WorldWideScience

Sample records for repetition-based truth effect

  1. Unveiling the truth: warnings reduce the repetition-based truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarevic, Lena; Aßfalg, André

    2017-07-01

    Typically, people are more likely to consider a previously seen or heard statement as true compared to a novel statement. This repetition-based "truth effect" is thought to rely on fluency-truth attributions as the underlying cognitive mechanism. In two experiments, we tested the nature of the fluency-attribution mechanism by means of warning instructions, which informed participants about the truth effect and asked them to prevent it. In Experiment 1, we instructed warned participants to consider whether a statement had already been presented in the experiment to avoid the truth effect. However, warnings did not significantly reduce the truth effect. In Experiment 2, we introduced control questions and reminders to ensure that participants understood the warning instruction. This time, warning reduced, but did not eliminate the truth effect. Assuming that the truth effect relies on fluency-truth attributions, this finding suggests that warned participants could control their attributions but did not disregard fluency altogether when making truth judgments. Further, we found no evidence that participants overdiscount the influence of fluency on their truth judgments.

  2. Truths and fallacies concerning radiation and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    In childhood we learned many myths about radiation. For example, we were told that people exposed to x-rays would glow in the dark, become radioactive, or under the proper circumstances, turn into superhumans such as the ''Hulk'' or ''Spiderman.'' Although these and other childhood myths are not taken seriously, many misconceptions still exist about the effects of ionizing radiation. Does exposure to radiation necessarily imply an ill fate? It is the intent of this chapter to highlight a few of the truths and fallacies concerning radiation and its effects

  3. The Effect of Telling Lies on Belief in the Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Polage

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study looks at the effect of telling lies, in contrast to simply planning lies, on participants’ belief in the truth. Participants planned and told a lie, planned to tell a lie but didn’t tell it, told an unplanned lie, or neither planned nor told a lie (control about events that did not actually happen to them. Participants attempted to convince researchers that all of the stories told were true. Results show that telling a lie plays a more important role in inflating belief scores than simply preparing the script of a lie. Cognitive dissonance may lead to motivated forgetting of information that does not align with the lie. This research suggests that telling lies may lead to confusion as to the veracity of the lie leading to inflated belief scores.

  4. A novel rumor diffusion model considering the effect of truth in online social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Liu, Yun; Zeng, Qing-An; Xiong, Fei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a model to investigate how truth affects rumor diffusion in online social media. Our model reveals a relation between rumor and truth — namely, when a rumor is diffusing, the truth about the rumor also diffuses with it. Two patterns of the agents used to identify rumor, self-identification and passive learning are taken into account. Combining theoretical proof and simulation analysis, we find that the threshold value of rumor diffusion is negatively correlated to the connectivity between nodes in the network and the probability β of agents knowing truth. Increasing β can reduce the maximum density of the rumor spreaders and slow down the generation speed of new rumor spreaders. On the other hand, we conclude that the best rumor diffusion strategy must balance the probability of forwarding rumor and the probability of agents losing interest in the rumor. High spread rate λ of rumor would lead to a surge in truth dissemination which will greatly limit the diffusion of rumor. Furthermore, in the case of unknown λ, increasing β can effectively reduce the maximum proportion of agents who do not know the truth, but cannot narrow the rumor diffusion range in a certain interval of β.

  5. Effects of the truth FinishIt brand on tobacco outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica M; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy Williams; Pitzer, Lindsay; Greenberg, Marisa; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2018-03-01

    Since 2000, the truth campaign has grown as a social marketing brand. Back then, truth employed branding to compete directly with the tobacco industry. In 2014, the launch of truth FinishIt reflected changes in the brand's strategy, the tobacco control environment, and youth/young adult behavior. Building on a previous validation study, the current study examined brand equity in truth FinishIt , as measured by validated multi-dimensional scales, and tobacco related attitudes, beliefs, and behavior based on two waves of the Truth Longitudinal Cohort data from 2015 and 2016. A fixed effects logistic regression was used to estimate the change in brand equity between panel survey waves 3 and 4 on past 30-day smoking among ever and current smokers. Additional models determined the effects of brand equity predicting tobacco attitudes/use at follow up among the full sample. All analyses controlled for demographic factors. A one-point increase in the brand equity scale between the two waves was associated with a 66% greater chance of not smoking among ever smokers (OR 1.66, CI 1.11-2.48, p  effects of brand equity on tobacco use and how tobacco control can optimize the use of branding in campaigns.

  6. Good things don't come easy (to mind): explaining framing effects in judgments of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the general phenomenon of a positive-negative-asymmetry was extended to judgments of truth. That is, negatively framed statements were shown to receive substantially higher truth ratings than formally equivalent statements framed positively. However, the cognitive mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown, so far. In the current work, two potential accounts are introduced and tested against each other in three experiments: On the one hand, negative framing may induce increased elaboration and thereby persuasion. Alternatively, negative framing could yield faster retrieval or generation of evidence and thus influence subjective veracity via experiential fluency. Two experiments drawing on response latencies and one manipulating the delay between information acquisition and judgment provide support for the fluency-based account. Overall, results replicate and extend the negatively-biased framing effect in truth judgments and show that processing fluency may account for it. © 2011 Hogrefe Publishing

  7. Effects of the truth FinishIt brand on tobacco outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Douglas Evans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, the truth campaign has grown as a social marketing brand. Back then, truth employed branding to compete directly with the tobacco industry. In 2014, the launch of truth FinishIt reflected changes in the brand's strategy, the tobacco control environment, and youth/young adult behavior.Building on a previous validation study, the current study examined brand equity in truth FinishIt, as measured by validated multi-dimensional scales, and tobacco related attitudes, beliefs, and behavior based on two waves of the Truth Longitudinal Cohort data from 2015 and 2016. A fixed effects logistic regression was used to estimate the change in brand equity between panel survey waves 3 and 4 on past 30-day smoking among ever and current smokers. Additional models determined the effects of brand equity predicting tobacco attitudes/use at follow up among the full sample. All analyses controlled for demographic factors.A one-point increase in the brand equity scale between the two waves was associated with a 66% greater chance of not smoking among ever smokers (OR 1.66, CI 1.11–2.48, p<0.05 and an 80% greater chance of not smoking among current smokers (OR 1.80, CI 1.05–3.10, p<0.05. Higher overall truth brand equity at wave 3 predicted less smoking at wave 4 and more positive anti-tobacco attitudes. Being male, younger, and non-white predicted some of the tobacco related attitudes.Future research should examine long-term effects of brand equity on tobacco use and how tobacco control can optimize the use of branding in campaigns. Keywords: Tobacco, Smoking, Social marketing, Branding, Prevention

  8. Mercury Retrograde Effect in Capital Markets: Truth or Illusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgea Aurora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From the most ancient times, the astrological beliefs have played an important role in human history, thinking, world-views, language and other elements of social culture. The practice of relating the movement of celestial bodies to events in financial markets is relatively newer but despite the inconsistency between financial astrology and standard economic or financial theory, it seems to be largely spread among capital market traders. This paper evaluates one of the astrological effects on the capital market, more precisely the Mercury retrograde effect on US capital market. Despite the fact that it is just an optical illusion the astrological tradition says that Mercury retrograde periods are characterized by confusion and miscommunications. The trades could be less effective, the individuals more prone to make mistakes so there is a long-held belief that it is better to avoid set plans during Mercury retrograde, signing contracts, starting new ventures or open new stock market positions. The main findings of this study are lower return’s volatilities in the Mercury retrograde periods, inconsistent with the astrologic theories assumptions but consistent with the idea that trader’s beliefs in Mercury retrograde effect could change the market volatility exactly in the opposite sense than the predicted one.

  9. Effects of the truth FinishIt brand on tobacco outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, W. Douglas; Rath, Jessica M.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Snider, Jeremy Williams; Pitzer, Lindsay; Greenberg, Marisa; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Since 2000, the truth campaign has grown as a social marketing brand. Back then, truth employed branding to compete directly with the tobacco industry. In 2014, the launch of truth FinishIt reflected changes in the brand's strategy, the tobacco control environment, and youth/young adult behavior.Building on a previous validation study, the current study examined brand equity in truth FinishIt, as measured by validated multi-dimensional scales, and tobacco related attitudes, beliefs, and behav...

  10. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  11. Evaluating the truth brand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Price, Simani; Blahut, Steven

    2005-03-01

    The American Legacy Foundation developed the truth campaign, an aspirational antismoking brand for adolescents. This study tested whether a multidimensional scale, brand equity in truth, mediates the relationship between campaign exposure and youth smoking. We collected brand equity responses from 2,306 youth on a nationally representative telephone survey. Factor analysis indicates that the scale has excellent psychometric properties and effectively measures brand equity. We developed a structural equation model to test the mediation hypothesis. Results show that brand equity mediates the relationship between truth and smoking. Analyses of potential cofounders show this relationship is robust. Behavioral branding (brands about a behavior or a lifestyle) is an important public health strategy.

  12. "An Inconvenient Truth"--Is It Still Effective at Familiarizing Students with Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Mark A.; Reimer, Kaitlin

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry courses for nonscience majors emphasize chemical concepts and the relationship of chemical knowledge to everyday life while teaching the utility of quantitative analysis. As an introduction to the topic of global warming, the first half of "An Inconvenient Truth," released in 2006, has been shown annually since 2008 in the…

  13. When deception becomes easy : The effects of task switching and goal neglect on the truth proportion effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bockstaele, B.; Wilhelm, C.; Meijer, E.; Debey, E.; Verschuere, B.

    2015-01-01

    Lying is typically more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Yet, recent cognitive models of lying propose that lying can be just as easy as truth telling, depending on contextual factors. In line with this idea, research has shown that the cognitive cost of deception decreases when people

  14. fMRI evidence for the role of recollection in suppressing misattribution errors: the illusory truth effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason P; Dodson, Chad S; Schacter, Daniel L

    2005-05-01

    Misattribution refers to the act of attributing a memory or idea to an incorrect source, such as successfully remembering a bit of information but linking it to an inappropriate person or time [Jacoby, L. L., Kelley, C., Brown, J., & Jasechko, J. (1989). Becoming famous overnight: Limits on the ability to avoid unconscious influences of the past. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 326-338; Schacter, D. L. (1999). The seven sins of memory: Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience. American Psychologist, 54, 182-203; Schacter, D. L. (2001). The seven sins of memory: How the mind forgets and remembers. Boston: Houghton Mifflin]. Cognitive studies have suggested that misattribution errors may occur in the absence of recollection for the details of an initial encounter with a stimulus, but little is known about the neural basis of this memory phenomenon. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the hypothesized role of recollection in counteracting the illusory truth effect, a misattribution error whereby perceivers systematically overrate the truth of previously presented information. Imaging was conducted during the encoding and subsequent judgment of unfamiliar statements that were presented as true or false. Event-related fMRI analyses were conditionalized as a function of subsequent performance. Results demonstrated that encoding activation in regions previously associated with successful recollection--including the hippocampus and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC)--correlated with the successful avoidance of misattribution errors, providing initial neuroimaging support for earlier cognitive accounts of misattribution.

  15. To forget or not to forget: mnemonic “renunciation” effect and the subjective evaluation of the truth of autobiographical memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourkova V. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying patterns of influence deliberate lie on deferred confidence of reliability of autobiographical memories is current problem for legal psychology. We reviewed the variability of autobiographical memories in the context of legal practice. In addition, we conducted the experimental field study of the dynamics of subjective assessments of the reliability of memories. It was found that truthful confirmation and false refutation of reliable last episodes, as well as after a truthful refutation and false confirmation of unreliable last episodes lead to regular changes in the subjective assessment of the reliability. The mnemonic "renunciation effect" is that a false refutation of a reliable episode leads to its forgetting and a truthful refutation of an unreliable episode leads to its erroneous inclusion in autobiographical memory.

  16. The Truth of Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Tkacz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to assert that Wikipedia has a relation to truth? That there is, despite regular claims to the contrary, an entire apparatus of truth in Wikipedia? In this article, I show that Wikipedia has in fact two distinct relations to truth: one which is well known and forms the basis of existing popular and scholarly commentaries, and another which refers to equally well-known aspects of Wikipedia, but has not been understood in terms of truth. I demonstrate Wikipedia's dual relation to truth through a close analysis of the Neutral Point of View core content policy (and one of the project's 'Five Pillars'. I conclude by indicating what is at stake in the assertion that Wikipedia has a regime of truth and what bearing this has on existing commentaries.

  17. Frege on Truths, Truth and the True

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    Wolfgang Künne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The founder of modern logic and grandfather of analytic philosophy was 70 years old when he published his paper 'Der Gedanke' (The Thought in 1918. This essay contains some of Gottlob Frege's deepest and most provocative reflections on the concept of truth, and it will play a prominent role in my lectures. The plan for my lectures is as follows. What is it that is (primarily true or false? 'Thoughts', is Frege's answer. In §1, I shall explain and defend this answer. In §2, I shall briefly consider his enthymematic argument for the conclusion that the word 'true' resists any attempt at defining it. In §3, I shall discuss his thesis that the thought that things are thus and so is identical with the thought that it is true that things are thus and so. The reasons we are offered for this thesis will be found wanting. In §4, I shall comment extensively on Frege's claim that, in a non-formal language like the one I am currently trying to speak, we can say whatever we want to say without ever using the word 'true' or any of its synonyms. I will reject the propositional-redundancy claim, endorse the assertive-redundancy claim and deny the connection Frege ascribes to them. In his classic 1892 paper 'Über Sinn und Bedeutung' (On Sense and Signification Frege argues that truth-values are objects. In §5, I shall scrutinize his argument. In §6, I will show that in Frege's ideography (Begriffsschrift truth, far from being redundant, is omnipresent. The final §7 is again on truth-bearers, this time as a topic in the theory of intentionality and in metaphysics. In the course of discussing Frege's views on the objecthood, the objectivity of thoughts and the timelessness of truth(s, I will plead for a somewhat mitigated Platonism.

  18. Truth and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1995-01-01

    Examines literary theory's displacing of "method" in the New Historicist criticism. Argues that Stephen Greenblatt and Lee Paterson imply that no objective historical truth is possible and as a result do not give methodology its due weight in their criticism. Questions the theory of "truth" advanced in this vein of literary…

  19. Withholding truth from patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-31

    The issue of whether patients should always be told the truth regarding their diagnosis and prognosis has afforded much debate in healthcare literature. This article examines telling the truth from an ethical perspective. It puts forward arguments for and against being honest with patients, using a clinical example to illustrate each point.

  20. Truthful Monadic Abstractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock-Nannestad, Taus; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    indefinitely, finding neither a proof nor a disproof of a given subgoal. In this paper we characterize a family of truth-preserving abstractions from intuitionistic first-order logic to the monadic fragment of classical first-order logic. Because they are truthful, these abstractions can be used to disprove...

  1. Modified ground-truthing: an accurate and cost-effective food environment validation method for town and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Friebur, Robin

    2016-03-17

    A major concern in food environment research is the lack of accuracy in commercial business listings of food stores, which are convenient and commonly used. Accuracy concerns may be particularly pronounced in rural areas. Ground-truthing or on-site verification has been deemed the necessary standard to validate business listings, but researchers perceive this process to be costly and time-consuming. This study calculated the accuracy and cost of ground-truthing three town/rural areas in Minnesota, USA (an area of 564 miles, or 908 km), and simulated a modified validation process to increase efficiency without comprising accuracy. For traditional ground-truthing, all streets in the study area were driven, while the route and geographic coordinates of food stores were recorded. The process required 1510 miles (2430 km) of driving and 114 staff hours. The ground-truthed list of stores was compared with commercial business listings, which had an average positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.57 and sensitivity of 0.62 across the three sites. Using observations from the field, a modified process was proposed in which only the streets located within central commercial clusters (the 1/8 mile or 200 m buffer around any cluster of 2 stores) would be validated. Modified ground-truthing would have yielded an estimated PPV of 1.00 and sensitivity of 0.95, and would have resulted in a reduction in approximately 88 % of the mileage costs. We conclude that ground-truthing is necessary in town/rural settings. The modified ground-truthing process, with excellent accuracy at a fraction of the costs, suggests a new standard and warrants further evaluation.

  2. Davidson, Dualism, and Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Goldberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Happy accidents happen even in philosophy. Sometimes our arguments yield insights despite missing their target, though when they do others can often spot it more easily. Consider the work of Donald Davidson. Few did more to explore connections among mind, language, and world. Now that we have critical distance from his views, however, we can see that Davidson’s accomplishments are not quite what they seem. First, while Davidson attacked the dualism of conceptual scheme and empirical content, he in fact illustrated a way to hold it. Second, while Davidson used the principle of charity to argue against the dualism, his argument in effect treats the principle as constitutive of a conceptual scheme. And third, while Davidson asserted that he cannot define what truth ultimately is—and while I do not disagree—his work nonetheless allows us to saymore about truth than Davidson himself does. I aim to establish these three claims. Doing so enriches our understanding of issues central to the history of philosophy concerning how, if at all, to divvy up the mental or linguistic contribution, and the worldly contribution, to knowledge. As we see below, Davidson was right in taking his work to be one stage of a dialectic begun by Immanuel Kant.1 He was just wrong about what that stage is. Reconsidering Davidson’s views also moves the current debate forward, as they reveal a previously unrecognized yet intuitive notion of truth—even if Davidson himself remained largely unaware of it. We begin however with scheme/content dualism and Davidson’s argument against it.

  3. The end of truth?

    OpenAIRE

    C. W. du Toit

    1997-01-01

    As we are approaching the end of the century, many ideas, systems, and certainties, previously taken for granted, seem to be questioned, altered and rejected. One of these is the notion of truth, which pervades the very fibre of Western thinking. Rejecting the relevant critique as simply a postmodem fad, this article proceeds to give attention to the questions regarding the end of religious, scientific, and metaphysical truth. Truth and power are dealt with, as well as the narrative nature of...

  4. Goedel, truth and proof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    The usual way of interpreting Goedel's (1931) incompleteness result is as showing that there is a gap between truth and provability, i.e. that we can never prove everything that is true. Moreover, this result is supposed to show that there are unprovable truths which we can know to be true. This, so the story goes, shows that we are more than machines that are restricted to acting as proof systems. Hence our minds are 'not mechanical'

  5. An effectiveness hierarchy of preventive interventions: neglected paradigm or self-evident truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capewell, Simon; Capewell, Ann

    2017-05-19

    Non-communicable disease prevention strategies usually target the four major risk factors of poor diet, tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity. Yet, the most effective approaches remain disputed. However, increasing evidence supports the concept of an effectiveness hierarchy. Thus, 'downstream' preventive activities targeting individuals (such as 1:1 personal advice, health education, 'nudge' or primary prevention medications) consistently achieve a smaller population health impact than interventions aimed further 'upstream' (for instance, smoke-free legislation, alcohol minimum pricing or regulations eliminating dietary transfats). These comprehensive, policy-based interventions reach all parts of the population and do not depend on a sustained 'agentic' individual response. They thus tend to be more effective, more rapid, more equitable and also cost-saving. This effectiveness hierarchy is self-evident to many professionals working in public health. Previously neglected in the wider world, this effectiveness hierarchy now needs to be acknowledged by policy makers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Truth, body and religion

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    Jarl-Thure Eriksson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the words of welcome to the symposium on Religion and the Body on 16 June 2010. In a religious context ‘truth’ is like a mantra, a certain imperative to believe in sacred things. The concept of truth and falseness arises, when we as humans compare reality, as we experience it through our senses, with the representation we have in our memory, a comparison of new information with stored information. If we look for the truth, we have to search in the human mind. There we will also find religion.

  7. Truth in Philosophy

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    Tibor R. Machan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Can there be truth in philosophy? A problem: it is philosophy, its various schools, that advances what counts as true versus false, how to go about making the distinction. This is what I wish to focus on here and see if some coherent, sensible position could be reached on the topic.

  8. Verifiably Truthful Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Procaccia, Ariel D.

    2015-01-01

    the computational sense). Our approach involves three steps: (i) specifying the structure of mechanisms, (ii) constructing a verification algorithm, and (iii) measuring the quality of verifiably truthful mechanisms. We demonstrate this approach using a case study: approximate mechanism design without money...

  9. Experience, Poetry and Truth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gahrn-Andersen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    of philosophical thinking. Specifically, I show that, beneath a highly poetic and obscure prose, Jünger posits how subjective experience and poetry allow individuals to realize truth. I relate parts of Jünger’s insights to contributions by Husserl, Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty, arguing that Jünger offers a unique...

  10. An existential theoiy of truth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers ... gical) indeterminateness of meaning and truth, apart from one's .... dual human perspective and the unavoidable existential tasks of deciphering for oneself what is ...

  11. Truth as a Mathematical Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Béziau

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss in which sense truth is considered as a mathematical object in propositional logic. After clarifying how this concept is used in classical logic, through the notions of truth-table, truth-function and bivaluation, we examine some generalizations of it in non-classical logics: many-valued matrix semantics with three and four values, non-truth-functional bivalent semantics, Kripke possible world semantics.

  12. The effects of promising to tell the truth, the putative confession, and recall and recognition questions on maltreated and non-maltreated children's disclosure of a minor transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lyon, Thomas D

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the utility of two interview instructions designed to overcome children's reluctance to disclose transgressions: eliciting a promise from children to tell the truth and the putative confession (telling children that a suspect "told me everything that happened and wants you to tell the truth"). The key questions were whether the instructions increased disclosure in response to recall questions and in response to recognition questions that were less or more explicit about transgressions and whether instructions were differentially effective with age. A total sample of 217 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and comparable non-maltreated children and a stranger played with a set of toys. For half of the children within each group, two of the toys appeared to break while they were playing. The stranger admonished secrecy. Shortly thereafter, children were questioned about what happened in one of three interview conditions. Some children were asked to promise to tell the truth. Others were given the putative confession, and still others received no interview instructions. When coupled with recall questions, the promise was effective at increasing disclosures only among older children, whereas the putative confession was effective regardless of age. Across interview instruction conditions, recognition questions that did not suggest wrongdoing elicited few additional transgression disclosures, whereas recognition questions that explicitly mentioned wrongdoing elicited some true reports but also some false alarms. No differences in disclosure emerged between maltreated and non-maltreated children. Results highlight the potential benefits and limitations of different interviewing approaches when questioning reluctant children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An inconvenient truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al, Gore

    2007-01-01

    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  14. The truth on journalism: relations between its practice and discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Bertasso Ribeiro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretically approach over the relations that journalism establishes with the concept of truth. The notion of truth in Foucault leads the debate. This reflection centers on how journalism builds discursive strategies that produces effects of truth on itsreports. The journalist discourse presents itselfas truthful, although its constructive discourse of the world is a result of rules, practices and values. The debate of “truth” allows us to comprehend the complexity and particularities of journalism as a discursive practice that has reflection in the social knowledge of reality.

  15. How Does Telling the Truth Help Educational Action Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A number of key constructs underpin educational action research. This paper focuses on the concept of "truth" and by doing so hopes to highlight some debate in this area. In reflecting upon what "truth" might mean to those involved in action research, I shall critically evaluate Thorndike's "Law of Effect" and Bruner's "Three Forms of…

  16. On Truth and Emancipation

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    Andreas Hjort Bundgaard

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article has two main currents. First, it argues that an affinity or similarity can be identified between the philosophy of Gianni Vattimo (the so-called “Weak Thinking” and the “Discourse Theory” of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The two theorizations are engaged with related problems, but have conceptualized them differently; they share central insights, but understand them with different vocabularies. The article furthermore illuminates as regards what this affinity consists in, and it discusses the differences and similarities between the two theoretical positions. The second current of the article takes the ‘postmodern’ philosophical problems of anti-foundationalism and nihilism as its point of departure. It raises the questions of: 1 how it is possible at the same time to take the critique of universality and objectivity seriously and still believe in the value of ethics and science; and, 2 how we are to understand emancipation if there is no necessary relationship between truth and freedom. The article investigates the status, meaning and interconnection of the categories of truth, knowledge, ethics, politics and emancipation in the light of the absence of metaphysical first principles. The article concludes that: A faith can constitute a “weak foundation” of knowledge and ethics; and, B nihilism can be combined with the political and ethical ambitions of universal human emancipation and radical democracy.

  17. Beauty, a road to the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, T.A.F.

    In this article I give a naturalistic-cum-formal analysis of the relation between beauty, empirical success, and truth. The analysis is based on the one hand on a hypothetical variant of the so-called 'mere-exposure effect' which has been more or less established in experimental psychology regarding

  18. Lying relies on the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debey, E.; De Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a

  19. Twardowski On Truth

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    Peter Simons

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Of those students of Franz Brentano who went on to become professional philosophers, Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938 is much less well-known than his older contemporaries Edmund Husserl and Alexius Meinong. Yet in terms of the importance of his contribution to the history of philosophy, he ranks among Brentano’s students behind at most those two, possibly only behind Husserl. The chief contribution of Twardowski to global philosophy came indirectly, through the influence of his theory of truth on his students, and they on their students, and so on. The most important of these grandstudents is one whom Twardowski presumably knew but never taught, and whose adopted name is obtained by deleting four letters from his own: Tarski.

  20. Climate: 15 inconvenient truths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, Istvan E.; Furfari, Samuel; Masson, Henri; Preat, Alain; Debeil, Anne; Delory, Ludovic; Godefridi, Drieu; Myren, Lars; Ripa di Meana, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Proposed by professionals of various disciplines, this book is considered as the bible of climate sceptics. It proposes a synthesis of arguments which deny prevailing views in the domain of climate. The authors show how, since fifteen years, reality has systematically denied projections made by the IPCC and its numerous political relays and media coverage. A first objective is therefore to unlatch the debate on the climate issue in front of a systematic practice of monopolization of truth at the expense of an authentic scientific approach, and to restore a democratic debate. A second objective is to put into question again the IPCC scientific character, scientific views which are at the heart of the last report published by the IPCC, and the political, media and economic reception of IPCC reports

  1. An existential theory of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Cannon

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to present a simplified account of the theory of truth expressed in the writings of certain existentialist writers - namely, Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Jaspers, and Marcel. It is designed to serve as a supplement to conventional textbook treatments of the nature of truth, which typically ignore the contributions that existentialists have made to the topic. An existential theory of truth stresses the epistemological (not ontological indeterminateness of meaning and truth, apart from one’s personal participation in determining them. Contrary to superficial interpretations, this theory does not do away either with a transcendent reality or with objectivity. What is rejected is anything that would circumvent the necessary task of participating, oneself, in the epistemological determination of truth.

  2. Knowledge does not protect against illusory truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Lisa K; Brashier, Nadia M; Payne, B Keith; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2015-10-01

    In daily life, we frequently encounter false claims in the form of consumer advertisements, political propaganda, and rumors. Repetition may be one way that insidious misconceptions, such as the belief that vitamin C prevents the common cold, enter our knowledge base. Research on the illusory truth effect demonstrates that repeated statements are easier to process, and subsequently perceived to be more truthful, than new statements. The prevailing assumption in the literature has been that knowledge constrains this effect (i.e., repeating the statement "The Atlantic Ocean is the largest ocean on Earth" will not make you believe it). We tested this assumption using both normed estimates of knowledge and individuals' demonstrated knowledge on a postexperimental knowledge check (Experiment 1). Contrary to prior suppositions, illusory truth effects occurred even when participants knew better. Multinomial modeling demonstrated that participants sometimes rely on fluency even if knowledge is also available to them (Experiment 2). Thus, participants demonstrated knowledge neglect, or the failure to rely on stored knowledge, in the face of fluent processing experiences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Truth and beauty in contemporary urban photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Colistra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Does city still need photography? Or does it show itself more effectively through other forms of communication? The question brings us back almost two hundred years ago, at the time of the spread of the first daguerreotypes, when the query was: Does city still need painting? The question raises several other issues - truth and beauty, analogical and digital, truth and photo editing - that this essay examines by comparing some images. We are convinced that “the more we can speak of a picture, the more unlikely it is to speak of photography” (R. Barthes. The essay describes the work of some artists/photographers who have addressed the issue of urban photography. Works in which the figurative and visionary component is based on the interaction of traditional shooting techniques and processes of digital post-production.

  4. The Truth of Sacred Scripture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Jelonek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the history of contradiction between science and the Bible and how it was solved in Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation Dei Verbum of the II Vatican Council. Since biblical truth was given to us “for the sake of our salvation,” and not in order to teach us natural science or history for their own sake, Sacred Scripture cannot be fairly judged to be in error when it sometimes presents historical or scientific truth in a less complete, less detailed, more popular, or more imprecise (i.e. merely approximate fashion than would be acceptable in modern texts dedicated formally to those disciplines.

  5. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  6. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...

  7. TRUTH AS DETERMINANT OF RELIGIOUS FAITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    engendered by either the myths of the religion or the historical personages. The truth we intend to .... personage and source of Islamic religion was an orphan boy Muhammad, born ... The Fundamental Truth about Some Religions of the World.

  8. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  9. "#Factsmustfall"?--Education in a Post-Truth, Post-Truthful World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsthemke, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Taking its inspiration from the name of the recent "#FeesMustFall" movement on South African university campuses, this paper takes stock of the apparent disrepute into which truth, facts and also rationality have fallen in recent times. In the post-truth world, the blurring of borders between truth and deception, truthfulness and…

  10. Truth and the Capability of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines learning as a capability, taking as its starting point the work of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum. The paper is concerned to highlight the relation between learning and truth, and it does so by examining the idea of a genealogy of truth and also Donald Davidson's coherence theory. Thus the notion of truth is understood to be…

  11. Normativity and deflationary theories of truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mölder

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that deflationary theories of truth stumble over the normativity of truth. This paper maintains that the normativity objection does not pose problems to at least one version of deflationism, minimalism. The rest of the paper discusses truth-related norms, showing that either they do not hold or they are not troublesome for deflationism.

  12. TRUTH AS DETERMINANT OF RELIGIOUS FAITH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of values like any other institution”. Our concern here is how religious truth that ought to be absolute has become relative thus producing many different religions in the world. Relativity of Religious Truths As Determinant. Of Religious Faith. Truth has been defined as that which conforms to essential reality, but is it absolute?

  13. Design and Feasibility Testing of the truth FinishIt Tobacco Countermarketing Brand Equity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Rath, Jessica; Pitzer, Lindsay; Hair, Elizabeth C; Snider, Jeremy; Cantrell, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna

    2016-07-01

    The original truth campaign was a branded, national smoking prevention mass media effort focused on at-risk youth ages 12-17. Today the truth brand focuses on the goal of finishing tobacco (truth FinishIt). There have been significant changes in the tobacco control landscape, leading FinishIt to focus on 15- to 21-year-olds. The present article reports on formative research and media monitoring data collected to pilot test a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The goals of this study were to (a) content analyze truth FinishIt mass media ads, (b) assess truth's social media and followers' perceptions of truth's digital brand identity, and (c) develop and feasibility test a new version of the truth FinishIt brand equity scale using data from an existing Truth Initiative media monitoring study. Through factor analysis, we identified a brand equity scale, as in previous research, consisting of 4 main constructs: brand loyalty, leadership/satisfaction, personality, and awareness. Targeted truth attitudes and beliefs about social perceptions, acceptability, and industry-related beliefs were regressed on the higher order factor and each of the 4 individual brand equity factors. Ordinary least squares regression models generally showed associations in the expected directions (positive for anti-tobacco and negative for pro-tobacco) between targeted attitudes/beliefs and truth FinishIt brand equity. This study succeeded in developing and validating a new truth FinishIt brand equity scale. The scale may be a valuable metric for future campaign evaluation. Future studies should examine the effects of truth FinishIt brand equity on tobacco use behavioral outcomes over time.

  14. Trauma and the truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeter, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Witnessing horrible things may leave a person scarred for life — an effect usually referred to as psychological trauma. We do not know exactly what it does or how it worms its way into our psyche, but psychological trauma has been linked to a wide range of fear- and depression-related symptoms

  15. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know something, existing in reality, in other words, something, truly existing, eternal reality. Consequently, to know truth is it to know the substantial reality base. That’s why the justification of the reality origin is the axiomatic doctrine of truth at the same time, because only fundamental principle “truly” exists and is the truth itself. The idea of fundamental principle in ancient Greek philosophy is the axiom, universal principle, which is the base of reality as a substance from ontological perspective and is realized as the truth from gnosiological perspective. Fundamental principle, as Greeks understand it, coincides with the truth, in other words, reality and thinking are identical. The idea of reality source is the universal criterion of world perception at the same time, in other words, it is the truth, which is perceived axiomatically.

  16. The Inconvenient Truth. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanasiou, T.

    2007-01-01

    Essay-type of publication on what should happen next after Al Gore's presentations on the Inconvenient Truth about the impacts of climate change. The essay states in the first lines: 'We've seen the movie, so we know the first part - we're in trouble deep. And it's time, past time, for at least some of us to go beyond warning to planning, to start talking seriously about a global crash program to stabilize the climate

  17. Visual truths of citizen reportage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Stuart; Peters, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In striving to better understand issues associated with citizen contributions to newsmaking in crisis situations, this article identifies and elaborates four specific research problematics – bearing witness, technologies of truth-telling, mediating visualities and affectivities of othering...... – in order to recast more familiar modes of enquiry. Specifically, it provides an alternative heuristic to theorize the journalistic mediation of citizen imagery, and the myriad ways this process of negotiation maintains, repairs and at times disrupts the interstices of professional–amateur boundaries...

  18. Reprocessing the truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, E.; Bunyard, P.; Hildyard, N.

    1978-01-01

    Comments are made on the Report by the Inspector, Mr. Justice Parker, after the public inquiry into the application by British Nuclear Fuels Limited for permission to construct and operate a thermal oxide reprocessing plant at their Windscale works. Particular questions raised include: corrosion or storage of spent fuel, vitrification of radioactive waste; radiation effects, and permissible levels; radioactive emissions, critical groups and critical pathways; risks; reprocessing economics; commitment to the FBR; sociological aspects, including employment, nuclear weapon proliferation and terrorism, and Britain's moral responsibilities. (U.K.)

  19. Designing for Motivation: Design-Considerations for Spaced-Repetition-Based Learning Games on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanke, Florian; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Learning games are an ideal vessel for many kinds of learning content. Playful interaction with the subject matter makes the human mind more receptive and thus learning itself more effective. Well designed games also come with an addictive game-play that makes users want to play the game over and over. This is intended in fun games but it can be…

  20. A Bayesian truth serum for subjective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelec, Drazen

    2004-10-15

    Subjective judgments, an essential information source for science and policy, are problematic because there are no public criteria for assessing judgmental truthfulness. I present a scoring method for eliciting truthful subjective data in situations where objective truth is unknowable. The method assigns high scores not to the most common answers but to the answers that are more common than collectively predicted, with predictions drawn from the same population. This simple adjustment in the scoring criterion removes all bias in favor of consensus: Truthful answers maximize expected score even for respondents who believe that their answer represents a minority view.

  1. Climate science, truth, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2017-08-01

    This essay was written almost ten years ago when the urgency of America's failure as a nation to respond to the threats of climate change first came to preoccupy me. Although the essay was never published in full, I circulated it informally in an attempt to provoke a more public engagement among my colleagues in the history, philosophy, and sociology of science. In particular, it was written in almost direct response to Philip Kitcher's own book, Science, Truth and Democracy (2001), in an attempt to clarify what was special about Climate Science in its relation to truth and democracy. Kitcher's response was immensely encouraging, and it led to an extended dialogue that resulted, first, in a course we co-taught at Columbia University, and later, to the book The Seasons Alter: How to Save Our Planet in Six Acts (W. W. Norton) published this spring. The book was finished just after the Paris Climate Accord, and it reflects the relative optimism of that moment. Unfortunately events since have begun to evoke, once again, the darker mood of this essay. I am grateful to Greg Radick for suggesting its publication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE POTENTIAL AND LIMITATIONS OF TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION COMMISSIONS IN GENERATING JUDICIAL AND NON-JUDICIAL EFFECTS. THE PRESIDENTIAL COMMISSION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE COMMUNIST DICTATORSHIP IN ROMANIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Elena RADU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The transition periods that succeed totalitarian regimes are characterized by the efforts of new governments to recognize the violations of human rights that were committed in the past, to implement legitimate mechanisms to clarify the causes but also the consequences of the violation of human rights by the previous regimes, both at the individual and community level. The truth commissions represent one of these mechanisms, concentrating on the testimonies of the victims and on the recognition of their suffering. Depending on the case, the recommendations of the truth commissions have the role of generating judicial and non-judicial effects, of contributing and completing the bringing into effect of the penal justice, of facilitating the processes of restoration, of preventing the re-iteration of new abuses. The present paper proposes to analyse the limitations and the transformative potential of the recommendations included in the report done by the Presidential Commission for the analysis of the communist dictatorship in Romania. We will analyse whether the information contained in this report has been useful in the judicial procedures (prosecutorial indictment and judges’ motivation which resulted in the conviction of Ioan Ficior and Alexandru Vișinescu, but also on other two civil sentences. The research approach imposes the use of a content analysis of the official and public documents, a comparative analysis and a historic analysis.

  3. THEOLOGICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL THEORIES OF TRUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Grosshans

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Examining some theological and philosophical theories of truth, the author concentrates his attention on the experience of giving concrete reality to the Christian discourse about truth and at the same time contrasting this search with the attempts of philosophy to define truth. He draws the reader’s attention to the understanding of truth in language and communication. In his article he discusses the essential theories of truth which are characteristic of western philosophy: classical, correspondent, coherent, pragmatic, communicative and ontic. The author notes the specific traits of a theological understanding of truth and contends that it is based on an ontologically higher level than that of the classic definition of truth viewed simply in relation to reality and the understanding. The knowledge of God given to the Christian faith by the activity of the triune God, is in itself perfect and therefore in no need of further development. It is on this basis that theology develops its knowledge of faith, sweeping aside everything which is not in accord with this fundamental affirmation of faith or with the witness of revealed truth

  4. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  5. Objective Truth Institution in Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltornist O. A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the category of objective truth in criminal procedure, its importance for correct determination of criminal court procedure aims. The author analyzes also the bill draft offered by the RF Committee of Inquiry “On amending in the RF Criminal Procedure Code due to the implementation ofobjective truth institution in criminal procedure”

  6. Ethics and Truth in Archival Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The complexities of the ethics and truth in archival research are often unrecognised or invisible in educational research. This paper complicates the process of collecting data in the archives, as it problematises notions of ethics and truth in the archives. The archival research took place in the former Czechoslovakia and its turbulent political…

  7. Does the Truth Matter in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Is science in the truth business, discovering ever more about an independent and largely unobservable world? Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, two of the most important figures in science studies in the 20th century, gave accounts of science that are in some tension with the truth view. Their central claims about science are considered here, along with…

  8. The Philosophical Problem of Truth in Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaree, Robert V.; Scimeca, Ross

    2008-01-01

    The authors develop a framework for addressing the question of truth in librarianship and in doing so attempt to move considerations of truth closer to the core of philosophical debates within the profession. After establishing ways in which philosophy contributes to social scientific inquiry in library science, the authors examine concepts of…

  9. Truth and falsehood an inquiry into generalized logical values

    CERN Document Server

    Shramko, Yaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Here is a thoroughly elaborated logical theory of generalized truth-values, presenting the idea of a trilattice of truth values - a specific algebraic structure with information ordering and two distinct logical orderings, one for truth and another for falsity.

  10. Truth or dare: expertise and risk governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, J.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the public is as concerned with the risks associated with technology as it is enthused by the opportunities that technology presents. Experts are increasingly referred to not so much for solutions to social problems per se, but paradoxically to problems attendant on technological solutions themselves. In these circumstances, there is an urgent need for the role of the expert to be clarified. While the public and political actors have essentially looked to experts for certainty in an uncertain world, this is precisely what scientific rationality cannot provide. The inherent modesty of science (exemplified, for example, by the need for falsifiability) must always be compromised at the point when a decision is made, when 'knowledge' becomes 'action'. There is accordingly a need to be clear about the status of scientific information or knowledge on the one hand, and the effect of the decision to act on the other - and hence the appropriate locus of responsibility. Analysing the process from expert advice through to political or economic decision can help to clarify the point at which misunderstanding arises, at which the inherently provisional truth of science is transformed into the effectively absolute truth implied by a decision to apply knowledge as technology. Recognizing that it is at this point that risks are run (as well as the opportunity for rewards created) may lead to greater clarity as to the respective roles. It may in turn offer some lessons as regards the design of risk governance arrangements and the place of experts in them. (author)

  11. Micro CT based truth estimation of nodule volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnard, L. M.; Gavrielides, M. A.; Myers, K. J.; Zeng, R.; Whiting, B.; Lin-Gibson, S.; Petrick, N.

    2010-03-01

    With the advent of high-resolution CT, three-dimensional (3D) methods for nodule volumetry have been introduced, with the hope that such methods will be more accurate and consistent than currently used planar measures of size. However, the error associated with volume estimation methods still needs to be quantified. Volume estimation error is multi-faceted in the sense that there is variability associated with the patient, the software tool and the CT system. A primary goal of our current research efforts is to quantify the various sources of measurement error and, when possible, minimize their effects. In order to assess the bias of an estimate, the actual value, or "truth," must be known. In this work we investigate the reliability of micro CT to determine the "true" volume of synthetic nodules. The advantage of micro CT over other truthing methods is that it can provide both absolute volume and shape information in a single measurement. In the current study we compare micro CT volume truth to weight-density truth for spherical, elliptical, spiculated and lobulated nodules with diameters from 5 to 40 mm, and densities of -630 and +100 HU. The percent differences between micro CT and weight-density volume for -630 HU nodules range from [-21.7%, -0.6%] (mean= -11.9%) and the differences for +100 HU nodules range from [-0.9%, 3.0%] (mean=1.7%).

  12. Japanese attitudes towards truth disclosure in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, N

    1994-03-01

    Despite the increasing concerns of truth disclosure, most cancer patients are not told the truth about their disease in Japan. The author has tried to provide some insight into this issue by evaluating results from questionnaires given to hospital patients, clients in a mass cancer survey, and doctors of a college hospital. Results showed that 72% of patients and 83% of clients wanted to be told the truth, but only 33% and 34% of them thought that the truth should be told to cancer patients. These attitudes of patients and clients regarding truth disclosure were more positive than those of the general public and health care workers in previous studies. At present, 13% of doctors inform cancer patients of their disease. These trends indicate that the Japanese attitude toward avoiding truth disclosure stems primarily from paternalism but is also influenced by social characteristics including insufficient understanding of this issue. Open discussion involving all factions of society is necessary to attain a better understanding of this issue and to promote eventual truth disclosure.

