zebrafish interneuron during spontaneous motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knogler, Laura D; Drapeau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In all but the simplest monosynaptic reflex arcs, sensory stimuli are encoded by sensory neurons that transmit a signal via sensory interneurons to downstream partners in order to elicit a response. In the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio), cutaneous Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons fire in response to mechanical stimuli and excite downstream glutamatergic commissural primary ascending (CoPA) interneurons to produce a flexion response contralateral to the site of stimulus. In the absence of sensory stimuli, zebrafish spinal locomotor circuits are spontaneously active during development due to pacemaker activity resulting in repetitive coiling of the trunk. Self-generated movement must therefore be distinguishable from external stimuli in order to ensure the appropriate activation of touch reflexes. Here, we recorded from CoPAs during spontaneous and evoked fictive motor behaviors in order to examine how responses to self-movement are gated in sensory interneurons. During spontaneous coiling, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs coincident with contralateral flexions that shunted firing for the duration of the coiling event. Shunting inactivation of CoPAs was caused by a slowly deactivating chloride conductance that resulted in lowered membrane resistance and increased action potential threshold. During spontaneous burst swimming, which develops later, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs that arrived in phase with excitation to ipsilateral motoneurons and provided persistent shunting. During a touch stimulus, short latency glutamatergic inputs produced cationic currents through AMPA receptors that drove a single, large amplitude action potential in the CoPA before shunting inhibition began, providing a brief window for the activation of downstream neurons. We compared the properties of CoPAs to those of other spinal neurons and propose that glycinergic signaling onto CoPAs acts as a corollary discharge signal for reflex inhibition during movement.

  15. Distinct motor impairments of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor knockout mice revealed by three types of motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru eNakamura

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Both D1R and D2R knock out (KO mice of the major dopamine receptors show significant motor impairments. However, there are some discrepant reports, which may be due to the differences in genetic background and experimental procedures. In addition, only few studies directly compared the motor performance of D1R and D2R KO mice. In this paper, we examined the behavioral difference among N10 congenic D1R and D2R KO, and wild type (WT mice. First, we examined spontaneous motor activity in the home cage environment for consecutive five days. Second, we examined motor performance using the rota-rod task, a standard motor task in rodents. Third, we examined motor ability with the Step-Wheel task in which mice were trained to run in a motor-driven turning wheel adjusting their steps on foothold pegs to drink water. The results showed clear differences among the mice of three genotypes in three different types of behavior. In monitoring spontaneous motor activities, D1R and D2R KO mice showed higher and lower 24 h activities, respectively, than WT mice. In the rota-rod tasks, at a low speed, D1R KO mice showed poor performance but later improved, whereas D2R KO mice showed a good performance at early days without further improvement. When first subjected to a high speed task, the D2R KO mice showed poorer rota-rod performance at a low speed than the D1R KO mice. In the Step-Wheel task, across daily sessions, D2R KO mice increased the duration that mice run sufficiently close to the spout to drink water, and decreased time to touch the floor due to missing the peg steps and number of times the wheel was stopped, which performance was much better than that of D1R KO mice. These incongruent results between the two tasks for D1R and D2R KO mice may be due to the differences in the motivation for the rota-rod and Step-Wheel tasks, aversion- and reward-driven, respectively. The Step-Wheel system may become a useful tool for assessing the motor ability of WT

  16. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Hybrid Rocket Motors Transient Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Barato, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    As the space business is shifting from pure performances to affordability a renewed interest is growing about hybrid rocket propulsion. Hybrid rocket motors are attractive for their inherent advantages like simplicity, reliability, safety and reduced costs. Moreover hybrid motors are easy to throttle and thus they are ideal candidate when soft-landing or energy management capabilities are required. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical/numerical study of hybrid transie...

  17. Trial-to-trial reoptimization of motor behavior due to changes in task demands is limited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orban de Xivry J-J

    Full Text Available Each task requires a specific motor behavior that is tuned to task demands. For instance, writing requires a lot of accuracy while clapping does not. It is known that the brain adjusts the motor behavior to different task demands as predicted by optimal control theory. In this study, the mechanism of this reoptimization process is investigated by varying the accuracy demands of a reaching task. In this task, the width of the reaching target (0.5 or 8 cm was varied either on a trial-to-trial basis (random schedule or in blocks (blocked schedule. On some trials, the hand of the subjects was clamped to a rectilinear trajectory that ended 2 cm on the left or right of the target center. The rejection of this perturbation largely varied with target width in the blocked schedule but not in the random schedule. That is, subjects exhibited different motor behavior in the different schedules despite identical accuracy demands. Therefore, while reoptimization has been considered immediate and automatic, the differences in motor behavior observed across schedules suggest that the reoptimization of the motor behavior is neither happening on a trial-by-trial basis nor obligatory. The absence of trial-to-trial mechanisms, the inability of the brain to adapt to two conflicting task demands and the existence of a switching cost are discussed as possible sources of the non-optimality of motor behavior during the random schedule.

  18. Restricted and repetitive behaviors in toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders based on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2010-08-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) observed during the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS: Lord et al., 2000] were examined in a longitudinal data set of 455 toddlers and preschoolers (age 8-56 months) with clinical diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; autism, n=121 and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), n=71), a nonspectrum disorder (NS; n=90), or typical development (TD; n=173). Even in the relatively brief semi-structured observations, GEE analyses of the severity and prevalence of RRBs differentiated children with ASD from those with NS and TD across all ages. RRB total scores on the ADOS were stable over time for children with ASD and NS; however, typically developing preschoolers showed lower RRB scores than typically developing toddlers. Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children with PDD-NOS, NS, and TD than younger children under 2 years and those with autism. Item analyses revealed different relationships between individual items and NVIQ, age, diagnosis, and gender. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the etiology and treatment of RRBs as well as for the framework of ASD diagnostic criteria in future diagnostic systems.

  19. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behaviors of Microcapsules/Bitumen Composites by a Repetitive Direct Tension Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the self-healing behaviors of bitumen using microcapsules containing rejuvenator by a modified fracture healing–refracture method through a repetitive tension test. Microcapsules had mean size values of 10, 20 and 30 μm with a same core/shell ratio of 1/1. Various microcapsules/bitumen samples were fabricated with microcapsule contents of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt. %, respectively. Tension strength values of microcapsules/bitumen samples were measured by a reparative fracture-healing process under different temperatures. It was found that these samples had tensile strength values larger than the data of pure bitumen samples under the same conditions after the four tensile fracture-healing cycles. Fracture morphology investigation and mechanism analysis indicated that the self-healing process was a process consisting of microcapsules being broken, penetrated and diffused. Moreover, the crack healing of bitumen can be considered as a viscosity driven process. The self-healing ability partly repaired the damage of bitumen during service life by comparing the properties of virgin and rejuvenated bitumen.

  20. Myeloid dendritic cells frequencies are increased in children with autism spectrum disorder and associated with amygdala volume and repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breece, Elizabeth; Paciotti, Brian; Nordahl, Christine Wu; Ozonoff, Sally; Van de Water, Judy A; Rogers, Sally J; Amaral, David; Ashwood, Paul

    2013-07-01

    The pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not yet known; however, studies suggest that dysfunction of the immune system affects many children with ASD. Increasing evidence points to dysfunction of the innate immune system including activation of microglia and perivascular macrophages, increases in inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in brain tissue and CSF, and abnormal peripheral monocyte cell function. Dendritic cells are major players in innate immunity and have important functions in the phagocytosis of pathogens or debris, antigen presentation, activation of naïve T cells, induction of tolerance and cytokine/chemokine production. In this study, we assessed circulating frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells (defined as Lin-1(-)BDCA1(+)CD11c(+) and Lin-1(-)BDCA3(+)CD123(-)) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (Lin-1(-)BDCA2(+)CD123(+) or Lin-1(-)BDCA4(+) CD11c(-)) in 57 children with ASD, and 29 typically developing controls of the same age, all of who were enrolled as part of the Autism Phenome Project (APP). The frequencies of dendritic cells and associations with behavioral assessment and MRI measurements of amygdala volume were compared in the same participants. The frequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were significantly increased in children with ASD compared to typically developing controls (pfrequencies of myeloid dendritic cells were positively associated with abnormal right and left amygdala enlargement, severity of gastrointestinal symptoms and increased repetitive behaviors. The frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells were also associated with amygdala volumes as well as developmental regression in children with ASD. Dendritic cells play key roles in modulating immune responses and differences in frequencies or functions of these cells may result in immune dysfunction in children with ASD. These data further implicate innate immune cells in the complex pathophysiology of ASD.

  1. Opposing effects of appetitive and aversive cues on go/no-go behavior and motor excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cools, Roshan; Aron, Adam R

    2014-08-01

    Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies in healthy individuals with a novel paradigm. Behaviorally, we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior (withholding a response). We hypothesized that the origin of this behavioral go/no-go bias occurs at the motor system level. To test this, we used single-pulse TMS as a motor system probe (rather than a disruptive tool) to index motivational biasing. We found that the appetitive cue biased the participants to go more by relatively increasing motor system excitability, and that the aversive cue biased participants to no-go more by relatively decreasing motor system excitability. These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues.

  2. Improved Discrimination of Visual Stimuli Following Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Waterston, Michael L.; Pack, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary t...

  3. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities.

  4. Response-Specific Effects of Pain Observation on Motor Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, India; Poliakoff, Ellen; Gordon, Lucy; Downing, Paul

    2007-01-01

    How does seeing a painful event happening to someone else influence the observer's own motor system? To address this question, we measured simple reaction times following videos showing noxious or innocuous implements contacting corporeal or noncorporeal objects. Key releases in a go/nogo task were speeded, and key presses slowed, after subjects…

  5. The Development of Verbal Control over Motor Behavior: A Replication and Extension of Luria's Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Virginia S.; Waters, Harriet Salatas

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments replicate and extend Luria's (1959, 1961) findings on the development of verbal self-regulation during early childhood. Results support Luria's hypothesis that overt verbalizations facilitate control of motor behavior in young children and that language can play an active and integrative role in the development of behavioral and…

  6. Effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor cortical excitability and sensory nerve conduction velocity in subacute-stage incomplete spinal cord injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Ji, Sang-Goo; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted on 20 subjects with diagnosed paraplegia due to spinal cord injury. These 20 subjects were allocated to an experimental group of 10 subjects that underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or to a control group of 10 subjects that underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. The SCI patients in the experimental group underwent active repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy, whereas the spinal cord injury patients in the control group underwent sham repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and conventional rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for six-weeks. Latency, amplitude, and sensory nerve conduction velocity were assessed before and after the six week therapy period. [Results] A significant intergroup difference was observed for posttreatment velocity gains, but no significant intergroup difference was observed for amplitude or latency. [Conclusion] repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation may be improve sensory recovery of the lower extremities in subacute-stage spinal cord injury patients.

  7. Intranasal application of secretin, similarly to intracerebroventricular administration, influences the motor behavior of mice probably through specific receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzlmann, Andrea; Kiss, Gusztáv; Tóth, Zsuzsanna E; Dochnal, Roberta; Pál, Ágnes; Sipos, Ildikó; Manczinger, Máté; Szabó, Gyula; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Köves, Katalin

    2012-11-01

    Secretin and its receptors show wide distribution in the central nervous system. It was demonstrated previously that intravenous (i.v.) and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) application of secretin influenced the behavior of rat, mouse, and human. In our previous experiment, we used a special animal model, Japanese waltzing mice (JWM). These animals run around without stopping (the ambulation distance is very limited) and they do not bother with their environment. The i.c.v. secretin attenuated this hyperactive repetitive movement. In the present work, the effect of i.c.v. and intranasal (i.n.) application of secretin was compared. We have also looked for the presence of secretin receptors in the brain structures related to motor functions. Two micrograms of i.c.v. secretin improved the horizontal movement of JWM, enhancing the ambulation distance. It was nearly threefold higher in treated than in control animals. The i.n. application of secretin to the left nostril once or twice a day or once for 3 days more effectively enhanced the ambulation distance than i.c.v. administration. When secretin was given twice a day for 3 days it had no effect. Secretin did not improve the explorative behavior (the rearing), of JWM. With the use of in situ hybridization, we have found very dense secretin receptor labeling in the cerebellum. In the primary motor cortex and in the striatum, only a few labeled cells were seen. It was supposed that secretin exerted its effect through specific receptors, mainly present in the cerebellum.

  8. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; van Hulst, Karen C M; van Gerven, Marjo H J C; van Haaften, Leenke; de Groot, Sandra A F

    2014-05-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding in young infants. The present study longitudinally investigated the development of this skill in 39 healthy children from the start of spoon feeding until the skill was acquired. The Observation List Spoon Feeding with 7 observation items for oral motor behavior and 6 items for abnormal behavior was used. Results showed that infants between 4 and 8 months of age needed 5.7 weeks (SD 2.1), with a range of 8 weeks (from 2 to 10 weeks) to acquire this skill. No significant correlation (p=.109) between age at start spoon feeding and weeks needed to develop the skill was found. During this period oral motor behavior consolidated and abnormal behavior diminished. With this study it is shown that the period in weeks needed to acquire the oral motor behavior for the skill assisted spoon feeding is important in case of feeding problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensory and motor behaviors of infant siblings of children with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Shelley; White, Barbara Prudhomme

    2012-01-01

    We compared the sensory and motor behaviors of typically developing infants with those of infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), who are considered high risk for the disorder, to explore potential sensory and motor markers for use in early diagnosis of ASD. We compared frequencies of sensory and motor behaviors during 10-min, videotaped, infant-mother play sessions and during 5 min of spoon-feeding between groups of 12-mo-old infants. Data from standardized measures of development, sensory processing, and behaviors commonly associated with ASD were also analyzed descriptively for the high-risk group. The results indicated that high-risk infants demonstrated fewer movement transitions (t [23] = -2.4, p = .03) and less object manipulation (t [23] = -2.4, p = .03) than low-risk infants. The sensory and motor differences found between typical and high-risk infants suggest that early screenings for ASD should include the examination of sensory and motor behaviors.

  10. Management of Chronic Tinnitus and Insomnia with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy – a Combined Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kneginja Richter

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that up to 80% of people will experience symptoms of tinnitus over the courses of their lives, with rates of comorbid sleeping problems ranging from 50 to 77%. Because of a potential connection between tinnitus and sleep disorders as well as high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, interdisciplinary approaches to treatment seem to be the most efficient option. In this study, we present the case of a 53-year-old male patient, who started to experience symptoms of tinnitus at the age of 49, most likely caused by work-related stress. Over the course of his illness, the patient developed comorbid insomnia. He consulted us for treatment of both conditions and we developed a treatment plan with ten sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS followed by 10 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. We used the Tinnitus Fragebogen (TF to assess the severity of the tinnitus, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II for depressive symptoms, and the WHO Well-being Index (WHO-5 for subjective well-being. Improvements could be achieved with regard to both diagnoses and the patient went from severe (48 to clinically negligible (12 TF scores, from minimal (BDI-II score 10 to no (0 depressive symptoms, and from just above critical (WHO-5 percentile 52 to above average (84 well-being. The combination of technological and psychological approaches to treat tinnitus and insomnia thus proved successful in this case. One may therefore conclude that rTMS may be considered an effective first therapeutic step for tinnitus treatment prior to CBT. To our knowledge this is the first published case in which rTMS and CBT were combined for tinnitus therapy. The approach proved successful since it led to a considerable increase in well-being and everyday functioning. To gauge the effect on a more general level, large-scale studies are still needed to cancel out potential placebo effects. Likewise, the importance of the order of

  11. The role of pre-school children motor behavior in developing their self-concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of motor behavior and general intellectual abilities were performed on a sample of 42 pre-school children (22 boys and 20 girls aged 6 (±3 months; moreover, the self-concept of those children was analysed. For the assessment of their motor behavior six movement tasks were chosen and the Mary Gutrich scale was applied for the analysis of the results. The children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the means of Raven's colored progressive matrices so as to enable the groups to homogenise, as well as to eliminate potential parasite factors when drawing conclusions. The self-concept analysis was performed using the pshychological interview during the course of which the children described their impression of their own abilities with regard to the past, present and future. The data related to the self-concept were complemented with the analysis of the children's drawings. The statistical analysis of the data gathered showed that motor behavior plays a significant role in developing one's self-concept, which is especially true of boys. Even though there is no significant statistical difference between boys and girls with respect to the quality of their motor behavior, there are significant differences between them pertaining to the vocabulary they use when describing their own selves, i.e. their self-concept, especially with respect to the present and future. Boys seem to use more extensive motor-related vocabulary when describing themselves, especially those with greater motor skills. Both boys and girls show a tendency to describe themselves as incapable in the past. When describing their present moment capabilities, girls tend to use vocabulary related to play and independence, whereas they mostly use vocabulary related to professions and sex roles when referring to the future. These findings indicate that social factors are of immense importance from a very early age, especially among girls. Moreover, the results show that

  12. Stochastic kinetics of ribosomes: single motor properties and collective behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debashish; Ramakrishnan, T V

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of protein molecules in a cell are carried out by ribosomes. A ribosome can be regarded as a molecular motor which utilizes the input chemical energy to move on a messenger RNA (mRNA) track that also serves as a template for the polymerization of the corresponding protein. The forward movement, however, is characterized by an alternating sequence of translocation and pause. Using a quantitative model, which captures the mechanochemical cycle of an individual ribosome, we derive an {\\it exact} analytical expression for the distribution of its dwell times at the successive positions on the mRNA track. Inverse of the average dwell time satisfies a ``Michaelis-Menten-like'' equation and is consistent with the general formula for the average velocity of a molecular motor with an unbranched mechano-chemical cycle. Extending this formula appropriately, we also derive the exact force-velocity relation for a ribosome. Often many ribosomes simultaneously move on the same mRNA track, while each synthesizes a c...

  13. REM sleep behavior disorder: association with motor complications and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Jeon, Beom S; Yang, Hui-Jun; Ehm, Gwanhee; Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Han-Joon; Kim, Jong-Min

    2014-10-01

    Clinical phenotypes such as old age, longer disease duration, motor disability, akineto-rigid type, dementia and hallucinations are known to be associated with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the relationship between motor fluctuations/impulse control and related behaviors (ICRB) and RBD is not clear. We designed this study to elucidate the clinical manifestations associated with RBD to determine the implications of RBD in PD. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 994 patients with PD were interviewed to determine the presence of RBD and their associated clinical features including motor complications and ICRB. Of the 944 patients, 578 (61.2%) had clinical RBD. When comparing the clinical features between patients with RBD (RBD group) and without RBD (non-RBD group), older age, longer disease duration, higher Hoehn and Yahr stage (H&Y stage), higher levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), and the existence of wearing off, dyskinesia, freezing, and ICRB, especially punding, were associated with the RBD group compared to the non-RBD group (P motor complications including wearing off, peak dose dyskinesia, and diphasic dyskinesia were the only relevant factors for RBD after adjusting for age and disease duration. Motor complications and ICRB are more frequent in patients with RBD than in patients without RBD. In addition, motor complications are related to RBD even after adjusting for age and disease duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between the behavior problems and motor skills of students with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangchool; Jeoung, Bogja

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the motor skills and the behavior problems of students with intellectual disabilities. The study participants were 117 students with intellectual disabilities who were between 7 and 25 years old (male, n=79; female, n=38) and attending special education schools in South Korea. Motor skill abilities were assessed by using the second version of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, which includes subtests in fine motor control, manual coordination, body coordination, strength, and agility. Data were analyzed with SPSS IBM 21 by using correlation and regression analyses, and the significance level was set at Pmotor precision and integration had a statistically significant influence on aggressive behavior. Manual dexterity showed a statistically significant influence on somatic complaint and anxiety/depression, and bilateral coordination had a statistically significant influence on social problems, attention problem, and aggressive behavior. Our results showed that balance had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior, and speed and agility had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior. Upper limb coordination and strength had a statistically significant influence on social problems.

  15. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Q. Clark

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°. A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program.

  16. Motor unit firing behavior during prolonged 50% MVC dorsiflexion contractions in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Anita; Kamen, Gary

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in motor unit firing behavior during prolonged contractions in young and older adults. Motor unit activity was recorded from the tibialis anterior of 16 subjects (8 young and 8 older), while they performed isometric dorsiflexion at 50% MVC until task failure. Mean motor unit firing rate, the standard deviation (SD), and coefficient of variation (CV) of the interspike intervals, and number of doublet discharges were calculated for a total of 52 motor units, tracked for an average of 92.9+/-68.6s. There was no age-related difference in the time to task failure. A modest decline in firing rate was observed in 71% of the motor units, with no significant age-related difference. The SD and CV of the interspike interval had a positive slope in 65% and 69% of the motor units, respectively, with no significant age-related differences. The number of doublet discharges remained stable throughout the contraction. Both groups exhibited motor unit dropout (discharge cessation) during the contraction. Thus, a fatiguing task producing modest changes in firing rate in young and older adults is accompanied by an appreciable increase in firing rate variability. The incidence of doublet discharges is not increased during fatiguing contractions.

  17. Examination of Poststroke Alteration in Motor Unit Firing Behavior Using High-Density Surface EMG Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Holobar, Ales; Gazzoni, Marco; Merletti, Roberto; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in high-density surface electromyogram (EMG) decomposition have made it a feasible task to discriminate single motor unit activity from surface EMG interference patterns, thus providing a noninvasive approach for examination of motor unit control properties. In the current study, we applied high-density surface EMG recording and decomposition techniques to assess motor unit firing behavior alterations poststroke. Surface EMG signals were collected using a 64-channel 2-D electrode array from the paretic and contralateral first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles of nine hemiparetic stroke subjects at different isometric discrete contraction levels between 2 to 10 N with a 2 N increment step. Motor unit firing rates were extracted through decomposition of the high-density surface EMG signals and compared between paretic and contralateral muscles. Across the nine tested subjects, paretic FDI muscles showed decreased motor unit firing rates compared with contralateral muscles at different contraction levels. Regression analysis indicated a linear relation between the mean motor unit firing rate and the muscle contraction level for both paretic and contralateral muscles (p < 0.001), with the former demonstrating a lower increment rate (0.32 pulses per second (pps)/N) compared with the latter (0.67 pps/N). The coefficient of variation (averaged over the contraction levels) of the motor unit firing rates for the paretic muscles (0.21 ± 0.012) was significantly higher than for the contralateral muscles (0.17 ± 0.014) (p < 0.05). This study provides direct evidence of motor unit firing behavior alterations poststroke using surface EMG, which can be an important factor contributing to hemiparetic muscle weakness.

  18. Effect of Repetitive Square Wave Rise Time on Corona Resistance Life of Inverter-fed Motors%重复方波上升时间对变频电机耐电晕寿命影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪英; 赵莉华; 黄聃喆; 周婉亚; 王鹏; 王剑

    2016-01-01

    为研究重复方波电压上升时间对变频电机绝缘耐电晕寿命的影响规律,搭建了具有不同重复脉冲电压上升时间的耐电晕测试系统.根据IEC TS 60034-18-42,分别测试了Ⅰ类和Ⅱ类电机绝缘模型在不同重复方波电压上升时间下的耐电晕寿命,并对比了相同幅值和频率下正弦电压测试结果.结果表明:脉冲电压上升时间对匝间绝缘耐电晕寿命及局部放电时域和频域统计特性的影响显著.因此,根据相关标准测试变频电机的耐电晕寿命时,应考虑上升时间对电机耐电晕寿命的影响.%In order to study the influence of repetitive square wave rise time on the corona resistance life of the insulation of inverter-fed motors, a corona resistance test system under repetitive impulse volt-age with different rise time was designed. Using this system, the corona resistance life of the interturn insulation models for type Ⅰ motors and type Ⅱ inverter-fed motors was tested under repetitive square wave with different rise time according to IEC TS 60034-18-42, and the test results were compared at the same amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal voltage. The results show that the impulse voltage rise time would significantly affect the corona resistance life of interturn insulation and the partial discharge statistical characteristics at time domain and frequency domain. Accordingly, when we test the corona resistance life of the inverter-fed motor insulation according to the relative test standards, the influence of rise time on the corona resistance life should be taken into consideration.

  19. Sensory and motor components of reproductive behavior : pathways and plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Gert; Van der Horst, Veronique G.J.M.

    Reproductive behavior in most mammalian species consists of a highly stereotyped pattern of movements, is elicited by specific sensory stimuli and is sex steroid dependent. The present paper describes a concept of the pathways in the midbrain, brainstem and spinal cord which control the receptive

  20. Consolidating behavioral and neurophysiologic findings to explain the influence of contextual interference during motor sequence learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David; Verwey, Willem B.; Buchanen, John; Chen, Jing; Rhee, Joohyun; Immink, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Motor sequence learning under high levels of contextual interference (CI) disrupts initial performance but supports delayed test and transfer performance when compared to learning under low CI. Integrating findings from early behavioral work and more recent experimental efforts that incorporated neu

  1. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Hulst, K. van; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Haaften, L. van; Groot, S.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoo

  2. Development of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoon feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Hulst, K. van; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Haaften, L. van; Groot, S.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Milestones in the typical development of eating skills are considered to be nippling (breast or bottle), eating from a spoon, drinking from a cup, biting and chewing. The purpose of this research was to study the development and consolidation of oral motor behavior related to the skill assisted spoo

  3. Validity and reliability of the Behavior Problems Inventory, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised among infants and toddlers at risk for intellectual or developmental disabilities: a multi-method assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for individuals with IDD that have been proven psychometrically sound in older populations: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale - Revised (RBS-R). Data were analyzed for 180 between six and 36 months old children at risk for IDD. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) across the subscales of the three instruments was variable. Test-retest reliability of the three BPI-01 subscales ranged from .68 to .77 for frequency ratings and from .65 to .80 for severity ratings (intraclass correlation coefficients). Using a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach high levels of convergent and discriminant validity across the three instruments was found. As anticipated, there was considerable overlap in the information produced by the three instruments; however, each behavior-rating instrument also contributed unique information. Our findings support using all three scales in conjunction if possible.

  4. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences offspring developmental trajectories: motor behavior and neurotrophin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eCaporali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment is usually applied immediately after weaning or in adulthood, with strong effects on CNS anatomy and behavior. To examine the hypothesis that a pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females could affect the motor development of their offspring, female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while other female rats used as controls were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. To evaluate the eventual transgenerational influence of positive pre-reproductive maternal experiences, postural and motor development of male pups was analyzed from birth to weaning. Moreover, expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor in different brain regions was evaluated at birth and weaning.Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females affected the offspring motor development, as indicated by the earlier acquisition of complex motor abilities displayed by the pups of enriched females. The earlier acquisition of motor abilities was associated with enhanced neurotrophin levels in striatum and cerebellum. In conclusion, maternal positive experiences were transgenerationally transmitted, and influenced offspring phenotype at both behavioral and biochemical levels.

  5. Structural and functional connectivity in healthy aging: Associations for cognition and motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsiger, Sarah; Koppelmans, Vincent; Mérillat, Susan; Liem, Franziskus; Erdeniz, Burak; Seidler, Rachael D; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-03-01

    Age-related behavioral declines may be the result of deterioration of white matter tracts, affecting brain structural (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) during resting state. To date, it is not clear if the combination of SC and FC data could better predict cognitive/motor performance than each measure separately. We probed these relationships in the cingulum bundle, a major white matter pathway of the default mode network. We aimed to attain deeper knowledge about: (a) the relationship between age and the cingulum's SC and FC strength, (b) the association between SC and FC, and particularly (c) how the cingulum's SC and FC are related to cognitive/motor performance separately and combined. We examined these associations in a healthy and well-educated sample of 165 older participants (aged 64-85). SC and FC were acquired using probabilistic tractography to derive measures to capture white matter integrity within the cingulum bundle (fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity) and a seed-based resting-state functional MRI correlation approach, respectively. Participants performed cognitive tests measuring processing speed, memory and executive functions, and motor tests measuring motor speed and grip force. Our data revealed that only SC but not resting state FC was significantly associated with age. Further, the cingulum's SC and FC showed no relation. Different relationships between cognitive/motor performance and SC/FC separately were found, but no additive effect of the combined analysis of cingulum's SC and FC for predicting cognitive/motor performance was apparent.

  6. Behavioral motor dysfunction in Kv3-type potassium channel-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joho, R H; Street, C; Matsushita, S; Knöpfel, T

    2006-08-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 are expressed in several distinct neuronal subpopulations in brain areas known to be involved in motor control such as cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Depending on the lack of Kv3.1 or Kv3.3 channel subunits, mutant mice show different Kv3-null allele-dependent behavioral alterations that include constitutive hyperactivity, sleep loss, impaired motor performance and, in the case of the Kv3.1/Kv3.3 double mutant, also severe ataxia, tremor and myoclonus (Espinosa et al. 2001, J Neurosci 21, 6657-6665, Genes, Brain Behav 3, 90-100). The lack of Kv3.1 channel subunits is mainly responsible for the constitutively increased locomotor activity and for sleep loss, whereas the absence of Kv3.3 subunits affects cerebellar function, in particular Purkinje cell discharges and olivocerebellar system properties (McMahon et al. 2004, Eur J Neurosci 19, 3317-3327). Here, we describe two sensitive and non-invasive tests to reliably quantify normal and abnormal motor functions, and we apply these tests to characterize motor dysfunction in Kv3-mutant mice. In contrast to wildtype and Kv3.1-single mutants, Kv3.3-single mutants and Kv3 mutants lacking three and four Kv3 alleles display Kv3-null allele-dependent gait alterations. Although the Kv3-null allele-dependent gait changes correlate with reduced motor performance, they appear to not affect the training-induced improvement of motor performance. These findings suggest that altered cerebellar physiology in the absence of Kv3.3 channels is responsible for impaired motor task execution but not motor task learning.

  7. Children with Autism and Attention Difficulties: A Pilot Study of the Association between Sensory, Motor, and Adaptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattard-Labrecque, Carolanne; Ben Amor, Leila; Couture, Mélanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This pilot study aimed to compare sensory processing, motor skills and adaptive behaviors in children with a double diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (ASD+ADHD) with children with ADHD alone and to examine the association of sensory processing and motor skills with adaptive behaviors (self-care). Method: Thirty children aged 5–14 years diagnosed with ASD+ADHD (n = 13) or ADHD (n = 17) were evaluated on their sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Analysis of covariance compared the groups on these dimensions. Correlation analyses examined the association between sensory processing and motor skills and adaptive behaviors. Results: Compared to children with ADHD alone, children with ASD+ADHD had poorer skills in sensory processing (p < 0.001), motor (p = 0.001) and adaptive behaviors (p < 0.001). For all children, increased autonomy in self-care was correlated with better sensory processing (p < 0.001) and motor skills (p = 0.002). Conclusion: Children with ASD+ADHD have poorer sensory processing, motor and adaptive skills than those with ADHD alone. Sensory processing and motor deficits were negatively associated with autonomy in self-care. Interventions aiming to improve sensory processing and motor skills and autonomy in self-care should become important targets for these children. PMID:23667360

  8. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGAmotor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants.

