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Sample records for repetition rate laser

  1. Iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohla, K; Witte, K J

    1976-07-01

    The scaling laws of an iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate are reported. The laser is pumped with a new kind of low pressure Hg-UV-lamps which convert 32% of the electrical input in UV-light in the absorption band of the iodine laser and which can be fired up to 100 Hz. Details of a 10 kJ/1 nsec system as dimensions, energy density, repetition rate, flow velocity, gas composition and gas pressure and the overall efficiency are given which is expected to be about 2%.

  2. High repetition rate ultrashort laser cuts a path through fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Lorena; Schubert, Elise; Mongin, Denis; Klingebiel, Sandro; Schultze, Marcel; Metzger, Thomas; Michel, Knut; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2016-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the transmission of a 1030 nm, 1.3 ps laser beam of 100 mJ energy through fog increases when its repetition rate increases to the kHz range. Due to the efficient energy deposition by the laser filaments in the air, a shockwave ejects the fog droplets from a substantial volume of the beam, at a moderate energy cost. This process opens prospects for applications requiring the transmission of laser beams through fogs and clouds.

  3. Environmentally stable picosecond Yb fiber laser with low repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartl, M.; Abreu-Afonso, J.; Díez, A.; Rothhardt, M.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2013-04-01

    A SESAM-mode-locked, all-polarization-maintaining Ytterbium fiber laser producing picosecond pulses with narrow spectral bandwidth is presented. A simple linear all-fiber cavity without dispersion compensation is realized using a uniform fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Different cavity lengths are investigated and repetition rates down to 0.7 MHz are obtained. Bandwidth and pulse duration of the output pulses are mainly determined by the choice of FBG. Pulses between 30 and 200 ps are generated employing different FBGs with bandwidths between 17 and 96 pm. The experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The laser holds great potential for simple amplification setups without pulse picking.

  4. Closed cycle high-repetition-rate pulsed HF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael R.; Morris, A. V.; Gorton, Eric K.

    1997-04-01

    The design and performance of a closed cycle high repetition rate HF laser is described. A short pulse, glow discharge is formed in a 10 SF6:1 H2 gas mixture at a total pressure of approximately 110 torr within a 15 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm3 volume. Transverse, recirculated gas flow adequate to enable repetitive operation up to 3 kHz is imposed by a centrifugal fan. The fan also forces the gas through a scrubber cell to eliminate ground state HF from the gas stream. An automated gas make-up system replenishes spent gas removed by the scrubber. Typical mean laser output powers up to 3 W can be maintained for extended periods of operation.

  5. High repetition rate driver circuit for modulation of injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, B.R.; Goel, J.; Wolkstein, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    An injection laser modulator comprises a self-biased field effect transistor (FET) and an injection laser to provide a quiescent state during which lasing of the injection laser occurs in response to a high repetition rate signal of pulse coded modulation (pcm). The modulator is d.c. coupled to an input pulse source of pcm rendering it compatible with an input pulse referenced to ground and not being subject to voltage level shifting of the input pulse. The modulator circuit in its preferred and alternate embodiments provides various arrangements for high impedance input and low impedance output matching. In addition, means are provided for adjusting the bias of the FET as well as the bias of the injection laser

  6. A high-repetition rate LWFA for studies of laser propagation and electron generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohan; Easter, James; Hou, Bixue; Krushelnick, Karl; Nees, John; Thomas, Alec

    2010-11-01

    Advances in ultrafast optics today have enabled laser systems to deliver ever shorter and more intense pulses. When focused, such laser pulses can easily exceed relativistic intensities where the wakefield created by the strong laser electric field can be used to accelerate electrons. Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds promise for future compact electron accelerators or drivers of other radiation sources in many scientific, medical and engineering applications. We present experimental studies of laser wakefield acceleration using the λ-cubed laser at the University of Michigan -- a table-top high-power laser system operating at 500 Hz repetition rate. The high repetition rate allows statistical studies of laser propagation and electron acceleration which are not accessible with typical sub-0.1 Hz repetition rate systems. In addition, we compare the experiments with particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS.

  7. Solid state pump lasers with high power and high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masaki; Kato, Masaaki; Arisawa, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    We built a laser diode pumped solid state green laser (LDPSSGL) rated at high repetition rate. Two laser heads are placed in one cavity with a rotator in between to design to avoid thermal lensing and thermal birefringence effect. Although average green laser power higher than 10 W was obtained at 1 kHz repetition rate with pulse width of 20-30 nsec, the beam quality was so much deteriorated that energy efficiency was as low as 2 %. Learning from this experience that high power oscillator causes a lot of thermal distortion not only in the laser rod but also in the Q-switch device, we proceeded to built a oscillator/amplifier system. A low power oscillator has a slab type crystal in the cavity. As a result spatial distribution of laser power was extremely improved. As we expect that the high repetition rate solid state laser should be CW operated Q-switch type laser from the view point of lifetime of diode lasers, a conventional arc lamp pumped CW Q-switch green YAG laser of which the repetition rate is changeable from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and the pulse width is 250-570 nsec was also tested to obtain pumping characteristics of a dye laser as a function of power, pulse width etc., and dye laser pulse width of 100-130 nsec were obtained. (author)

  8. On the mechanisms governing the repetition rate of mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the mechanisms influencing the synchronization locking range of mode-locked lasers. We find that changes in repetition rates can be accomodated through a joint interplay of dispersion and pulse shaping effects....

  9. High repetition rate, high energy, actively Q-switched all-in-fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourt, J. B.; Bertrand, A.; Guillemet, S.; Hernandez, Y.; Giannone, D.

    2010-05-01

    We report an actively Q-switched Ytterbium-doped all-in-fibre laser delivering 10ns pulses with high repetition rate (from 100kHz to 1MHz). The laser operation has been validated at three different wavelengths (1040, 1050 and 1064nm). The laser can deliver up to 20Watts average power with an high beam quality (M2 = 1).

  10. Scaling of black silicon processing time by high repetition rate femtosecond lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava Giorgio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surface texturing of silicon substrates is performed by femtosecond laser irradiation at high repetition rates. Various fabrication parameters are optimized in order to achieve very high absorptance in the visible region from the micro-structured silicon wafer as compared to the unstructured one. A 70-fold reduction of the processing time is demonstrated by increasing the laser repetition rate from 1 kHz to 200 kHz. Further scaling up to 1 MHz can be foreseen.

  11. A copper bromide vapour laser with a high pulse repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiyanov, D V; Evtushenko, Gennadii S; Sukhanov, V B; Fedorov, V F

    2002-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of a copper bromide vapour laser with a discharge-channel diameter above 2.5 cm and a high pump-pulse repetition rate are presented. A TGU1-1000/25 high-power tacitron used as a switch made it possible to obtain for the first time a fairly high output radiation power for pump-pulse repetition rates exceeding 200 kHz. At a maximum pump-pulse repetition rate of 250 kHz achieved in a laser tube 2.6 cm in diameter and 76 cm long, the output power was 1.5 W. The output powers of 3 and 10.5 W were reached for pump-pulse repetition rates of 200 and 100 kHz, respectively. These characteristics were obtained without circulating a buffer gas and (or) low-concentration active impurities through the active volume. (active media. lasers)

  12. Effects of picosecond laser repetition rate on ablation of Cr12MoV cold work mold steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Baoye; Deng, Leimin; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Fei; Duan, Jun, E-mail: duans@hust.edu.cn; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of pulse repetition rate on ablation efficiency and quality of Cr12MoV cold work mold steel have been studied using a picosecond (ps) pulse Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser system at λ= 1064 nm. The experimental results of area ablation on target surface reveal that laser repetition rate plays a significant role in controlling ablation efficiency and quality. Increasing the laser repetition rate, while keeping a constant mean power improves the ablation efficiency and quality. For each laser mean power, there is an optimal repetition rate to achieve a higher laser ablation efficiency with low surface roughness. A high ablation efficiency of 42.29, 44.11 and 47.52 μm{sup 3}/mJ, with surface roughness of 0.476, 0.463 and 0.706 μm could be achieved at laser repetition rate of 10 MHz, for laser mean power of 15, 17 and 19 W, respectively. Scanning electron microcopy images revels that the surface morphology evolves from rough with numerous craters, to flat without pores when we increased the laser repetition rate. The effects of laser repetition rate on the heat accumulation, plasma shield and ablation threshold were analyzed by numerical simulation, spectral analysis and multi-laser shot, respectively. The synergetic effects of laser repetition rate on laser ablation rate and machining quality were analyzed and discussed systemically in this paper.

  13. Comparison on different repetition rate locking methods in Er-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kangwen; Zhao, Peng; Luo, Jiang; Huang, Kun; Hao, Qiang; Zeng, Heping

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a systematic comparative research on the all-optical, mechanical and opto-mechanical repetition rate control methods in an Er-doped fiber laser. A piece of Yb-doped fiber, a piezoelectric transducer and an electronic polarization controller are simultaneously added in the laser cavity as different cavity length modulators. By measuring the cavity length tuning ranges, the output power fluctuations, the temporal and frequency repetition rate stability, we show that all-optical method introduces the minimal disturbances under current experimental condition.

  14. Research on the optoacoustic communication system for speech transmission by variable laser-pulse repetition rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyan; Qiu, Hongbing; He, Ning; Liao, Xin

    2018-06-01

    For the optoacoustic communication from in-air platforms to submerged apparatus, a method based on speech recognition and variable laser-pulse repetition rates is proposed, which realizes character encoding and transmission for speech. Firstly, the theories and spectrum characteristics of the laser-generated underwater sound are analyzed; and moreover character conversion and encoding for speech as well as the pattern of codes for laser modulation is studied; lastly experiments to verify the system design are carried out. Results show that the optoacoustic system, where laser modulation is controlled by speech-to-character baseband codes, is beneficial to improve flexibility in receiving location for underwater targets as well as real-time performance in information transmission. In the overwater transmitter, a pulse laser is controlled to radiate by speech signals with several repetition rates randomly selected in the range of one to fifty Hz, and then in the underwater receiver laser pulse repetition rate and data can be acquired by the preamble and information codes of the corresponding laser-generated sound. When the energy of the laser pulse is appropriate, real-time transmission for speaker-independent speech can be realized in that way, which solves the problem of underwater bandwidth resource and provides a technical approach for the air-sea communication.

  15. Patterning crystalline indium tin oxide by high repetition rate femtosecond laser-induced crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chung-Wei; Lin, Cen-Ying; Shen, Wei-Chih; Lee, Yi-Ju; Chen, Jenq-Shyong

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed for patterning crystalline indium tin oxide (c-ITO) patterns on amorphous ITO (a-ITO) thin films by femtosecond laser irradiation at 80 MHz repetition rate followed by chemical etching. In the proposed approach, the a-ITO film is transformed into a c-ITO film over a predetermined area via the heat accumulation energy supplied by the high repetition rate laser beam, and the unirradiated a-ITO film is then removed using an acidic etchant solution. The fabricated c-ITO patterns are observed using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The crystalline, optical, electrical properties were measured by X-ray diffraction, spectrophotometer, and four point probe station, respectively. The experimental results show that a high repetition rate reduces thermal shock and yields a corresponding improvement in the surface properties of the c-ITO patterns.