  13. [Medicine and truth: between science and narrative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materia, Enrico; Baglio, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    To which idea of truth may medicine refer? Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is rooted in the scientific truth. To explain the meaning and to trace the evolution of scientific truth, this article outlines the history of the Scientific Revolution and of the parable of Modernity, up to the arrival of pragmatism and hermeneutics. Here, the concept of truth becomes somehow discomfiting and the momentum leans towards the integration of different points of view. The fuzzy set theory for the definition of disease, as well as the shift from disease to syndrome (which has operational relevance for geriatrics), seems to refer to a more complex perspective on knowledge, albeit one that is less defined as compared to the nosology in use. Supporters of narrative medicine seek the truth in the interpretation of the patients' stories, and take advantage of the medical humanities to find the truth in words, feelings and contact with the patients. Hence, it is possible to mention the parresia, which is the frank communication espoused by stoicism and epicureanism, a technical and ethical quality which allows one to care in the proper way, a true discourse for one's own moral stance. Meanwhile, EBM and narrative medicine are converging towards a point at which medicine is considered a practical knowledge. It is the perspective of complexity that as a zeitgeist explains these multiple instances and proposes multiplicity and uncertainty as key referents for the truth and the practice of medicine.

  14. The Incoherence of Post-Truth

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Dom

    2018-01-01

    Ostensibly, there has been a recent rise in ‘post-truth’ thinking (Higgins, 2016; Rochlin, 2017; Speed & Mannion, 2017; Suiter, 2016). The Oxford English Dictionary, which made ‘post-truth’ its word of the year for 2016, defines post-truth as “[r]elating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping political debate or public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief” (“Post-truth,” 2017). Going into more detail, post-truth is described not ju...

  15. Power and Truth in Foucault and Habermas

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Amurabi; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Current paper examines how truth is enmeshed with power in Foucault´s and Habermas´s theories, highlighting similarities and differences within the two theoretical perspectives. If, on the one hand, truth in Foucault is based on a monologic imposition, on the other hand, Habermas insists on the dialogic understanding of the truth, although in both cases, related to power, at opposite positions, as Habermas himself points out in ‘The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity’. Foucault takes on a c...

  16. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis without truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkelman, R.M.; Kay, I.; Bronskill, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, the preferred method of evaluating diagnostic imaging tests, requires an independent assessment of the true state of disease, which can be difficult to obtain and is often of questionable accuracy. A new method of analysis is described which does not require independent truth data and which can be used when several accurate tests are being compared. This method uses correlative information to estimate the underlying model of multivariate normal distributions of disease-positive and disease-negative patients. The method is shown to give results equivalent to conventional ROC analysis in a comparison of computed tomography, radionuclide scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging for liver metastasis. When independent truth is available, the method can be extended to incorporate truth data or to evaluate the consistency of the truth data with the imaging data

  17. Truthfulness in science teachers’ corporeal performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    2014-01-01

    , sincerity and trustworthiness in dealing with classroom management. Jane shows effort, fidelity and honesty in developing outdoor teaching. Simon shows transparency, objectivity and sincerity in his support of colleagues. By addressing the relations in the vocabulary of truthfulness the teachers...

  18. Truth Seeded Reconstruction for Fast Simulation in the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jansky, Roland; Salzburger, Andreas

    The huge success of the ATLAS experiment for particle physics during Run 1 of the LHC would not have been possible without the production of vast amounts of simulated Monte Carlo data. However, the very detailed detector simulation is a highly CPU intensive task and thus resource shortages occurred. Motivated by this, great effort has been put into speeding up the simulation. As a result, other timeconsuming parts became visible. One of which is the track reconstruction. This thesis describes one potential solution to the CPU intensive reconstruction of simulated data: a newly designed truth seeded reconstruction. At its basics is the idea to skip the pattern recognition altogether, instead utilizing the available (truth) information from simulation to directly fit particle trajectories without searching for them. At the same time tracking effects of the standard reconstruction need to be emulated. This approach is validated thoroughly and no critical deviations of the results compared to the standard reconst...

  19. Telling the truth in a crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, Jamie

    2002-01-01

    Full text: My presentation will focus on communicating in a crisis. Drawing on my experience as NATO's Spokesman during the Kosovo air campaign and, more recently, the fight against terrorism in Afghanistan, I will outline the pressures that the media place on organizations once they are in the media spotlight. I will discuss the importance of real time information, how to deal with mistakes and how to organize a media campaign in order to seize the initiative and put one's message across. What kind of organization do you need and how do you ensure that all the players are properly coordinated? What are the target audiences and how do you deal effectively with opponents seeking to discredit your handling of the crisis? My presentation will look at the respective merits of using TV, radio, newspapers and Internet as means of crisis communication. It will also highlight the increasing role of NGOs in setting the media agenda. In an environment dominated by PR executives and 'spin doctors', the challenge is to combine truth and credibility with organization and professionalism while staying calm under pressure. How NATO attempted to meet this challenge in Kosovo, learning from the inevitable mistakes it made along the way, will be a lesson that applies to any organization caught - voluntarily or involuntarily - in a sudden crisis. (author)

  20. Climate: the truth and the false

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.

    2011-01-01

    Climate sciences have become extraordinary instruments for the media and the politicians. The climate debates regularly put forward the question of our knowledge: what do we know exactly, what can we assert, and of what are we doubtful? A subsidiary question would be: are scientists telling us the truth? For the scientific community, there is no doubt that human activities are modifying the Earth's atmosphere composition and that the surface temperature of the Earth has globally warmed up since the beginning of the 20. century. We live on a planet with a finite dimension: fossil resources are not forever and wastes are accumulating. Is the greenhouse effect already changing climate? Is it the only factor which will control the climate evolution? What would be the natural rhythm of climate? Are scientists capable to unravel the wheels of the climate machine? What is the situation of the climate change under way with respect to the turbulences of the past? What is an acceptable climate change? This book gives a clear answer to each of these questions as far as the answer is known. (J.S.)

  1. STS, symmetry and post-truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This essay takes up a series of questions about the connection between 'symmetry' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) and 'post-truth' in contemporary politics. A recent editorial in this journal by Sergio Sismondo argues that current discussions of 'post-truth' have little to do with conceptions of 'symmetry' or with concerns about 'epistemic democracy' in STS, while others, such as Steve Fuller and Harry Collins, insist that there are such connections. The present essay discusses a series of questions about the meaning of 'post-truth' and 'symmetry', and the connections of those concepts to each other and to 'epistemic democracy'. The essay ends with a series of other questions about STS and contemporary politics, and an invitation to further discussions.

  2. Can partisan voting lead to truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Redner, S.

    2011-02-01

    We study an extension of the voter model in which each agent is endowed with an innate preference for one of two states that we term as 'truth' or 'falsehood'. Due to interactions with neighbors, an agent that innately prefers truth can be persuaded to adopt a false opinion (and thus be discordant with its innate preference) or the agent can possess an internally concordant 'true' opinion. Parallel states exist for agents that inherently prefer falsehood. We determine the conditions under which a population of such agents can ultimately reach a consensus for the truth, reach a consensus for falsehood, or reach an impasse where an agent tends to adopt the opinion that is in internal concordance with its innate preference with the outcome that consensus is never achieved.

  3. A Bridge to Reconciliation: A Critique of the Indian Residential School Truth Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Flisfeder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past year, the Government of Canada has established the Indian Residential Schools (IRS Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC to address the deleterious effect that the IRS system has had on Aboriginal communities. This paper argues that the TRC as an alternative dispute resolution mechanism is flawed since it focuses too much on truth at the expense of reconciliation. While the proliferation of historical truths is of great importance, without mapping a path to reconciliation, the Canadian public will simply learn about the mistakes of the past without addressing the residual, communal impacts of the IRS system that continue to linger. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission must therefore approach its mandate broadly and in a manner reminiscent of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples of 1996.

  4. The Experience of Truth in Jazz Improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jens Skou

    2015-01-01

    This is a book on truth, experience, and the interrelations between these two fundamental philosophical notions. The questions of truth and experience have their roots at the very heart of philosophy, both historically and thematically. This book gives an insight into how philosophers working...... in the fields of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics respond to challenges posed by these questions, not only in relation to the history of philosophy, but to philosophy itself. The book contains texts written by distinguished professors and in particular by young scholars. It is the result...

  5. Eliciting Perceptual Ground Truth for Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, Victoria Jane; Eakins, John; Austin, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate human visual perception and establish a body of ground truth data elicited from human visual studies. We aim to build on the formative work of Ren, Eakins and Briggs who produced an initial ground truth database. Human subjects were asked to draw and rank their perceptions of the parts of a series of figurative images. These rankings were then used to score the perceptions, identify the preferred human breakdowns and thus allow us to induce perceptual rules for h...

  6. Truth, laws and the progress of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dorato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the difficult question of the truth of mature scientific theories by tackling the problem of the truth of laws. After introducing the main philosophical positions in the field of scientific realism, I discuss and then counter the two main arguments against realism, namely the pessimistic meta-induction and the abstract and idealized character of scientific laws. I conclude by defending the view that well-confirmed physical theories are true only relatively to certain values of the variables that appear in the laws.

  7. A logical approach to fuzzy truth hedges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esteva, F.; Godo, L.; Noguera, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 1 (2013), s. 366-385 ISSN 0020-0255 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * Standard completeness * Truth hedges Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/noguera-0469148.pdf

  8. Corporate truth: the limits to transparency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henriques, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    ... plc What the directors' report should cover Conditions of use of the Rio Tinto website Practical complicity 75 83 90 95 98 160 FIGURES 3.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 The ring of truth The global trend in non-fi...

  9. Gödel, Truth and Proof

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, Jaroslav

    -, č. 82 (2007), s. 1-10 E-ISSN 1742-6596 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA401/04/0117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Gödel * incompleteness of arithmetic * proof vs. truth Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.iop.org/EJ/ toc /1742-6596/82/1

  10. La verità scientifica - Scientific truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mazzeo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A scientific theory is not a speculation. On the contrary it is based on facts and observations. Nevertheless the facts and the observations are unable to show us the truth about the world. Indeed to understand the facts or even to discover them through experiments we need a starting theory about the world. Therefore the world is not only discovered by us, but we can say that it is created by our brain. Facts are the constraints for the possible theories and theories are creations of our minds to understand the facts. There are no facts without a theory in mind, and there are no scientific theories about the world without facts. It is obvious therefore that science cannot give any absolute truth but “only” temporary truths which will change with new discoveries and theories. The scientific truth is therefore unstable: after few decades the concepts become unable to explain the news discoveries and become old, but the new concepts will include the old ones. This is called science progress. In this work we analyze all these points discussing the historical creation of the gravitational theory from Aristotle to Newton.

  11. An Exchange on "Truth and Methods."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughie, Pamela L.; Dasenbrock, Reed Way

    1996-01-01

    Takes issue with Reed Way Dasenbrock's criticism of literary theory and the terms under which literary interpretation and discussion take place. Presents Dasenbrock's reply, which discusses his understanding of certain terms (evidence, truth, debate), his description of the problem, and the logical contradictions he finds internal to…

  12. 76 FR 18354 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... extent that a creditor imposed charges that were inconsistent with Regulation Z while the account was... amounts charged during the period the account was exempt or to provide disclosures regarding transactions...) amends the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) by increasing the threshold for exempt consumer credit...

  13. Lost Academic Souls and the Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum, William M.

    The connection between knowing the truth and some version of how men should live has always guided those who would lead the university. Walls around a campus or geographic isolation cannot prevent social pressures from affecting the institution. Colleges and universities have always been politicalized. The danger lies not in that fact but in the…

  14. What Truth in Lending Means to You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school economics students, this pamphlet discusses the provisions of the Truth in Lending Law. The act requires that creditors state credit charges in a uniform way. The pamphlet provides a brief description of finance charges and annual percentage rates. It also focuses on…

  15. Problematizing Religious Truth: Implications for Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblith, Suzanne; Priestman, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The question motivating this paper is whether or not there can be standards governing the evaluation of truth claims in religion. In other areas of study such as physics, math, history, and even value-laden realms like morality there is some widespread agreement as to what constitutes good thinking. If such a standard existed in religion, then our…

  16. 76 FR 11319 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be... Final Rule Congress enacted TILA based on findings that economic stability would be enhanced and... Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA), also provides that its principal obligation limitations are subject...

  17. 75 FR 81836 - Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be enhanced and... MDIA is contained in Sections 2501 through 2503 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, Public Law 110-289, enacted on July 30, 2008. The MDIA was later amended by the Emergency Economic...

  18. Truth and (self) censorship in military memoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinreesink, E.; Soeters, J.M.M.L.

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult for researchers from outside the military to gain access to the field. However, there is a rich source on the military that is readily available for every researcher: military memoirs. This source does provide some methodological challenges with regard to truth and (self)

  19. Scientific revolution, incommensurability and truth in theories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific revolution, incommensurability and truth in theories: objection to Kuhn's perspective. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... The core of our discussion is, ultimately, to provide a clearer and broader picture of the general characteristics of scientific revolution or theory change.

  20. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoreticanalysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoretic analysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Herbal medicines: old and new concepts, truths and misunderstandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carmona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Men have been using herbal medicines for thousands of years. The advantages of this type of therapeutics include good availability, local cultural aspects, individual preferences, the increasing demand for natural and organic products, and the already validated synergistic effects of herbal medicines. However, ethically, the scope and limits of these drugs need to be established not only by ethnopharmacological evidences but also by scientific investigations, which confirm the therapeutic effects. With this study, we propose to discuss the possible advantages of using herbal medicines instead of purified compounds, the truth and myths about herbal medicines, drug discovery, and the implications for medical education and health care.

  3. The Truth and Harriet Martineau: Interpreting a Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    This paper explores the difficulty of claims to truth in the analysis of the life of the Victorian feminist, reformer, educationist, and celebrity, Harriet Martineau (1802-76). She was widely known as a truthful person. For example, her contemporary, the poet Elizabeth Barrett Browning, wrote in 1845 that "her love of the truth is proverbial…

  4. The Logic of Truth in Paraconsistent Internal Realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Bremer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses which modal principles should hold for a truth operator answering to the truth theory of internal realism. It turns out that the logic of truth in internal realism is isomorphic to the modal system S4.

  5. Truth and falsity of patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-01

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  6. An inconvenient truth; Une verite qui derange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al, Gore

    2007-01-15

    Our climate crisis may at times appear to be happening slowly, but in fact it is happening very quickly-and has become a true planetary emergency. The Chinese expression for crisis consists of two characters. The first is a symbol for danger; the second is a symbol for opportunity. In order to face down the danger that is stalking us and move through it, we first have to recognize that we are facing a crisis. So why is it that our leaders seem not to hear such clarion warnings? Are they resisting the truth because they know that the moment they acknowledge it, they will face a moral imperative to act? Is it simply more convenient to ignore the warnings? Perhaps, but inconvenient truths do not go away just because they are not seen. Indeed, when they are responded to, their significance does not diminish; it grows. (author)

  7. Site remediation: The naked truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of any company faced with an environmental site remediation project is to perform the cleanup effectively at the lowest possible cost. Today, there are a variety of techniques being applied in the remediation of sites involving soils and sludges. The most popular include: stabilization, incineration, bioremediation and off-site treatment. Dewatering may also play an integral role in a number of these approaches. Selecting the most cost-effective technique for remediation of soils and sludges can be a formidable undertaking, namely because it is often difficult to quantify certain expenses in advance of the project. In addition to providing general cost guidelines for various aspects of soil and sludge remediation, this paper will show how some significant cost factors can be affected by conditions related to specific remediation projects and the cleanup technology being applied

  8. Do citation systems represent theories of truth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Van der Veer Martens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the citation can be viewed not only as a "concept symbol" but also as a "boundary object". The scientific, legal, and patent citation systems in America are examined at the micro, meso, and macro levels in order to understand how they function as commodified theories of truth in contemporary knowledge representation. This approach also offers a meta-theoretical overview of existing citation research efforts in science, law, and technology that may be of interdisciplinary interest.

  9. Political Corruption as Deformities of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Allard-Tremblay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a conception of corruption informed by epistemic democratic theory. I first explain the view of corruption as a disease of the political body. Following this view, we have to consider the type of actions that debase a political entity of its constitutive principal in order to assess corruption. Accordingly, we need to consider what the constitutive principle of democracy is. This is the task I undertake in the second section where I explicate democratic legitimacy. I present democracy as a procedure of social inquiry about what ought to be done that includes epistemic and practical considerations. In the third section, I argue that the problem of corruption for a procedural conception of democracy is that the epistemic value of the procedure is diminished by corrupted agents’ lack of concern for truth. Corruption, according to this view, consists in two deformities of truth: lying and bullshit. These deformities corrupt since they conceal private interests under the guise of a concern for truth. In the fourth section, I discuss the difficulties a procedural account may face in formulating solutions to the problem of corruption.

  10. Finding a single point of truth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, S.; Thijssen, H. [Autodesk Inc, Toronto, ON (Canada); Laslo, D.; Martin, J. [Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Electric utilities collect large volumes of data at every level of their business, including SCADA, Smart Metering and Smart Grid initiatives, LIDAR and other 3D imagery surveys. Different types of database systems are used to store the information, rendering data flow within the utility business process extremely complicated. The industry trend has been to endure redundancy of data input and maintenance of multiple copies of the same data across different solution data sets. Efforts have been made to improve the situation with point to point interfaces, but with the tools and solutions available today, a single point of truth can be achieved. Consolidated and validated data can be published into a data warehouse at the right point in the process, making the information available to all other enterprise systems and solutions. This paper explained how the single point of truth spatial data warehouse and process automation services can be configured to streamline the flow of data within the utility business process using the initiate-plan-execute-close (IPEC) utility workflow model. The paper first discussed geospatial challenges faced by utilities and then presented the approach and technology aspects. It was concluded that adoption of systems and solutions that can function with and be controlled by the IPEC workflow can provide significant improvement for utility operations, particularly if those systems are coupled with the spatial data warehouse that reflects a single point of truth. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Culture, Truth, and Science After Lacan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Grant

    2015-12-01

    Truth and knowledge are conceptually related and there is a way of construing both that implies that they cannot be solely derived from a description that restricts itself to a set of scientific facts. In the first section of this essay, I analyse truth as a relation between a praxis, ways of knowing, and the world. In the second section, I invoke the third thing-the objective reality on which we triangulate as knowing subjects for the purpose of complex scientific endeavours like medical science and clinical care. Such praxes develop robust methods of "keeping in touch" with disease and illness (like biomarkers). An analysis drawing on philosophical semantics motivates the needed (anti-scientistic) account of meaning and truth (and therefore knowledge) and underpins the following argument: (i) the formulation and dissemination of knowledge rests on language; (ii) language is selective in what it represents in any given situation; (iii) the praxes of a given (sub)culture are based on this selectivity; but (iv) human health and illness involve whole human beings in a human life-world; therefore, (v) medical knowledge should reflectively transcend, where required, biomedical science towards a more inclusive view. Parts three and four argue that a post-structuralist (Lacanian) account of the human subject can avoid both scientism and idealism or unconstrained relativism.

  12. My truth about the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegre, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this book, C. Allegre, a famous French scientist and former Minister of national education, research and technology, makes a strong criticism of todays actions and declarations of ecologists (the 'green sect') who are just 'illusion sellers' building up an 'ecological totalitarianism'. According to him, such a policy is an imposture and must be denounced. On the other hand, as a good pedagogue, he shows us a schedule of proposals like: developing genetically modified organisms and biodiversity in forests and rivers, encouraging the economical architecture by combining solar energy, heat pumps and energy saving systems, imposing the hybrid or electric-powered car, accelerating the use of fuel cells, and developing the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. He also puts forward the scientific uncertainties concerning the global warming, the political dimension of the Kyoto protocol and the punitive, destructive and useless effects of the implementation of the proposals resulting of this protocol (poor results for a prohibitive cost). (J.S.)

  13. AND THE TRUTH SHALL SET YOU FREE. TRUTH COMMISSIONS AND CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael DELOACH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For societies suffering in the wake of a repressive regime, truth commissions may be a necessary compromise regarding the form of transitional justice pursued, but they can still play a far-reaching role in the democratization of civil-military relations. Because the perpetrators of past abuses are likely to continue to wield some level of power at the time of transition, prosecution of these members may be politically infeasible. Lacking the mandate to prosecute guilty parties or implement recommendations, truth commissions can still lay the foundation for a new era of civil-military relations. By distinguishing contemporary institutions from their past acts, revealing the patterns that allowed abuses to be carried out , and helping garner the political will for reforms, truth commissions can provide the impetus for the security sector reforms necessary to ensure a democratic future.

  14. Should physicians tell the truth without taking social complications into account? A striking case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Ercan

    2018-03-01

    The principle of respect for autonomy requires informing patients adequately and appropriately about diagnoses, treatments, and prognoses. However, some clinical cases may cause ethical dilemmas regarding telling the truth. Under the existence especially of certain cultural, social, and religious circumstances, disclosing all the relevant information to all pertinent parties might create harmful effects. Even though the virtue of telling the truth is unquestionable, sometimes de facto conditions compel physicians to act paternalistically to protect the patient/patients from imminent dangers. This article, which aims to study the issue of whether a physician should always tell the truth, analyzes an interesting case that represents the detection of misattributed paternity during pre-transplant tests for a kidney transplant from the son to the father in Turkey, where social, cultural, and religious factors have considerable impact on marital infidelity. After analyzing the concept of telling the truth and its relationship with paternalism and two major ethical theories, consequentialism and deontology, it is concluded that the value of the integrity of life and survival overrides the value of telling the truth. For this reason, in the case of a high possibility of severe and imminent threats, withholding some information is ethically justifiable.

  15. The vital role of transcendental truth in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-04-01

    I have come to believe that science depends for its long-term success on an explicit and pervasive pursuit of the ideal of transcendental truth. 'Transcendental' implies that a value is ideal and ultimate - it is aimed-at but can only imperfectly be known, achieved or measured. So, transcendental truth is located outside of science; beyond scientific methods, processes and peer consensus. Although the ultimate scientific authority of a transcendental value of truth was a view held almost universally by the greatest scientists throughout recorded history, modern science has all-but banished references to truth from professional scientific discourse - these being regarded as wishful, mystical and embarrassing at best, and hypocritical or manipulative at worst. With truth excluded, the highest remaining evaluation mechanism is 'professional consensus' or peer review - beyond which there is no higher court of appeal. Yet in Human accomplishment, Murray argues that cultures which foster great achievement need transcendental values (truth, beauty and virtue) to be a live presence in the culture; such that great artists and thinkers compete to come closer to the ideal. So a scientific system including truth as a live presence apparently performs better than a system which excludes truth. Transcendental truth therefore seems to be real in the pragmatic sense that it makes a difference. To restore the primacy of truth to science a necessary step would be to ensure that only truth-seekers were recruited to the key scientific positions, and to exclude from leadership those who are untruthful or exhibit insufficient devotion to the pursuit of truth. In sum, to remain anchored in its proper role, science should through 'truth talk' frequently be referencing normal professional practice to transcendental truth values. Ultimately, science should be conducted at every level, from top to bottom, on the basis of what Bronowski termed the 'habit of truth'. Such a situation currently

  16. Ground Truth Collections at the MTI Core Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) selected 13 sites across the continental US and one site in the western Pacific to serve as the primary or core site for collection of ground truth data for validation of MTI science algorithms. Imagery and ground truth data from several of these sites are presented in this paper. These sites are the Comanche Peak, Pilgrim and Turkey Point power plants, Ivanpah playas, Crater Lake, Stennis Space Center and the Tropical Western Pacific ARM site on the island of Nauru. Ground truth data includes water temperatures (bulk and skin), radiometric data, meteorological data and plant operating data. The organizations that manage these sites assist SRTC with its ground truth data collections and also give the MTI project a variety of ground truth measurements that they make for their own purposes. Collectively, the ground truth data from the 14 core sites constitute a comprehensive database for science algorithm validation

  17. Authenticity, Post-truth and Populism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vintilă Mihăilescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the fake news phenomenon as a social act, analyzed together with what has caused it and what accompanies it: the culture of authenticity, digital communication and its specificity (emphasis on image, not on concepts, post-truth and populism (with its emotional dimension. The premise is that fake news is immanent to the social space, but in the context of globalization and under the development of information technology and social media, it has a greater social impact and carries higher risks for the society.

  18. Freedom of Expression, Diversity, and Truth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens; Hallsson, Bjørn Gunnar; Møller, Emil Frederik Lundbjerg

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to examine how diversity benefits deliberation, information exchange and other socio-epistemic practices associated with free speech. We separate five distinct dimensions of diversity, and discuss a variety of distinct mechanisms by which various forms of diversity may...... be thought to have epistemically valuable outcomes. We relate these results to the moral justification of free speech. Finally, we characterise a collective action problem concerning the compliance with truth-conducive norms of deliberation, and suggest what may solve this problem....

  19. Intelligible genders in scene: the cinema and the truth production about bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Galvão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss how cinematographic language produces truths about men and women. Throughout the text, we have used to illustrate some iconic films that bring notions of masculinity and femininity. The film we have chosen are works that have a distinct esthetic and markets, they are able to raise issues related to gender and sexuality in discussions against romantic love, identity, homosexuality, violence and techniques confession of truths, among others. We analyze the films from Michel Foucault perspective concern sexuality and power relations and Judith Butler about gender intelligible. The plots of the films show that such truths are constantly negotiated and further indicate that norms about sex, desire, pleasure, masculinity and femininity are not only reproduced as its effects on private plots do not end with the end of the film.

  20. A Robust Bayesian Truth Serum for Non-binary Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi

    2013-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed for incentivizing truthful reports of a private signals owned by rational agents, among them the peer prediction method and the Bayesian truth serum. The robust Bayesian truth serum (RBTS) for small populations and binary signals is particularly interesting since it does not require a common prior to be known to the mechanism. We further analyze the problem of the common prior not known to the mechanism and give several results regarding the restrictions ...

  1. Truth Commissions, Education, and Positive Peace: An Analysis of Truth Commission Final Reports (1980-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Julia; Bellino, Michelle J.

    2017-01-01

    Transitional justice and education both occupy increasingly prominent space on the international peacebuilding agenda, though less is known about the ways they might reinforce one another to contribute towards peace. This paper presents a cross-national analysis of truth commission (TC) reports spanning 1980-2015, exploring the range of…

  2. Interdependence versus Truth and Justice: Lessons from Reconciliation Processes in Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Kusumaningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth commissions and trials have been applauded as the way to move on from a violent past. Yet, some post-conflict societies managed to move toward reconciliation without the presence, or the effective presence of such formal institutions. This article discusses a number of lessons learned from Maluku, where reconciliation took the interdependence path. Taking on an interpretive, emic approach, it elaborates on the sites and mechanisms of interpendence. It argues that interdependence can be as viable as truth and justice procedures in bringing about reconciliation.

  3. Florida's "truth" campaign: a counter-marketing, anti-tobacco media campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, D; Hopkins, R S; Sly, D F; Urich, J; Kershaw, J M; Solari, S

    2000-05-01

    The "truth" campaign was created to change youth attitudes about tobacco and to reduce teen tobacco use throughout Florida by using youth-driven advertising, public relations, and advocacy. Results of the campaign include a 92 percent brand awareness rate among teens, a 15 percent rise in teens who agree with key attitudinal statements about smoking, a 19.4 percent decline in smoking among middle school students, and a 8.0 percent decline among high school students. States committed to results-oriented youth anti-tobacco campaigns should look to Florida's "truth" campaign as a model that effectively places youth at the helm of anti-tobacco efforts.

  4. Assessment of Electronic Circuits Reliability Using Boolean Truth Table Modeling Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Shanshoury, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Boolean Truth Table modeling Method (BTTM) in the analysis of qualitative data. It is widely used in certain fields especially in the fields of electrical and electronic engineering. Our work focuses on the evaluation of power supply circuit reliability using (BTTM) which involves systematic attempts to falsify and identify hypotheses on the basis of truth tables constructed from qualitative data. Reliability parameters such as the system's failure rates for the power supply case study are estimated. All possible state combinations (operating and failed states) of the major components in the circuit were listed and their effects on overall system were studied

  5. To Tell the Truth: The Challenge of Military Leadership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Jr, Ronald H

    1998-01-01

    The story of Regulus, while certainly apocryphal, nevertheless illustrates a fundamental tension of military leadership -- the moral imperative for military leaders to tell the truth, even when that...

  6. Post-Truth Politics, Bullshit and Bad Ideas: ‘Deficit Fetishism’ in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkin, Jonathan; Rosamond, Ben

    2017-01-01

    falsehoods: in other words, as speech acts that are indifferent to the truth and proceed without effective concern for the veracity of the claim in question. In this paper, we examine the characteristics of political bullshit applied to economic policy debates since the financial crisis, and seek to explain...

  7. Affect and/as Collective Resistance in a Post-Truth Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Samayoa, Andrés; Nicolazzo, Z

    2017-01-01

    In this piece, we call upon the value of coalitional politics as a strategy of resistance in the face of an increasingly powerful post-truth regime. Reflecting on the insidious effects of fact-denying discourses are echoed in our classrooms and in our roles as educators, we openly wonder: What might it mean for educators to use feelings as a guide…

  8. An Inconvenient Truth: An Application of the Extended Parallel Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, Catherine E.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    "An Inconvenient Truth" is an Academy Award-winning documentary about global warming presented by Al Gore. This documentary is appropriate for a lesson on fear appeals and the extended parallel process model (EPPM). The EPPM is concerned with the effects of perceived threat and efficacy on behavior change. Perceived threat is composed of an…

  9. On the ground truth problem of malicious DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    algorithms at their core. These methods require accurate ground truth of both malicious and benign DNS traffic for model training as well as for the performance evaluation. This paper elaborates on the problem of obtaining such a ground truth and evaluates practices employed by contemporary detection methods...

  10. Sojourner Truth as an Essential Part of Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, Bevin A.

    To affirm Sojourner Truth as a powerful rhetor who advanced the equality and empowerment of women, a study examined several of her speeches on women's suffrage. Although the value of using such role models as Sojourner Truth has been demonstrated in various grade levels, and in the study of history and English, the approach is too seldom employed…

  11. Literature and Truth : Imaginative Writing as a Medium for Ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansdown, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In Literature and Truth Richard Lansdown continues a discussion concerning the truth-bearing status of imaginative literature that pre-dates Plato. The book opens with a general survey of contemporary approaches in philosophical aesthetics, and a discussion of the contribution to the question made

  12. On authenticity: the question of truth in construction and autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara

    2011-12-01

    Freud was occupied with the question of truth and its verification throughout his work. He looked to archaeology for an evidence model to support his ideas on reconstruction. He also referred to literature regarding truth in reconstruction, where he saw shifts between historical fact and invention, and detected such swings in his own case histories. In his late work Freud pondered over the impossibility of truth in reconstruction by juxtaposing truth with 'probability'. Developments on the role of fantasy and myth in reconstruction and contemporary debates over objectivity have increasingly highlighted the question of 'truth' in psychoanalysis. I will argue that 'authenticity' is a helpful concept in furthering the discussion over truth in reconstruction. Authenticity denotes that which is genuine, trustworthy and emotionally accurate in a reconstruction, as observed within the immediacy of the analyst/patient interaction. As authenticity signifies genuineness in a contemporary context its origins are verifiable through the analyst's own observations of the analytic process itself. Therefore, authenticity is about the likelihood and approximation of historical truth rather than its certainty. In that respect it links with Freud's musings over 'probability'. Developments on writing 'truths' in autobiography mirror those in reconstruction, and lend corroborative support from another source. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Truth as determinant of religious faith | Emeng | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates how varying religious truth has determined different religious faiths in the world. One God created all human kind and placed them in their different environments, but the allegiance, service, worship and honour to him varies due to the different truths at the foundations of the many faiths. This article ...

  14. Women's Heart Disease: Join the Heart Truth Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Join The Heart Truth Community Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents National Symbol The centerpiece of The Heart Truth ® is The Red Dress ® which was introduced ...

  15. Keep Changing Your Beliefs, Aiming for the Truth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja

    We investigate the process of truth-seeking by iterated belief revision with higher-level doxastic information. We elaborate further on the main results in Baltag and Smets (Proceedings of TARK, 2009a, Proceedings of WOLLIC'09 LNAI 5514, 2009b), applying them to the issue of convergence to truth. We

  16. Academic Training: Telling the truth with statistics

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 21, 22, 23, 24 & 25 February from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Telling the truth with statistics by G. D'Agostini / NFN, Roma, Italy The issue of evaluating and expressing the uncertainty in measurements, as well as that of testing hypotheses, is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the frontier cases typical of particle physics experiments. Fundamental aspects of probability will be addressed and the applications, solely based on probability theory, will cover several topics of practical interest, including counting experiments, upper/lower bounds, systematic errors, fits and comparison of hypotheses. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  17. Autonomy, nudging and post-truth politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Geoff

    2017-11-16

    In his excellent essay, 'Nudges in a post-truth world', Neil Levy argues that 'nudges to reason', or nudges which aim to make us more receptive to evidence, are morally permissible. A strong argument against the moral permissibility of nudging is that nudges fail to respect the autonomy of the individuals affected by them. Levy argues that nudges to reason do respect individual autonomy, such that the standard autonomy objection fails against nudges to reason. In this paper, I argue that Levy fails to show that nudges to reason respect individual autonomy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. HOW TRUTHFUL ARE WATER ACCOUNTING DATA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Ansorge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water accounting is an important tool for water managers. Many studies use official water accounting data or similar data for their assessment. In particular, large-scale studies or water footprint studies have limited opportunities for “in-situ” data collection. In many cases, the processors of studies do not know the origin of the data and their limitations. Water accounting data are very often used for decision-making process, water resource management, and planning in the water sector. This article tries to answer the question “How truthful are water accounting data?” For this task water accounting in the agriculture sector in the Czech Republic was selected. The data on water withdrawals for the agriculture purposes was analysed and compared with water needs estimation based on additional data on agricultural production.

  19. Truth as Humility Nourishing Compassion Through Wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John L

    2018-03-01

    Among the strengths of forensic psychiatry as a profession is its ability to support lively discussion of critical questions, such as how to characterize its own essence and whether it belongs to the practice of medicine. The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law is fortunate that Michael Norko has taken the occasion of his presidential address to describe in depth the results of the advanced stage of his probing on a truly spiritual level the fundamental place of compassion in the practice of forensic psychiatry. In so doing, he casts inevitable light on the seamless connections binding forensic psychiatry and medicine, particularly the importance for both of practicing compassion in our search for truth. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  20. Chinese Children's Moral Evaluation of Lies and Truths-Roles of Context and Parental Individualism-Collectivism Tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Brunet, Megan K; Lv, Yin; Ding, Xiaopan; Heyman, Gail D; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Lee, Kang

    2010-10-01

    The present study examined Chinese children's moral evaluations of truths and lies about one's own pro-social acts. Children ages 7, 9, and 11 were read vignettes in which a protagonist performs a good deed and is asked about it by a teacher, either in front of the class or in private. In response, the protagonist either tells a modest lie, which is highly valued by the Chinese culture, or tells an immodest truth, which violates the Chinese cultural norms about modesty. Children were asked to identify whether the protagonist's statement was the truth or a lie, and to evaluate how 'good' or 'bad' the statement was. Chinese children rated modest lies more positively than immodest truths, with this effect becoming more pronounced with age. Rural Chinese children and those with at least one nonprofessional parent rated immodest truths less positively when they were told in public rather than in private. Furthermore, Chinese children of parents with high collectivism scores valued modest lies more than did children of parents with low collectivism scores. These findings suggest that both macro- and micro-cultural factors contribute significantly to children's moral understanding of truth and lie telling.

  1. Government Applications Task Force ground truth study of WAG 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, T.K.; Smyre, J.L.; King, A.L.

    1997-06-01

    This report documents the Government Applications Task Force (GATF) Buried Waste Project. The project was initiated as a field investigation and verification of the 1994 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program's (SERDP) Buried Waste Identification Project results. The GATF project team included staff from three US Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratories [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)] and from the National Exploitation Laboratory. Similar studies were conducted at each of the three DOE laboratories to demonstrate the effective use of remote sensing technologies. The three locations were selected to assess differences in buried waste signatures under various environmental conditions (i.e., climate, terrain, precipitation, geology, etc.). After a brief background discussion of the SERDP Project, this report documents the field investigation (ground truth) results from the 1994--1995 GATF Buried Waste Study at ORNL's Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4. Figures for this report are located in Appendix A

  2. Cost-utility analysis of the National truth campaign to prevent youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrave, David R; Wunderink, Katherine A; Vallone, Donna M; Healton, Cheryl G

    2009-05-01

    In 2005, the American Journal of Public Health published an article that indicated that 22% of the overall decline in youth smoking that occurred between 1999 and 2002 was directly attributable to the truth social marketing campaign launched in 2000. A remaining key question about the truth campaign is whether the economic investment in the program can be justified by the public health outcomes; that question is examined here. Standard methods of cost and cost-utility analysis were employed in accordance with the U.S. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine; a societal perspective was employed. During 2000-2002, expenditures totaled just over $324 million to develop, deliver, evaluate, and litigate the truth campaign. The base-case cost-utility analysis result indicates that the campaign was cost saving; it is estimated that the campaign recouped its costs and that just under $1.9 billion in medical costs was averted for society. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the basic determination of cost effectiveness for this campaign is robust to substantial variation in input parameters. This study suggests that the truth campaign not only markedly improved the public's health but did so in an economically efficient manner.

  3. The Influence of the National truth campaign on smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Nonnemaker, James; Davis, Kevin C; Hussin, Altijani

    2009-05-01

    States and national organizations spend millions annually on antismoking campaigns aimed at youth. Much of the evidence for their effectiveness is based on cross-sectional studies. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a prominent national youth smoking-prevention campaign in the U.S. known as truth that was launched in February 2000. A nationally representative cohort of 8904 adolescents aged 12-17 years who were interviewed annually from 1997 to 2004 was analyzed in 2008. A quasi-experimental design was used to relate changes in smoking initiation to variable levels of exposure to antismoking messages over time and across 210 media markets in the U.S. A discrete-time hazard model was used to quantify the influence of media market delivery of TV commercials on smoking initiation, controlling for confounding influences. Based on the results of the hazard model, the number of youth nationally who were prevented from smoking from 2000 through 2004 was estimated. Exposure to the truth campaign is associated with a decreased risk of smoking initiation (relative risk=0.80, p=0.001). Through 2004, approximately 450,000 adolescents were prevented from trying smoking nationwide. Factors negatively associated with initiation include African-American race (relative risk=0.44, p<0.001), Hispanic ethnicity (relative risk=0.74, p<0.001), completing high school (relative risk=0.69, p<0.001), and living with both parents at baseline (OR=0.79, p<0.001). The current study strengthens the available evidence for antismoking campaigns as a viable strategy for preventing youth smoking.

  4. On a Philosophical Motivation for Mutilating Truth Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons colours, or better the conceptual organisation of the colour system, could be relevant to the philosophy of logic is that they necessitate some mutilation of truth tables by restricting truth functionality. This paper argues that the so-called ‘Colour Exclusion Problem’, the first great challenge for Wittgenstein’s Tractatus, is a legitimate philosophical motivation for a systematic mutilation of truth tables. It shows how one can express, through these mutilations, some intensional logical relations usually expressed by the Aristotelian Square of Oppositions, as contrariety and subcontrariety.

  5. A Robust Bayesian Truth Serum for Small Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, David C.; Witkowski, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Peer prediction mechanisms allow the truthful elicitation of private signals (e.g., experiences, or opinions) in regard to a true world state when this ground truth is unobservable. The original peer prediction method is incentive compatible for any number of agents n >= 2, but relies on a common prior, shared by all agents and the mechanism. The Bayesian Truth Serum (BTS) relaxes this assumption. While BTS still assumes that agents share a common prior, this prior need not be known to the me...

  6. Truthfulness in science teachers’ bodily and verbal actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    2013-01-01

    A dramaturgical approach to teacher’s personal bodily and verbal actions is applied through the vocabulary of truthfulness. Bodily and verbal actions have been investigated among Danish primary and lower secondary school science teachers based on their narratives and observations of their classroom...... actions. The analysis shows how science teachers engage truthfully in pupil relations through an effort of applying classroom management, among other things. In all, this indicates that if science education research wants to understand science teachers’ personal relations to teaching science it could...... be beneficial to address the truthfulness of science teachers’ narratives and actions....

  7. "Angels & Demons" - Distinguishing truth from fiction

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Dan Brown's best-selling novel "Angels & Demons" was published in French on 2 March. A web page on CERN's public site is dedicated to separating truth from fiction in this novel. After the extraordinary success of Dan Brown's "Da Vinci Code", one of his earlier novels "Angels & Demons", published in 2000, has now become a best seller and has generated a flood of questions about CERN. This detective story is about a secret society, the Illuminati, who wish to destroy the Vatican with an antimatter bomb stolen from - wait for it - CERN! Inevitably, CERN has been bombarded with calls about the technologies described in the novel that are supposed to be under development in the Laboratory. The Press Office has always explained that, even if the novel appears to be very informative, it is in fact a mixture of fact and fiction. For instance, according to the novel CERN is supposed to own a plane that can cover the distance between Massachusetts in the United States and Switzerland in just over an hour! ...

  8. Truth, Representation and Interpretation: The Popper Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Stan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine several points of reference regarding the way in which Karl Popper built up his philosophical discourse. I locate two specific ways in which Popper interpreted and used ideas belonging to other philosophers. Thus I distinguish in Popper between a projective hermeneutics (where the author uses a thesis that forms a part of his own philosophy in order to reconstruct and understand the ideas of another philosopher and anideological hermeneutics (where he uses a statement expressing an interest of the community whereof he is a member in order to interpret and reconstruct the text of another philosopher. In so doing I also highlight the considerable asymmetry between a representationalist hermeneutics, and a projective and, respectively, an ideological one. Whereas in the first case the interpreter wishes to unveil a truth about the philosophical text, in the other two he israther expressing a desire to talk about himself, his own beliefs and convictions, or about the beliefs of his community of reference.

  9. When is Deceptive Message Production More Effortful than Truth-Telling? A Baker's Dozen of Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgoon, Judee K

    2015-01-01

    Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker's dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion-for truth-tellers and deceivers alike-to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill, and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling.

  10. Facing the truth: An appraisal of the potential contributions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facing the truth: An appraisal of the potential contributions, paradoxes and challenges of implementing the United Nations conventions on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) in Nigeria.