  9. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, J.; Grey, M.J.;

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb moveme...... premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement....

  10. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS.

  11. The time course for kinetic versus kinematic planning of goal-directed human motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesia, Michael; Vander, Helena; Yan, Xiaogang; Sergio, Lauren E

    2005-01-01

    The present psychophysical study compares motor planning during goal-directed reaching movements and isometric spatial force generation. Our objective is to characterize the extent to which the motor system accounts for the biomechanical details of an impending reach. One issue that the nervous system must take into account when transforming a spatial sensory signal into an intrinsic pattern of joint torques is that of limb dynamics, including intersegmental dynamics and inertial anisotropy of the arm. These will act to displace the hand away from a straight path to an object. In theory, if the nervous system accounts for movement-related limb dynamics prior to its initial motor output, early force direction for a movement will differ from an isometric force to the same spatial target. Alternatively, biomechanical details of motor behavior may be implemented into the motor act following its initiation. Limb position and force output at the wrist were recorded while subjects displaced a cursor to targets viewed on a computer monitor. To generate isometric forces, a magnetic brake held a mechanical linkage supporting the arm in place. Subjects were cued to displace the cursor by using either isometric force or limb movement. On random trials, a movement was cued but an isometric force was unexpectedly required. Results show that there is not a significant directional difference in the initial force trajectory when planning a movement versus planning an isometric force. These findings suggest that the motor system may initially use a coarse approximation of movement-related limb dynamics, allowing for the refinement of the motor plan as the movement unfolds.

  12. Biographic and behavioral factors are associated with music-related motor skills in children pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Yong, Raymond; Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to identify biographical and behavioral factors associated with children pianists' motor skills using an objective assessment of a music-relevant motor task. Motor skills at the piano were assessed in 30 children pianists by measuring temporal unevenness in standardized scale playing using musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)-based scale analysis. Questionnaires were used to collect detailed information about the amount of time playing the piano, practice characteristics, attitudes toward music and practice, and the environment of music and practice. Associations between performance values and variables from the questionnaire were investigated using multivariable linear regression. A higher number of years playing the piano, more frequent parental involvement in the child's practice, more frequent practice of technical exercises, and greater enjoyment of practice and of the visual arts were associated with better motor performance. In addition to cumulative experience and aspects of practice, extrinsic motivational factors (e.g., parental interest) and intrinsic motivational factors (e.g., an artistic disposition) were associated with better performance on a musically-relevant motor task in children pianists.

  13. MODELING DRIVER BEHAVIOR IN THE DRIVING OF THEIR MOTOR VEHICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article holds the gradual formation of images and actions of the driver. As outlined the author's arguments based on the following assumptions: We consider the motion of the mass, mass-produced currently by the domestic industry of automobiles; considered the motion of single cars as the most common and most dangerous cases, allowing to evaluate the influence of parameters on the road driving mode "pure"; drivers tend to reduce travel times and therefore move with the maximum possible speed; drivers choose speed, visually estimating lying in front of part of the way and given the speed at the time of this evaluation; driver behavior, ceteris paribus determined the influence of visibility limitations and conditions visual perception; considered the motion on the ascent and descent, but the determining factor is the direction of descent. Set of operations, branches off the driver, can be represented as a multi-level system comprising three main groups of psycho-physiological processes, activities analyzers (perception of information; the work of the central nervous system (processing and storage; effective activity (responses to the implementation of the decision. On the basis of the received information in human consciousness formed images of the environment, the totality of which is an information model of the object. Comparing it with the standards (memory engrams, the driver generates the mo st appropriate in the circumstances set of actions. Implementation of the decision is the final stage of human response to the external environment and is expressed in the change of the degree of use of traction engine or braking force; change the steering angle as that does not affect the speed of motion, the algorithm of the driver is not taken into account. Analysis of the schemes of algorithms allows to obtain quantitative characteristics of the vehicle: stereotyped figures, logical complexity.

  14. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  15. Repetition priming-induced changes in sensorimotor transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2016-03-01

    When a behavior is repeated performance often improves, i.e., repetition priming occurs. Although repetition priming is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in the feeding network ofAplysia Similar to the priming observed elsewhere, priming inAplysiais stimulus specific, i.e., it can be either "ingestive" or "egestive." Previous studies demonstrated that priming alters motor and premotor activity. Here we sought to determine whether sensorimotor transmission is also modified. We report that changes in sensorimotor transmission do occur. We ask how they are mediated and obtain data that strongly suggest a presynaptic mechanism that involves changes in the "background" intracellular Ca(2+)concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in primary afferents themselves. This form of plasticity has previously been described and generated interest due to its potentially graded nature. Manipulations that alter the magnitude of the [Ca(2+)]iimpact the efficacy of synaptic transmission. It is, however, unclear how graded control is exerted under physiologically relevant conditions. In the feeding system changes in the background [Ca(2+)]iare mediated by the induction of a nifedipine-sensitive current. We demonstrate that the extent to which this current is induced is altered by peptides (i.e., increased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of ingestive activity and decreased by a peptide released during the repetition priming of egestive activity). We suggest that this constitutes a behaviorally relevant mechanism for the graded control of synaptic transmission via the regulation of the [Ca(2+)]iin a neuron.

  16. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization.

  17. Repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury interacts with post-injury foot shock stress to worsen social and depression-like behavior in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen C Klemenhagen

    Full Text Available The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning following brain injury (rcTBI. rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury.

  18. Sources of Phoneme Errors in Repetition: Perseverative, Neologistic, and Lesion Patterns in Jargon Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pilkington

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patterns of neologistic and perseverative errors during word repetition in fluent Jargon aphasia. The principal hypotheses accounting for Jargon production indicate that poor activation of a target stimulus leads to weakly activated target phoneme segments, which are outcompeted at the phonological encoding level. Voxel-lesion symptom mapping studies of word repetition errors suggest a breakdown in the translation from auditory-phonological analysis to motor activation. Behavioral analyses of repetition data were used to analyse the target relatedness (Phonological Overlap Index: POI of neologistic errors and patterns of perseveration in 25 individuals with Jargon aphasia. Lesion-symptom analyses explored the relationship between neurological damage and jargon repetition in a group of 38 aphasia participants. Behavioral results showed that neologisms produced by 23 jargon individuals contained greater degrees of target lexico-phonological information than predicted by chance and that neologistic and perseverative production were closely associated. A significant relationship between jargon production and lesions to temporoparietal regions was identified. Region of interest regression analyses suggested that damage to the posterior superior temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus in combination was best predictive of a Jargon aphasia profile. Taken together, these results suggest that poor phonological encoding, secondary to impairment in sensory-motor integration, alongside impairments in self-monitoring result in jargon repetition. Insights for clinical management and future directions are discussed.

  19. Proficient motor impulse control in Parkinson disease patients with impulsive and compulsive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Daniel O; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Harrison, Madaline B; van Wouwe, Nelleke C; Kanoff, Kristen; Neimat, Joseph S; Wylie, Scott A

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) patients treated with dopamine agonist therapy can develop maladaptive reward-driven behaviors, known as impulse control disorder (ICD). In this study, we assessed if ICD patients have evidence of motor-impulsivity. We used the stop-signal task in a cohort of patients with and without active symptoms of ICD to evaluate motor-impulsivity. Of those with PD, 12 were diagnosed with ICD symptoms (PD-ICD) and were assessed before clinical reduction of dopamine agonist medication; 12 were without symptoms of ICD [PD-control] and taking equivalent dosages of dopamine agonist. Levodopa, if present, was maintained in both settings. Groups were similar in age, duration, and severity of motor symptoms, levodopa co-therapy, and total levodopa daily dose. All were tested in the dopamine agonist medicated and acutely withdrawn (24 h) state, in a counterbalanced manner. Primary outcome measures were mean reaction time to correct go trials (go reaction time), and mean stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). ICD patients produce faster SSRT than both Healthy Controls, and PD-Controls. Faster SSRT in ICD patients is apparent in both dopamine agonist medication states. Also, we show unique dopamine medication effects on Go Reaction time (GoRT). In dopamine agonist monotherapy patients, dopamine agonist administration speeds GoRT. Conversely, in those with levodopa co-therapy, dopamine agonist administration slows. PD patients with active ICD symptoms are significantly faster at stopping initiated motor actions, and this is not altered by acute dopamine agonist withdrawal. In addition, the effect of dopamine agonist on GoRT is strongly influenced by the presence or absence of levodopa, even though levodopa co-therapy does not appear to influence SSRT. We discuss these findings as they pertain to the multifaceted definition of 'impulsivity,' the lack of evidence for motor-impulsivity in PD-ICD, and dopamine effects on motor-control in PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  20. A structured assessment of motor function and behavior in patients with Kleefstra syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Nag, Heidi E; Hunn, Bente S; Houge, Gunnar; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to further our understanding of Kleefstra syndrome, especially regarding motor function and behavioral characteristics. In total, four males and four females between two and 27 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of Kleefstra syndrome and their parents participated in this study. Four patients had 9q34.3 deletions that caused Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1 (EHMT1) haplo-insufficiency, and four patients harbored EHMT1 mutations. The motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist (CBCL, ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. All patients showed a delayed developmental status. Muscular hypotonia and its manifestations were present in all patients, regardless of their age. The mean values for all VABS II domains (communication, socialization, daily living skills, and motor skills) were significantly lower than the mean of the reference population (p < 0.001), but similar to other rare intellectual disabilities such as Smith-Magenis syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The results from the SCQ indicated that all patient values exceeded the cut-off value, suggesting the possibility of autism spectrum disorder. The behavioral and emotional problems assessed by CBCL and ABCL were less frequent. In conclusion, patients with Kleefstra syndrome present with a broad range of clinical problems in all age groups and are therefore in need of a multidisciplinary follow-up also after their transition into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrophysiological Evidence for Alternative Motor Networks in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackius, Marc; Werth, Esther; Sürücü, Oguzkan; Baumann, Christian R; Imbach, Lukas L

    2016-11-16

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) show mostly unimpaired motor behavior during REM sleep, which contrasts strongly to coexistent nocturnal bradykinesia. The reason for this sudden amelioration of motor control in REM sleep is unknown, however. We set out to determine whether movements during REM sleep are processed by different motor networks than movements in the waking state. We recorded local field potentials in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and scalp EEG (modified 10/20 montage) during sleep in humans with PD and RBD. Time-locked event-related β band oscillations were calculated during movements in REM sleep compared with movements in the waking state and during NREM sleep. Spectral analysis of STN local field potentials revealed elevated β power during REM sleep compared with NREM sleep and β power in REM sleep reached levels similar as in the waking state. Event-related analysis showed time-locked β desynchronization during WAKE movements. In contrast, we found significantly elevated β activity before and during movements in REM sleep and NREM sleep. Corticosubthalamic coherence was reduced during REM and NREM movements. We conclude that sleep-related movements are not processed by the same corticobasal ganglia network as movements in the waking state. Therefore, the well-known seemingly normal motor performance during RBD in PD patients might be generated by activating alternative motor networks for movement initiation. These findings support the hypothesis that pathological movement-inhibiting basal ganglia networks in PD patients are bypassed during sleep. This study provides evidence that nocturnal movements during REM sleep in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are not processed by the same corticobasal ganglia network as movements in the waking state. This implicates the existence of an alternative motor network that does not depend directly on the availability of l-Dopa in the basal ganglia. These findings

  2. Toll-like receptor 9 deficiency impacts sensory and motor behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariv, Veronika; Pang, Kevin; Servatius, Richard J; David, Brian T; Goodus, Matthew T; Beck, Kevin D; Heary, Robert F; Elkabes, Stella

    2013-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate the induction of the innate immune system in response to pathogens, injury and disease. However, they also play non-immune roles and are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) during prenatal and postnatal stages including adulthood. Little is known about their roles in the CNS in the absence of pathology. Several members of the TLR family have been implicated in the development of neural and cognitive function although the contribution of TLR9 to these processes has not been well defined. The current studies were undertaken to determine whether developmental TLR9 deficiency affects motor, sensory or cognitive functions. We report that TLR9 deficient (TLR9(-/-)) mice show a hyper-responsive sensory and motor phenotype compared to wild type (TLR9(+/+)) controls. This is indicated by hypersensitivity to thermal stimuli in the hot plate paw withdrawal test, enhanced motor-responsivity under anxious conditions in the open field test and greater sensorimotor reactivity in the acoustic startle response. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response was also enhanced, which indicates abnormal sensorimotor gating. In addition, subtle, but significant, gait abnormalities were noted in the TLR9(-/-) mice on the horizontal balance beam test with higher foot slip numbers than TLR9(+/+) controls. In contrast, spatial learning and memory, assessed by the Morris water maze, was similar in the TLR9(-/-) and TLR9(+/+) mice. These findings support the notion that TLR9 is important for the appropriate development of sensory and motor behaviors.

  3. Regression rate behaviors of HTPB-based propellant combinations for hybrid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Li, Yuelong; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the regression rate behavior of hybrid rocket motor propellant combinations, using hydrogen peroxide (HP), gaseous oxygen (GOX), nitrous oxide (N2O) as the oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) as the based fuel. In order to complete this research by experiment and simulation, a hybrid rocket motor test system and a numerical simulation model are established. Series of hybrid rocket motor firing tests are conducted burning different propellant combinations, and several of those are used as references for numerical simulations. The numerical simulation model is developed by combining the Navies-Stokes equations with the turbulence model, one-step global reaction model, and solid-gas coupling model. The distribution of regression rate along the axis is determined by applying simulation mode to predict the combustion process and heat transfer inside the hybrid rocket motor. The time-space averaged regression rate has a good agreement between the numerical value and experimental data. The results indicate that the N2O/HTPB and GOX/HTPB propellant combinations have a higher regression rate, since the enhancement effect of latter is significant due to its higher flame temperature. Furthermore, the containing of aluminum (Al) and/or ammonium perchlorate(AP) in the grain does enhance the regression rate, mainly due to the more energy released inside the chamber and heat feedback to the grain surface by the aluminum combustion.

  4. SPEEDY babies: A putative new behavioral syndrome of unbalanced motor-speech development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Leena Haapanen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marja-Leena Haapanen1, Tuomo Aro1, Elina Isotalo21Deparment of Otorhinolaryngology, Phoniatric Division, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Department of Neurology, Peijas Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, FinlandAbstract: Even though difficulties in motor development in children with speech and language disorders are widely known, hardly any attention is paid to the association between atypically rapidly occurring unassisted walking and delayed speech development. The four children described here presented with a developmental behavioral triad: 1 atypically speedy motor development, 2 impaired expressive speech, and 3 tongue carriage dysfunction resulting in related misarticulations. Those characteristics might be phenotypically or genetically clustered. These children didn’t have impaired cognition, neurological or mental disease, defective sense organs, craniofacial dysmorphology or susceptibility to upper respiratory infections, particularly recurrent otitis media. Attention should be paid on discordant and unbalanced achievement of developmental milestones. Present children are termed SPEEDY babies, where SPEEDY refers to rapid independent walking, SPEE and DY to dyspractic or dysfunctional speech development and lingual dysfunction resulting in linguoalveolar misarticulations. SPEEDY babies require health care that recognizes and respects their motor skills and supports their needs for motor activities and on the other hand include treatment for impaired speech. The parents may need advice and support with these children.Keywords: speedy walking, speech disorder, misarticulations

  5. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied.

  6. Behavioral Symptoms in Motor Neuron Disease and Their Negative Impact on Caregiver Burden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Cui; Li-Ying Cui; Ming-Sheng Liu; Xiao-Guang Li; Jun-Fang Ma; Jia Fang; Qing-Yun Ding

    2015-01-01

    Background:The spectrum of abnormal behaviors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) has been described,but its practical meaning,namely its impact on caregiver burden,has not been clearly documented in Chinese population.This study aimed to assess the distribution of abnormal behaviors in Chinese population,and to analyze the relationship between behavior changes and caregiver burden.Methods:Sixty-five patients with ALS/MND have been consecutively enrolled into registry platform of Peking Union Medical College Hospital.An investigation was performed to these patients and their caregivers using the revised ALS function rating scale,Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS version,the Frontal Assessment Battery,and the Caregiver Burden Inventory.Results:Twenty-eight (43.1%) patients displayed abnormal behaviors of varying degrees,with one fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of frontotemporal lobe degeneration.Irritability,logopenia,and inflexibility ranked top 3 of abnormal behavior list.Correlation analysis revealed that the degree of behavioral change and frontal cognitive status were significantly associated with caregiver burden,with more extensive impact from disinhibitive behaviors.Analysis of covariance analysis showed that after associated factors were corrected,caregivers of patients with moderate to severe behavior change reported significantly heavier developmental burden,physical burden,and total burden than those with no behavioral change.Conclusions:Neurobehavioral symptoms could present in around 40% of Chinese patients with ALS/MND,and the distribution of these behaviors was also unique.Besides,abnormal behaviors were highly related to caregivers' burden.

  7. Pharmacological, morphological and behavioral analysis of motor impairment in experimentally vitamin C deficient guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriá Reinaldo Barreto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The scurvy shows an inflammatory disease and gingival bleeding. Nevertheless, in an animal model for guinea pigs, described by Den Hartog Jager in 1985, scurvy was associated with a motor neuron disease with demyelinization of the pyramidal tract, provoking neurogenic atrophy of muscles. Aiming at searching the protective role of vitamin C in nervous system, a pharmacological, morphological and behavioral study was conducted. Three experimental groups were used: A100, animals receiving 100 mg/ vitamin C/ day; A5.0, animals receiving 5.0 mg/vitamin C/ day; and A0, animals without vitamin C. We analyzed the weight gain, muscular diameter and behavioral tests. In all tests examined, we found significant differences between the supplemented groups in comparison with scorbutic group (p<0.05. Thereafter, the animals were killed for histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle, spinal cord and tooth tissues. In addition, a morphometric study of periodontal thickness and alpha-motor neuron cell body diameter were done. The vitamin C-diet free regimen seemed to induce a disruption in spinal cord morphology, involving the lower motor neuron, as confirmed by a significant reduction in neuron perycaria diameter and muscular atrophy, complicated by increased nutritional deficit.

  8. Bimanual non-congruent actions in motor neglect: a combined behavioral/fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eGarbarini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Motor Neglect (MN syndrome, a specific impairment in non-congruent bimanual movements has been described. In the present case-control study, we investigated the neuro-functional correlates of this behavioral deficit. Two right-brain-damaged patients, one with (MN+ and one without (MN- MN, were evaluated by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in a bimanual Circles-Lines paradigm. Patients were requested to perform right-hand movements (lines-drawing and, simultaneously, congruent (lines-drawing or non-congruent (circles-drawing left-hand movements. In the behavioral task, MN- patient showed a bimanual-coupling-effect, while MN+ patient did not. The fMRI study showed that in MN-, a fronto-parietal network, mainly involving the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC, was significantly more active in non-congruent than in congruent conditions, as previously shown in healthy subjects. On the contrary, MN+ patient showed an opposite pattern of activation both in pre-SMA and in PPC. Within this fronto-parietal network, the pre-SMA is supposed to exert an inhibitory influence on the default coupling of homologous muscles, thus allowing the execution of non-congruent movements. In MN syndrome, the described abnormal pre-SMA activity supports the hypothesis that a failure to inhibit ipsilesional motor programs might determine a specific impairment of non-congruent movements.

  9. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryalls, Brigette O; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment.

  10. Repetition suppression and repetition priming are processing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, Gagan S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is considerable evidence that repetition suppression (RS) is a cortical signature of previous exposure to the environment. In many instances RS in specific brain regions is accompanied by improvements in specific behavioral measures; both observations are outcomes of repeated processing. In understanding the mechanism by which brain changes give rise to behavioral changes, it is important to consider what aspect of the environment a given brain area or set of areas processes, and how this might be expressed behaviorally.

  11. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  12. COMMUNICATION: On variability and use of rat primary motor cortex responses in behavioral task discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Winnie; Rousche, Patrick J.

    2006-03-01

    The success of a cortical motor neuroprosthetic system will rely on the system's ability to effectively execute complex motor tasks in a changing environment. Invasive, intra-cortical electrodes have been successfully used to predict joint movement and grip force of a robotic arm/hand with a non-human primate (Chapin J K, Moxon K A, Markowitz R S and Nicolelis M A L 1999 Real-time control of a robotic arm using simultaneously recorded neurons in the motor cortex Nat. Neurosci. 2 664-70). It is well known that cortical encoding occurs with a high degree of cortical plasticity and depends on both the functional and behavioral context. Questions on the expected robustness of future motor prosthesis systems therefore still remain. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of minor changes in functional movement strategies on the M1 encoding. We compared the M1 encoding in freely moving, non-constrained animals that performed two similar behavioral tasks with the same end-goal, and investigated if these behavioral tasks could be discriminated based on the M1 recordings. The rats depressed a response paddle either with a set of restrictive bars ('WB') or without the bars ('WOB') placed in front of the paddle. The WB task required changes in the motor strategy to complete the paddle press and resulted in highly stereotyped movements, whereas in the WOB task the movement strategy was not restricted. Neural population activity was recorded from 16-channel micro-wire arrays and data up to 200 ms before a paddle hit were analyzed off-line. The analysis showed a significant neural firing difference between the two similar WB and WOB tasks, and using principal component analysis it was possible to distinguish between the two tasks with a best classification at 76.6%. While the results are dependent upon a small, randomly sampled neural population, they indicate that information about similar behavioral tasks may be extracted from M1 based on relatively few

  13. Anxiety and performance: perceptual-motor behavior in high-pressure contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul Rd

    2017-08-01

    When the pressure is on and anxiety levels increase it is not easy to perform well. In search of mechanisms explaining the anxiety-performance relationship, we revisit the integrated model of anxiety and perceptual-motor performance (Nieuwenhuys and Oudejans, 2012) and provide a critical review of contemporary literature. While there is increasing evidence that changes in attentional control affect the execution of goal-directed action, based on our model and emerging evidence from different scientific disciplines, we argue for a more integrated, process-based approach. That is, anxiety can affect performance on different levels of operational control (i.e., attentional, interpretational, physical) and - moving beyond the execution of action - have implications for different aspects of perceptual-motor behavior, including situational awareness and decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of hand-eye dominance in relation to verbal self-regulation of motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, S

    1983-01-01

    The development of the relation between hand-eye dominance and verbal self-control of motor behavior was examined with 4- and 5-year-olds. Performances of subjects falling into either crossed or consistent hand-eye dominance categories were compared on a two-choice button-pushing task. Children performed this with their dominant hand in one of two conditions: verbalizing and not verbalizing their button-pushing activity. Results showed that crossed hand-eye dominant children gave significantly poorer performances than consistent hand-eye dominant children and that the former used their self-instructions in a motoric manner. These findings were interpreted as supporting the view that the functions of cerebral hemispheres in children with crossed dominance are more immature than those in children with consistent dominance.

  15. Simultaneous Investigation of the Effect of Advanced Thermomechanical Treatment and Repetitive Cyclic Voltammetry on the Electrochemical Behavior of AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaeian, Saeed; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Mazaheri, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the electrochemical behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel can be modified and improved to a large extent by the application of repetitive cyclic voltammetry in the anodic polarization branch of the alloy. The efficiency of this method was evaluated on the basis of the alloy grain size which is of great importance in corrosion studies. In fact, a coarse grain structure versus a fine grain structure was the subject of the used surface treatment method. Coarsening and refining of the grain size were conducted through a heat treatment and an advanced thermomechanical process. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry tests and also the electrochemical tests performed after that, it was shown that cyclic voltammetry had a significant improving effect on the passive behavior of both fine- and coarse-grained samples. Moreover, superior behavior of fine-grained sample in comparison with coarse-grained one was distinguished by its smaller cyclic voltammogram loops, more noble free potentials, larger capacitive arcs in the Nyquist plots, and less charge carrier densities within the passive film.

  16. Simultaneous Investigation of the Effect of Advanced Thermomechanical Treatment and Repetitive Cyclic Voltammetry on the Electrochemical Behavior of AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaeian, Saeed; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.; Mazaheri, Yousef

    2017-02-01

    In this study, it was revealed that the electrochemical behavior of AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel can be modified and improved to a large extent by the application of repetitive cyclic voltammetry in the anodic polarization branch of the alloy. The efficiency of this method was evaluated on the basis of the alloy grain size which is of great importance in corrosion studies. In fact, a coarse grain structure versus a fine grain structure was the subject of the used surface treatment method. Coarsening and refining of the grain size were conducted through a heat treatment and an advanced thermomechanical process. On the basis of cyclic voltammetry tests and also the electrochemical tests performed after that, it was shown that cyclic voltammetry had a significant improving effect on the passive behavior of both fine- and coarse-grained samples. Moreover, superior behavior of fine-grained sample in comparison with coarse-grained one was distinguished by its smaller cyclic voltammogram loops, more noble free potentials, larger capacitive arcs in the Nyquist plots, and less charge carrier densities within the passive film.

  17. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves behavioral and biochemical deficits in levodopa-induced dyskinetic rats model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Maowen; Kong, Min; Guan, Lina; Yi, Maoli; Zhang, Hongli

    2016-09-13

    Fluctuations of dopamine levels and upregulations of NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation in the striatum have been connected with levodopa (L-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one of the noninvasive and potential method treating dyskinesia. Yet, the effect of rTMS on the above key pathological events remains unclear. In this study, we gave L-dopa treatment intraperitoneally for 22 days to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned PD rats to prepare LID rats model, and subsequently applied rTMS daily for 3 weeks to LID rats model. The effect of rTMS on abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) was assessed. After ending the experiments, we further determined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons number by immunohistochemistry, dopamine levels by HPLC, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels by ELISA, NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of NR2B with Fyn by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. The results demonstrated that rTMS obviously attenuated AIMs scores, reduced the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the fluctuations of striatal dopamine levels. Meanwhile, rTMS significantly increased the expression of GDNF, which couldrestore the damage of dopaminergic neurons. Additionally, rTMS also reduced the levels of the NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation andits interactions with Fyn in the lesioned striatum of LID rats model. Thus, these data indicate that rTMS can provide benefit for the therapy of LID by improving the key biochemical deficits related to dyskinesia.

  18. Frequency of climbing behavior as a predictor of altered motor activity in rat forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Cíntia; De Lima, Thereza C M; Carobrez, Antonio de Pádua; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene

    2008-11-14

    Previous work has shown that the frequency of climbing behavior in rats submitted to the forced swimming test (FST) correlated to the section's crosses in the open field test, which suggest it might be taken as a predictor of motor activity in rat FST. To investigate this proposal, the frequency, duration, as well as the ratio duration/frequency for each behavior expressed in the FST (immobility, swimming and climbing) were compared in animals treated with a motor stimulant, caffeine (CAF), and the antidepressant, clomipramine (CLM). Male Wistar rats were submitted to 15min of forced swimming (pre-test) and 24h later received saline (SAL, 1ml/kg, i.p.) or CAF (6.5mg/kg, i.p.) 30min prior a 5-min session (test) of FST. To validate experimental procedures, an additional group of rats received three injections of SAL (1ml/kg, i.p.) or clomipramine (CLM, 10mg/kg, i.p.) between the pre-test and test sessions. The results of the present study showed that both drugs, CLM and CAF, significantly reduced the duration of immobility and significantly increased the duration of swimming. In addition, CAF significantly decreased the ratio of immobility, and CLM significantly increased the ratio of swimming and climbing. Moreover, CLM significantly increased the duration of climbing but only CAF increased the frequency of climbing. Thus, it seems that the frequency of climbing could be a predictor of altered motor activity scored directly in the FST. Further, we believe that this parameter could be useful for fast and reliable discrimination between antidepressant drugs and stimulants of motor activity.

  19. Visual target distance, but not visual cursor path length produces shifts in motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike eWendker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When using tools effects in body space and distant space often do not correspond. Findings so far demonstrated that in this case visual feedback has more impact on action control than proprioceptive feedback. The present study varies the dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects and investigates its impact on aftereffects in motor responses. In two experiments participants perform linear hand movements on a covered digitizer tablet to produce ∩-shaped cursor trajectories on the display. The shape of hand motion and cursor motion (linear vs. curved is dissimilar and therefore does not overlap. In one condition the length of hand amplitude and visual target distance is similar and constant while the length of the cursor path is dissimilar and varies. In another condition the length of the hand amplitude varies while the lengths of visual target distance (similar or dissimilar and cursor path (dissimilar are constant. First, we found that aftereffects depended on the relation between hand path length and visual target distance, and not on the relation between hand and cursor path length. Second, increasing contextual interference did not reveal larger aftereffects. Finally, data exploration demonstrated a considerable benefit from gain repetitions across trials when compared to gain switches. In conclusion, dimensional overlap between visual and proprioceptive action effects modulates human information processing in visually controlled actions. However, adjustment of the internal model seems to occur very fast for this kind of simple linear transformation, so that the impact of prior visual feedback is fleeting.

  20. Why New Spinal Cord Plasticity Does Not Disrupt Old Motor Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Yu; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R

    2017-08-23

    When new motor learning changes the spinal cord, old behaviors are not impaired; their key features are preserved by additional compensatory plasticity. To explore the mechanisms responsible for this compensatory plasticity, we transected the spinal dorsal ascending tract before or after female rats acquired a new behavior-operantly conditioned increase or decrease in the right soleus H-reflex-and examined an old behavior-locomotion. Neither spinal dorsal ascending tract transection nor H-reflex conditioning alone impaired locomotion. Nevertheless, when spinal dorsal ascending tract transection and H-reflex conditioning were combined, the rats developed a limp and a tilted posture that correlated in direction and magnitude with the H-reflex change. When the right H-reflex was increased by conditioning, the right step lasted longer than the left and the right hip was higher than the left; when the right H-reflex was decreased by conditioning, the opposite occurred. These results indicate that ascending sensory input guides the compensatory plasticity that normally prevents the plasticity underlying H-reflex change from impairing locomotion. They support the concept of the state of the spinal cord as a negotiated equilibrium that reflects the concurrent influences of all the behaviors in an individual's repertoire; and they support the new therapeutic strategies this concept introduces.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The spinal cord provides a reliable final common pathway for motor behaviors throughout life. Until recently, its reliability was explained by the assumption that it is hardwired; but it is now clear that the spinal cord changes continually as new behaviors are acquired. Nevertheless, old behaviors are preserved. This study shows that their preservation depends on sensory feedback from the spinal cord to the brain: if feedback is removed, the acquisition of a new behavior may disrupt an old behavior. In sum, when a new behavior changes the spinal cord, sensory

  1. Increases in frontostriatal connectivity are associated with response to dorsomedial repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in refractory binge/purge behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Dunlop

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Enhanced frontostriatal connectivity was associated with responders to dmPFC-rTMS for binge/purge behavior. rTMS caused paradoxical suppression of frontostriatal connectivity in nonresponders. rs-fMRI could prove critical for optimizing stimulation parameters in a future sham-controlled trial of rTMS in disordered eating.