  16. Generation of plasma X-ray sources via high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguckis, Artūras; Plukis, Artūras; Reklaitis, Jonas; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Giniūnas, Linas; Vengris, Mikas

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we present the development and characterization of Cu plasma X-ray source driven by 20 W average power high repetition rate femtosecond laser in ambient atmosphere environment. The peak Cu- Kα photon flux of 2.3 × 109 photons/s into full solid angle is demonstrated (with a process conversion efficiency of 10-7), using pulses with peak intensity of 4.65 × 1014 W/cm2. Such Cu- Kα flux is significantly larger than others found in comparable experiments, performed in air environment. The effects of resonance plasma absorption process, when optimized, are shown to increase measured flux by the factor of 2-3. The relationship between X-ray photon flux and plasma-driving pulse repetition rate is quasi-linear, suggesting that fluxes could further be increased to 1010 photons/s using even higher average powers of driving radiation. These results suggest that to fully utilize the potential of high repetition rate laser sources, novel target material delivery systems (for example, jet-based ones) are required. On the other hand, this study demonstrates that high energy lasers currently used for plasma X-ray sources can be conveniently and efficiently replaced by high average power and repetition rate laser radiation, as a way to increase the brightness of the generated X-rays.

  17. High speed surface cleaning by a high repetition rated TEA-CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemi, Akira; Hirai, Ryo; Hagiwara, Kouji; Nagasaka, Keigo; Tashiro, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of high speed cleaning of solid surfaces by the laser ablation technique using a TEA-CO 2 laser. The laser pulses with the repetition rate of 1 kHz were applied to paint, rust, moss and dirt attached on the surfaces. The attachments were effectively removed without the damage of bulk surfaces by the irradiation of line-focused sequential pulses with an energy of 300 mJ/pulse. A cleaning rate reached to 17 m 2 /hour for the case of paint removal from iron surfaces. (author)

  18. Design and Development of High-Repetition-Rate Satellite Laser Ranging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Bang, Seong-Cheol; Sung, Ki-Pyoung; Lim, Hyung-Chul; Jung, Chan-Gyu; Kim, In-Yeung; Choi, Jae-Seung

    2015-09-01

    The Accurate Ranging System for Geodetic Observation ? Mobile (ARGO-M) was successfully developed as the first Korean mobile Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) system in 2012, and has joined in the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) tracking network, DAEdeoK (DAEK) station. The DAEK SLR station was approved as a validated station in April 2014, through the ILRS station ¡°data validation¡± process. The ARGO-M system is designed to enable 2 kHz laser ranging with millimeter-level precision for geodetic, remote sensing, navigation, and experimental satellites equipped with Laser Retroreflector Arrays (LRAs). In this paper, we present the design and development of a next generation high-repetition-rate SLR system for ARGO-M. The laser ranging rate up to 10 kHz is becoming an important issue in the SLR community to improve ranging precision. To implement high-repetition-rate SLR system, the High-repetition-rate SLR operation system (HSLR-10) was designed and developed using ARGO-M Range Gate Generator (A-RGG), so as to enable laser ranging from 50 Hz to 10 kHz. HSLR-10 includes both hardware controlling software and data post-processing software. This paper shows the design and development of key technologies of high-repetition-rate SLR system. The developed system was tested successfully at DAEK station and then moved to Sejong station, a new Korean SLR station, on July 1, 2015. HSLR-10 will begin normal operations at Sejong station in the near future.

  19. Ultraviolet excimer laser ablation: the effect of wavelength and repetition rate on in vivo guinea pig skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, J.; Kibbi, A.G.; Farinelli, W.; Boll, J.; Tan, O.T.

    1987-06-01

    Multiple dermatologic conditions that are currently treated with traditional cold-knife surgery are amenable to laser therapy. The ideal surgical treatment would be precise and total removal of abnormal tissue with maximal sparing of remaining structures. The ultraviolet (UV) excimer laser is capable of such precise tissue removal due to the penetration depth of 193 nm and 248 nm irradiation of 1 micron per pulse. This type of ablative tissue removal requires a high repetition rate for efficient lesional destruction. Excimer laser radiation at 193 nm is capable of high repetition rates, which are necessary while 248 nm radiation causes increasing nonspecific thermal injury as the laser repetition rate is increased.

  20. Very high repetition-rate electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd: YVO4 laser with optics and dynamics stabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuesong; Shi, Zhaohui; Huang, Yutao; Fan, Zhongwei; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Hou, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a very high repetition-rate, short-pulse, electro-optical cavity-dumped Nd: YVO4 laser is experimentally and theoretically investigated. The laser performance is optimized from two aspects. Firstly, the laser resonator is designed for a good thermal stability under large pump power fluctuation through optics methods. Secondly, dynamics simulation as well as experiments verifies that cavity dumping at very high repetition rate has better stability than medium/high repetition rate. At 30 W, 880 nm pump power, up to 500 kHz, constant 5 ns, stable 1064 nm fundamental-mode laser pulses can be obtained with 10 W average output power.

  1. An optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier for seeding high repetition rate free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höppner, H; Hage, A; Tanikawa, T; Schulz, M; Faatz, B; Riedel, R; Prandolini, M J; Teubner, U; Tavella, F

    2015-01-01

    High repetition rate free-electron lasers (FEL), producing highly intense extreme ultraviolet and x-ray pulses, require new high power tunable femtosecond lasers for FEL seeding and FEL pump-probe experiments. A tunable, 112 W (burst mode) optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) is demonstrated with center frequencies ranging from 720–900 nm, pulse energies up to 1.12 mJ and a pulse duration of 30 fs at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. Since the power scalability of this OPCPA is limited by the OPCPA-pump amplifier, we also demonstrate a 6.7–13.7 kW (burst mode) thin-disk OPCPA-pump amplifier, increasing the possible OPCPA output power to many hundreds of watts. Furthermore, third and fourth harmonic generation experiments are performed and the results are used to simulate a seeded FEL with high-gain harmonic generation. (paper)

  2. A mode-locked external-cavity quantum-dot laser with a variable repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Jin Peng; Li Xin-Kun; Wei Heng; Wu Yan-Hua; Wang Fei-Fei; Chen Hong-Mei; Wu Ju; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A mode-locked external-cavity laser emitting at 1.17-μm wavelength using an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot gain medium and a discrete semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. By changing the external-cavity length, repetition rates of 854, 912, and 969 MHz are achieved respectively. The narrowest −3-dB radio-frequency linewidth obtained is 38 kHz, indicating that the laser is under stable mode-locking operation. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Optimization of graffiti removal on natural stone by means of high repetition rate UV laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorucci, M.P.; López, A.J.; Ramil, A.; Pozo, S.; Rivas, T.

    2013-01-01

    The use of laser for graffiti removal is a promising alternative to conventional cleaning methods, though irradiation parameters must be carefully selected in order to achieve the effective cleaning without damaging the substrate, especially when referring to natural stone. From a practical point of view, once a safe working window is selected, it is necessary to determine the irradiation conditions to remove large paint areas, with minimal time consumption. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic procedure to select the optimum parameters for graffiti removal by means of the 3rd harmonic of a high repetition rate nanosecond Nd:YVO 4 laser. Ablation thresholds of four spray paint colors were determined and the effect of pulse repetition frequency, beam diameter and line scan separation was analyzed, obtaining a set of values which optimize the ablation process.

  4. Optimization of graffiti removal on natural stone by means of high repetition rate UV laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorucci, M.P., E-mail: m.p.fiorucci@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); López, A.J., E-mail: ana.xesus.lopez@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ramil, A., E-mail: alberto.ramil@udc.es [Centro de Investigacións Tecnolóxicas, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Pozo, S., E-mail: ipozo@uvigo.es [Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.es [Dpto. Enxeñaría dos Recursos Naturais e Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.E. Minas, Universidade de Vigo, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    The use of laser for graffiti removal is a promising alternative to conventional cleaning methods, though irradiation parameters must be carefully selected in order to achieve the effective cleaning without damaging the substrate, especially when referring to natural stone. From a practical point of view, once a safe working window is selected, it is necessary to determine the irradiation conditions to remove large paint areas, with minimal time consumption. The aim of this paper is to present a systematic procedure to select the optimum parameters for graffiti removal by means of the 3rd harmonic of a high repetition rate nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. Ablation thresholds of four spray paint colors were determined and the effect of pulse repetition frequency, beam diameter and line scan separation was analyzed, obtaining a set of values which optimize the ablation process.

  5. Diffusively cooled thin-sheath high-repetition-rate TEA and TEMA lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsiv, Shaul; Gabay, Amnon; Sintov, Yoav

    1993-05-01

    Transverse electric atmospheric (TEA), or multi atmospheric (TEMA) lasers deliver intense short laser pulses of considerable energies. Recurrent high repetition rate pulse trains afford substantial average power levels. In a high rep-rate operation the gas flows across the cavity and is externally cooled to maintain a reasonably low temperature. The gas flow gear and heat exchanger are bulky and costly. In this work we present a repetitively pulsed TEA or TEMA laser that combines energy and peak power features in an individual pulse with the substantial average power levels of a pulse train in a thin layer of gas. Excess heat is disposed of, by conduction through the gas, to cooled enclosing walls. The gas does not flow. The method applies to vibrational transition molecular lasers in the infrared, where elevated temperatures are deleterious to the laser operation. The gist of the method draws on the law that heat conductivity in gases does not depend on their pressure. The fact lends unique operational flexibility and compactness, desirable for industrial and research purposes.

  6. Electrode patterning of ITO thin films by high repetition rate fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H.K., E-mail: HKLin@mail.npust.edu.tw; Hsu, W.C.

    2014-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are deposited on glass substrates using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. As-deposited ITO thin film was 100 nm in thickness and a transmittance of ITO film on glass substrate was 79% at 550 nm. Conductive electrodes are then patterned on the ITO films using a high repetition rate fiber laser system followed by a wet chemical etching process. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the patterned samples are evaluated by means of a four-point probe technique, spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the samples annealed with a pulse repetition rate of 150 kHz or 400 kHz have a low sheet resistivity of 21 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of 90%. In addition, it is shown that a higher pulse repetition rate reduces both the residual stress and the surface roughness of the patterned specimens. Therefore, the present results suggest that a pulse repetition rate of 400 kHz represents the optimal processing condition for the patterning of crack-free ITO-coated glass substrates with good electrical and optical properties.

  7. Electrode patterning of ITO thin films by high repetition rate fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.K.; Hsu, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are deposited on glass substrates using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. As-deposited ITO thin film was 100 nm in thickness and a transmittance of ITO film on glass substrate was 79% at 550 nm. Conductive electrodes are then patterned on the ITO films using a high repetition rate fiber laser system followed by a wet chemical etching process. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the patterned samples are evaluated by means of a four-point probe technique, spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the samples annealed with a pulse repetition rate of 150 kHz or 400 kHz have a low sheet resistivity of 21 Ω/□ and a high optical transmittance of 90%. In addition, it is shown that a higher pulse repetition rate reduces both the residual stress and the surface roughness of the patterned specimens. Therefore, the present results suggest that a pulse repetition rate of 400 kHz represents the optimal processing condition for the patterning of crack-free ITO-coated glass substrates with good electrical and optical properties.