  11. This Is My (Post) Truth, Tell Me Yours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This is a commentary on the article ‘The rise of post-truth populism in pluralist liberal democracies: challenges for health policy.’ It critically examines two of its key concepts: populism and ‘post truth.’ This commentary argues that there are different types of populism, with unclear links to impacts, and that in some ways, ‘post-truth’ has resonances with arguments advanced in the period at the beginning of the British National Health Service (NHS). In short, ‘post-truth’ populism’ may be ‘déjà vu all over again,’ and there are multiple (post) truths: this is my (post) truth, tell me yours. PMID:29172380

  12. News, truth and crime: the Westray disaster and its aftermath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, J.L. [Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS (Canada). Department of Sociology and Criminology

    2005-07-01

    A study of the way the media portrayed the Westray Mine disaster and its aftermath over the period 1992 to 2002 is presented. The chapters titles are; power, discourse, and the production of news as truth; the explosion and its aftermath; studying the press and Westray; the press and the presentation of Westray's truth; and the politics of truth and the invisibility of corporate crime. News articles reporting the accident and outcome were sampled, coded, and evaluated by content analysis. It is concluded that the various media represented alternative truths, but did not label the corporation as criminal. This was missing from the media's reporting of the disaster.

  13. Descartes on the Creation of the Eternal Truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Macbeth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On 15 April 1630, in a letter to Mersenne, Descartes announced that on his view God creates the truths of mathematics. Descartes returned to the theme in subsequent letters and some of his Replies but nowhere is the view systematically developed and defended. It is not clear why Descartes came to espouse the creation doctrine, nor even what exactly it is. Some have argued that his motivation was theological, that God creates the eternal truths, including the truths of logic, because and insofar as God is omnipotent andthe creator of all things. I develop and defend a different reading according to which Descartes was led to espouse the creation doctrine by a fundamental shift in his understanding of the correct mode of inquiry in metaphysics and mathematics: by 1630, the God-created truths came to play the role in inquiry that until then, in the Rules for the Direction of the Mind, had been played by images.

  14. The Value of Instruction for a Commitment to Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the redesign of a media ethics course in which students analyze such topics as truth, falsehood, manipulation, temptation, unfairness, and power. Notes that students keep an ethics journal in the course, and discusses sample journal topics. (PA)

  15. The source of the truth bias: Heuristic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Masip, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    People believe others are telling the truth more often than they actually are; this is called the truth bias. Surprisingly, when a speaker is judged at multiple points across their statement the truth bias declines. Previous claims argue this is evidence of a shift from (biased) heuristic processing to (reasoned) analytical processing. In four experiments we contrast the heuristic-analytic model (HAM) with alternative accounts. In Experiment 1, the decrease in truth responding was not the result of speakers appearing more deceptive, but was instead attributable to the rater's processing style. Yet contrary to HAMs, across three experiments we found the decline in bias was not related to the amount of processing time available (Experiments 1-3) or the communication channel (Experiment 2). In Experiment 4 we found support for a new account: that the bias reflects whether raters perceive the statement to be internally consistent. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steven R. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harben, Phillip E. [Rocky Mountain Geophysics, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarpe, Steve [Jarpe Data Solutions, Prescott, AZ (United States); Harris, David B. [Deschutes Signal Processing, Maupin, OR (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  17. What Justice for Rwanda? Gacaca versus Truth Commission?

    OpenAIRE

    Reuchamps, Min

    2008-01-01

    In post-genocide Rwanda, in addition to gacaca courts, a truth commission is needed in order to promote justice and foster reconciliation. In the context of transitional justice, retributive justice, which seeks justice and focuses on the perpetrators, appears to be inadequate to lead a society towards reconciliation. Therefore, some forms of restorative justice, which emphasize the healing of the whole society, seem necessary. In Rwanda, gacaca courts and a truth commission are complementary...

  18. Public relations and journalism: truth, trust, transparency and integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Truth, trust, integrity and reputation are key concepts for understanding the relationship between journalists and public relations practitioners. This the paper: first, considers the current debate on the inter-relationship between journalism and public relations; second distinguishes varieties of public relations and journalism; third, analyses the Editorial Intelligence controversy; fourth, deconstructs aspects of "truth" and "trust" in the context of that debate; fifth, considers why the ...

  19. Behavioral pragmatism: No place for reality and truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2000-01-01

    The current article begins by reviewing L. J. Hayes's claim that pragmatism relies on a correspondence-based truth criterion. To evaluate her claim, the concept of the observation sentence, proposed by the pragmatist philosopher W. V. Quine, is examined. The observation sentence appears to remove the issue of correspondence from Quine's pragmatist philosophy. Nevertheless, the issue of correspondence reemerges, as the problem of homology, when Quine appeals to agreement between or among observation sentences as the basis for truth. Quine also argues, however, that the problem of homology (i.e., correspondence) should be ignored on pragmatic grounds. Because the problem is simply ignored, but not resolved, there appears to be some substance to Hayes's claim that pragmatism relies ultimately on correspondence as a truth criterion. Behavioral pragmatism is then introduced to circumvent both Hayes's claim and Quine's implicit appeal to correspondence. Behavioral pragmatism avoids correspondence by appealing to the personal goals (i.e., the behavior) of the scientist or philosopher as the basis for establishing truth. One consequence of this approach, however, is that science and philosophy are robbed of any final or absolute objectives and thus may not be a satisfactory solution to philosophers. On balance, behavioral pragmatism avoids any appeal to correspondence-based truth, and thus it cannot be criticized for generating the same philosophical problems that have come to be associated with this truth criterion. PMID:22478346

  20. Truth Space Method for Caching Database Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Mosin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method of client-side data caching for relational databases with a central server and distant clients. Data are loaded into the client cache based on queries executed on the server. Every query has the corresponding DB table – the result of the query execution. These queries have a special form called "universal relational query" based on three fundamental Relational Algebra operations: selection, projection and natural join. We have to mention that such a form is the closest one to the natural language and the majority of database search queries can be expressed in this way. Besides, this form allows us to analyze query correctness by checking lossless join property. A subsequent query may be executed in a client’s local cache if we can determine that the query result is entirely contained in the cache. For this we compare truth spaces of the logical restrictions in a new user’s query and the results of the queries execution in the cache. Such a comparison can be performed analytically , without need in additional Database queries. This method may be used to define lacking data in the cache and execute the query on the server only for these data. To do this the analytical approach is also used, what distinguishes our paper from the existing technologies. We propose four theorems for testing the required conditions. The first and the third theorems conditions allow us to define the existence of required data in cache. The second and the fourth theorems state conditions to execute queries with cache only. The problem of cache data actualizations is not discussed in this paper. However, it can be solved by cataloging queries on the server and their serving by triggers in background mode. The article is published in the author’s wording.

  1. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.

  2. Competence and Performance in Belief-Desire Reasoning across Two Cultures: The Truth, the Whole Truth and Nothing but the Truth about False Belief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Amir Amin; German, Tim P.; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Siegal, Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is a change in false belief task performance across the 3-5 year age range, as confirmed in a recent meta-analysis [Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory mind development: The truth about false-belief. "Child Development," 72, 655-684]. This meta-analysis identified several performance factors influencing…

  3. SEA ICE THICKNESS MEASUREMENT BY GROUND PENETRATING RADAR FOR GROUND TRUTH OF MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsumoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  4. Sea Ice Thickness Measurement by Ground Penetrating Radar for Ground Truth of Microwave Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Naoki, K.; Cho, K.; Wakabayashi, H.

    2018-04-01

    Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately) aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  5. The Medawar Lecture 2004 the truth about science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Peter

    2005-06-29

    The attitudes of scientists towards the philosophy of science is mixed and includes considerable indifference and some hostility. This may be due in part to unrealistic expectation and to misunderstanding. Philosophy is unlikely directly to improve scientific practices, but scientists may find the attempt to explain how science works and what it achieves of considerable interest nevertheless. The present state of the philosophy of science is illustrated by recent work on the 'truth hypothesis', according to which, science is generating increasingly accurate representations of a mind-independent and largely unobservable world. According to Karl Popper, although truth is the aim of science, it is impossible to justify the truth hypothesis. According to Thomas Kuhn, the truth hypothesis is false, because scientists can only describe a world that is partially constituted by their own theories and hence not mind-independent. The failure of past scientific theories has been used to argue against the truth hypothesis; the success of the best current theories has been used to argue for it. Neither argument is sound.

  6. DID RAMSEY EVER ENDORSE A REDUNDANCY THEORY OF TRUTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Frápolli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Ramsey´s theory of truth and its aim is twofold: on the one hand, it will explain what position about truth Ramsey actually defended, and, on the other hand, we will pursue Ramsey’s insight in the XXth century. When the name of Frank Ramsey is mentioned, one of the things that comes to mind is the theory of truth as redundancy. In the following pages we will argue that Ramsey never supported such a theory, but rather an analysis of truth noticeably similar to the prosentential account. In fact, the very word “pro-sentence” appears for the first time in the XXth Century in Ramsey´s unfinished work “The nature of truth”, written around 1929. Besides, we will show that the prosentential account of truth is a neglected trend throughout the history of analytic philosophy, even though relevant analytic philosophers, such as Prior, Strawson, Williams, Grover and Brandom, have endorsed it.

  7. Community detection algorithm evaluation with ground-truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebabli, Malek; Cherifi, Hocine; Cherifi, Chantal; Hamouda, Atef

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is of paramount importance for the understanding of complex networks. Consequently, there is a tremendous effort in order to develop efficient community detection algorithms. Unfortunately, the issue of a fair assessment of these algorithms is a thriving open question. If the ground-truth community structure is available, various clustering-based metrics are used in order to compare it versus the one discovered by these algorithms. However, these metrics defined at the node level are fairly insensitive to the variation of the overall community structure. To overcome these limitations, we propose to exploit the topological features of the 'community graphs' (where the nodes are the communities and the links represent their interactions) in order to evaluate the algorithms. To illustrate our methodology, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of overlapping community detection algorithms using a set of real-world networks with known a priori community structure. Results provide a better perception of their relative performance as compared to classical metrics. Moreover, they show that more emphasis should be put on the topology of the community structure. We also investigate the relationship between the topological properties of the community structure and the alternative evaluation measures (quality metrics and clustering metrics). It appears clearly that they present different views of the community structure and that they must be combined in order to evaluate the effectiveness of community detection algorithms.

  8. Love the Truth in the Franciscan School (XIIIth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lázaro Pulido

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Love to the truth is a fundamental question in the Franciscan School. It has your origin on the Franciscan practical needs to transmit the evangelical message to all the men. The universality of the message inspires the concept of wisdom as a base to love the truth. The truth appears as occasion of reference to God, the significatio never subordinates to the res. The article exposes the fundamental milestones of this construction from the origins of the Franciscan School to the ends of the 13th century with Gonzalo Hispano, indicating the common points and the internal discussions of a School according Anthony of Lisbon/Padua, Alexander of Hales, Odo Rigaldus, William of Melitona, Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Bonaventure, Matthew of Aquasparta, Peter John Olivi and Gonsalvus of Spain

  9. The Social Sciences and their compromisse with truth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro W. Barbosa de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the social scientists responsability in relation to justice and truth, based in the practical and theoretical experiences of the author in the field of Social Anthropology. Although the text adresses the Social Sciences from the perspective of Social Anthropology, it deals with topics in which the researchers and ativists activities require a cooperative action of lawyers, engineers and biologists among the work of sociologists and geographers – all that is involved in the situations when it is necessary to tell the truth and also to judge about justice and injustice in social life. Justice and truth notions are social scientists weapons and they can not be abandoned in the hands of conservative thought.

  10. Love and Truth in Social Involvement of the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Szmulewicz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study begins with a brief outline of the essence of the whole encyclical Caritas in veritate . Benedict XVI expresses the desire for „the dialogue with the world”. He understands this dialogue as a special kind of the service of the Church towards eternal love and truth, fully revealed in Christ. The dialogue of the Church with the world, in the spirit of love and truth, is accomplished every day at the level of so-called official relations. There are numerous opinions that in the past the Church repeatedly neglected the dialogue with the world. Indeed, the Church historians point out the existence of examples of the fall of the authority of the Holy See in particular countries and circumstances. Similarly, the Church is the sign of objection in the contemporary world. Instructed by past experiences the Church is aware that what is necessary for the renewal of culture and society, is evangelical love and truth.

  11. This Is My (Post) Truth, Tell Me Yours

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This is a commentary on the article ‘The rise of post-truth populism in pluralist liberal democracies: challenges for health policy.’ It critically examines two of its key concepts: populism and ‘post truth.’ This commentary argues that there are different types of populism, with unclear links to impacts, and that in some ways, ‘post-truth’ has resonances with arguments advanced in the period at the beginning of the British National Health Service (NHS). In short, ‘post-truth’ populism’ may b...

  12. Truth assessment of objective facts extracted from tweets : A case study on world cup 2014 game facts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Bas; Habib, Mena; Van Keulen, Maurice

    By understanding the tremendous opportunities to work with social media data and the acknowledgment of the negative effects social media messages can have, a way of assessing truth in claims on social media would not only be interesting but also very valuable. By making use of this ability,

  13. Ernst von Glasersfeld's Radical Constructivism and Truth as Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Clarence Joldersma explores radical constructivism through the work of its most well-known advocate, Ernst von Glasersfeld, who combines a sophisticated philosophical discussion of knowledge and truth with educational practices. Joldersma uses Joseph Rouse's work in philosophy of science to criticize the antirealism inherent in…

  14. Views from the field Truth seeking and gender: The Liberian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to gender influence truth-seeking in a post-conflict situation? Following ..... of how apartheid structured identities not simply along the fault lines of race, but also ... the Second World War in Europe and all black people (African, Coloured and ... and power of Afrikaner nationalism by means of an exclusive system of white.

  15. Truth telling in a South African tertiary hospital | Vangu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Truth telling forms part of the contemporary debate in clinical bioethics and centres around the right of the patient to receive honest information concerning his or her medical condition/illness and the duty of the doctor to give this information to the patient. Many patients complain that they are not being informed, ...

  16. 78 FR 18795 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... of credit at account opening. The consumer is also required to pay a cash advance fee that is equal... amount equal to any fees the consumer was required to pay with respect to the account that exceed 25... Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act, and the Official Interpretations of the regulation...

  17. Communicating Truthfully and Positively in Appraising Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C. Glenn; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the issue of acceptable behavior for managers when giving feedback to their subordinates. Notes that feedback can be either truthful or untruthful, and can be communicated either positively or negatively. Describes the advantages and disadvantages for each feedback approach to work performance. (MM)

  18. Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative. Of the theologians and philosophers now writing on biblical narrative, Hans Frei and Paul Ricoeur are probably the most prominent. It is significant that their views converge on important issues. Both are uncomfortable with hermeneutic theories that convert the text ...

  19. Negotiating Nation-building and Citizenship through the Truth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, therefore, seeks to interrogate the dramatic world(s) created using the material properties of the TRC in John Kani's Nothing but the Truth and Zakes Mda's The Bells of Amersfoort. The paper argues that the domination and manipulation of this public realm by the state at the expense of the individual is not only ...

  20. Truth commissions and gender: A South African case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's gendered past was never substantially addressed by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) despite attempts by women's groups to ensure its inclusion.. The TRC's treatment of gender was in part constrained by its 'gender-blind' mandate, which ignored the different experiences and ...

  1. Art and fiction are signals with indeterminate truth values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabb, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Menninghaus et al. distinguish art from fiction, but no current arguments or data suggest that the concept of art can be meaningfully circumscribed. This is a problem for aesthetic psychology. I sketch a solution by rejecting the distinction: Unlike most animal communication, in which signals are either true or false, art and fiction consist of signals without determinate truth values.

  2. Redefining Religious Truth as a Challenge for Philosophy of Religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, P.H.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important features of contemporary Western societies is the rise of (religious) pluralism. Whereas (philosophical) theism used to serve as a common ground to discuss the truth-claims of religion, this approach seems to have lost much of its plausibility. What I want to argue in this

  3. Truth and modes of cognition in Boethius: a Neoplatonic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Zamora Calvo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Boethius does not accept the principle of realism that considers truth as the adaptation – or adequation – of the subject to the knowable object, and instead defends that knowledge should be studied by relating it to the capacity of the cognoscente subject. Thus, truth is relative to the faculty or level of knowledge in which we stand, since each faculty -each level of knowledge- has its own object: the material figure for the senses, the figure without matter for the Imagination, the universal for reason and the simple form for intelligence. But this epistemological relativism is moderate, precisely because of its hierarchical character. Therefore, although in a sense truth is manifold, the perfect truth, proper to divine knowledge, includes and surpasses all others. In order to cement the architecture of this system of relativisation of knowledge, Boethius starts from a Neoplatonic interpretation of the simile of the line of the Republic (VI.510a-b and Plato's Timaeus, but not completely tied to it. The beings endowed with knowledge are ordered according to the Neoplatonic hierarchy of cosmic realities.

  4. What is the Point? Ethics, Truth and the Tractatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard

    2007-01-01

    discourse is shaped by both subjective and objective concerns. Moving on, I unfold the subjective side of ethics by drawing on Stanley Cavell's notion of the point of an utterance, while the objective side will be presented via Diamond's writing on the importance of truth in ethics. My goal is to argue...

  5. Is our Ground-Truth for Traffic Classification Reliable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carela-Español, Valentín; Bujlow, Tomasz; Barlet-Ros, Pere

    2014-01-01

    . In order to evaluate these tools we have carefully built a labeled dataset of more than 500 000 flows, which contains traffic from popular applications. Our results present PACE, a commercial tool, as the most reliable solution for ground-truth generation. However, among the open-source tools available...

  6. 78 FR 25818 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0039] RIN 3170-AA28 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Final rule; official interpretations. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) issues this final...

  7. Propositional matrices as alternative representation of truth values ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considered the subject of representation of truth values in symbolic logic. An alternative representation was given based on the rows and columns properties of matrices, with the operations involving the logical connectives subjected to the laws of algebra of propositions. Matrices of various propositions detailing ...

  8. 75 FR 58505 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    .... Reasons for the Proposed Rule Congress enacted TILA based on findings that economic stability would be... and Regulation Z Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be enhanced and competition among consumer credit providers would be strengthened by the...

  9. 75 FR 58469 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) based on findings that economic stability would be... 2503 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, Public Law 110-289, enacted on July 30, 2008. The MDIA was later amended by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, Public Law 110-343...

  10. The Autobiographical Photo-textual Devices. Rhetorics and Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Coglitore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The case of autobiographical photo-texts is to be analyzed, first of all, as an autobiographical writing that feels the need to express by other means; secondly, as a specific rhetoric practice that chooses the image, next to the word, as a further persuasive force; finally, as a very special case of icono-texts, which uses some variety of the connection between the verbal and the visual. It is not only a matter of analyzing how it works the cooperation between photographs and autobiographical writing, that is, through which connectors – frames, white space, overlays and captions –, but also of understanding what are the functions of the photographs in relation to literature. This is in order to understand what truth is affirmed in the examples chosen: Franca Valeri, Grégoire Bouillier, Roland Barthes, Winfried G. Sebald, Lalla Romano, Jovanotti, Edward Said, Azar Nafisi, Vladimir Nabokov, André Breton, Hannah Höch, Annie Ernaux. Do photographs expose, confirm, add or resist the truth expressed by the literary side? And if narrative expresses the truth and the resistance to the truth of the author himself, what does the photo resist to, while showing?

  11. Green gold : on variations of truth in plantation forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The "variations of truth in plantation forestry" is a study on the Teakwood investment program. Teakwood offered the general public in The Netherlands the opportunity to directly invest in a teak plantation in Costa Rica. The program was pioneered in 1989 and truly gained momentum when it

  12. Heart Health: Learn the Truth About Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Learn the Truth About Your Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock February is American Heart Month. Now is the time to make sure ...

  13. On the semantics of conflict resolution in truth maintenance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.

    A Truth Maintenance -System (TMS) maintains a consistent state of belief given a set J of justifications, i.e. arguments for belief. To resolve contradictions dependency-directed backtracking is performed. In this paper we introduce a method that can, be used to track all

  14. PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA PERMAINAN TRUTH AND DARE BERVISI SETS GUNA MEMOTIVASI BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Rosyda Attaqiana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menggunakan media kartu permainan Truth and Dare bervisi SETS yang mengajak siswa untuk dapat menghubungkan dan mengkaitkan antara sains, teknologi, serta dampak pada lingkungan dan masyarakat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kelayakan, kepraktisan, dan keefektifan media permainan Truth and Dare bervisi SETS dalam pembelajaran kimia larutan penyangga. Desain penelitian yang digunakan yaitu Four-D Models yang disederhanakan menjadi Three-D Model, terdiri dari Define, Design, and Develop. Kelayakan awal media ditentukan oleh ahli media dan ahli materi yang terdiri dari dosen dan guru kimia. Kelayakan akhir media ditentukan dengan melibatkan hasil penelitian. Keefektifan media ditentukan dari hasil post test dan hasil angket motivasi belajar siswa. Kepraktisan media dilihat dari hasil angket tanggapan siswa dan guru terhadap penggunaan media permainan Truth and Dare bervisi SETS. Berdasarkan hasil validasi awal ahli media, ahli materi, analisis hasil penelitian, media dinyatakan sangat layak untuk pembelajaran kimia. Hasil analisis angket tanggapan siswa dan guru menyatakan bahwa media termasuk dalam kategori sangat praktis. Media dinyatakan efektif karena dapat membantu 35 dari 42 siswa mencapai nilai Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM. Hal itu melebihi harapan 30 dari 42 siswa mencapai KKM. Oleh karena itu dapat disimpulkan bahwa media permainan Truth and Dare bervisi SETS dapat memotivasi belajar siswa untuk mencapai kompetensi dasar larutan penyangga.This research is using a game card media of Truth and Dare with SETS vision that invites students to be able to connect and relate between science, technology, and the impact on the environment and society. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, practicality, and effectiveness of media visionary game of Truth and Dare SETS in chemistry learning of buffer solution. The study used Four-Design model which was reduced into Three-D Model consisting of

  15. The Metaphysical Assumptions of the Conception of Truth in Martin Smiglecki’s Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pawlikowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The central element of the concept of truth in Smiglecki’s Logica (1618 is his approach to formulating definitions. Where the establishing of the truth is concerned, he always points to compliance at the level of the community (conformitas in respect of whether the intellectual recognition of a thing or things is in accordance with its intellectual equivalent, or the principles behind the latter, where these are understood as designating the corresponding idea inherent in the intellect of God. This is a form of the classical definition of truth --- similar to that used by St. Thomas Aquinas --- with a wide scope of applicability: to the field of existence (transcendental truth, to cognition and language (logical truth, and even to moral beliefs (moral rightness. Smiglecki distinguishes three types of truth: truth assigned to being, truth assigned to cognition, and truth assigned to moral convictions. Of these, the first is identified with transcendental truth, while the second is attributed not only to propositions and sentences, but also to concepts. The truth of concepts results from compliance with things by way of representation, while the truth of propositions and sentences issues from a compliance with things involving the implementation of some form of expression or other. Logical truth pertains to propositions rather than concepts. The kind of moral truth he writes about is what we would now be more likely to call “truthfulness”. With the exception of moral truth, which he defined as compliance of a statement with someone’s internal thoughts, Smiglecki considers every kind of truth to be a conditioned state of the object of knowledge. He says (a that the ultimate object of reference of human cognitive functioning is a real being, absolutely true by virtue of compliance with its internal principles and their idea as present in the intellect of God, and (b that the compatibility of human cognition with a real being is the ultimate

  16. The truthful signalling hypothesis: an explicit general equilibrium model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; Hirshleifer, Jack

    2004-06-21

    In mating competition, the truthful signalling hypothesis (TSH), sometimes known as the handicap principle, asserts that higher-quality males signal while lower-quality males do not (or else emit smaller signals). Also, the signals are "believed", that is, females mate preferentially with higher-signalling males. Our analysis employs specific functional forms to generate analytic solutions and numerical simulations that illuminate the conditions needed to validate the TSH. Analytic innovations include: (1) A Mating Success Function indicates how female mating choices respond to higher and lower signalling levels. (2) A congestion function rules out corner solutions in which females would mate exclusively with higher-quality males. (3) A Malthusian condition determines equilibrium population size as related to per-capita resource availability. Equilibria validating the TSH are achieved over a wide range of parameters, though not universally. For TSH equilibria it is not strictly necessary that the high-quality males have an advantage in terms of lower per-unit signalling costs, but a cost difference in favor of the low-quality males cannot be too great if a TSH equilibrium is to persist. And although the literature has paid less attention to these points, TSH equilibria may also fail if: the quality disparity among males is too great, or the proportion of high-quality males in the population is too large, or if the congestion effect is too weak. Signalling being unprofitable in aggregate, it can take off from a no-signalling equilibrium only if the trait used for signalling is not initially a handicap, but instead is functionally useful at low levels. Selection for this trait sets in motion a bandwagon, whereby the initially useful indicator is pushed by male-male competition into the domain where it does indeed become a handicap.

  17. The socio-rhetorical force of 'truth talk' and lies: The case of 1 John ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article canvassed Greek and Roman sources for discussions concerning truth talk and lies. It has investigated what social historians and/or anthropologists are saying about truth talking and lying and has developed a model that will examine the issue of truth and lying in socio-religious terms as defined by the ...

  18. Does Truth Exist? Insights from Applied Linguistics for the Rationalism/Postmodern Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The question of whether or not truth exists is at the center of the rationalism versus postmodern debate. Noting the difficulty of defining truth, the author uses the principles of linguistics to show that semantic skewing has resulted in the concept of truth being encoded as a noun, while it is really an attribute (true). The introduction of a…

  19. This Is My (Post) Truth, Tell Me Yours Comment on "The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martin

    2017-05-15

    This is a commentary on the article 'The rise of post-truth populism in pluralist liberal democracies: challenges for health policy.' It critically examines two of its key concepts: populism and 'post truth.' This commentary argues that there are different types of populism, with unclear links to impacts, and that in some ways, 'post-truth' has resonances with arguments advanced in the period at the beginning of the British National Health Service (NHS). In short, 'post-truth' populism' may be 'déjà vu all over again,' and there are multiple (post) truths: this is my (post) truth, tell me yours. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  20. The sad truth about depressive realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Lorraine G; Siegel, Shepard; Hannah, Samuel

    2007-03-01

    In one form of a contingency judgement task individuals must judge the relationship between an action and an outcome. There are reports that depressed individuals are more accurate than are non-depressed individuals in this task. In particular, nondepressed individuals are influenced by manipulations that affect the salience of the outcome, especially outcome probability. They overestimate a contingency if the probability of an outcome is high--the "outcome-density effect". In contrast, depressed individuals display little or no outcome-density effect. This apparent knack for depressives not to be misled by outcome density in their contingency judgements has been termed "depressive realism", and the absence of an outcome-density effect has led to the characterization of depressives as "sadder but wiser". We present a critical summary of the depressive realism literature and provide a novel interpretation of the phenomenon. We suggest that depressive realism may be understood from a psychophysical analysis of contingency judgements.

  1. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  2. Taking Exception. Reduced mortality leads to population growth: an inconvenient truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, James D

    2014-05-01

    Reduced mortality has been the predominant cause of the marked global population growth over the last 3/4 of a century. While improved child survival increases motivation to reduce fertility, it comes too little and too late to forestall substantial population growth. And, beyond motivation, couples need effective means to control their fertility. It is an inconvenient truth that reducing child mortality contributes considerably to the population growth destined to compromise the quality of life of many, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Vigorous child survival programming is of course imperative. Wide access to voluntary family planning can help mitigate that growth and provide many other benefits.

  3. When is deceptive message production more effortful than truth-telling? A baker’s dozen of moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judee K Burgoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deception is thought to be more effortful than telling the truth. Empirical evidence from many quarters supports this general proposition. However, there are many factors that qualify and even reverse this pattern. Guided by a communication perspective, I present a baker’s dozen of moderators that may alter the degree of cognitive difficulty associated with producing deceptive messages. Among sender-related factors are memory processes, motivation, incentives, and consequences. Lying increases activation of a network of brain regions related to executive memory, suppression of unwanted behaviors, and task switching that is not observed with truth-telling. High motivation coupled with strong incentives or the risk of adverse consequences also prompts more cognitive exertion--for truth-tellers and deceivers alike--to appear credible, with associated effects on performance and message production effort, depending on the magnitude of effort, communicator skill and experience. Factors related to message and communication context include discourse genre, type of prevarication, expected response length, communication medium, preparation, and recency of target event/issue. These factors can attenuate the degree of cognitive taxation on senders so that truth-telling and deceiving are similarly effortful. Factors related to the interpersonal relationship among interlocutors include whether sender and receiver are cooperative or adversarial and how well-acquainted they are with one another. A final consideration is whether the unit of analysis is the utterance, turn at talk, episode, entire interaction, or series of interactions. Taking these factors into account should produce a more nuanced answer to the question of when deception is more difficult than truth-telling.

  4. THE JOURNEY OF TRUTH: FROM PLATO TO ZOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribut Basuki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Western theater theory and criticism is generally considered to be set forth by the Greeks. Plato was "the first theater critic" with his negative comments about theater owing to his idealistic views about "the truth." Then came Aristotle who used a different viewpoint from that of Plato, saying that there is "truth" in theater. However, hostile criticism on theater came back in the Middle Ages, championed by Tertulian before Aristotelian theory was revived by the neo-classicists such as Scaliger and Castelvetro. Theater theory and criticism discourse was then made more alive by the romanticists who disagreed with the neo-classicists' rigid rules on theater. As the influence of science became dominant in the theater world, naturalism and realism emerged and became the mainstream of theater theory and criticism until well into the twentieth century.

  5. About the notion of truth in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of truth in quantum mechanics is considered in order to respond to some objections raised by B. d'Espagnat against a logical interpretation of quantum mechanics recently proposed by the author. A complete answer is given. It is shown that not only can factual data be said to be true, but also some of their logical consequences, so that the definition of truth given by Heisenberg is both extended and refined. Some nontrue but reliable propositions may also be used, but they are somewhat arbitrary because of the complementarity principle. For instance, the propositions expressing wave packet reduction can be either true or reliable, according to the case under study. Separability is also discussed: as far as the true properties of an individual system are concerned, quantum mechanics is separable

  6. Leadership for reconciliation: A Truth and Reconciliation Commission perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. J. Meiring

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available As important as the need for authentic leadership in the fields of politics, economy and education in Africa may be, the continent is also in dire need of leadership for reconciliation. Against the backdrop of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC, the author � who served on the Commission � discusses five characteristics of leaders for reconciliation. Leaders need to be: leaders with a clear understanding of the issues at stake; leaders with respect for the truth; leaders with a sense of justice; leaders with a comprehension of the dynamics of forgiveness; and leaders with a firm commitment. The insights and experiences of both the chairperson of the TRC, Desmond Tutu, and the deputy chair, Alex Boraine, form the backbone of the article.

  7. Incentives for Truthful Information Elicitation of Continuous Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi

    2014-01-01

    We consider settings where a collective intelligence is formed by aggregating information contributed from many independent agents, such as product reviews, community sensing, or opinion polls. We propose a novel mechanism that elicits both private signals and beliefs. The mechanism extends the previous versions of the Bayesian Truth Serum (the original BTS, the RBTS, and the multi-valued BTS), by allowing small populations and non-binary private signals, while not requiring additional assump...

  8. The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Women, 2014

    2014-01-01

    It's been said that men are paid more than women are paid over their lifetimes. But what does that mean? Are women paid less because they choose lower-paying jobs? Is it because more women work part time than men do? Or is it because women tend to be the primary caregivers for their children? AAUW's "The Simple Truth about the…

  9. Fiction and truth in the parallel lives of Plutarch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía V. Sapere

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will investigate the occurrences of πλάσμα in Plutarch’s Parallel Lives. We will analyse the meanings and nuances of the word in different passages of the work (understood as ‘fiction, counterfeit, figment’, etc. in order to connect our conclusions with plutarchean theorizations about the problem of truth in historical narrative.

  10. Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Gary L. Comstock

    1989-01-01

    Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative Of the theologians and philosophers now writing on biblical narrative, Hans Frei and Paul Ricoeur are probably the most prominent. It is significant that their views converge on important issues. Both are uncomfortable with hermeneutic theories that convert the text into an abstract philosophical system, an ideal typological structure, or a mere occasion for existential decision. Frei and Ricoeur seem knit together in a common en...

  11. Fuzzy logic of quasi-truth an algebraic treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nola, Antonio; Turunen, Esko

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the first algebraic treatment of quasi-truth fuzzy logic and covers the algebraic foundations of many-valued logic. It offers a comprehensive account of basic techniques and reports on important results showing the pivotal role played by perfect many-valued algebras (MV-algebras). It is well known that the first-order predicate Łukasiewicz logic is not complete with respect to the canonical set of truth values. However, it is complete with respect to all linearly ordered MV –algebras. As there are no simple linearly ordered MV-algebras in this case, infinitesimal elements of an MV-algebra are allowed to be truth values. The book presents perfect algebras as an interesting subclass of local MV-algebras and provides readers with the necessary knowledge and tools for formalizing the fuzzy concept of quasi true and quasi false. All basic concepts are introduced in detail to promote a better understanding of the more complex ones. It is an advanced and inspiring reference-guide for graduate s...

  12. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest

  13. Technological stigmatism, risk perception, and truth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, B.John

    1998-01-01

    Technological stigmas can be a source of confusion and misunderstandings of the effect on public health and safety of technological activities. The result can be a gross waste of national resources to fix the 'stigma' rather than the real problem. Fueling technological stigmas has become a visible activity, especially among non-technical professionals. Further, it is not clear that these same critics are accountable for their influence on policy and practices that may adversely affect people's lives and financial resources. Their bad news of alleged high risk and incompetent technologists is more appealing to the press than the more technical and apparently boring news of finding engineering solutions to real problems. The issue of technological stigma is especially visible in relation to the environmental and safety effects of the nuclear and chemical industries. These industries are in an extremely defensive position because the stigmatizes put much more emphasis on their risks than on their benefits to society. There is the genuine threat of the denial of important technologies in the nuclear and chemical fields and a resulting loss of lives and resources. The actions required to better tell the whole cost-risk-benefit story of specific technologies have to come from all of the groups involved. The critics and stigmatizers need to be more accountable for their assertions, the technologists need to involve the public more in their consideration of technological solutions to environmental and safety issues, and the press needs to present all of the facts rather than just the sensational or 'outrage' part of the story.

  14. Technological stigmatism, risk perception, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.John

    1998-01-01

    Technological stigmas can be a source of confusion and misunderstandings of the effect on public health and safety of technological activities. The result can be a gross waste of national resources to fix the 'stigma' rather than the real problem. Fueling technological stigmas has become a visible activity, especially among non-technical professionals. Further, it is not clear that these same critics are accountable for their influence on policy and practices that may adversely affect people's lives and financial resources. Their bad news of alleged high risk and incompetent technologists is more appealing to the press than the more technical and apparently boring news of finding engineering solutions to real problems. The issue of technological stigma is especially visible in relation to the environmental and safety effects of the nuclear and chemical industries. These industries are in an extremely defensive position because the stigmatizes put much more emphasis on their risks than on their benefits to society. There is the genuine threat of the denial of important technologies in the nuclear and chemical fields and a resulting loss of lives and resources. The actions required to better tell the whole cost-risk-benefit story of specific technologies have to come from all of the groups involved. The critics and stigmatizers need to be more accountable for their assertions, the technologists need to involve the public more in their consideration of technological solutions to environmental and safety issues, and the press needs to present all of the facts rather than just the sensational or 'outrage' part of the story

  15. Truth, Power, and Knowledge. Female Travel Writings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Araújo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a reflection about the influences of the travel reports – real or imaginary ones – on the modern discourse, diversity, and alterities. It also considers the reports as a power instrument, since, according to Foucault, the force of power resides in the production of positive effects in both knowledge and desire levels. Thus, the chroniclers responsible for the first descriptions of the New World are visited. Their books were very useful to the new travelers by revealing the mystery of the foreign lands, as well as their customs, alimentary habits, dressing ways, and familiar relationships, among others. The narratives written by women are then introduced considering the specificity of their approach. After all, when appearing to the public, they need to establish a relationship between space, knowledge and authority, and, in order to validate their discourse, they make use of history and references to the consulted sources. Marquesa Calderón de la Barca (Life in Mexico during a residence of two years in that country, de 1843; Condessa de Merlín (La Havane, de 1844; and Nísia Floresta (Itinerário de uma viagem à Alemanha, de 1857 are some of the writers analyzed here.

  16. Nuclear energy at a moment of truth. Six reasons behind the case for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritch, J. III

    2002-01-01

    Through the years, the simple word 'nuclear' has become the focal point for a seemingly endless controversy, filled with passions and ideologies that sprang originally from a rational fear of nuclear war - but grew into an emotional, and now somewhat institutionalised, standoff that plagues public discourse as to how the world's nations can best meet their energy needs in the 21st century. Along the way, the very idea of nuclear energy became a political and psychological surrogate. Scepticism about government, distrust of large corporations, worry over toxic industrial effluents, a subconscious fear of cataclysm - all these real feelings and fears are crystallized, for many people, in a vague concept called 'the nuclear industry'. The subject of this presentation is that this is an idea whose time has come: that nuclear energy, a half century after its inception, has reached a moment of truth, in no less than six important respects: first, the technology has come of age; second, on a national level, key issues affecting nuclear energy will soon demand decision; third, fossil supplies may simply be inadequate to meet world energy needs; fourth, the valuable uses of nuclear power will soon multiply; fifth, and of profound importance, a massive shift toward nuclear power is now environmentally indispensable; sixth, this moment of truth for nuclear power requires a telling of the truth. Given the urgent need for public awareness and political decision, those able to do so must now make the case for nuclear energy - forcefully, without apology or equivocation, and with persuasive effect. A great deal depends on developing the wisdom and will to exploit nuclear technology to full benefit

  17. Improving the Quality of Satellite Imagery Based on Ground-Truth Data from Rain Gauge Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F. Militino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal imagery is by and large geometrically and radiometrically accurate, but the residual noise arising from removal clouds and other atmospheric and electronic effects can produce outliers that must be mitigated to properly exploit the remote sensing information. In this study, we show how ground-truth data from rain gauge stations can improve the quality of satellite imagery. To this end, a simulation study is conducted wherein different sizes of outlier outbreaks are spread and randomly introduced in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the day and night land surface temperature (LST of composite images from Navarre (Spain between 2011 and 2015. To remove outliers, a new method called thin-plate splines with covariates (TpsWc is proposed. This method consists of smoothing the median anomalies with a thin-plate spline model, whereby transformed ground-truth data are the external covariates of the model. The performance of the proposed method is measured with the square root of the mean square error (RMSE, calculated as the root of the pixel-by-pixel mean square differences between the original data and the predicted data with the TpsWc model and with a state-space model with and without covariates. The study shows that the use of ground-truth data reduces the RMSE in both the TpsWc model and the state-space model used for comparison purposes. The new method successfully removes the abnormal data while preserving the phenology of the raw data. The RMSE reduction percentage varies according to the derived variables (NDVI or LST, but reductions of up to 20% are achieved with the new proposal.

  18. Truth telling in medical practice: students' opinions versus their observations of attending physicians' clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Woung-Ru; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Fang, Chun-Kai; Fujimori, Maiko

    2013-07-01

    Truth telling or transmitting bad news is a problem that all doctors must frequently face. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate if medical students' opinions of truth telling differed from their observations of attending physicians' actual clinical practice. The subjects were 275 medical clerks/interns at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected on medical students' opinions of truth telling, their observations of physicians' clinical practice, students' level of satisfaction with truth telling practiced by attending physicians, and cancer patients' distress level when they were told the truth. Students' truth-telling awareness was significantly higher than the clinical truth-telling practice of attending physicians (pmedical students' opinions on truth telling and attending physicians' actual clinical practice. More research is needed to objectively assess physicians' truth telling in clinical practice and to study the factors affecting the method of truth telling used by attending physicians in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. CRITERIA OF TRUTHFULNESS AND THE SCIENTIFIC QUALITY IN POST-MODERN KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mukha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the criteria of truth in post-modern philosophy, taking into account the ways it is defined in both the classical and non-classical traditions. Specific to post-modern philosophy is the absence of a universal language of narration and the traditional methods in which knowledge is recognized as legitimate. Basing himself on these concepts, the author examines the problem of the ideal of scientific quality and the transformations this idea has undergone in contemporary philosophy. Truth is understood basically through two means which govern our relation to truth: the will to truth and the concern for truth. These also appear as defining factors of truth in various types of post-modern philosophy: social-operative, social-political, and aesthetic

  20. Truth and opinion in climate change discourse: the Gore-Hansen disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russill, Chris

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, I discuss the "inconvenient truth" strategy of Al Gore. I argue that Gore's notion of truth upholds a conception of science and policy that narrows our understanding of climate change discourse. In one notable exchange, Gore and NASA scientist, James Hansen, disagreed about whether scientific statements based on Hansen's computer simulations were truth or opinion. This exchange is featured in An Inconvenient Truth, yet the disagreement is edited from the film and presented simply as an instance of Hansen speaking "inconvenient truth". In this article, I compare the filmic representation of Hansen's testimony with the congressional record. I place their exchange in a broader historical perspective on climate change disputation in order to discuss the implications of Gore's perspective on truth.

  1. The Truth About the Internet and Online Predators

    CERN Document Server

    Dingwell, Heath; Peterson, Fred L

    2011-01-01

    To help readers avoid and recognize risky behaviors, The Truth About the Internet and Online Predators explains many of the dangers associated with the Internet. The A-to-Z entries detail the social, legal, and personal risks of Internet use, while personal testimonies and question-and-answer sections provide readers with an inside look at common issues online. Entries include:. Bullies and cyberbullying. Characteristics of online predators. Chat rooms and instant messaging. Internet safety. Parental control. Peers and peer pressure. Phishing and pharming. Privacy issues. Social networking Web

  2. China QIUSHI SEEKING TRUTH no 3, 1 August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-16

    Legal Principles in Law Circles in Recent Years 40 A New ’Political Economy’ Textbook Is Compiled in the Soviet Union [Dan Zhu ] 43 On ’Writings...Analysis on Results" (hereafter called "Census") which has been published by Zhongguo Caizheng Jingji Chubanshe (China Finance and Economics Publishing...HK2508082288 Beijing Q1USHI[SEEKING TRUTH] in Chinese No 3, 1 Aug 88 p 44 [Article by Dan Zhu 0030 4554 of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

  3. Logical frameworks for truth and abstraction an axiomatic study

    CERN Document Server

    Cantini, A

    1996-01-01

    This English translation of the author's original work has been thoroughly revised, expanded and updated. The book covers logical systems known as type-free or self-referential. These traditionally arise from any discussion on logical and semantical paradoxes. This particular volume, however, is not concerned with paradoxes but with the investigation of type-free sytems to show that: (i) there are rich theories of self-application, involving both operations and truth which can serve as foundations for property theory and formal semantics; (ii) these theories provide a new outlook on classical

  4. xxi Century Latin American Journalists: Beyond Post-Truth Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the complexity of circumstances that journalism is facing, academia should rethink the classical conceptions of the profession, especially when they reduce journalism to abstract models disregarding reporters’ actual practices. Results of a global research propose a new definition of journalism, a profession caught between conflicting interests that lack the supremacy of news production, as it used to be in the past century. It is all about broadening the debate to reconsider the role of the journalist in the contemporary information report, beyond current concepts such as post-truth.