  2. Differential genetic regulation of motor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in mice using an automated home cage task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Martien J H; de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude J G; Olivier, Berend; Spruijt, Berry M; van Ree, Jan M

    2008-08-01

    Traditional behavioral tests, such as the open field test, measure an animal's responsiveness to a novel environment. However, it is generally difficult to assess whether the behavioral response obtained from these tests relates to the expression level of motor activity and/or to avoidance of anxiogenic areas. Here, an automated home cage environment for mice was designed to obtain independent measures of motor activity levels and of sheltered feeding preference during three consecutive days. Chronic treatment with the anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (5 and 10 mg/kg/day) in C57BL/6J mice reduced sheltered feeding preference without altering motor activity levels. Furthermore, two distinct chromosome substitution strains, derived from C57BL/6J (host strain) and A/J (donor strain) inbred strains, expressed either increased sheltering preference in females (chromosome 15) or reduced motor activity levels in females and males (chromosome 1) when compared to C57BL/6J. Longitudinal behavioral monitoring revealed that these phenotypic differences maintained after adaptation to the home cage. Thus, by using new automated behavioral phenotyping approaches, behavior can be dissociated into distinct behavioral domains (e.g., anxiety-related and motor activity domains) with different underlying genetic origin and pharmacological responsiveness.

  3. The Role of Depressive Symptoms, Family Invalidation and Behavioral Impulsivity in the Occurrence and Repetition of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Chinese Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jianing; Leung, Freedom

    2012-01-01

    This study used zero-inflated poisson regression analysis to examine the role of depressive symptoms, family invalidation, and behavioral impulsivity in the occurrence and repetition of non-suicidal self-injury among Chinese community adolescents over a 2-year period. Participants, 4782 high school students, were assessed twice during the…

  4. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II knockout mice exhibit working memory impairments, decreased repetitive behavior, and increased anxiety-like traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Charlotte M; Abera, Sinedu; Vunck, Sarah A; Tirko, Natasha; Choi, Yoon; Titcombe, Roseann F; Antoine, Shannon O; Tukey, David S; DeVito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles A; Ziff, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength. Previous studies have shown that cGKII-deficient mice display striking spatial learning deficits in the Morris Water Maze compared to wild-type littermates as well as lowered GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density of the prefrontal cortex (Serulle et al., 2007; Wincott et al., 2013). In the current study, we show that cGKII knockout mice exhibit impaired working memory as determined using the prefrontal cortex-dependent Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Additionally, we report reduced repetitive behavior in the Marble Burying task (MB), and heightened anxiety-like traits in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NSFT). These data suggest that cGKII may play a role in the integration of information that conveys both anxiety-provoking stimuli as well as the spatial and environmental cues that facilitate functional memory processes and appropriate behavioral response.

  5. Effects of Bilateral Electrolytic Lesions of the Dorsomedial Striatum on Motor Behavior and Instrumental Learning in Rats

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    Pamphyle Abedi Mukutenga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dorsal striatum plays an important role in the control of motor activity and learning processes within the basal ganglia circuitry. Furthermore, recent works have suggested functional differentiation between subregions of the dorsal striatumMethods:The present study examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum on motor behavior and learning ability in rats using a series of behavioral tests. 20 male wistar rats were used in the experiment and behavioral assessment were conducted using open field test, rotarod test and 8-arm radial maze.Results:In the open field test, rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum showed a normal motor function in the horizontal locomotor activity, while in rearing activity they displayed a statistically significant motor impairment when compared to sham operated group. In the rotarod test, a deficit in motor coordination and acquisition of skilled behavior was observed in rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum compared to sham. However, radial maze performance revealed similar capacity in the acquisition of learning task between experimental groups.Discussion:Our results support the premise of the existence of functional dissociation between the dorsomedial and the dorsolateral regions of the dorsal striatum. In addition, our data suggest that the associative dorsomedial striatum may be as critical in striatum-based motor control.

  6. The Cinderella of Psychology: The Neglect of Motor Control in the Science of Mental Life and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, David A.

    2005-01-01

    One would expect psychology--the science of mental life and behavior--to place great emphasis on the means by which mental life is behaviorally expressed. Surprisingly, however, the study of how decisions are enacted--the focus of motor control research--has received little attention in psychology. This article documents the neglect and considers…

  7. Behavioral Problems in Children with Motor and Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Associations with Maladaptive Personality and Marital Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoeth, Cis; Monbaliu, Elegast; Lagast, Emmy; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence rates of behavioral problems in children with motor disabilities are commonly based on questionnaires developed for a general population (e.g., Child Behavior CheckList). These questionnaires do not take into account lower levels of intellectual functioning. The first aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of parent-reported…

  8. The Cinderella of Psychology: The Neglect of Motor Control in the Science of Mental Life and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, David A.

    2005-01-01

    One would expect psychology--the science of mental life and behavior--to place great emphasis on the means by which mental life is behaviorally expressed. Surprisingly, however, the study of how decisions are enacted--the focus of motor control research--has received little attention in psychology. This article documents the neglect and considers…

  9. Dissociation of Structural and Functional Integrities of the Motor System in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Behavioral-Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jong Seok; Ferguson, Michele; Tan, Rachel; Mioshi, Eneida; Simon, Neil; Burrell, James; Vucic, Steve; Hodges, John R.; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study investigated the structural and functional changes in the motor system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; n=25) and behavioral-variant fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD; n=17) relative to healthy controls (n=37). Methods Structural changes were examined using a region-of-interest approach, applying voxel-based morphometry for gray-matter changes and diffusion tensor imaging for white-matter changes. Functional changes in the motor system were elucidated using threshold-tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measurements of upper motor-neuron excitability. Results The structural analyses showed that in ALS there were more white-matter changes in the corticospinal and motor-cortex regions and more gray-matter changes in the cerebellum in comparison to controls. bvFTD showed substantial gray- and white-matter changes across virtually all motor-system regions compared to controls, although the brainstem was affected less than the other regions. Direct comparisons across patient groups showed that the gray- and white-matter motor-system changes inclusive of the motor cortex were greater in bvFTD than in ALS. By contrast, the functional integrity of the motor system was more adversely affected in ALS than in bvFTD, with both patient groups showing increased excitability of upper motor neurons compared to controls. Conclusions Cross-correlation of structural and functional data further revealed a neural dissociation of different motor-system regions and tracts covarying with the TMS excitability across both patient groups. The structural and functional motor-system integrities appear to be dissociated between ALS and bvFTD, which represents useful information for the diagnosis of motor-system changes in these two disorders. PMID:26932257

  10. Hypnagogic behavior disorder: complex motor behaviors during wake-sleep transitions in 2 young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María Luz; García-Morales, Irene; Gil-Nagel, Antonio; Franch, Oriol

    2008-08-01

    A nondescribed behavioral disorder was observed during wake-sleep transitions in 2 young children. Two boys had episodes of abnormal behavior in hypnagogic-and occasionally hypnopompic-periods for 1 year from the time they were 1 year and several months old. The episodes consisted of irregular body movements, which could be either gentle or violent but never made the children get out of bed. They lasted from a few seconds to 2 hours and were associated with poor reactivity and amnesia of the events. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings showed wake-state features, with brief bursts of hypnagogic hypersynchrony, and did not display seizure activity. A distinctive behavior disorder occurring during wake-sleep transitions with a wake EEG pattern has been identified in very early childhood. The clinical profile does not fit any of the known parasomnias and might belong to a new category of parasomnia.

  11. Motor Circuit-Specific Burst Patterns Drive Different Muscle and Behavior Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Florian; White, Rachel S.; Stein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In the isolated CNS, different modulatory inputs can enable one motor network to generate multiple output patterns. Thus far, however, few studies have established whether different modulatory inputs also enable a defined network to drive distinct muscle and movement patterns in vivo, much as they enable these distinctions in behavioral studies. This possibility is not a foregone conclusion, because additional influences present in vivo (e.g., sensory feedback, hormonal modulation) could alter the motor patterns. Additionally, rhythmic neuronal activity can be transformed into sustained muscle contractions, particularly in systems with slow muscle dynamics, as in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric system used here. We assessed whether two different versions of the biphasic (protraction, retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm, triggered in the isolated stomatogastric system by the modulatory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, drive different muscle and movement patterns. One distinction between these rhythms is that the lateral gastric (LG) protractor motor neuron generates tonic bursts during the VCN rhythm, whereas its POC-rhythm bursts are divided into fast, rhythmic burstlets. Intracellular muscle fiber recordings and tension measurements show that the LG-innervated muscles retain the distinct VCN-LG and POC-LG neuron burst structures. Moreover, endoscope video recordings in vivo, during VCN-triggered and POC-triggered chewing, show that the lateral teeth protraction movements exhibit the same, distinct protraction patterns generated by LG in the isolated nervous system. Thus, the multifunctional nature of an identified motor network in the isolated CNS can be preserved in vivo, where it drives different muscle activity and movement patterns. PMID:23864688

  12. The Application of Two-Point Touch Cane Technique to Theories of Motor Control and Learning Implications for Orientation and Mobility Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Ronald V.; Jacobson, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Basic behavioral processes involved in motor control based on theories of motor control and learning are outlined using the teaching of two-point touch cane technique as an application of the theories. The authors assert the importance of repetition, practice, and sufficient learning time. (Author/CL)

  13. Removal of FKBP12 enhances mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative/repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffer, Charles A; Tang, Wei; Wong, Helen; Santillan, Arturo; Patterson, Richard J; Martinez, Luis A; Tejada-Simon, Maria V; Paylor, Richard; Hamilton, Susan L; Klann, Eric

    2008-12-10

    FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) binds the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and rapamycin and regulates several signaling pathways, including mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. We determined whether the brain-specific disruption of the FKBP12 gene in mice altered mTOR signaling, synaptic plasticity, and memory. Biochemically, the FKBP12-deficient mice displayed increases in basal mTOR phosphorylation, mTOR-Raptor interactions, and p70 S6 kinase (S6K) phosphorylation. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that FKBP12 deficiency was associated with an enhancement in long-lasting hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). The LTP enhancement was resistant to rapamycin, but not anisomycin, suggesting that altered translation control is involved in the enhanced synaptic plasticity. Behaviorally, FKBP12 conditional knockout (cKO) mice displayed enhanced contextual fear memory and autistic/obsessive-compulsive-like perseveration in several assays including the water maze, Y-maze reversal task, and the novel object recognition test. Our results indicate that FKBP12 plays a critical role in the regulation of mTOR-Raptor interactions, LTP, memory, and perseverative behaviors.

  14. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior In Children With Moderate To Severe Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigette Oliver Ryalls

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP, a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 seconds were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment (PACMI play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System (PIECES. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p<0.001 and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p=0.067 were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment.

  15. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryalls, Brigette O.; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p < 0.001) and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p = 0.067) were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment. PMID:27199868

  16. Individual prediction of chronic motor outcome in the acute post-stroke stage: Behavioral parameters versus functional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehme, Anne K; Volz, Lukas J; Feis, Delia-Lisa; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Several neurobiological factors have been found to correlate with functional recovery after brain lesions. However, predicting the individual potential of recovery remains difficult. Here we used multivariate support vector machine (SVM) classification to explore the prognostic value of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to predict individual motor outcome at 4-6 months post-stroke. To this end, 21 first-ever stroke patients with hand motor deficits participated in an fMRI hand motor task in the first few days post-stroke. Motor impairment was quantified assessing grip force and the Action Research Arm Test. Linear SVM classifiers were trained to predict good versus poor motor outcome of unseen new patients. We found that fMRI activity acquired in the first week post-stroke correctly predicted the outcome for 86% of all patients. In contrast, the concurrent assessment of motor function provided 76% accuracy with low sensitivity (stroke), age, time post-stroke, lesion volume, and location were at 50%-chance-level. In conclusion, multivariate decoding of fMRI data with SVM early after stroke enables a robust prediction of motor recovery. The potential for recovery is influenced by the initial dysfunction of the active motor system, particularly in those patients whose outcome cannot be predicted by behavioral tests. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Using Unconventional Methods to Control the Chaotic Behavior of Switched Time Systems: Application to a Stepper Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Miladi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a method to control the chaotic behavior of the stepper motor into a periodic one. In fact, using the supply frequency as a bifurcation parameter, we show that as the frequency is increased beyond a critical value the motor steps become irregular and even chaotic hence it becomes unpractical to be controlled in open loop mode. To circumvent the problem we propose a slight perturbation to the frequency in order to regularize the steps for high frequencies. The approach consists in using several heuristic methods such as Practical Swarm Optimization (PSO, Genetic Algorithms (GA and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO to obtain the optimal switching instances which define the change in the supply state (polarization. The numerical simulations performed on a stepper model show that regularization of the motor steps can be achieved for a large range of power supply frequencies ranging from quasiperiodic behavior to chaotic behavior.

  18. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2-5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ting; Chang, Chen; Li, Yun; Qian, Lu; Xiao, Chao Yong; Xiao, Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Xiao, Yun Hua; Chu, Kang Kang; Lewis, Mark H; Ke, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs). However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2-3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD) at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  19. Two years changes in the development of caudate nucleus are involved in restricted repetitive behaviors in 2–5-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Qiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caudate nucleus volume is enlarged in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and is associated with restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs. However, the trajectory of caudate nucleus volume in RRBs of young children remains unclear. Caudate nucleus volume was measured in 36 children with ASD and 18 matched 2–3-year-old subjects with developmentally delayed (DD at baseline (Time 1 and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2. The differential growth rate in caudate nucleus volume was calculated. Further, the relationships between the development of caudate nucleus volume and RRBs were analyzed. Our results showed that caudate nucleus volume was significantly larger in the ASD group at both time points and the magnitude of enlargement was greater at Time 2. The rate of caudate nucleus growth during this 2-year interval was faster in children with ASD than DD. Right caudate nucleus volume growth was negatively correlated with RRBs. Findings from this study suggest developmental abnormalities of caudate nucleus volume in ASD. Longitudinal MRI studies are needed to explore the correlation between atypical growth patterns of caudate nucleus and phenotype of RRBs.

  20. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  1. Thermal and motor behavior in experimental autoimmune encephalitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrotek, Sylwia; Rosochowicz, Tomasz; Nowakowska, Anna; Kozak, Wiesław

    2014-08-01

    Thermoregulation in patients, who suffer from multiple sclerosis (MS) is impaired and may result in either increases or decreases in body temperature. Disturbances in body temperature correlate with acute relapses, and for this reason, it is an important issue in everyday life of those who suffer from MS. Although rat experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) appeared useful for the examination of current therapies against MS, it has not been thoroughly investigated in terms of body temperature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of EAE induction on thermal and motor behavior in the rats. Subcutaneous injection of encephalitogenic emulsion into both pads of hind feet of the Lewis rats provoked symptoms of EAE. Body temperature (T(b)) and motor activity of rats were measured using biotelemetry system. We report a significant increase in body temperature within 24 h prior to the EAE manifestation (12 h average of T(b) for EAE induced animals was higher by 1.07 ± 0.06 °C during day-time and by 0.5 ± 0.05 °C during night time in comparison to the control rats). On the other hand, the onset of EAE symptoms was associated with gradual decrease of body temperature, and during the first night-time T(b) was lower by 1.03 ± 0.08 °C in comparison to the control rats. The inhibition of the motor activity started from the night time, 2 days before EAE onset. On the basis of our data, we concluded that the pattern of body temperature changes after EAE induction may be considered as useful symptom (prodrom) to predict precisely the time of EAE onset. Furthermore, we suggest that EAE in rats may be a suitable model to study mechanism of body temperature alternations observed in MS patients.

  2. Clinical REM sleep behavior disorder and motor subtypes in Parkinson's disease: a questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Dursun; Turkel, Yakup; Onar, Musa Kazım; Sunter, Tevfik

    2014-04-01

    Studies documenting the association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and motor subtypes in Parkinson's disease (PD) are rare. Our hypothesis is that RBD may be more severe in non-tremor dominant (NTD) patients with RBD than those tremor dominant (TD) with RBD. In this study, we investigated the association between motor subtypes and clinical RBD in PD. We evaluated 104 consecutive patients older than 18 years presenting with PD to the Neurology Clinic of the University Hospital for one year in this study. The clinical diagnosis of RBD was based on the minimal diagnostic criteria of International Classification of Sleep Disorders, revised. The Stavanger Sleepiness Questionnaire was used to rate the severity of clinical RBD. The patients were divided into two subgroups as TD and NTD. The patient and control groups were compared with each other for severity and frequency of clinical RBD, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Hoehn-Yahr stage scores. The correlation between severity of clinical RBD and clinical severity of PD was analyzed in the patient groups. Of the patients, 45.2% (n=47) had the NTD subtype of PD and 54.8% (n=57) had the TD subtype of PD. There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of frequency and severity of clinical RBD. For the NTD patients, there was a weak positive correlation between severity of clinical RBD and clinical severity of PD. However, there was no correlation in the TD subgroup. In our study, frequency of clinical RBD was unrelated to motor subtypes of PD. However, in the present study, we found a weak correlation between clinical severity (UPDRS and the Hoehn-Yahr) of PD and severity of clinical RBD in the NTD subtype but not in the TD subtype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Friction Behavior on Contact Interface of Linear Ultrasonic Motor with Hard Contact Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jinpeng; Zhou Hongping; Jin Jiamei; Zhao Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    How to improve the efficiency of the linear ultrasonic motor with hard contact materials (HLUSM ) or the precision motion stage driven by HLUSM ,becomes a hot issue .Analysis and testing of friction behavior on the contact interface of HLUSM is one of the key issues .Under the action of ultrasonic vibration and impact ,the fric-tion behavior on contact interface is very complex due to micro-amplitude and high frequency .Moreover ,it is diffi-cult to observe and test it .Focusing on the frictional behavior on the interface of HLUSM ,a new method ,through testing the vibration of the driving tips (scanning vibrometer PSV-400-3D) and the motion of the slider (displace-ment sensor LK-G30) ,respectively ,is proposed .Then ,take the HLUSM as an example ,theoretical analyses and experiments are carried out .Theoretical analysis shows that the average speed of the slider should be 600 mm/s when there is no slippage between the stator and slider during the contact process .Experimental results show that the average speed of the slider is about 390 mm/s .At the same time ,the tangential vibration speed of the driving tip of HLUSM is larger than 600 mm/s .Therefore ,there must be slippage between the stator and slider of HLUSM .Further experimental results show that the maximum efficiency is less than 10% .The slippage on the contact interface should be the main reason for the low efficiency of HLUSM .

  4. Linking reward processing to behavioral output: motor and motivational integration in the primate subthalamic nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Francisco eEspinosa-Parrilla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The expectation and detection of motivationally relevant events is a major determinant of goal-directed behavior and there is a strong interest in the contribution of basal ganglia in the integration of motivational processes into behavioral output. Recent research has focused on the role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN in the motivational control of action, but it remains to be determined how information about reward is encoded in this nucleus. We recorded the activity of single neurons in the STN of two behaving monkeys to examine whether activity was influenced by the delivery of reward in an instrumental task, a Pavlovian stimulus-reward association, or outside of a task context. We confirmed preliminary findings indicating that STN neurons were sensitive not only to rewards obtained during task performance, but also to the expectation of reward when its delivery was delayed in time. Most of the modulations at the onset of reaching movement were combined with modulations following reward delivery, suggesting the convergence of signals related to the animal’s movement and its outcome in the same neurons. Some neurons were also influenced by the visuomotor contingencies of the task, i.e., target location and/or movement direction. In addition, modulations were observed under conditions where reward delivery was not contingent on an instrumental response, even in the absence of a reward predictive cue. Taken as a whole, these results demonstrate a potential contribution of the STN to motivational control of behavior in the non-human primate, although problems in distinguishing neuronal signals related to reward from those related to motor behavior should be considered. Characterizing the specificity of reward processing in the STN remains challenging and could have important implications for understanding the influence of this key component of basal ganglia circuitry on emotional and motivated behaviors under normal and pathological

  5. Mind wandering and motor control: off-task thinking disrupts the online adjustment of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Julia W Y; Dao, Elizabeth; Blinn, Patricia; Krigolson, Olav E; Boyd, Lara A; Handy, Todd C

    2012-01-01

    Mind wandering episodes have been construed as periods of "stimulus-independent" thought, where our minds are decoupled from the external sensory environment. In two experiments, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures to determine whether mind wandering episodes can also be considered as periods of "response-independent" thought, with our minds disengaged from adjusting our behavioral outputs. In the first experiment, participants performed a motor tracking task and were occasionally prompted to report whether their attention was "on-task" or "mind wandering." We found greater tracking error in periods prior to mind wandering vs. on-task reports. To ascertain whether this finding was due to attenuation in visual perception per se vs. a disruptive effect of mind wandering on performance monitoring, we conducted a second experiment in which participants completed a time-estimation task. They were given feedback on the accuracy of their estimations while we recorded their EEG, and were also occasionally asked to report their attention state. We found that the sensitivity of behavior and the P3 ERP component to feedback signals were significantly reduced just prior to mind wandering vs. on-task attentional reports. Moreover, these effects co-occurred with decreases in the error-related negativity elicited by feedback signals (fERN), a direct measure of behavioral feedback assessment in cortex. Our findings suggest that the functional consequences of mind wandering are not limited to just the processing of incoming stimulation per se, but extend as well to the control and adjustment of behavior.

  6. Mind Wandering and Motor Control: Off-Task Thinking Disrupts the Online Adjustment of Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia W. Y. Kam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mind wandering episodes have been construed as periods of "stimulus-independent" thought, where our minds are decoupled from the external sensory environment. In two experiments, we used behavioral and event-related potential (ERP measures to determine whether mind wandering episodes can also be considered as periods of "response-independent" thought, with our minds disengaged from adjusting our behavioral outputs. In the first experiment, participants performed a motor tracking task and were occasionally prompted to report whether their attention was "on-task" or "mind wandering." We found greater tracking error in periods prior to mind wandering vs. on-task reports. To ascertain whether this finding was due to attenuation in visual perception per se vs. a disruptive effect of mind wandering on performance monitoring, we conducted a second experiment in which participants completed a time-estimation task. They were given feedback on the accuracy of their estimations while we recorded their EEG, and were also occasionally asked to report their attention state. We found that the sensitivity of behavior and the P3 ERP component to feedback signals were significantly reduced just prior to mind wandering vs. on-task attentional reports. Moreover, these effects co-occurred with decreases in the error-related negativity elicited by feedback signals (fERN, a direct measure of behavioral feedback assessment in cortex. Our findings suggest that the functional consequences of mind wandering are not limited to just the processing of incoming stimulation per se, but extend as well to the control and adjustment of behavior.

  7. Increased probability of repetitive spinal motoneuron activation by transcranial magnetic stimulation after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Krarup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Triple stimulation technique (TST) has previously shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fails to activate a proportion of spinal motoneurons (MNs) during motor fatigue. The TST response depression without attenuation of the conventional motor evoked potential suggested increased prob...... the muscle is fatigued. Repetitive MN firing may provide an adaptive mechanism to maintain motor unit activation and task performance during sustained voluntary activity.......Triple stimulation technique (TST) has previously shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fails to activate a proportion of spinal motoneurons (MNs) during motor fatigue. The TST response depression without attenuation of the conventional motor evoked potential suggested increased......-exercise behavior of QuadS responses was related to the duration of the contraction pointing to a correlation between repeated activation of MNs and the subject's ability to maintain force. In conclusion, the study confirmed that an increased fraction of spinal MNs fire more than once in response to TMS when...

  8. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jennifer L; Lansdell, Theresa A; Lookingland, Keith J; Baker, Lisa E

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 μg/kg atrazine, 10mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest that exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning.

  9. The effects of gestational and chronic atrazine exposure on motor behaviors and striatal dopamine in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jennifer L.; Lansdell, Theresa A.; Lookingland, Keith J.; Baker, Lisa E.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of environmentally relevant gestational followed by continued chronic exposure to the herbicide, atrazine, on motor function, cognition, and neurochemical indices of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) activity in male rats. Dams were treated with 100 µg/kg atrazine, 10 mg/kg atrazine, or vehicle on gestational day 1 through postnatal day 21. Upon weaning, male offspring continued daily vehicle or atrazine gavage treatments for an additional six months. Subjects were tested in a series of behavioral assays, and 24 h after the last treatment, tissue samples from the striatum were analyzed for DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). At 10 mg/kg, this herbicide was found to produce modest disruptions in motor functioning, and at both dose levels it significantly lowered striatal DA and DOPAC concentrations. These results suggest exposures to atrazine have the potential to disrupt nigrostriatal DA neurons and behaviors associated with motor functioning. PMID:26440580

  10. Individual prediction of chronic motor outcome in the acute post-stroke stage: Behavioral parameters versus functional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehme, A.K.; Volz, L.J.; Feis, D.-L.; Eickhoff, S.B.; Fink, G.R.; Grefkes, C

    2015-01-01

    Several neurobiological factors have been found to correlate with functional recovery after brain lesions. However, predicting the individual potential of recovery remains difficult. Here we used multivariate support vector machine (SVM) classification to explore the prognostic value of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to predict individual motor outcome at 4–6 months post-stroke. To this end, twenty-one first-ever stroke patients with hand motor deficits participated in an fMRI hand motor task in the first few days post-stroke. Motor impairment was quantified assessing grip force and the Action Research Arm Test. Linear SVM classifiers were trained to predict good versus poor motor outcome of unseen new patients. We found that fMRI activity acquired in the first week post-stroke correctly predicted the outcome for 86% of all patients. In contrast, the concurrent assessment of motor function provided 76% accuracy with low sensitivity (fMRI provided 87.5% prediction accuracy in these patients. Classifications were driven by activity in ipsilesional motor areas and contralesional cerebellum. The accuracy of subacute fMRI data (two weeks post-stroke), age, time post-stroke, lesion volume and location were at 50%-chance-level. In conclusion, multivariate decoding of fMRI data with SVM early after stroke enables a robust prediction of motor recovery. The potential for recovery is influenced by the initial dysfunction of the active motor system, particularly in those patients whose outcome cannot be predicted by behavioral tests. PMID:26381168

  11. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Motor Preparation Deficits in a Visual Cued Spatial Attention Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhadze, Estate M; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Guela E; El-Baz, Ayman S; Casanova, Manuel F

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been estimated that 80 % of subjects with autism display "motor dyspraxia" or clumsiness that are not readily identified in a routine neurological examination. In this study we used behavioral measures, event-related potentials (ERP), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) to study cognitive and motor preparation deficits contributing to the dyspraxia of autism. A modified Posner cueing task was used to analyze motor preparation abnormalities in children with autism and in typically developing children (N = 30/per group). In this task, subjects engage in preparing motor response based on a visual cue, and then execute a motor movement based on the subsequent imperative stimulus. The experimental conditions, such as the validity of the cue and the spatial location of the target stimuli were manipulated to influence motor response selection, preparation, and execution. Reaction time and accuracy benefited from validly cued targets in both groups, while main effects of target spatial position were more obvious in the autism group. The main ERP findings were prolonged and more negative early frontal potentials in the ASD in incongruent trials in both types of spatial location. The LRP amplitude was larger in incongruent trials and had stronger effect in the children with ASD. These effects were better expressed at the earlier stages of LRP, specifically those related to response selection, and showed difficulties at the cognitive phase of stimulus processing rather that at the motor execution stage. The LRP measures at different stages reflect the chronology of cognitive aspects of movement preparation and are sensitive to manipulations of cue correctness, thus representing very useful biomarker in autism dyspraxia research. Future studies may use more advance and diverse manipulations of movement preparation demands in testing more

  12. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... properties of this facility in the path from synaptic sites to the motor axon is reviewed with emphasis on voltage sensitive ion channels and regulatory metabotropic transmitter pathways. The catalog of the intrinsic response properties, their underlying mechanisms, and regulation obtained from motoneurons...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  13. Attenuation of the Type IV Pilus Retraction Motor Influences Neisseria gonorrhoeae Social and Infection Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Danielle M.; Agellon, Al

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retraction of the type IV pilus (Tfp) mediates DNA uptake, motility, and social and infection behavior in a wide variety of prokaryotes. To date, investigations into Tfp retraction-dependent activities have used a mutant deleted of PilT, the ATPase motor protein that causes the pilus fiber to retract. ΔpilT cells are nontransformable, nonmotile, and cannot aggregate into microcolonies. We tested the hypothesis that these retraction-dependent activities are sensitive to the strength of PilT enzymatic activity by using the pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae as a model. We constructed an N. gonorrhoeae mutant with an amino acid substitution in the PilT Walker B box (a substitution of cysteine for leucine at position 201, encoded by pilTL201C). Purified PilTL201C forms a native hexamer, but mutant hexamers hydrolyze ATP at half the maximal rate. N. gonorrhoeae pilTL201C cells produce Tfp fibers, crawl at the same speed as the wild-type (wt) parent, and are equally transformable. However, the social behavior of pilTL201C cells is intermediate between the behaviors of wt and ΔpilT cells. The infection behavior of pilTL201C is also defective, due to its failure to activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) pathway. Our study indicates that pilus retraction, per se, is not sufficient for N. gonorrhoeae microcolony formation or infectivity; rather, these activities are sensitive to the strength of PilT enzymatic activity. We discuss the implications of these findings for Neisseria pathogenesis in the context of mechanobiology. PMID:27923924

  14. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Control Environmental Stimulation through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether two people with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using thumb poke ability with a mouse wheel and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replacing standard mouse driver, and turning a mouse into a precise thumb poke detector).…

  15. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Pointing Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their pointing performance using finger poke ability with a mouse wheel through a Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (DPAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, changes a…

  16. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. METHOD

  17. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Control Environmental Stimulation through a Mouse Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether two people with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using thumb poke ability with a mouse wheel and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replacing standard mouse driver, and turning a mouse into a precise thumb poke detector).…

  18. Dopamine Induces Rhythmic Activity and Enhances Postinhibitory Rebound in a Leech Motor Neuron Involved in Swimming and Crawling Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Angstadt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Amine neurotransmitters play an important role in controlling motor behavior in many animals, including the medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis. Previous studies have established serotonin as an important modulator of swimming behavior. Serotonin levels are elevated in the blood of frequently swimming leeches and bath application of serotonin to isolated nerve cord preparations evokes fictive swimming. Serotonin alters the intrinsic electrical properties of interneurons and motor neurons involved in generating swimming behavior. In particular, serotonin increases the amplitude, but shortens the duration, of postinhibitory rebound (PIR responses in cell DE-3, a motor neuron that innervates the dorsal longitudinal muscle cells of the body wall. More recent studies have implicated dopamine in the suppression of swimming behavior and the initiation of crawling. Here we show that bath application of dopamine to isolated leech ganglia induces rhythmic oscillatory activity in cell DE-3. The long cycle period of these oscillations is consistent with crawling, but not swimming behavior. Dopamine increases the amplitude of PIR responses in cell DE-3, but unlike serotonin does not decrease its duration. These effects provide further support for the hypothesis that dopamine promotes crawling behavior in the leech.