  8. Effects of high repetition rate and beam size on hard tissue damage due to subpicosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beop-Min; Feit, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Joslin, Elizabeth J.; Eichler, Juergen; Stoller, Patrick C.; Da Silva, Luiz B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the effects of the repetition rate and the beam size on the threshold for ultrashort laser pulse induced damage in dentin. The observed results are explained as cumulative thermal effects. Our model is consistent with the experimental results and explains the dependence of the threshold on repetition rate, beam size, and exposure time. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  9. Elemental redistribution behavior in tellurite glass induced by high repetition rate femtosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Yu; Zhou, Jiajia; Khisro, Said Nasir; Zhou, Shifeng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Abnormal elements redistribution behavior was observed in tellurite glass. • The refractive index and Raman intensity distribution changed significantly. • The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed. • First time report on the abnormal element redistribution behavior in glass. • The glass network structure determines the elemental redistribution behavior. - Abstract: The success in the fabrication of micro-structures in glassy materials using femtosecond laser irradiation has proved its potential applications in the construction of three-dimensional micro-optical components or devices. In this paper, we report the elemental redistribution behavior in tellurite glass after the irradiation of high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. The relative glass composition remained unchanged while the glass density changed significantly, which is quite different from previously reported results about the high repetition rate femtosecond laser induced elemental redistribution in silicate glasses. The involved mechanism is discussed with the conclusion that the glass network structure plays the key role to determine the elemental redistribution. This observation not only helps to understand the interaction process of femtosecond laser with glassy materials, but also has potential applications in the fabrication of micro-optical devices

  10. Direct writing of sub-wavelength ripples on silicon using femtosecond laser at high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Changxin; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Kaijun; Zhu, Min; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NSRs and DSRs are obtained on silicon surface. • With increasing direct writing speed, the NSRs suddenly changes and becomes the DSRs. • We develop a Sipe–Drude interference theory by considering the thermal excitation. - Abstract: The near sub-wavelength and deep sub-wavelength ripples on monocrystalline silicon were formed in air by using linearly polarized and high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses (f = 76 MHz, λ = 800 nm, τ = 50 fs). The effects of laser pulse energy, direct writing speed and laser polarization on silicon surface morphology are studied. When the laser pulse energy is 2 nJ/pulse and the direct writing speed varies from 10 to 25 mm/s, the near sub-wavelength ripples (NSRs) with orientation perpendicular to the laser polarization are generated. While the direct writing speed reaches 30 mm/s, the direction of the obtained deep sub-wavelength ripples (DSRs) suddenly changes and becomes parallel to the laser polarization, rarely reported so far for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon. Meanwhile, we extend the Sipe–Drude interference theory by considering the thermal excitation, and numerically calculate the efficacy factor for silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The revised Sipe–Drude interference theoretical results show good agreement with the periods and orientations of sub-wavelength ripples.

  11. Heat accumulation during high repetition rate ultrafast laser interaction: Waveguide writing in borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haibin; Eaton, Shane M; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2007-01-01

    During high repetition rate (>200 kHz) ultrafast laser waveguide writing, visible heat modified zones surrounding the formed waveguide occur as a result of heat accumulation. The radii of the heat-modified zones increase with the laser net fluence, and were found to correlate with the formation of low-loss and cylindrically symmetric optical waveguides. A numerical thermal model based on the finite difference method is applied here to account for cumulative heating and diffusion effects. The model successfully shows that heat propagation and accumulation accurately predict the radius of the 'heat modified' zones observed in borosilicate glass waveguides formed across a wide range of laser exposure conditions. Such modelling promises better control of thermal effects for optimizing the fabrication and performance of three-dimensional optical devices in transparent materials

  12. Characterization of a high repetition-rate laser-driven short-pulsed neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, J.; Nees, J. A.; Hammig, M. D.; Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a repetitive, high flux, short-pulsed laser-driven neutron source using a heavy-water jet target. We measure neutron generation at 1/2 kHz repetition rate using several-mJ pulse energies, yielding a time-averaged neutron flux of 2 × 105 neutrons s‑1 (into 4π steradians). Deuteron spectra are also measured in order to understand source characteristics. Analyses of time-of-flight neutron spectra indicate that two separate populations of neutrons, ‘prompt’ and ‘delayed’, are generated at different locations. Gamma-ray emission from neutron capture 1H(n,γ) is also measured to confirm the neutron flux.

  13. Laser-diode pumped self-mode-locked praseodymium visible lasers with multi-gigahertz repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Di Lieto, Alberto; Tonelli, Mauro; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate efficient laser-diode pumped multi-gigahertz (GHz) self-mode-locked praseodymium (Pr3+) visible lasers with broadband spectra from green to deep red for the first time to our knowledge. With a Pr3+-doped GdLiF4 crystal, stable self-mode-locked visible pulsed lasers at the wavelengths of 522 nm, 607 nm, 639 nm, and 720 nm have been obtained with the repetition rates of 2.8 GHz, 3.1 GHz, 3.1 GHz, and 3.0 GHz, respectively. The maximum output power was 612 mW with the slope efficiency of 46.9% at 639 nm. The mode-locking mechanism was theoretically analyzed. The stable second-harmonic mode-locking with doubled repetition frequency was also realized based on the Fabry-Perot effect formed in the laser cavity. In addition, we find that the polarization directions were turned with lasing wavelengths. This work may provide a new way for generating efficient ultrafast pulses with high- and changeable-repetition rates in the visible range.

  14. HIGH REPETITION RATE MICROCHIP ER3+,YB3+:YAL3(BO34 DIODE-PUMPED LASER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Gorbachenya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diode-pumped passively Q-switched microchip Er,Yb:YAl3(BO34 laser for range-finding has been demonstrated. By using a Co2+:MgAl2O4 as a saturable absorber TEM00–mode Q-switched average output power of 315 mW was demonstrated at 1522 nm with pulse duration of 5 ns and pulse energy of 5,25 μJ at a repetition rate of 60 kHz.

  15. Performance of a high repetition pulse rate laser system for in-gas-jet laser ionization studies with the Leuven laser ion source LISOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, R.; Sonnenschein, V.T.; Bastin, B.; Franchoo, S.; Huyse, M.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Kron, T.; Lecesne, N.; Moore, I.D.; Osmond, B.; Pauwels, D.; Radulov, D.; Raeder, S.; Rens, L.

    2012-01-01

    The laser ionization efficiency of the Leuven gas cell-based laser ion source was investigated under on- and off-line conditions using two distinctly different laser setups: a low-repetition rate dye laser system and a high-repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser system. A systematic study of the ion signal dependence on repetition rate and laser pulse energy was performed in off-line tests using stable cobalt and copper isotopes. These studies also included in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy measurements on the hyperfine structure of 63 Cu. A final run under on-line conditions in which the radioactive isotope 59 Cu (T 1/2 = 81.5 s) was produced, showed a comparable yield of the two laser systems for in-gas-cell ionization. However, a significantly improved time overlap by using the high-repetition rate laser system for in-gas-jet ionization was demonstrated by an increase of the overall duty cycle, and at the same time, pointed to the need for a better shaped atomic jet to reach higher ionization efficiencies.

  16. High repetition rate laser-driven MeV ion acceleration at variable background pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joseph; Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John; Frische, Kyle; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, W. M.

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) can produce highly energetic photons, electrons, and ions with numerous potential real-world applications. Many of these applications will require repeatable, high repetition targets that are suitable for LPI experiments. Liquid targets can meet many of these needs, but they typically require higher chamber pressure than is used for many low repetition rate experiments. The effect of background pressure on the LPI has not been thoroughly studied. With this in mind, the Extreme Light group at the Air Force Research Lab has carried out MeV ion and electron acceleration experiments at kHz repetition rate with background pressures ranging from 30 mTorr to >1 Torr using a submicron ethylene glycol liquid sheet target. We present these results and provide two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation results that offer insight on the thresholds for the efficient acceleration of electrons and ions. This research is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under LRIR Project 17RQCOR504 under the management of Dr. Riq Parra and Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier. Support was also provided by the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  17. High repetition rate tunable femtosecond pulses and broadband amplification from fiber laser pumped parametric amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, T V; Schmidt, O; Bruchmann, C; Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Cormier, E; Tünnermann, A

    2006-05-29

    We report on the generation of high energy femtosecond pulses at 1 MHz repetition rate from a fiber laser pumped optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Nonlinear bandwidth enhancement in fibers provides the intrinsically synchronized signal for the parametric amplifier. We demonstrate large tunability extending from 700 nm to 1500 nm of femtosecond pulses with pulse energies as high as 1.2 muJ when the OPA is seeded by a supercontinuum generated in a photonic crystal fiber. Broadband amplification over more than 85 nm is achieved at a fixed wavelength. Subsequent compression in a prism sequence resulted in 46 fs pulses. With an average power of 0.5 W these pulses have a peak-power above 10 MW. In particular, the average power and pulse energy scalability of both involved concepts, the fiber laser and the parametric amplifier, will enable easy up-scaling to higher powers.

  18. Development of ultra high speed photographic system using high repetition rate visible laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Hun; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Jung Bog; Lim, Chang Hwan; Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Kyu Seok; Lee, Byung Deok; Rhi, Jong Hoon; Baik, Dae Hyun; Han, Jae Min; Rho, Si Pyo; Lee, Byung Cheol; Jeong, Do Yung; Choi, An Seong; Jeong, Chan Ik; Park, Dae Ung; Jeong, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Heon Jun; Jang, Rae gak; Jo, Do Hun; Park, Min Young

    1992-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and commercialize a high speed photographic system equipped with a high repetition rate visible laser. The developed system provides the characteristics of high time resolution and large number of frames. The system consists of 10 W air cooled CVL or a 30 W water cooled CVL, a rotating drum-type high speed camera with the framing rate of 35,000 fps, and a automatic control device. The system has the performance of 10 nsec time resolution, 35,000 fps framing rate, and 250 picture frames. The high speed photographic systems are widely applied to the fields such as high-efficient engine development, high-speed vibration analysis, shock wave propagation study, flow visualization analysis, weapon development, etc. (Author)

  19. High-repetition-rate laser-proton acceleration from a condensed hydrogen jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obst, Lieselotte; Zeil, Karl; Metzkes, Josefine; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Rehwald, Martin; Sommer, Philipp; Brack, Florian; Schramm, Ulrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Goede, Sebastian; Gauthier, Maxence; Roedel, Christian; MacDonald, Michael; Schumaker, William; Glenzer, Siegfried [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Applications of laser-accelerated protons demand a stable source of energetic particles at high repetition rates. We present the results of our experimental campaign in cooperation with MEC/SLAC at the 10Hz Ti:Sa laser Draco of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), employing a pure condensed hydrogen jet as a renewable target. Draco delivers pulses of 30 fs and 5 J at 800 nm, focused to a 3 μm spot by an F/2.5 off-axis parabolic mirror. The jet's nominal electron density is approximately 30 times the critical density and its thickness is 2 μm, 5 μm or 10 μm, depending on the applied aperture on the source. Ion diagnostics reveal mono-species proton acceleration in a solid angle of at least +/-45 with respect to the incoming laser beam, with maximum energies of around 5 MeV. The expanding jet could be monitored on-shot with a temporally synchronized probe beam perpendicular to the pump laser axis. Recorded probe images resemble those of z-pinch experiments with metal wires and indicate an m=0 instability in the plasma.