  5. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kristensen, Jesper Torp

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate....

  6. Restorative Justice and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2013-01-01

    It has frequently been argued that the post-apartheid Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was committed to restorative justice (RJ), and that RJ has deep historical roots in African indigenous cultures by virtue of its congruence both with ubuntu and with African indigenous justice systems......, when the South African Law Commission published an Issue Paper dealing with RJ. Furthermore, I show that neither the connection between RJ and ubuntu nor the connection between RJ and AIJS is as straightforward and unproblematic as often assumed....

  7. First- and third-party ground truth for key frame extraction from consumer video clips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Kathleen; Luo, Jiebo

    2007-02-01

    Extracting key frames (KF) from video is of great interest in many applications, such as video summary, video organization, video compression, and prints from video. KF extraction is not a new problem. However, current literature has been focused mainly on sports or news video. In the consumer video space, the biggest challenges for key frame selection from consumer videos are the unconstrained content and lack of any preimposed structure. In this study, we conduct ground truth collection of key frames from video clips taken by digital cameras (as opposed to camcorders) using both first- and third-party judges. The goals of this study are: (1) to create a reference database of video clips reasonably representative of the consumer video space; (2) to identify associated key frames by which automated algorithms can be compared and judged for effectiveness; and (3) to uncover the criteria used by both first- and thirdparty human judges so these criteria can influence algorithm design. The findings from these ground truths will be discussed.

  8. [The duty to tell the truth with regard to a person with Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyen, Octavie; Cornet, Marielle; Zeringer, Marie; Neyen, Constance

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of a project relating to ethical questioning, pupils in their penultimate year at Mabillon des Ardennes high school gathered testimonies which revealed that the truth is sometimes hidden from people with Alzheimer's disease. Why is this right to the truth not always respected? In what circumstances does it happen? What are the reasons? What are the potential consequences? Reflection is required around the question of the respect of the right to the truth for people with cognitive disorders.

  9. Civil history and poetry, certainty and truth in Francis Bacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Manzo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at studying key components of Francis Bacon’s theory of history and of his work as practitioner of civil history, particularly in regard to truth and certainty in historical narratives. It compares Bacon’s theories of history and poetry, and the way in which he conceives their relation to certainty, truth and fiction. It analyzes mainly two sorts of writings. On the one hand, it investigates the programmatic texts where Bacon’s views of history and poetry are developed. On the other hand, it examines the finished and unfinished civil histories written by Bacon as historian. In addition, the article evaluates Bacon’s stances against the background of Renaissance and early modern English historiography. It concludes that although history and poetry constitute separate branches in Bacon’s classification of learning, they share important elements, in keeping with the view of poetry maintained by his contemporary Philip Sidney. Thus, Bacon included fictional patterns in his historical narrative and distinguished certainties from conjectures in a particular way. This attitude towards civil history shows a strong contrast to Bacon’s methodology for natural histories, which, in order to reach certainty, staunchly recommends to exclude any fictional narrative in reporting the facts of nature.

  10. Discerning truth from deception: The sincere witness profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Giusberti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last twenty years, we have assisted to a growing interest in the detection of verbal cues under deception. In this context, we focused our attention on the truth vs. deception topic in adults. In particular, we were interested in discrepant findings concerning some verbal indicators. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether different experimental designs may yield different results regarding the presence or absence of CBCA criteria. Forty participants were shown a video of a robbery and were asked to give a truthful and a deceitful statement of the criminal event. The participants’ performances were recorded in order to analyze content of the reports. Results showed more changes in verbal behaviour under within-subjects design compared to between-subjects one, though the presence/absence of some criteria was the same across the two statistical procedures. The different results yielded by between- and within-subjects analyses can provide some hints as regards the discrepancy in deception literature on verbal cues. Implications for applied settings are discussed.

  11. Truth comes into play: Adorno, Kant and Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta M. Pérez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper departs from the verification of the centrality that, in Adorno’s recognition of the aesthetic field, the rehabilitation of its bond to knowledge and truth has. Adorno’s criticism to the Kantian aesthetic theory is, this way, reconstructed starting from his dismissal of the separation, established by Kant, between the aesthetic and the epistemological fields. This criticism, which accuses the Kantian aesthetics of subjectivism, is finally taken back to Adorno’s dissatisfaction regarding the transcendental approach, for not being dialectic. At this point, the need of determining the specificity of his own understanding of the aesthetic and dialectics becomes apparent. Surprisingly it is then discovered an unexpected proximity between his position and the one represented by the Kantian aesthetics itself, a proximity that let recognize in the latter some features which go beyond the limits of the Critical System towards the Adornian approach. But this proximity proves also the immanence and legitimacy of the (ambiguous Adornian criticism to Kant, and, as a result of this, the unsatisfactory quality of the Kantian determination of knowledge and truth.

  12. Truth and Fibble-Fable in Renaissance Satire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Madžarevič

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the years of my close involvement with wor(lds’ transactions, as a translator, in the triangle of the Renaissance doctors Rabelais, Montaigne, and, yes, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, the French author of the novel Journey to the End of Night (1932, their views on satire can be considered from a rather unconventional angle. By means of an imaginary morbid epistolary medical council, the impromptu introduction tries to entangle this peculiar trio in a freewheeling alliance, leading to the assumption that every translation defies the interpretational ambiguities of the utopian Thelema motto “Do as you will”. In the satirical context of all source and target faces, it is always acting on the verge of the paradoxical encomium, the hypothetical pasticcio, and obscurantist reversals of the original text. Of course, the issue at stake here is one of the convolutions of Erasmus’ Praise of Folly, Rabelais’ utopian Thelema Abbey, and the German Epistles of Obscure Men in pathetically wretched Latin. This paper deals with Renaissance and humanist satire, focusing on Rabelais’ five books of Gargantua and Pantagruel (1532–1564 and the interplay between the ideas of truth, truthfulness, and seriousness. In addition, the paper deals with how the Renaissance spirit of this satirical contemporary and ally of ours challenges the issue of verbal boundaries and the materiality of language.

  13. The seventh servant: the implications of a truth drive in Bion's theory of 'O'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotstein, James S

    2004-10-01

    Drawing upon Bion's published works on the subjects of truth, dreaming, alpha-function and transformations in 'O', the author independently postulates that there exists a 'truth instinctual drive' that subserves a truth principle, the latter of which is associated with the reality principle. Further, he suggests, following Bion's postulation, that 'alpha-function' and dreaming/phantasying constitute unconscious thinking processes and that they mediate the activity of this 'truth drive' (quest, pulsion), which the author hypothesizes constitutes another aspect of a larger entity that also includes the epistemophilic component drive. It purportedly seeks and transmits as well as includes what Bion (1965, pp. 147-9) calls 'O', the 'Absolute Truth, Ultimate Reality, O' (also associated with infinity, noumena or things-in-themselves, and 'godhead') (1970, p. 26). It is further hypothesized that the truth drive functions in collaboration with an 'unconscious consciousness' that is associated with the faculty of 'attention', which is also known as 'intuition'. It is responsive to internal psychical reality and constitutes Bion's 'seventh servant'. O, the ultimate landscape of psychoanalysis, has many dimensions, but the one that seems to interest Bion is that of the emotional experience of the analysand's and the analyst's 'evolving O' respectively (1970, p. 52) during the analytic session. The author thus hypothesizes that a sense of truth presents itself to the subject as a quest for truth which has the quality and force of an instinctual drive and constitutes the counterpart to the epistemophilic drive. This 'truth quest' or 'drive' is hypothesized to be the source of the generation of the emotional truth of one's ongoing experiences, both conscious and unconscious. It is proposed that emotions are beacons of truth in regard to the acceptance of reality. The concepts of an emotional truth drive and a truth principle would help us understand why analysands are able to

  14. Repetition-based Interactive Facade Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2012-07-01

    Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments has gained researchers attention throughout the past few years. It spreads in a variety of directions across multiple disciplines such as image processing, computer graphics and computer vision as well as in architecture, geoscience and remote sensing. Having a virtual world of our real cities is very attractive in various directions such as entertainment, engineering, governments among many others. In this thesis, we address the problem of processing a single fa cade image to acquire useful information that can be utilized to manipulate the fa cade and generate variations of fa cade images which can be later used for buildings\\' texturing. Typical fa cade structures exhibit a rectilinear distribution where in windows and other elements are organized in a grid of horizontal and vertical repetitions of similar patterns. In the firt part of this thesis, we propose an efficient algorithm that exploits information obtained from a single image to identify the distribution grid of the dominant elements i.e. windows. This detection method is initially assisted with the user marking the dominant window followed by an automatic process for identifying its repeated instances which are used to define the structure grid. Given the distribution grid, we allow the user to interactively manipulate the fa cade by adding, deleting, resizing or repositioning the windows in order to generate new fa cade structures. Having the utility for the interactive fa cade is very valuable to create fa cade variations and generate new textures for building models. Ultimately, there is a wide range of interesting possibilities of interactions to be explored.

  15. Development of Knowledge, Awareness, Global Warming Decreasing Behavior and Critical Thinking of Grade 11 Students Using the Four Noble Truths Method with Meta-Cognitive Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattuchai, Sakkarin; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of learning environmental education on the knowledge, awareness, global warming decreasing behavior, and critical thinking of eighty grade 11 students from two classes. The Four Noble Truths method with metacognitive techniques and traditional teaching method were used for the investigation. The sample…

  16. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children’s Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Heyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2008-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children’s moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an individual or vice versa. Participants chose to lie or to tell the truth as if they were the character (Experiments 1 and 2) and categorized and evaluated the story characters’ truthful and untruthful statements (Experiments 3 and 4). Most children in both cultures labeled lies as lies and truths as truths. The major cultural differences lay in choices and moral evaluations. Chinese children chose lying to help a collective but harm an individual, and they rated it less negatively than lying with opposite consequences. Chinese children rated truth telling to help an individual but harm a group less positively than the alternative. Canadian children did the opposite. These findings suggest that cross-cultural differences in emphasis on groups versus individuals affect children’s choices and moral judgments about truth and deception. PMID:17352539

  17. Cross-Cultural Differences in Children's Choices, Categorizations, and Evaluations of Truths and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Genyue; Xu, Fen; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Leyman, Gail; Lee, Kang

    2007-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences and similarities in children's moral understanding of individual- or collective-oriented lies and truths. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old Canadian and Chinese children were read stories about story characters facing moral dilemmas about whether to lie or tell the truth to help a group but harm an…

  18. Towards a pragmatics of non-fictional narrative truth: Gricean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on a particular kind of truth that falls within this category, namely non-fictional narrative truth. “Narrative truth” is defined as a judgement of verisimilitude accorded to the meaning of a narrative as a whole. This narrative meaning is neither rationally nor empirically verifiable, but rather arrived at by a ...

  19. Overcoming Relativism and Absolutism: Dewey's Ideals of Truth and Meaning in Philosophy for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleazby, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Different notions of truth imply and encourage different ideals of thinking, knowledge, meaning, and learning. Thus, these concepts have fundamental importance for educational theory and practice. In this paper, I intend to draw out and clarify the notions of truth, knowledge and meaning that are implied by P4C's pedagogical ideals. There is some…

  20. Visualization of ground truth tracks for the video 'Tracking a "facer's" behavior in a public plaza'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager.......The video shows the ground truth tracks in GIS of all pedestrians in the video 'Tracking a 'facer's" behavior in a public plaza'. The visualization was made using QGIS TimeManager....

  1. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat

    2015-01-01

    Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients' self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students' attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students' reported difficulties in breaking bad news. This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor-patient communication and ethics programs. Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas 'truthfulness' was a concern for the content of the message, 'truth-telling' included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy.

  2. Shy and Ticklish Truths as Species of Scientific and Artistic Perception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... recognize a 'gay science' (Nietzsche) not as an eccentric construction of merely poetic insights and expressions, but as a necessary part of the fundamentals of knowledge. It is a truth of the human condition that its truths are grounded in a personal embodiment of individuality, ontogeny, momentariness and situationality.

  3. Is socioeconomic status associated with awareness of and receptivity to the truth campaign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna M; Allen, Jane A; Xiao, Haijun

    2009-10-01

    The truth campaign is credited with preventing approximately 450,000 youth from starting to smoke, from 2000 through 2004 [Farrelly, M.C., Nonnemaker, J., Davis, K.C., Hussin, A., 2009. The Influence of the National Truth Campaign on Smoking Initiation. Am. J. Prev. Med. February 9 [Epub ahead of print

  4. Rhetoric and Truth: A Note on Aristotle, Rhetoric 1355a 21-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, William M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A passage from Aristotle is discussed and interpreted. Rhetoric represents truth and justice in any situation for the auditor through the use of language. The usefulness of rhetoric lies in its ability to assure an adequate and competent articulation of truth and justice. (JF)

  5. Populism, Exclusion, Post-truth. Some Conceptual Caveats

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cleen, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    In their editorial, Speed and Mannion identify two main challenges "the rise of post-truth populism" poses for health policy: the populist threat to inclusive healthcare policies, and the populist threat to well-designed health policies that draw on professional expertise and research evidence. This short comment suggests some conceptual clarifications that might help in thinking through more profoundly these two important issues. It argues that we should approach right-wing populism as a combination of a populist down/up (people/elite) axis with an exclusionary nationalist in/out (member/non-member) axis. And it raises some questions regarding the equation between populism, demagogy and the rejection of expertise and scientific knowledge. PMID:29524956

  6. Truth and reconciliation: Yes, please! No, thank you!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesić Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of former Yugoslavia and its successors is specific and a bit different from the other post-conflict societies. First, retributive model of justice is carried out, or it should be carried out, before the International Criminal Tribunal in the Hague. The question is how to start the process of searching for the truth and reconciliation inside and between societies, groups and individuals in newly established countries. There is no such a model in the world, like these in South Africa and some countries in Latin America, which can be applied here, because in this case we are talking about five states, from which at least three were in the war. Also, the character of these conflicts covers the diapason from international conflicts to internal aggression and civil war.

  7. In search of truth: the regulatory necessity of validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, U.

    1991-01-01

    A look at modern ideas of how scientific truth is achieved shows that theories are not really proved but accepted by a consensus of the experts, borne out by often repeated experience showing a theory to work well. In the same sense acceptability of models in waste disposal is mostly based on consensus. To obtain consensus of the relevant experts, including regulators, all models which considerably influence the results of a safety assessment have to be validated. This is particularly important for the models of geospheric migration because scientific experience with the deep underground is scarce. Validation plays a special role in public acceptance where regulators and other groups, which act as intermediaries between the public and the project manager, have to be convinced that all the relevant models are correct

  8. Right to Truth: Dissapeared students in Ayotzinapa, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vargas Gómez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The disappearance of the 43 students Ayotzinapa in Iguala Guerrero, will remain in the history of Mexico as one of the most serious incidents of violation of human rights carried out by organized crime in complicity with public servants. The official version of events does not answer many questions of the family, nor it does answer the questions of the society as a whole. Ensure the right to truth for victims, as well as for the national and international community, must be assumed by the Mexican State as an obligation which complies fully with the necessary guarantees that international principles apply to enforced disappearances, both to repair damage, and to prevent its recurrence.

  9. Truth or beauty science and the quest for order

    CERN Document Server

    Orrell, David

    2012-01-01

    In this sweeping book, applied mathematician and popular author David Orrell questions the promises and pitfalls of associating beauty with truth, showing how ideas of mathematical elegance have inspired—and have sometimes misled—scientists attempting to understand nature. Orrell shows how the ancient Greeks constructed a concept of the world based on musical harmony; later thinkers replaced this model with a program, based on Newton’s “rational mechanics,” to reduce the universe to a few simple equations. He then turns to current physical theories, such as supersymmetric string theory—again influenced by deep aesthetic principles. The book sheds new light on historical investigations and also recent research, including the examinations ongoing at the Large Hadron Collider. Finally, broadening his discussion to other fields of research, including economics, architecture, and health, Orrell questions whether these aesthetic principles reflect an accurate way to explain and understand the structure...

  10. Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Comstock

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth or meaning: Ricoeur versus Frei on biblical narrative Of the theologians and philosophers now writing on biblical narrative, Hans Frei and Paul Ricoeur are probably the most prominent. It is significant that their views converge on important issues. Both are uncomfortable with hermeneutic theories that convert the text into an abstract philosophical system, an ideal typological structure, or a mere occasion for existential decision. Frei and Ricoeur seem knit together in a common enterprise; they appear to be building a single narrative theology. I argue that the appearance of symmetry is an illusion. There is a fundamental conflict between the ‘pure narrativism’ of Frei and the ‘impure narrativism’ of Ricoeur. I give reasons for thinking that Ricoeur’s is the stronger position.

  11. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  12. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  13. Validating Bayesian truth serum in large-scale online human experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Cebrian, Manuel; Pickard, Galen; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    Bayesian truth serum (BTS) is an exciting new method for improving honesty and information quality in multiple-choice survey, but, despite the method's mathematical reliance on large sample sizes, existing literature about BTS only focuses on small experiments. Combined with the prevalence of online survey platforms, such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk, which facilitate surveys with hundreds or thousands of participants, BTS must be effective in large-scale experiments for BTS to become a readily accepted tool in real-world applications. We demonstrate that BTS quantifiably improves honesty in large-scale online surveys where the "honest" distribution of answers is known in expectation on aggregate. Furthermore, we explore a marketing application where "honest" answers cannot be known, but find that BTS treatment impacts the resulting distributions of answers.

  14. The theory of "truth": how counterindustry campaigns affect smoking behavior among teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, James C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Evans, W Douglas; Nonnemaker, James; Blahut, Steven; Holden, Debra; Messeri, Peter; Haviland, M Lyndon

    2005-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to test a theory-based model of the pathways by which exposure to the "truth" counterindustry media campaign influenced beliefs, attitudes, and smoking behavior in national random-digit-dial telephone surveys of 16,000 12- to 17-year-olds before, 8 months after, and 15 months after campaign launch. Consistent with concepts from the theory of reasoned action, youth in markets with higher levels of campaign exposure had more negative beliefs about tobacco industry practices and more negative attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Models also provided support for a social inoculation effect, because negative industry attitudes were associated with lower receptivity to protobacco advertising and with less progression along a continuum of smoking intentions and behavior.

  15. 'Speaking Truth' Protects Underrepresented Minorities' Intellectual Performance and Safety in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Avi; Paluy, Yula; Milless, Katlyn L; Goldstein, Emily J; Wallace, Lyndsey; Márquez-Magaña, Leticia; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Estrada, Mica

    2017-06-01

    We offer and test a brief psychosocial intervention, Speaking Truth to EmPower (STEP), designed to protect underrepresented minorities' (URMs) intellectual performance and safety in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). STEP takes a 'knowledge as power' approach by: (a) providing a tutorial on stereotype threat (i.e., a social contextual phenomenon, implicated in underperformance and early exit) and (b) encouraging URMs to use lived experiences for generating be-prepared coping strategies. Participants were 670 STEM undergraduates [URMs (Black/African American and Latina/o) and non-URMs (White/European American and Asian/Asian American)]. STEP protected URMs' abstract reasoning and class grades (adjusted for grade point average [GPA]) as well as decreased URMs' worries about confirming ethnic/racial stereotypes. STEP's two-pronged approach-explicating the effects of structural 'isms' while harnessing URMs' existing assets-shows promise in increasing diversification and equity in STEM.

  16. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission and gender: The Testimony of Mrs Konile revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandiswa L. Kobe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on a well-known narration of the Gugulethu Seven incident from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC proceedings with specific reference to testimonies of the mothers of the Gugulethu Seven. The article focuses on Mrs Konile’s testimony as a case study: Testimony of a black woman whose son was murdered by the apartheid government’s security forces. During the TRC hearings, Mrs Konile ‘failed’ to effectively narrate her story, which resulted in her testimony being dismissed as being incoherent. This article examines the underlying attributes of Mrs Konile’s testimony and revisits why she was considered ‘incapable’ of articulating her experience in a convincing manner. The analysis aims to acknowledge, identify and give insights about this woman’s testimony from an African women theologian viewpoint (specifically with references to the Isixhosa religious cultural background.

  17. Go fly a kite : air truthing replaces ground truthing for environmental investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S.

    2008-05-15

    This article discussed the use of kite aerial photography (KAP) in oil and gas exploration activities. KAP exhibits a minimal environmental footprint while providing high resolution airborne data of the Earth's surface in infrared and a variety of other media. The cost-effective technology is being employed by Alberta's oil and gas operators as well as by the environmental consulting sector. The kites fly at lower elevations than other remote sensing tools, and yield better spatial resolution on the ground. KAP can map the Earth's surface at a scale of investigation on the order of 5 to 10 centimetres. The images are placed into a geo-referenced mosaic along with poorer resolution remote sensing tools. A KAP kit can be assembled for under $1000. By using infrared KAP images, operators are able to determine the health of muskeg and swamp areas and measure the rate of photosynthesis of plants. KAP is also used to evaluate troublesome wellsite by reclamation groups. The next generation of sensors will include radio-controlled drones and miniature aircraft. 6 figs.

  18. Matters of Fact: Language, Science, and the Status of Truth in Late Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Hanscom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the status of the fact in literary and historical discourses in late colonial Korea, focusing on the elaboration of the relationship between scientific and literary truths primarily in the work of philosopher and critic Sŏ Insik (1906–?. It points to a growing tendency in late 1930s and early 1940s Korea to question the veracity of the fact (or of empiricism more broadly in an environment where the enunciation of the colonial subject had been rendered problematic and objective statements had arguably lost their connection with social reality. In a period when the relationship between signifier and referent had come into question, how did this major critic understand the relationship between science and literature, or between truth and subjectivity? Sŏ warns against a simplistic apprehension of the notion of truth as unilaterally equivalent with what he calls “scientific truth” (kwahakchŏk chilli—a nomological truth based on objective observation and confirmation by universal principles—and argues that a necessary complement to apparently objective truth is “literary truth” (munhakchŏk chinsil. Against the fixed, conceptual form of scientific thought, literary truth presents itself as an experiential truth that returns to the sensory world of the sociolinguistic subject (chuch’e as a source of credibility.

  19. Thoughts on Chemistry and Scientific Truth in Post-Factual Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Peter R

    2018-04-19

    "… The value and meaning of scientific truth has not been overcome by postmodernism or post-factual tendencies. Just because politics is mostly a representation of opinions, this does not imply that truth has become irrelevant. Quite the opposite, the value of truth is growing in turbulent times and for scientists it constitutes the currency of credibility and accountability …" Read more in the Guest Editorial by Peter R. Schreiner. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Truth-telling contra perfectionist liberalism: Muslim parrhēsíastes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renders, Johannes

    In this paper, I first offer a general outline and reflection on the notion of parrhēsía (truth-telling), as popularized by Foucault. Secondly, I discuss Foucault’s history of problematizations, with comments on what he called “games of truth” and the Cartesian conception of truth-telling. Thirdly......, I sketch a trend in the current Danish public and political sphere, defining the notion of “perfectionist liberalism” and how it translates to the Danish context, including concrete examples and notes on “liberal intolerance arguments”. Lastly, I address the condition of Muslim parrhēsíastes (truth...

  1. On Telling a Lie to Reveal the Truth: Mongrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Clinton Oleson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available South African author William Dicey’s 2016 collection of essays, Mongrel, operates as a literary prism, refracting and clarifying literary and sociological elements of life. The book’s six essays grapple with a sprawling range of subjects, including: the elusive distinction between fiction and non-fiction, literary footnotes, the endeavor of writing, the search for truth, the citizen’s search for community, the relevance of ethnicity in post-apartheid society, the perpetuation of socioeconomic disadvantage, the tragedy of criminal justice, and collective moral culpability for climate change. History, economics, and practical ethics underscore the entire collection, and exogenous sources such as Nabokov’s Pale Fire and Coetzee’s Disgrace can lend depth to the works. The essays of Mongrel can be understood as six discrete works, but they can also be understood as a meta-narrative that takes as its object the sociological search for restored community and the literary quest for authenticity.

  2. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  3. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kreysa

    Full Text Available A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins". Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze.

  4. An Indispensable Truth How Fusion Power Can Save the Planet

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    2011-01-01

    Both global warming and oil shortage can be solved by controlled fusion, a clean power source that will serve mankind for millennia.� The idea of hydrogen fusion as well as its difficulties are presented in non-technical language to dispel the notion that fusion is always 50 years away.� This book also summarizes the evidence for climate change and explains the principles of both fossil and "green" energy sources to show that fusion is the best alternative for central-station power in the near term as well as the far future. Praise for An Indispensable Truth: How Fusion Power Can Save the Planet: "In this study Professor Chen outlines the underlying physics, recent progress in achieving advanced plasmas and magnetic confinement, and hopes for the future. He recognizes the difficulties that remain in engineering a fusion reactor, but he remains optimistic regarding ultimate success, yet fearful of the consequences were we to fail."- James R. Schlesinger, former Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission; Director,...

  5. An inconvenient truth: treatment of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, M

    2012-06-01

    The need for emergent management of displaced paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures is being questioned in the literature. Open reduction rates of up to 46% have been reported in the non-emergent management of these injuries. At our institution these fractures are managed as operative emergencies by senior personnel. To examine the ongoing need for this policy we reviewed our results. All patients managed over a five year period with Gartland type IIB or III paeditric supracondylar humeral fractures were identified and a comprehensive chart and radiographic review undertaken. The mean time from injury to fracture reduction and stabilization was 6.6 h. Consultants performed or supervised 90% of cases. Open reduction was necessary in 5% of cases. Complications included a perioperative nerve injury rate of 6% and a superficial pin site infection rate of 3%. This study suggests that, despite the challenge to trauma on-call rostering, the emergency management of these injuries is advantageous to patients in units of our size. Based on the data presented here we continue our practice of emergent management. We suggest that units of a similar size to our own would show a benefit from an analogous policy albeit an inconvenient truth.

  6. Truthfulness in transplantation: non-heart-beating organ donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potts Michael

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current practice of organ transplantation has been criticized on several fronts. The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. In addition, donation after cardiac death, or non-heartbeating-organ donation (NHBD has been attacked on grounds that it mistreats the dying patient and uses that patient only as a means to an end for someone else's benefit. Verheijde, Rady, and McGregor attack the deception involved in NHBD, arguing that the donors are not dead and that potential donors and their families should be told that is the case. Thus, they propose abandoning the dead donor rule and allowing NHBD with strict rules concerning adequate informed consent. Such honesty about NHBD should be welcomed. However, NHBD violates a fundamental end of medicine, nonmaleficience, "do no harm." Physicians should not be harming or killing patients, even if it is for the benefit of others. Thus, although Verheijde and his colleages should be congratulated for calling for truthfulness about NHBD, they do not go far enough and call for an elimination of such an unethical procedure from the practice of medicine.

  7. Truth Commissions in Latin America. The hope of a new future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Molina Valencia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the implementation of the right to the truth of the victims, through the creation of eleven Commissions of Truth, established in Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Uruguay, Peru, Paraguay, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras and Brasil, which emerged as the product of peace agreements or transitional processes. The Commissions of Truth received the assignment to investigate violations of Human Rights and breaches of International Humanitarian Law by military dictatorships, authoritarian regimes or internal armed conflicts. This review shows, that in addition to the subjects that constitute the Commissions, they work due to eight conditions: determined duration; legitimacy; themes; working methodologies; media of dissemination of results; attention to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration processes; repair strategies, request for forgiveness and reconciliation. The existence of the Commissions of Truth, while transforming the conflicts they serve, have not reached, as a strategy, the integral promotion of connivance and reconciliation.

  8. Truth and beauty in cosmology: does the Universe have an aesthetic?

    CERN Multimedia

    Impey, C

    2004-01-01

    "Astronomy is an empirical science, yet scientific definitions of truth and beauty are closely tied to the fact that mathematics appears to provide an accurate description of the physical Universe" (2 pages)

  9. Values in Fritz Perls's Gestalt Therapy: On the Dangers of Half-Truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, Eva H.

    1984-01-01

    Examines some of the values in Perls's theory of psychotherapy, which his Gestalt Prayer epitomizes. Argues that at least five of the major value claims presupposed by his psychotherapeutic theory and practice are in fact dangerous half-truths. (JAC)

  10. Three Functions of the School Newspaper: The Truth Shop, The Persuasion Podium, The Pleasure Dome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    This Quill and Scroll Study, which is illustrated with numerous tables, concerns the following subjects: The School Newspaper as a Truth Shop; The School Newspaper as a Pleasure Dome; and The School Newspaper as a Persuasion Podium. (DB)

  11. ON CONSTRUCTION OF A RELIABLE GROUND TRUTH FOR EVALUATION OF VISUAL SLAM ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bayer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work we are concerning the problem of localization accuracy evaluation of visual-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM techniques. Quantitative evaluation of the SLAM algorithm performance is usually done using the established metrics of Relative pose error and Absolute trajectory error which require a precise and reliable ground truth. Such a ground truth is usually hard to obtain, while it requires an expensive external localization system. In this work we are proposing to use the SLAM algorithm itself to construct a reliable ground-truth by offline frame-by-frame processing. The generated ground-truth is suitable for evaluation of different SLAM systems, as well as for tuning the parametrization of the on-line SLAM. The presented practical experimental results indicate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  12. The Politics of Violence, Truth, and Reconciliation in the Arab Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book treats political and cultural attempts to create truth and reconciliation processes in the Arab Middle Eat. It contains studies of Morocco, Algeria, Sudan, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Syria.......This book treats political and cultural attempts to create truth and reconciliation processes in the Arab Middle Eat. It contains studies of Morocco, Algeria, Sudan, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Syria....

  13. Cognitive dissonance, social comparison, and disseminating untruthful or negative truthful eWOM messages

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y-L; Keng, Ching-Jui

    2014-01-01

    In this research we explored consumers' intentions to provide untruthful or negative truthful electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) messages when undergoing conflicting cognitive dissonance and after experiencing social comparison. We recruited 480 Taiwanese Internet users to participate in a scenario-based experiment. The findings show that after making downward comparisons on the Internet, consumers with high cognitive dissonance were more inclined to disseminate negative truthful eWOM messages c...

  14. Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.

    2010-03-01

    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

  15. Fast and Accurate Ground Truth Generation for Skew-Tolerance Evaluation of Page Segmentation Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okun Oleg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many image segmentation algorithms are known, but often there is an inherent obstacle in the unbiased evaluation of segmentation quality: the absence or lack of a common objective representation for segmentation results. Such a representation, known as the ground truth, is a description of what one should obtain as the result of ideal segmentation, independently of the segmentation algorithm used. The creation of ground truth is a laborious process and therefore any degree of automation is always welcome. Document image analysis is one of the areas where ground truths are employed. In this paper, we describe an automated tool called GROTTO intended to generate ground truths for skewed document images, which can be used for the performance evaluation of page segmentation algorithms. Some of these algorithms are claimed to be insensitive to skew (tilt of text lines. However, this fact is usually supported only by a visual comparison of what one obtains and what one should obtain since ground truths are mostly available for upright images, that is, those without skew. As a result, the evaluation is both subjective; that is, prone to errors, and tedious. Our tool allows users to quickly and easily produce many sufficiently accurate ground truths that can be employed in practice and therefore it facilitates automatic performance evaluation. The main idea is to utilize the ground truths available for upright images and the concept of the representative square [9] in order to produce the ground truths for skewed images. The usefulness of our tool is demonstrated through a number of experiments with real-document images of complex layout.

  16. Islamic positivism and scientific truth: Qur'an and archeology in a creationist documentary film

    OpenAIRE

    Dupret , Baudouin; Gutron , Clémentine

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The ambition of “scientific creationism” is to prove that science actually confirms religion. This is especially true in the case of Muslim creationism, which adopts a reasoning of a syllogistic type: divine revelation is truth; good science confirms truth; divine revelation is henceforth scientifically proven. Harun Yahya is a prominent Muslim “creationist” whose website hosts many texts and documentary films, among which “Evidence of the true faith in historical sour...

  17. Truth and victims’ rights: Towards a legal epistemology of international criminal justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilera, Edgar R.

    2013-01-01

    The author advances the thesis that the now well established international crime victims' right to know the truth creates an opportunity for an applied epistemology reflection regarding international criminal justice. At the heart of the project lies the author's argument that this victims' right -if taken seriously- implies both the right that the international criminal justice system's normative structures or legal frameworks and practices feature a truth-promoting profile, or in other word...

  18. TESTING OF THE TRUTH IN ANDREI PLATONOV’S TALE THE FOUNDATION PIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vladimirovna Zavarkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the manuscript of Andrei Platonov’s tale The Foundation Pit and his early journalism the author traces the evolution of Platonov’s views on the problem of the search for the truth. Analysis of the dynamic transcription of the The Foundation Pit manuscript enabled to show that by the end of the 1920s Platonov had abandoned rationalistic interpretations of the concept of «truth», including in its "Bogdanov’s edition". Platonov increasingly questioned the capabilities of socialist science, based on materialism, to fi nd out the truth about the world, and changed his views on work as the only method of learning the truth. He departed from the materialistic concept of learning and shifted towards the religious and philosophical tradition: in the end the formula of P. Florensky "truth-estina (to be in existence" is getting more and more essential and it is outlined a shift of the concept of “truth” from a cognitive-materialistic category (“invent” / “to do” truth to an ontological and moral category.

  19. Prosecuting International Crimes at National Level: Lessons from the Argentine ‘Truth-Finding Trials’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maculan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Truth-finding trials (juicios por la verdad constitute a novel solution devised by the Argentine judicial system to cope with crimes committed by the past military dictatorship. This mechanism uses criminal courts as well as criminal procedure in order to investigate the truth about the dictatorship's crimes; however, the trials allow judges neither to establish criminal responsibility nor to punish the perpetrators of crimes. This limitation is due to the inability, imposed by the Full Stop and Due Obedience Laws, to prosecute the perpetrators of crimes.From the perspective of criminal law, truth-finding trials present two problematic features: firstly, their creation and regulation are set by judges, which has caused the development of many non-homogeneous local solutions and, secondly, their hybrid nature, which entails a possible subversion of conventional forms and goals in the context of the criminal trial.The paper also describes the current situation, since the Argentine impunity laws were declared unconstitutional and criminal proceedings reopened. The new framework provokes questions about the relationship between the reopened criminal trials and the truth-finding investigations, not only with regard to evidentiary issues but also with respect to the reason why the truth-finding investigations are still held.Finally, the shift from a non-punitive approach to the current full criminal accountability seems to suggest that truth-finding trials were merely a temporary solution, while the notion of the full prosecution and punishment of State crimes was never really set aside.

  20. [Truth telling and advance care planning at the end of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Yu; Yang, Chia-Ling

    2009-02-01

    One of the core values in terminal care the respect of patient 'autonomy'. This essay begins with a discussion of medical ethics principles and the Natural Death Act in Taiwan and then summarizes two medical ethical dilemmas, truth telling and advance care planning (ACP), faced in the development of hospice and palliative care in Taiwan. The terminal truth telling process incorporates the four basic principles of Assessment and preparation, Communication with family, Truth-telling process, and Support and follow up (the so-called "ACTs"). Many experts suggest practicing ACP by abiding by the following five steps: (1) presenting and illustrating topics; (2) facilitating a structured discussion; (3) completing documents with advanced directives (ADs); (4) reviewing and updating ADs; and (5) applying ADs in clinical circumstances. Finally, the myths and challenges in truth telling and ADs include the influence of healthcare system procedures and priorities, inadequate communication skills, and the psychological barriers of medical staffs. Good communication skills are critical to truth telling and ACP. Significant discussion about ACP should help engender mutual trust between patients and the medical staffs who take the time to establish such relationships. Promoting patient autonomy by providing the opportunity of a good death is an important goal of truth telling and ACP in which patients have opportunities to choose their terminal treatment.

  1. Can you catch a liar? How negative emotions affect brain responses when lying or telling the truth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mado Proverbio

    Full Text Available The capacity to deceive others is a complex mental skill that requires the ability to suppress truthful information. The polygraph is widely used in countries such as the USA to detect deception. However, little is known about the effects of emotional processes (such as the fear of being found guilty despite being innocent on the physiological responses that are used to detect lies. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course and neural correlates of untruthful behavior by analyzing electrocortical indexes in response to visually presented neutral and affective questions. Affective questions included sexual, shameful or disgusting topics. A total of 296 questions that were inherently true or false were presented to 25 subjects while ERPs were recorded from 128 scalp sites. Subjects were asked to lie on half of the questions and to answer truthfully on the remaining half. Behavioral and ERP responses indicated an increased need for executive control functions, namely working memory, inhibition and task switching processes, during deceptive responses. Deceptive responses also elicited a more negative N400 over the prefrontal areas and a smaller late positivity (LP 550-750 ms over the prefrontal and frontal areas. However, a reduction in LP amplitude was also elicited by truthful affective responses. The failure to observe a difference in LP responses across conditions likely results from emotional interference. A swLORETA inverse solution was computed on the N400 amplitude (300-400 ms for the dishonest - honest contrast. These results showed the activation of the superior, medial, middle and inferior frontal gyri (BA9, 11, 47 and the anterior cingulate cortex during deceptive responses. Our results conclude that the N400 amplitude is a reliable neural marker of deception.

  2. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes.

  3. Telling the truth about nuclear inside the organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Bilegan, losif Constantin

    2002-01-01

    Internal communication represents an important element of the general communication and public relations activities, especially in nuclear sector. A fundamental truth of public relations says that 'public relations start home'. The means of this affirmation is that if an internal information doesn't develop in a correct manner, the organization does not spread out the real and coherent programs in connection with the society. An objective is that then the members of an organization talk about this organization, they must represent 'a single voice, which presents the same coherent message'. One of the fundamental principles is that the well-informed people, are deeply/profoundly motivated and the image of the organization is correct spread out to media. There are four main directions of internal messages that must concentrate the interest of the personnel: - The scope and the perspective of the organization; - The role of each employer within the organization; - Activities. The involvement in educational and recreative activities is necessary for the employer's moral; - Updated information. A well-informed employer, as regards te general communication policy of the company, is more efficient. The means through an internal communication can be achieved are the followings: - Printed materials; - Electronic means of communication (intranet); - Oral communication; - Advertising means. In connection with the above mentioned ideas the paper will try to present the 'NUCLEARELECTRICA' company internal communication policy, answering to the following questions; 1. What does the internal communication mean? 2. Is the internal communication necessary and why? 3. How the internal communication can be carried out? 4. How did we achieve the internal communication within our company? 5. What do we intend to realize in the future? (author)

  4. The Victim, the International Criminal Court and the Search for Truth: on the Interdependence and Incompatibility of Truths about Mass Atrocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, S.

    2015-01-01

    In the debate on the place of victims in international criminal proceedings, the 'search for truth' takes centre stage as an important concern of victims, international criminal tribunals and the wider international community. However, the various claims about the importance of telling and receiving

  5. The ethics of truth in the era of technological civilization and the information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nesprava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological civilization and information society give a lot of advantages to a modern man in various fields. However, at the same time, we do not see a decrease in hostility and injustice in the society. Moreover, technological progress has led to the fact that human civilization is on the verge of a serious challenge caused by environmental disasters and opportunity for unprecedented disastrous consequences of the World War III. In these circumstances, the search for the causes of the current crisis is actual as well as the development of concepts that can contribute to overcoming this crisis. One of the most promising theories in this context is the ethics of truth. In modern civilization the issue of the importance of truth is shifted to the periphery of the intellectual discourse. Modern civilization uses only substitutes of the issue. Veracity in science together with popular opinions in the field of information circulating are such substitutes of truth. However, these substitutes do not fully reflect the true contents of the truth issue. The truth is not confined to the veracity of a celebrity’s opinion. Analyzing the theories by H. Jonas, В. Hübner, V. Stepin and T. Voronina, the study argues that the processes of losing of the meaning of life are intensifying in the modern civilization. We argue that a lack of a proper attention in modern civilization to the issue of truth inevitably stimulates processes of diluting the meaning of human life. Based on the theories by G. Hegel, H.-G. Gadamer and J. Neidleman T. Osborne, the study demonstrates that without thinking about the issue of the truth one cannot come near to the transcendent, and thus, his life could not be convincingly endowed with meaning, fullness and a purpose of existence. Understanding the issue of truth is especially important in conditions of the modern civilization, because our civilization is facing the possibility of self-destruction as a result of its

  6. An Empirical Study of Atmospheric Correction Procedures for Regional Infrasound Amplitudes with Ground Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on improving methods of accounting for atmospheric effects on infrasound amplitudes observed on arrays at regional distances in the southwestern United States. Recordings at ranges of 150 to nearly 300 km from a repeating ground truth source of small HE explosions are used. The explosions range in actual weight from approximately 2000-4000 lbs. and are detonated year-round which provides signals for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Three methods of correcting the observed amplitudes for atmospheric effects are investigated with the data set. The first corrects amplitudes for upper stratospheric wind as developed by Mutschlecner and Whitaker (1999) and uses the average wind speed between 45-55 km altitudes in the direction of propagation to derive an empirical correction formula. This approach was developed using large chemical and nuclear explosions and is tested with the smaller explosions for which shorter wavelengths cause the energy to be scattered by the smaller scale structure of the atmosphere. The second approach isa semi-empirical method using ray tracing to determine wind speed at ray turning heights where the wind estimates replace the wind values in the existing formula. Finally, parabolic equation (PE) modeling is used to predict the amplitudes at the arrays at 1 Hz. The PE amplitudes are compared to the observed amplitudes with a narrow band filter centered at 1 Hz. An analysis is performed of the conditions under which the empirical and semi-empirical methods fail and full wave methods must be used.

  7. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A. Hurst

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients’ self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention: We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students’ attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year. Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students’ reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context: This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor–patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome: Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas ‘truthfulness’ was a concern for the content of the message, ‘truth-telling’ included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned: Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy.