  19. Polyethylene glycol rapidly restores axonal integrity and improves the rate of motor behavior recovery after sciatic nerve crush injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Joshua M; Kane, Jacqueline R; Spaeth, Christopher S; Zuzek, Aleksej; Robinson, Garrett L; Gbanaglo, Melengor Y; Estler, Cody J; Boydston, Elaine A; Schallert, Timothy; Bittner, George D

    2010-08-01

    The inability to rapidly (within minutes to hours) improve behavioral function after severance of peripheral nervous system axons is an ongoing clinical problem. We have previously reported that polyethylene glycol (PEG) can rapidly restore axonal integrity (PEG-fusion) between proximal and distal segments of cut- and crush-severed rat axons in vitro and in vivo. We now report that PEG-fusion not only reestablishes the integrity of crush-severed rat sciatic axons as measured by the restored conduction of compound action potentials (CAPs) and the intraaxonal diffusion of fluorescent dye across the lesion site, but also produces more rapid recovery of appropriate hindlimb motor behaviors. Improvement in recovery occurred during the first few postoperative weeks for the foot fault (FF) asymmetry test and between week 2 and week 3 for the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI) based on analysis of footprints. That is, the FF test was the more sensitive indicator of early behavioral recovery, showing significant postoperative improvement of motor behavior in PEG-treated animals at 24-48 h. In contrast, the SFI more sensitively measured longer-term postoperative behavioral recovery and deficits at 4-8 wk, perhaps reflecting the development of fine (distal) motor control. These and other data show that PEG-fusion not only rapidly restores physiological and morphological axonal continuity, but also more quickly improves behavioral recovery.

  20. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors in electric vehicles caused by unbalanced magnetic pull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changle; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hui; Han, Lijin; Zhang, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) plays a key role in nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in electric vehicles. Based on Jeffcott rotor model, the stiffness characteristics of the rotor system of the PMSM are analyzed and the nonlinear dynamic behaviors influenced by UMP are investigated. In free vibration study, eigenvalue-based stability analysis for multiple equilibrium points is performed which offers an insight in system stiffness. Amplitude modulation effects are discovered of which the mechanism is explained and the period of modulating signal is carried out by phase analysis and averaging method. The analysis indicates that the effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions. In forced vibration study, considering dynamic eccentricity, frequency characteristics revealing softening type are obtained by harmonic balance method, and the stability of periodic solution is investigated by Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The frequency characteristics analysis indicates that the response amplitude is limited in the range between the amplitudes of the two kinds of equilibrium points. In the vicinity of the continuum of equilibrium points, the system hardly provides resistance to bending, and hence external disturbances easily cause loss of stability. It is useful for the design of the PMSM with high stability and low vibration and acoustic noise.

  1. The dynamic behavior of a cantilever beam coupled to a non-ideal unbalanced motor through numerical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, P. J. P.; Silveira, M.; Pontes Junior, B. R.; Balthazar, J. M.

    2014-09-01

    An excitation force that is not influenced by the system state is said to be an ideal energy source. In real situations, a direct and feedback coupling between the excitation source and the system must always exist at a certain level. This manifestation of the law of conservation of energy is known as the Sommerfeld effect. In the case of obtaining a mathematical model for such a system, additional equations are usually necessary to describe the vibration sources with limited power and its coupling with the mechanical system. In this work, a cantilever beam and a non-ideal DC motor fixed to its free end are analyzed. The motor has an unbalanced mass that provides excitation to the system which is proportional to the current applied to the motor. During the coast up operation of the motor, if the drive power is increased slowly, making the excitation frequency pass through the first natural frequency of the beam, the DC motor speed will remain the same until it suddenly jumps to a much higher value (simultaneously its amplitude jumps to a much lower value) upon exceeding a critical input power. It was found that the Sommerfeld effect depends on some system parameters and the motor operational procedures. These parameters are explored to avoid the resonance capture in the Sommerfeld effect. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are used to help gather insight of this dynamic behavior.

  2. Sex-dependent changes in social behaviors in motor pre-symptomatic R6/1 mice.

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    Susanna Pietropaolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The R6/1 mouse line is one of the most widely employed models of Huntington Disease (HD, a complex syndrome characterized by motor and non-motor deficits. Surprisingly, its behavioral phenotype during the early phases of the pathology when the motor impairments are not manifest yet has been poorly investigated. It is also not clear whether the expression of HD-like symptoms at the pre-motor stage in this mouse model differs between the two sexes. METHODS: Male and female 12 weeks-old R6/1 mice and their wild-type littermates were tested on a battery of tests modeling some of the major neuropsychiatric non-motor symptoms of HD: alterations in social interest, social interaction and communication, as well as disturbances in prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI and circadian patterns of activity. The lack of motor symptoms was confirmed during the entire experimental period by means of the tail test for clasping. RESULTS: R6/1 mice displayed marked alterations in all social behaviors which were mainly observed in males. Male R6/1 animals were also the only ones showing reduced body weight. Both male and female transgenic mice displayed mild alterations in the circadian activity patterns, but no deficits in PPI. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the validity of the R6/1 mouse in mimicking selected neuropsychiatric symptoms of HD, the social deficits being the clearest markers of the pre-motor phase of the pathology. Furthermore, our data suggest that male R6/1 mice are more suitable for future studies on the early stages of HD.

  3. Development of sensory, motor and behavioral deficits in the murine model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

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    Coy D Heldermon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS IIIB (Sanfilippo Syndrome type B is caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (Naglu. Children with MPS IIIB develop disturbances of sleep, activity levels, coordination, vision, hearing, and mental functioning culminating in early death. The murine model of MPS IIIB demonstrates lysosomal distention in multiple tissues, a shortened life span, and behavioral changes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To more thoroughly assess MPS IIIB in mice, alterations in circadian rhythm, activity level, motor function, vision, and hearing were tested. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN developed pathologic changes and locomotor analysis showed that MPS IIIB mice start their daily activity later and have a lower proportion of activity during the night than wild-type controls. Rotarod assessment of motor function revealed a progressive inability to coordinate movement in a rocking paradigm. Purkinje cell counts were significantly reduced in the MPS IIIB animals compared to age matched controls. By electroretinography (ERG, MPS IIIB mice had a progressive decrease in the amplitude of the dark-adapted b-wave response. Corresponding pathology revealed shortening of the outer segments, thinning of the outer nuclear layer, and inclusions in the retinal pigmented epithelium. Auditory-evoked brainstem responses (ABR demonstrated progressive hearing deficits consistent with the observed loss of hair cells in the inner ear and histologic abnormalities in the middle ear. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The mouse model of MPS IIIB has several quantifiable phenotypic alterations and is similar to the human disease. These physiologic and histologic changes provide insights into the progression of this disease and will serve as important parameters when evaluating various therapies.

  4. Novel behavioral indicator of explicit awareness reveals temporal course of frontoparietal neural network facilitation during motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Regan R; Gayle, Jordan O; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in sequential motor learning have been observed in many patient populations. Having an understanding of the individual neural progression associated with sequential learning in healthy individuals may provide valuable insights for effective interventions with these patients. Due to individual variability in motor skill acquisition, the temporal course of such learning will be vary, suggesting a need for a more individualized approach. Knowing when a subject becomes aware of movement patterns may provide a marker with which to identify each individual's learning time course. To avoid interfering with the incidental nature of discovery during learning, such an indicator requires an indirect, behaviorally-based approach. In Part I, our study aimed to identify a reliable behavioral indicator predictive of the presence of incidental explicit awareness in a sequential motor learning task. Part II, utilized the predictive indicator and EEG to provide neural validation of perceptual processing changes temporally correlated with the indicator. Results of Part I provide a reliable predictive indicator for the timing of explicit awareness development. Results from Part II demonstrates strong classification reliability, as well as a significant neural correlation with behavior for subjects developing awareness (EXP), not observed with subjects without awareness (NOEXP). Additionally, a temporal correlation of peak activation between neural regions was noted over frontoparietal regions, suggesting that the incidental discovery of motor patterns may involve a facilitative network during awareness development. The proposed indicator provides a tool in which to further examine potential impacts of awareness associated with incidental, or exploratory, motor learning, while the individual nature of the indicator provides a tool for monitoring progress in rehabilitative, exploratory motor learning paradigms.

  5. PKA controls calcium influx into motor neurons during a rhythmic behavior.

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    Han Wang

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP has been implicated in the execution of diverse rhythmic behaviors, but how cAMP functions in neurons to generate behavioral outputs remains unclear. During the defecation motor program in C. elegans, a peptide released from the pacemaker (the intestine rhythmically excites the GABAergic neurons that control enteric muscle contractions by activating a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathway that is dependent on cAMP. Here, we show that the C. elegans PKA catalytic subunit, KIN-1, is the sole cAMP target in this pathway and that PKA is essential for enteric muscle contractions. Genetic analysis using cell-specific expression of dominant negative or constitutively active PKA transgenes reveals that knockdown of PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons blocks enteric muscle contractions, whereas constitutive PKA activation restores enteric muscle contractions to mutants defective in the peptidergic signaling pathway. Using real-time, in vivo calcium imaging, we find that PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons is essential for the generation of synaptic calcium transients that drive GABA release. In addition, constitutively active PKA increases the duration of calcium transients and causes ectopic calcium transients that can trigger out-of-phase enteric muscle contractions. Finally, we show that the voltage-gated calcium channels UNC-2 and EGL-19, but not CCA-1 function downstream of PKA to promote enteric muscle contractions and rhythmic calcium influx in the GABAergic neurons. Thus, our results suggest that PKA activates neurons during a rhythmic behavior by promoting presynaptic calcium influx through specific voltage-gated calcium channels.

  6. PKA controls calcium influx into motor neurons during a rhythmic behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wang

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP has been implicated in the execution of diverse rhythmic behaviors, but how cAMP functions in neurons to generate behavioral outputs remains unclear. During the defecation motor program in C. elegans, a peptide released from the pacemaker (the intestine rhythmically excites the GABAergic neurons that control enteric muscle contractions by activating a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathway that is dependent on cAMP. Here, we show that the C. elegans PKA catalytic subunit, KIN-1, is the sole cAMP target in this pathway and that PKA is essential for enteric muscle contractions. Genetic analysis using cell-specific expression of dominant negative or constitutively active PKA transgenes reveals that knockdown of PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons blocks enteric muscle contractions, whereas constitutive PKA activation restores enteric muscle contractions to mutants defective in the peptidergic signaling pathway. Using real-time, in vivo calcium imaging, we find that PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons is essential for the generation of synaptic calcium transients that drive GABA release. In addition, constitutively active PKA increases the duration of calcium transients and causes ectopic calcium transients that can trigger out-of-phase enteric muscle contractions. Finally, we show that the voltage-gated calcium channels UNC-2 and EGL-19, but not CCA-1 function downstream of PKA to promote enteric muscle contractions and rhythmic calcium influx in the GABAergic neurons. Thus, our results suggest that PKA activates neurons during a rhythmic behavior by promoting presynaptic calcium influx through specific voltage-gated calcium channels.

  7. Frontal Motor Cortex Activity During Reactive Control Is Associated With Past Suicidal Behavior in Recent-Onset Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Yoon, Jong H; Cheng, Yaoan; Rhoades, Remy N; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is prevalent in schizophrenia (SZ), yet the neural system functions that confer suicide risk remain obscure. Circuits operated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in SZ, including those that support reactive control, and PFC changes are observed in postmortem studies of heterogeneous suicide victims. We tested whether history of suicide attempt is associated with altered frontal motor cortex activity during reactive control processes. We evaluated 17 patients with recent onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined SZ using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and functional magnetic resonance imaging during Stroop task performance. Group-level regression models relating past suicidal behavior to frontal activation controlled for depression, psychosis, and impulsivity. Past suicidal behavior was associated with relatively higher activation in the left-hemisphere supplementary motor area (SMA), pre-SMA, premotor cortex, and dorsolateral PFC, all ipsilateral to the active primary motor cortex. This study provides unique evidence that suicidal behavior in patients with recent-onset SZ directly relates to frontal motor cortex activity during reactive control, in a pattern reciprocal to the relationship with proactive control found previously. Further work should address how frontal-based control functions change with risk over time, and their potential utility as a biomarker for interventions to mitigate suicide risk in SZ.

  8. Vortex core deformation and stepper-motor ratchet behavior in a superconducting aluminum film containing an array of holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vondel, J; Gladilin, V N; Silhanek, A V; Gillijns, W; Tempere, J; Devreese, J T; Moshchalkov, V V

    2011-04-01

    We investigated experimentally the frequency dependence of a superconducting vortex ratchet effect by means of electrical transport measurements and modeled it theoretically using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism. We demonstrate that the high frequency vortex behavior can be described as a discrete motion of a particle in a periodic potential, i.e., the so-called stepper-motor behavior. Strikingly, in the more conventional low frequency response a transition takes place from an Abrikosov vortex rectifier to a phase slip line rectifier. This transition is characterized by a strong increase in the rectified voltage and the appearance of a pronounced hysteretic behavior.

  9. Altered synaptic phospholipid signaling in PRG-1 deficient mice induces exploratory behavior and motor hyperactivity resembling psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Patrick; Petzold, Sandra; Sommer, Angela; Nitsch, Robert; Schwegler, Herbert; Vogt, Johannes; Roskoden, Thomas

    2017-08-24

    Plasticity related gene 1 (PRG-1) is a neuron specific membrane protein located at the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. PRG-1 modulates signaling pathways of phosphorylated lipid substrates such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Deletion of PRG-1 increases presynaptic glutamate release probability leading to neuronal over-excitation. However, due to its cortical expression, PRG-1 deficiency leading to increased glutamatergic transmission is supposed to also affect motor pathways. We therefore analyzed the effects of PRG-1 function on exploratory and motor behavior using homozygous PRG-1 knockout (PRG-1(-/-)) mice and PRG-1/LPA2-receptor double knockout (PRG-1(-/-)/LPA2(-/-)) mice in two open field settings of different size and assessing motor behavior in the Rota Rod test. PRG-1(-/-) mice displayed significantly longer path lengths and higher running speed in both open field conditions. In addition, PRG-1(-/-) mice spent significantly longer time in the larger open field and displayed rearing and self-grooming behavior. Furthermore PRG-1(-/-) mice displayed stereotypical behavior resembling phenotypes of psychiatric disorders in the smaller sized open field arena. Altogether, this behavior is similar to the stereotypical behavior observed in animal models for psychiatric disease of autistic spectrum disorders which reflects a disrupted balance between glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses. These differences indicate an altered excitation/inhibition balance in neuronal circuits in PRG-1(-/-) mice as recently shown in the somatosensory cortex [38]. In contrast, PRG-1(-/-)/LPA2(-/-) did not show significant changes in behavior in the open field suggesting that these specific alterations were abolished when the LPA2-receptor was lacking. Our findings indicate that PRG-1 deficiency led to over-excitability caused by an altered LPA/LPA2-R signaling inducing a behavioral phenotype typically observed in animal models for psychiatric disorders. Copyright

  10. Driving Human Motor Cortical Oscillations Leads to Behaviorally Relevant Changes in Local GABAA Inhibition: A tACS-TMS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Magdalena; Hinson, Emily; van Ede, Freek; Pogosyan, Alek; Guerra, Andrea; Quinn, Andrew; Brown, Peter; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2017-04-26

    Beta and gamma oscillations are the dominant oscillatory activity in the human motor cortex (M1). However, their physiological basis and precise functional significance remain poorly understood. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine the physiological basis and behavioral relevance of driving beta and gamma oscillatory activity in the human M1 using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). tACS was applied using a sham-controlled crossover design at individualized intensity for 20 min and TMS was performed at rest (before, during, and after tACS) and during movement preparation (before and after tACS). We demonstrated that driving gamma frequency oscillations using tACS led to a significant, duration-dependent decrease in local resting-state GABAA inhibition, as quantified by short interval intracortical inhibition. The magnitude of this effect was positively correlated with the magnitude of GABAA decrease during movement preparation, when gamma activity in motor circuitry is known to increase. In addition, gamma tACS-induced change in GABAA inhibition was closely related to performance in a motor learning task such that subjects who demonstrated a greater increase in GABAA inhibition also showed faster short-term learning. The findings presented here contribute to our understanding of the neurophysiological basis of motor rhythms and suggest that tACS may have similar physiological effects to endogenously driven local oscillatory activity. Moreover, the ability to modulate local interneuronal circuits by tACS in a behaviorally relevant manner provides a basis for tACS as a putative therapeutic intervention.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Gamma oscillations have a vital role in motor control. Using a combined tACS-TMS approach, we demonstrate that driving gamma frequency oscillations modulates GABAA inhibition in the human motor cortex. Moreover, there is a clear relationship between the change in magnitude of GABAA inhibition induced

  11. Intercostal muscle motor behavior during tracheal occlusion conditioning in conscious rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Poonam B.

    2016-01-01

    A respiratory load compensation response is characterized by increases in activation of primary respiratory muscles and/or recruitment of accessory respiratory muscles. The contribution of the external intercostal (EI) muscles, which are a primary respiratory muscle group, during normal and loaded breathing remains poorly understood in conscious animals. Consciousness has a significant role on modulation of respiratory activity, as it is required for the integration of behavioral respiratory responses and voluntary control of breathing. Studies of respiratory load compensation have been predominantly focused in anesthetized animals, which make their comparison to conscious load compensation responses challenging. Using our established model of intrinsic transient tracheal occlusions (ITTO), our aim was to evaluate the motor behavior of EI muscles during normal and loaded breathing in conscious rats. We hypothesized that 1) conscious rats exposed to ITTO will recruit the EI muscles with an increased electromyogram (EMG) activation and 2) repeated ITTO for 10 days would potentiate the baseline EMG activity of this muscle in conscious rats. Our results demonstrate that conscious rats exposed to ITTO respond by recruiting the EI muscle with a significantly increased EMG activation. This response to occlusion remained consistent over the 10-day experimental period with little or no effect of repeated ITTO exposure on the baseline ∫EI EMG amplitude activity. The pattern of activation of the EI muscle in response to an ITTO is discussed in detail. The results from the present study demonstrate the importance of EI muscles during unloaded breathing and respiratory load compensation in conscious rats. PMID:26823339

  12. Binocular Perception of 2D Lateral Motion and Guidance of Coordinated Motor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, Aaron J; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-04-01

    Zannoli, Cass, Alais, and Mamassian (2012) found greater audiovisual lag between a tone and disparity-defined stimuli moving laterally (90-170 ms) than for disparity-defined stimuli moving in depth or luminance-defined stimuli moving laterally or in depth (50-60 ms). We tested if this increased lag presents an impediment to visually guided coordination with laterally moving objects. Participants used a joystick to move a virtual object in several constant relative phases with a laterally oscillating stimulus. Both the participant-controlled object and the target object were presented using a disparity-defined display that yielded information through changes in disparity over time (CDOT) or using a luminance-defined display that additionally provided information through monocular motion and interocular velocity differences (IOVD). Performance was comparable for both disparity-defined and luminance-defined displays in all relative phases. This suggests that, despite lag, perception of lateral motion through CDOT is generally sufficient to guide coordinated motor behavior.

  13. Rotating bouncing disks, tossing pizza dough, and the behavior of ultrasonic motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang-Chen; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2009-10-01

    Pizza tossing and certain forms of standing-wave ultrasonic motors (SWUMs) share a similar process for converting reciprocating input into continuous rotary motion. We show that the key features of this motion conversion process such as collision, separation and friction coupling are captured by the dynamics of a disk bouncing on a vibrating platform. The model shows that the linear or helical hand motions commonly used by pizza chefs and dough-toss performers for single tosses maximize energy efficiency and the dough's airborne rotational speed; on the other hand, the semielliptical hand motions used for multiple tosses make it easier to maintain dough rotation at the maximum speed. The system's bifurcation diagram and basins of attraction also provide a physical basis for understanding the peculiar behavior of SWUMs and provide a means to design them. The model is able to explain the apparently chaotic oscillations that occur in SWUMs and predict the observed trends in steady-state speed and stall torque as preload is increased.

  14. Rotating bouncing disks, tossing pizza dough, and the behavior of ultrasonic motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang-Chen; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2009-10-01

    Pizza tossing and certain forms of standing-wave ultrasonic motors (SWUMs) share a similar process for converting reciprocating input into continuous rotary motion. We show that the key features of this motion conversion process such as collision, separation and friction coupling are captured by the dynamics of a disk bouncing on a vibrating platform. The model shows that the linear or helical hand motions commonly used by pizza chefs and dough-toss performers for single tosses maximize energy efficiency and the dough’s airborne rotational speed; on the other hand, the semielliptical hand motions used for multiple tosses make it easier to maintain dough rotation at the maximum speed. The system’s bifurcation diagram and basins of attraction also provide a physical basis for understanding the peculiar behavior of SWUMs and provide a means to design them. The model is able to explain the apparently chaotic oscillations that occur in SWUMs and predict the observed trends in steady-state speed and stall torque as preload is increased.

  15. An automated system for quantitative analysis of newborns' oral-motor behavior and coordination during bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Formica, Domenico; Visco, Anna Maria; Scaini, Alberto; Taffoni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In this work a novel unobtrusive technology-aided system is presented and tested for the assessment of newborns' oral-motor behavior and coordination during bottle feeding. A low-cost monitoring device was designed and developed in order to record Suction (S) and Expression (E) pressures from a typical feeding bottle. A software system was developed to automatically treat the data and analyze them. A set of measures of motor control and coordination has been implemented for the specific application to the analysis of sucking behavior. Experimental data were collected with the developed system on two groups of newborns (Healthy vs. Low Birth Weight) in a clinical setting. We identified the most sensitive S features to group differences, and analyzed their correlation with S/E coordination measures. Then, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to explore the system suitability to automatically identify peculiar oral behaviors. Results suggest the suitability of the proposed system to perform an objective technology-aided assessment of the newborn's oral-motor behavior and coordination during the first days of life.

  16. Dysregulated striatal neuronal processing and impaired motor behavior in mice lacking huntingtin interacting protein 14 (HIP14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Estrada-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Palmitoyl acyl transferases (PATs play a critical role in protein trafficking and function. Huntingtin interacting protein 14 (HIP14 is a PAT that acts on proteins associated with neuronal transmission, suggesting that deficient protein palmitoylation by HIP14, which occurs in the YAC128 model of Huntington's disease (HD, might have deleterious effects on neurobehavioral processing. HIP14 knockout mice show biochemical and neuropathological changes in the striatum, a forebrain region affected by HD that guides behavioral choice and motor flexibility. Thus, we evaluated the performance of these mice in two tests of motor ability: nest-building and plus maze turning behavior. Relative to wild-type controls, HIP14 knockout mice show impaired nest building and decreased turning in the plus maze. When we recorded the activity of striatal neurons during plus-maze performance, we found faster firing rates and dysregulated spike bursting in HIP14 knockouts compared to wild-type. There was also less correlated firing between simultaneously recorded neuronal pairs in the HIP14 knockouts. Overall, our results indicate that HIP14 is critically involved in behavioral modulation of striatal processing. In the absence of HIP14, striatal neurons become dysfunctional, leading to impaired motor behavior.

  17. Grammatical Change through Repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevart, Supot

    1989-01-01

    The effect of repetition on grammatical change in an unrehearsed talk is examined based on a case study of a single learner. It was found that repetition allows for accuracy monitoring in that errors committed in repeated contexts undergo correction. Implications for teaching are discussed. (23 references) (LB)

  18. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  19. Interaction between Sex Hormones and Matricaria Chamomilla Hydroalcholic Extract on Motor Activity Behavior in Gonadectomized Male and Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Raie

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.

  20. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  1. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  2. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  3. Effect of Implicit Perceptual-Motor Training on Decision-Making Skills and Underpinning Gaze Behavior in Combat Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Nicolas; Farrow, Damian; Fournier, Jean F

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-session, implicit perceptual-motor training program on decision-making skills and visual search behavior of highly skilled junior female karate fighters (M age = 15.7 years, SD = 1.2). Eighteen participants were required to make (physical or verbal) reaction decisions to various attacks within different fighting scenarios. Fighters' performance and eye movements were assessed before and after the intervention, and during acquisition through the use of video-based and on-mat decision-making tests. The video-based test revealed that following training, only the implicit perceptual-motor group (n = 6) improved their decision-making accuracy significantly compared to a matched motor training (placebo, n = 6) group and a control group (n = 6). Further, the implicit training group significantly changed their visual search behavior by focusing on fewer locations for longer durations. In addition, the session-by-session analysis showed no significant improvement in decision accuracy between training session 1 and all the other sessions, except the last one. Coaches should devote more practice time to implicit learning approaches during perceptual-motor training program to achieve significant decision-making improvements and more efficient visual search strategy with elite athletes.

  4. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi B

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown...... that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated......-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD....

  5. Analysis of the motor behavior of a patient submitted to radical mastectomy - doi:10.5020/18061230.2009.p61

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Flocke Hack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the motor behavior of a patient in late postoperative of radical mastectomy during the accomplishment of some daily life activities, her gait and her body posture. Methods: This was an observational and descriptive case report study developed in an academic institution at Novo Hamburgo/RS, Brazil. By means of video recording, the accomplishment of daily life activities, the gait and body posture of a mastectomy patient were evaluated. Results: The most important alterations found were: increased base of support, torso swinging on gait, “S” shape scoliosis, accentuation of the spine physiologic curves and compensatory attitudes for reaching greater amplitudes of arm elevation at the same side of the surgery. Conclusion: We conclude that motor behavior alterations after surgery of radical mastectomy can be reasonably minimized, remaining a small reduction of movement amplitude and of muscular strength on upper limb and torso.

  6. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school-age children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-01-01

    to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school-age children. this was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English). Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target-population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance). Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%), followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48%) and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%). premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of preterm birth on motor development, behavior, and school performance of school-age children: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela S. Moreira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to examine and synthesize the available knowledge in the literature about the effects of preterm birth on the development of school-age children. SOURCES: This was a systematic review of studies published in the past ten years indexed in MEDLINE/Pubmed, MEDLINE/BVS; LILACS/BVS; IBECS/BVS; Cochrane/BVS, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycNET in three languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Observational and experimental studies that assessed motor development and/or behavior and/or academic performance and whose target-population consisted of preterm children aged 8 to 10 years were included. Article quality was assessed by the Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scales; articles that did not achieve a score of 80% or more were excluded. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: the electronic search identified 3,153 articles, of which 33 were included based on the eligibility criteria. Only four studies found no effect of prematurity on the outcomes (two articles on behavior, one on motor performance and one on academic performance. Among the outcomes of interest, behavior was the most searched (20 articles, 61%, followed by academic performance (16 articles, 48% and motor impairment (11 articles, 33%. CONCLUSION: premature infants are more susceptible to motor development, behavior and academic performance impairment when compared to term infants. These types of impairments, whose effects are manifested in the long term, can be prevented through early parental guidance, monitoring by specialized professionals, and interventions.

  8. Brain-Computer Interface Therapy after Stroke Affects Patterns of Brain-Behavior Relationships in Corticospinal Motor Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Brain-computer interface (BCI devices are being investigated for their application in stroke rehabilitation, but little is known about how structural changes in the motor system relate to behavioral measures with the use of these systems. Objective. This study examined relationships among diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-derived metrics and with behavioral changes in stroke patients with and without BCI training. Methods. Stroke patients (n=19 with upper extremity motor impairment were assessed using Stroke Impact Scale (SIS, Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, Nine-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT, and DTI scans. Ten subjects completed four assessments over a control period during which no training was administered. Seventeen subjects, including eight who completed the control period, completed four assessments over an experimental period during which subjects received interventional BCI training. Fractional anisotropy (FA values were extracted from each corticospinal tract (CST and transcallosal motor fibers for each scan. Results. No significant group by time interactions were identified at the group level in DTI or behavioral measures. During the control period, increases in contralesional CST FA and in asymmetric FA (aFA correlated with poorer scores on SIS and 9-HPT. During the experimental period (with BCI training, increases in contralesional CST FA were correlated with improvements in 9-HPT while increases in aFA correlated with improvements in ARAT but with worsening 9-HPT performance; changes in transcallosal motor fibers positively correlated with those in the contralesional CST. All correlations p<0.05 corrected. Conclusions. These findings suggest that the integrity of the contralesional CST may be used to track individual behavioral changes observed with BCI training after stroke.

  9. Variability in infant motor behavior : A hallmark of the healthy nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M

    2002-01-01

    Application of the concepts of the Neuronal Group Selection Theory (NGST) may shed a new light on motor development. According to NGST, normal motor development is characterized by two phases of variability. Variation is not random, but determined by criteria set by genetic information. Development

  10. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  11. The effects of chronic intracortical microstimulation on neural tissue and fine motor behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Alexander T.; Boback, Jessica L.; Dammann, John F.; Tenore, Francesco V.; Wester, Brock A.; Otto, Kevin J.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. One approach to conveying sensory feedback in neuroprostheses is to electrically stimulate sensory neurons in the cortex. For this approach to be viable, it is critical that intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) causes minimal damage to the brain. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic ICMS on the neuronal tissue across a variety of stimulation regimes in non-human primates. We also examine each animal’s ability to use their hand—the cortical representation of which is targeted by the ICMS—as a further assay of possible neuronal damage. Approach. We implanted electrode arrays in the primary somatosensory cortex of three Rhesus macaques and delivered ICMS four hours per day, five days per week, for six months. Multiple regimes of ICMS were delivered to investigate the effects of stimulation parameters on the tissue and behavior. Parameters included current amplitude (10-100 μA), pulse train duration (1, 5 s), and duty cycle (1/1, 1/3). We then performed a range of histopathological assays on tissue near the tips of both stimulated and unstimulated electrodes to assess the effects of chronic ICMS on the tissue and their dependence on stimulation parameters. Main results. While the implantation and residence of the arrays in the cortical tissue did cause significant damage, chronic ICMS had no detectable additional effect; furthermore, the animals exhibited no impairments in fine motor control. Significance. Chronic ICMS may be a viable means to convey sensory feedback in neuroprostheses as it does not cause significant damage to the stimulated tissue.