  20. High-power 355 nm ultraviolet lasers operating at ultrahigh repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Liu, Q; Yan, P; Gong, M

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a novel 355 nm ultraviolet (UV) laser operating at ultrahigh repetition rate from 300 kHz to 1 MHz. The hybrid fiber-MOPA–bulk amplifiers based IR source exhibits a high average power of 105 W with near-diffraction-limited beam quality, narrow linewidth and high polarization extinction ratio. Two-cascaded LBO crystals are employed for high efficiency frequency tripling, and a maximum 43.7 W of average UV power is achieved at 400 kHz, corresponding to a conversion efficiency as high as 41.6%. The pulse duration of the UV pulse can be tuned from 5 to 10 ns with good pulse peak stability (better than 2.2% (RMS)). (letter)

  1. Fluorescence fluctuation of Rhodamine 6G dye for high repetition rate laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nageshwar; Patel, Hemant K.; Dixit, S.K.; Vora, H.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, fluorescence from Rhodamine 6G dye for stationary and flowing liquid medium, excited by copper vapor laser, operating at 6 kHz pulse repetition frequency, was investigated. Large fluctuations in spectral width (about 5 nm) and spectral intensity in the fluorescence from stationary dye solution were observed, while fluctuations in the spectral width diminish in a flowing dye medium. However, this increases spectral intensity and slightly red shifts the fluorescence peak emission wavelength. Theoretical analysis was carried out to explain the observed results by incorporating the temperature induced refractive index, beam deflection and spectral variation in stationary dye solution. Numerical analysis of thermal load and contour of temperature in the optical pumped region inside the dye cell in stationary, 0.2 and 1.5 m/s flow velocity was also investigated to support our analysis. - Highlights: ► High repetition rate excitation generates inhomogeneity in the gain medium. ► Fluorescence of Rhodamine 6G in stationary and flowing medium was carried out. ► Fluorescence fluctuations lessen in flowing medium in contrast to stationary medium. ► Our theoretical and numerical analysis enlightens the experimented outcome trend.

  2. Efficient high-peak-power and high-repetition-rate eye-safe laser using an intracavity KTP OPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J; Jiao, Z X; Wang, B; He, G Y

    2015-01-01

    An efficient high-peak-power and high-repetition-rate intracavity KTP optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 laser is demonstrated. We achieved 1.5 W output power of 1.5 μm at 10 kHz repetition rate with the pulse duration of 6 ns. The maximum peak power of 25 kW and the maximum pulse energy of 150 μJ have been obtained. The maximum conversion efficiency of 9.5% is achieved with respect to a laser diode power of 10.5 W. (paper)

  3. Compact and high repetition rate Kerr-lens mode-locked 532 nm Nd:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zuohan; Peng, Jiying; Yuan, Ruixia; Yao, Jianquan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Tongtong

    2015-01-01

    A compact and feasible CW Kerr-lens-induced mode-locked 532 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser system was experimentally demonstrated for the first time with theoretical analysis. Kerr-lens mode locking with intracavity second harmonic generation provides a promising method to generate a high-repetition-rate picosecond green laser. With an incident pump power of 6 W, the average output power of mode locking was 258 mW at a high repetition rate of 1.1 GHz. (paper)

  4. A high repetition rate transverse beam profile diagnostic for laser-plasma proton sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Nicholas; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Kando, Masaki; Nishitani, Keita

    2016-10-01

    The recently upgraded J-KAREN-P laser can provide PW peak power and intensities approaching 1022 Wcm-2 at 0.1 Hz. Scaling of sheath acceleration to such high intensities predicts generation of protons to near 100 MeV, but changes in electron heating mechanisms may affect the emitted proton beam properties, such as divergence and pointing. High repetition rate simultaneous measurement of the transverse proton distribution and energy spectrum are therefore key to understanding and optimising the source. Recently plastic scintillators have been used to measure online proton beam transverse profiles, removing the need for time consuming post-processing. We are therefore developing a scintillator based transverse proton beam profile diagnostic for use in ion acceleration experiments using the J-KAREN-P laser. Differential filtering provides a coarse energy spectrum measurement, and time-gating allows differentiation of protons from other radiation. We will discuss the design and implementation of the diagnostic, as well as proof-of-principle results from initial experiments on the J-KAREN-P system demonstrating the measurement of sheath accelerated proton beams up to 20 MeV.

  5. Pulsed laser deposition of SrRuO3 thin-films: The role of the pulse repetition rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schraknepper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SrRuO3 thin-films were deposited with different pulse repetition rates, fdep, epitaxially on vicinal SrTiO3 substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition. The measurement of several physical properties (e.g., composition by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the out-of-plane lattice parameter, the electric conductivity, and the Curie temperature consistently reveals that an increase in laser repetition rate results in an increase in ruthenium deficiency in the films. By the same token, it is shown that when using low repetition rates, approaching a nearly stoichiometric cation ratio in SrRuO3 becomes feasible. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism to explain the widely observed Ru deficiency of SrRuO3 thin-films. Our findings demand these theoretical considerations to be based on kinetic rather than widely employed thermodynamic arguments.

  6. Development of high repetition rate ultra-short pulse solid state lasers pumped by laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Ken-ichi; Lu, Jianren; Takaichi, Kazunori; Yagi, Hideki; Yanagitani, Takakimi; Kaminskii, Alexander; Kawanaka, Junji

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique for ceramic lasers has been developed recently. Self-energy-driven sintering of nano-and micro particles created the fully transparent Nd:YAG ceramics. The ceramic YAG demonstrated high efficiency operation (optical-to-optical conversion of 60% in end pumping) and solid-phase crystals growth and the possible scaling were investigated principally. Typical performance of ceramic YAG laser has been reviewed. The present status and future prospect of the ceramic lasers technologies were discussed. (author)

  7. Improved repetition rate mixed isotope CO{sub 2} TEA laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, D. B., E-mail: dbctechnology@earthlink.net [DBC Technology Corp., 4221 Mesa St, Torrance, California 90505 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A compact CO{sub 2} TEA laser has been developed for remote chemical detection that operates at a repetition rate of 250 Hz. It emits 700 mJ/pulse at 10.6 μm in a multimode beam with the {sup 12}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotope. With mixed {sup 12}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} plus {sup 13}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotopes it emits multiple lines in both isotope manifolds to improve detection of a broad range of chemicals. In particular, output pulse energies are 110 mJ/pulse at 9.77 μm, 250 mJ/pulse at 10 μm, and 550 mJ/pulse at 11.15 μm, useful for detection of the chemical agents Sarin, Tabun, and VX. Related work shows capability for long term sealed operation with a catalyst and an agile tuner at a wavelength shift rate of 200 Hz.

  8. The effect of laser repetition rate on the LASiS synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles in aqueous starch solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamiri R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reza Zamiri,1 Azmi Zakaria,1,* Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar,2 Majid Darroudi,3 Golnoosh Zamiri,1 Zahid Rizwan,1 Gregor PC Drummen4,* 1Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; 3Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Bionanoscience and Bio-Imaging Program, Cellular Stress and Ageing Program, Bio&Nano-Solutions, Düsseldorf, Germany*These authors contributed to this work equallyAbstract: Laser ablation-based nanoparticle synthesis in solution is rapidly becoming popular, particularly for potential biomedical and life science applications. This method promises one pot synthesis and concomitant bio-functionalization, is devoid of toxic chemicals, does not require complicated apparatus, can be combined with natural stabilizers, is directly biocompatible, and has high particle size uniformity. Size control and reduction is generally determined by the laser settings; that the size and size distribution scales with laser fluence is well described. Conversely, the effect of the laser repetition rate on the final nanoparticle product in laser ablation is less well-documented, especially in the presence of stabilizers. Here, the influence of the laser repetition rate during laser ablation synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of starch as a stabilizer was investigated. The increment of the repetition rate does not negatively influence the ablation efficiency, but rather shows increased productivity, causes a red-shift in the plasmon resonance peak of the silver–starch nanoparticles, an increase in mean particle size and size distribution, and a distinct lack of agglomerate formation. Optimal results were achieved at 10 Hz repetition rate, with a mean particle size of ~10 nm and a

  9. Advances in high repetition rate, ultra-short, gigawatt laser systems for time-resolved spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMauro, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this article is to emphasize the current advances in the development of high-repetition rate amplifier pumps. Although this review highlights amplifier pump development, any recent data from achieved outputs via the tunable amplifier section is also discussed. The first section describes desirable parameters attributable to the pump amplifier while the rest of the article deals with specific examples for various options. The pump amplifiers can be characterized into two distinct classes; those achieving operation in the hundred hertz regime and those performing at repetition rates ≥1kHz. 23 refs., 4 figs

  10. Generation of nanosecond laser pulses at a 2.2-MHz repetition rate by a cw diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd3+:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghia, Nguyen T; Hao, Nguyen V; Orlovich, Valentin A; Hung, Nguyen D

    2011-01-01

    We report a new configuration of a high-repetition rate nanosecond laser based on a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The SESAM is conventional technical solution for passive mode-locking at 1064 nm and simultaneously used as a highly reflecting mirror and a saturable absorber in a high-Q and short cavity of a cw diode-end-pumped a-cut Nd 3+ :YVO 4 laser. Two laser beams are coupled out from the cavity using an intracavity low-reflection thin splitter. The laser characteristics are investigated as functions of pump and resonator parameters. Using a 1.8-W cw pump laser diode at 808 nm, the passively Q-switched SESAMbased laser generates 22-ns pulses with an average power of 275 mW at a pulse repetition rate of 2250 kHz.

  11. Ultrafast, high repetition rate, ultraviolet, fiber-laser-based source: application towards Yb+ fast quantum-logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mahmood Irtiza; Petrasiunas, Matthew Joseph; Bentley, Christopher D B; Taylor, Richard L; Carvalho, André R R; Hope, Joseph J; Streed, Erik W; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David

    2016-07-25

    Trapped ions are one of the most promising approaches for the realization of a universal quantum computer. Faster quantum logic gates could dramatically improve the performance of trapped-ion quantum computers, and require the development of suitable high repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here we report on a robust frequency upconverted fiber laser based source, able to deliver 2.5 ps ultraviolet (UV) pulses at a stabilized repetition rate of 300.00000 MHz with an average power of 190 mW. The laser wavelength is resonant with the strong transition in Ytterbium (Yb+) at 369.53 nm and its repetition rate can be scaled up using high harmonic mode locking. We show that our source can produce arbitrary pulse patterns using a programmable pulse pattern generator and fast modulating components. Finally, simulations demonstrate that our laser is capable of performing resonant, temperature-insensitive, two-qubit quantum logic gates on trapped Yb+ ions faster than the trap period and with fidelity above 99%.

  12. Development of a high repetition rate laser-plasma accelerator for ultra-fast electron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaurepaire, B.