  8. The Nuclear Waste Discourse in Malaa - a Truth-Seeking Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoelander, Annika [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Culture and Media

    2003-10-01

    Malaa was the second municipality in Sweden that volunteered to allow the nuclear industry (SKB) to conduct a feasibility study of the possibility of final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in their area. After five years of examinations and discussions in the community, a local referendum was held which resulted in a negative response for further investigations within the municipality (44 % pro and 54% con). The importance and impact of local acceptance in nuclear waste management is clearly illustrated in the Malaa case. Prior to the referendum, all the key stakeholder groups tried their best to influence the outcome of the process through writing letters to the editor in the local newspaper, holding information meetings, consulting experts, et cetera. In this paper some main results from a longitudinal case study of the opinion formation process in Malaa are presented and discussed. Text and content analysis of the mass media coverage bas been undertaken as well as interviews with central stakeholders and opinion leaders through-out the whole process. The research has been framed by Michel Foucault's discourse theory, which is briefly introduced in the paper. In general, the nuclear waste discourse in Malaa can be summarised as an expression of the modem culture's strong desire for truth. The importance of scientific knowledge and expert opinions is, for example, emphasised a lot. All actors involved in the discourse constantly stated that there is a need for scientists and experts, because they are somehow viewed as truth tellers. But, at the same time, because the 'truth tellers' in the end didn't succeed in satisfying the expressed needs to deliver clear definitive answers, a lot of frustration was created. And frustration is a dominant theme in the nuclear waste discourse. The local journalists for example became frustrated in their work because they were not used to dealing with controversial issues of the kind that so

  9. The Nuclear Waste Discourse in Malaa - a Truth-Seeking Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoelander, Annika

    2003-01-01

    Malaa was the second municipality in Sweden that volunteered to allow the nuclear industry (SKB) to conduct a feasibility study of the possibility of final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in their area. After five years of examinations and discussions in the community, a local referendum was held which resulted in a negative response for further investigations within the municipality (44 % pro and 54% con). The importance and impact of local acceptance in nuclear waste management is clearly illustrated in the Malaa case. Prior to the referendum, all the key stakeholder groups tried their best to influence the outcome of the process through writing letters to the editor in the local newspaper, holding information meetings, consulting experts, et cetera. In this paper some main results from a longitudinal case study of the opinion formation process in Malaa are presented and discussed. Text and content analysis of the mass media coverage bas been undertaken as well as interviews with central stakeholders and opinion leaders through-out the whole process. The research has been framed by Michel Foucault's discourse theory, which is briefly introduced in the paper. In general, the nuclear waste discourse in Malaa can be summarised as an expression of the modem culture's strong desire for truth. The importance of scientific knowledge and expert opinions is, for example, emphasised a lot. All actors involved in the discourse constantly stated that there is a need for scientists and experts, because they are somehow viewed as truth tellers. But, at the same time, because the 'truth tellers' in the end didn't succeed in satisfying the expressed needs to deliver clear definitive answers, a lot of frustration was created. And frustration is a dominant theme in the nuclear waste discourse. The local journalists for example became frustrated in their work because they were not used to dealing with controversial issues of the kind that so clearly polarises the views of

  10. The Science Behind the Academy for Eating Disorders' Nine Truths About Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Welch, Elisabeth; Breithaupt, Lauren; Hübel, Christopher; Baker, Jessica H; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mustelin, Linda; Ghaderi, Ata; Hardaway, Andrew J; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Hedman, Anna M; Jangmo, Andreas; Nilsson, Ida A K; Wiklund, Camilla; Yao, Shuyang; Seidel, Maria; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, the Academy for Eating Disorders collaborated with international patient, advocacy, and parent organizations to craft the 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders'. This document has been translated into over 30 languages and has been distributed globally to replace outdated and erroneous stereotypes about eating disorders with factual information. In this paper, we review the state of the science supporting the 'Nine Truths'. The literature supporting each of the 'Nine Truths' was reviewed, summarized and richly annotated. Most of the 'Nine Truths' arise from well-established foundations in the scientific literature. Additional evidence is required to further substantiate some of the assertions in the document. Future investigations are needed in all areas to deepen our understanding of eating disorders, their causes and their treatments. The 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders' is a guiding document to accelerate global dissemination of accurate and evidence-informed information about eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. The impact of culture and religion on truth telling at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pentheny O'Kelly, Clarissa; Urch, Catherine; Brown, Edwina A

    2011-12-01

    Truth telling, a cardinal rule in Western medicine, is not a globally shared moral stance. Honest disclosure of terminal prognosis and diagnosis are regarded as imperative in preparing for the end of life. Yet in many cultures, truth concealment is common practice. In collectivist Asian and Muslim cultures, illness is a shared family affair. Consequently, decision making is family centred and beneficence and non-malfeasance play a dominant role in their ethical model, in contrast to patient autonomy in Western cultures. The 'four principles' are prevalent throughout Eastern and Western cultures, however, the weight with which they are considered and their understanding differ. The belief that a grave diagnosis or prognosis will extinguish hope in patients leads families to protect ill members from the truth. This denial of the truth, however, is linked with not losing faith in a cure. Thus, aggressive futile treatment can be expected. The challenge is to provide a health care service that is equable for all individuals in a given country. The British National Health Service provides care to all cultures but is bound by the legal principles and framework of the UK and aims for equity of provision by working within the UK ethical framework with legal and ethical norms being explained to all patients and relatives. This requires truth telling about prognosis and efficacy of potential treatments so that unrealistic expectations are not raised.

  12. Orbital Atherectomy Plaque Modification Assessment of the Femoropopliteal Artery Via Intravascular Ultrasound (TRUTH Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaev, Anvar; Zavlunova, Susanna; Attubato, Michael J; Martinsen, Brad J; Mintz, Gary S; Maehara, Akiko

    2015-10-01

    The Tissue Removal Assessment with Ultrasound of the SFA and Popliteal (TRUTH) study assessed the performance of the orbital atherectomy system (OAS) to treat femoropopliteal arteries, including determining its effect on plaque removal. Patients with symptomatic femoropopliteal peripheral arterial disease were treated with the OAS followed by adjunctive balloon angioplasty (BA). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images were collected pre- and post-OAS and post-OAS BA. Patients were followed through 12 months post-procedure. Twenty-nine lesions were treated with OAS-BA in 25 patients. The mean maximum balloon inflation pressure was 5.2 ± 1.2 atm. Virtual histology IVUS (VH-IVUS) analysis revealed at the maximum calcium ablation site that calcium reduction was responsible for 86% of the lumen area increase. The minimum lumen area increased from 4.0 mm(2) to 9.1 mm(2) (<.0001), and the percentage of area stenosis decreased from 76.9% to 43.0% (<.0001) after OAS-BA. At 12 months, the target lesion revascularization rate was 8.2%, and ankle-brachial index and Rutherford classification improved significantly from baseline through follow-up. The VH-IVUS analysis reveals that OAS modifies the calcified component of the plaque burden. It is hypothesized that calcium modification by OAS changes the lesion compliance, allowing for low pressure adjunctive BA. The clinical outcomes were favorable through 12-month follow-up. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The Emotion of Truth and the Racial Uncanny: Aborigines and Sicilians in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ricatti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Through references to four anecdotes, this article approaches the complex and often neglected topic of the relationship between Sicilian migrants in Australia and Aborigines. It does so not in search of clear evidences that may structure a well-defined historical narrative, but rather looking for moments of truth that may open up new dialogues, narratives, research. Within embodied otherness, it is the uncanny feeling towards the racialised other that most effectively make us understand the complex relationship Italian migrants have had with the (unfamiliar. The concept of the uncanny helps us understand that the racism of many Italian migrants towards Aboriginal people in Australia has not been resulting from a frightening encounter with the other, with the unfamiliar, with the difference. It has rather been the result of the return of what has been repressed from historical memory, namely the colonial character of Italian unification, Italians’ own racist and colonial history, the colonial nature of many Italian migrants’ settlement abroad, and the identification of southern Italians as the colonised, racialised others, in Italy and abroad. Through positive examples of emotional, intimate and political engagement between Sicilians and Aborigines, this article also consider people’s agency in moving within and challenging the constraining, intricate pervasiveness of the racial and colonial dictate in contemporary Australian society.

  14. A Truthful Incentive Mechanism for Online Recruitment in Mobile Crowd Sensing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate emerging mobile crowd sensing (MCS systems, in which new cloud-based platforms sequentially allocate homogenous sensing jobs to dynamically-arriving users with uncertain service qualities. Given that human beings are selfish in nature, it is crucial yet challenging to design an efficient and truthful incentive mechanism to encourage users to participate. To address the challenge, we propose a novel truthful online auction mechanism that can efficiently learn to make irreversible online decisions on winner selections for new MCS systems without requiring previous knowledge of users. Moreover, we theoretically prove that our incentive possesses truthfulness, individual rationality and computational efficiency. Extensive simulation results under both real and synthetic traces demonstrate that our incentive mechanism can reduce the payment of the platform, increase the utility of the platform and social welfare.

  15. A Truthful Incentive Mechanism for Online Recruitment in Mobile Crowd Sensing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Liu, Min; Zhou, Yaqin; Li, Zhongcheng; Chen, Shuang; He, Xiangnan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate emerging mobile crowd sensing (MCS) systems, in which new cloud-based platforms sequentially allocate homogenous sensing jobs to dynamically-arriving users with uncertain service qualities. Given that human beings are selfish in nature, it is crucial yet challenging to design an efficient and truthful incentive mechanism to encourage users to participate. To address the challenge, we propose a novel truthful online auction mechanism that can efficiently learn to make irreversible online decisions on winner selections for new MCS systems without requiring previous knowledge of users. Moreover, we theoretically prove that our incentive possesses truthfulness, individual rationality and computational efficiency. Extensive simulation results under both real and synthetic traces demonstrate that our incentive mechanism can reduce the payment of the platform, increase the utility of the platform and social welfare.

  16. THE RULE OF TRUTH AND “WHITE LIE” IN MODERN MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna V. Chashina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article focuses on a topical conflict in contemporary medical practice – truthful patient’s information. Analysis of the problem is considered in historical perspective, by bringing the views of both domestic and foreign authors. Various opinions and arguments for and against providing information to the patient about his health discussions to this day by physicians, despite the legalization provision of truthful information about the state of health. Materials and Methods. Material for the article was the ethical and regulatory documents that include provisions on the right of the patient in receiving truthful information. On the basis of the dialectical approach in the article, the object of the research is a rule of truthfulness in medicine, the analysis which takes place in the framework of medical ethics and its modern model of bioethics. The application of integrated approach allowed us to consider the problem from a position of morality and law, society, medicine and the individual. Using the following methods: comparative-historical, axiological, document analysis, and synthesis of the functionality, efficiency and appropriateness of the rules of veracity at the present stage of development of medicine. Results. In the course of the study it was revealed that the issue of the rule of truthfulness in modern medical practice, justifying from the perspective of modern model of medical ethics – bioethics and the law, is the inalienable right of the patient. In addition, you specify the inextricable link between the rule and the truthfulness rule of informed consent. These regulations removed the controversial question of the presence of the “holy lie” in medicine. But due to the absolutely inviolable rules of “no harm” in medicine it is necessary to consider the ethical and legal aspects of rules of veracity: the duty, the right, the opportunity and feasibility to speak the truth, allowing not only the law

  17. Truth telling and informed consent: is "primum docere" the new motto of clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Christian

    2007-09-01

    Autonomy has become in many countries a key concept in the patient-physician relationship, leaving the old paternalistic medical attitude out of the realm of common good clinical practice. Consequently, the validity of the informed consent procedure which is related to any medical intervention, should imply that the information given is true. Raising the question as such obliges us to consider the truth not for itself but in regard to the validity of the consent to a medical intervention. Although a clinical approach reveals that loyalty should guide the patient-physician relationship, there are still some situations in which informed consent and truth telling may be controversial: in some circumstances, the physician should or may not tell the truth, in others he can simply forget to tell.

  18. A Linguistic Truth-Valued Temporal Reasoning Formalism and Its Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhirui; Liu, Jun; Augusto, Juan C.; Wang, Hui

    Temporality and uncertainty are important features of many real world systems. Solving problems in such systems requires the use of formal mechanism such as logic systems, statistical methods or other reasoning and decision-making methods. In this paper, we propose a linguistic truth-valued temporal reasoning formalism to enable the management of both features concurrently using a linguistic truth valued logic and a temporal logic. We also provide a backward reasoning algorithm which allows the answering of user queries. A simple but realistic scenario in a smart home application is used to illustrate our work.

  19. An Audience Study on PTT Gossiping and the Politics of Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuping Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the audience research approach of in-depth interviews with users of the internet PTT Gossiping forum, this papers employs the concept of “politics of truth” to examine the “gossip” culture in the forum as well as the operation of truth/power politics within it. User interviews provide understandings of the meanings, operations, subject positions and social practices of the forum and how they interact with power politics in society. The gossip forum has expanded what gossip culture represents from collective imagination to social practices, renewing the perspectives derived from it, while engaging in a dialogue with the concept of politics of truth.

  20. Ground truth data collection on mining industrial explosions registered by the International Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehl'tekov, A.Yu.; Gordon, V.P.; Firsov, V.A.; Chervyakov, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation is dedicated to organizational and technical issues connected with the task of Comprehensive Test-Ban-Treaty Organization timely notification on large chemical explosions including data on explosion location and time, on applied explosive substance quantity and type, and also on configuration and assumed purpose of explosion. Explosions registered by International Monitoring System are of special interest. Their data could be used for calibration of the monitoring system. Ground truth data collection and some explosions location results on Russia's mining enterprises were given. Ground truth data collection peculiarities according to mining industrial explosions were considered. (author)

  1. A Critical View of Kenya´s Truth, Justice and Reconciliation Agenda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    assassinations, killings, torture, denial of basic needs, and other kinds of human rights abuses perpetrated under successive regimes since the country´s independence in 1963. The truth, justice and reconciliation process, whose report was presented to the president on May 21, 2013, after four years of work....... The paper concludes that the approach so far taken is compromised for elite motivated political purposes and may not foster reconciliation and build a stable Kenya. In so doing the paper contributes to intellectual debate around truth commissions and their role in promoting democracy....

  2. The Asse. On inconvenient truths and the suppression of disagreeable principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The retrieval of radioactive wastes and the closure of the repository Asse II is a very complex project: not only with respect to technical aspects but also with respect to public information. The information brochure no 29 edited by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz BfS is dealing with the rather philosophic questions knowledge and truth. The German expert on constitutional law Peter Bull answered to the question whether subjectively assumed health hazards could inhibit a reasonable solution: it has to be expected from the public to bear inconvenient truth. Clarification is necessary instead of wrong populism and suppression of obnoxious findings.

  3. Fake news and post-truth pronouncements in general and in early human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2017-12-01

    Fake news and post-truth pronouncements are increasingly common, and are unfortunately also progressively being applied to the sciences, including the medical sciences. This editorial briefly reviews this unsavoury trend and highlights recent debunking of fake truths in early human development. Science is arguably the last metanarrative with any significant cachet in the postmodern period. We, as scientists, must strive to ensure that our work is transparent and of the highest possible standard so as to continue to uphold science's integrity and probity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Search for the truth about the NATO use of depleted uranium in the war against Yugoslavia - truth under the DU carpet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdacic, V.; Jaksic, P.

    2002-01-01

    Having produced thousands atomic, hydrogen and neutron bombs USA and other members of NATO possess large amount of nuclear waste, which also includes depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is natural uranium out of which 0.5% of Uranium-235 isotope is removed to be used for atomic bombs and nuclear fuel. Produced in this way, 'depleted uranium' is still highly radioactive. In one kilogram of such uranium 25 million radioactive decays take place in one second. During the NATO war against Yugoslavia in 1999 their planes A-10 fired the shells containing 272 grams of depleted uranium as they did previously in the Gulf war with Iraq and in 1995 against the Serbs in former Bosnia and Herzegovina. The effects of this 'dirty weapon', forbidden by international conventions, have been already known as disastrous, causing not only human but ecological consequences as well. That is why depleted uranium got the name: metal of dishonor. After long denial, on May the 3 rd American General Chuck Weld has confessed that NATO aviation is using ammunition with depleted uranium in the war against Yugoslavia in Kosovo and Metohija. Number of the locations under the fire of depleted uranium after the war was rising with time. At the beginning NATO information contained small number of such 'targets', 20-30. When the soldiers of the UN peacekeeping forces at Kosovo became ill, NATO was forced to reveal the new data of the used depleted uranium. In their report from January 24, 2001 (Updated on February 8 same year) they claim that 112 locations in Kosovo and Montenegro were exposed to depleted uranium rounds fired from the guns GAU-8 of A-10 planes. According to this report one can estimate the use of about 9 tons of depleted uranium. Our careful analysis points to many mistakes, lack of data, misleading conclusions and contradictions. At least 115 locations were contaminated by depleted uranium. The minimal number of rounds could be close to 43,300, e.g. minimum 12 tons of depleted uranium

  5. Truth and Credibility in Sincere Policy Analysis: Alternative Approaches for the Production of Policy-Relevant Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Landsbergen, David

    1989-01-01

    Two competing approaches to policy analysis are distinguished: a credibility approach, and a truth approach. According to the credibility approach, the policy analyst's role is to search for plausible argument rather than truth. Each approach has pragmatic tradeoffs in fulfilling the goal of providing usable knowledge to decision makers. (TJH)

  6. DMPD: MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18191460 MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis...g) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis...e and effector immunity totuberculosis. Authors Reiling N, Ehlers S, Holscher C. Publication Immunol Lett. 2

  7. Understanding a sentence does not entail knowing its truth-conditions : Why the epistemological determination argument fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohnitz, Daniel; Kangilaski, Jaan

    The determination argument is supposed to show that a sentence's meaning is at least a truth-condition. This argument is supposed to rest on innocent premises that even a deflationist about truth can accept. The argument comes in two versions: one is metaphysical and the other is epistemological. In

  8. The Pedagogy of Heideggerian (Un)Truth: How Can We See Stars by Day in a Deep Dark Well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The question of truth as it relates to the teacher's role in the classroom raises not only issues of what and how we should teach, but challenges the very purpose of teaching. Since truth itself is a major question of phenomenology, the author chose to use the works of German philosopher Martin Heidegger for his phenomenological treatment of truth…

  9. Critical Inquiry for the Social Good: Methodological Work as a Means for Truth-Telling in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Pickup, Austin

    2016-01-01

    This article questions the ubiquity of the term "critical" in methodological scholarship, calling for a renewed association of the term with projects concerned with social justice, truth-telling, and overt articulations of the social good. Drawing on Michel Foucault's work with parrhesia (or truth-telling) and Aristotle's articulation of…

  10. Dydaktyki filozofii kłopoty z prawdą [The teaching of philosophy and its troubles with truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Zdunowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I. We can talk about the crisis of the truth (in the meaning of the classical cor- respondence theory in the contemporary philosophy (of the 20th century. II. In the wake of philosophy the teaching of philosophy reconciled with the destruction of the truth. Then the didactics of philosophy resigned from the placing the aim to the truth among the objectives, which should serve to philosophical education. III. The absence and understatement of the disinterested pursuit to the truth among the objectives or requirements of education impoverish the philosophical education and cause damage to the children, pupils and wards. IV. Therefore the truth understood as an epistemological category, the purpose of education and moral value, should be restored to our didactic and educational activities.

  11. Satellite markers: a simple method for ground truth car pose on stereo video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Gustavo; Savino, Giovanni; Piantini, Simone; Pierini, Marco

    2018-04-01

    Artificial prediction of future location of other cars in the context of advanced safety systems is a must. The remote estimation of car pose and particularly its heading angle is key to predict its future location. Stereo vision systems allow to get the 3D information of a scene. Ground truth in this specific context is associated with referential information about the depth, shape and orientation of the objects present in the traffic scene. Creating 3D ground truth is a measurement and data fusion task associated with the combination of different kinds of sensors. The novelty of this paper is the method to generate ground truth car pose only from video data. When the method is applied to stereo video, it also provides the extrinsic camera parameters for each camera at frame level which are key to quantify the performance of a stereo vision system when it is moving because the system is subjected to undesired vibrations and/or leaning. We developed a video post-processing technique which employs a common camera calibration tool for the 3D ground truth generation. In our case study, we focus in accurate car heading angle estimation of a moving car under realistic imagery. As outcomes, our satellite marker method provides accurate car pose at frame level, and the instantaneous spatial orientation for each camera at frame level.

  12. 47 CFR 76.939 - Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requests of franchising authority. 76.939 Section 76.939 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Regulation § 76.939 Truthful written statements and responses to requests of franchising authority. Cable operators shall comply with franchising authorities' and the Commission's requests for information, orders...

  13. Developmental Discourses as a Regime of Truth in Research with Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Clare

    2016-01-01

    While developmental discourses have been heavily critiqued in relation to education systems, less attention has been paid to how these impact the data collection process in classroom research. This article utilises Foucault's concept of regime of truth to highlight the pervasiveness of developmental discourses when conducting research in primary…

  14. Truth in politics : rhetorical approaches to democratic deliberation in Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, P.J.; Osha, S.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Democracy is about competing "truths". This is why "rhetoric"- the study of public deliberation and the training in public debate and argumentation - is part of democracy in development. This volume acclimatizes "rhetoric" to the philosophical scene in South Africa, and more in general in Africa as

  15. Extrametodical truth and ontology of the praxis: The mediator rationality of the phronesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Chiurazzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gadamer’s vindication of the extra-methodical feature of truth in the human sciences put forward in Truth and Method does not mean a mere refusal of method: rather, it arises from the awareness that there are truths which are not reducible to the conditions of repeatability and commensurability set up by methodical thinking. In fact, the truths of the human sciences refer to the ontological dimension of the contingent and the accidental, i.e. to the dimension of the historical. In this essay I aim at highlighting this ontological dimension, which for Aristotle is eminently that of the praxis and of human action. I will show that such an ontology is a consequence of the logical and ontological discussions which crisscrossed Greek thought after the discovery of the incommensurable magnitudes. The ontology of praxis is an ontology which takes into account the “irrationality” represented by the contingent, the accidental, to which a new form of rationality corresponds: that of phrónesis. Phrónesis is in fact not a commensurative but a mediative rationality

  16. The Truth about Bullying: What Educators and Parents Must Know and Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanski, Jan; Permuth, Steve

    2009-01-01

    "The Truth About Bullying" presents crucial information to assist educators and parents in creating a safe learning environment. This book is a practical guide to understanding what bullying is and the influence it has on a school. The who, what, when, where, and how of bullying are described in a clear manner that helps the reader to understand…

  17. Children's Reasoning about Lie-Telling and Truth-Telling in Politeness Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D.; Sweet, Monica A.; Lee, Kang

    2009-01-01

    Children's reasoning about lying and truth-telling was examined among participants ages 7-11 (total N = 181) with reference to conflicts between being honest and protecting the feelings of others. In Study 1, participants showed different patterns of evaluation and motivational inference in politeness contexts vs. transgression contexts: in…

  18. Beyond the Search for Truth: Dewey's Humble and Humanistic Vision of Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, David I.; Feinstein, Noah Weeth

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, David Waddington and Noah Weeth Feinstein explore how Dewey's conception of science can help us rethink the way science is done in schools. The authors begin by contrasting a view of science that is implicitly accepted by many scientists and science educators--science as a search for truth--with Dewey's instrumentalist,…

  19. Myth and Multiple Readings in Environmental Rhetoric: The Case of "An Inconvenient Truth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosteck, Thomas; Frentz, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    Contesting interpretations of "An Inconvenient Truth" that treat it as political jeremiad, autobiography, or science documentary, we contextualize the film within Joseph Campbell's monomyth and argue that its rhetorical efficacy arises in part because Al Gore's personal transformation animates the documentary footage with jeremiad advocacy. In…

  20. The different worlds of labour and company law: truth or myth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The different worlds of labour and company law: truth or myth? ... take due cognisance of both the labour and company law principles that may be pertinent, ... indicate how the different functions, theories and models of labour and company law ...

  1. DNA sequence analysis tells the truth of the origin, propagation, and evolution of chili (red pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jeong Yang

    2017-09-01

    The theory that Korean chili (kochu comes from Japan is the biggest culprit responsible for distorting the history and value of Korean chili and kimchi. It has also spawned a number of other idle theories. This paper aims to correct this misconception through scientific analysis and ultimately restore the truth about the history and culture of Korean fermented foods.

  2. An Alternative Teaching Method of Conditional Probabilities and Bayes' Rule: An Application of the Truth Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Eiki; Vashlishan Murray, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of three approaches to the teaching of probability to demonstrate how the truth table of elementary mathematical logic can be used to teach the calculations of conditional probabilities. Students are typically introduced to the topic of conditional probabilities--especially the ones that involve Bayes' rule--with…

  3. A reflection on Russell's ramified types and Kripke's hierarchy of truths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamareddine, F.; Laan, T.D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Both in Kripke's Theory of Truth KTT [8] and Russell's Ramified Type Theory RTT [16, 9] we are confronted with some hierarchy. In RTT, we have a double hierarchy of orders and types. That is, the class of propositions is divided into different orders where a propositional function can only depend on

  4. "An Inconvenient Truth" Increases Knowledge, Concern, and Willingness to Reduce Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Since May 24, 2006 millions of people have seen the movie "An Inconvenient Truth." Several countries have even proposed using the film as an educational tool in school classrooms. However, it is not yet clear that the movie accomplishes its apparent goals of increasing knowledge and concern, and motivating people to reduce their…

  5. Abduction aiming at empirical progress or even at truth approximation, leading to challenge for computational modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Theo A.F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper primarily deals with the conceptual prospects for generalizing the aim of abduction from the standard one of explaining surprising or anomalous observations to that of empirical progress or even truth approximation. It turns out that the main abduction task then becomes the

  6. Excerpts from Vatican's "Veritatis Splendor," Pope John Paul II's Views of Moral Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Excerpts are presented from a recent papal encyclical that sets forth John Paul II's views on timeless moral truths and on dissent from them within the Roman Catholic Church. The responsibility of bishops to monitor Catholic institutions, including educational institutions, is noted. (MSE)

  7. The socio-rhetorical force of 'truth talk' and lies: The case of 1 John

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-08-05

    Aug 5, 2010 ... The point is that humans have immense linguistic capacity. The power of words ... discussing it especially when the lines of veracity were being pushed in written .... unbecoming of human intelligence. .... Arguments about lying and the quality of truth were rhetorically ... artificial context of written discourse.

  8. A right to truth, justice and a remedy for African victims of serious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A right to truth, justice and a remedy for African victims of serious violations of international humanitarian law. Avril McDonald. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  9. Free precession of neutron stars: some plain truths, cautionary remarks, and assorted speculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pines, D.; Shaham, J.

    1974-01-01

    A brief summary is presented of present understanding of free precession in neutron stars. Attention is called to some truths concerning such wobble motion and then one describes some current efforts to devise mechanisms for exciting neutron star wobble with particular attention to the Crab and Vela pulsars and to Her X-1. (U.S.)

  10. Responses to more severe punishment in the courtroom: evidence from truth-in-sentencing laws

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsuchimoto, Fusako; Dušek, L.

    -, č. 403 (2009), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : criminal procedure * criminal law * truth-in-sentencing laws Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp403.pdf

  11. Responses to more severe punishment in the courtroom: evidence from truth-in-sentencing laws

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsuchimoto, F.; Dušek, Libor

    -, č. 403 (2009), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : criminal procedure * criminal law * truth-in-sentencing laws Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp403.pdf

  12. Northern Ireland and truth and reconciliation healing through remembering: The story so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall David

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the work of truth and reconciliation project done in Northern Ireland "Healing through Remembering", and the findings of the Project Group that reported in June 2002. The Paper identifies future actions emerging from the Report.

  13. 78 FR 4725 - Escrow Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... the Truth in Lending Act (TILA), 15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq., based on findings that economic stability... Current Mortgage Origination Market Even with the economic downturn and tightening of credit standards...'' numbered 7, 10, 11, and 12, maintained by the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the United States...

  14. The universe and the teacup the mathematics of truth and beauty

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, K C

    1998-01-01

    Filled with "a thousand fascinating facts and shrewd observations (Martin Gardner, Los Angeles Times), this "beguiling and lucid book" (San Francisco Chronicle) demonstrates how the truth and beauty of everything, from relativity to rainbows, is all in the numbers. Line drawings.

  15. The Truth about Abuse? A Comparative Approach to Inquiry Narratives on Historical Institutional Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sköld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. This article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the…

  16. Speak Truth and Shame the Devil: An Ethnodrama in Response to Racism in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Randolph, Adah; Weems, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnodrama examines how two African American women experience racism in the academe. Both scholars examine the social/political context of racism in higher education and its manifestation in institutional practices. Both authors seek to "speak truth and shame the devil" by examining institutional responses to the racism they encounter in…

  17. CONCEPT OF "TRUTH" IN THE NOVEL OF MIKHAIL BULGAKOV'S MASTER AND MARGARITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Sergeevna Korneenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our study was the concept of "truth" in Bulgakov's novel Master and Margarita. S. Stepanov gave the defi nition of a concept. The concept is like a clot of culture in human consciousness; that is the manner, in which culture becomes a part of the mental world of a man. And, on the other hand, the concept is a way for a man as an ordinary, normal person, not a "creator of cultural values" to be included in the culture, and in some cases, to affects it. In the analysis of the concept of "truth" we start from its cultural-and-etymological understanding of the word "truth". The aim of the study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the three editions of the novel and to fi nd out what semantic meanings Bulgakov deals with in a particular case and how it aff ects the transformation of the idea of the novel from edition to edition.Three editions of the novel were the material for the research: the first is "Engineer Hoof " (1930–1932, the second is Grand Chancellor (1932–1934 and the fi nal version of "The Master and Margarita." In these three editions Yeshua involves everyone who he is talking to in the dialogue. In the editions Engineer Hoof and Grand Chancellor M. A. Bulgakov uses the concept of "truth" in scientific- philosophical and sacred meanings (plans. In the final text Yeshua appears as a philosopher who is in search of the truth.

  18. Truth-telling, decision-making, and ethics among cancer patients in nursing practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Dong-Lan; Yu, Hong-Jing; Guo, Hui-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Truth-telling toward terminally ill patients is a challenging ethical issue in healthcare practice. However, there are no existing ethical guidelines or frameworks provided for Chinese nurses in relation to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness and the role of nurses thus is not explicit when encountering this issue. The intention of this paper is to provide ethical guidelines or strategies with regards to decision-making on truth-telling of terminal illness for Chinese nurses. This paper initially present a case scenario and then critically discuss the ethical issue in association with ethical principles and philosophical theories. Instead of focusing on attitudes toward truth disclosure, it aims to provide strategies regarding this issue for nurses. It highlights and discusses some of the relevant ethical assumptions around the perceived role of nurses in healthcare settings by focusing on nursing ethical virtues, nursing codes of ethics, and philosophical perspectives. And Confucian culture is discussed to explicate that deontology does not consider family-oriented care in China. Treating each family individually to explore the family's beliefs and values on this issue is essential in healthcare practice and nurses should tailor their own approach to individual needs regarding truth-telling in different situations. Moreover, the Chinese Code of Ethics should be modified to be more specific and applicable. Finally, a narrative ethics approach should be applied and teamwork between nurses, physicians and families should be established to support cancer patients and to ensure their autonomy and hope. Ethical considerations: This paper was approved by the Ethics Committee of The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University. The authors have obtained consent to use the case study and it has been anonymised to preserve the patient's confidentiality.

  19. Assessment of MTI Water Temperature Retrievals with Ground Truth from the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station Cooling Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeja, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Surface water temperatures calculated from Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) brightness temperatures and the robust retrieval algorithm, developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are compared with ground truth measurements at the Squaw Creek reservoir at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station near Granbury Texas. Temperatures calculated for thirty-four images covering the period May 2000 to March 2002 are compared with water temperatures measured at 10 instrumented buoy locations supplied by the Savannah River Technology Center. The data set was used to examine the effect of image quality on temperature retrieval as well as to document any bias between the sensor chip arrays (SCA's). A portion of the data set was used to evaluate the influence of proximity to shoreline on the water temperature retrievals. This study found errors in daytime water temperature retrievals of 1.8 C for SCA 2 and 4.0 C for SCA 1. The errors in nighttime water temperature retrievals were 3.8 C for SCA 1. Water temperature retrievals for nighttime appear to be related to image quality with the largest positive bias for the highest quality images and the largest negative bias for the lowest quality images. The daytime data show no apparent relationship between water temperature retrieval error and image quality. The average temperature retrieval error near open water buoys was less than corresponding values for the near-shore buoys. After subtraction of the estimated error in the ground truth data, the water temperature retrieval error was 1.2 C for the open-water buoys compared to 1.8 C for the near-shore buoys. The open-water error is comparable to that found at Nauru

  20. Being asked to tell an unpleasant truth about another person activates anterior insula and medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa M; Dietz, Martin J; Fitzgerald, Des; Knudsen, Kasper J; Tonks, James

    2015-01-01

    "Truth" has been used as a baseline condition in several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of deception. However, like deception, telling the truth is an inherently social construct, which requires consideration of another person's mental state, a phenomenon known as Theory of Mind. Using a novel ecological paradigm, we examined blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses during social and simple truth telling. Participants (n = 27) were randomly divided into two competing teams. Post-competition, each participant was scanned while evaluating performances from in-group and out-group members. Participants were asked to be honest and were told that their evaluations would be made public. We found increased BOLD responses in the medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior insula and precuneus when participants were asked to tell social truths compared to simple truths about another person. At the behavioral level, participants were slower at responding to social compared to simple questions about another person. These findings suggest that telling the truth is a nuanced cognitive operation that is dependent on the degree of mentalizing. Importantly, we show that the cortical regions engaged by truth telling show a distinct pattern when the task requires social reasoning.

  1. A ship-borne meteorological station for ground truth measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, B.A.E.

    that with the high performance components available, and modular software construction in a Higher Level Language, it is possible to design equipment specially tailored to ones needs, rapidly and cost effectively...

  2. Evidence of the Impact of the truth FinishIt Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna; Cantrell, Jennifer; Bennett, Morgane; Smith, Alexandria; Rath, Jessica M; Xiao, Haijun; Greenberg, Marisa; Hair, Elizabeth C

    2018-04-02

    Over the past decade, public education mass media campaigns have been shown to be successful in changing tobacco-related attitudes, intentions, and behaviors among youth and young adults. In 2014, the national truth® campaign re-launched a new phase of the campaign targeted at a broad audience of youth and young adults, aged 15-21, to help end the tobacco epidemic. The study sample for this analysis is drawn from the Truth Longitudinal Cohort (TLC), a probability-based, nationally representative cohort designed to evaluate the relationship between awareness of truth media messages and changes in targeted attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors over time. The sample for this study was limited to those with data at baseline and three subsequent follow-up surveys (n = 7536). Logistic regression models indicate that truth ad awareness is significantly associated with increases in targeted anti-tobacco attitudes as well as reduced intentions to smoke over time, holding constant baseline attitudes and intentions. Results also suggest a dose-response relationship in that higher levels of truth ad awareness were significantly associated with higher likelihood of reporting agreement across all five attitudinal constructs: anti-smoking imagery, anti-social smoking sentiment, anti-tobacco social movement, anti-tobacco industry sentiment, and independence. Longitudinal results indicate a significant dose-response relationship between awareness of the new phase of the truth campaign and campaign-targeted attitudes and intentions not to smoke among youth and young adults. Findings from this study confirm that a carefully designed anti-tobacco public education campaign aimed at youth and young adults is a key population-level intervention within the context of an expanding tobacco product landscape and a cluttered media environment. As tobacco use patterns shift and new products emerge, evidence-based public education campaigns can play a central role in helping the next generation to

  3. Which model of truth and reconciliation applies to former Yugoslavia?: Some thoughts on the closing panel discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a reflection on the final panel discussion of the conference "Which Model of Truth and Reconciliation applies to ex-Yugoslavia?". By the means of sequential and hierarchical analysis of the argumentative structure of the discussion, the author «extracts» key dimensions of the expert discourse on truth and reconciliation using the case of the mentioned panel discussion. By identifying the points of consensus the author seeks to describe the notion of truth and reconciliation as it emerged in the closing panel discussion of the conference.

  4. On truth-telling and storytelling: Truth-seeking during research involving communities with an oral culture and a history of violent conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Vethuizen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to propose some principles and practices for truth-seeking during research into violent conflict. To achieve this aim, an argument is deployed by analysing the theoretical concepts “truth”, “myth” and “oral culture” as sources of knowledge. This conceptual analysis precedes a discussion on community-based participatory research (CBPR as a research methodology to access the knowledge of lived experiences embedded in the oral culture of the San community of Platfontein, near Kimberley, South Africa. It was found that CBPR contains good practices to use in research to judge the probable truth about disputes. The CBPR process is ideal for determining the accuracy of data in the context of a specific culture, considering the norms, spiritual influences and personal considerations of knowledge-holders that accompany a unique cosmology. A variety and equity of worldviews and perspectives of what happened during violent conflict successfully challenges hegemonic power relationships, paradigms and narratives, ultimately leading to informed judgements of what is probably true about a conflict. CBPR with the San of Platfontein revealed principles that can be used as guidelines for researching disputes where oral culture is involved.

  5. Radiofrequency for the treatment of skin laxity: mith or truth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Angélica Rodrigues; Soares, Viviane Pinheiro Campos; da Silva, Fernanda Souza; Moreira, Tatiane da Silva

    2015-01-01

    The nonablative radiofrequency is a procedure commonly used for the treatment of skin laxity from an increase in tissue temperature. The goal is to induce thermal damage to thus stimulate neocollagenesis in deep layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. However, many of these devices haven't been tested and their parameters are still not accepted by the scientific community. Because of this, it is necessary to review the literature regarding the physiological effects and parameters for application of radiofrequency and methodological quality and level of evidence of studies. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE, PEDro, SciELO, PubMed, LILACS and CAPES and experimental studies in humans, which used radiofrequency devices as treatment for facial or body laxity, were selected. The results showed that the main physiological effect is to stimulate collagen synthesis. There was no homogeneity between studies in relation to most of the parameters used and the methodological quality of studies and level of evidence for using radiofrequency are low. This fact complicates the determination of effective parameters for clinical use of this device in the treatment of skin laxity. The analyzed studies suggest that radiofrequency is effective, however the physiological mechanisms and the required parameters are not clear in the literature. PMID:26560216

  6. 77 FR 21875 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... consumer to pay with respect to an account, limiting fees to 25 percent of the credit limit in effect when...-faced brackets]. List of Subjects in 12 CFR Part 1026 Advertising, Consumer protection, Credit, Credit..., April 12, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 21875

  7. Truth and Courage: Implementing a Coaching Culture. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Many leaders recognize that coaching is more than a collection of effective techniques. This recognition has led them to strive for a corporate culture that reflects a coaching mindset and the kind of relationships that coachees find liberating. As many more leaders have experienced the benefits of coaching (by professional coaches or mentors) the…

  8. QCD-aware partonic jet clustering for truth-jet flavour labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Andy; Pollard, Chris [University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    We present an algorithm for deriving partonic flavour labels to be applied to truth particle jets in Monte Carlo event simulations. The inputs to this approach are final pre-hadronisation partons, to remove dependence on unphysical details such as the order of matrix element calculation and shower generator frame recoil treatment. These are clustered using standard jet algorithms, modified to restrict the allowed pseudo-jet combinations to those in which tracked flavour labels are consistent with QCD and QED Feynman rules. The resulting algorithm is shown to be portable between the major families of shower generators, and largely insensitive to many possible systematic variations: it hence offers significant advantages over existing ad hoc labelling schemes. However, it is shown that contamination from multi-parton scattering simulations can disrupt the labelling results. Suggestions are made for further extension to incorporate more detailed QCD splitting function kinematics, robustness improvements, and potential uses for truth-level physics object definitions and tagging. (orig.)

  9. Private development-based forest conservation in Patagonia: comparing mental models and revealing cultural truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Serenari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Private protected area (PPA conservation agents (CA engaging in development-based conservation in southern Chile have generated conflict with locals. Poor fit of dominant development-based conservation ideology in rural areas is commonly to blame. We developed and administered a cultural consensus survey near the Valdivian Coastal Reserve (RCV and Huilo Huilo Reserve (HH to examine fit of CA cultural truths with local residents. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA of 23 propositions reflecting CA cultural truths confirmed: (1 a single CA culture exists, and (2 RCV communities were more aligned with this culture than HH communities. Inadequate communication, inequitable decision making, divergent opinions about livelihood impacts and trajectories, and PPA purpose may explain differences between CAs and communities. Meanwhile, variability in response between and within communities may reflect differing environmental histories. Private protected area administrations might use CCA to confront cultural differences and thereby improve their community interactions.

  10. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Mannion, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for ‘fake news’ and ‘alternative facts’ with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of ‘the other’ and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism. PMID:28812811

  11. QCD-aware partonic jet clustering for truth-jet flavour labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, Andy; Pollard, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present an algorithm for deriving partonic flavour labels to be applied to truth particle jets in Monte Carlo event simulations. The inputs to this approach are final pre-hadronisation partons, to remove dependence on unphysical details such as the order of matrix element calculation and shower generator frame recoil treatment. These are clustered using standard jet algorithms, modified to restrict the allowed pseudo-jet combinations to those in which tracked flavour labels are consistent with QCD and QED Feynman rules. The resulting algorithm is shown to be portable between the major families of shower generators, and largely insensitive to many possible systematic variations: it hence offers significant advantages over existing ad hoc labelling schemes. However, it is shown that contamination from multi-parton scattering simulations can disrupt the labelling results. Suggestions are made for further extension to incorporate more detailed QCD splitting function kinematics, robustness improvements, and potential uses for truth-level physics object definitions and tagging. (orig.)

  12. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen Speed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for ‘fake news’ and ‘alternative facts’ with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of ‘the other’ and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism.

  13. On the construction of reality and truth. Towards an epistemology of community social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Maritza

    2002-08-01

    An expression of community socialpsychology based on the need to transform social reality, and to considerpeople as the constructors ofthat reality, is examined from an epistemologicalpoint of view. Dualism, the position considering that object and subject are separate entities, and monism, the perspective stating that there is only one substance, are discussed The consequences of both conceptions for community social psychology, and their incompatibility, as well as the notions of reality and truth are analyzed. That analysis deals with the problems of defining reality, of separating subject and object of knowledge, of language's role, and of relativism and truth. Finally, a constructionist view of monism based on relatedness, and action, is proposed, stating the mutually influencing union of subject and object in the construction of reality.

  14. "The Corn People Have a Song Too. It Is Very Good": On Beauty, Truth, and Goodness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, J. Edward

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-first-century skeptics would say that there are really no such things as beauty and truth and certainly not goodness. A Pueblo poet seemed to think there was--"the corn people have a song / it is very good"--and unless people think they know better, they'd better listen up. This article begins with a short piece, set down by the…

  15. Simple example of definitions of truth, validity, consistency, and completeness in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benioff, P.