  12. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

  13. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  14. Motor behavioral abnormalities and histopathological findings of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Câmara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to describe motor behavioral changes in association with histopathological and hematological findings in Wistar rats inoculated intravenously with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells. Twenty-five 4-month-old male rats were inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells and 13 control rats were inoculated with normal human lymphocytes. The behavior of the rats was observed before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 months after inoculation during a 30-min/rat testing time for 5 consecutive days. During each of 4 periods, a subset of rats was randomly chosen to be sacrificed in order to harvest the spinal cord for histopathological analysis and to obtain blood for serological and molecular studies. Behavioral analyses of the HTLV-1-inoculated rats showed a significant decrease of climbing, walking and freezing, and an increase of scratching, sniffing, biting, licking, and resting/sleeping. Two of the 25 HTLV-1-inoculated rats (8% developed spastic paraparesis as a major behavioral change. The histopathological changes were few and mild, but in some cases there was diffuse lymphocyte infiltration. The minor and major behavioral changes occurred after 10-20 months of evolution. The long-term observation of Wistar rats inoculated with HTLV-1-infected MT2 cells showed major (spastic paraparesis and minor motor abnormalities in association with the degree of HTLV-1-induced myelopathy.

  15. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100 cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000 ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000 ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80 ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20 ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control.

  16. Trialogue: Preparation, Repetition and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Antoinette; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This paper interrogates both curriculum theory and the limits and potentials of textual forms. A set of overlapping discourses (a trialogue) focuses on inquiring into the roles of obsession and repetition in creating deeply interpretive locations for understanding. (SM)

  17. Cerebral Functional Reorganization in Ischemic Stroke after Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Wei; Zuo, Zhen-Tao; Lu, Jie; Meng, Chun-Ling; Fang, Hong-Ying; Xue, Rong; Fan, Yong; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-12-01

    Our study aimed to figure out brain functional reorganization evidence after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) using the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Twelve patients with unilateral subcortex lesion in the middle cerebral artery territory were recruited. Seven of them received a 10-day rTMS treatment beginning at about 5 days after stroke onset. The remaining five received sham treatment. RsfMRI and motor functional scores were obtained before and after rTMS or sham rTMS. The rTMS group showed motor recovery according to the behavioral testing scores, while there was no significant difference of motor functional scores in the sham group before and after the sham rTMS. It proved that rTMS facilitates motor recovery of early ischemic stroke patients. Compared with the sham, the rTMS treatment group achieved increased functional connectivity (FC) between ipsilesional M1 and contralesional M1, supplementary motor area, bilateral thalamus, and contralesional postcentral gyrus. And decreased FC was found between ipsilesional M1 and ipsilesional M1, postcentral gyrus and inferior and middle frontal gyrus. Increased or decreased FC detected by rsfMRI is an important finding to understand the mechanism of brain functional reorganization. The rTMS treatment is a promising therapeutic approach to facilitate motor rehabilitation for early stroke patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2017-09-21

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  19. The interplay of prefrontal and sensorimotor cortices during inhibitory control of learned motor behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wriessnegger, Selina C; Bauernfeind, Günther; Schweitzer, Kerstin; Kober, Silvia; Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2012-01-01

    In the present study inhibitory cortical mechanisms have been investigated during execution and inhibition of learned motor programs by means of multi-channel functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS...

  20. A contribution to the study of the thermal behavior and of the electric performance of squirrel-cage induction motors; Uma contribuicao ao estudo do comportamento termico e do desempenho eletrico de motores de inducao com rotor em gaiola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avolio, Edwin

    1992-03-01

    A thermal-electric mathematical model for a squirrel cage induction motors which permits to specify the best motor for specific drive, under thermal and electric aspects based, only on manufacturer technical bulletins and technical information is presented. Changes of rotor parameters due Skin Effect and changes of winding resistances (both stator and rotor) with the temperature are considered. The accuracy of this model is appraised using experimental results. The thermal behavior and electric performance for some motors are obtained for continuos and intermittent duties with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal voltages. (author)

  1. Repetition and Reactance in Graham’s "Underneath" Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Farsi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper gives a detailed analysis and interpretation of 16 poems in Jorie Graham's collection, Swarm (2000, which bear "UNDERNEATH" as their main titles. The poems are marked with different types of repetition such as graphological repetition, word, phrase, and sentential repetition, semantic repetition, and syntactic repetition. The study draws on Lakoff and Johnson's theories on metaphor and Brehm and Brehm’s reactance theory. It is argued "underneath" is a conceptual (orientational metaphor which signifies a state of being limited, lack of control and freedom, and loss of power. The paper investigates the speaker's reactant behavior in "Underneath" poems, seeking a way to restore her lost freedom. Reactance behaviors can be skepticism, inertia, aggression, and resistance. It is concluded despite her thematic inertia, representing her submission to the oppressed state, her stylistic reactance reflected in repetitions, innovations, and disruptive diction stands for her attempts to regain her lost control.

  2. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  3. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijetić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and associated intellectual disability, seven to 19 years of age (M=11.97; SD=3.70. The assessment was conducted using the Peabody Motor Development Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the criteria for describing the level of severity of autism spectrum disorder (APA, 2013. The results have shown that participants' motor skills significantly correlate with social communication (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.452; p=0.012; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.511; p=0.004; Vineland total r=-0.391; p=0.032 and restricted, repetitive behaviors (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.383; p=0.037; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.433; p=0.017; Vineland total r=-0.371; p=0.044. Lower level of autistic symptomatology is associated with higher motor achievements. It is necessary to pay more attention to the assessment and treatment of motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, given the established delay in the development of these skills, and bearing in mind their relationship with the severity of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Timely identification of motor disorders would allow the use of early treatment and potentially lead to better results, compared to later inclusion in intervention programs.

  4. Self-controlled KR schedules: does repetition order matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jae T; Carter, Michael J; Hansen, Steve

    2013-08-01

    The impact of an experimenter-defined repetition schedule on the utility of a self-controlled KR context during motor skill acquisition was examined. Participants were required to learn three novel spatial-temporal tasks in either a random or blocked repetition schedule with or without the opportunity to control their KR. Results from the retention period showed that participants provided control over their KR schedule in a random repetition schedule demonstrated superior learning. However, performance measures from the transfer test showed that, independent of repetition schedule, learners provided the opportunity to control their KR schedule demonstrated superior transfer performance compared to their yoked counterparts. The dissociated impact of repetition schedule and self-controlled KR schedules on retention and transfer is discussed.

  5. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joonho; Yang, EunJoo; Cho, KyeHee; Barcenas, Carmelo L; Kim, Woo Jin; Min, Yusun; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects. PMID:25745455

  6. Clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joonho Shin; EunJoo Yang; KyeHee Cho; Carmelo L Barcenas; Woo Jin Kim; Yusun Min; Nam-Jong Paik

    2012-01-01

    Proper stimulation to affected cerebral hemisphere would promote the functional recovery of patients with stroke. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical excitability can be can be altered by the stimulation frequency, intensity and duration. There has been no consistent recognition regarding the best stimulation frequency and intensity. This study reviews the intervention effects of repetitive transcranial stimulation on motor impairment, dysphagia, visuospatial neglect and aphasia, and summarizes the stimulation frequency, intensity and area for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to yield the best therapeutic effects.

  7. Anxiety and performance: Perceptual-motor behavior in high-pressure contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, A.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2017-01-01

    When the pressure is on and anxiety levels increase it is not easy to perform well. In search of mechanisms explaining the anxiety-performance relationship, we revisit the integrated model of anxiety and perceptual-motor performance [1] and provide a critical review of contemporary literature. While

  8. Analysis of mechanical behavior and hysteresis heat generating mechanism of PDM motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changshuai; Zhu, Xiaohua; Tang, Liping [Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu (China); Deng, Juan [Avic Chengdu Engine (Group) Co.,Ltd, Chengdu (China)

    2017-03-15

    Positive displacement motor (PDM), which is prone to high temperature fatigue failure, can be weakened in its application in deep and superdeep well. In order to study the forced state, deformation regularity and thermal hysteresis of PDM motor, the paper established the three-dimensional thermal-mechanical coupled Finite element model (FEM). Based on the theoretical research, experimental study and numerical simulation, the study found that the displacement of stator lining shows a sinusoidal variation under internal pressure, when adapting the general form of sine function to fitting inner contour line deformation function. Then the paper analyzed the hysteresis heat generating mechanism of the motor, learning that hysteresis thermogenous of stator lining occurs due to the viscoelastic of rubber material and cyclic loading of stator lining. A heartburn happens gradually in the center of the thickest part of the stator lining as temperature increases, which means work efficiency and service life of PDM will be decreased when used in deep or superdeep well. In this paper, we established a theory equation for the choice of interference fit and motor line type optimization design, showing hysteresis heat generating analyzing model and method are reasonable enough to significantly improve PDM’s structure and help better use PDM in deep and surdeep well.

  9. Spontaneous motor unit behavior in human thenar muscles after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    2001-01-01

    Our first aim was to characterize spontaneous motor unit activity in thenar muscles influenced by chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Thenar surface electromyography (EMG), intramuscular EMG, and abduction and flexion forces were recorded. Subjects were instructed to relax for 2 min. Units still fi

  10. Mandibular Motor Control during the Early Development of Speech and Nonspeech Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeve, Roger W.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mandible is often portrayed as a primary structure of early babble production, but empiricists still need to specify (a) how mandibular motor control and kinematics vary among different types of multisyllabic babble, (b) whether chewing or jaw oscillation relies on a coordinative infrastructure that can be exploited for early types of…

  11. Motor behavior correlates with striatal [F-18]-DOPA uptake in MPTP-lesioned primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, R.; Eshuis, S. A.; Cools, A. R.; Leenders, K. L.; Andringa, G.

    2013-01-01

    The MPTP-lesioned monkey is considered as the best animal model for Parkinson's disease (PD). It has damage to dopaminergic cell groups and motor dysfunction similar to that seen in PD. Correlations between these two parameters have been described but there is a lack of formal statistical analyses o

  12. A Neurobehavioral Investigation into Judgmental Processes: Effect of Bilateral Motor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretenet, Joel; Dru, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to examine how different bilateral motor activations of the approach and avoidance motivational systems influenced participants' evaluations of valenced stimuli (figurative expressions and pictures of everyday situations). The first Study (Study 1) showed that participants judged valenced expressions…

  13. Muscle fiber and motor unit behavior in the longest human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A John; Duxson, Marilyn J; Butler, Jane E; Hodges, Paul W; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2005-09-14

    The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body. It is strap-like, up to 600 mm in length, and contains five to seven neurovascular compartments, each with a neuromuscular endplate zone. Some of its fibers terminate intrafascicularly, whereas others may run the full length of the muscle. To assess the location and timing of activation within motor units of this long muscle, we recorded electromyographic potentials from multiple intramuscular electrodes along sartorius muscle during steady voluntary contraction and analyzed their activity with spike-triggered averaging from a needle electrode inserted near the proximal end of the muscle. Approximately 30% of sartorius motor units included muscle fibers that ran the full length of the muscle, conducting action potentials at 3.9 +/- 0.1 m/s. Most motor units were innervated within a single muscle endplate zone that was not necessarily near the midpoint of the fiber. As a consequence, action potentials reached the distal end of a unit as late as 100 ms after initiation at an endplate zone. Thus, contractile activity is not synchronized along the length of single sartorius fibers. We postulate that lateral transmission of force from fiber to endomysium and a wide distribution of motor unit endplates along the muscle are critical for the efficient transmission of force from sarcomere to tendon and for the prevention of muscle injury caused by overextension of inactive regions of muscle fibers.

  14. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  15. Mandibular Motor Control during the Early Development of Speech and Nonspeech Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeve, Roger W.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mandible is often portrayed as a primary structure of early babble production, but empiricists still need to specify (a) how mandibular motor control and kinematics vary among different types of multisyllabic babble, (b) whether chewing or jaw oscillation relies on a coordinative infrastructure that can be exploited for early types of…

  16. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  17. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  19. Paradigm Shifts in Voluntary Force Control and Motor Unit Behaviors with the Manipulated Size of Visual Error Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Lin, Yen-Ting; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2017-01-01

    The detection of error information is an essential prerequisite of a feedback-based movement. This study investigated the differential behavior and neurophysiological mechanisms of a cyclic force-tracking task using error-reducing and error-enhancing feedback. The discharge patterns of a relatively large number of motor units (MUs) were assessed with custom-designed multi-channel surface electromyography following mathematical decomposition of the experimentally-measured signals. Force characteristics, force-discharge relation, and phase-locking cortical activities in the contralateral motor cortex to individual MUs were contrasted among the low (LSF), normal (NSF), and high scaling factor (HSF) conditions, in which the sizes of online execution errors were displayed with various amplification ratios. Along with a spectral shift of the force output toward a lower band, force output with a more phase-lead became less irregular, and tracking accuracy was worse in the LSF condition than in the HSF condition. The coherent discharge of high phasic (HP) MUs with the target signal was greater, and inter-spike intervals were larger, in the LSF condition than in the HSF condition. Force-tracking in the LSF condition manifested with stronger phase-locked EEG activity in the contralateral motor cortex to discharge of the (HP) MUs (LSF > NSF, HSF). The coherent discharge of the (HP) MUs during the cyclic force-tracking predominated the force-discharge relation, which increased inversely to the error scaling factor. In conclusion, the size of visualized error gates motor unit discharge, force-discharge relation, and the relative influences of the feedback and feedforward processes on force control. A smaller visualized error size favors voluntary force control using a feedforward process, in relation to a selective central modulation that enhance the coherent discharge of (HP) MUs. PMID:28348530

  20. The impact of motor axon misdirection and attrition on behavioral deficit following experimental nerve injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Daniel de Villiers Alant

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve transection and neuroma-in-continuity injuries are associated with permanent functional deficits, often despite successful end-organ reinnervation. Axonal misdirection with non-specific reinnervation, frustrated regeneration and axonal attrition are believed to be among the anatomical substrates that underlie the poor functional recovery associated with these devastating injuries. Yet, functional deficits associated with axonal misdirection in experimental neuroma-in-continuity injuries have not yet been studied. We hypothesized that experimental neuroma-in-continuity injuries would result in motor axon misdirection and attrition with proportional persistent functional deficits. The femoral nerve misdirection model was exploited to assess major motor pathway misdirection and axonal attrition over a spectrum of experimental nerve injuries, with neuroma-in-continuity injuries simulated by the combination of compression and traction forces in 42 male rats. Sciatic nerve injuries were employed in an additional 42 rats, to evaluate the contribution of axonal misdirection to locomotor deficits by a ladder rung task up to 12 weeks. Retrograde motor neuron labeling techniques were utilized to determine the degree of axonal misdirection and attrition. Characteristic histological neuroma-in-continuity features were demonstrated in the neuroma-in-continuity groups and poor functional recovery was seen despite successful nerve regeneration and muscle reinnervation. Good positive and negative correlations were observed respectively between axonal misdirection (p<.0001, r(2=.67, motor neuron counts (attrition (p<.0001, r(2=.69 and final functional deficits. We demonstrate prominent motor axon misdirection and attrition in neuroma-in-continuity and transection injuries of mixed motor nerves that contribute to the long-term functional deficits. Although widely accepted in theory, to our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence to

  1. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  2. Developmental outcomes at preschool age after fetal exposure to valproic acid and lamotrigine: cognitive, motor, sensory and behavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtman, Tanya; Parush, Shula; Ornoy, Asher

    2013-11-01

    This prospective, observational study assessed the development of preschool children aged 3-6 years, 11 months (n=124) after in-utero anti-epileptic drug (AED) monotherapy exposure to valproic acid (VPA) (n=30, mean age 52.00[±15.22] months) and lamotrigine (LT) (n=42, mean age 50.12[±12.77] months), compared to non-exposed control children (n=52, mean age 59.96[±14.51] months). As a combined group, AED-exposed children showed reduced non-verbal IQ scores, and lower scores on motor measures, sensory measures, and parent-report executive function, behavioral and attentional measures. When the VPA- and LT-exposed groups were analyzed separately, no cognitive differences were found, but control-VPA and control-LT differences emerged for most motor and sensory measures as well as control-VPA parent-report behavioral and attentional differences. No differences were noted between the VPA and LT groups. These findings suggest that VPA- and LT-exposed children should be monitored on a wider range of developmental measures than currently used, and at differing developmental stages.

  3. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  4. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2015-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few ...

  5. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Schram Christensen; Jesper Lundbye-Jensen; Michael James Grey; Alexandra Damgaard Vejlby; Bo Belhage; Jens Bo Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was...

  6. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Schram Christensen

    Full Text Available Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was assessed following trains of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over primary motor cortex, dorsal premotor cortex, and a control area (posterior parietal cortex. Magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex produced a movement sensation that was significantly greater than stimulation over the control region. Movement sensation after dorsal premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement.

  7. Impaired speech repetition and left parietal lobe damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Kjartansson, Olafur; Morgan, Paul S; Hjaltason, Haukur; Magnusdottir, Sigridur; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Christopher

    2010-08-18

    Patients with left hemisphere damage and concomitant aphasia usually have difficulty repeating others' speech. Although impaired speech repetition, the primary symptom of conduction aphasia, has been associated with involvement of the left arcuate fasciculus, its specific lesion correlate remains elusive. This research examined speech repetition among 45 stroke patients who underwent aphasia testing and MRI examination. Based on lesion-behavior mapping, the primary structural damage most closely associated with impaired speech repetition was found in the posterior portion of the left arcuate fasciculus. However, perfusion-weighted MRI revealed that tissue dysfunction, in the form of either frank damage or hypoperfusion, to the left inferior parietal lobe, rather than the underlying white matter, was associated with impaired speech repetition. This latter result suggests that integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe is important for speech repetition and, as importantly, highlights the importance of examining cerebral perfusion for the purpose of lesion-behavior mapping in acute stroke.

  8. [Repetition and fear of dying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, B D

    1995-03-01

    In this paper a revision is made of the qualifications of Repetition (R) in Freuds work, i.e. its being at the service of the Pleasure Principle and, beyond it, the binding of free energy due to trauma. Freud intends to explain with this last concept the "fort-da" and the traumatic dreams (obsessively reiterated self-reproaches may be added to them). The main thesis of this work is that R. is not only a defense against the recollection of the ominous past (as in the metaphorical deaths of abandonment and desertion) but also a way of maintaining life and identify fighting against the inescapable omninous future (known but yet experienced), i.e. our own death. Some forms of R. like habits, identificatory behaviors and sometimes even magic, are geared to serve the life instinct. A literary illustration shows this desperate fight.

  9. Concurrent TMS to the primary motor cortex augments slow motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Zhang, Wei; Rogers, William; Strickland, Casey; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise as a treatment tool, with one FDA approved use. While TMS alone is able to up- (or down-) regulate a targeted neural system, we argue that TMS applied as an adjuvant is more effective for repetitive physical, behavioral and cognitive therapies, that is, therapies which are designed to alter the network properties of neural systems through Hebbian learning. We tested this hypothesis in the context of a slow motor learning paradigm. Healthy right-handed individuals were assigned to receive 5 Hz TMS (TMS group) or sham TMS (sham group) to the right primary motor cortex (M1) as they performed daily motor practice of a digit sequence task with their non-dominant hand for 4 weeks. Resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by H215O PET at baseline and after 4 weeks of practice. Sequence performance was measured daily as the number of correct sequences performed, and modeled using a hyperbolic function. Sequence performance increased significantly at 4 weeks relative to baseline in both groups. The TMS group had a significant additional improvement in performance, specifically, in the rate of skill acquisition. In both groups, an improvement in sequence timing and transfer of skills to non-trained motor domains was also found. Compared to the sham group, the TMS group demonstrated increases in resting CBF specifically in regions known to mediate skill learning namely, the M1, cingulate cortex, putamen, hippocampus, and cerebellum. These results indicate that TMS applied concomitantly augments behavioral effects of motor practice, with corresponding neural plasticity in motor sequence learning network. These findings are the first demonstration of the behavioral and neural enhancing effects of TMS on slow motor practice and have direct application in neurorehabilitation where TMS could be applied in conjunction with physical therapy. PMID:23867557

  10. Concurrent TMS to the primary motor cortex augments slow motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Zhang, Wei; Rogers, William; Strickland, Casey; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L; Fox, Peter T

    2014-01-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise as a treatment tool, with one FDA approved use. While TMS alone is able to up- (or down-) regulate a targeted neural system, we argue that TMS applied as an adjuvant is more effective for repetitive physical, behavioral and cognitive therapies, that is, therapies which are designed to alter the network properties of neural systems through Hebbian learning. We tested this hypothesis in the context of a slow motor learning paradigm. Healthy right-handed individuals were assigned to receive 5 Hz TMS (TMS group) or sham TMS (sham group) to the right primary motor cortex (M1) as they performed daily motor practice of a digit sequence task with their non-dominant hand for 4 weeks. Resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by H2(15)O PET at baseline and after 4 weeks of practice. Sequence performance was measured daily as the number of correct sequences performed, and modeled using a hyperbolic function. Sequence performance increased significantly at 4 weeks relative to baseline in both groups. The TMS group had a significant additional improvement in performance, specifically, in the rate of skill acquisition. In both groups, an improvement in sequence timing and transfer of skills to non-trained motor domains was also found. Compared to the sham group, the TMS group demonstrated increases in resting CBF specifically in regions known to mediate skill learning namely, the M1, cingulate cortex, putamen, hippocampus, and cerebellum. These results indicate that TMS applied concomitantly augments behavioral effects of motor practice, with corresponding neural plasticity in motor sequence learning network. These findings are the first demonstration of the behavioral and neural enhancing effects of TMS on slow motor practice and have direct application in neurorehabilitation where TMS could be applied in conjunction with physical therapy.

  11. Increased Motor Activity During REM Sleep Is Linked with Dopamine Function in Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Nikolic, Miki; Biernat, Heidi; Korbo, Lise; Friberg, Lars; Jennum, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep, and dream-enacting behavior. RBD is especially associated with α-synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson disease (PD). Follow-up studies have shown that patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD) have an increased risk of developing an α-synucleinopathy in later life. Although abundant studies have shown that degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is associated with daytime motor function in Parkinson disease, only few studies have investigated the relation between this system and electromyographic (EMG) activity during sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the nigrostriatal dopamine system and muscle activity during sleep in iRBD and PD. Methods: 10 iRBD patients, 10 PD patients with PD, 10 PD patients without RBD, and 10 healthy controls were included and assessed with (123)I-N-omega-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane ((123)I-FP-CIT) Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning (123I-FP-CIT SPECT), neurological examination, and polysomnography. Results: iRBD patients and PD patients with RBD had increased EMG-activity compared to healthy controls. 123I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen-region was highest in controls, followed by iRBD patients, and lowest in PD patients. In iRBD patients, EMG-activity in the mentalis muscle was correlated to 123I-FP-CIT uptake in the putamen. In PD patients, EMG-activity was correlated to anti-Parkinson medication. Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increased EMG-activity during REM sleep is at least partly linked to the nigrostriatal dopamine system in iRBD, and with dopamine function in PD. Citation: Zoetmulder M, Nikolic M, Biernat H, Korbo L, Friberg L, Jennum P. Increased motor activity during rem sleep is linked with dopamine function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior

  12. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  13. Do Stimulus-Action Associations Contribute to Repetition Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ian; Perfect, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence that response learning makes a major contribution to repetition priming, the involvement of response representations at the level of motor actions remains uncertain. Levels of response representation were investigated in 4 experiments that used different tasks at priming and test. Priming for stimuli that required congruent…

  14. Evaluation of Na+/K+ pump function following repetitive activity in mouse peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian

    2006-01-01

    excitability measures simultaneously from the evoked plantar compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and sciatic compound nerve action potential (CNAP). Three minutes after repetitive supramaximal stimulation maximal CMAP and CNAP amplitudes recovered but the threshold was increased approximately 40% for motor...

  15. Neural basis of stimulus-angle-dependent motor control of wind-elicited walking behavior in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oe, Momoko; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Crickets exhibit oriented walking behavior in response to air-current stimuli. Because crickets move in the opposite direction from the stimulus source, this behavior is considered to represent 'escape behavior' from an approaching predator. However, details of the stimulus-angle-dependent control of locomotion during the immediate phase, and the neural basis underlying the directional motor control of this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we used a spherical-treadmill system to measure locomotory parameters including trajectory, turn angle and velocity during the immediate phase of responses to air-puff stimuli applied from various angles. Both walking direction and turn angle were correlated with stimulus angle, but their relationships followed different rules. A shorter stimulus also induced directionally-controlled walking, but reduced the yaw rotation in stimulus-angle-dependent turning. These results suggest that neural control of the turn angle requires different sensory information than that required for oriented walking. Hemi-severance of the ventral nerve cords containing descending axons from the cephalic to the prothoracic ganglion abolished stimulus-angle-dependent control, indicating that this control required descending signals from the brain. Furthermore, we selectively ablated identified ascending giant interneurons (GIs) in vivo to examine their functional roles in wind-elicited walking. Ablation of GI8-1 diminished control of the turn angle and decreased walking distance in the initial response. Meanwhile, GI9-1b ablation had no discernible effect on stimulus-angle-dependent control or walking distance, but delayed the reaction time. These results suggest that the ascending signals conveyed by GI8-1 are required for turn-angle control and maintenance of walking behavior, and that GI9-1b is responsible for rapid initiation of walking. It is possible that individual types of GIs separately supply the sensory signals required to control wind

  16. Absence of lateral gastrocnemius activity and differential motor unit behavior in soleus and medial gastrocnemius during standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Martin E; Dakin, Christopher J; Luu, Billy L; Inglis, John Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-15

    In a standing position, the vertical projection of the center of mass passes in front of the ankle, which requires active plantar-flexor torque from the triceps surae to maintain balance. We recorded motor unit (MU) activity in the medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius muscle and the soleus (SOL) in standing balance and voluntary isometric contractions to understand the effect of functional requirements and descending drive from different neural sources on motoneuron behavior. Single MU activity was recorded in seven subjects with wire electrodes in the triceps surae. Two 3-min standing balance trials and several ramp-and-hold contractions were performed. Lateral gastrocnemius MU activity was rarely observed in standing. The lowest thresholds for LG MUs in ramp contractions were 20-35 times higher than SOL and MG MUs (P triceps surae motoneurons.

  17. Force and complexity of tongue task training influences behavioral measures of motor learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Huo, Xueliang;

    2012-01-01

    Relearning of motor skills is important in neurorehabilitation. We investigated the improvement of training success during simple tongue protrusion (two force levels) and a more complex tongue-training paradigm using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). We also compared subject-based reports of fun, pain......, fatigue, and motivation between paradigms. Three randomized sessions and one control experiment were performed. Sixteen healthy subjects completed two different 1-h sessions of simple tongue training with 1 N and 3 N, respectively, and one TDS session. After 1 wk, six out of 16 subjects participated...... the experienced group performed equal to the last 5 min of their first TDS session and neither group improved during rest. Training with the TDS was rated as more fun, less painful, less fatiguing, and more motivating compared with simple tongue training. In conclusion, force level and complexity of tongue...

  18. Binocular vision, the optic chiasm, and their associations with vertebrate motor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Lennart Larsson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ipsilateral retinal projections (IRP in the optic chiasm (OC vary considerably. Most animal groups possess laterally situated eyes and no or few IRP, but, e.g. cats and primates have frontal eyes and high proportions of IRP. The traditional hypothesis that bifocal vision developed to enable predation or to increase perception in restricted light conditions applies mainly to mammals. The eye-forelimb (EF hypothesis presented here suggests that the reception of visual feedback of limb movements in the limb steering cerebral hemisphere was the fundamental mechanism behind the OC evolution. In other words, that evolutionary change in the OC was necessary to preserve hemispheric autonomy. In the majority of vertebrates, motor processing, tactile, proprioceptive, and visual information involved in steering the hand (limb, paw, fin is primarily received only in the contralateral hemisphere, while multisensory information from the ipsilateral limb is minimal. Since the involved motor nuclei, somatosensory areas, and vision neurons are situated in same hemisphere, the neuronal pathways involved will be relatively short, optimizing the size of the brain. That would not have been possible without, evolutionary modifications of IRP. Multiple axon-guidance genes, which determine whether axons will cross the midline or not, have shaped the OC anatomy. Evolutionary change in the OC seems to be key to preserving hemispheric autonomy when the body and eye evolve to fit new ecological niches. The EF hypothesis may explain the low proportion of IRP in birds, reptiles, and most fishes; the relatively high proportions of IRP in limbless vertebrates; high proportions of IRP in arboreal, in contrast to ground-dwelling, marsupials; the lack of IRP in dolphins; abundant IRP in primates and most predatory mammals, and why IRP emanate exclusively from the temporal retina. The EF hypothesis seams applicable to vertebrates in general and hence more parsimonious than

  19. 重复经颅磁刺激对不完全性脊髓损伤患者运动和步行功能的疗效%Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Motor and Ambulation Function for Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘钰; 郄淑燕; 刘畅; 甄巧霞; 刘晓磊; 丁永红; 杨等; 邰志红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor and ambulatory function in incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Methods 18 incomplete SCI patients (AIS D) were randomized to treatment group (n=10) and control group (n=8). The treatment group received rTMS while the control group received sham stimulation for 2 weeks. All the patients re-ceived routine rehabilitation. They were assessed with Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), 10 m Walking Test for Walking Speed, modi-fied Ashworth scale (MAS), Walking Index for SCI Scale II(WISCI II), and Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) before and after treatment, and followed up for 2 weeks after treatment. Results The treatment group significantly improved in LEMS, walking speed, and SCIM after treatment and during follow up (P0.05)。结论 rTMS可进一步改善不完全性脊髓损伤患者的下肢运动功能。

  20. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  1. Occlusion of LTP-like plasticity in human primary motor cortex by action observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Lepage

    Full Text Available Passive observation of motor actions induces cortical activity in the primary motor cortex (M1 of the onlooker, which could potentially contribute to motor learning. While recent studies report modulation of motor performance following action observation, the neurophysiological mechanism supporting these behavioral changes remains to be specifically defined. Here, we assessed whether the observation of a repetitive thumb movement--similarly to active motor practice--would inhibit subsequent long-term potentiation-like (LTP plasticity induced by paired-associative stimulation (PAS. Before undergoing PAS, participants were asked to either 1 perform abductions of the right thumb as fast as possible; 2 passively observe someone else perform thumb abductions; or 3 passively observe a moving dot mimicking thumb movements. Motor evoked potentials (MEP were used to assess cortical excitability before and after motor practice (or observation and at two time points following PAS. Results show that, similarly to participants in the motor practice group, individuals observing repeated motor actions showed marked inhibition of PAS-induced LTP, while the "moving dot" group displayed the expected increase in MEP amplitude, despite differences in baseline excitability. Interestingly, LTP occlusion in the action-observation group was present even if no increase in cortical excitability or movement speed was observed following observation. These results suggest that mere observation of repeated hand actions is sufficient to induce LTP, despite the absence of motor learning.