    2009-01-01

    Electronic microscopy and electron diffraction allowed the understanding of the organization of atoms in matter. Using a temporally short source, one can measure atomic displacements or modifications of the electronic distribution in matter. To date, the best temporal resolution for time resolved diffraction experiments is of the order of a hundred femto-seconds (fs). Laser accelerators are good candidates to reach the femtosecond temporal resolution in electron diffraction experiments. Such accelerators used to work at a low repetition rate, so that it was necessary to develop a new one operating at a high repetition rate in order to accumulate a large amount of data. In this thesis, a laser-plasma accelerator operating at the kHz repetition rate was developed and built. This source generates electron bunches at 100 keV from 3 mJ and 25 fs laser pulses. The physics of the acceleration has been studied, and the effect of the laser wavefront on the electron transverse distribution has been demonstrated. (author)

  13. Research of narrow pulse width, high repetition rate, high output power fiber lasers for deep space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan-feng; Li, Hong-zuo; Wang, Yan; Hao, Zi-qiang; Xiao, Dong-Ya

    2013-08-01

    As human beings expand the research in unknown areas constantly, the deep space exploration has become a hot research topic all over the world. According to the long distance and large amount of information transmission characteristics of deep space exploration, the space laser communication is the preferred mode because it has the advantages of concentrated energy, good security, and large information capacity and interference immunity. In a variety of laser source, fibre-optical pulse laser has become an important communication source in deep space laser communication system because of its small size, light weight and large power. For fiber lasers, to solve the contradiction between the high repetition rate and the peak value power is an important scientific problem. General Q technology is difficult to obtain a shorter pulse widths, This paper presents a DFB semiconductor laser integrated with Electro-absorption modulator to realize the narrow pulse width, high repetition rate of the seed source, and then using a two-cascaded high gain fiber amplifier as amplification mean, to realize the fibre-optical pulse laser with pulse width 3ns, pulse frequency 200kHz and peak power 1kW. According to the space laser atmospheric transmission window, the wavelength selects for 1.06um. It is adopted that full fibre technology to make seed source and amplification, pumping source and amplification of free-space coupled into fiber-coupled way. It can overcome that fibre lasers are vulnerable to changes in external conditions such as vibration, temperature drift and other factors affect, improving long-term stability. The fiber lasers can be modulated by PPM mode, to realize high rate modulation, because of its peak power, high transmission rate, narrow pulse width, high frequency stability, all technical indexes meet the requirements of the exploration of deep space communication technology.

  14. Periodic structures on germanium induced by high repetition rate femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yanbin; Xie, Changxin; Liu, Kaijun; Zhou, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are studied on germanium surface in air by the femtosecond pulsed laser with repetition frequency of 76 MHz and wavelength λ of 800 nm. Three types of LIPSS were found and they are low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL), high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL), and LSFL superimposed with HSFL. The period ΛLSFL of LSFL shrinks quickly from approximately 650 nm to 400 nm (∼λ/2) when lowering the scanning speed. Comparatively, the period ΛHSFL of HSFL keeps almost constant between 90 and 100 nm (∼λ/8) when the scanning speed and the laser pulse energy vary. LSFL and HSFL coexist when the laser pulse energy is around 3.3 nJ/pulse and the scanning speed ranges between 3 and 8 mm/s. The surface plasmon polariton waves make a contribution to the formation of LIPSS and the fourth harmonic generation (FHG) might be involved in the formation of HSFL.

  15. Electron diffraction using ultrafast electron bunches from a laser-wakefield accelerator at kHz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.-H.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Beaurepaire, B.; Nees, J. A.; Hou, B.; Malka, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Faure, J.

    2013-02-01

    We show that electron bunches in the 50-100 keV range can be produced from a laser wakefield accelerator using 10 mJ, 35 fs laser pulses operating at 0.5 kHz. It is shown that using a solenoid magnetic lens, the electron bunch distribution can be shaped. The resulting transverse and longitudinal coherence is suitable for producing diffraction images from a polycrystalline 10 nm aluminum foil. The high repetition rate, the stability of the electron source, and the fact that its uncorrelated bunch duration is below 100 fs make this approach promising for the development of sub-100 fs ultrafast electron diffraction experiments.

  16. Electron diffraction using ultrafast electron bunches from a laser-wakefield accelerator at kHz repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Z.-H.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Nees, J. A.; Hou, B.; Krushelnick, K. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106-2099 (United States); Beaurepaire, B.; Malka, V.; Faure, J. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, ENSTA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-02-11

    We show that electron bunches in the 50-100 keV range can be produced from a laser wakefield accelerator using 10 mJ, 35 fs laser pulses operating at 0.5 kHz. It is shown that using a solenoid magnetic lens, the electron bunch distribution can be shaped. The resulting transverse and longitudinal coherence is suitable for producing diffraction images from a polycrystalline 10 nm aluminum foil. The high repetition rate, the stability of the electron source, and the fact that its uncorrelated bunch duration is below 100 fs make this approach promising for the development of sub-100 fs ultrafast electron diffraction experiments.

  17. Repetition rate stabilization of an erbium-doped all-fiber laser via opto-mechanical control of the intracavity group velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xuling; He, Boqu; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Yang; Bai, Dongbi; Wang, Chao; Liu, Geping; Luo, Daping; Liu, Fengjiang; Li, Wenxue; Zeng, Heping; Yang, Kangwen; Hao, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for stabilizing the repetition rate of an erbium-doped all-fiber laser by inserting an electronic polarization controller (EPC) in the fiber laser cavity. The device exhibited good integration, low cost, and convenient operation. Such a repetition rate stabilization may facilitate an all-fiber laser comb system with high integration. The repetition rate was phase-locked to a Rb reference more than 72 h with a low feedback voltage applied to one channel of the EPC. The repetition rate was 74.6 MHz. The standard deviation and the repetition rate linewidth were 1.4 and 1.7 mHz, respectively

  18. Investigation on repetition rate and pulse duration influences on ablation efficiency of metals using a high average power Yb-doped ultrafast laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast lasers provide an outstanding processing quality but their main drawback is the low removal rate per pulse compared to longer pulses. This limitation could be overcome by increasing both average power and repetition rate. In this paper, we report on the influence of high repetition rate and pulse duration on both ablation efficiency and processing quality on metals. All trials have been performed with a single tunable ultrafast laser (350 fs to 10ps.

  19. The Multidisk Diode-Pumped High Power Yb:YAG Laser Amplifier of High-Intensity Laser System with 1 kHz Repetition Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptsov, G. V.; Petrov, V. V.; Petrov, V. A.; Laptev, A. V.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The source of instabilities in the multidisk diode-pumped high power Yb:YAG laser amplifier with cryogenic closed-loop cooling in the laser amplification channel of the high-intensity laser system with 1 kHz repetition rate was determined. Dissected copper mounts were designed and used to suppress instabilities and to achieve repeatability of the system. The equilibrium temperature dependency of the active elements on average power was measured. The seed laser for the multidisk amplifier was numerically simulated and designed to allow one to increase pulses output energy after the amplifier up to 500 mJ.

  20. LASERS: Parameters of a trigatron-driven low-pulse-repetition-rate TEA CO2 laser preionised by a surface corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aram, M.; Behjat, A.; Shabanzadeh, M.; Mansori, F.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a TEA CO2 laser with UV preionisation by a surface corona discharge is described and the dependences of its average output energy on the gas-flow rate, discharge voltage and pulse repetition rate are presented. The scheme of the electric circuit and the geometry of the pre-ionisation system are considered. The electric circuit is designed to produce only impulse voltage difference between the laser electrodes. The triggering system of the trigatron is used to prevent the appearance of the arc. The dependences of the current, voltage and average output energy on the gas-mixture composition and applied voltages at a low pulse repetition rate are presented. The central output wavelength of the laser was measured with an IR spectrometer. Lasing at two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO2 molecule was observed, which demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous lasing at several lines.

  1. Narrow Q-switching pulse width and low mode-locking repetition rate Q-switched mode locking with a new coupled laser cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, J Y; Zheng, Y; Shen, J P; Shi, Y X

    2013-01-01

    An original diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked solid state Nd:GdVO 4 laser is demonstrated. The laser operates with double saturable absorbers and a new coupled laser cavity. The Q-switching envelope width is compressed to be about 15 ns and the mode-locking repetition rate is as low as 90 MHz. (paper)

  2. A soft X-ray source based on a low divergence, high repetition rate ultraviolet laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E. A.; Hoffman, A. L.; Milroy, R. D.; Quimby, D. C.; Albrecht, G. F.

    The CORK code is utilized to evaluate the applicability of low divergence ultraviolet lasers for efficient production of soft X-rays. The use of the axial hydrodynamic code wih one ozone radial expansion to estimate radial motion and laser energy is examined. The calculation of ionization levels of the plasma and radiation rates by employing the atomic physics and radiation model included in the CORK code is described. Computations using the hydrodynamic code to determine the effect of laser intensity, spot size, and wavelength on plasma electron temperature are provided. The X-ray conversion efficiencies of the lasers are analyzed. It is observed that for a 1 GW laser power the X-ray conversion efficiency is a function of spot size, only weakly dependent on pulse length for time scales exceeding 100 psec, and better conversion efficiencies are obtained at shorter wavelengths. It is concluded that these small lasers focused to 30 micron spot sizes and 10 to the 14th W/sq cm intensities are useful sources of 1-2 keV radiation.

  3. Actual laser removal of black soiling crust from siliceous sandstone by high pulse repetition rate equipment: effects on surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias-Campos, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research project studies the role of pulse repetition rate in laser removal of black soiling crust from siliceous sandstone, and specifically, how laser fluence correlates with high pulse repetition rates in cleaning practice. The aim is to define practical cleaning processes and determine simple techniques for evaluation based on end-users’ perspective (restorers. Spot and surface tests were made using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system with a wide range of pulse repetition rates (5–200 Hz, systematically analysed and compared by macrophotography, portable microscope, stereomicroscope with 3D visualizing and area roughness measurements, SEM imaging and spectrophotometry. The results allow the conclusion that for operation under high pulse repetition rates the average of total energy applied per spot on a treated surface should be attendant upon fluence values in order to provide a systematic and accurate description of an actual laser cleaning intervention.En este trabajo se estudia el papel de la frecuencia de repetición en la limpieza láser de costras de contaminación sobre una arenisca silícea, y concretamente, como se relaciona fluencia y frecuencias elevadas en una limpieza real. Se pretende definir un procedimiento práctico de limpieza y determinar técnicas sencillas de evaluación desde el punto de vista de los usuarios finales (restauradores. Para el estudio se realizaron diferentes ensayos en spot y en superficie mediante un equipo Q-switched Nd:YAG con un amplio rango de frecuencias (5–200 Hz, que se analizaron y compararon sistemáticamente mediante macrofotografía, microscopio portátil, estereomicroscopio con visualización 3D y mediciones de rugosidad en área, imágenes SEM y espectrofotometría. Los resultados permiten proponer que, al trabajar con altas frecuencias, la media de la energía total depositada por spot en la superficie debería acompañar los valores de fluencia para describir y comprender mejor una

  4. Optimization and phase matching of fiber-laser-driven high-order harmonic generation at high repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabasse, Amélie; Machinet, Guillaume; Dubrouil, Antoine; Cormier, Eric; Constant, Eric

    2012-11-15

    High-repetition-rate sources are very attractive for high-order harmonic generation (HHG). However, due to their pulse characteristics (low energy, long duration), those systems require a tight focusing geometry to achieve the necessary intensity to generate harmonics. In this Letter, we investigate theoretically and experimentally the optimization of HHG in this geometry, to maximize the extreme UV (XUV) photon flux and improve the conversion efficiency. We analyze the influence of atomic gas media (Ar, Kr, or Xe), gas pressure, and interaction geometries (a gas jet and a finite and a semi-infinite gas cell). Numerical simulations allow us to define optimal conditions for HHG in this tight focusing regime and to observe the signature of on-axis phase matching. These conditions are implemented experimentally using a high-repetition-rate Yb-doped fiber laser system. We achieve optimization of emission with a recorded XUV photon flux of 4.5×10(12) photons/s generated in Xe at 100 kHz repetition rate.