    1999-01-01

    Besides their use for efficient computation, quantum computers and quantum robots form a base for studying quantum systems that create valid physical theories using mathematics and physics. If quantum mechanics is universally applicable, then quantum mechanics must describe its own validation by these quantum systems. An essential part of this process is the development of a coherent theory of mathematics and quantum-mechanics together. It is expected that such a theory will include a coherent combination of mathematical logical concepts with quantum mechanics. That this might be possible is shown here by defining truth, validity, consistency, and completeness for a quantum-mechanical version of a simple (classical) expression enumeration machine described by Smullyan. Some of the expressions are chosen as sentences denoting the presence or absence of other expressions in the enumeration. Two of the sentences are self-referential. It is seen that, for an interpretation based on a Feynman path sum over expression paths, truth, consistency, and completeness for the quantum system have different properties than for the classical system. For instance, the truth of a sentence S is defined only on those paths containing S. It is undefined elsewhere. Also S and its negation can both be true provided they appear on separate paths. This satisfies the definition of consistency. The definitions of validity and completeness connect the dynamics of the system to the truth of the sentences. It is proved that validity implies consistency. It is seen that the requirements of validity and maximal completeness strongly restrict the allowable dynamics for the quantum system. Aspects of the existence of a valid, maximally complete dynamics are discussed. An exponentially efficient quantum computer is described that is also valid and complete for the set of sentences considered here. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. Validating Bayesian truth serum in large-scale online human experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, Galen; Frank, Morgan Ryan; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2016-01-01

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Bayesian truth serum (BTS) is an exciting new method for improving honesty and information quality in multiple-choice survey, but, despite the method's mathematical reliance on large sample sizes, existing literature about BTS only focuses on small experiments....

  17. The Odiousness of Greek Debt in Light of the Findings of the Greek Debt Truth Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Bantekas, I; Vivien, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the popular narrative, which suggests that the Greek debt crisis was the result of lavish spending, this article demonstrates that the ‘crisis’ was generated by a transformation of purely private debt into public debt. This finding is supported by the preliminary report of the Greek Parliamentary Committee on the Truth of the Greek Debt, which clearly demonstrated the exponential increase of private debt in Greece risked the collapse of the private financial institutions exposed to it,...

  18. No funeral bells: Public reason in a 'post-truth' age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasanoff, Sheila; Simmet, Hilton R

    2017-10-01

    The label 'post-truth' signals for many a troubling turn away from principles of enlightened government. The word 'post', moreover, implies a past when things were radically different and whose loss should be universally mourned. In this paper, we argue that this framing of 'post-truth' is flawed because it is ahistorical and ignores the co-production of knowledge and norms in political contexts. Debates about public facts are necessarily debates about social meanings, rooted in realities that are subjectively experienced as all-encompassing and complete, even when they are partial and contingent. Facts used in policy are normative in four ways: They are embedded in prior choices of which experiential realities matter, produced through processes that reflect institutionalized public values, arbiters of which issues are open to democratic contestation and deliberation, and vehicles through which polities imagine their collective futures. To restore truth to its rightful place in democracy, governments should be held accountable for explaining who generated public facts, in response to which sets of concerns, and with what opportunities for deliberation and closure.

  19. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CONNECTIONS IN THE POST-TRUTH ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA CONSTANTINESCU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the distancing of current policy from economic rigors and ethical demands aimed at redistribution of wealth, modern societies are parasitized by post-truth of actual facts. It distorts the shape and content of general interest data, for example political distortion of scientific evidence proving anthropogenic climate change. Under these circumstances, the question "to what extent economist’s truth stating what you cannot measure you cannot manage is sustained?" becomes absolutely legitimate. Regarding sustainable development management, monitoring the degree of achievement of Sustainable Development Goals is no longer sufficient to track progress in this area. Therefore, experts propose to introduce as much as possible qualitative data which, combined with quantitative data, will enhance their relevance and make them harder to be diverted for political purposes. This paper follows this direction, trying to prove that protection of data’s real meaning can be achieved by systemic analysis of all data originating from monitoring certain processes, which can be aggregated, with applicability in sustainable development. Thus, analyzing together data on sustainable development and those that indicates the state of human development emphasizes on one hand, the intrinsic link between these concepts and, on the other, maintain the sense of sustainability even in the post-truth era.

  20. The Pastoral aspects of the inspiration, the Divine revelation and the truth in the Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Bogacz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the document published in 2014 by the Pontifical Biblical Commission and called: The Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture. The Word that comes from God and speaks of God for the salvation of the world. The purpose of publishing was to reach the priests, the people studying the Bible as well as the laity. By the discovering the biblical truth everybody can understand better oneself, the creation and God. Everybody can concisely grow in one’s faith. According to the document, the Divine inspiration is revealed to us when we read the Holy Scriptures. On the pages of Bible we can meet God himself. The message shared with us in the Bible explains the truth about God, about a man, our salvation and about a world. Even though it has some elements of the science or history, it is not a source of the science knowledge or chronicle of the historic facts. Besides we always have to include the genre and style of the ancient authors. This document can have amazing impact on the pastoral work, helping people to get interested in the Bible and to find the answers for many questions they have about it.

  1. Truth, Art, and the “New Sensuousness”: Understanding Heidegger’s Metaphysical Reading of Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Magrini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first of four lectures on Nietzsche’s philosophy, “The Will to Poweras Art” (1936-37, Heidegger argues that the unique and importantrelationship between truth and art, which Nietzsche suggests, must beunderstood “with a view to the conquest of nihilism,” i.e., within the historical context of a radically novel interpretation of sensuous reality. Beginning with the project of overturning Platonism as the active countermovement to nihilism, this essay interprets Heidegger’s difficult notion of the discordant relationship between truth (the fixation of semblance and art (the transfiguration of semblance in Nietzsche’s philosophy, emphasizing the supreme importance of art as life’s greatest enhancing force. The analysis is conducted within the context of Nietzsche’s metaphysics as presented by Heidegger, who claims thatas a metaphysical thinker, Nietzsche could not explain such topics as “truth,” “Being,” and “Becoming” in terms beyond the conceptualization of Western philosophy. In spite of that, his thought intimates a movement beyond the constraints of the tradition within which he was entrenched. In addition to providing a detailed exegesis of Heidegger’s lecture course, the problems associated with Heidegger’s metaphysical interpretation of Nietzsche’s philosophy will be discussed, problems that commentators such as Alan Schrift (Nietzsche and the Question of Interpretation believe stem from Heidegger’s stringent and restrictive methodological choices for approaching the reading of Nietzsche.

  2. The evaluation of a population based diffusion tensor image atlas using a ground truth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; D'Agostino, Emiliano; De Backer, Steve; Vandervliet, Evert; Parizel, Paul M.; Sijbers, Jan

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is increasingly being used to detect diffusion tensor (DT) image abnormalities in patients for different pathologies. An important requisite for these VBM studies is the use of a high-dimensional, non-rigid coregistration technique, which is able to align both the spatial and the orientational information. Recent studies furthermore indicate that high-dimensional DT information should be included during coregistration for an optimal alignment. In this context, a population based DTI atlas is created that preserves the orientational DT information robustly and contains a minimal bias towards any specific individual data set. Methods: A ground truth evaluation method is developed using a single subject DT image that is deformed with 20 deformation fields. Thereafter, an atlas is constructed based on these 20 resulting images. Thereby, the non-rigid coregistration algorithm is based on a viscous fluid model and on mutual information. The fractional anisotropy (FA) maps as well as the DT elements are used as DT image information during the coregistration algorithm, in order to minimize the orientational alignment inaccuracies. Results: The population based DT atlas is compared with the ground truth image using accuracy and precision measures of spatial and orientational dependent metrics. Results indicate that the population based atlas preserves the orientational information in a robust way. Conclusion: A subject independent population based DT atlas is constructed and evaluated with a ground truth method. This atlas contains all available orientational information and can be used in future VBM studies as a reference system.

  3. Autonomy versus absolute truth in comparative law on family status of the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaček-Stanić Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biology and medicine enables that legal and biological maternity and paternity coincide completely, owing to biomedical analysis, in particular to DNA analysis. On the other hand, development of biology and medicine causes discrepancy in legal and biological maternity and paternity in the situation of biomedically assisted conception if donor genetic material is used. Thus, autonomy of the parties gain in importance, legal parental relations are based on the will of the parties, so principle of biological truth looses importance. Legal parents would be persons who participated in the process of biomedically assisted conception in order to get the child. Autonomy of the mother could be extended to allow for anonymous birth. Acknowledgement of the paternity depends almost entirely on the will of the parties concerned. If the man acknowledges his paternity and the requisite consent is given, the man is considered to be the father. The biological truth is not examined. On the other hand, in proceedings for establishing and contesting maternity and paternity, the court is obliged to determine the biological truth, which may be based on DNA and other biomedical evidence. It could be said that the autonomy of the parties is limited by the requirement that maternity and paternity in such cases be established based on the biological facts.

  4. Constructing the truth: from 'confusion of tongues' to 'constructions in analysis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    The author hypothesizes that the papers Freud wrote in the period 1934-9 constitute a final turning point in his work resulting from an attempt to work through, by means of self-analysis, early traumatic elements reactivated by the conditions of his life in the 1930s. The author emphasizes that the ups and downs of Freud's relationship with Sándor Ferenczi and the mourning which followed his death in 1933 played an important role in this traumatic situation. He suggests that through these last works, Freud pursued a posthumous dialogue with Ferenczi. This working through led Freud, in Moses and monotheism, to an ultimate revision of his theory of trauma, a revision which the author examines in full, in the light of the works of the Egyptologist, Jan Assmann. A new analytical paradigm emerges: that of constructions in analysis developed in the article of the same name. The activity of construction appears as an alternative to the mutual analysis proposed by Ferenczi and is closely bound up with the notion of historical truth. In psychoanalysis, it would mean constructing a historical truth whose anchoring in the material truth of the past is essential, though it should not be confused with it.

  5. The Notion of Truth and Our Evolving Understanding of Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2018-03-01

    The notion of truth and its determination in legal proceedings is contingent on the cultural setting in which a claim is argued or disputed. Recent years have demonstrated a dramatic shift in the public dialogue concerning sexual harassment. This shift reflects changing cultural mores and standards in the workplace and society as a whole, particularly with respect to the validity of women's voices. The subjective reality experienced by victims of sexual harassment is inherently tied to the legal system's treatment of women throughout history. In determinations of truth, our understanding of which information and perspectives are relevant, and our expectations regarding the credibility of complainants and the accused, are undergoing a period of rapid change. The discourse surrounding the #MeToo movement suggests that the "reasonable-person" standard so often applied by courts is poorly suited to sexual-harassment litigation. As our understanding of what constitutes "severe," "pervasive," and "unwelcome" conduct continues to evolve, forensic psychiatrists must strive to uphold the values of respect for persons in the search for the truth. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  6. Unearthing Truth: Forensic Anthropology, Translocal Memory, and “Provention” in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette G. Mazzucelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article deliberately examines the search for truth after decades of conflict in Guatemala. Excavations of mass gravesites and the painstaking exhumation processes carried out by professional forensic anthropology teams continue to allow families to locate lost relatives—reclaiming truth and supporting calls for justice. For Guatemalans, the search for truth now transcends national borders, especially among migrant communities in the United States. The family remains the central unit through which the work of Guatemalan forensic anthropologists is undertaken. In an effort to engender deeper insights about these exhumation processes from a social science perspective, this analysis promotes the use of specific “tools” in Guatemalan forensic anthropology investigations. The first is an exhumations concept map, which yields important questions meant to stimulate meaningful analysis. The second, Story Maps, is a technology application with the potential to mediate digital access to the emerging Guatemalan translocal space. The research in this analysis suggests that these “tools” strengthen Burton’s notion of “provention” in Guatemala.

  7. Disclosing the truth: a dilemma between instilling hope and respecting patient autonomy in everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafis, Pavlos; Tsounis, Andreas; Malliarou, Maria; Lahana, Eleni

    2013-12-20

    While medical ethics place a high value on providing truthful information to patients, disclosure practices are far from being the norm in many countries. Transmitting bad news still remains a big problem that health care professionals face in their every day clinical practice. Through the review of relevant literature, an attempt to examine the trends in this issue worldwide will be made. Various electronic databases were searched by the authors and through systematic selection 51 scientific articles were identified that this literature review is based on. There are many parameters that lead to the concealment of truth. Factors related to doctors, patients and their close environment, still maintain a strong resistance against disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis in terminally ill patients, while cultural influences lead to different approaches in various countries. Withholding the truth is mainly based in the fear of causing despair to patients. However, fostering a spurious hope, hides the danger of its' total loss, while it can disturb patient-doctor relationship.

  8. The use of the truth and deception in dementia care amongst general hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alex; Eccles, Fiona; Keady, John; Simpson, Jane; Elvish, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    Deceptive practice has been shown to be endemic in long-term care settings. However, little is known about the use of deception in dementia care within general hospitals and staff attitudes towards this practice. This study aimed to develop understanding of the experiences of general hospital staff and explore their decision-making processes when choosing whether to tell the truth or deceive a patient with dementia. This qualitative study drew upon a constructivist grounded theory approach to analyse data gathered from semi-structured interviews with a range of hospital staff. A model, grounded in participant experiences, was developed to describe their decision-making processes. Participants identified particular triggers that set in motion the need for a response. Various mediating factors influenced how staff chose to respond to these triggers. Overall, hospital staff were reluctant to either tell the truth or to lie to patients. Instead, 'distracting' or 'passing the buck' to another member of staff were preferred strategies. The issue of how truth and deception are defined was identified. The study adds to the growing research regarding the use of lies in dementia care by considering the decision-making processes for staff in general hospitals. Various factors influence how staff choose to respond to patients with dementia and whether deception is used. Similarities and differences with long-term dementia care settings are discussed. Clinical and research implications include: opening up the topic for further debate, implementing staff training about communication and evaluating the impact of these processes.

  9. Therapeutic privilege: between the ethics of lying and the practice of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Claude; Lajeunesse, Yvette; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse

    2010-06-01

    The 'right to the truth' involves disclosing all the pertinent facts to a patient so that an informed decision can be made. However, this concept of a 'right to the truth' entails certain ambiguities, especially since it is difficult to apply the concept in medical practice based mainly on current evidence-based data that are probabilistic in nature. Furthermore, in some situations, the doctor is confronted with a moral dilemma, caught between the necessity to inform the patient (principle of autonomy) and the desire to ensure the patient's well-being by minimising suffering (principle of beneficence). To comply with the principle of beneficence as well as the principle of non-maleficence 'to do no harm', the doctor may then feel obliged to turn to 'therapeutic privilege', using lies or deception to preserve the patient's hope, and psychological and moral integrity, as well as his self-image and dignity. There is no easy answer to such a moral dilemma. This article will propose a process that can fit into reflective practice, allowing the doctor to decide if the use of therapeutic privilege is justified when he is faced with these kinds of conflicting circumstances. We will present the conflict arising in practice in the context of the various theoretical orientations in ethics, and then we will suggest an approach for a 'practice of truth'. Last, we will situate this reflective method in the broader clinical context of medical practice viewed as a dialogic process.

  10. Roads to infinity the mathematics of truth and proof

    CERN Document Server

    Stillwell, John C

    2010-01-01

    Winner of a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title Award for 2011!This book offers an introduction to modern ideas about infinity and their implications for mathematics. It unifies ideas from set theory and mathematical logic, and traces their effects on mainstream mathematical topics of today, such as number theory and combinatorics. The treatment is historical and partly informal, but with due attention to the subtleties of the subject. Ideas are shown to evolve from natural mathematical questions about the nature of infinity and the nature of proof, set against a background of broader questions

  11. The Innocence of Scientific »Truths«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Mencin Čeplak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of »scientific« argument supporting racism in psychology (»Cattell controversy«. The author argues that scientific racism in psychology should not be considered as an excess but rather as a symptom. It is not limited to a few cases of eugenicist and evolutionary psychologists; it is closely tied to the genetic reductionist concept of a person and of psychological differences, and to the role of psychological knowledge in (bio power relations. It concludes with comments on the social responsibility of scientists and points out that scientific conclusions cannot be detached from their effects.

  12. Realism, Instrumentalism, and Scientific Symbiosis: Psychological Theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cacioppo, J.T.; Semin, G.R.; Berntson, G.G.

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions

  13. Truths and myths of oocyte sensitivity to controlled rate freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coticchio, G; Bonu, M A; Sciajno, R; Sereni, E; Bianchi, V; Borini, A

    2007-07-01

    The mammalian oocyte is especially sensitive to cryopreservation. Because of its size and physiology, it can easily undergo cell death or sub-lethal damage as a consequence of intracellular ice formation, increase in the concentration of solutes and other undesired effects during the conversion of extracellular water into ice. This has generated the belief that oocyte storage cannot be achieved with the necessary efficiency and safety. However, many concerns raised by oocyte freezing are the result of unproven hypotheses or observations conducted under sometimes inappropriate conditions. For instance, spindle organization can undergo damage under certain freezing conditions but not with other protocols. The controversial suggestion that cryopreservation induces cortical granule discharge and zona pellucida hardening somehow questions the routine use of sperm microinjection. Damage to mouse oocytes caused by solute concentration is well documented but, in the human, there is no solid evidence that modifications of freezing mixtures, to prevent this problem, provide an actual advantage. The hope of developing oocyte cryopreservation as a major IVF option is becoming increasingly realistic, but major efforts are still required to clarify the authentic implications of oocyte cryopreservation at the cellular level and identify freezing conditions compatible with the preservation of viability and developmental ability.

  14. Open doorway to truth: legacy of the Minnesota tobacco trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Robertson, Channing R

    2009-05-01

    More than a decade has passed since the conclusion of the Minnesota tobacco trial and the signing of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) by 46 US State Attorneys General and the US tobacco industry. The Minnesota settlement exposed the tobacco industry's long history of deceptive marketing, advertising, and research and ultimately forced the industry to change its business practices. The provisions for public document disclosure that were included in the Minnesota settlement and the MSA have resulted in the release of approximately 70 million pages of documents and nearly 20,000 other media materials. No comparable dynamic, voluminous, and contemporaneous document archive exists. Only a few single events in the history of public health have had as dramatic an effect on tobacco control as the public release of the tobacco industry's previously secret internal documents. This review highlights the genesis of the release of these documents, the history of the document depositories created by the Minnesota settlement, the scientific and policy output based on the documents, and the use of the documents in furthering global public health strategies.

  15. Epigenetics in the Neoliberal "Regime of Truth": A Biopolitical Perspective on Knowledge Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupras, Charles; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings in epigenetics have been attracting much attention from social scientists and bioethicists because they reveal the molecular mechanisms by which exposure to socioenvironmental factors, such as pollutants and social adversity, can influence the expression of genes throughout life. Most surprisingly, some epigenetic modifications may also be heritable via germ cells across generations. Epigenetics may be the missing molecular evidence of the importance of using preventive strategies at the policy level to reduce the incidence and prevalence of common diseases. But while this "policy translation" of epigenetics introduces new arguments in favor of public health strategies and policy-making, a more "clinical translation" of epigenetics is also emerging. It focuses on the biochemical mechanisms and epigenetic variants at the origin of disease, leading to novel biomedical means of assessing epigenetic susceptibility and reversing detrimental epigenetic variants. In this paper, we argue that the impetus to create new biomedical interventions to manipulate and reverse epigenetic variants is likely to garner more attention than effective social and public health interventions and therefore also to garner a greater share of limited public resources. This is likely to happen because of the current biopolitical context in which scientific findings are translated. This contemporary neoliberal "regime of truth," to use a term from Michel Foucault, greatly influences the ways in which knowledge is being interpreted and implemented. Building on sociologist Thomas Lemke's Foucauldian "analytics of biopolitics" and on literature from the field of science and technology studies, we present two sociological trends that may impede the policy translation of epigenetics: molecularization and biomedicalization. These trends, we argue, are likely to favor the clinical translation of epigenetics-in other words, the development of new clinical tools fostering what has been

  16. The Immune System in Obesity: Developing Paradigms Amidst Inconvenient Truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Madhur; Kern, Philip A; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S

    2017-08-15

    Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically. However, new evidence also suggests that the immune system is equally vital for adipocyte differentiation and protection from ectopic lipid deposition. Furthermore, roles of anti-inflammatory immune cells such as regulatory T cells, "M2-like" macrophages, eosinophils, and mast cells are being explored, primarily due to promise of immunotherapeutic applications. Both immune responses and AT distribution are strongly influenced by factors like sex and race, which have been largely underappreciated in the field of metabolically-associated inflammation, or meta-flammation. More studies are required to recognize factors that switch inflammation from controlled to uncontrolled in obesity-associated pathogenesis and to integrate the combined effects of meta-flammation and immunometabolism. It is critical to recognize that the AT-associated immune system can be alternately beneficial and destructive; therefore, simply blocking immune responses early in obesity may not be the best clinical approach. The dearth of information on gender and race-associated disparities in metabolism, AT distribution, and the immune system suggest that a greater understanding of such differences will be critical to develop personalized treatments for obesity and the associated metabolic dysfunction.

  17. What next for the NPT? Facing the moment of truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timerbaev, Roland

    2005-01-01

    For over 30 years, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) has been the center and foundation of an interlocking network of agreements, organizations and international arrangements. They were designed to slow down, if not effectively bring to an end, the further spread of nuclear weapons. The regime was intended to include all the nations of the world - those that had nuclear weapons and those that might wish to acquire them in future. Though this goal has never been fully achieved, the NPT, over the years, has been a reasonable success. If there had been no NPT, the total number of nuclear-weapon States (NWS) might have reached 30 or 40 by now. But today we have only eight, with one or two still trying to reach nuclear-weapon status. Since the conclusion of the NPT many more countries have given up nuclear weapon programs than have started them. There are fewer nuclear weapons in the world and fewer States with nuclear weapons programs than there were twenty or thirty years ago. This unquestionable success could never have been achieved without long-term cooperation among many States, and primarily between the United States and the Russian Federation. Since then, the international treaty regime has been consistently improved, updated and extended. To name only a few additional non-proliferation measures, one should mention the IAEA comprehensive system of safeguards (INFCIRC/153); the Zangger Committee; the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG); the Tlatelolco, Rarotonga, Bangkok and Pelindaba Treaties establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones in their respective regions of the world; the Brazil-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC); and the IAEA additional protocol to comprehensive safeguards agreements of 1997 (INFCIRC/540). Among the most recent additions to the regime are the global partnership against the spread of weapons and materials of mass destruction agreed among the G-8 nations in 2002; the US-led Proliferation Security

  18. Truth Telling in the Setting of Cultural Differences and Incurable Pediatric Illness: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Starks, Helene; Unguru, Yoram; Feudtner, Chris; Diekema, Douglas

    2017-11-01

    Navigating requests from parents or family caregivers not to disclose poor prognosis to seriously ill children can be challenging, especially when the requests seem culturally mediated. Pediatric clinicians must balance obligations to respect individual patient autonomy, professional truth telling, and tolerance of multicultural values. To provide suggestions for respectful and ethically appropriate responses to nondisclosure requests, we used a hypothetical case example of a Middle Eastern adolescent patient with incurable cancer and conducted an ethical analysis incorporating (1) evidence from both Western and Middle Eastern medical literature and (2) theories of cultural relativism and justice. While Western medical literature tends to prioritize patient autonomy and corresponding truth telling, the weight of evidence from the Middle East suggests high variability between and within individual countries, patient-physician relationships, and families regarding truth-telling practices and preferences. A common reason for nondisclosure in both populations is protecting the child from distressing information. Cultural relativism fosters tolerance of diverse beliefs and behaviors by forbidding judgment on foreign societal codes of conduct. It does not justify assumptions that all individuals within a single culture share the same values, nor does it demand that clinicians sacrifice their own codes of conduct out of cultural respect. We suggest some phrases that may help clinicians explore motivations behind nondisclosure requests and gently confront conflict in order to serve the patient's best interest. It is sometimes ethically permissible to defer to family values regarding nondisclosure, but such deferral is not unique to cultural differences. Early setting of expectations and boundaries, as well as ongoing exploration of family and health care professional concerns, may mitigate conflict.

  19. Reference-free ground truth metric for metal artifact evaluation in CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, Baerbel; Ens, Svitlana; Mueller, Jan; Buzug, Thorsten M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT), metal objects in the region of interest introduce data inconsistencies during acquisition. Reconstructing these data results in an image with star shaped artifacts induced by the metal inconsistencies. To enhance image quality, the influence of the metal objects can be reduced by different metal artifact reduction (MAR) strategies. For an adequate evaluation of new MAR approaches a ground truth reference data set is needed. In technical evaluations, where phantoms can be measured with and without metal inserts, ground truth data can easily be obtained by a second reference data acquisition. Obviously, this is not possible for clinical data. Here, an alternative evaluation method is presented without the need of an additionally acquired reference data set. Methods: The proposed metric is based on an inherent ground truth for metal artifacts as well as MAR methods comparison, where no reference information in terms of a second acquisition is needed. The method is based on the forward projection of a reconstructed image, which is compared to the actually measured projection data. Results: The new evaluation technique is performed on phantom and on clinical CT data with and without MAR. The metric results are then compared with methods using a reference data set as well as an expert-based classification. It is shown that the new approach is an adequate quantification technique for artifact strength in reconstructed metal or MAR CT images. Conclusions: The presented method works solely on the original projection data itself, which yields some advantages compared to distance measures in image domain using two data sets. Beside this, no parameters have to be manually chosen. The new metric is a useful evaluation alternative when no reference data are available.

  20. Subjetividade e verdade no último Foucault Subjectivity and truth in the late Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Candiotto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A constituição do sujeito na investigação do último Foucault geralmente é conhecida pela perspectiva de sua estética da existência. Tal abordagem deve-se sobremaneira à leitura dos dois últimos volumes de Histoire de la sexualité (1984. No entanto, o presente artigo aponta que nos cursos no Collège de France intitulados Subjectivité et verité (1981 e L'herméneutique du sujet (1982 outra leitura pode ser elaborada. A relação entre subjetividade e verdade evidencia-se como central em seu pensamento e seus desdobramentos são apresentados a partir das diferenças estabelecidas entre filosofia e espiritualidade, das articulações entre cuidado de si e conhecimento de si, conhecimentos úteis e inúteis, cuidado de si e conversão a si, ascese e verdade.The constitution of the subject in the investigation of the late Foucault is generally dealt with through the perspective of his aesthetics of existence. Such approach is mainly due to the reading of the two last volumes of The History of Sexuality (1984. However, the present article points out that in his Collège de France courses entitled Subjectivity and Truth (1981 and The Hermeneutics of the Subject (1982, a different reading can be elaborated. The relation between subjectivity and truth is evidently central in his thinking and its developments are presented from the differences established between philosophy and spirituality, from the articulations between care of the self and knowledge of the self, useful knowledge and useless knowledge, care of the self and conversion to the self, asceticism and truth.

  1. Truth Telling in the Setting of Cultural Differences and Incurable Pediatric Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Starks, Helene; Unguru, Yoram; Feudtner, Chris; Diekema, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Navigating requests from parents or family caregivers not to disclose poor prognosis to seriously ill children can be challenging, especially when the requests seem culturally mediated. Pediatric clinicians must balance obligations to respect individual patient autonomy, professional truth telling, and tolerance of multicultural values. OBSERVATIONS To provide suggestions for respectful and ethically appropriate responses to nondisclosure requests, we used a hypothetical case example of a Middle Eastern adolescent patient with incurable cancer and conducted an ethical analysis incorporating (1) evidence from both Western and Middle Eastern medical literature and (2) theories of cultural relativism and justice. While Western medical literature tends to prioritize patient autonomy and corresponding truth telling, the weight of evidence from the Middle East suggests high variability between and within individual countries, patient-physician relationships, and families regarding truth-telling practices and preferences. A common reason for nondisclosure in both populations is protecting the child from distressing information. Cultural relativism fosters tolerance of diverse beliefs and behaviors by forbidding judgment on foreign societal codes of conduct. It does not justify assumptions that all individuals within a single culture share the same values, nor does it demand that clinicians sacrifice their own codes of conduct out of cultural respect. We suggest some phrases that may help clinicians explore motivations behind nondisclosure requests and gently confront conflict in order to serve the patient’s best interest. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE It is sometimes ethically permissible to defer to family values regarding nondisclosure, but such deferral is not unique to cultural differences. Early setting of expectations and boundaries, as well as ongoing exploration of family and health care professional concerns, may mitigate conflict. PMID:28873121

  2. The Myth of Discovering Absolute Truth through Science:How Szasz Mistook Scientific Evidence for Absolute Truth in An Attempt to Deny the Existence of Mental Illness, and Invalidated Experiences of Those Affected by Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Serdarevic

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to illustrate limitations of Dr. Thomas S. Szasz's absolutist approach in critiquing psychiatry, psychotherapy, and the concept of mental illness most famously expressed in The Myth of Mental Illness (Szasz, 1961. This article illustrates that Szasz mistook scientific proof for absolute truth. First, a comparison of scientific proof to its superior relation, mathematical proof, illustrates its theoretical short-comings. Szasz relies, sometimes subtly, sometimes quite overtly, but always selectively on "real science" to present psychiatry and the mental health fields as imposters in the field of medicine or health, while neglecting to see or discuss limitations of "science" in general and medicine in particular. Secondly, a summary of evidence supporting psychotherapy's effectiveness will be presented, the discussion of which was either consciously or unconsciously omitted in Szasz's (1978; 1988 The Myth of Psychotherapy. Third, summary of Pennington's (2002 integration of both biological and psychological basis of psychopathology through cognitive neuroscientific theoretical framework is presented as it reasonably addresses Szasz's confusion about and critique of mental illness and the mind-body problem.

  3. The Secret Downing Street Memo and the Politics of Truth: A Performance Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman K. Denzin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Reading forward from the recently released secret Downing Street Memos, to the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act, in this performance text I critique the Bush Administration and its reliance on science, or evidence-based models of inquiry (SBR. SBR raises issues concerning the politics of truth and evidence. These issues intersect with the ways in which a given political regime fixes facts to fit ideology. Three versions of SBR are discussed, as is a model of science as disruptive cultural practice. I conclude by calling for a merger of critical pedagogy with a prophetic, feminist post-pragmatism.

  4. Pastors or Lawyers? The Role of Religion in the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.J. Meiring

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In  this  article, Piet Meiring who served as Committee Member on the TRC discusses the often disputed religious character of the Commission. Quoting examples from the TRC process he describes the debate that developed – on Archbishop Tutu’s religious way of handling the affairs of  the  Commission. Meiring discusses the TRC liturgy that was developed during the course of the process, as well as how important the role of religion proved to be in terms of three crucial issues: the process of remembering, the quest for truth, and the costliness of reconciliation.

  5. What is the Point? Ethics, Truth and the Tractatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard

    2007-01-01

      In this paper, my major concern is to place the ethical remarks of Ludwig Wittgenstein's Tractatus within a wider discussion in moral philosophy. In the first part of the paper, I sketch a reading of the Tractatus that brings out a particular feature of ethics, namely the fact that ethical...... discourse is shaped by both subjective and objective concerns. Moving on, I unfold the subjective side of ethics by drawing on Stanley Cavell's notion of the point of an utterance, while the objective side will be presented via Diamond's writing on the importance of truth in ethics. My goal is to argue...

  6. Fear as 'Disclosure of Truths': The Educational Significance of An Existential-Phenomenological Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Kukkola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article illustrates a particular existential-phenomenological view of the emotion of fear and its connection to self-educative process of grasping the world and gaining self-knowledge. According to this view, originally promoted by Martin Heidegger (1889-1976 and in educational philosophy Otto Friedrich Bollnow (1907-1991, fear is closely connected to a specific understanding of 'unconcealment', or 'disclosure' of truths. In the article it is shown, that this understanding sheds special educational insights on the connection between fear and gaining knowledge.

  7. Reply [to Comment on Earthquake precursors: Banished forever?] Comment: Unpredictability of earthquakes-Truth or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander

    I agree with many of C. Lomnitz's points. I only wish to add that by the word “paradigm” I mean the entity as T. Kuhn defines it in The Nature of Scientific Revolutions, that is, a belief system considered as the truth by a scientific community for a certain amount of time. Kuhn's idea of scientific progress is by radical paradigm shifts. Earthquake prediction (EP) is a good example. It was a nonscience in 1960, and C. Richter warned every student in his Elementary Seismology that it is “a marsh light,” appealing to one from the darkness but leading those who respond to the swamp.

  8. The Limitation of Truth-Semantics in the Understanding of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albinus, Lars

    2015-01-01

    While this article salutes attempts to use Donald Davidson’s principles of radical interpretation in the study of religion in order to avoid the pitfalls of correspondence theory of truth, on the one hand, and cultural relativism, on the other, it suggests that an adequate understanding of religion......’s skepticism towards universal criteria of rationality borders on relativism, he is justified in focusing more radically—along with Robert Brandom—on pragmatic and situational criteria of meaning. Finally, drawing on Wittgenstein’s concept of “perspicuous representation” I suggest an alternate way of coming...

  9. The specificity of religious journalism by Valentine Rasputin: from the earthly disappointments to the highest truth

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses V.G. Rasputin’s journalism specifically marking that his journalism in 1990-s had an image of some non-personified force that consciously managed the processes (like the world government). Other articles by V.G. Rasputin form the view of literature as a way of national identity. He consistently appears as a righteous man and a preacher depending on the stage of aesthetic activities associated with cognition and production of ethical truth. In conclusion the author notes h...

  10. The specificity of religious journalism by Valentine Rasputin: from the earthly disappointments to the highest truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses V.G. Rasputin’s journalism specifically marking that his journalism in 1990-s had an image of some non-personified force that consciously managed the processes (like the world government. Other articles by V.G. Rasputin form the view of literature as a way of national identity. He consistently appears as a righteous man and a preacher depending on the stage of aesthetic activities associated with cognition and production of ethical truth. In conclusion the author notes how the writer’s “pochvennichestvo” grew into the oppositional views of the society.

  11. Looking for truth and finding lies: the prospects for a nascent neuroimaging of deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sean A; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine J

    2008-01-01

    Lying is ubiquitous and has acquired many names. In 'natural experiments', both pathological lying and truthfulness implicate prefrontal cortices. Recently, the advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed investigators to study deception in the non-pathological state. Prefrontal cortices are again implicated, although the regions identified vary across experiments. Forensic application of such technology (to the detection of deceit) requires the solution of tractable technical problems. Whether we 'should' detect deception remains an ethical problem: one for societies to resolve. However, such a procedure would only appear to be ethical when subjects volunteer to participate, as might occur during the investigation of alleged miscarriages of justice. We demonstrate how this might be approached.

  12. Ground Truth Studies - A hands-on environmental science program for students, grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenberger, John; Chappell, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the background and the objectives of the Ground Truth Studies (GTSs), an activity-based teaching program which integrates local environmental studies with global change topics, utilizing remotely sensed earth imagery. Special attention is given to the five key concepts around which the GTS programs are organized, the pilot program, the initial pilot study evaluation, and the GTS Handbook. The GTS Handbook contains a primer on global change and remote sensing, aerial and satellite images, student activities, glossary, and an appendix of reference material. Also described is a K-12 teacher training model. International participation in the program is to be initiated during the 1992-1993 school year.

  13. Truth-telling and Nash equilibria in minimum cost spanning tree models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the minimum cost spanning tree model. We assume that a central planner aims at implementing a minimum cost spanning tree not knowing the true link costs. The central planner sets up a game where agents announce link costs, a tree is chosen and costs are allocated according...... to the rules of the game. We characterize ways of allocating costs such that true announcements constitute Nash equilibria both in case of full and incomplete information. In particular, we find that the Shapley rule based on the irreducible cost matrix is consistent with truthful announcements while a series...

  14. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical procedures in acute burns can be broadly divided into four groups: ablative (tangential or fascial ... tissue oedema due to extravasation of plasma into the interstitium. Fluid replacement will worsen the oedema, ... include airway distortion, pulmonary dysfunction, difficult vascular access, rapid blood loss, problematic ...

  15. The Burning Truth(s)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adequate fluid resuscitation.4 This dysfunctional circulatory state is the product .... The upper airway is directly damaged by hot gases - air or steam, whereas the ... Once the airway is secured and the patient being mechanically ventilated, the ...

  16. Modeling multiple time series annotations as noisy distortions of the ground truth: An Expectation-Maximization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul; Audhkhasi, Kartik; Jacokes, Zach; Rozga, Agata; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2018-01-01

    Studies of time-continuous human behavioral phenomena often rely on ratings from multiple annotators. Since the ground truth of the target construct is often latent, the standard practice is to use ad-hoc metrics (such as averaging annotator ratings). Despite being easy to compute, such metrics may not provide accurate representations of the underlying construct. In this paper, we present a novel method for modeling multiple time series annotations over a continuous variable that computes the ground truth by modeling annotator specific distortions. We condition the ground truth on a set of features extracted from the data and further assume that the annotators provide their ratings as modification of the ground truth, with each annotator having specific distortion tendencies. We train the model using an Expectation-Maximization based algorithm and evaluate it on a study involving natural interaction between a child and a psychologist, to predict confidence ratings of the children's smiles. We compare and analyze the model against two baselines where: (i) the ground truth in considered to be framewise mean of ratings from various annotators and, (ii) each annotator is assumed to bear a distinct time delay in annotation and their annotations are aligned before computing the framewise mean.

  17. When the truth is not too hard to handle: an event-related potential study on the pragmatics of negation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2008-12-01

    Our brains rapidly map incoming language onto what we hold to be true. Yet there are claims that such integration and verification processes are delayed in sentences containing negation words like not. However, studies have often confounded whether a statement is true and whether it is a natural thing to say during normal communication. In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we aimed to disentangle effects of truth value and pragmatic licensing on the comprehension of affirmative and negated real-world statements. As in affirmative sentences, false words elicited a larger N400 ERP than did true words in pragmatically licensed negated sentences (e.g., "In moderation, drinking red wine isn't bad/good..."), whereas true and false words elicited similar responses in unlicensed negated sentences (e.g., "A baby bunny's fur isn't very hard/soft..."). These results suggest that negation poses no principled obstacle for readers to immediately relate incoming words to what they hold to be true.

  18. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Mannion, Russell

    2017-02-12

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for 'fake news' and 'alternative facts' with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of 'the other' and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  19. Realism without truth: a review of Giere's science without laws and scientific perspectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2009-05-01

    An increasingly popular view among philosophers of science is that of science as action-as the collective activity of scientists working in socially-coordinated communities. Scientists are seen not as dispassionate pursuers of Truth, but as active participants in a social enterprise, and science is viewed on a continuum with other human activities. When taken to an extreme, the science-as-social-process view can be taken to imply that science is no different from any other human activity, and therefore can make no privileged claims about its knowledge of the world. Such extreme views are normally contrasted with equally extreme views of classical science, as uncovering Universal Truth. In Science Without Laws and Scientific Perspectivism, Giere outlines an approach to understanding science that finds a middle ground between these extremes. He acknowledges that science occurs in a social and historical context, and that scientific models are constructions designed and created to serve human ends. At the same time, however, scientific models correspond to parts of the world in ways that can legitimately be termed objective. Giere's position, perspectival realism, shares important common ground with Skinner's writings on science, some of which are explored in this review. Perhaps most fundamentally, Giere shares with Skinner the view that science itself is amenable to scientific inquiry: scientific principles can and should be brought to bear on the process of science. The two approaches offer different but complementary perspectives on the nature of science, both of which are needed in a comprehensive understanding of science.

  20. Field Ground Truthing Data Collector - a Mobile Toolkit for Image Analysis and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.

    2012-07-01

    Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1) Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use) and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2) Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3) Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  1. Theories of truth as assessment criteria in judgment and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip T. Dunwoody

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hammond (1996 argued that much of the research in the field of judgment and decision making (JDM can be categorized as focused on either coherence or correspondence (CandC and that, in order to understand the findings of the field, one needs to understand the differences between these two criteria. extit{Hammond's claim} is that conclusions about the competence of judgments and decisions will depend upon the selection of coherence or correspondence as the criterion (Hammond, 2008. First, I provide an overview of the terms coherence and correspondence (CandC as philosophical theories of truth and relate them to the field of JDM. Second, I provide an example of Hammond's claim by examining literature on base rate neglect. Third, I examine Hammond's claim as it applies to the broader field of JDM. Fourth, I critique Hammond's claim and suggest that refinements to the CandC distinction are needed. Specifically, the CandC distinction 1 is more accurately applied to criteria than to researchers, 2 should be refined to include two important types of coherence (inter and intrapersonal coherence and 3 neglects the third philosophical theory of truth, pragmatism. Pragmatism, as a class of criteria in JDM, is defined as goal attainment. In order to provide the most complete assessment of human judgment possible, and understand different findings in the field of JDM, all three criteria should be considered.

  2. FIELD GROUND TRUTHING DATA COLLECTOR – A MOBILE TOOLKIT FOR IMAGE ANALYSIS AND PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Field Ground Truthing Data Collector is one of the four key components of the NASA funded ICCaRS project, being developed in Southeast Michigan. The ICCaRS ground truthing toolkit entertains comprehensive functions: 1 Field functions, including determining locations through GPS, gathering and geo-referencing visual data, laying out ground control points for AEROKAT flights, measuring the flight distance and height, and entering observations of land cover (and use and health conditions of ecosystems and environments in the vicinity of the flight field; 2 Server synchronization functions, such as, downloading study-area maps, aerial photos and satellite images, uploading and synchronizing field-collected data with the distributed databases, calling the geospatial web services on the server side to conduct spatial querying, image analysis and processing, and receiving the processed results in field for near-real-time validation; and 3 Social network communication functions for direct technical assistance and pedagogical support, e.g., having video-conference calls in field with the supporting educators, scientists, and technologists, participating in Webinars, or engaging discussions with other-learning portals. This customized software package is being built on Apple iPhone/iPad and Google Maps/Earth. The technical infrastructures, data models, coupling methods between distributed geospatial data processing and field data collector tools, remote communication interfaces, coding schema, and functional flow charts will be illustrated and explained at the presentation. A pilot case study will be also demonstrated.