  2. Effects of combining 2 weeks of passive sensory stimulation with active hand motor training in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Marie Ladda

    Full Text Available The gold standard to acquire motor skills is through intensive training and practicing. Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral gains can also be acquired by mere exposure to repetitive sensory stimulation to drive the plasticity processes. Single application of repetitive electric stimulation (rES of the fingers has been shown to improve tactile perception in young adults as well as sensorimotor performance in healthy elderly individuals. The combination of repetitive motor training with a preceding rES has not been reported yet. In addition, the impact of such a training on somatosensory tactile and spatial sensitivity as well as on somatosensory cortical activation remains elusive. Therefore, we tested 15 right-handed participants who underwent repetitive electric stimulation of all finger tips of the left hand for 20 minutes prior to one hour of motor training of the left hand over the period of two weeks. Overall, participants substantially improved the motor performance of the left trained hand by 34%, but also showed a relevant transfer to the untrained right hand by 24%. Baseline ipsilateral activation fMRI-magnitude in BA 1 to sensory index finger stimulation predicted training outcome for somatosensory guided movements: those who showed higher ipsilateral activation were those who did profit less from training. Improvement of spatial tactile discrimination was positively associated with gains in pinch grip velocity. Overall, a combination of priming rES and repetitive motor training is capable to induce motor and somatosensory performance increase and representation changes in BA1 in healthy young subjects.

  3. Behavioral, cognitive, and motor performance and physical development of five-year-old children who were born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with the use of testicular sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijerink, Aukje M; Ramos, Liliana; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Maas-van Schaaijk, Nienke M; Meissner, Andreas; Repping, Sjoerd; Mochtar, Monique H; Braat, Didi D M; Fleischer, Kathrin

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate at the age of 5 years the behavioral, cognitive, and motor performance and physical development of children born after testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective longitudinal cohort study. Two university medical centers. A total of 103 5-year-olds who were born after TESE-ICSI. The follow-up of the children was performed by questionnaires at birth and again at 1 year and at 4 years of age. Five-year-old children were invited for individual assessment. Behavioral performance was assessed with the use of the Child Behavior Checklist for parents and teachers. Cognitive performance was assessed with the use of the Dutch Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence test, 3rd version. Motor performance was assessed with the use of the Dutch Movement Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd version. Physical development was assessed by means of physical examination and medical history. Behavioral, cognitive, and motor performance and physical development. Eighty-nine children were completely assessed, and 14 were partially assessed at the age of 5 years. The 5-year-old cohort assessed significantly better on behavioral and cognitive performance and significantly worse on motor performance-but still in the normal range-compared with the theoretic distribution in the general population. Four children (3.8%) of the 5-year-old cohort had developmental problems/delays. Two of them were previously diagnosed with a form of autism (pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified). Two children had developmental problems based on our behavioral, cognitive, and/or motor assessments. The long-term effects on development and health in children born after TESE-ICSI procedures seem to be reassuring. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Repetitive Impulse Voltage Rise Time on Partial Discharge Characteristics of Inverter-fed Motor Insulation%重复脉冲上升时间对变频电机绝缘局部放电特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑; 王燕; 赵世林; 王鹏; 周凯

    2015-01-01

    为研究重复脉冲电压上升时间对变频电机绝缘的局部放电特征影响规律,基于超高频天线、检波技术和宽带、高速数据采集和传输技术设计了重复脉冲电压下变频电机绝缘局部放电检测系统。研究了变频电机匝间绝缘在不同上升时间重复脉冲电压下的局部放电统计特性并对其机理进行了分析。结果表明:在微秒级的上升时间下,脉冲电压极性快速翻转导致变频电机绝缘薄弱处空间电荷电场和外部电场叠加,易超过局部放电起始电压,从而产生次数较多的小幅值放电,且放电幅值随着上升时间的减小而增大,但单个周期放电总量逐渐减少。因此设计耦合传感器时应根据重复脉冲上升时间和局部放电脉冲频域能量分布特点,设计高频响应较好的传感器,避免脉冲电源干扰使测试灵敏度降低,从而得到准确反映电机绝缘水平的PDIV和RPDIV。%To study the effect of repetitive impulse voltage rise time on the partial discharge(PD) characteristics of inverter-fed motor insulation, we designed a PD detection system for inverter-fed motor insulation under repetitive impulse voltage based on ultra-high frequency antenna, detection technology and broadband, and high-speed data acquisition & transmission technology. The PD statistical characteristics of the interturn insulation of inverter-fed motor under different impulse voltage rise time were obtained by the system, and their mechanism was analyzed. The results show that when the voltage rise time is under μs level, the electric field of space charge of the weak insulation caused by the fast reversal of voltage polarity would superpose the external electric field, which would exceed the partial discharge inception voltage(PDIV) and produce many times of PD with low magnitude. The PD magni-tude increases with the decrease of the rise time, but the total discharge amount in one cycle decreases

  5. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2005-01-01

    Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of…

  6. The Effect of Voice Ambulatory Biofeedback on the Daily Performance and Retention of a Modified Vocal Motor Behavior in Participants with Normal Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether…

  7. The Use of Music to Increase Task-Oriented Behaviors in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Gross Motor Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of music and music + instruction on task-oriented behaviors in preschool children with ASD within individual gross motor movement settings. Five preschool children (four boys; one girl) diagnosed with ASD attending a Midwestern private preschool for children with ASD served as participants. The…

  8. The Effect of Voice Ambulatory Biofeedback on the Daily Performance and Retention of a Modified Vocal Motor Behavior in Participants with Normal Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether…

  9. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  10. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  11. Exploring the neural bases of goal-directed motor behavior using fully resolved simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Namu; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2016-11-01

    Undulatory swimming is an ideal problem for understanding the neural architecture for motor control and movement; a vertebrate's robust morphology and adaptive locomotive gait allows the swimmer to navigate complex environments. Simple mathematical models for neurally activated muscle contractions have been incorporated into a swimmer immersed in fluid. Muscle contractions produce bending moments which determine the swimming kinematics. The neurobiology of goal-directed locomotion is explored using fast, efficient, and fully resolved constraint-based immersed boundary simulations. Hierarchical control systems tune the strength, frequency, and duty cycle for neural activation waves to produce multifarious swimming gaits or synergies. Simulation results are used to investigate why the basal ganglia and other control systems may command a particular neural pattern to accomplish a task. Using simple neural models, the effect of proprioceptive feedback on refining the body motion is demonstrated. Lastly, the ability for a learned swimmer to successfully navigate a complex environment is tested. This work is supported by NSF CBET 1066575 and NSF CMMI 0941674.

  12. The effect of geography and citizen behavior on motor vehicle deaths in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Abaid

    Full Text Available Death due to motor vehicle collisions (MVCs remains a leading cause of death in the US and alcohol plays a prominent role in a large proportion of these fatalities nationwide. Rates for these incidents vary widely among states and over time. Here, we explore the extent to which driving volume, alcohol consumption, legislation, political ideology, and geographical factors influence MVC deaths across states and time. We specify structural equation models for extracting associations between the factors and outcomes for MVC deaths and compute correlation functions of states' relative geographic and political positions to elucidate the relative contribution of these factors. We find evidence that state-level variation in MVC deaths is associated with time-varying driving volume, alcohol consumption, and legislation. These relationships are modulated by state spatial proximity, whereby neighboring states are found to share similar MVC death rates over the thirty-year observation period. These results support the hypothesis that neighboring states exhibit similar risk and protective characteristics, despite differences in political ideology.

  13. The effect of geography and citizen behavior on motor vehicle deaths in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaid, Nicole; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Death due to motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) remains a leading cause of death in the US and alcohol plays a prominent role in a large proportion of these fatalities nationwide. Rates for these incidents vary widely among states and over time. Here, we explore the extent to which driving volume, alcohol consumption, legislation, political ideology, and geographical factors influence MVC deaths across states and time. We specify structural equation models for extracting associations between the factors and outcomes for MVC deaths and compute correlation functions of states' relative geographic and political positions to elucidate the relative contribution of these factors. We find evidence that state-level variation in MVC deaths is associated with time-varying driving volume, alcohol consumption, and legislation. These relationships are modulated by state spatial proximity, whereby neighboring states are found to share similar MVC death rates over the thirty-year observation period. These results support the hypothesis that neighboring states exhibit similar risk and protective characteristics, despite differences in political ideology.

  14. From synapses to behavior: development of a sensory-motor circuit in the leech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Burgin, Antonia; Kristan, William B; French, Kathleen A

    2008-05-01

    The development of neuronal circuits has been advanced greatly by the use of imaging techniques that reveal the activity of neurons during the period when they are constructing synapses and forming circuits. This review focuses on experiments performed in leech embryos to characterize the development of a neuronal circuit that produces a simple segmental behavior called "local bending." The experiments combined electrophysiology, anatomy, and FRET-based voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs). The VSDs offered two major advantages in these experiments: they allowed us to record simultaneously the activity of many neurons, and unlike other imaging techniques, they revealed inhibition as well as excitation. The results indicated that connections within the circuit are formed in a predictable sequence: initially neurons in the circuit are connected by electrical synapses, forming a network that itself generates an embryonic behavior and prefigures the adult circuit; later chemical synapses, including inhibitory connections, appear, "sculpting" the circuit to generate a different, mature behavior. In this developmental process, some of the electrical connections are completely replaced by chemical synapses, others are maintained into adulthood, and still others persist and share their targets with chemical synaptic connections.

  15. Repetition in Waiting for Godot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 魏妍

    2015-01-01

    Waiting for Godot is one of the most famous plays written by Samuel Barclay Beckett, and also is the founding work of“Theatre of the Absurd”. In the drama, repetitive phenomena shed light on the whole construction considerably. All the charac-ters were helpless and unthinking. Their dialogues were simple, nonsense and repetitive. Two scenes were cyclical. Repetition was used subtly in order to express the theme of the play, showing mental crisis after depravation of WWII.

  16. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups.

  17. Can pain influence the proprioception and the motor behavior in subjects with mild and moderate knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Daniela C Silveira; Barboza, Saulo Delfino; da Costa, Franciele Dias; Cabral, Monnique Ponciano; Silva, Vanessa Martins Pereira; Dionisio, Valdeci Carlos

    2014-09-27

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic disease, usually characterized by pain, which is associated with reduced muscle strength, disability and progressive loss of function. However, the pain influence over proprioception and motor behaviour remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of the study was to identify the levels of pain, the proprioceptive acuity and the pattern of muscle recruitment during stair ascent and descent in elderly patients with mild and moderate osteoarthritis (OA) compared to healthy subjects. The study participants included 11 healthy elderly subjects (7 women and 4 men) and 31 elderly patients with knee OA (19 women and 12 men). The functional capacity was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index; the pain was evaluated by Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT); the proprioceptive acuity was based on the joint position sense evaluated by electrogoniometer; and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the major muscles of the lower limb were evaluated during a task of stair ascent and descent of 15 cm. For statistical analysis it was used Statistic for Windows software (StatSoft Inc., version 5.0). Data from the WOMAC index, WBS, the proprioceptive acuity and IEMG (for each muscle in each phase) were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and data from PPT was used Kruskal-Wallis test. Higher scores were found in the WOMAC index and WBS whereas lower scores were seen in PPT in patients with knee OA compared to healthy subjects. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the proprioceptive acuity and EMG results of most muscles analyzed between the groups. The presence of pain does not influence the proprioception and the motor behavior of the thigh muscles during stair ascent and descent in subjects with mild and moderate knee OA.

  18. Repetitive exposures to a surrogate nipple providing nutritive and non-nutritive fluids: effects on suckling behavior of the newborn rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Evgeniy S; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Kramskaya, Tatiana A; Spear, Norman E

    2004-10-01

    Responsiveness to a surrogate nipple providing water, 0.1% saccharin, 10% sucrose, pedialyte, or milk was tested in naïve-to-suckling newborn rats during six 10-min exposures, one every 1.5 h over a 7.5 h period. Across a succession of exposures, newborn rats repeatedly attached to and ingested milk from a surrogate nipple, yielding significant body weight gain and increased concentration of blood plasma glucose. Initially, pups ingested considerable amounts of saccharin and sucrose, but then dramatically decreased their consumption of these fluids across the experimental sessions. Intake of milk was significantly higher than that of all other substances. Blood glucose concentration in pups treated with water, saccharin, sucrose, and pedialyte did not differ significantly from that of non-treated pups. The present data suggest a potential contribution of a fluid's palatability and nutritive value in the persistence and efficacy of diet intake for neonatal rats in the context of suckling behavior.

  19. Effects of fentanyl on pain and motor behaviors following a collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saine L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Laurence Saine,1 Pierre Hélie,2 Pascal Vachon1 1Department of Veterinary Biomedicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada Purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (IH and cephalalgia are common consequences of traumatic brain injury. One of the primary obstacles for patient recovery is the paucity of treatments to support an appropriate analgesic protocol. The present study aimed to assess pain and motor behaviors following different doses of fentanyl on a rat model of IH. Methods: Twenty-one male Sprague Dawley rats underwent a stereotaxic surgery to produce a collagenase-induced IH in the right caudoputamen nucleus. The control group (n=6 received saline subcutaneously (SC, and experimental groups received either 5 (n=6, 10 (n=6, or 20 (n=3 µg/kg of fentanyl SC, 2 hours following surgery and on 2 subsequent days. Only 3 animals received 20 µg/kg because this dose caused catalepsy for 15–20 minutes following the injection. The rat grimace scale, a neurological examination, balance beam test, and rotarod test were performed for 5 consecutive days postoperatively to evaluate pain and motor performance. At the end of the experimentation, the brains were evaluated to determine hematoma volume, and the number of reactive astrocytes and necrotic neurons. Results: When compared to controls, the grimace scale showed that 5 µg/kg fentanyl significantly alleviated pain on day 2 only (P<0.01 and that 10 µg/kg alleviated pain on days 1 (P<0.01, 2 (P<0.001, and 3 (P<0.01. For the rotarod test, only the 10 µg/kg group showed significant decreases in performance on days 5 (P<0.05 and 6 (P<0.02. The neurological examination was not significantly different between the groups, but only the hopping test showed poor recuperation for the 5 and 10 µg/kg fentanyl group when compared to saline (P<0.01. No differences were found between the

  20. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in the Context of Asperger's Syndrome: A Single-Subject Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Herbert, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder characterized by social impairment, highly circumscribed interests, repetitive behaviors, and motor clumsiness. The social impairment features of AS are similar to characteristics of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, little is known about the comorbidity of these disorders or the treatment…

  1. Developmental profile and diagnoses in children presenting with motor stereotypies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cardona

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor stereotypies represent a typical example of the difficulty in distinguishing non-clinical behaviors (physiological and transient from symptoms or among different disorders (primary stereotypies, associated with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD, Intellectual Disabilities, genetic syndromes, sensory impairment. The aim of this study was to obtain an accurate assessment on the relationship between stereotypies and neurodevelopmental disorders.Methods: We studied 23 children (3 girls aged 36 to 95 months, who requested a consultation due to the persistence or increased severity of motor stereotypies. None of patients had a previous diagnosis of ASD. The assessment included the Motor Severity Stereotypy Scale (MSSS, the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R, the Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM, the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 1 ½ -5 or 4-18 (CBCL, the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule- Second edition (ADOS 2. Results: All patients were showing motor stereotypies for periods of time varying from 6 to 77 months. The MSSS showed each child had a limited number of stereotypies; their frequency and intensity were mild. The interference of stereotypies was variable; the impairment in daily life was mild. The RBS-R scores were positive for the subscale of Stereotypic behaviors in all children. Moreover, several children presented other repetitive behaviors, mainly Ritualistic behavior and Sameness behavior. All patients showed a normal cognitive level. The CBCL evidenced behavioral problems in 22% of the children: Internalizing problems, Attention and Withdrawn were the main complaints. On the SRS, all but one of the tested patients obtained clinical scores in the clinical range for at least one area. On the ADOS 2, four patients obtained scores indicating a moderate level of ASD symptoms, four had a mild level and fifteen showed no or minimal signs of ASD

  2. Effect of vanillin via olfactory pathway on repetitive stereotyped behavior in autistic rats%香草醛吸嗅对自闭症大鼠重复性刻板行为的影响及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮元; 高晓平; 李光武; 桑婷婷

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察香草醛吸嗅对自闭症大鼠重复性刻板行为及脑内5-HT的影响,探讨其可能的作用机制.方法 根据Schneider和Przewlocki的方法制作丙戊酸钠(VPA)自闭症动物模型,SD大鼠怀孕第12.5天腹腔注射600 mg/kg VPA后所产下的子代雄鼠,根据子鼠睁眼时间、断乳时体质量、行为学表现监测,获得24只造模成功的自闭症模型雄鼠,随机分为香草醛组,模型对照组,每组12只;正常对照组为SD孕鼠同期腹腔注射等量9 g/L盐水后所产下的子代雄鼠12只,空白对照为SD孕鼠同期未予以特殊处理所产下的子代雄鼠12只.比较香草醛组,模型对照组、正常对照组、空白对照组在吸嗅前,吸嗅后1周,吸嗅后4周时重复性刻板行为差异,采用免疫组织化学检测各组大鼠杏仁核5-HT表达水平.结果 与治疗前比较,香草醛组治疗4周后重复性刻板行为[刻板时间(113.31±18.45)sw(250.52±13.25)s]明显减少(P<0.01),香草醛吸嗅明显提高大鼠5-HT杏仁核区表达[5-HT阳性神经元数(3.42±1.32)个vs (1.32±1.04)个,P<0.05].结论 香草醛吸嗅可以改善自闭症模型大鼠的重复性刻板行为,提高大鼠5-HT在杏仁核区的表达.%Objective To investigate the effect of vanillin via olfactory pathway on repetitive stereotyped behavior in autistic rats and its possible mechanism.Methods The model of autism was established by the single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 of pregnant rats.Twenty-four autism animals were adopted according to the eye opening time,body mass and behavioral test.They were randomly divided into control group and vanillin group with 12 in each group,while the saline group rats as normal control group and the blank group rats as normal blank group.The repetitive stereotyped behavioral were examined in four groups of rats and the concentration of 5-HT in the amygdala was determined by immunohistochemical stainning.Results Compared with

  3. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  4. A cholinergic-regulated circuit coordinates the maintenance and bi-stable states of a sensory-motor behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans male copulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishi Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K(+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components.

  5. Effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with physical therapy on L-dopa-induced painful off-period dystonia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Mitsuhiko; Kasahara, Takashi; Hyodo, Masaki; Aono, Koji; Sugaya, Mutsumi; Koyama, Yuji; Hanayama, Kozo; Masakado, Yoshihisa

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has shown that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor area and supplementary motor area can reduce L-dopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease; however, it involved only patients with peak-dose or diphasic dyskinesia. We report a case of a patient with severely painful off-period dystonia in the unilateral lower limb who underwent 0.9-Hz subthreshold repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over contralateral primary motor area and supplementary motor area. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor area significantly reduced the painful dystonia and walking disturbances but repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the supplementary motor area did not. The cortical silent period also prolonged after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor area. At 5 mos of approximately once a week repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor area, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score also improved. This report shows that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the inhibitory primary motor area can be useful for rehabilitating patients with Parkinson's disease with off-period dystonia and suggests that this treatment should be further verified in such patients.

  6. Motor Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Teste de estimulação repetitiva no músculo ancôneo para diagnóstico da miastenia grave: mapeamento da sua área de placa motora Repetitive stimulation test on the anconeus muscle for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis: the mapping of its motor end-plate area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Wanderley S. Coriolano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mapear a área de placa motora do músculo ancôneo para definir a melhor localização dos eletrodos de registro em testes de estimulação repetitiva (TER no diagnóstico dos distúrbios da transmissão neuromuscular. MÉTODO: Registramos o potencial de ação composto do músculo ancôneo sobre a pele que o recobre, após estimulação do ramo que o inerva. Analisando as formas de onda registradas em cada ponto da pele foi possível definir a área de placa. RESULTADOS: A área de placa motora do ancôneo é uma linha paralela à borda da ulna. O melhor local de colocação do eletrodo "ativo" de registro situa-se cerca de 2 cm distal ao olécrano e 1 cm lateral à borda da ulna. CONCLUSÃO: A realização de TER no músculo ancôneo é simples e bem tolerada. Com a estimulação do ancôneo o antebraço praticamente não se move, sendo o procedimento livre de artefatos de movimento.PURPOSE: To map the motor end-plate area of the anconeus muscle and define the best place for positioning the recording electrodes in repetitive stimulation tests (RST for the diagnosis of neuromuscular transmission disorders. METHOD: The compound muscle action potential of the anconeus was recorded after stimulating the motor branch of the radial nerve that innervates it. By analyzing the waveforms registered at each point of the skin we were able to define the motor end-plate area. RESULTS: The motor end-plate area of the anconeus is a line parallel to the ulna border. The best place for placing the "active" recording electrode is about 2cm distal to the olecranon and 1 cm lateral to the border of the ulna. CONCLUSION: Performing RST in the anconeus muscle is simple and well tolerated. Stimulation of the anconeus almost doesn't move the forearm and the procedure is virtually free of movement artifacts.

  8. Improved discrimination of visual stimuli following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

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    Michael L Waterston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS at certain frequencies increases thresholds for motor-evoked potentials and phosphenes following stimulation of cortex. Consequently rTMS is often assumed to introduce a "virtual lesion" in stimulated brain regions, with correspondingly diminished behavioral performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated the effects of rTMS to visual cortex on subjects' ability to perform visual psychophysical tasks. Contrary to expectations of a visual deficit, we find that rTMS often improves the discrimination of visual features. For coarse orientation tasks, discrimination of a static stimulus improved consistently following theta-burst stimulation of the occipital lobe. Using a reaction-time task, we found that these improvements occurred throughout the visual field and lasted beyond one hour post-rTMS. Low-frequency (1 Hz stimulation yielded similar improvements. In contrast, we did not find consistent effects of rTMS on performance in a fine orientation discrimination task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall our results suggest that rTMS generally improves or has no effect on visual acuity, with the nature of the effect depending on the type of stimulation and the task. We interpret our results in the context of an ideal-observer model of visual perception.

  9. Understanding maximal repetitions in strings

    CERN Document Server

    Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.

  10. Curcumin Treatment Improves Motor Behavior in α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice.

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    Kateri J Spinelli

    Full Text Available The curry spice curcumin plays a protective role in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, and can also directly modulate aggregation of α-synuclein protein in vitro, yet no studies have described the interaction of curcumin and α-synuclein in genetic synucleinopathy mouse models. Here we examined the effect of chronic and acute curcumin treatment in the Syn-GFP mouse line, which overexpresses wild-type human α-synuclein protein. We discovered that curcumin diet intervention significantly improved gait impairments and resulted in an increase in phosphorylated forms of α-synuclein at cortical presynaptic terminals. Acute curcumin treatment also caused an increase in phosphorylated α-synuclein in terminals, but had no direct effect on α-synuclein aggregation, as measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging and Proteinase-K digestion. Using LC-MS/MS, we detected ~5 ng/mL and ~12 ng/mL free curcumin in the plasma of chronic or acutely treated mice, with a glucuronidation rate of 94% and 97%, respectively. Despite the low plasma levels and extensive metabolism of curcumin, these results show that dietary curcumin intervention correlates with significant behavioral and molecular changes in a genetic synucleinopathy mouse model that mimics human disease.

  11. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  12. Long-term treatment with L-DOPA or pramipexole affects adult neurogenesis and corresponding non-motor behavior in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, W-H; Depboylu, C; Hermanns, G; Maurer, L; Windolph, A; Oertel, W H; Ries, V; Höglinger, G U

    2015-08-01

    Non-motor symptoms such as hyposmia and depression are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can precede the onset of motor symptoms for years. The underlying pathological alterations in the brain are not fully understood so far. Dysregulation of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb has been recently suggested to be implicated in non-motor symptoms of PD. However, there is so far no direct evidence to support the relationship of non-motor symptoms and the modulation of adult neurogenesis following dopamine depletion and/or dopamine replacement. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of l-DOPA and pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, in a mouse model of bilateral intranigral 6-OHDA lesion, in order to assess the impact of adult neurogenesis on non-motor behavior. We found that l-DOPA and pramipexole can normalize decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the periglomerular layer of the olfactory bulb caused by a 6-OHDA lesion. Interestingly, pramipexole showed an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect in the forced swim test and social interaction test. However, there was no significant change in learning and memory function after dopamine depletion and dopamine replacement, respectively.

  13. ROBUST REPETITIVE CONTROL FOR IMPROVING RATE SMOOTHNESS OF TEST TURNTABLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYu; ZENGMing; SUBao-ku

    2005-01-01

    A robust repetitive control scheme is used to improve the rate smoothness of a brushless DC motor (BLDCM) driven test turntable. The method synthesizes variable structure control (VSC) laws and repetitive control (RC) laws in a complementary manner. The VSC strategy can stabilize the system and suppress uncertainties, such as the aperiodic disturbance and noises, while RC strategy can eliminate the periodic rate fluctuation in a steady state. The convergence of the repetitive learning process is also guaranteed by VSC. A general nonlinear system model is discussed. The model can be considered as an extension of BLDCMs. The stability and asymptotic position tracking performance are validated by using Lyapunov functions. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach for improving the rate smoothness.

  14. A liquid phase based C. elegans behavioral analysis system identifies motor activity loss in a nematode Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Maohua; Gorelenkova, Olga; Yang, Jiong; Feng, Zhaoyang

    2012-03-15

    Motor activity of Caenorhabditis elegans is widely used to study the mechanisms ranging from basic neuronal functions to human neurodegenerative diseases. It may also serve as a paradigm to screen for potential therapeutic reagents treating these diseases. Here, we developed an automated, 96-well plate and liquid phase based system that quantifies nematode motor activity in real time. Using this system, we identified an adult-onset, ageing-associated motor activity loss in a transgenic nematode line expressing human pathogenic G2019S mutant LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2), the leading genetic cause of Parkinson's disease characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration associated motor deficient mainly in elder citizens. Thus, our system may be used as a platform to screen for potential therapeutic drugs treating Parkinson's disease. It can also be used to monitor motor activity of nematodes in liquid phase at similar scenario. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender-dependent effects of maternal immune activation on the behavior of mouse offspring.

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    Ingrid C Y Xuan

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by two core symptoms; impaired social interactions and communication, and ritualistic or repetitive behaviors. Both epidemiological and biochemical evidence suggests that a subpopulation of autistics may be linked to immune perturbations that occurred during fetal development. These findings have given rise to an animal model, called the "maternal immune activation" model, whereby the offspring from female rodents who were subjected to an immune stimulus during early or mid-pregnancy are studied. Here, C57BL/6 mouse dams were treated mid-gestation with saline, lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic a bacterial infection, or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly IC to mimic a viral infection. Autism-associated behaviors were examined in the adult offspring of the treated dams. Behavioral tests were conducted to assess motor activity, exploration in a novel environment, sociability, and repetitive behaviors, and data analyses were carried independently on male and female mice. We observed a main treatment effect whereby male offspring from Poly IC-treated dams showed reduced motor activity. In the marble burying test of repetitive behavior, male offspring but not female offspring from both LPS and Poly IC-treated mothers showed increased marble burying. Our findings indicate that offspring from mothers subjected to immune stimulation during gestation show a gender-specific increase in stereotyped repetitive behavior.

  16. May Functional Imaging be Helpful for Behavioral Assessment in Children? Regions of Motor and Associative Cortico-Subcortical Circuits Can be Differentiated by Laterality and Rostrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Julia M; Rothenberger, Aribert; Baudewig, Juergen; Roessner, Veit; Dechent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cortico-subcortical circuits are organized into the sensorimotor, associative, and limbic loop. These neuronal preconditions play an important role regarding the understanding and treatment of behavioral problems in children. Differencing evidence argues for a lateralized organization of the sensorimotor loop and a bilateral (i.e., non-lateralized) organization of the associative loop. However, a firm behavioral-neurobiological distinction of these circuits has been difficult, specifically in children. Thus, the aim was a comprehensive functional visualization and differentiation of the sensorimotor and the associative circuit during childhood. As a new approach, laterality and rostrality features were used to distinguish between the two circuits within one single motor task. Twenty-four healthy boys performed self-paced index finger tapping with each hand separately during functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. A contrast analysis for left against right hand movement revealed lateralized activation in typical sensorimotor regions such as primary sensorimotor cortex, caudal supplementary motor area (SMA), caudal putamen, and thalamus. A conjunction analysis confirmed bilateral involvement of known associative regions including pre-SMA, rostral SMA, and rostral putamen. A functional visualization of two distinct corticostriatal circuits is provided in childhood. Both the sensorimotor and associative circuit may be discriminated by their laterality characteristics already in minors. Additionally, the results support the concept of a modified functional subdivision of the SMA in a rostral (associative) and caudal (motor) part. A further development of this approach might help to nurture behavioral assessment and neurofeedback training in child mental health.

  17. Sensing with the Motor Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.; Suminski, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    The primary motor cortex is a critical node in the network of brain regions responsible for voluntary motor behavior. It has been less appreciated, however, that the motor cortex exhibits sensory responses in a variety of modalities including vision and somatosensation. We review current work that emphasizes the heterogeneity in sensori-motor responses in the motor cortex and focus on its implications for cortical control of movement as well as for brain-machine interface development.

  18. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

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    Mario U Manto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibodies. We found that glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7 and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15 recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10 or limbic encephalitis (n = 4. We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal glutamate decarboxylase antibody representing this epitope specificity (1 disrupted in vitro the association of glutamate decarboxylase with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles, (2 depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect, (3 significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task, (4 markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm, and (5 induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of glutamate decarboxylase by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such glutamate decarboxylase antibodies could be envisioned.