  5. Influence of the laser pulse repetition rate and scanning speed on the morphology of Ag nanostructures fabricated by pulsed laser ablation of solid target in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, A. S.; Balchev, I. I.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Kostadinov, I. K.; Karashanova, D. B.; Atanasova, G. B.

    2017-11-01

    Nanostructures of noble metal were produced by pulsed laser ablation in liquid. A solid Ag target was immersed in double distilled water and a CuBr laser in a master oscillator—power amplifier configuration oscillating at 511 nm and emitting pulses with duration of 30 ns at a repetition rate of up to 20 kHz was employed to produce different colloids. The impact was studied of the laser pulse repetition rate and the beam scanning speed on the morphology of the nanostructures formed. Further, the optical extinction spectra of the colloids in the UV/VIS range were measured and used to make an indirect assessment of the changes in the shape and size distribution of the nanostructures. The transmission values in the near UV range were used to estimate the efficiency of the ablation process under the different experimental conditions implemented. A visualization of the nanostructures was made possible by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structure and phase composition of the nanoparticles were studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), while the alteration of the target surface caused by the impact of the high-repetition-rate laser illumination was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimal conditions were determined yielding the highest efficiency in terms of amount of ablated material.

  6. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt

    2002-08-20

    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

  7. Development of high repetition rate nitric oxide planar laser induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo

    This thesis has documented the development of a MHz repitition rate pulse burst laser system. Second harmonic and third harmonic efficiencies are improved by adding a Phase Conjugate Mirror to the system. Some high energy fundamental, second harmonic, and third harmonic burst sequences consisting of 1--12 pulses separated in time by between 4 and 12 microseconds are now routinely obtained. The reported burst envelopes are quite uniform. We have also demonstrated the ability to generate ultra-high frequency sequences of broadly wavelength tunable, high intensity laser pulses using a home built injection seeded Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO), pumped by the second and third harmonic output of the pulse burst laser. Typical OPO output burst sequences consist of 6--10 pulses, separated in time by between 6 and 10 microseconds. With third harmonic pumping of the OPO system, we studied four conditions, two-crystal Singly Resonant OPO (SRO) cavity, three-crystal OPO cavity, single pass two-crystal Doubly Resonant OPO (DRO) cavity and double pass two-crystal OPO cavity. The double pass two-crystal OPO cavity gives the best operation in burst mode. For single pass OPO, the average total OPO conversion efficiency is approximately 25%. For double pass OPO, the average total OPO conversion efficiency is approximately 35%. As a preliminary work, we studied 532nm pumping of a single crystal OPO cavity. With single pulse pumping, the conversion efficiency can reach 30%. For both 355nm and 532nm pumping OPO, we have demonstrated injection seeding. The OPO output light linewidth is significantly narrowed. Some preliminary etalon traces are also reported. By mixing the OPO signal output at 622nm with residual third harmonic at 355nm, we obtained 226nm burst sequences with average pulse energy of ˜0.2 mJ. Injection seeding of the OPO increases the energy achieved by a factor of ˜2. 226nm burst sequences with reasonably uniform burst envelopes are reported. Using the system we

  8. Determination of trace amounts of plutonium in environmental samples by RIMS using a high repetition rate solid state laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruening, C.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N.; Waldek, A.; Huber, G.; Passler, G.; Wendt, K.

    2001-01-01

    A reliable and easy to handle high repetition rate solid state laser system has been set up for routine applications of Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS). It consists of three Titanium-Sapphire (Ti:Sa) lasers pumped by one Nd:YAG laser, providing up to 3 W of tunable laser light each in a wavelength range from 725 nm to 895 nm. The isotope shifts for 238 Pu to 244 Pu have been measured in an efficient ionization scheme with λ 1 =420.76 nm, λ 2 =847.28 nm and λ 3 =767.53 nm. An overall detection efficiency of the RIMS apparatus of ε=1x10 -5 is routinely reached, resulting in a detection limit of 2x10 6 atoms (0.8 fg) of plutonium. The isotopic compositions of synthetic samples and the NIST standard reference material SRM996 were measured. The content of 238 Pu to 242 Pu has been determined in dust samples from the surroundings of a nuclear power plant and 244 Pu was determined in urine samples for the National Radiation Protection Board (NRPB), U.K. Routine operation of plutonium ultratrace detection could thus be established

  9. Thin liquid sheet target capabilities for ultra-intense laser acceleration of ions at a kHz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klim, Adam; Morrison, J.; Orban, C.; Chowdhury, E.; Frische, K.; Feister, S.; Roquemore, M.

    2017-10-01

    The success of laser-accelerated ion experiments depends crucially on a number of factors including how thin the targets can be created. We present experimental results demonstrating extremely thin (under 200 nm) glycol sheet targets that can be used for ultra-intense laser-accelerated ion experiments conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Importantly, these experiments operate at a kHz repetition rate and the recovery time of the liquid targets is fast enough to allow the laser to interact with a refreshed, thin target on every shot. These thin targets can be used to produce energetic electrons, light ions, and neutrons as well as x-rays, we present results from liquid glycol targets which are useful for proton acceleration experiments via the mechanism of Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). In future work, we will create thin sheets from deuterated water in order to perform laser-accelerated deuteron experiments. This research was sponsored by the Quantum and Non-Equilibrium Processes Division of the AFOSR, under the management of Dr. Enrique Parra, and support from the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  10. Low-timing-jitter, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser with tunable repetition rate and high operation stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuanshan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guofu; Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jing

    2010-01-01

    We design a low-timing-jitter, repetition-rate-tunable, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser by using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM), a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and a tunable optical delay line in the laser configuration. Low-timing-jitter optical pulses are stably produced when a SESAM and a 0.16 m dispersion compensation fiber are employed in the laser cavity. By inserting a tunable optical delay line between NALM and SESAM, the variable repetition-rate operation of a self-starting, passively mode-locked fiber laser is successfully demonstrated over a range from 49.65 to 50.47 MHz. The experimental results show that the newly designed fiber laser can maintain the mode locking at the pumping power of 160 mW to stably generate periodic optical pulses with width less than 170 fs and timing jitter lower than 75 fs in the 1.55 µm wavelength region, when the fundamental repetition rate of the laser is continuously tuned between 49.65 and 50.47 MHz. Moreover, this fiber laser has a feature of turn-key operation with high repeatability of its fundamental repetition rate in practice

  11. Studies of high repetition rate laser-produced plasma soft-X-ray amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassou, K.

    2006-12-01

    The progress made as well on the Ti:Sa laser system, as in the control and the knowledge of laser produced X-UV sources allowed the construction of a X-UV laser station dedicated to the applications. My thesis work falls under the development of this station and more particularly on the characterization of a X-UV laser plasma amplifier. The experimental study relates to the coupling improvement of the pump infra-red laser with plasma within the framework of the transient collisional X-UV laser generation. These X-UV lasers are generated in a plasma formed by the interaction of a solid target and a laser pulse of approximately 500 ps duration, followed by a second infra-red laser pulse known as of pump (about 5 ps) impinging on the target in grazing incidence. For the first time, a complete parametric study was undertaken on the influence of the grazing angle on the pumping of the amplifying medium. One of the results was to reach very high peak brightness about 10 28 ph/s/mm 2 /mrad 2 /(0.1%bandwidth), which compares well with the free-electron laser brightness. Moreover, we modified then used a new two-dimensional hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement in order to understand the influence of the space-time properties of the infra-red laser on the formation and the evolution of the amplifying plasma. Our modeling highlighted the interest to use a super Gaussian transverse profile for the line focus leading to an increase in a factor two of the gain region size and a reduction of the electron density gradient by three orders of magnitude. These improvements should strongly increase the energy contained in X-UV laser beam. We thus used X-UV laser to study the appearance of transient defects produced by a laser IR on a beam-splitter rear side. We also began research on the mechanisms of DNA damage induced by a very intense X-UV radiation. (author)

  12. Large area crystallization of amorphous Si with overlapping high repetition rate laser pulses

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Sang-Gil; Gruber, Ivan; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Poulikakos, Dimos; Moon, Seung-Jae

    2012-01-01

    crystallization induced by single laser pulses of circular cross-sectional profile. In a second step, crystallization by overlapping round spots is examined. The experiments reveal three zones characterized by distinctly different crystallized morphologies

  13. Parameters of a trigatron-driven low-pulse-repetition-rate TEA CO2 laser preionised by a surface corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aram, M; Shabanzadeh, M; Mansori, F; Behjat, A

    2007-01-01

    The design of a TEA CO 2 laser with UV preionisation by a surface corona discharge is described and the dependences of its average output energy on the gas-flow rate, discharge voltage and pulse repetition rate are presented. The scheme of the electric circuit and the geometry of the pre-ionisation system are considered. The electric circuit is designed to produce only impulse voltage difference between the laser electrodes. The triggering system of the trigatron is used to prevent the appearance of the arc. The dependences of the current, voltage and average output energy on the gas-mixture composition and applied voltages at a low pulse repetition rate are presented. The central output wavelength of the laser was measured with an IR spectrometer. Lasing at two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO 2 molecule was observed, which demonstrates the possibility of simultaneous lasing at several lines. (lasers)

  14. Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habruseva, T. [CAPPA, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Aston University, Aston Triangle, B4 7ET Birmingham (United Kingdom); Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P. [CAPPA, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-01-13

    Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively.

  15. Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habruseva, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D.; Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively

  16. Improving the ablation efficiency of excimer laser systems with higher repetition rates through enhanced debris removal and optimized spot pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Klinner, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the reasons for the required increased radiant exposure for higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers and determine experimentally possible compensations to achieve equivalent ablation profiles maintaining the same single-pulse energies and radiant exposures for laser repetition rates ranging from 430 to 1000 Hz. Schwind eye-tech-solutions GmbH and Co. KG, Kleinostheim, Germany. Experimental study. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plates were photoablated. The pulse laser energy was maintained during all experiments; the effects of the flow of the debris removal, the shot pattern for the correction, and precooling the PMMA plates were evaluated in terms of achieved ablation versus repetition rate. The mean ablation performance ranged from 88% to 100%; the variability between the profile measurements ranged from 1.4% to 6.2%. Increasing the laser repetition rate from 430 Hz to 1000 Hz reduced the mean ablation performance from 98% to 91% and worsened the variability from 1.9% to 4.3%. Increasing the flow of the debris removal, precooling the PMMA plates to -18°C, and adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the variability. Only adapting the shot pattern for the thermal response of PMMA to excimer ablation helped stabilize the mean ablation performance. The ablation performance of higher-repetition-rate excimer lasers on PMMA improved with improvements in the debris removal systems and shot pattern. More powerful debris removal systems and smart shot patterns in terms of thermal response improved the performance of these excimer lasers. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Large area crystallization of amorphous Si with overlapping high repetition rate laser pulses

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Sang-Gil

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a pulsed laser crystallization technique, enabling large area crystallization of amorphous Si to produce grains having well-defined size and orientation. The method is developed by first determining the parameters influencing crystallization induced by single laser pulses of circular cross-sectional profile. In a second step, crystallization by overlapping round spots is examined. The experiments reveal three zones characterized by distinctly different crystallized morphologies following the laser irradiation. One of these zones corresponds to the regime of lateral crystal growth, wherein grains are driven towards the center of the spot by the radial temperature gradient. These findings are then applied to processing via line beam profiles that facilitate large area crystallization upon rapid translation of the specimen. Crystallization of extended areas hinges on the determination of the crystal growth length for a single spot. The pitch between successive pulses is then set on the basis of this information. It is shown that the pulse energy has only a weak effect on the crystal growth length. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Si nanostructures grown by picosecond high repetition rate pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervolaraki, M.; Komninou, Ph.; Kioseoglou, J.; Athanasopoulos, G.I.; Giapintzakis, J.