  3. An Apology for Philosophy: On the contested relationship between truth and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is Hannah Arendt’s diagnosis that the introduction of philosophical truth into politics leads to tyrannical or totalitarian outcomes. A critique of this diagnosis is offered on the basis of Michel Foucault’s last lectures at the Collège de France where he discussed the practices of parrēsia, “truth-telling,” as multiple forms of political life of resistance, critique, and contestation. The common denominator of all parrhēsiastic practices is that none of them are concerned with “doctrines.” That is, none of them are concerned with laying out the “content” of politics. After the paper has identified and expounded four different manifestations of parrēsia—“political” (Pericles, “philosophical” (Plato, “philosophical-ethical” (Socrates and “ethical” (Diogenes the Cynic—an argument is presented for a kinship, instead of a difference, between Foucault and Arendt as parrhēsiastic or critical thinkers within the same tradition of political Kantianism.

  4. The Ugly Truth About Ourselves and Our Robot Creations: The Problem of Bias and Social Inequity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ayanna; Borenstein, Jason

    2017-09-21

    Recently, there has been an upsurge of attention focused on bias and its impact on specialized artificial intelligence (AI) applications. Allegations of racism and sexism have permeated the conversation as stories surface about search engines delivering job postings for well-paying technical jobs to men and not women, or providing arrest mugshots when keywords such as "black teenagers" are entered. Learning algorithms are evolving; they are often created from parsing through large datasets of online information while having truth labels bestowed on them by crowd-sourced masses. These specialized AI algorithms have been liberated from the minds of researchers and startups, and released onto the public. Yet intelligent though they may be, these algorithms maintain some of the same biases that permeate society. They find patterns within datasets that reflect implicit biases and, in so doing, emphasize and reinforce these biases as global truth. This paper describes specific examples of how bias has infused itself into current AI and robotic systems, and how it may affect the future design of such systems. More specifically, we draw attention to how bias may affect the functioning of (1) a robot peacekeeper, (2) a self-driving car, and (3) a medical robot. We conclude with an overview of measures that could be taken to mitigate or halt bias from permeating robotic technology.

  5. Nothing but the truth: self-disclosure, self-revelation, and the persona of the analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Susan S

    2007-01-01

    The question of the analyst's self-disclosure and self-revelation inhabits every moment of every psychoanalytic treatment. All self-disclosures and revelations, however, are not equivalent, and differentiating among them allows us to define a construct that can be called the analytic persona. Analysts already rely on an unarticulated concept of an analytic persona that guides them, for instance, as they decide what constitutes appropriate boundaries. Clinical examples illustrate how self-disclosures and revelations from within and without the analytic persona feel different, for both patient and analyst. The analyst plays a specific role for each patient and is both purposefully and unconsciously different in this context than in other settings. To a great degree, the self is a relational phenomenon. Our ethics call for us to tell nothing but the truth and simultaneously for us not to tell the whole truth. The unarticulated working concept of an analytic persona that many analysts have refers to the self we step out of at the close of each session and the self we step into as the patient enters the room. Attitudes toward self-disclosure and self-revelation can be considered reflections of how we conceptualize this persona.

  6. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  7. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Insights into the Goal of Transformative Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Czyzewski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Government of Canada announced the approval of a final Residential Schools Settlement Agreement with the collaboration of the four churches responsible (United, Anglican, Presbyterian, Catholic, the federal government and residential school survivors. Schedule "N" of the Agreement lists the mandate of the TRC; therein, the TRC states one of its goals as: (d to promote awareness and public education of Canadians about the system and its impacts. Can education - as the TRC hopes to engender - truly be transformative, renewing relationships and promoting healing in the process of forging these new relationships? The literature reviewed and the conferences attended highlighted that generating empathy maybe a necessary ingredient for the instigation of social change, but is insufficient. Transformation through education, or reconciliation through truth-telling, testimonial reading and responsible listening would mean claiming a genuine, supportive responsibility for the colonial past. Educational policy and media initiatives are fundamental to creating awareness, developing public interest and support of the TRC's recommendations. However, authors also stress the importance of critical pedagogy in the whole process of truth andreconciliation, and that real reconciliation would require confronting the racism that initiated these institutions and allowed for a decontextualization of their impacts.

  8. Toward a limited realism for psychiatric nosology based on the coherence theory of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2015-04-01

    A fundamental debate in the philosophy of science is whether our central concepts are true or only useful instruments to help predict and manipulate the world. The first position is termed 'realism' and the second 'instrumentalism'. Strong support for the instrumentalist position comes from the 'pessimistic induction' (PI) argument. Given that many key scientific concepts once considered true (e.g., humors, ether, epicycles, phlogiston) are now considered false, how, the argument goes, can we assert that our current concepts are true? The PI argument applies strongly to psychiatric diagnoses. Given our long history of abandoned diagnoses, arguments that we have finally 'gotten it right' and developed definitive psychiatric categories that correspond to observer-independent reality are difficult to defend. For our current diagnostic categories, we should settle for a less ambitious vision of truth. For this, the coherence theory, which postulates that something is true when it fits well with the other things we confidently know about the world, can serve us well. Using the coherence theory, a diagnosis is real to the extent that it is well integrated into our accumulating scientific data base. Furthermore, the coherence theory establishes a framework for us to evaluate our diagnostic categories and can provide a set of criteria, closely related to our concept of validators, for deciding when they are getting better. Finally, we need be much less skeptical about the truth status of the aggregate concept of psychiatric illness than we are regarding the specific categories in our current nosology.

  9. Populism, Exclusion, Post-truth. Some Conceptual Caveats Comment on "The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cleen, Benjamin

    2017-07-15

    In their editorial, Speed and Mannion identify two main challenges "the rise of post-truth populism" poses for health policy: the populist threat to inclusive healthcare policies, and the populist threat to well-designed health policies that draw on professional expertise and research evidence. This short comment suggests some conceptual clarifications that might help in thinking through more profoundly these two important issues. It argues that we should approach right-wing populism as a combination of a populist down/up (people/elite) axis with an exclusionary nationalist in/out (member/non-member) axis. And it raises some questions regarding the equation between populism, demagogy and the rejection of expertise and scientific knowledge. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Del sujeto de la verdad a la verdad del sujeto/From the subject of truth to the truth of the subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ferdinando Passone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende introducir el análisis de los discursos, a partir de cuestionamientos sobre la verdad del sujeto del deseo y apuntar algunas de sus consecuencias, principalmente, en lo que respecta a la elaboración y diseño de políticas y programas educativos de atención y atendimiento infante-juvenil. Se aprovecha para presentar las dislocaciones del pensamiento de Jaques Lacan sobre la práctica psicoanalítica y la diferencia entre seguir los modelos y hacer de la diferencia un camino propio, la existencia. This essay aims at to introduce an analysis of discourses questioning about the truth of the subject’s desire, and also to point out some consequences, which are mainly in the elaboration and design of policies and educational programs attending to children. Furthermore, it’ll be presented Jack Lacan’s thought about psychoanalytic practice and the difference between following models and making own way for the existence, from its singularity.

  11. Defense of Truth (criticism and reconstructing the model of truth in the modern age and its influence on political philosophy from the viewpoints of Husserl and Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Jamshidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Husserl and Strauss are two philosophers that intended to reform philosophic thought and thereupon political philosophy. But despite of common view about end and foundations, how and why Husserl is included in the class of pioneers of battle against metaphysical philosophy and Strauss is reputed against him as the leader of classic and Conservative Philosophy? According to Thomas Spreagens’ epistemological method, even though this Germanic teacher and his pupil have common preoccupation about the sunset of philosophical truth-seeking thought, their different understanding of themes of this crisis and ideal aspect have been ended in different and maybe opposite philosophies. Unlike Husserl who set a kind of Humanism and inter-subjective understanding as intellectual and cultural base for his plan, i.e. Phenomenology, Strauss talks about the natural essence of political issues and dependence of political philosophy on regulations which are out of human’s control. Thus, the type of post-metaphysical political philosophy that finds political objects inside ordinary life and social and historical relations and understandings is derived from Husserl’s Phenomenology, but Strauss’ insistence on classic political philosophy cautiously seeks to answer fundamental and pervasive political questions, while continuously and modestly exploring the nature of political issues.

  12. Defense of Truth (criticism and reconstructing the model of truth in the modern age and its influence on political philosophy from the viewpoints of Husserl and Strauss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Jamshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Husserl and Strauss are two philosophers that intended to reform philosophic thought and thereupon political philosophy. But despite of common view about end and foundations, how and why Husserl is included in the class of pioneers of battle against metaphysical philosophy and Strauss is reputed against him as the leader of classic and Conservative Philosophy? According to Thomas Spreagens’ epistemological method, even though this Germanic teacher and his pupil have common preoccupation about the sunset of philosophical truth-seeking thought, their different understanding of themes of this crisis and ideal aspect have been ended in different and maybe opposite philosophies. Unlike Husserl who set a kind of Humanism and inter-subjective understanding as intellectual and cultural base for his plan, i.e. Phenomenology, Strauss talks about the natural essence of political issues and dependence of political philosophy on regulations which are out of human’s control. Thus, the type of post-metaphysical political philosophy that finds political objects inside ordinary life and social and historical relations and understandings is derived from Husserl’s Phenomenology, but Strauss’ insistence on classic political philosophy cautiously seeks to answer fundamental and pervasive political questions, while continuously and modestly exploring the nature of political issues.

  13. SIR-C/X-SAR data calibration and ground truth campaign over the NASA-CB1 test-site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notarnicola, C.; Posa, F.; Refice, A.; Sergi, R.; Smacchia, P.; Casarano, D.; De Carolis, G.; Mattia, F.; Schena, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Endeavour mission in October 1994, a remote-sensing campaign was carried out with the objectives of both radiometric and polarimetric calibration and ground truth data acquisition of bare soils. This paper presents the results obtained in the experiment. Polarimetric cross-talk and channel imbalance values, as well as radiometric calibration parameters, have been found to be within the science requirements for SAR images. Regarding ground truth measurements, a wide spread in the height rms values and correlation lengths has been observed, which was motivated a critical revisiting of surface parameters descriptors

  14. Notions such as "truth" or "correspondence to the objective world" play no role in explanatory accounts of perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausfeld, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Hoffman, Singh, and Prakash (Psychonomic Review and Bulletin, 2015, in press) intend to show that perceptions are evolutionarily tuned to fitness rather than to truth. I argue, partly in accordance with their objective, that issues of 'truth' or 'veridicality' have no place in explanatory accounts of perception theory, and rather belong to either ordinary discourse or to philosophy. I regard, however, their general presumption that the evolutionary development of core achievements of the human perceptual system would be primarily determined by aspects of fitness and adaption as unwarranted in light of the evidence available.

  15. Illusion and betrayal
    The city, the poets, or an ethics of truths?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stramignoni

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A nagging feeling of great expectations turned sour is in the air, at least at this end of the globe. The illusion appears to have been twofold. Those liberals who after the Cold War had imagined finally to see the Western city win over competing forms of self-regulation, self-reproduction, and homeostasis can no longer fail to see how, by the time the twenty-first century has commenced, democracy and the rule of law, the West's own blueprint for living together, have lost some of their lustre, when they have not been bluntly rejected. Those amongst the poets who, by contrast, had argued all along that another world was possible or, alternatively, that democracy and the rule of law could at most be promised or tendered rather than fully achieved or imposed, sometimes today worry whether in the process they may not have become somewhat problematically if unwittingly fixated with what in the age of mass culture and information technology some argue might be a potentially self-defeating aesthetics of the Other. Alain Badiou's Platonism of the multiple and, specifically, his ethics of truths invite us to consider whether the widespread sense of disappointment and closure which follow from such an unsatisfactory situation should not be grasped as a figure of nihilism, specifically as a figure of 'betrayal', and whether, on the other hand, what is required may not be discernment, courage, and caution and to remain alert to the possible occurrence of new signal events. Thus to a poetics of illusion and of consequent disappointment Badiou prefers an ethics of truths which starts from the obvious existence of certain generic truths and yet is never closed-off to the invention of new ones. As presented, Badiou's ethical proposal is far from being fully developed and it is bound to be contentious. And yet it does contribute to a unique and powerful critique of current events as they ceaselessly appear on the horizon of a more interconnected world

  16. Historical Fiction and the Allegorical Truth of Colonial Violence in The Proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Collins

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Firing another shot in the history wars, Prime Minister Howard used his 2006 Australia Day speech to berate postmodern approaches to historical truth. At the same time, a UK-Australia co-production, The Proposition (John Hillcoat, 2005 was enjoying critical acclaim as both a violent revisionist Western and an important film about Australia’s frontier history. It would be tempting to include this frontier film in the cycle of ‘post Mabo’ films exemplified by The Tracker (Rolf de Heer, 2002. Yet unlike The Tracker, The Proposition eschews historical reference in favour of baroque allegory. If The Tracker’s moral fable is clearly a left-liberal intervention in the history wars, The Proposition seems to offer no illumination of the present, only the unredeemed violence of retribution as the irrefutable truth of the frontier, aligning it with the 1976 mini-series, Luke’s Kingdom. This article asks in what sense history persists in the allegorical truth of frontier films which cannot be subsumed into historical representation. I argue that The Proposition offers a philosophical view of history as mediated time, rather than a political view of history as traumatic event. I contrast the popular reception of The Proposition as a revisionist, bushranger Western ‘about’ Australian history, with Routt’s counter-claim that The Proposition is an art film ‘about’ violence, revealing Australia as ‘a primal scene of annihilation.’ However, in order not to reinstate the myth of a fatal landscape as the template of Australian identity, I turn to Benjamin’s critique of Baroque allegory as a retrospective mode in which the transience of time finds expression in decay, ruin and debris. The question to be resolved is whether, by giving us multiple horizons of historical time, the revisionist film avoids being drawn into allegory’s melancholy alliance with myth, opening instead into a cinematic revelation of history’s unrealised potential.

  17. Truth Telling as an Element of Culturally Competent Care at End of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Margaret L

    2017-01-01

    Nondisclosure of terminal prognosis in the context of intercultural interactions can cause moral distress among health care providers guided exclusively by informed consent. However, cultural humility can show that revealing and withholding prognostic information are two equally valid paths to the goal of protecting the patient from harm. Assumptions and history giving rise to the preference for truth telling in the United States(US) are examined. Principles of biomedical ethics are described within the context of US, Chinese, and Latin American cultures. The process of cultural competence in the delivery of health care services is explained and introduces the concept of cultural humility. By focusing more on biases and assumptions brought forth from the dominant culture, health care providers may experience less moral distress and convey increased caring in the context of intercultural interactions and nondisclosure of prognosis of a terminal illness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Human rights and political transition in South Africa: the case of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Buarque de Hollanda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to recounting the main initiative of Nelson Mandela’s government to manage the social resentment inherited from the segregationist regime. I conducted interviews with South African intellectuals committed to the theme of transitional justice and with key personalities who played a critical role in this process. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission is presented as the primary institutional mechanism envisioned for the delicate exercise of redefining social relations inherited from the apartheid regime in South Africa. Its founders declared grandiose political intentions to the detriment of localized more palpable objectives. Thus, there was a marked disparity between the ambitious mandate and the political discourse about the commission, and its actual achievements.

  19. Pedagogy of Peace and Philosophy of War: the Search for Truth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy Klepko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peace pedagogy (German: Friedenspedagogik and the Peace education are identified as relevant educational paradigm and set of educational projects aimed at solving problems of teaching non-violence and the capacity for peace in the context of the democratic movement for peace. There is a set of reasons to state that the education system of the world depends not only on technological trends and mastering the sum of strategies of war and peace but, first of all, on what extends the whole education is true for its subjects and able to provide research on the ultimate question of social and personal life, including eternal mankind’s dream for peace. This paper describes methodological role for pedagogy of peace of geophilosophy as a concept to solve socio-economic conflicts in the dimensions of truth and earthly life in which modern geophilosophical research carried out to find a man’s place in the world and territory for him

  20. Contextual Influences and Campaign Awareness Among Young Adults: Evidence from the National truth® Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna M; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Xiao, Haijun; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have been found to shape the public's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior around tobacco. This study examines the influence of contextual factors with respect to awareness of the national truth® campaign, a mass media, branded tobacco use prevention campaign, among a sample of young adults (n = 2,804) aged 24-34 years old; these respondents were within the age range for both the primary and secondary targets of the campaign during the period (2000-2007) when the campaign was airing television advertising at consistently high levels. Mulitvariable models reveal lower educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity as significant contextual factors predictive of lower campaign awareness, controlling for media use. In contrast, gender, state tobacco control policy, sensation-seeking, current smoking status, and community-level SES variables were not significantly associated with campaign awareness. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms through which public education campaigns operate, particularly among disadvantaged communities.

  1. Power, right, and truth: Foucault's triangle as a model for clinical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polifroni, E Carol

    2010-01-01

    Power has historically been viewed from a position of dominance and authority. Using this lens leads one to a destiny wherein one individual or society has power over another. The power over approach is a hierarchical view, one that leads to someone else being oppressed, and one wherein the prevailing hegemony continues. If a different lens is used, wherein power does not reside within a position, but rather, within a person and within a relationship bounded by knowledge, a new destiny of power to and power of is created. These two approaches to power are examined and clinical power is offered as a lens that culminates in the understanding of power as a right and as truth imbedded with awareness and relationships.

  2. Combining Ground-Truthing and Technology to Improve Accuracy in Establishing Children's Food Purchasing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Hannah Lee; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Hopkins, Laura; Braunstein, Nadine; Mui, Yeeli; Gittelsohn, Joel

    Developing nutrition-focused environmental interventions for youth requires accurate assessment of where they purchase food. We have developed an innovative, technology-based method to improve the accuracy of food source recall among children using a tablet PC and ground-truthing methodologies. As part of the B'more Healthy Communties for Kids study, we mapped and digitally photographed every food source within a half-mile radius of 14 Baltimore City recreation centers. This food source database was then used with children from the surrounding neighborhoods to search for and identify the food sources they frequent. This novel integration of traditional data collection and technology enables researchers to gather highly accurate information on food source usage among children in Baltimore City. Funding is provided by the NICHD U-54 Grant #1U54HD070725-02.

  3. Against Relativism. The Importance of Truth in the Ethics of St. John Paul II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Probucka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is the analysis and critique of axiological relativism, typical of contemporary Western culture. Its supporters deny the objective status of moral norms and values. Axiological relativism leads to moral indifference based on blurring the difference between good and evil, and negating the belief that human action may be morally better or worse. I present the anti ‑relativistic position of St. John Paul II, particularly in relation to the truth, understood as a cognitive and moral value. According to the Pope, a civilization based on the belief of the relative nature of good and evil leads to widespread hypocrisy and is destined to a slow decline.

  4. Validation of neural spike sorting algorithms without ground-truth information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alex H; Magland, Jeremy F; Greengard, Leslie F

    2016-05-01

    The throughput of electrophysiological recording is growing rapidly, allowing thousands of simultaneous channels, and there is a growing variety of spike sorting algorithms designed to extract neural firing events from such data. This creates an urgent need for standardized, automatic evaluation of the quality of neural units output by such algorithms. We introduce a suite of validation metrics that assess the credibility of a given automatic spike sorting algorithm applied to a given dataset. By rerunning the spike sorter two or more times, the metrics measure stability under various perturbations consistent with variations in the data itself, making no assumptions about the internal workings of the algorithm, and minimal assumptions about the noise. We illustrate the new metrics on standard sorting algorithms applied to both in vivo and ex vivo recordings, including a time series with overlapping spikes. We compare the metrics to existing quality measures, and to ground-truth accuracy in simulated time series. We provide a software implementation. Metrics have until now relied on ground-truth, simulated data, internal algorithm variables (e.g. cluster separation), or refractory violations. By contrast, by standardizing the interface, our metrics assess the reliability of any automatic algorithm without reference to internal variables (e.g. feature space) or physiological criteria. Stability is a prerequisite for reproducibility of results. Such metrics could reduce the significant human labor currently spent on validation, and should form an essential part of large-scale automated spike sorting and systematic benchmarking of algorithms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Method for Assessing Ground-Truth Accuracy of the 5DCT Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Tai H.; Thomas, David H.; O'Connell, Dylan P.; Lamb, James M.; Lee, Percy; Low, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique that assesses the accuracy of the breathing phase-specific volume image generation process by patient-specific breathing motion model using the original free-breathing computed tomographic (CT) scans as ground truths. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients underwent a previously published protocol in which 25 free-breathing fast helical CT scans were acquired with a simultaneous breathing surrogate. A patient-specific motion model was constructed based on the tissue displacements determined by a state-of-the-art deformable image registration. The first image was arbitrarily selected as the reference image. The motion model was used, along with the free-breathing phase information of the original 25 image datasets, to generate a set of deformation vector fields that mapped the reference image to the 24 nonreference images. The high-pitch helically acquired original scans served as ground truths because they captured the instantaneous tissue positions during free breathing. Image similarity between the simulated and the original scans was assessed using deformable registration that evaluated the pointwise discordance throughout the lungs. Results: Qualitative comparisons using image overlays showed excellent agreement between the simulated images and the original images. Even large 2-cm diaphragm displacements were very well modeled, as was sliding motion across the lung–chest wall boundary. The mean error across the patient cohort was 1.15 ± 0.37 mm, and the mean 95th percentile error was 2.47 ± 0.78 mm. Conclusion: The proposed ground truth–based technique provided voxel-by-voxel accuracy analysis that could identify organ-specific or tumor-specific motion modeling errors for treatment planning. Despite a large variety of breathing patterns and lung deformations during the free-breathing scanning session, the 5-dimensionl CT technique was able to accurately reproduce the original helical CT scans, suggesting its

  6. Outline of a Theory of Truth as Correctness for Semantic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Floridi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The article develops a correctness theory of truth (CTT for semantic information. After the introduction, in section two, semantic information is shown to be translatable into propositional semantic information (i. In section three, i is polarised into a query (Q and a result (R, qualified by a specific context, a level of abstraction and a purpose. This polarization is normalised in section four, where [Q + R] is transformed into a Boolean question and its relative yes/no answer [Q + A]. This completes the reduction of the truth of i to the correctness of A. In sections five and six, it is argued that (1 A is the correct answer to Q if and only if (2 A correctly saturates (in a Fregean sense Q by verifying and validating it (in the computer science’s sense of “verification” and “validation”; that (2 is the case if and only if (3 [Q + A] generates an adequate model (m of the relevant system (s identified by Q; that (3 is the case if and only if (4 m is a proxy of s (in the computer science’s sense of “proxy” and (5 proximal access to m commutes with the distal access to s (in the category theory’s sense of “commutation”; and that (5 is the case if and only if (6 reading/writing (accessing, in the computer science’s technical sense of the term m enables one to read/write (access s. The last section draws a general conclusion about the nature of CTT as a theory for systems designers not just systems users.

  7. A Method for Assessing Ground-Truth Accuracy of the 5DCT Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Tai H., E-mail: tdou@mednet.ucla.edu; Thomas, David H.; O' Connell, Dylan P.; Lamb, James M.; Lee, Percy; Low, Daniel A.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a technique that assesses the accuracy of the breathing phase-specific volume image generation process by patient-specific breathing motion model using the original free-breathing computed tomographic (CT) scans as ground truths. Methods: Sixteen lung cancer patients underwent a previously published protocol in which 25 free-breathing fast helical CT scans were acquired with a simultaneous breathing surrogate. A patient-specific motion model was constructed based on the tissue displacements determined by a state-of-the-art deformable image registration. The first image was arbitrarily selected as the reference image. The motion model was used, along with the free-breathing phase information of the original 25 image datasets, to generate a set of deformation vector fields that mapped the reference image to the 24 nonreference images. The high-pitch helically acquired original scans served as ground truths because they captured the instantaneous tissue positions during free breathing. Image similarity between the simulated and the original scans was assessed using deformable registration that evaluated the pointwise discordance throughout the lungs. Results: Qualitative comparisons using image overlays showed excellent agreement between the simulated images and the original images. Even large 2-cm diaphragm displacements were very well modeled, as was sliding motion across the lung–chest wall boundary. The mean error across the patient cohort was 1.15 ± 0.37 mm, and the mean 95th percentile error was 2.47 ± 0.78 mm. Conclusion: The proposed ground truth–based technique provided voxel-by-voxel accuracy analysis that could identify organ-specific or tumor-specific motion modeling errors for treatment planning. Despite a large variety of breathing patterns and lung deformations during the free-breathing scanning session, the 5-dimensionl CT technique was able to accurately reproduce the original helical CT scans, suggesting its

  8. REALISM WITHOUT TRUTH: A REVIEW OF GIERE'S SCIENCE WITHOUT LAWS AND SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly popular view among philosophers of science is that of science as action—as the collective activity of scientists working in socially-coordinated communities. Scientists are seen not as dispassionate pursuers of Truth, but as active participants in a social enterprise, and science is viewed on a continuum with other human activities. When taken to an extreme, the science-as-social-process view can be taken to imply that science is no different from any other human activity, and therefore can make no privileged claims about its knowledge of the world. Such extreme views are normally contrasted with equally extreme views of classical science, as uncovering Universal Truth. In Science Without Laws and Scientific Perspectivism, Giere outlines an approach to understanding science that finds a middle ground between these extremes. He acknowledges that science occurs in a social and historical context, and that scientific models are constructions designed and created to serve human ends. At the same time, however, scientific models correspond to parts of the world in ways that can legitimately be termed objective. Giere's position, perspectival realism, shares important common ground with Skinner's writings on science, some of which are explored in this review. Perhaps most fundamentally, Giere shares with Skinner the view that science itself is amenable to scientific inquiry: scientific principles can and should be brought to bear on the process of science. The two approaches offer different but complementary perspectives on the nature of science, both of which are needed in a comprehensive understanding of science. PMID:19949495

  9. Models for truth-telling in physician-patient encounters: what can we learn from Yoruba concept of Ooto?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewuoso, Cornelius

    2017-09-29

    Empirical studies have now established that many patients make clinical decisions based on models other than Anglo American model of truth-telling and patient autonomy. Some scholars also add that current medical ethics frameworks and recent proposals for enhancing communication in health professional-patient relationship have not adequately accommodated these models. In certain clinical contexts where health professional and patients are motivated by significant cultural and religious values, these current frameworks cannot prevent communication breakdown, which can, in turn, jeopardize patient care, cause undue distress to a patient in certain clinical contexts or negatively impact his/her relationship with the community. These empirical studies have now recommended that additional frameworks developed around other models of truth-telling; and which take very seriously significant value-differences which sometimes exist between health professional and patients, as well as patient's cultural/religious values or relational capacities, must be developed. This paper contributes towards the development of one. Specifically, this study proposes a framework for truth-telling developed around African model of truth-telling by drawing insights from the communitarian concept of ootọ́ amongst the Yoruba people of south west Nigeria. I am optimistic that if this model is incorporated into current medical ethics codes and curricula, it will significantly enhance health professional-patient communication. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Deception and the death of Ilyusha: truth and the best interest of a dying child in The Brothers Karamazov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clancy

    2014-10-01

    For centuries, many physicians and parents assumed that it was ethically justifiable to lie to a dying child. The reasoning was clear. Because the lie would likely eliminate or prevent a concrete harm (the child's fear), and the lie is about a harm that is unavoidable anyway, a lie appeared to be the morally desirable thing to do. Today, the ethical consensus has shifted. Many doctors and other health professionals now argue that we have an obligation to tell children the cold, hard truth. In this article, I argue that "the cold, hard truth" (assuming we can know it with certainty) might not always be in the best interest of the patient. To illustrate the point, I analyze an episode in Dostoevsky's novel, The Brothers Karamazov, in which a child is dying, his father lies to him about it, and 2 doctors take very different approaches to the truth. Each of these individuals has a particular interest when it comes to the question of "the truth" about the death of Ilyusha. I use this story to ask whether it is ethically permissible to lie to a dying child and, if so, who has the moral authority to tell that lie. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Harnessing Youth and Young Adult Culture: Improving the Reach and Engagement of the truth® Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Elizabeth; Pitzer, Lindsay; Bennett, Morgane; Halenar, Michael; Rath, Jessica; Cantrell, Jennifer; Dorrler, Nicole; Asche, Eric; Vallone, Donna

    2017-07-01

    The national youth and young adult tobacco prevention mass media campaign, truth®, relaunched in 2014 with the goal of creating "the generation that ends smoking." The objective of this study was to assess whether the strategy of airing truth ads during popular, culturally relevant televised events was associated with higher ad and brand awareness and increases in social media engagement. Awareness of six truth advertisements that aired during popular television events and self-reported social media engagement were assessed via cross-sectional online surveys of youth and young adults aged 15-21 years. Social engagement was also measured using separate Twitter and YouTube metrics. Logistic regression models predicted self-reported social engagement and any ad awareness, and a negative binomial regression predicted the total social media engagement across digital platforms. The study found that viewing a popular televised event was associated with higher odds of ad awareness and social engagement. The results also indicate that levels of social media engagement for an event period are greater than for a nonevent period. The findings demonstrate that premiering advertisements during a popular, culturally relevant televised event is associated with higher awareness of truth ads and increased social engagement related to the campaign, controlling for variables that might also influence the response to campaign messages.

  12. A calibration system for measuring 3D ground truth for validation and error analysis of robot vision algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkin, R.; Greig, A.; Gilby, J.

    2006-10-01

    An important task in robot vision is that of determining the position, orientation and trajectory of a moving camera relative to an observed object or scene. Many such visual tracking algorithms have been proposed in the computer vision, artificial intelligence and robotics literature over the past 30 years. However, it is seldom possible to explicitly measure the accuracy of these algorithms, since the ground-truth camera positions and orientations at each frame in a video sequence are not available for comparison with the outputs of the proposed vision systems. A method is presented for generating real visual test data with complete underlying ground truth. The method enables the production of long video sequences, filmed along complicated six-degree-of-freedom trajectories, featuring a variety of objects and scenes, for which complete ground-truth data are known including the camera position and orientation at every image frame, intrinsic camera calibration data, a lens distortion model and models of the viewed objects. This work encounters a fundamental measurement problem—how to evaluate the accuracy of measured ground truth data, which is itself intended for validation of other estimated data. Several approaches for reasoning about these accuracies are described.

  13. Policy analysis, science and politics: from ‘speaking truth to power’ to ‘making sense together’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Robertus

    1999-01-01

    In an historical overview, this paper links to the paradox that the increasing scientification of politics leads to a politicisation of science. For a long time, scientists offered their capabilities as ‘speaking truth to power’. Since the beginning of the 1990s, this input has been transformed into

  14. Being asked to tell an unpleasant truth about another person activates anterior insula and medial prefrontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littlefield, Melissa M; Dietz, Martin; Fitzgerald, Des

    2015-01-01

    “Truth” has been used as a baseline condition in several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of deception. However, like deception, telling the truth is an inherently social construct, which requires consideration of another person’s mental state, a phenomenon known as Theory of ...

  15. Political Advertising: A Roadblock in Teaching Social Studies Students the Importance of Truthful Political Communication to a Democratic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The author contends that too much political advertising is a form of public relations "spin" in which the truth is sacrificed and the political process damaged as a result. The goal of much of this advertising too frequently focuses on transmitting "disinformation" that, while perhaps not technically a lie, is intended not to inform the public but…

  16. What we should expect from theories in social psychology: Truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as standards (TAPAS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lange, P.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The construction and development of theory is one of the central routes to scientific progress. But what exactly constitutes a good theory? What is it that people might expect from an ideal theory? This article advances a new model, which delineates truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability as

  17. Generating Lies Produces Lower Memory Predictions and Higher Memory Performance than Telling the Truth: Evidence for a Metacognitive Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besken, Miri

    2018-01-01

    Manipulations that induce disfluency during encoding generally produce lower memory predictions for the disfluent condition than for the fluent condition. Similar to other manipulations of disfluency, generating lies takes longer and requires more mental effort than does telling the truth; hence, a manipulation of lie generation might produce…

  18. The Many Face of Religious Truth : Developing Hilary Putnam's Pragmatic Pluralism into an Alternative for Religious Realism and Antirealism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunsveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    The question this study addresses is whether, on a conceptual level, religious propositions can have truth-value. It reflects on this question from a philosophy of religion perspective that stands in philosophy of language and mind. It analyzes paradigmatic religious realist and antirealist

  19. Effects of message repetition and negativity on credibility judgments and political attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, N.; Kühne, R.; Wirth, W.

    2017-01-01

    Research on the truth effect has demonstrated that statements are rated as more credible when they are repeatedly presented. However, current research indicates that there are limits to the truth effect and that too many repetitions can decrease message credibility. This study investigates whether

  20. Speaking truth to power: the effect of candid feedback on how individuals with power allocate resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oc, Burak; Bashshur, Michael R; Moore, Celia

    2015-03-01

    Subordinates are often seen as impotent, able to react to but not affect how powerholders treat them. Instead, we conceptualize subordinate feedback as an important trigger of powerholders' behavioral self-regulation and explore subordinates' reciprocal influence on how powerholders allocate resources to them over time. In 2 experiments using a multiparty, multiround dictator game paradigm, we found that when subordinates provided candid feedback about whether they found prior allocations to be fair or unfair, powerholders regulated how self-interested their allocations were over time. However, when subordinates provided compliant feedback about powerholders' prior allocation decisions (offered consistently positive feedback, regardless of the powerholders' prior allocation), those powerholders made increasingly self-interested allocations over time. In addition, we showed that guilt partially mediates this relationship: powerholders feel more guilty after receiving negative feedback about an allocation, subsequently leading to a less self-interested allocation, whereas they feel less guilty after receiving positive feedback about an allocation, subsequently taking more for themselves. Our findings integrate the literature on upward feedback with theory about moral self-regulation to support the idea that subordinates are an important source of influence over those who hold power over them. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Does Valence Matter? Effects of Negativity on Children's Early Understanding of the Truth and Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Lindsay; Quas, Jodi A.; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Early deceptive behavior often involves acts of wrongdoings on the part of children. As a result, it has often been assumed, although not tested directly, that children are better at identifying lies about wrongdoing than lies about other activities. We tested this assumption in two studies. In Study 1, 67 3- to 5-year-olds viewed vignettes in…

  2. A verdade como um problema fundamental em Kant Kant on truth as a fundamental problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Perin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O principal ponto de desacordo sobre a abordagem kantiana do problema da verdade é se ela pode ser compreendida nos moldes da filosofia contemporânea como coerentista ou como correspondentista. Primando por uma consideração sistemática da argumentação de Kant em confronto com a literatura existente sobre o problema, este trabalho defende a segunda alternativa. Sustenta-se a tese de que a definição da verdade como a "concordância do conhecimento com o seu objeto" é cogente em todo o percurso do pensamento kantiano e que, nessa acepção, a verdade culmina por ser abordada não a partir de uma teoria estabelecida, mas como um problema cuja solução não pode ser dada nos limites da filosofia crítico-transcendental. Pondera-se, primeiramente, a literatura que situa Kant quer como coerentista quer como correspondentista e sistematiza-se a segunda alternativa em quatro grupos: a leitura ontológica, a leitura isomórfica, a leitura "consequencialista" e a leitura regulativa. Num segundo momento, em atenção ao período pré-crítico, argumenta-se que a alternativa coerentista deixa de se confirmar já nessa mesma época e que, na década de 1750, Kant descarta uma suposta teoria correspondentista isomórfica. Num último momento, considera-se a argumentação crítica e defende-se que a mesma concebe a verdade como um problema fundamental que não cabe ao tratamento de uma teoria correspondentista concebida de modo "consequencialista" ou regulativo.The main point of disagreement about Kant's approach of the problem of truth is whether it can be understood within the apparatus of contemporary philosophy as a coherence or a correspondence theory. By favoring a systematic consideration of Kant's argumentation in light of the available literature on the problem, this paper argues toward the latter alternative. It is sustained that the definition of truth as "the agreement of cognition with its object" is cogent throughout Kant's thought and

  3. When Human Claims Become Rights. The Case of the Right to Truth over “Desaparecidos”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Jacqmin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the birth of the Right to Truth for the families of missing persons. It refers to socio-legal theories about the origins of human rights that deconstruct their moral and philosophical dimension, and place them in the social milieu in which they arise and develop. This theoretical framework helps analyzing the transitional context of Argentina after the dictatorship, where lawyers promoted the Right to Truth, as the best alternative to a missing criminal justice. Through the analysis of legal memories, the article shows how lawyers and activists, by using the seductive human rights rhetoric, were able to attribute legal qualification to a moral aspiration, as they transformed the desire of the victims to know the destiny of all desaparecidos into a new and autonomous right. Este artículo se centra en el nacimiento del Derecho a la Verdad para las familias de personas desaparecidas. Se refiere a las teorías sociojurídicas sobre los orígenes de los derechos humanos las cuales desconstruyen su dimensión moral y filosófica y los ubican en el contexto social en el cual surgen y se desarrollan. Este marco teórico ayuda a analizar el contexto transicional de la Argentina posterior a la dictadura, en el cual los juristas promovieron el Derecho a la Verdad como alternativa óptima a una justicia penal ausente. A través del análisis de la memoria legal, el artículo muestra cómo los juristas y activistas, utilizando la seductora retórica de derechos humanos, fueron capaces de atribuir calidad jurídica a una aspiración moral, a medida que transformaron el deseo de las víctimas de conocer el destino de todos los desaparecidos en un nuevo derecho autónomo. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=3051031

  4. Requiring influenza vaccination for health care workers: seven truths we must accept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Gregory A; Tosh, Pritish; Jacobson, Robert M

    2005-03-18

    In this paper we outline the seven primary truths supporting the call for requiring influenza immunization of all health care workers. We view this as a serious patient safety issue, given the clear and compelling data regarding the frequency and severity of influenza infection. In addition, clear-cut safety, efficacy, economic, legal, and ethical platforms support the use of influenza vaccine. Unfortunately health care workers have demonstrated, over almost 25 years that they are unwilling to comply with voluntary influenza immunization programs utilizing a variety of education and incentive programs, at rates sufficient to protect the patients in their care. We suggest that an annual influenza immunization should be required for every health care worker with direct patient contact, unless a medical contraindication or religious objection exists, or an informed declination is signed by the health care worker. High rates of health care worker immunization will benefit patients, health care workers, their families and employers, and the communities within which they work and live.

  5. Automated Breast Ultrasound for Ductal Pattern Reconstruction: Ground Truth File Generation and CADe Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manousaki, D.; Panagiotopoulou, A.; Bizimi, V.; Haynes, M. S.; Love, S.; Kallergi, M.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the generation of ground truth files (GTFs) of the breast ducts from 3D images of the Invenia™ Automated Breast Ultrasound System (ABUS) system (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, UK) and the application of these GTFs for the optimization of the imaging protocol and the evaluation of a computer aided detection (CADe) algorithm developed for automated duct detection. Six lactating, nursing volunteers were scanned with the ABUS before and right after breastfeeding their infants. An expert in breast ultrasound generated rough outlines of the milk-filled ducts in the transaxial slices of all image volumes and the final GTFs were created by using thresholding and smoothing tools in ImageJ. In addition, a CADe algorithm automatically segmented duct like areas and its results were compared to the expert’s GTFs by estimating true positive fraction (TPF) or % overlap. The CADe output differed significantly from the expert’s but both detected a smaller than expected volume of the ducts due to insufficient contrast (ducts were partially filled with milk), discontinuities, and artifacts. GTFs were used to modify the imaging protocol and improve the CADe method. In conclusion, electronic GTFs provide a valuable tool in the optimization of a tomographic imaging system, the imaging protocol, and the CADe algorithms. Their generation, however, is an extremely time consuming, strenuous process, particularly for multi-slice examinations, and alternatives based on phantoms or simulations are highly desirable.

  6. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  7. Science, truth, and forensic cultures: the exceptional legal status of DNA evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Many epistemological terms, such as investigation, inquiry, argument, evidence, and fact were established in law well before being associated with science. However, while legal proof remained qualified by standards of 'moral certainty', scientific proof attained a reputation for objectivity. Although most forms of legal evidence (including expert evidence) continue to be treated as fallible 'opinions' rather than objective 'facts', forensic DNA evidence increasingly is being granted an exceptional factual status. It did not always enjoy such status. Two decades ago, the scientific status of forensic DNA evidence was challenged in the scientific literature and in courts of law, but by the late 1990s it was being granted exceptional legal status. This paper reviews the ascendancy of DNA profiling, and argues that its widely-heralded objective status is bound up with systems of administrative accountability. The 'administrative objectivity' of DNA evidence rests upon observable and reportable bureaucratic rules, records, recording devices, protocols, and architectural arrangements. By highlighting administrative sources of objectivity, this paper suggests that DNA evidence remains bound within the context of ordinary organisational and practical routines, and is not a transcendent source of 'truth' in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. SafePub: A Truthful Data Anonymization Algorithm With Strong Privacy Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bild Raffael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for privacy-preserving data publishing and analysis trade off privacy risks for individuals against the quality of output data. In this article, we present a data publishing algorithm that satisfies the differential privacy model. The transformations performed are truthful, which means that the algorithm does not perturb input data or generate synthetic output data. Instead, records are randomly drawn from the input dataset and the uniqueness of their features is reduced. This also offers an intuitive notion of privacy protection. Moreover, the approach is generic, as it can be parameterized with different objective functions to optimize its output towards different applications. We show this by integrating six well-known data quality models. We present an extensive analytical and experimental evaluation and a comparison with prior work. The results show that our algorithm is the first practical implementation of the described approach and that it can be used with reasonable privacy parameters resulting in high degrees of protection. Moreover, when parameterizing the generic method with an objective function quantifying the suitability of data for building statistical classifiers, we measured prediction accuracies that compare very well with results obtained using state-of-the-art differentially private classification algorithms.

  9. The test of truth: an experimental investigation of the norm of assertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, John

    2013-11-01

    Assertion is fundamental to our lives as social and cognitive beings. Philosophers have recently built an impressive case that the norm of assertion is factive. That is, you should make an assertion only if it is true. Thus far the case for a factive norm of assertion been based on observational data. This paper adds experimental evidence in favor of a factive norm from six studies. In these studies, an assertion's truth value dramatically affects whether people think it should be made. Whereas nearly everyone agreed that a true assertion supported by good evidence should be made, most people judged that a false assertion supported by good evidence should not be made. The studies also suggest that people are consciously aware of criteria that guide their evaluation of assertions. Evidence is also presented that some intuitive support for a non-factive norm of assertion comes from a surprising tendency people have to misdescribe cases of blameless rule-breaking as cases where no rule is broken. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Truth or lie--some ethical dilemmas in the communication of a severe diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramma, Rodica; Parvu, Andrada; Enache, Angela; Roman, G; Ioan, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    Informing the patient about his disease is a very important issue in the medical practice, thus communication becomes imperative in healthcare services. Communicating the diagnosis of a pathology that doesn't bear any imminent risk for life is a common procedure for physicians. However, the situation changes drastically in the case of a severe diagnosis or a hopeless prognosis, with terminally ill patients. In this article the authors proceed to a critical analysis of the dilemma of communication or non-communication of a severe diagnosis. The problem of communicating a severe diagnosis is described from a philosophical perspective (in terms of three fundamental ethical theories: Aristotle's theory of virtue, Kant's ethical theory and Bentham and Mill's moral theories). At the same time, certain physiological and medical approaches are presented. In order to avoid any communication conflict, especially considering the particular situation of the seriously ill patient in the context of the contemporary medical activities, the authors propose the debating of two opposing approaches: "the sacred lie principle" and "the justified medical truth" in the physician--patient relation.