  19. Gamma synchrony predicts neuron-neuron correlations and correlations with motor behavior in extrastriate visual area MT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joonyeol; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2013-12-11

    Correlated variability of neuronal responses is an important factor in estimating sensory parameters from a population response. Large correlations among neurons reduce the effective size of a neural population and increase the variation of the estimates. They also allow the activity of one neuron to be informative about impending perceptual decisions or motor actions on single trials. In extrastriate visual area MT of the rhesus macaque, for example, some but not all neurons show nonzero "choice probabilities" for perceptual decisions or non-zero "MT-pursuit" correlations between the trial-by-trial variations in neural activity and smooth pursuit eye movements. To understand the functional implications of zero versus nonzero correlations between neural responses and impending perceptions or actions, we took advantage of prior observations that specific frequencies of local field potentials reflect the correlated activity of neurons. We found that the strength of the spike-field coherence of a neuron in the gamma-band frequency range is related to the size of its MT-pursuit correlations for eye direction, as well as to the size of the neuron-neuron correlations. Spike-field coherence predicts MT-pursuit correlations better for direction than for speed, perhaps because the topographic organization of direction preference in MT is more amenable to creating meaningful local field potentials. We suggest that the relationship between spiking and local-field potentials is stronger for neurons that have larger correlations with their neighbors; larger neuron-neuron correlations create stronger MT-pursuit correlations. Neurons that lack strong correlations with their neighbors also have weaker correlations with pursuit behavior, but still could drive pursuit strongly.

  20. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; Honnorat, Jérôme; Hampe, Christiane S; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Delgado-García, José María; Saitow, Fumihito; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct GAD autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal GAD antibodies. We found that GAD autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7) and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15) recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by GAD autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10) or limbic encephalitis (n = 4). We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal GAD antibody representing this epitope specificity; (1) disrupted in vitro the association of GAD with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles; (2) depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect; (3) significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task; (4) markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm; and (5) induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of GAD by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such GAD antibodies could be envisioned.

  1. Sensory signals and neuronal groups involved in guiding the sea-ward motor behavior in turtle hatchlings of Chelonia agassizi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A. L.; Camarena, V.; Ochoa, G.; Urrutia, J.; Gutierrez, G.

    2007-05-01

    Turtle hatchlings orient display sea-ward oriented movements as soon as they emerge from the nest. Although most studies have emphasized the role of the visual information in this process, less attention has been paid to other sensory modalities. Here, we evaluated the nature of sensory cues used by turtle hatchlings of Chelonia agassizi to orient their movements towards the ocean. We recorded the time they took to crawl from the nest to the beach front (120m long) in control conditions and in visually, olfactory and magnetically deprived circumstances. Visually-deprived hatchlings displayed a high degree of disorientation. Olfactory deprivation and magnetic field distortion impaired, but not abolished, sea-ward oriented movements. With regard to the neuronal mapping experiments, visual deprivation reduced dramatically c-fos expression in the whole brain. Hatchlings with their nares blocked revealed neurons with c-fos expression above control levels principally in the c and d areas, while those subjected to magnetic field distortion had a wide spread activation of neurons throughout the brain predominantly in the dorsal ventricular ridge The present results support that Chelonia agassizi hatchlings use predominantly visual cues to orient their movements towards the sea. Olfactory and magnetic cues may also be use but their influence on hatchlings oriented motor behavior is not as clear as it is for vision. This conclusion is supported by the fact that in the absence of olfactory and magnetic cues, the brain turns on the expression of c- fos in neuronal groups that, in the intact hatchling, are not normally involved in accomplishing the task.

  2. Directed PCR-free engineering of highly repetitive DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preissler Steffen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly repetitive nucleotide sequences are commonly found in nature e.g. in telomeres, microsatellite DNA, polyadenine (poly(A tails of eukaryotic messenger RNA as well as in several inherited human disorders linked to trinucleotide repeat expansions in the genome. Therefore, studying repetitive sequences is of biological, biotechnological and medical relevance. However, cloning of such repetitive DNA sequences is challenging because specific PCR-based amplification is hampered by the lack of unique primer binding sites resulting in unspecific products. Results For the PCR-free generation of repetitive DNA sequences we used antiparallel oligonucleotides flanked by restriction sites of Type IIS endonucleases. The arrangement of recognition sites allowed for stepwise and seamless elongation of repetitive sequences. This facilitated the assembly of repetitive DNA segments and open reading frames encoding polypeptides with periodic amino acid sequences of any desired length. By this strategy we cloned a series of polyglutamine encoding sequences as well as highly repetitive polyadenine tracts. Such repetitive sequences can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. As an example, the polyglutamine sequences were expressed as His6-SUMO fusion proteins in Escherichia coli cells to study their aggregation behavior in vitro. The His6-SUMO moiety enabled affinity purification of the polyglutamine proteins, increased their solubility, and allowed controlled induction of the aggregation process. We successfully purified the fusions proteins and provide an example for their applicability in filter retardation assays. Conclusion Our seamless cloning strategy is PCR-free and allows the directed and efficient generation of highly repetitive DNA sequences of defined lengths by simple standard cloning procedures.

  3. The effects of microinjection of the selective blocker of muscarinic M1 receptors pirenzepine into the neostriatum on the motor behavior of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, K B; Kamkina, Yu V; Mysovskii, D A

    2005-07-01

    A discrimination conditioned active avoidance reflex (CAAR) model in a T maze was used in 18 rats to study the effects of bilateral microinjections of the selective muscarinic M1 receptor blocker pirenzepine into the neostriatum on the acquisition of the CAAR and behavior in an open field test. There was sharp degradation of learning of the CAAR and a significant improvement in motor activity both in the open field test and in the maze itself in rats given bilateral microinjections (pirenzepine, 0.004 mg) into the neostriatum as compared with intact controls. This suggests that changes in motor behavior (a sharp increase in locomotor activity) may be among the reasons for difficulty in learning the CAAR in rats after pirenzepine microinjections. Another reason for difficulty in learning the CAAR in these animals may be impairment of the perception of the conditioned signals (a flashing light) and poor differentiation. This is particularly indicated by the delay in the start chamber (double that seen in intact animals) on presentation of conditioned signals despite the high level of motor activity. These results and published data provide evidence for the complex nature of changes induced by blockade of muscarinic M1 receptors in the neostriatum.

  4. Repetition in English Political Public Speaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅

    2010-01-01

    Repetition is frequently used in English political public speaking to make it easy to be remembered and powerful to move the feelings of the public. This paper is intended to analyze the functions of repetition and different levels of repetition to highlight the significance of repetition in English political public speaking and the ability of using it in practice.

  5. Neurophysiology of spontaneous facial expressions: I. Motor control of the upper and lower face is behaviorally independent in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott D; Gupta, Smita S; Adnan, Asif M; Holden, Thomas L; Havlicek, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar

    2016-03-01

    Facial expressions are described traditionally as monolithic entities. However, humans have the capacity to produce facial blends, in which the upper and lower face simultaneously display different emotional expressions. This, in turn, has led to the Component Theory of facial expressions. Recent neuroanatomical studies in monkeys have demonstrated that there are separate cortical motor areas for controlling the upper and lower face that, presumably, also occur in humans. The lower face is represented on the posterior ventrolateral surface of the frontal lobes in the primary motor and premotor cortices and the upper face is represented on the medial surface of the posterior frontal lobes in the supplementary motor and anterior cingulate cortices. Our laboratory has been engaged in a series of studies exploring the perception and production of facial blends. Using high-speed videography, we began measuring the temporal aspects of facial expressions to develop a more complete understanding of the neurophysiology underlying facial expressions and facial blends. The goal of the research presented here was to determine if spontaneous facial expressions in adults are predominantly monolithic or exhibit independent motor control of the upper and lower face. We found that spontaneous facial expressions are very complex and that the motor control of the upper and lower face is overwhelmingly independent, thus robustly supporting the Component Theory of facial expressions. Seemingly monolithic expressions, be they full facial or facial blends, are most likely the result of a timing coincident rather than a synchronous coordination between the ventrolateral and medial cortical motor areas responsible for controlling the lower and upper face, respectively. In addition, we found evidence that the right and left face may also exhibit independent motor control, thus supporting the concept that spontaneous facial expressions are organized predominantly across the horizontal facial

  6. Grade repetition in primary school from teachers’ perspective

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    Malinić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available School underachievement is exhibited gradually, in different forms, while grade repetition figures as one of the most prominent forms of underachievement. In order to observe this phenomenon from different perspectives, we conducted a research aimed at identifying teacher attitudes towards grade repetition and grade repeaters in primary school, based on their perceptions of: (a the cause of grade repetition; (b the responsibility for grade repetition and (c grade repetition as an educational measure. The administered questionnaire was constructed for the purposes of the research, descriptive statistics was used, and data were obtained on the sample of 136 teachers from 31 primary schools from the territory of the City of Belgrade. The results point out to the conclusion that teachers perceive grade repetition as, first and foremost, the consequence of students’ lack of interest in school and learning and undisciplined behavior in class. By treating student underachievement mainly as a consequence of laziness, lack of motivation and insufficient effort, teachers transfer responsibility to others, assessing that the personal degree of responsibility for the underachievement of their students is very low. The responsibility for underachievement is perceived more as a problem of the student, his/her family, peer group, than as the problem of teachers themselves. The concluding part points out to certain teaching procedures and methods that have proved to be useful in the prevention of student underachievement.

  7. Varianish: Jamming with Pattern Repetition

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    Jort Band

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In music, patterns and pattern repetition are often regarded as a machine-like task, indeed often delegated to drum Machines and sequencers. Nevertheless, human players add subtle differences and variations to repeated patterns that are musically interesting and often unique. Especially when looking at minimal music, pattern repetitions create hypnotic effects and the human mind blends out the actual pattern to focus on variation and tiny differences over time. Varianish is a musical instrument that aims at turning this phenomenon into a new musical experience for musician and audience: Musical pattern repetitions are found in live music and Varianish generates additional (musical output accordingly that adds substantially to the overall musical expression. Apart from the theory behind the pattern finding and matching and the conceptual design, a demonstrator implementation of Varianish is presented and evaluated.

  8. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

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    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  9. Interaction of motor training and intermittent theta burst stimulation in modulating motor cortical plasticity: influence of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism.

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    Mina Lee

    Full Text Available Cortical physiology in human motor cortex is influenced by behavioral motor training (MT as well as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol such as intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS. This study aimed to test whether MT and iTBS can interact with each other to produce additive changes in motor cortical physiology. We hypothesized that potential interaction between MT and iTBS would be dependent on BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, which is known to affect neuroplasticity in the human motor cortex. Eighty two healthy volunteers were genotyped for BDNF polymorphism. Thirty subjects were assigned for MT alone, 23 for iTBS alone, and 29 for MT + iTBS paradigms. TMS indices for cortical excitability and motor map areas were measured prior to and after each paradigm. MT alone significantly increased the motor cortical excitability and expanded the motor map areas. The iTBS alone paradigm also enhanced excitability and increased the motor map areas to a slightly greater extent than MT alone. A combination of MT and iTBS resulted in the largest increases in the cortical excitability, and the representational motor map expansion of MT + iTBS was significantly greater than MT or iTBS alone only in Val/Val genotype. As a result, the additive interaction between MT and iTBS was highly dependent on BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Our results may have clinical relevance in designing rehabilitative strategies that combine therapeutic cortical stimulation and physical exercise for patients with motor disabilities.

  10. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  11. Identifying Motor, Emotional–Behavioral, and Cognitive Deficits that Comprise the Triad of HD Symptoms from Patient, Caregiver, and Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorson, David; Carlozzi, Noelle E.; Frank, Samuel; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Cheng, Wendy; Gorin, Brian; Duh, Mei Sheng; Samuelson, David; Tulsky, David; Gutierrez, Sandra; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Mueller, Allison; Shen, Vivienne; Sung, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to identify important attributes associated with the triad of symptoms (cognition, emotional–behavioral, and motor) of Huntington's disease (HD) from patient, caregiver, and medical provider perspectives to facilitate development of a new disease-specific, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument. Methods We conducted a targeted literature review of HD and HRQOL instruments, expert surveys, and patient and caregiver phone-based interviews to extract information on the symptoms and issues most relevant to the HD symptom triad (HD triad). The data collected from these sources were used to generate themes and subdomains and to develop an integrated schema that highlights the key dimensions of the triad. Results The search identified the following areas: emotional functioning/behavioral changes (e.g., positive emotions, sadness/depression); cognitive functioning (e.g., memory/learning, attention/comprehension); physical functioning (e.g., motor functioning, medication); social functioning (e.g., leisure, interpersonal relationships); end-of-life concerns/planning; and gene testing. Fifteen individuals diagnosed with HD and 16 HD caregivers, recruited from several Huntington's Disease Society of America support group networks, completed phone interviews. Nineteen US medical providers who specialize in HD completed the online survey. Twenty-six subdomains of the HD symptom triad (seven cognition, 12 emotional–behavioral, and seven motor) emerged relatively consistently across patient, caregiver, and provider samples. These included movements/chorea, memory impairment, depression, and anxiety. Discussion Based on an integrated, mixed-methods approach, important HD triad symptom were identified and organized into a guiding schema. These patient-, caregiver-, and provider-triangulated data served as the basis for development of a HD-specific HRQOL instrument, the HD-PRO-TRIAD™. PMID:24757585

  12. May functional imaging be helpful for behavioral assessment in children? Regions of motor and associative cortico-subcortical circuits can be differentiated by laterality and rostrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. August

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cortico-subcortical circuits are organized into the sensorimotor, associative and limbic loop. These neuronal preconditions play an important role regarding the understanding and treatment of behavioral problems in children. Differencing evidence argues for a lateralized organization of the sensorimotor loop and a bilateral (i.e. non-lateralized organization of the associative loop. However, a firm behavioral-neurobiological distinction of these circuits has been difficult, specifically in children. Objectives: Thus, the aim was a comprehensive functional visualization and differentiation of the sensorimotor and the associative circuit during childhood. As a new approach, laterality and rostrality features were used to distinguish between the two circuits within one single motor task. Methods: 24 healthy boys performed self-paced index finger tapping with each hand separately during functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. Results: A contrast analysis for left against right hand movement revealed lateralized activation in typical sensorimotor regions such as primary sensorimotor cortex, caudal supplementary motor area (SMA, caudal putamen and thalamus. A conjunction analysis confirmed bilateral involvement of known associative regions including pre-SMA, rostral SMA and rostral putamen. Conclusion: A functional visualization of two distinct corticostriatal circuits is provided in childhood. Both, the sensorimotor and associative circuit may be discriminated by their laterality characteristics already in minors. Additionally, the results support the concept of a modified functional subdivision of the SMA in a rostral (associative and caudal (motor part. A further development of this approach might help to nurture behavioral assessment and neurofeedback training in child mental health.

  13. Sensory and motor characterization in the postnatal valproate rat model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey; Millette, Alexandre; Devine, Darragh P

    2012-01-01

    Although autism is diagnosed according to three core features of social deficits, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors, other behavioral features such as sensory and motor impairments are present in more than 70% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Exposure of rat pups to the teratogen valproate during sensitive periods of brain development has been shown to elicit behavioral features associated with autism diagnosis and has been proposed as a valid animal model of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to characterize sensory and motor performance in rats postnatally treated with valproate. Thirty-four rat pups were injected with either valproate (150 mg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 6-12. Auditory and tactile startle as well as auditory sensory gating was assessed during both the juvenile and adolescent stages of development; motor testing was conducted during late adolescence and included a sunflower seed eating task and a vermicelli handling task. Valproate-treated rats were underresponsive to auditory stimuli, showed deficits in auditory sensory gating, and demonstrated impairments in motor speed and performance. These findings suggest that postnatal valproate treatment elicits sensory and motor features often seen in individuals with ASD. Further, the hyposensitivity seen in postnatally valproate-treated rats contrasted with hypersensitivity previously reported in prenatally valproate-exposed rats. This suggests that timing of teratogenic exposure during early brain development may be important to consider when investigating the neurobiological basis of sensorimotor impairments in ASD.

  14. Driver`s behavior and the motion of motorized wheelchair when driving over rough surfaces; Dansa nado fuseichi sokoji no dendo kurumaisu no undo to join no kyodo

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    Enomoto, A.; Yokomori, M.; Yamaguchi, S. [Meijo University, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We analyzed about the motion of motorized wheelchairs and the driver`s behavior when passing over the small obstacles in place of the rough surface road or the gateway of house and road by experiment. The tested two type wheelchairs are the front wheel drive and the rear wheel drive. The lean angle of head and the pulse rate of driver, the feeling for stability and the yaw angle and the roll angle of the wheelchair bodies, and the deflection angle of front wheels of rear drive. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Differences in the Transmission of Sensory Input into Motor Output between Introverts and Extraverts: Behavioral and Psychophysiological Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, J.; Rammsayer, T.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate extraversion-related individual differences in the speed of transmission of sensory input into motor output. In a sample of 16 introverted and 16 extraverted female volunteers, event-related potentials, lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs), and electromyogram (EMG) were recorded as participants…

  16. Further evidence for the role of the caudate nucleus in programming motor and nonmotor behavior in Java monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed-de Vries, M C; Cools, A R

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the short-term effects of intracaudate microinjections of carbachol in temporarily isolated and restrained Java monkeys. The monkeys were found to display a series of motor disturbances including blepharoptosis, facial twitches, tongue protrusions, ear flattening, torticollis, and compulsive alternations of rapid flexions and extensions of the extremities. In general, carbachol was found to produce consistent effects as far as it concerns its ability to elicit motor disturbances. Three of the five tested monkeys had previously received another series of carbachol injections when they were freely moving and living in a stabilized social group. Accordingly, the present study enabled us to compare the effectiveness of threshold doses of carbachol in the same monkey in two distinct situations. We concluded first, that motor disturbances and disturbances in social communication were closely coupled in relation to the involvement of a particular cholinoceptive substrate within the caudate nucleus of Java monkeys. Second, the motor disturbances under study appeared to require a larger degree of dysfunctioning of this substrate than did subtle disturbances in the social communication of these monkeys. And, finally, stress inherent to restraint increased the susceptibility of the cholinoceptive substrate within the caudate nucleus. The clinical impact of our findings is discussed in view of differences between the premorbid and manifest phases of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Motor behavior correlates with striatal [(1)(8)F]-DOPA uptake in MPTP-lesioned primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, R.; Eshuis, S.A.; Andringa, G.; Cools, A.R.; Leenders, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    The MPTP-lesioned monkey is considered as the best animal model for Parkinson's disease (PD). It has damage to dopaminergic cell groups and motor dysfunction similar to that seen in PD. Correlations between these two parameters have been described but there is a lack of formal statistical analyses o

  18. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  19. Development of Motor Speed and Associated Movements from 5 to 18 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Theo; Rousson, Valentin; Caflisch, Jon; Jenni, Oskar G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To study the development of motor speed and associated movements in participants aged 5 to 18 years for age, sex, and laterality. Method: Ten motor tasks of the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (repetitive and alternating movements of hands and feet, repetitive and sequential finger movements, the pegboard, static and dynamic balance,…

  20. Brief Report: Repetitive Behaviours in Greek Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Stelios; Papageorgiou, Vaya; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the factor structure of restricted repetitive behaviours (RRBs) in a sample of 205 Greek individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), using the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R). Results show that the structure of RRBs in this Greek sample can be described using a 2-factor solution. The…

  1. Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects reaction times, but not priming effects, in a masked prime task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlaghecken, F.; Munchau, A.; Bloem, B.R.; Rothwell, J.C.; Eimer, M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Slow frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reduces motor cortex excitability, but it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences in healthy subjects. METHODS: We examined the effects of 1 Hz rTMS (train of 20 min; stimulus intensity 80% of active motor thr

  2. Practicing novel, praxis-like movements: physiological effects of repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Our primary goal was to develop and validate a task that could provide evidence about how humans learn praxis gestures, such as those involving the use of tools. To that end, we created a video-based task in which subjects view a model performing novel, meaningless one-handed actions with kinematics similar to praxis gestures. Subjects then imitated the movements with their right hand. Trials were repeated 6 times to examine practice effects. EEG was recorded during the task. As a control, subjects watched videos of a model performing a well-established (over learned tool-use gesture. These gestures were also imitated 6 times. Demonstrating convergent validity, EEG measures of task-related cortical activation were similar in topography and frequency between the novel gesture task and the overlearned, praxis gesture task. As in studies assessing motor skill learning with simpler tasks, cortical activation during novel gesture learning decreased as the same gestures were repeated. In the control condition, repetition of overlearned tool-use gestures were also associated with reductions in activation, though to a lesser degree. Given that even overlearned, praxis gestures show constriction of EEG activity with repetition, it is possible that that attentional effects drive some of the repetition effects seen in EEG measures of activation during novel gesture repetition.

  3. γ-Hydroxybutyric acid induces actions via the GABAB receptor in arousal and motor control-related nuclei: implications for therapeutic actions in behavioral state disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, K A; Vardar, B; Christensen, M H

    2013-09-17

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is used as an effective therapeutic for reducing the hypersomnolence and cataplexy (loss of motor control) of the sleeping disorder, narcolepsy, with an immediate pharmacologic behavioral action of inducing a natural sleep-like state. Despite its clinical use, few studies have examined the cellular actions of this drug on behavioral state-related neurons. Therefore, we monitored GHB-induced responses using calcium imaging within the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) and the dorsal raphe (DR), two pontine nuclei important in state and motor control. In addition, we recorded GHB-induced membrane responses using whole cell, patch clamp electrophysiology of immunohistochemically-identified principal neurons within these nuclei. GHB induced GABAB receptor-mediated rises in calcium in neurons of the LDT and the DR. However, the pattern and amplitude of calcium rises differed greatly between these two nuclei. GHB induced GABAB receptor antagonist-sensitive outward currents/hyperpolarizations in immunohistochemically-identified cholinergic LDT and serotonergic DR neurons. However, GHB had this action in a greater proportion of DR cells than LDT neurons. Further, larger inhibitory currents were induced in DR cells when compared to the amplitude of GHB-induced current in LDT-responding cells. Finally, NCS-382 and HOCPCA, a reported antagonist and agonist specific to activity at the putative GHB receptor, respectively, with no demonstrated binding at the GABAB receptor, failed to block GHB-induced effects or elicit any discernible electrophysiological action when applied alone, indicating a lack of involvement of a GHB receptor in mediating GHB actions. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that GHB may be exerting its actions on state and motor control, in part, via an acutely mediated strong inhibition of serotonergic DR neurons and a more modest inhibitory action on a smaller proportion of LDT cholinergic neurons. Given the roles played by

  4. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Oliver Effenberg; Ursula eFehse; Gerd eSchmitz; Bjoern eKrueger; Heinz eMechling

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities, but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicate an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavio...

  5. Changes in sensitivity of reward and motor behavior to dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic drugs in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W Fish

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a leading cause of intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the FMR1 gene, and mice in which Fmr1 has been inactivated have been used extensively as a preclinical model for FXS. We investigated the behavioral pharmacology of drugs acting through dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems in fragile X (Fmr1 (-/Y mice with intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS and locomotor activity measurements. We also measured brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Fmr1 (-/Y mice were more sensitive than wild type mice to the rewarding effects of cocaine, but less sensitive to its locomotor stimulating effects. Anhedonic but not motor depressant effects of the atypical neuroleptic, aripiprazole, were reduced in Fmr1 (-/Y mice. The mGluR5-selective antagonist, 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynylpyridine (MPEP, was more rewarding and the preferential M1 antagonist, trihexyphenidyl, was less rewarding in Fmr1 (-/Y than wild type mice. Motor stimulation by MPEP was unchanged, but stimulation by trihexyphenidyl was markedly increased, in Fmr1 (-/Y mice. Numbers of midbrain TH+ neurons in the ventral tegmental area were unchanged, but were lower in the substantia nigra of Fmr1 (-/Y mice, although no changes in TH levels were found in their forebrain targets. The data are discussed in the context of known changes in the synaptic physiology and pharmacology of limbic motor systems in the Fmr1 (-/Y mouse model. Preclinical findings suggest that drugs acting through multiple neurotransmitter systems may be necessary to fully address abnormal behaviors in individuals with FXS.

  6. Perceptual-cognitive changes during motor learning: The influence of mental and physical practice on mental representation, gaze behavior, and performance of a complex action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eFrank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior, little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one’s mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45 were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, physical practice plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of three days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning.

  7. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Ellen R.; Sherwood, Nancy M.

    2017-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15–28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups. PMID:28346489

  8. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Ellen R; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2017-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known. In this study we examined the effect of disrupting the GnRH receptor in mice to determine if growth, metabolism or behaviors that are not associated with reproduction were affected. To minimize the effects of other hormones such as FSH, LH and sex steroids, the neonatal-prepubertal period of 2 to 28 days of age was selected. The study shows that regardless of sex or phenotype in the Gnrhr gene knockout line, there was no significant difference in the daily development of motor control, sensory detection or spatial orientation among the wildtype, heterozygous or null mice. This included a series of behavioral tests for touch, vision, hearing, spatial orientation, locomotory behavior and muscle strength. Neither the daily body weight nor the final weight on day 28 of the kidney, liver and thymus relative to body weight varied significantly in any group. However by day 28, metabolic changes in the GnRH null females compared with wildtype females showed a significant reduction in inguinal fat pad weight normalized to body weight; this was accompanied by an increase in glucose compared with wildtype females shown by Student-Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison test and Student's unpaired t tests. Our studies show that the GnRH-GnRHR system is not essential for growth or motor/sensory/orientation behavior during the first month of life prior to puberty onset. The lack of the GnRH-GnRHR axis, however, did affect females resulting in reduced subcutaneous inguinal fat pad weight and increased glucose with possible insulin resistance; the loss of the normal rise of estradiol at postnatal days 15-28 may account for the altered metabolism in the prepubertal female pups.

  9. Fipronil promotes motor and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and affects the development of colonies exposed to sublethal doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaluski, Rodrigo; Kadri, Samir Moura; Alonso, Diego Peres; Martins Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira Orsi, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Bees play a crucial role in pollination and generate honey and other hive products; therefore, their worldwide decline is cause for concern. New broad-spectrum systemic insecticides such as fipronil can harm bees and their use has been discussed as a potential threat to bees' survival. In the present study, the authors evaluate the in vitro toxicity of fipronil and note behavioral and motor activity changes in Africanized adult Apis mellifera that ingest or come into contact with lethal or sublethal doses of fipronil. The effects of sublethal doses on brood viability, population growth, behavior, and the expression of the defensin 1 gene in adult bees were studied in colonies fed with contaminated sugar syrup (8 µg fipronil L(-1) ). Fipronil is highly toxic to bees triggering agitation, seizures, tremors, and paralysis. Bees that are exposed to a lethal or sublethal doses showed reduced motor activity. The number of eggs that hatched, the area occupied by worker eggs, and the number of larvae and pupae that developed were reduced, adult bees showed lethargy, and colonies were abandoned when they were exposed to sublethal doses of fipronil. No change was seen in the bees' expression of defensin 1. The authors conclude that fipronil is highly toxic to honey bees and even sublethal doses may negatively affect the development and maintenance of colonies.

  10. Skill learning and repetition priming in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grober, E; Ausubel, R; Sliwinski, M; Gordon, B

    1992-10-01

    While perceptual-motor learning occurs normally in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, their ability to acquire the skill of reading transformed text has not been well delineated. AD patients and matched controls were timed as they read two blocks of words presented in mirror image. Control subjects displayed both skill learning and repetition priming, whereas AD patients displayed only repetition priming. Skill learning in AD patients was associated with their ability to complete verbal analogies. They displayed the expected impairment in recognition for the words from the mirror reading task. The failure of AD patients to acquire the mirror reading skill can be understood through a task analysis and may reflect an underlying deficit in abstract reasoning that precludes the development of appropriate pattern analyzing strategies needed to transform rotated text.

  11. Place field repetition and spatial learning in a multicompartment environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, Roddy M; Jenkins, Bryan W; Harland, Bruce C; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that place cells in the hippocampus possess firing fields that repeat in physically similar, parallel environments. These results imply that it should be difficult for animals to distinguish parallel environments at a behavioral level. To test this, we trained rats on a novel odor-location task in an environment with four parallel compartments which had previously been shown to yield place field repetition. A second group of animals was trained on the same task, but with the compartments arranged in different directions, an arrangement we hypothesised would yield less place field repetition. Learning of the odor-location task in the parallel compartments was significantly impaired relative to learning in the radially arranged compartments. Fewer animals acquired the full discrimination in the parallel compartments compared to those trained in the radial compartments, and the former also required many more sessions to reach criterion compared to the latter. To confirm that the arrangement of compartments yielded differences in place cell repetition, in a separate group of animals we recorded from CA1 place cells in both environments. We found that CA1 place cells exhibited repeated fields across four parallel local compartments, but did not do so when the same compartments were arranged radially. To confirm that the differences in place field repetition across the parallel and radial compartments depended on their angular arrangement, and not incidental differences in access to an extra-maze visual landmark, we repeated the recordings in a second set of rats in the absence of the orientation landmark. We found, once again, that place fields showed repetition in parallel compartments, and did not do so in radially arranged compartments. Thus place field repetition, or lack thereof, in these compartments was not dependent on extra-maze cues. Together, these results imply that place field repetition constrains spatial learning.

  12. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for.

  13. Cohesive Function of Lexical Repetition in Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 卢沛沛

    2013-01-01

    Lexical repetition is the most direct form of lexical cohesion,which is the central device for making texts hang together. Although repetition is the most direct way to emphasize,it performs the cohesive effect more apparently.

  14. Behavioral Senescence and Aging-Related Changes in Motor Neurons and Brain Neuromodulator Levels Are Ameliorated by Lifespan-Extending Reproductive Dormancy in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick R. Nässel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifespan of Drosophilamelanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. We found that the senescence of geotaxis and locomotor behavior seen under normal rearing conditions was negligible in flies kept in dormancy. The normal senescence of rhythmic activity and sleep patterns during the daytime was also reduced by adult dormancy. Investigating the morphology of specific neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, we found that changes normally seen with aging do not take place in dormant flies. To monitor age-associated changes in neuronal circuits regulating activity rhythms, sleep and walking behavior we applied antisera to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, serotonin and several neuropeptides to examine changes in expression levels and neuron morphology. In most neuron types the levels of stored neuromodulators decreased during normal aging, but not in diapause treated flies. No signs of neurodegeneration were seen in either condition. Our data suggest that age-related changes in motor neurons could be the cause of part of the behavioral senescence and that this is ameliorated by reproductive diapause. Earlier studies established a link between age-associated decreases in neuromodulator levels and behavioral decline that could be rescued by overexpression of neuromodulator. Thus, it is likely that the retained levels of neuromodulators in dormant flies alleviate behavioral senescence.