    2013-01-01

    One-step growth of n-doped Si nanostructures by picosecond ultra fast pulsed laser deposition at 1064 nm is reported for the first time. The structure and morphology of the Si nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the shape of the Si nanostructures depends on the ambient argon pressure. Fibrous networks, cauliflower formations and Si rectangular crystals grew when argon pressure of 300 Pa, 30 Pa and vacuum (10 −3 Pa) conditions were used, respectively. In addition, the electrical resistance of the vacuum made material was investigated

  19. Si nanostructures grown by picosecond high repetition rate pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pervolaraki, M., E-mail: pervolaraki@ucy.ac.cy [Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Av., PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Komninou, Ph.; Kioseoglou, J. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Athanasopoulos, G.I. [Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Av., PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Giapintzakis, J., E-mail: giapintz@ucy.ac.cy [Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Av., PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-08-01

    One-step growth of n-doped Si nanostructures by picosecond ultra fast pulsed laser deposition at 1064 nm is reported for the first time. The structure and morphology of the Si nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the shape of the Si nanostructures depends on the ambient argon pressure. Fibrous networks, cauliflower formations and Si rectangular crystals grew when argon pressure of 300 Pa, 30 Pa and vacuum (10{sup −3} Pa) conditions were used, respectively. In addition, the electrical resistance of the vacuum made material was investigated.

  20. Highly efficient, versatile, self-Q-switched, high-repetition-rate microchip laser generating Ince–Gaussian modes for optical trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Dong; Yu He; Xiao Zhou; Shengchuang Bai [Department of Electronics Engineering, School of Information Science and Engineering, Xiamen, 361005 (China)

    2016-03-31

    Lasers operating in the Ince-Gaussian (IG) mode have potential applications for optical manipulation of microparticles and formation of optical vortices, as well as for optical trapping and optical tweezers. Versatile, self-Q-switched, high-peak-power, high-repetition-rate Cr, Nd:YAG microchip lasers operating in the IG mode are implemented under tilted, tightly focused laser-diode pumping. An average output power of over 2 W is obtained at an absorbed pump power of 6.4 W. The highest optical-to-optical efficiency of 33.2% is achieved at an absorbed pump power of 3.9 W. Laser pulses with a pulse energy of 7.5 μJ, pulse width of 3.5 ns and peak power of over 2 kW are obtained. A repetition rate up to 335 kHz is reached at an absorbed pump power of 5.8 W. Highly efficient, versatile, IG-mode lasers with a high repetition rate and a high peak power ensure a better flexibility in particle manipulation and optical trapping. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  1. 300-MHz-repetition-rate, all-fiber, femtosecond laser mode-locked by planar lightwave circuit-based saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chur; Kim, Dohyun; Cheong, YeonJoon; Kwon, Dohyeon; Choi, Sun Young; Jeong, Hwanseong; Cha, Sang Jun; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jungwon

    2015-10-05

    We show the implementation of fiber-pigtailed, evanescent-field-interacting, single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT)-based saturable absorbers (SAs) using standard planar lightwave circuit (PLC) fabrication processes. The implemented PLC-CNT-SA device is employed to realize self-starting, high-repetition-rate, all-fiber ring oscillators at telecommunication wavelength. We demonstrate all-fiber Er ring lasers operating at 303-MHz (soliton regime) and 274-MHz (stretched-pulse regime) repetition-rates. The 303-MHz (274-MHz) laser centered at 1555 nm (1550 nm) provides 7.5 nm (19 nm) spectral bandwidth. After extra-cavity amplilfication, the amplified pulse train of the 303-MHz (274-MHz) laser delivers 209 fs (178 fs) pulses. To our knowledge, this corresponds to the highest repetition-rates achieved for femtosecond lasers employing evanescent-field-interacting SAs. The demonstrated SA fabrication method, which is based on well-established PLC processes, also shows a potential way for mass-producible and lower-cost waveguide-type SA devices suitable for all-fiber and waveguide lasers.

  2. Experimental investigation of different regimes of mode-locking in a high repetition rate passively mode-locked semiconductor quantum-dot laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéfélian, Fabien; O'Donoghue, Shane; Todaro, Maria Teresa; McInerney, John; Huyet, Guillaume

    2009-04-13

    We report experimental investigations on a two-section 16-GHz repetition rate InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode-locked laser. Near the threshold current, pseudo-periodic Q-switching with complex dynamics is exhibited. Mode-locking operation regimes characterized by different repetition rates and timing jitter levels are encountered up to twice the threshold current. Evolution of the RF spectrum and optical spectrum with current is compared. The different mode-locked regimes are shown to be associated with different spectral and temporal shapes, ranging from 1.3 to 6 ps. This point is discussed by introducing the existence of two different supermodes. Repetition rate evolution and timing jitter increase is attributed to the coupling between the dominant and the secondary supermodes.

  3. Laser stand for irradiation of targets by laser pulses from the Iskra-5 facility at a repetition rate of 100 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annenkov, V I; Garanin, Sergey G; Eroshenko, V A; Zhidkov, N V; Zubkov, A V; Kalipanov, S V; Kalmykov, N A; Kovalenko, V P; Krotov, V A; Lapin, S G; Martynenko, S P; Pankratov, V I; Faizullin, V S; Khrustalev, V A; Khudikov, N M; Chebotar, V S

    2009-01-01

    A train of a few tens of high-power subnanosecond laser pulses with a repetition period of 10 ns is generated in the Iskra-5 facility. The laser pulse train has an energy of up to 300 J and contains up to 40 pulses (by the 0.15 intensity level), the single pulse duration in the train being ∼0.5 ns. The results of experiments on conversion of a train of laser pulses to a train of X-ray pulses are presented. Upon irradiation of a tungsten target, a train of X-ray pulses is generated with the shape of an envelope in the spectral band from 0.18 to 0.28 keV similar to that of the envelope of the laser pulse train. The duration of a single X-ray pulse in the train is equal to that of a single laser pulse. (lasers)

  4. Gigahertz repetition rate, sub-femtosecond timing jitter optical pulse train directly generated from a mode-locked Yb:KYW laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heewon; Kim, Hyoji; Shin, Junho; Kim, Chur; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Guang-Hoon; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jungwon

    2014-01-01

    We show that a 1.13 GHz repetition rate optical pulse train with 0.70 fs high-frequency timing jitter (integration bandwidth of 17.5 kHz-10 MHz, where the measurement instrument-limited noise floor contributes 0.41 fs in 10 MHz bandwidth) can be directly generated from a free-running, single-mode diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotube-coated mirrors. To our knowledge, this is the lowest-timing-jitter optical pulse train with gigahertz repetition rate ever measured. If this pulse train is used for direct sampling of 565 MHz signals (Nyquist frequency of the pulse train), the jitter level demonstrated would correspond to the projected effective-number-of-bit of 17.8, which is much higher than the thermal noise limit of 50 Ω load resistance (~14 bits).

  5. Low-threshold, nanosecond, high-repetition-rate vortex pulses with controllable helicity generated in Cr,Nd:YAG self-Q-switched microchip laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Sen; Chen, Zhen; Li, Hong-Bin; Dong, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A high repetition rate, nanosecond, pulsed optical vortex beam has been generated in a Cr,Nd:YAG self-Q-switched microchip laser pumped by the annular-beam formed with a hollow focus lens. The lasing threshold for vortex pulses is 0.9 W. A pulse width of 6.5 ns and a repetition rate of over 330 kHz have been achieved. The average output power of 1 W and the slope efficiency of 46.6% have been obtained. The helicity of the optical vortices has been controlled by adjusting the tilted angle between Cr,Nd:YAG crystal and output coupler. The work provides a new method for developing pulsed optical vortices for potential applications on quantum communication and optical trapping.

  6. Effect of pulse repetition rate and number of pulses in the analysis of polypropylene and high density polyethylene by nanosecond infrared laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leme, Flavio O. [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica ' Henrique Bergamin Filho' , Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Godoi, Quienly [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica ' Henrique Bergamin Filho' , Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Kiyataka, Paulo H.M. [Centro de Tecnologia de Embalagens, Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Av. Brasil 2880, 13070-178 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Santos, Dario [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Rua Prof. Artur Riedel 275, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Agnelli, Jose A.M. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); and others

    2012-02-01

    Pulse repetition rates and the number of laser pulses are among the most important parameters that do affect the analysis of solid materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, and the knowledge of their effects is of fundamental importance for suggesting analytical strategies when dealing with laser ablation processes of polymers. In this contribution, the influence of these parameters in the ablated mass and in the features of craters was evaluated in polypropylene and high density polyethylene plates containing pigment-based PbCrO{sub 4}. Surface characterization and craters profile were carried out by perfilometry and scanning electron microscopy. Area, volume and profile of craters were obtained using Taylor Map software. A laser induced breakdown spectroscopy system consisted of a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 5 ns) and an Echelle spectrometer equipped with ICCD detector were used. The evaluated operating conditions consisted of 10, 25 and 50 laser pulses at 1, 5 and 10 Hz, 250 mJ/pulse (85 J cm{sup -2}), 2 {mu}s delay time and 6 {mu}s integration time gate. Differences in the topographical features among craters of both polymers were observed. The decrease in the repetition rate resulted in irregular craters and formation of edges, especially in polypropylene sample. The differences in the topographical features and ablated masses were attributed to the influence of the degree of crystallinity, crystalline melting temperature and glass transition temperature in the ablation process of the high density polyethylene and polypropylene. It was also observed that the intensities of chromium and lead emission signals obtained at 10 Hz were two times higher than at 5 Hz by keeping the number of laser pulses constant.

  7. Temporal dynamics of high repetition rate pulsed single longitudinal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing (GIG) cavity, single-mode dye laser pumped by high repetition rate ... in a high loss cavity, a detailed theoretical study and optimization of cavity ..... rate for high conversion efficiency and longer pulse width of the single-mode dye laser.

  8. Transient thermal stress wave and vibrational analyses of a thin diamond crystal for X-ray free-electron lasers under high-repetition-rate operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Songwei; Wu, Juhao

    2018-01-01

    High-brightness X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are perceived as fourth-generation light sources providing unprecedented capabilities for frontier scientific researches in many fields. Thin crystals are important to generate coherent seeds in the self-seeding configuration, provide precise spectral measurements, and split X-ray FEL pulses, etc. In all of these applications a high-intensity X-ray FEL pulse impinges on the thin crystal and deposits a certain amount of heat load, potentially impairing the performance. In the present paper, transient thermal stress wave and vibrational analyses as well as transient thermal analysis are carried out to address the thermomechanical issues for thin diamond crystals, especially under high-repetition-rate operation of an X-ray FEL. The material properties at elevated temperatures are considered. It is shown that, for a typical FEL pulse depositing tens of microjoules energy over a spot of tens of micrometers in radius, the stress wave emission is completed on the tens of nanoseconds scale. The amount of kinetic energy converted from a FEL pulse can reach up to ∼10 nJ depending on the layer thickness. Natural frequencies of a diamond plate are also computed. The potential vibrational amplitude is estimated as a function of frequency. Due to the decreasing heat conductivity with increasing temperature, a runaway temperature rise is predicted for high repetition rates where the temperature rises abruptly after ratcheting up to a point of trivial heat damping rate relative to heat deposition rate.