  11. The codex of science: honesty, precision, and truth--and its violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Thomas F

    2013-04-01

    Science has made enormous achievements for our understanding of the world and for everyday life: we now know that we live on a spherical planet of the solar system, we understand the origin of the species, we can take a train, survive myocardial infarction, and fly to the moon. This has been made possible thanks to a persistent search for truth by great scientists and the scientific community at large. Our assumptions were often wrong, but the scientific process advanced by a productive interplay of conjectures and refutations. As in any profession, there is misconduct, i.e. sloppiness, plagiarism up to falsification, or even fabrication of data. Although eventually fraudulent science has and will be disproved, it is morally inappropriate, damages the reputation of research and journals in which its products are published, may endanger patients, and misuses grant money of federal and private institutions. Thus, as editors and readers, we should be aware of it based on its typical pattern, but we must avoid an atmosphere of distrust, as trust is the essence of scientific exchange and progress.

  12. Evaluation of digital image correlation techniques using realistic ground truth speckle images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofaru, C; Philips, W; Van Paepegem, W

    2010-01-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) has been acknowledged and widely used in recent years in the field of experimental mechanics as a contactless method for determining full field displacements and strains. Even though several sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms have been proposed in the literature, little is known about their accuracy and limitations in reproducing complex underlying motion fields occurring in real mechanical tests. This paper presents a new method for evaluating sub-pixel motion estimation algorithms using ground truth speckle images that are realistically warped using artificial motion fields that were obtained following two distinct approaches: in the first, the horizontal and vertical displacement fields are created according to theoretical formulas for the given type of experiment while the second approach constructs the displacements through radial basis function interpolation starting from real DIC results. The method is applied in the evaluation of five DIC algorithms with results indicating that the gradient-based DIC methods generally have a quality advantage when using small sized blocks and are a better choice for calculating very small displacements and strains. The Newton–Raphson is the overall best performing method with a notable quality advantage when large block sizes are employed and in experiments where large strain fields are of interest

  13. Deconstructing the evidence-based discourse in health sciences: truth, power and fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dave; Murray, Stuart J; Perron, Amélie; Rail, Geneviève

    2006-09-01

    Background  Drawing on the work of the late French philosophers Deleuze and Guattari, the objective of this paper is to demonstrate that the evidence-based movement in the health sciences is outrageously exclusionary and dangerously normative with regards to scientific knowledge. As such, we assert that the evidence-based movement in health sciences constitutes a good example of microfascism at play in the contemporary scientific arena. Objective  The philosophical work of Deleuze and Guattari proves to be useful in showing how health sciences are colonised (territorialised) by an all-encompassing scientific research paradigm - that of post-positivism - but also and foremost in showing the process by which a dominant ideology comes to exclude alternative forms of knowledge, therefore acting as a fascist structure. Conclusion  The Cochrane Group, among others, has created a hierarchy that has been endorsed by many academic institutions, and that serves to (re)produce the exclusion of certain forms of research. Because 'regimes of truth' such as the evidence-based movement currently enjoy a privileged status, scholars have not only a scientific duty, but also an ethical obligation to deconstruct these regimes of power.

  14. (Re)considering Foucault for science education research: considerations of truth, power and governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse; Carter, Lyn

    2017-06-01

    This article is a response to Anna Danielsonn, Maria Berge, and Malena Lidar's paper, "Knowledge and power in the technology classroom: a framework for studying teachers and students in action", and an appeal to science educators of all epistemological orientations to (re)consider the work of Michel Foucault for research in science education. Although this essay does not come close to outlining the importance of Foucault's work for science education, it does present a lesser-known side of Foucault as an anti-polemical, realist, modern philosopher interested in the way objective knowledge is entangled with governance in modernity. This latter point is important for science educators, as it is the intersection of objective knowledge and institutional imperatives that characterizes the field(s) of science education. Considering the lack of engagement with philosophy and social theory in science education, this paper offers one of many possible readings of Foucault (we as authors have also published different readings of Foucault) in order to engage crucial questions related to truth, power, governance, discourse, ethics and education.

  15. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  16. The power of the truth bias: False information affects memory and judgment even in the absence of distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Pantazi, Myrto; Kissine, Mikhail; Klein, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Truth-bias is the tendency to believe information whether or not it is true. According to a prominent account, this tendency results from limited cognitive resources. We presented participants true and false statements organized in coherent narratives, and distracted half of the participants while processing the statements. Our findings suggest that explicitly false statements are misremembered as true and affect participants’ judgments regardless of cognitive load (Experiments 1 & 2). Experi...

  17. Post-truth and „Fake news”. From Tribalizing to Filters – Interview with Constantin Vică

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Iancu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The interview addresses the concept of „post-truth“ and tries to get its meaning and its limits. The reference point is that of social networks which impose filters of reality and tribalize the Internet users. Post-truth is seen as a virus of democracy and as a challenge to Political science, and the „fake news“ phenomenon is analyzed in the light of its stake: to generate reluctance to believe anything.

  18. Living the categorical imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Pier; Gelhaus, Petra; Welin, Stellan

    2012-08-01

    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'.

  19. On Proportionate and Truthful International Alliance Contributions: An Analysis of IncentiveCompatible Cost Sharing Mechanisms to Burden Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    for inclusion in Theses and Dissertations by an authorized administrator of AFIT Scholar. For more information, please contact richard.mansfield...unfortunate truth is that Mexico’s tumultuous history is not unique in the region. Similar historical accounts can be seen throughout Latin America. Chile ...enforceable. Assuming perfect inspection for this initial research, we formulate three multiobjective nonlinear programs for which the deci- sion

  20. How Many Subjects are Needed for a Visual Field Normative Database? A Comparison of Ground Truth and Bootstrapped Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Jack; Bui, Bang V; Kalloniatis, Michael; Khuu, Sieu K

    2018-03-01

    The number of subjects needed to establish the normative limits for visual field (VF) testing is not known. Using bootstrap resampling, we determined whether the ground truth mean, distribution limits, and standard deviation (SD) could be approximated using different set size ( x ) levels, in order to provide guidance for the number of healthy subjects required to obtain robust VF normative data. We analyzed the 500 Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) SITA-Standard results of 116 healthy subjects and 100 HFA full threshold results of 100 psychophysically experienced healthy subjects. These VFs were resampled (bootstrapped) to determine mean sensitivity, distribution limits (5th and 95th percentiles), and SD for different ' x ' and numbers of resamples. We also used the VF results of 122 glaucoma patients to determine the performance of ground truth and bootstrapped results in identifying and quantifying VF defects. An x of 150 (for SITA-Standard) and 60 (for full threshold) produced bootstrapped descriptive statistics that were no longer different to the original distribution limits and SD. Removing outliers produced similar results. Differences between original and bootstrapped limits in detecting glaucomatous defects were minimized at x = 250. Ground truth statistics of VF sensitivities could be approximated using set sizes that are significantly smaller than the original cohort. Outlier removal facilitates the use of Gaussian statistics and does not significantly affect the distribution limits. We provide guidance for choosing the cohort size for different levels of error when performing normative comparisons with glaucoma patients.

  1. Reputation mechanism: From resolution for truthful online auctions to the model of optimal one-gambler problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study reputation mechanisms, and show how the notion of reputation can help us in building truthful online auction mechanisms. From the mechanism design prospective, we derive the conditions on and design a truthful online auction mechanism. Moreover, in the case when some agents may lay or cannot have the real knowledge about the other agents reputations, we derive the resolution of the auction, such that the mechanism is truthful. Consequently, we move forward to the optimal one-gambler/one-seller problem, and explain how that problem is refinement of the previously discussed online auction design in the presence of reputation mechanism. In the setting of the optimal one-gambler problem, we naturally rise and solve the specific question: What is an agent's optimal strategy, in order to maximize his revenue? We would like to stress that our analysis goes beyond the scope, which game theory usually discusses under the notion of reputation. We model one-player games, by introducing a new parameter (reputation), which helps us in predicting the agent's behavior, in real-world situations, such as, behavior of a gambler, real-estate dealer, etc.

  2. Sex pigs: why porn is like sausage, or the truth is that--behind the scenes--porn is not very sexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuglia, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    The author examines the gay adult video industry from an insider's perspective. The workaday reality of making porn is contrasted with the skin trade's glamorous myths, and the idea that porn consumers prefer these myths to "truth" is outlined.

  3. An Example of Guiding Scientific Research with Philosophical Principles Based on Uniqueness of Truth and Neutrosophy Deriving Newton's Second Law and the like

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    According to the principle of the uniqueness of truth, there should be only one truth, namely law of conservation of energy, in the area of Newton Mechanics. Through the example of free falling body, according to the neutrosophic principle considering neutralities (the small ball is falling to the middle positions), this paper derives the original Newton's second law and the original law of gravity respectively by using the law of conservation of energy.

  4. Consumer Moments of Truth in the Digital Context : How "Search" and "E-Word of Mouth" Can Fuel Consumer Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Gillian; Muzellec, Laurent; Nolan, Eoghan

    2014-01-01

    The consumer purchasing journey has evolved. New models need to capture the advancing digital behaviours of tech-savvy consumers. The current paper revisits the practitioner-led 'Moments of Truth' model used by a number of successful multinationals (initially Procter & Gamble and subsequently Google). 'Moments of Truth' (MOT) describe key instances of contact between a potential customer and a brand. The model now needs to be extended to integrate variables such as shared brand experience and...

  5. Stop the Spam! Conference Ethics and Decoding the Subtext in Post-Truth Science. What Would Denis Diderot Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Vural; Dandara, Collet; Hekim, Nezih; Birch, Kean; Springer, Simon; Kunej, Tanja; Endrenyi, Laszlo

    2017-11-01

    Science and its practice always had a subtext, subject to influence by scientists', funders', and other innovation actors' values and assumptions. The recent emergence of post-truth, authoritarian and populist penchants, in both developed and developing countries, has further blurred the already fluid boundaries between material scientific facts and their social construction/shaping by scientific subtext, human values, powers, and hegemony. While there are certain checks, balances, and oversight mechanisms for publication ethics, other pillars of science communication, most notably, scientific conferences and their governance, are ill prepared for post-truth science. Worrisomely, the proliferation of spam conferences is a major cause for concern for integrative biology and postgenomic science. The current gaps in conference ethics are important beyond science communication because conferences help build legitimacy of emerging technologies and frontiers of science and, thus, bestows upon the organizers, funders, enlisted scientific advisors, speakers, among others, power, which in turn needs to be checked. Denis Diderot (1713-1784), a prominent intellectual during the Enlightenment period, has aptly observed that the very act of organizing brings about power, influence, and control. If the subtext of conference practices is left unchecked, it can pave the way for hegemony, and yet more volatile and violent authoritarian governance systems in science and society. This begs for innovative solutions to increase accountability, resilience, and capacity of technology experts and scientists to discern and decode the subtext in science and its communication in the current post-truth world. We propose that the existing undergraduate and graduate programs in life and physical sciences and medicine could be redesigned to include a rotation for exposure to and training in political science. Such innovative PhD+ programs straddling technical and political science scholarship

  6. Aussi vite que possible… As fast as possible…Virtuosity, a truth of musical performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Hennion

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La virtuosité est au cœur de l’interprétation musicale, mais elle a un statut ambivalent. Elle est à la fois le comble de l’art, et une tentation dangereuse. En m’appuyant sur la comparaison entre des genres différents, je voudrais suggérer qu’au delà de l’opposition classique entre les musiques du corps, du spectacle, du collectif en transe, et les musiques de l’écrit, centrées sur la composition d’une œuvre et dans une large mesure élaborées en s’opposant à la séduction virtuose, il est possible de redonner à la virtuosité sa capacité d’exprimer une vérité de la musique, en faisant d’elle une esthétique de la performance : moins une prouesse technique qu’une inscription nécessaire de l’œuvre dans la fragilité d’un présent qu’il faut toujours reconquérir.Virtuosity is at the heart of musical performance, but it has an ambivalent status. It is both the acme of art, and a dangerous temptation. Drawing on a comparison between different genres, I would like to suggest that beyond the classical opposition between body, entertainment, collective trance music, on a side, and written music that focuses on the composition of a work and is largely developed by opposing virtuoso seduction, on the other, it is possible to give virtuosity its ability to express a musical truth by turning it into an aesthetic of performance: less a technical feat than a  necessary positioning of the work in the fragility of a present that is always to be recovered.

  7. Between Truth and Amnesia: State Terrorism, Human Rights Violations and Transitional Justice in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iasmin Goes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The military rule in Brazil between 1964 and 1985 employed less violence than similar authoritarian regimes in neighbouring countries, and attempted to maintain a façade of legitimacy by allowing for a consented opposition. Nevertheless, Brazil was the last Latin American nation to establish a truth commission. Ever since the Amnesty Law was passed in 1979, authorities and citizens have both struggled to come to terms with the human rights violations committed in the past. The Brazilian government went as far as offering material reparations to the presumed victims without disclosing official information to establish what the reparations were being paid for. Is it better to remember or forget? This Exploration discusses transitional justice strategies, and documents recent developments in Brazil's political history.Resumen: Entre la verdad y la amnesia. Terrorismo de Estado, violaciones de derechos humanos y justicia transicional en BrasilEntre 1964 y 1985, el régimen militar en Brasil empleó menos violencia que regímenes autoritarios de países vecinos, e intentó mantener una fachada de legitimidad. Sin embargo, Brasil fue el último país latinoamericano en establecer una comisión de la verdad. Desde la aprobación de la Ley de Amnistía en 1979, tanto las autoridades como los ciudadanos luchan para hacer justicia a las violaciones de derechos humanos cometidas en el pasado. El gobierno brasileño llegó al extremo de ofrecer reparaciones materiales a las presuntas víctimas, sin revelar informaciones oficiales para establecer por qué las estaba pagando. ¿Es mejor recordar u olvidar? Esta Exploración analiza las estrategias de justicia transicional y documenta evoluciones recientes en la política histórica brasileña.

  8. Are Study and Journal Characteristics Reliable Indicators of "Truth" in Imaging Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Robert A; McInnes, Matthew D F; Levine, Deborah; Kressel, Herbert Y; Jesurum, Julia S; Petrcich, William; McGrath, Trevor A; Bossuyt, Patrick M

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether journal-level variables (impact factor, cited half-life, and Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies [STARD] endorsement) and study-level variables (citation rate, timing of publication, and order of publication) are associated with the distance between primary study results and summary estimates from meta-analyses. Materials and Methods MEDLINE was searched for meta-analyses of imaging diagnostic accuracy studies, published from January 2005 to April 2016. Data on journal-level and primary-study variables were extracted for each meta-analysis. Primary studies were dichotomized by variable as first versus subsequent publication, publication before versus after STARD introduction, STARD endorsement, or by median split. The mean absolute deviation of primary study estimates from the corresponding summary estimates for sensitivity and specificity was compared between groups. Means and confidence intervals were obtained by using bootstrap resampling; P values were calculated by using a t test. Results Ninety-eight meta-analyses summarizing 1458 primary studies met the inclusion criteria. There was substantial variability, but no significant differences, in deviations from the summary estimate between paired groups (P > .0041 in all comparisons). The largest difference found was in mean deviation for sensitivity, which was observed for publication timing, where studies published first on a topic demonstrated a mean deviation that was 2.5 percentage points smaller than subsequently published studies (P = .005). For journal-level factors, the greatest difference found (1.8 percentage points; P = .088) was in mean deviation for sensitivity in journals with impact factors above the median compared with those below the median. Conclusion Journal- and study-level variables considered important when evaluating diagnostic accuracy information to guide clinical decisions are not systematically associated with distance from the truth

  9. Science, religion, and the quest for knowledge and truth: an Islamic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessoum, Nidhal

    2010-03-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first one is to a large extent a commentary on John R. Staver's "Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?" The second part is a related overview of Islam's philosophy of knowledge and, to a certain degree, science. In responding to Staver's thesis, I rely strongly on my scientific education and habit of mind; I also partly found my views on my Islamic background, though I enlarge my scope to consider western philosophical perspectives as well. I differ with Staver in his definition of the nature, scope, and goals of religion (concisely, "explaining the world and how it works"), and I think this is the crux of the matter in attempting to resolve the perceived "discord" between science and religion. The heart of the problem is in the definition of the domains of action of science and religion, and I address this issue at some length, both generically and using Islamic principles, which are found to be very widely applicable. The concept of "reality," so important to Staver's thesis, is also critically reviewed. The philosophy of knowledge (and of science) in Islam is briefly reviewed in the aim of showing the great potential for harmony between the two "institutions" (religion and science), on the basis of the following philosophy: science describes nature, whereas religion gives us not only a philosophy of existence but also an interpretative cloak for the discoveries of science and for the meaning of the cosmos and nature. I conclude by insisting that though science and religion can be considered as two worldviews that propose to describe "reality" and to explain our existence and that of the world; they may come to compete for humans' minds and appear to enter into a conflicting position, but only if and when we confuse their domains and modes of action. [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.][InlineMediaObject not available: see

  10. Telling the truth: Don DeLillo in an age of amnesia and redressDOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2010n59p176

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marni Gauthier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The December 2006 Iran Holocaust denial Conference and the international excoriation of it reveal a paradox of two cultural strands that are emblematic of the legacy of the twentieth century: official denial and historical amnesia on the one hand; and (international attempts at truth telling and historical redress on the other. Massive violence–and associative denial—punctuate the entire twentieth century. Yet coordinated tenacious efforts at public acknowledgment of “what really happened”–a recurrent and insistent emphasis in this context of trials, reparations, and above all, truth commissions—and concomitant historical redress for state-sanctioned crimes is a particularly recent phenomenon, unique, in fact, to the 1990s. But it is not only political readers who address what Priscilla B. Hayner, in her exhaustive study of truth commissions calls, “unspeakable truths.” This essay addresses the incongruity between the recent global concern with truth telling, official apology, memory and historical redress on the one hand–an obsession that certainly includes the US—and American amnesia on the other. It is in the interstices of these two apposite late twentieth century phenomena–amnesia and truth telling; “history” distinct from “the truth of the past”; “official” opposed to “vernacular” memory — that, I argue, a new genre of historical novel develops and performs a vital cultural work: telling the truth in an age of amnesia and redress. Such novels engage the recalcitrant materials of historical experience to assert truth claims that in turn challenge nationalist histories and revise traditional mythologies. Among the foremost authors of this new “truth-telling” historical novel is Don DeLillo. Americana, the vital precursor to Libra and especially to Underworld, is the definitive harbinger of DeLillo’s third century of work that writes both within and against postmodernism. In these Cold-War era

  11. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  12. The Oil Industries Fake Abundance Story: Is Distortion of the Truth Ever Appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    reliable independent sources of data, different definitions and uncertainty in the data allow a range of interpretations. Within these limits it allows some to bend the truth for their needs. What is the solution? With so much at stake, why have the uncertainties in these issues been so poorly examined by the academic community? Doing so will encourage alternative sources of energy to be developed.

  13. Historical Truth in Poetry: Napoleon in the Verses of Voloshin, Tyutchev, and Pushkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivane Sh. Menteshashvili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the degree to which one can illustrate in poetry a historical phenomenon vested in an artistic form. Here the author looks into the verses of Voloshin, Tyutchev, and Pushkin: “Bonaparte”, “Napoleon”, and “Hero”. These verses bring to light Napoleon’s personality and the historical environment in which he had been working. In each of the verses, Napoleon is portrayed as a carrier of immense romantic energy, thanks to which he leaves such an ineffaceable, meteoric trace in history, and is depicted as steeped in some kind of romantic enchantment. At the same time, each of the verses brings to light the various aspects of the Napoleonic era and his deeds. Voloshin draws a colorful picture of the Great French Revolution and social-political upheavals inherent in it, within the depths of which, under the canopy of Providence, there is born a new phenomenon that is set to become in the near future an embodiment and carrier of the will of world history. Tyutchev portrays Napoleon as already quite a full-fledged phenomenon of history, a child of the revolution, which engages in a desperate and, at the same time, hopeless struggle with his “mother”, a struggle in which the hero is doomed to a tragic end. Whereas Pushkin in his verse, in the form of epic truth typical of him, presents a retrospection of the entire Napoleonic era and the whole amplitude of the activity of this phenomenal personality. And what is depicted as most remarkable, in terms of eternalizing him, is a fact that sort of stands out among a multitude of great deeds: Napoleon’s handshake with a plague-stricken man at a hospital in Egypt intended to elevate his fighting spirit. It may seem that greatness is shown here as a “non-heroic” deed, which, in turn, is a demonstration of the use of an ingenious medium by a great artist to portray greatness in what may seem as something little noticed, which is what is eternal.

  14. No ``explosion'' in Big Bang cosmology: teaching kids the truth of what cosmologists really know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2011-06-01

    ideas, that we are led to try and reconstruct the past and predict the future evolution of our universe. Just that. Sound science turns out to be much more attractive when we tell the truth of what we really know.

  15. Strategies for cloud-top phase determination: differentiation between thin cirrus clouds and snow in manual (ground truth) analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Etherton, Brian J.; Topping, Phillip C.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative assessments on the performance of automated cloud analysis algorithms require the creation of highly accurate, manual cloud, no cloud (CNC) images from multispectral meteorological satellite data. In general, the methodology to create ground truth analyses for the evaluation of cloud detection algorithms is relatively straightforward. However, when focus shifts toward quantifying the performance of automated cloud classification algorithms, the task of creating ground truth images becomes much more complicated since these CNC analyses must differentiate between water and ice cloud tops while ensuring that inaccuracies in automated cloud detection are not propagated into the results of the cloud classification algorithm. The process of creating these ground truth CNC analyses may become particularly difficult when little or no spectral signature is evident between a cloud and its background, as appears to be the case when thin cirrus is present over snow-covered surfaces. In this paper, procedures are described that enhance the researcher's ability to manually interpret and differentiate between thin cirrus clouds and snow-covered surfaces in daytime AVHRR imagery. The methodology uses data in up to six AVHRR spectral bands, including an additional band derived from the daytime 3.7 micron channel, which has proven invaluable for the manual discrimination between thin cirrus clouds and snow. It is concluded that while the 1.6 micron channel remains essential to differentiate between thin ice clouds and snow. However, this capability that may be lost if the 3.7 micron data switches to a nighttime-only transmission with the launch of future NOAA satellites.

  16. JOURNALISM IN POST-TRUTH ERA: fact-checking as a tool to fight against the fake news

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Egle Müller; Santos, Jéssica de Almeida

    2018-01-01

    This article intends to report how the work of the agencies of fact-checking can help informative companies in the fight against false news, with their data-checking methodologies in order to encourage the transparency of the journalistic process. A literature review addresses the impacts of post-truth and the spread of fake news in society - where objective facts are less influential in public opinion than personal emotions and beliefs. As a result, it is concluded that serious fact-finding ...

  17. When the truth isn’t too hard to handle: An event-related potential study on the pragmatics of negation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    Our brains rapidly map incoming language onto what we hold to be true. Yet there are claims that such integration and verification processes are delayed in sentences containing negation words like ‘not’. However, research studies have often confounded whether a statement is true and whether it is natural thing to say during normal communication. In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we aimed to disentangle effects of truth-value and pragmatic licensing on the comprehension of affirmative and negated real-world statements. As in affirmative sentences, false words elicited a larger N400 ERP than true words in pragmatically licensed negated sentences (e.g., “In moderation, drinking red wine isn’t bad/good…”), whereas true and false words elicited similar responses in unlicensed negated sentences (e.g., “A baby bunny’s fur isn’t very hard/soft…”). These results suggest that negation poses no principled obstacle for readers to immediately relate incoming words to what they hold to be true. PMID:19121125

  18. Assessment of infrasound signals recorded on seismic stations and infrasound arrays in the western United States using ground truth sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Hayward, Chris; Stump, Brian W.

    2018-06-01

    Ground truth sources in Utah during 2003-2013 are used to assess the contribution of temporal atmospheric conditions to infrasound detection and the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models. Ground truth sources consist of 28 long duration static rocket motor burn tests and 28 impulsive rocket body demolitions. Automated infrasound detections from a hybrid of regional seismometers and infrasound arrays use a combination of short-term time average/long-term time average ratios and spectral analyses. These detections are grouped into station triads using a Delaunay triangulation network and then associated to estimate phase velocity and azimuth to filter signals associated with a particular source location. The resulting range and azimuth distribution from sources to detecting stations varies seasonally and is consistent with predictions based on seasonal atmospheric models. Impulsive signals from rocket body detonations are observed at greater distances (>700 km) than the extended duration signals generated by the rocket burn test (up to 600 km). Infrasound energy attenuation associated with the two source types is quantified as a function of range and azimuth from infrasound amplitude measurements. Ray-tracing results using Ground-to-Space atmospheric specifications are compared to these observations and illustrate the degree to which the time variations in characteristics of the observations can be predicted over a multiple year time period.

  19. "The Heart Truth:" Using the Power of Branding and Social Marketing to Increase Awareness of Heart Disease in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Terry; Taubenheim, Ann; Wayman, Jennifer; Temple, Sarah; Ruoff, Beth

    2008-03-01

    In September 2002, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute launched The Heart Truth, the first federally-sponsored national campaign aimed at increasing awareness among women about their risk of heart disease. A traditional social marketing approach, including an extensive formative research phase, was used to plan, implement, and evaluate the campaign. With the creation of the Red Dress as the national symbol for women and heart disease awareness, the campaign integrated a branding strategy into its social marketing framework. The aim was to develop and promote a women's heart disease brand that would create a strong emotional connection with women. The Red Dress brand has had a powerful appeal to a wide diversity of women and has given momentum to the campaign's three-part implementation strategy of partnership development, media relations, and community action. In addition to generating its own substantial programming, The Heart Truth became a catalyst for a host of other national and local educational initiatives, both large and small. By the campaign's fifth anniversary, surveys showed that women were increasingly aware of heart disease as their leading cause of death and that the rise in awareness was associated with increased action to reduce heart disease risk.

  20. Ground truthing for methane hotspots at Railroad Valley, NV - application to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, A. M.; Kelley, C. A.; Bebout, B.; McKay, C. P.; DeMarines, J.; Yates, E. L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    .7%. Temperature and relative humidity sensors were placed in the playa at 5, 20, and 30 cm below the surface. Since the relative humidity neared 100% (down to 20 cm below the surface), high enough to support microbial life, the observed absence of methane production in the playa itself is likely due to the low POC content, compared to other methane-producing environments. The spatial distribution of methane in combination with the spectral reflectance at the RRV dry lakebed makes it a good Mars analog. The ground truthing and satellite calibration work accomplished at RRV is a good exercise in preparation to identifying the origins of methane observed in the atmosphere of Mars during the upcoming 2012 Mars Science Laboratory and 2016 ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter missions.

  1. The Asse. On inconvenient truths and the suppression of disagreeable principles; Die Asse. Ueber unbequeme Wahrheiten und das Verdraengen unliebsamer Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The retrieval of radioactive wastes and the closure of the repository Asse II is a very complex project: not only with respect to technical aspects but also with respect to public information. The information brochure no 29 edited by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz BfS is dealing with the rather philosophic questions knowledge and truth. The German expert on constitutional law Peter Bull answered to the question whether subjectively assumed health hazards could inhibit a reasonable solution: it has to be expected from the public to bear inconvenient truth. Clarification is necessary instead of wrong populism and suppression of obnoxious findings.

  2. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy in Alzheimer's disease and other dementia using autopsy as standard of truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, Sandrine; Abrams, Keith; Belger, Mark; Dell'agnello, Grazzia; Happich, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial to implement the latest treatment strategies and management of AD symptoms. Diagnostic procedures play a major role in this detection process but evidence on their respective accuracy is still limited. To conduct a systematic literature on the sensitivity and specificity of different test modalities to identify AD patients and perform meta-analyses on the test accuracy values of studies focusing on autopsy-confirmation as the standard of truth. The systematic review identified all English papers published between 1984 and 2011 on diagnostic imaging tests and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers including results on the newest technologies currently investigated in this area. Meta-analyses using bivariate fixed and random-effect models and hierarchical summary receiver operating curve (HSROC) random-effect model were applied. Out of the 1,189 records, 20 publications were identified to report the accuracy of diagnostic tests in distinguishing autopsy-confirmed AD patients from other dementia types and healthy controls. Looking at all tests and comparator populations together, sensitivity was calculated at 85.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80.9%-90.0%) and specificity at 77.7% (95% CI: 70.2%-85.1%). The area under the HSROC curve was 0.88. Sensitivity and specificity values were higher for imaging procedures, and slightly lower for CSF biomarkers. Test-specific random-effect models could not be calculated due to the small number of studies. The review and meta-analysis point to a slight advantage of imaging procedures in correctly detecting AD patients but also highlight the limited evidence on autopsy-confirmations and heterogeneity in study designs.

  3. The representation of truth by the scientific discourse: views to a rupture of the academic literacy paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gerson Rodrigues Stefanello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses, from a theoretical perspective, the question of writing in the academic sphere. The particularities of the ways to read and write in this sphere constitute a world of literacies characterized by a formality that distinguishes it, purposely, from other use situations of these abilities. The appropriation and maintenance of the scientific discourse, however, require students’ competences commonly not well developed during the years in basic education and which highlight the difficulties faced by both the student and the teacher in the transition to higher education. For the current discussion, I rely on literacy studies (STREET, 1984, 2003; KLEIMAN, 1995; HAMILTON, 2002 to deal, specifically, with academic literacy and the truth regime (FOUCAULT, 2004 through which the scientific discourse is legitimated in society.

  4. Criminals in the Citadel and Deceit all along the Watchtower: Irresponsibility, Fraud, and Complicity in the Search for Scientific Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharyan, Prathap

    2012-01-01

    Scientific research aims to use reliable methods to produce generalizable new knowledge in order to understand the human condition and maximize human potential. The sanctity accorded to scientific research has been violated by numerous instances of research fraud, as well as deceptive and conflicted research that have seriously harmed people, subverted the evidence-base, wasted valuable resources, and undermined public trust. This deception by individuals has been fostered by the unrealistic expectations of society; facilitated by the complicity of institutions and organisations; and sanctioned by the inaction of supposed gate-keepers. Re-defining misconduct as occurring on a continuum from irresponsible to fraudulent is the first step in confronting this inconvenient truth. Implementing and evaluating multiple strategies targeting systems and individuals that promote the responsible conduct of research, rather than merely exposing serious instances of misconduct by individuals, is urgently required to restore faith in the aspirations, integrity, and results of scientific research.

  5. Realism, instrumentalism, and scientific symbiosis: psychological theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Semin, Gün R; Berntson, Gary G

    2004-01-01

    Scientific realism holds that scientific theories are approximations of universal truths about reality, whereas scientific instrumentalism posits that scientific theories are intellectual structures that provide adequate predictions of what is observed and useful frameworks for answering questions and solving problems in a given domain. These philosophical perspectives have different strengths and weaknesses and have been regarded as incommensurate: Scientific realism fosters theoretical rigor, verifiability, parsimony, and debate, whereas scientific instrumentalism fosters theoretical innovation, synthesis, generativeness, and scope. The authors review the evolution of scientific realism and instrumentalism in psychology and propose that the categorical distinction between the 2 is overstated as a prescription for scientific practice. The authors propose that the iterative deployment of these 2 perspectives, just as the iterative application of inductive and deductive reasoning in science, may promote more rigorous, integrative, cumulative, and useful scientific theories.

  6. A comparison of Danish listeners’ processing cost in judging the truth value of Norwegian, Swedish, and English sentences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Askjær-Jørgensen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    that the processing cost for native Danish listeners in comprehending Danish and English statements is equivalent, whereas Norwegian and Swedish statements incur a much higher cost, both in terms of response time and correct assessments. The results are discussed with regard to the costs of inter......The present study used a sentence verification task to assess the processing cost involved in native Danish listeners’ attempts to comprehend true/false statements spoken in Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, and English. Three groups of native Danish listeners heard 40 sentences each which were...... translation equivalents, and assessed the truth value of these statements. Group 1 heard sentences in Danish and Norwegian, Group 2 in Danish and Swedish, and Group 3 in Danish and English. Response time and proportion of correct responses were used as indices of processing cost. Both measures indicate...

  7. A procedure used for a ground truth study of a land use map of North Alabama generated from LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.; Sharma, G. C.; Bagwell, C.

    1977-01-01

    A land use map of a five county area in North Alabama was generated from LANDSAT data using a supervised classification algorithm. There was good overall agreement between the land use designated and known conditions, but there were also obvious discrepancies. In ground checking the map, two types of errors were encountered - shift and misclassification - and a method was developed to eliminate or greatly reduce the errors. Randomly selected study areas containing 2,525 pixels were analyzed. Overall, 76.3 percent of the pixels were correctly classified. A contingency coefficient of correlation was calculated to be 0.7 which is significant at the alpha = 0.01 level. The land use maps generated by computers from LANDSAT data are useful for overall land use by regional agencies. However, care must be used when making detailed analysis of small areas. The procedure used for conducting the ground truth study together with data from representative study areas is presented.

  8. Evaluation of event-based algorithms for optical flow with ground-truth from inertial measurement sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo eRückauer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare nine optical flow algorithms that locally measure the flow normal to edges according to accuracy and computation cost. In contrast to conventional, frame-based motion flow algorithms, our open-source implementations compute optical flow based on address-events from a neuromorphic Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS. For this benchmarking we created a dataset of two synthesized and three real samples recorded from a 240x180 pixel Dynamic and Active-pixel Vision Sensor (DAVIS. This dataset contains events from the DVS as well as conventional frames to support testing state-of-the-art frame-based methods. We introduce a new source for the ground truth: In the special case that the perceived motion stems solely from a rotation of the vision sensor around its three camera axes, the true optical flow can be estimated using gyro data from the inertial measurement unit integrated with the DAVIS camera. This provides a ground-truth to which we can compare algorithms that measure optical flow by means of motion cues. An analysis of error sources led to the use of a refractory period, more accurate numerical derivatives and a Savitzky-Golay filter to achieve significant improvements in accuracy. Our pure Java implementations of two recently published algorithms reduce computational cost by up to 29% compared to the original implementations. Two of the algorithms introduced in this paper further speed up processing by a factor of 10 compared with the original implementations, at equal or better accuracy. On a desktop PC, they run in real-time on dense natural input recorded by a DAVIS camera.

  9. Estimating Daily Maximum and Minimum Land Air Surface Temperature Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and Ground Truth Data in Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Thanh Noi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate quantitatively the land surface temperature (LST derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MOD11A1 and MYD11A1 Collection 5 products for daily land air surface temperature (Ta estimation over a mountainous region in northern Vietnam. The main objective is to estimate maximum and minimum Ta (Ta-max and Ta-min using both TERRA and AQUA MODIS LST products (daytime and nighttime and auxiliary data, solving the discontinuity problem of ground measurements. There exist no studies about Vietnam that have integrated both TERRA and AQUA LST of daytime and nighttime for Ta estimation (using four MODIS LST datasets. In addition, to find out which variables are the most effective to describe the differences between LST and Ta, we have tested several popular methods, such as: the Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise, Bayesian information criterion (BIC, adjusted R-squared and the principal component analysis (PCA of 14 variables (including: LST products (four variables, NDVI, elevation, latitude, longitude, day length in hours, Julian day and four variables of the view zenith angle, and then, we applied nine models for Ta-max estimation and nine models for Ta-min estimation. The results showed that the differences between MODIS LST and ground truth temperature derived from 15 climate stations are time and regional topography dependent. The best results for Ta-max and Ta-min estimation were achieved when we combined both LST daytime and nighttime of TERRA and AQUA and data from the topography analysis.

  10. Positivism and Constructivism, Truth and "Truth"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the reversal in meaning of the word "positivism", which has come to mean "theory which assumes the existence of a world beyond our ideas" whereas once it meant "theory which is agnostic about the existence of a world beyond our ideas", and with educational writers' persistent mistakes in using quotation marks, as a…

  11. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonu...

  12. Combating Principal-Agent Relationship Problems: Use of the Truth Revealing Incentive Mechanism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, Daniel R; Yoder, E. C; Coughlan, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    .... This report describes the principal-agent theory, identifies principal-agent problems in the current DoD contracting environment, discusses how the TRIM addresses these problems more effectively...

  13. Geographic information system for fusion and analysis of high-resolution remote sensing and ground truth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony; Way, Jo Bea; Dubois, Pascale; Leberl, Franz

    1992-01-01

    We seek to combine high-resolution remotely sensed data with models and ground truth measurements, in the context of a Geographical Information System, integrated with specialized image processing software. We will use this integrated system to analyze the data from two Case Studies, one at a bore Al forest site, the other a tropical forest site. We will assess the information content of the different components of the data, determine the optimum data combinations to study biogeophysical changes in the forest, assess the best way to visualize the results, and validate the models for the forest response to different radar wavelengths/polarizations. During the 1990's, unprecedented amounts of high-resolution images from space of the Earth's surface will become available to the applications scientist from the LANDSAT/TM series, European and Japanese ERS-1 satellites, RADARSAT and SIR-C missions. When the Earth Observation Systems (EOS) program is operational, the amount of data available for a particular site can only increase. The interdisciplinary scientist, seeking to use data from various sensors to study his site of interest, may be faced with massive difficulties in manipulating such large data sets, assessing their information content, determining the optimum combinations of data to study a particular parameter, visualizing his results and validating his model of the surface. The techniques to deal with these problems are also needed to support the analysis of data from NASA's current program of Multi-sensor Airborne Campaigns, which will also generate large volumes of data. In the Case Studies outlined in this proposal, we will have somewhat unique data sets. For the Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (Case I) calibrated DC-8 SAR data and extensive ground truth measurement are already at our disposal. The data set shows documented evidence to temporal change. The Belize Forest Experiment (Case II) will produce calibrated DC-8 SAR and AVIRIS data, together with

  14. Prenatal exposure to ionizing radiations: myths and truths; Exposicion Prenatal a Radiaciones Ionizantes: Mitos y Verdades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, M. R.; Trano, L.; Gisone, P.

    2001-07-01

    In utero exposures to ionising radiation are a very important subject in radiological protection concerning not only the prevention but also the estimation of the associated risks. In these situations the perception of risks by the pregnant woman and the involved professionals could not always be correlated with their objective magnitude. In this communication we describe the effects of prenatal exposure to ionising, the thresholds and their relation with the gestational age, taking into account occupationally exposed women, patients undergoing medical procedures and public members. The dose estimation, the evaluation of the potential associated risks and the relation with the spontaneous incidence of the considered effects are analyzed in the gramework of the basic principles of radiological protection. Most of diagnostic procedures properly done do not imply induction of deterministic effects in embryo/fetus. Therapeutical procedures and accidental overexposures could associated with significant risks of deterministic effects. Childhood cancer induction is an stochastic effect without threshold and every in utero exposure will increase their probability. (Author) 13 refs.

  15. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  16. 78 FR 27308 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth In Lending Act (Regulation Z...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... consumer financial laws, to consider the potential benefits and costs of regulation to consumers and... effective date of Sec. 1026.36(i) would also delay the consumer benefit that would result from allowing the..., 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 27308

  17. 78 FR 32547 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... adverse unintended consequences. Therefore, The Bureau further finds it has good cause pursuant to section... that it seeks comment on clarifications. (The Bureau is not contemplating extending the effective date... for an orderly transition. To allow the mortgage industry sufficient time to comply with the new rules...

  18. Globalization's Culture Consequences of MBA Education across Australia and Singapore: Sophistry or Truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin

    2009-01-01

    A generally held view among international managers is that the cultural changes occurring in most modernizing societies may lead to similar outcomes and the erosion of cultural differences. Cultural convergence is posited to result from the homogenizing effect of technological transfers between societies. One major force which emerges from this…

  19. [Truth curves on soot blackened paper--apparatus-supported lie detection in Graz in the 1920s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the 1920s, experiments with apparatus-supported lie detection and registration of expression were conducted at the Criminological Institute of the University of Graz in order to establish a sound methodological basis for testimony research. For this purpose, the criminologist Ernst Seelig used a method of lie detection developed by the psychologist Vittorio Benussi, which focuses on the analysis of breathing. Benussi had stated that the expiration after telling a lie was faster than after telling the truth, but Seelig could not verify this rule in forensic practice. Consequently, this method of lie detection was of no practical use for criminology. Seelig also carried out experiments with the method of registration of expression developed by the psychiatrist Otto Lowenstein. He registered the examinee's thoracic and abdominal breathing and the movements of the extremities with the help of a kymograph. By interpretation of the curves recorded on soot blackened paper, conclusions concerning the mental elements of an offence as well as the existence of certain dispositions and of amnesia should have been made possible. Seelig was convinced of the efficiency of this method. These experiments can be regarded as early attempts at finding not only simple facts but also answers to quasi-metaphysical questions concerning the "true nature" of man with the help of methods based on natural science and modern technology. Thus they are precursors of present-day neuroscience and neuro-imaging.

  20. The Application of Neutron and X-Ray Techniques to Analyze Works of Art: Examples from The Unvarnished Truth Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Brandi Lee

    2017-01-01

    When considered as an object, a painting consists of multiple components that, when analyzed together, have a unique story to tell about the artist, their practice, and the history of the work of art. Techniques traditionally applied in physics, including neutron-, x-radiographic and near-infrared imaging, and surface elemental analysis via x-ray fluorescence, are useful for generating significant insight into works of art. By examining the supporting material, grounds, pigments, and varnishes that a painter chose to utilize, we generate new knowledge regarding the composition, context, and decision-making involved in the creation of a work. The project `The Unvarnished Truth: exploring the material history of paintings' is an interdisciplinary initiative that incorporated the expertise of forensic art historians, conservation scientists, physicists, and biomedical engineers. Through the technical analysis of nine paintings from the McMaster Museum of Art permanent collection, we explored research questions related to painting technique, attribution, authenticity, connoisseurship, and object condition and stability. The paintings span over 500 years of European art history, and include works from Vincent Van Gogh, Alexander Rodchenko, and A. van der Neer. This project highlights the multitude of ways in which micro- and non-destructive methods can be used to answer art historical questions. This project is supported by grants from Canadian Heritage and Ontario Arts Council.