  15. The importance of measurement precision and behavioral homologies in evaluating the behavioral consequences of fetal-ethanol exposure: commentary on Williams and colleagues ("Sensory-motor deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder assessed using a robotic virtual reality platform").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    The recent study by Willams and colleagues utilized a novel robotic virtual reality measurement system to measure sensory-motor processing deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). This system and the precise quantitation of distinct constituent behavioral processes may hold considerable utility and importance for the study of FASD-related motor deficits, their neural bases, and translational research efforts using homologous behavioral approaches in animal and human studies.. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. A feasible repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation clinical protocol in migraine prevention

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    Shawn Zardouz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case series was conducted to determine the clinical feasibility of a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol for the prevention of migraine (with and without aura. Methods: Five patients with migraines underwent five repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions separated in 1- to 2-week intervals for a period of 2 months at a single tertiary medical center. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the left motor cortex with 2000 pulses (20 trains with 1s inter-train interval delivered per session, at a frequency of 10 Hz and 80% resting motor threshold. Pre- and post-treatment numerical rating pain scales were collected, and percent reductions in intensity, frequency, and duration were generated. Results: An average decrease in 37.8%, 32.1%, and 31.2% were noted in the intensity, frequency, and duration of migraines post-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, respectively. A mean decrease in 1.9±1.0 (numerical rating pain scale ± standard deviation; range: 0.4–2.8 in headache intensity scores was noted after the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation sessions. Conclusion: The tested repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol is a well-tolerated, safe, and effective method for migraine prevention.

  17. Investigating repetition and change in musical rhythm by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, A; Otnæss, M K; Jensen, J; Williams, S C R; Ostberg, B C

    2014-09-05

    Groove-based rhythm is a basic and much appreciated feature of Western popular music. It is commonly associated with dance, movement and pleasure and is characterized by the repetition of a basic rhythmic pattern. At various points in the musical course, drum breaks occur, representing a change compared to the repeated pattern of the groove. In the present experiment, we investigated the brain response to such drum breaks in a repetitive groove. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while listening to a previously unheard naturalistic groove with drum breaks at uneven intervals. The rhythmic pattern and the timing of its different parts as performed were the only aspects that changed from the repetitive sections to the breaks. Differences in blood oxygen level-dependent activation were analyzed. In contrast to the repetitive parts, the drum breaks activated the left cerebellum, the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG), and the superior temporal gyri (STG) bilaterally. A tapping test using the same stimulus showed an increase in the standard deviation of inter-tap-intervals in the breaks versus the repetitive parts, indicating extra challenges for auditory-motor integration in the drum breaks. Both the RIFG and STG have been associated with structural irregularity and increase in musical-syntactical complexity in several earlier studies, whereas the left cerebellum is known to play a part in timing. Together these areas may be recruited in the breaks due to a prediction error process whereby the internal model is being updated. This concurs with previous research suggesting a network for predictive feed-forward control that comprises the cerebellum and the cortical areas that were activated in the breaks.

  18. Neurobehavioral phenotyping of Gaq knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory without changes in anxiety or behavioral despair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya L Frederick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many neurotransmitters, hormones and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to Gq family heterotrimeric G proteins. Nevertheless, we still understand little about the consequences of loss of this signaling activity on brain function. We therefore examined the effects of genetic inactivation of Gnaq on responsiveness in a battery of behavioral tests in order to assess the contribution of Gaq signaling capacity in the brain circuits mediating expression of affective behaviors (anxiety and behavioral despair, spatial working memory and locomotor output (coordination, strength, spontaneous activity and drug-induced responses. First, we replicated and extended findings showing clear motor deficits in Gaq knockout mice as assessed on an accelerating rotarod and the inverted screen test. We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor responses to the psychostimulant cocaine, the benzazepine D1 receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant increases in drug-induced locomotor activity in Gaq knockout mice from the dopaminergic agonists but not MK-801, indicating that basal ganglia locomotor circuitry is largely intact in the absence of Gaq. Additionally, we observed normal phenotypes in both the elevated zero maze and the forced swim test indicating that anxiety and depression-related circuitry appears to be largely intact after loss of Gnaq expression. Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in Gaq knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through Gaq are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task.

  19. Influence of Motor Cortex Stimulation During Motor Training on Neuroplasticity as a Potential Therapeutic Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Crystal L; White, Caylen; Pruit, Katie; Freel, Aubrey; Staley, Kaylin; Backes, Morgan

    2017-02-06

    Rehabilitation options to promote neuroplasticity may be enhanced when patients are engaged in motor practice during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve participants completed 3 separate sessions: motor practice, motor practice with rTMS, and rTMS only: motor practice consisted of 30 isometric contractions and subthreshold rTMS was 30, 3-s trains at 10 Hz. Assessments included the Box and Block Test (BBT), force steadiness (10% of the maximum voluntary contraction), and TMS (cortical excitability, intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation). Participants significantly increased BBT scores following the combined condition. Force steadiness improved after all 3 conditions (p motor practice plus rTMS condition. All interventions influenced motor control, yet are likely modulated differently when combining motor practice plus rTMS. These results help guide the clinical utility of rTMS as an intervention to influence motor control.

  20. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  1. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Shiree

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes and long-term (within days facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form.

  2. Absence of glia maturation factor protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor behavior in mouse model of Parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Zaheer, Smita; Ramasamy, Thangavel; Patel, Margi; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Asgar

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that aberrant expression of glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein, is associated with the neuropathological conditions underlying diseases suggesting an important role for GMF in neurodegeneration. In the present study, we demonstrate that absence of GMF suppresses dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss, glial activation, and expression of proinflammatory mediators in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) and striatum (STR) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated mice. Dopaminergic neuron numbers in the SN and fiber densities in the STR were reduced in wild type (Wt) mice when compared with GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice after MPTP treatment. We compared the motor abnormalities caused by MPTP treatment in Wt and GMF-KO mice as measured by Rota rod and grip strength test. Results show that the deficits in motor coordination and decrease in dopamine and its metabolite content were protected significantly in GMF-KO mice after MPTP treatment when compared with control Wt mice under identical experimental conditions. These findings were further supported by the immunohistochemical analysis that showed reduced glial activation in the SN of MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice. Similarly, in MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice, production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) MCP-1 was suppressed, findings consistent with a role for GMF in MPTP neurotoxicity. In conclusion, present investigation provides the first evidence that deficiency of GMF protects the DA neuron loss and reduces the inflammatory load following MPTP administration in mice. Thus depletion of endogenous GMF represents an effective and selective strategy to slow down the MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25754447

  3. Primary Motor Cortex Involvement in Initial Learning during Visuomotor Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, Stephan; Hinder, Mark R.; Carson, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Human motor behaviour is continually modified on the basis of errors between desired and actual movement outcomes. It is emerging that the role played by the primary motor cortex (M1) in this process is contingent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the task being performed, and the stage of learning. Here we used repetitive TMS to…

  4. Bupropion XL-induced motor and vocal tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Fatih; Uguz, Faruk; Kayhan, Ayşegül; Toktaş, Fikriye Ilay

    2014-01-01

    Tics are stereotypical repetitive involuntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics). Although the emergence of tics were reported in a few cases with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, there was no case with bupropion extended-release (Bupropion XL). The current case report presents a male patient developing motor and vocal tics with the use of bupropion XL.

  5. FBFN-based adaptive repetitive control of nonlinearly parameterized systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenli Sun; Hong Cai; Fu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive repetitive control scheme is presented for a class of nonlinearly parameterized systems based on the fuzzy ba-sis function network (FBFN). The parameters of the fuzzy rules are tuned with adaptive schemes. To attenuate chattering effectively, the discontinuous control term is approximated by an adaptive PI control structure. The bound of the discontinuous control term is assumed to be unknown and estimated by an adaptive mecha-nism. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive repeti-tive control law is proposed to guarantee the closed-loop stability and the tracking performance. By means of FBFNs, which avoid the nonlinear parameterization from entering into the adaptive repetitive control, the control er singularity problem is solved. The proposed approach does not require an exact structure of the sys-tem dynamics, and the proposed control er is utilized to control a model of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor subject to significant disturbances and parameter uncertainties. The simula-tion results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    Full Text Available Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1 sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2 complex active place avoidance learning (APA and simple passive avoidance retention (PA. Electroretinogram (ERG, hemispheric loss (infarction, hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001, sensory (p<0.001, beam balance performance (p<0.01 and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01. tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05 but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining. No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01 in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and

  7. Perceptual, Motor, Memory, and Quantitative Elements of Language Behavior: Differences Between 3- and 4-Year-Old Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Caven S.; Gullo, Dominic F.

    1982-01-01

    To examine language performance and its subskills, the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities were administered to 30 three- and four-year-old children. The contradictory findings of verbal performance examined by age suggests that component skills contributing to verbal language behavior may vary significantly with age in the preschool years.…

  8. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Fuentes, Germán Andrés

    2012-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area and Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic; however, in some applications the period of the signal to be tracked/rejected changes in time or is uncertain, which causes and important performance degradation in the standard repetitive controller. This thesis presents some contributions to the open topic of repetitive control workin...

  9. Repetitive magnetic stimulation affects the microenvironment of nerve regeneration and evoked potentials after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-Lan; Guo, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Shu-Quan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Wu, Shi-Feng

    2016-05-01

    Repetitive magnetic stimulation has been shown to alter local blood flow of the brain, excite the corticospinal tract and muscle, and induce motor function recovery. We established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using the modified Allen's method. After 4 hours of injury, rat models received repetitive magnetic stimulation, with a stimulus intensity of 35% maximum output intensity, 5-Hz frequency, 5 seconds for each sequence, and an interval of 2 minutes. This was repeated for a total of 10 sequences, once a day, 5 days in a week, for 2 consecutive weeks. After repetitive magnetic stimulation, the number of apoptotic cells decreased, matrix metalloproteinase 9/2 gene and protein expression decreased, nestin expression increased, somatosensory and motor-evoked potentials recovered, and motor function recovered in the injured spinal cord. These findings confirm that repetitive magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord improved the microenvironment of neural regeneration, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and induced neuroprotective and repair effects on the injured spinal cord.

  10. Repetitive magnetic stimulation affects the microenvironment of nerve regeneration and evoked potentials after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-lan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive magnetic stimulation has been shown to alter local blood flow of the brain, excite the corticospinal tract and muscle, and induce motor function recovery. We established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury using the modified Allen′s method. After 4 hours of injury, rat models received repetitive magnetic stimulation, with a stimulus intensity of 35% maximum output intensity, 5-Hz frequency, 5 seconds for each sequence, and an interval of 2 minutes. This was repeated for a total of 10 sequences, once a day, 5 days in a week, for 2 consecutive weeks. After repetitive magnetic stimulation, the number of apoptotic cells decreased, matrix metalloproteinase 9/2 gene and protein expression decreased, nestin expression increased, somatosensory and motor-evoked potentials recovered, and motor function recovered in the injured spinal cord. These findings confirm that repetitive magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord improved the microenvironment of neural regeneration, reduced neuronal apoptosis, and induced neuroprotective and repair effects on the injured spinal cord.

  11. Sensory dysfunction associated with repetitive strain injuries of tendinitis and focal hand dystonia: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, N; Wilson, F; Merzenich, M; Melnick, M; Scott, P; Oakes, A; McKenzie, A

    1996-04-01

    Repetitive strain injuries are reaching epidemic levels among workers who perform heavy schedules of rapid alternating movements (eg., computer programmers, data entry workers) or repetitive, sustained, coordinated movements (eg., editors, writers, salespeople). The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with repetitive strain injury demonstrated degraded sensory motor performance with their hands. Sixty age-matched adults were recruited, with 15 each assigned to a healthy adult control group, a healthy musician control group, a tendinitis group, or a focal dystonia group. Four sensory motor subtests from the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test were given to the subjects according to a standardized protocol. Using multiple one-factor analyses of variance in the parametric or nonparametric mode followed by post hoc pairwise testing, no significant differences were found between the healthy controls and the musician controls. On the test of kinesthesia, using the left hand, subjects with tendinitis performed significantly worse than controls and subjects with focal dystonia. Compared with controls, subjects with focal dystonia did significantly worse on graphesthesia and manual form perception (part 1 and part 2). Subjects with focal dystonia also did significantly worse than subjects with tendinitis when using the left hand on graphesthesia and manual form perception (part 2). When treating patients with repetitive strain injury, discriminative sensory motor skills must be carefully assessed and may need to be addressed as part of an effective treatment program.

  12. Pressure rig for repetitive casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Peter (Inventor); Hutto, William R. (Inventor); Philips, Albert R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is a pressure rig for repetitive casting of metal. The pressure rig performs like a piston for feeding molten metal into a mold. Pressure is applied to an expandable rubber diaphragm which expands like a balloon to force the metal into the mold. A ceramic cavity which holds molten metal is lined with blanket-type insulating material, necessitating only a relining for subsequent use and eliminating the lengthy cavity preparation inherent in previous rigs. In addition, the expandable rubber diaphragm is protected by the insulating material thereby decreasing its vulnerability to heat damage. As a result of the improved design the life expectancy of the pressure rig contemplated by the present invention is more than doubled. Moreover, the improved heat protection has allowed the casting of brass and other alloys with higher melting temperatures than possible in the conventional pressure rigs.

  13. Practice Schedule and the Learning of Motor Skills in Children and Adults: Teaching Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipp, Genevieve Pinto; Gentile, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how motor skills are learned influences how one teaches effective motor skill attainment. Educators must ask, "Does repetitive practice of the same task make for better performance or does contextual variability (random practice) offer some benefit when learning motor skills?" Studies on the effects of Contextual Interference may…

  14. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...

  15. Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Motor Learning by Character Entry into Touch-Screen Terminals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sagari

    Full Text Available Studies of cerebral hemodynamics during motor learning have mostly focused on neurorehabilitation interventions and their effectiveness. However, only a few imaging studies of motor learning and the underlying complex cognitive processes have been performed.We measured cerebral hemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in relation to acquisition patterns of motor skills in healthy subjects using character entry into a touch-screen terminal. Twenty healthy, right-handed subjects who had no previous experience with character entry using a touch-screen terminal participated in this study. They were asked to enter the characters of a randomly formed Japanese syllabary into the touch-screen terminal. All subjects performed the task with their right thumb for 15 s alternating with 25 s of rest for 30 repetitions. Performance was calculated by subtracting the number of incorrect answers from the number of correct answers, and gains in motor skills were evaluated according to the changes in performance across cycles. Behavioral and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes across task cycles were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlations.Performance correlated positively with task cycle, thus confirming motor learning. Hemodynamic activation over the left sensorimotor cortex (SMC showed a positive correlation with task cycle, whereas activations over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC and supplementary motor area (SMA showed negative correlations.We suggest that increases in finger momentum with motor learning are reflected in the activity of the left SMC. We further speculate that the right PFC and SMA were activated during the early phases of motor learning, and that this activity was attenuated with learning progress.

  16. Repetitive sequences in plant nuclear DNA: types, distribution, evolution and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shweta; Goyal, Vinod

    2014-08-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences are a major component of eukaryotic genomes and may account for up to 90% of the genome size. They can be divided into minisatellite, microsatellite and satellite sequences. Satellite DNA sequences are considered to be a fast-evolving component of eukaryotic genomes, comprising tandemly-arrayed, highly-repetitive and highly-conserved monomer sequences. The monomer unit of satellite DNA is 150-400 base pairs (bp) in length. Repetitive sequences may be species- or genus-specific, and may be centromeric or subtelomeric in nature. They exhibit cohesive and concerted evolution caused by molecular drive, leading to high sequence homogeneity. Repetitive sequences accumulate variations in sequence and copy number during evolution, hence they are important tools for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, and are known as "tuning knobs" in the evolution. Therefore, knowledge of repetitive sequences assists our understanding of the organization, evolution and behavior of eukaryotic genomes. Repetitive sequences have cytoplasmic, cellular and developmental effects and play a role in chromosomal recombination. In the post-genomics era, with the introduction of next-generation sequencing technology, it is possible to evaluate complex genomes for analyzing repetitive sequences and deciphering the yet unknown functional potential of repetitive sequences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Modularity for Motor Control and Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    How the central nervous system (CNS) overcomes the complexity of multi-joint and multi-muscle control and how it acquires or adapts motor skills are fundamental and open questions in neuroscience. A modular architecture may simplify control by embedding features of both the dynamic behavior of the musculoskeletal system and of the task into a small number of modules and by directly mapping task goals into module combination parameters. Several studies of the electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from many muscles during the performance of different tasks have shown that motor commands are generated by the combination of a small number of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific amplitude balances or activation waveforms, thus supporting a modular organization of motor control. Modularity may also help understanding motor learning. In a modular architecture, acquisition of a new motor skill or adaptation of an existing skill after a perturbation may occur at the level of modules or at the level of module combinations. As learning or adapting an existing skill through recombination of modules is likely faster than learning or adapting a skill by acquiring new modules, compatibility with the modules predicts learning difficulty. A recent study in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment has tested this prediction. By altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, it has been possible to show that it is easier to adapt to a perturbation that is compatible with the muscle synergies used to generate hand force than to a similar but incompatible perturbation. This result provides direct support for a modular organization of motor control and motor learning.

  18. Ebselen protects against behavioral and biochemical toxicities induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rats: correlations between motor coordination, reactive species levels, and succinate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Ethel A; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Jesse, Cristiano R; Luchese, Cristiane

    2014-12-01

    The protective effect of ebselen was investigated against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced behavioral and biochemical toxicities in rats. Ebselen (10 or 25 mg/kg, intragastrically) was administered to rats 30 min before 3-NP (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) once a day for a period of 4 days. Locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight gain were determined. The striatal content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AA), and protein carbonyl as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities was determined 24 h after the last dose of 3-NP. Na(+)/ K(+)-ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and δ-aminolevulinic dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities were also determined. The results demonstrated that ebselen at a dose of 25 mg/kg, but not at 10 mg/kg, protected against (1) a decrease in locomotor activity, motor coordination impairment, and body weight loss; (2) striatal oxidative damage, which was characterized by an increase in ROS levels, protein carbonyl content, and GR activity, an inhibition of CAT and GPx activities, and a decrease in GSH levels; and (3) an inhibition of SDH and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities, induced by 3-NP. GST activity and AA levels were not modified by ebselen or 3-NP. Ebselen was not effective against the inhibition of δ-ALA-D activity induced by 3-NP. The results revealed a significant correlation between SDH activity and ROS levels, and SDH activity and latency to fall (rotarod test). The present study highlighted the protective effect of ebselen against 3-NP-induced toxicity in rats.

  19. Giant repeater F-wave in patients with anterior horn cell disorders. Role of motor unit size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, I K; el-Abd, M A

    1997-01-01

    Conventional F-wave responses as well as single motor unit F-wave responses together with the volitionally recruited motor unit action potentials (MUAP) were studied in hand and feet muscles of 10 healthy subjects and 32 patients with anterior horn cell disorders. The amplitude of the largest F-wave (Fl) was significantly greater in the affected patients compared with healthy subjects. Giant repeater F-wave responses "up to 4 mV" were recorded in muscles having volitionally recruited giant MUAPs. Although, the group mean percentage of motor unit F-wave responses per stimulation in all tested orthodromic MUAPs was significantly decreased in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, the group mean percentage of motor unit F-wave responses per stimulation in all tested orthodromic MUAPs that gave motor unit F-wave response was significantly increased compared with healthy subjects. The responding orthodromic MUAP gave identical motor unit F-wave response, even for complex polyphasic units. Enhanced monosynaptic (H-) reflex, proximal axon reflex (A-wave), and repetitive muscle response as possible explanations for the giant F-wave responses could be discounted. The electrophysiologic behavior of the giant late responses described here fits well with the criteria of F-waves modulated by newly formed distal (and or proximal) axonal branching.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of 3D mouse behaviors and motor function in the open-field after spinal cord injury using markerless motion tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Sheets

    Full Text Available Thousands of scientists strive to identify cellular mechanisms that could lead to breakthroughs in developing ameliorative treatments for debilitating neural and muscular conditions such as spinal cord injury (SCI. Most studies use rodent models to test hypotheses, and these are all limited by the methods available to evaluate animal motor function. This study's goal was to develop a behavioral and locomotor assessment system in a murine model of SCI that enables quantitative kinematic measurements to be made automatically in the open-field by applying markerless motion tracking approaches. Three-dimensional movements of eight naïve, five mild, five moderate, and four severe SCI mice were recorded using 10 cameras (100 Hz. Background subtraction was used in each video frame to identify the animal's silhouette, and the 3D shape at each time was reconstructed using shape-from-silhouette. The reconstructed volume was divided into front and back halves using k-means clustering. The animal's front Center of Volume (CoV height and whole-body CoV speed were calculated and used to automatically classify animal behaviors including directed locomotion, exploratory locomotion, meandering, standing, and rearing. More detailed analyses of CoV height, speed, and lateral deviation during directed locomotion revealed behavioral differences and functional impairments in animals with mild, moderate, and severe SCI when compared with naïve animals. Naïve animals displayed the widest variety of behaviors including rearing and crossing the center of the open-field, the fastest speeds, and tallest rear CoV heights. SCI reduced the range of behaviors, and decreased speed (r = .70 p<.005 and rear CoV height (r = .65 p<.01 were significantly correlated with greater lesion size. This markerless tracking approach is a first step toward fundamentally changing how rodent movement studies are conducted. By providing scientists with sensitive, quantitative

  1. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Onori, Martina Proietti; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bartolini, Erika; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Imperi, Monica; Orefici, Graziella; Creti, Roberta; Margarit, Immaculada; Magliozzi, Roberta; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-08-25

    Repeated exposure to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; general locomotion; repetitive behaviors; perseverative responses; and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition, PPI). To demonstrate that behavioral changes were associated with immune-mediated brain alterations, we analyzed, in selected brain areas, the presence of infiltrates and microglial activation (immunohistochemistry), monoamines (HPLC), and brain metabolites (in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). GAS-exposed mice showed increased repetitive and perseverative behaviors, impaired PPI, and reduced concentrations of serotonin in prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to the behavioral domains investigated, wherein they also showed remarkable elevations in lactate. Active inflammatory processes were substantiated by the observation of infiltrates and microglial activation in the white matter of the anterior diencephalon. These data support the hypothesis that repeated GAS exposure may elicit inflammatory responses in brain areas involved in motor control and perseverative behavior, and result in phenotypic abnormalities.

  2. Comparing repetition-based melody segmentation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, M.E.; de Haas, Bas; Volk, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of computational melody segmentation models based on repetition detection. For the comparison we implemented five repetition-based segmentation models, and subsequently evaluated their capacity to automatically find melodic phrase boundaries in a corpus of 2

  3. Task Repetition and Second Language Speech Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Craig; Kormos, Judit; Minn, Danny

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the repetition of oral monologue tasks and immediate gains in L2 fluency. It considers the effect of aural-oral task repetition on speech rate, frequency of clause-final and midclause filled pauses, and overt self-repairs across different task types and proficiency levels and relates these findings to…

  4. Repetitions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kumiko

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated how repetition is used in conversation among native speakers of British English, native speakers of Japanese, and Japanese speakers of English. Five interactional functions of repetition (interruption-orientated, solidarity, silence-avoidance, hesitation, and reformulation) were identified, as well as the cultural factors…

  5. Motor syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances.

  6. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  7. Impact of Nintendo Wii Games on Physical Literacy in Children: Motor Skills, Physical Fitness, Activity Behaviors, and Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. George

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical literacy is the degree of fitness, behaviors, knowledge, and fundamental movement skills (agility, balance, and coordination a child has to confidently participate in physical activity. Active video games (AVG, like the Nintendo Wii, have emerged as alternatives to traditional physical activity by providing a non-threatening environment to develop physical literacy. This study examined the impact of AVGs on children’s (age 6–12, N = 15 physical literacy. For six weeks children played one of four pre-selected AVGs (minimum 20 min, twice per week. Pre and post measures of motivation, enjoyment, and physical literacy were completed. Results indicated a near significant improvement in aiming and catching (p = 0.06. Manual dexterity significantly improved in males (p = 0.001, and females felt significantly less pressured to engage in PA (p = 0.008. Overall, there appears to be some positive impact of an AVG intervention on components of physical literacy.

  8. Effects of administering testosterone undecanoate in rats subjected to physical exercise: effects on the estrous cycle, motor behavior and morphology of the liver and kidney

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    Moisés Tolentino Bento-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was evaluate the effects of testosterone undecanoate (TU treatment combined with moderate physical training on: the estrous cycle, body weight (BW, motor behavior (MB, and the morphohistology of the reproductive system, the liver and kidney in rats. Female Wistar rats (180 g - 250 g were divided as follows: sedentary + TU (S + TU, trained + TU (T + TU, sedentary + vehicle (S + V, trained + vehicle (T + V. The rats swam 50 min/Day, strapped with a 5% BW load, for 4 weeks. During this training, (BW was monitored daily as well as the estrous cycle (EC by vaginal smear. The TU (15 mg/kg s.c was administered 3 times/week for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, data on MB, BW and morphohistopathological changes in viscera were compiled. The (T + TU group had on average, a higher (BW in the fourth week compared to the first week, and (BW higher than (S + V and (S + TU groups. We noted an interruption in the EC and a decrease in weight of ovaries in animals treated with TU. In addition, there was an increase in the relative weight of the heart in groups (T + V and (T+ TU, and kidneys in group (T + TU. Histopathological analysis showed periportal congestion and isolated foci of hepatic necrosis in rats with TU. Thus, TU combined with training abolished the EC, promoted ovarian atrophy, liver necrosis, cardiac hypertrophy and a decrease in motor activity.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento com undecanoato de testosterona (UT combinado ao treinamento físico moderado sobre ciclo estral, peso corporal, estruturas do sistema reprodutor, comportamento motor e morfologia hepática e renal em ratas. Ratas Wistar (180 a 250 g foram divididas em: sedentárias + UT (S+UT, treinadas + UT (T+UT, sedentárias + veículo (S+V, treinadas + veículo (T+V. As ratas nadaram 50 min/dia com sobrecarga de ~5% do peso corporal por 4 semanas. Durante o período de treinamento foi realizado acompanhamento diário do peso corporal (PC e do

  9. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  10. Strategies for Using Repetition as a Powerful Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Kirt

    2011-01-01

    Brain research indicates that repetition is of vital importance in the learning process. Repetition is an especially useful tool in the area of music education. The success of repetition can be enhanced by accurate and timely feedback. From "simple repetition" to "repetition with the addition or subtraction of degrees of freedom," there are many…

  11. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Neurofeedback-guided Motor Imagery Training and Motor Training for Parkinson’s Disease: Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Leena; Morris, Monica Busse; Brosnan, Meadhbh; Turner, Duncan L.; Morris, Huw R.; Linden, David E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback (NF) uses feedback of the patient’s own brain activity to self-regulate brain networks which in turn could lead to a change in behavior and clinical symptoms. The objective was to determine the effect of NF and motor training (MOT) alone on motor and non-motor functions in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) in a 10-week small Phase I randomized controlled trial. Methods: Thirty patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD; Hoehn and Yahr I-III) and no significant comorbidity took part in the trial with random allocation to two groups. Group 1 (NF: 15 patients) received rt-fMRI-NF with MOT. Group 2 (MOT: 15 patients) received MOT alone. The primary outcome measure was the Movement Disorder Society—Unified PD Rating Scale-Motor scale (MDS-UPDRS-MS), administered pre- and post-intervention “off-medication”. The secondary outcome measures were the “on-medication” MDS-UPDRS, the PD Questionnaire-39, and quantitative motor assessments after 4 and 10 weeks. Results: Patients in the NF group were able to upregulate activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) by using motor imagery. They improved by an average of 4.5 points on the MDS-UPDRS-MS in the “off-medication” state (95% confidence interval: −2.5 to −6.6), whereas the MOT group improved only by 1.9 points (95% confidence interval +3.2 to −6.8). The improvement in the intervention group meets the minimal clinically important difference which is also on par with other non-invasive therapies such as repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). However, the improvement did not differ significantly between the groups. No adverse events were reported in either group. Interpretation: This Phase I study suggests that NF combined with MOT is safe and improves motor symptoms immediately after treatment, but larger trials are needed to explore its superiority over active control conditions. PMID:27375451

  12. Repetition priming from moving faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Bruce, Vicki

    2004-06-01

    Recent experiments have suggested that seeing a familiar face move provides additional dynamic information to the viewer, useful in the recognition of identity. In four experiments, repetition priming was used to investigate whether dynamic information is intrinsic to the underlying face representations. The results suggest that a moving image primes more effectively than a static image, even when the same static image is shown in the prime and the test phases (Experiment 1). Furthermore, when moving images are presented in the test phase (Experiment 2), there is an advantage for moving prime images. The most priming advantage is found with naturally moving faces, rather than with those shown in slow motion (Experiment 3). Finally, showing the same moving sequence at prime and test produced more priming than that found when different moving sequences were shown (Experiment 4). The results suggest that dynamic information is intrinsic to the face representations and that there is an advantage to viewing the same moving sequence at prime and test.

  13. Supplementation of Korean Red Ginseng improves behavior deviations in animal models of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luck T. Gonzales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that primarily display social and communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviors. ASD prevalence has increased in recent years, yet very limited therapeutic targets and treatments are available to counteract the incapacitating disorder. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG is a popular herbal plant in South Korea known for its wide range of therapeutic effects and nutritional benefits and has recently been gaining great scientific attention, particularly for its positive effects in the central nervous system. Objectives: Thus, in this study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of KRG in alleviating the neurobehavioral deficits found in the valproic acid (VPA-exposed mice models of ASD. Design: Starting at 21 days old (P21, VPA-exposed mice were given daily oral administrations of KRG solution (100 or 200 mg/kg until the termination of all experiments. From P28, mice behaviors were assessed in terms of social interaction capacity (P28–29, locomotor activity (P30, repetitive behaviors (P32, short-term spatial working memory (P34, motor coordination (P36, and seizure susceptibility (P38. Results: VPA-exposed mice showed sociability and social novelty preference deficits, hyperactivity, increased repetitive behavior, impaired spatial working memory, slightly affected motor coordination, and high seizure susceptibility. Remarkably, long-term KRG treatment in both dosages normalized all the ASD-related behaviors in VPA-exposed mice, except motor coordination ability. Conclusion: As a food and herbal supplement with various known benefits, KRG demonstrated its therapeutic potential in rescuing abnormal behaviors related to autism caused by prenatal environmental exposure to VPA.

  14. The Clinical Effect of Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Depression%经颅磁刺激联合认知行为疗法治疗青少年抑郁症的临床效果