  9. Short-time X-ray diffraction with an efficient-optimized, high repetition-rate laser-plasma X-ray-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaehle, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the production and application of ultrashort X-ray pulses. In the beginning different possibilities for the production of X-ray pulses with pulse durations of below one picosecond are presented, whereby the main topic lies on the so called laser-plasma X-ray sources with high repetition rate. In this case ultrashort laser pulses are focused on a metal, so that in the focus intensities of above 10 16 W/cm 2 dominate. In the ideal case in such way ultrafast electrons are produced, which are responsible for line radiation. In these experiments titanium K α radiation is produced, thes photons possess an energy of 4.51 keV. For the efficient production of line radiation here the Ti:Sa laser is optimized in view of the laser energy and the pulse shape and the influence of the different parameters on the K α production systematically studied. The influences of laser intensity, system-conditioned pre-pulses and of phase modulation are checked. It turns out that beside the increasement of the K α radiation by a suited laser intensity a reduction of the X-ray background radiation is of deciding importance for the obtaining of clear diffraction images. This background radiation is mainly composed of bremsstrahlung. It can be suppressed by the avoidance of intrinsic pre-pulses and by means of 2nd-order phase modulation. By means of optical excitation and X-ray exploration experiments the production of acoustic waves after ultrashort optical excitation in a 150 nm thick Ge(111) film on Si(111) is studied. These acoustic waves are driven by thermal (in this time scale time-independent) and electronic (time dependent) pressure amounts. As essential results it turns out that the relative amount of the electronic pressure increases with decreasing excitation density [de

  10. High-repetition-rate short-pulse gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, J; Seguin, H; Mace, P N

    1979-09-01

    A high-average-power short-pulse gas discharge is described. This consists of a volume-preionized transverse discharge of the type used in gas lasers driven by a Blumlein energy storage circuit. The Blumlein circuit is fabricated from coaxial cable, is pulse-charged from a high-repetition-rate Marx-bank generator, and is switched by a high-repetition-rate segmented rail gap. The operation of this discharge under conditions typical of rare-gas halide lasers is described. A maximum of 900 pps was obtained, giving a power flow into the discharge of 30 kW.

  11. InP femtosecond mode-locked laser in a compound feedback cavity with a switchable repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mu-Chieh; Guzmán, Robinson; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    A monolithically integrated mode-locked semiconductor laser is proposed. The compound ring cavity is composed of a colliding pulse mode-locking (ML) subcavity and a passive Fabry-Perot feedback subcavity. These two 1.6 mm long subcavities are coupled by using on-chip reflectors at both ends, enabling harmonic mode locking. By changing DC-bias conditions, optical mode spacing from 50 to 450 GHz is experimentally demonstrated. Ultrafast pulses shorter than 0.3 ps emitted from this laser diode are shown in autocorrelation traces.

  12. Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuer, Stefan; Elsässer, Wolfgang; McInerney, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated experimentally the pulse train (mode beating) stability of a monolithic mode-locked multi-section quantum-dot laser with an added passive auxiliary optical fiber cavity. Addition of the weakly coupled (¿ -24dB) cavity reduces the current-induced shift d¿/dI of the principal...

  13. Single-Mode, High Repetition Rate, Compact Ho:YLF Laser for Space-Borne Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Wong, Teh-Hwa; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    A single transverse/longitudinal mode, compact Q-switched Ho:YLF laser has been designed and demonstrated for space-borne lidar applications. The pulse energy is between 34-40 mJ for 100-200 Hz operation. The corresponding peak power is >1 MW.

  14. Interaction of Repetitively Pulsed High Energy Laser Radiation With Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmidt, Manfred

    1986-10-01

    The paper is concerned with laser target interaction processes involving new methods of improving the overall energy balance. As expected theoretically, this can be achieved with high repetition rate pulsed lasers even for initially highly reflecting materials, such as metals. Experiments were performed by using a pulsed CO2 laser at mean powers up to 2 kW and repetition rates up to 100 Hz. The rates of temperature rise of aluminium for example were thereby increased by lore than a factor of 3 as compared to cw-radiation of comparable power density. Similar improvements were found for the overall absorptivities that were increased by this method by more than an order of magnitude.

  15. Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy. Center for Accelerator Science and Education

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). Below details the Principal Investigators and contact information. Each PI submits separately for a budget through his corresponding institute. The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-­conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-­antimonide cathodes (BNL – LBNL) b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes (SBU -­ BNL) c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns (SBU) and copper RF photoguns (LBNL) Our work made extensive use of synchrotron radiation materials science techniques, such as powder-­ and single-­crystal diffraction, x-­ray fluorescence, EXAFS and variable energy XPS. BNL and LBNL have many complementary facilities at the two light sources associated with these laboratories (NSLS and ALS, respectively); use of these will be a major thrust of our program and bring our understanding of these complex materials to a new level. In addition, CHESS at Cornell will be used to continue seamlessly throughout the NSLS dark period and

  16. High repetition rate intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Glidden, S.C.; Noonan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a ≤ 150kV, 40kA, 100ns high repetition rate pulsed power system and intense ion beam source which is now in operation at Cornell University. Operation of the Magnetically-controlled Anode Plasma (MAP) ion diode at > 100Hz (burst mode for up to 10 pulse bursts) provides an initial look at repetition rate limitations of both the ion diode and beam diagnostics. The pulsed power systems are capable of ≥ 1kHz operation (up to 10 pulse bursts), but ion diode operation was limited to ∼100Hz because of diagnostic limitations. By varying MAP diode operating parameters, ion beams can be extracted at a few 10s of keV or at up to 150keV, the corresponding accelerating gap impedance ranging from about 1Ω to about 10Ω. The ability to make hundreds of test pulses per day at an average repetition rate of about 2 pulses per minute permits statistical analysis of diode operation as a function of various parameters. Most diode components have now survived more than 10 4 pulses, and the design and construction of the various pulsed power components of the MAP diode which have enabled us to reach this point are discussed. A high speed data acquisition system and companion analysis software capable of acquiring pulse data at 1ms intervals (in bursts of up to 10 pulses) and processing it in ≤ min is described

  17. Generation of µW level plateau harmonics at high repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hädrich, S; Krebs, M; Rothhardt, J; Carstens, H; Demmler, S; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2011-09-26

    The process of high harmonic generation allows for coherent transfer of infrared laser light to the extreme ultraviolet spectral range opening a variety of applications. The low conversion efficiency of this process calls for optimization or higher repetition rate intense ultrashort pulse lasers. Here we present state-of-the-art fiber laser systems for the generation of high harmonics up to 1 MHz repetition rate. We perform measurements of the average power with a calibrated spectrometer and achieved µW harmonics between 45 nm and 61 nm (H23-H17) at a repetition rate of 50 kHz. Additionally, we show the potential for few-cycle pulses at high average power and repetition rate that may enable water-window harmonics at unprecedented repetition rate. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Synchronizing single-shot high-energy iodine photodissociation laser PALS and high-repetition-rate femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jan; Dudžák, Roman; Pisarczyk, T.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Huynh, Jaroslav; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Krouský, E.; Skála, J.; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš; Golasowski, Jiří; Juha, Libor; Ullschmied, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 045109. ISSN 0034-6748 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : oscillators * plasma diagnostics * optical signal processing * mode locking * laser amplifiers Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016

  19. Synchronizing single-shot high-energy iodine photodissociation laser PALS and high-repetition-rate femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jan; Dudžák, Roman; Pisarczyk, T.; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Huynh, J.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Krouský, Eduard; Skála, Jiří; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš; Golasowski, Jiří; Juha, Libor; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 045109. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083; GA ČR GPP205/11/P712 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : oscillators * plasma diagnostics * optical signal processing * mode locking * laser amplifiers Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016 https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.4979810

  20. Repetitively pulsed, double discharge TEA CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D C; James, D J; Ramsden, S A

    1975-10-01

    The design and operation of a repetitively pulsed TEA CO/sub 2/ laser is described. Average powers of up to 400 W at a repetition frequency of 200 pulses/s have been obtained. The system has also been used to provide long pulses (over 20 ..mu..s) and tunable single axial mode pulses.

  1. High-power pre-chirp managed amplification of femtosecond pulses at high repetition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Jian; Bai, Dongbi; Luo, Daping; Zeng, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond pulses at 250 MHz repetition rate from a mode-locked fiber laser are amplified to high power in a pre-chirp managed amplifier. The experimental strategy offers a potential towards high-power ultrashort laser pulses at high repetition rates. By investigating the laser pulse evolution in the amplification processes, we show that self-similar evolution, finite gain bandwidth and mode instabilities determine pulse characteristics in different regimes. Further average power scaling is limited by the mode instabilities. Nevertheless, this laser system enables us to achieve sub-50 fs pulses with an average power of 93 W. (letter)

  2. Short-time X-ray diffraction with an efficient-optimized, high repetition-rate laser-plasma X-ray-source; Kurzzeit-Roentgenbeugung mit Hilfe einer Effizienz-optimierten, hochrepetierenden Laser-Plasma-Roentgenquelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaehle, Stephan

    2009-04-23

    This thesis deals with the production and application of ultrashort X-ray pulses. In the beginning different possibilities for the production of X-ray pulses with pulse durations of below one picosecond are presented, whereby the main topic lies on the so called laser-plasma X-ray sources with high repetition rate. In this case ultrashort laser pulses are focused on a metal, so that in the focus intensities of above 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} dominate. In the ideal case in such way ultrafast electrons are produced, which are responsible for line radiation. In these experiments titanium K{sub {alpha}} radiation is produced, thes photons possess an energy of 4.51 keV. For the efficient production of line radiation here the Ti:Sa laser is optimized in view of the laser energy and the pulse shape and the influence of the different parameters on the K{sub {alpha}} production systematically studied. The influences of laser intensity, system-conditioned pre-pulses and of phase modulation are checked. It turns out that beside the increasement of the K{sub {alpha}} radiation by a suited laser intensity a reduction of the X-ray background radiation is of deciding importance for the obtaining of clear diffraction images. This background radiation is mainly composed of bremsstrahlung. It can be suppressed by the avoidance of intrinsic pre-pulses and by means of 2nd-order phase modulation. By means of optical excitation and X-ray exploration experiments the production of acoustic waves after ultrashort optical excitation in a 150 nm thick Ge(111) film on Si(111) is studied. These acoustic waves are driven by thermal (in this time scale time-independent) and electronic (time dependent) pressure amounts. As essential results it turns out that the relative amount of the electronic pressure increases with decreasing excitation density. [German] Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der Erzeugung und Anwendung ultrakurzer Roentgenimpulse. Zu Beginn werden verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur

  3. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-01

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  4. A high repetition rate XUV seeding source for FLASH2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, Arik

    2012-05-15

    Improved performance of free-electron laser (FEL) light sources in terms of timing stability, pulse shape and spectral properties of the amplified FEL pulses is of interest in material science, the fields of ultrafast dynamics, biology, chemistry and even special branches in industry. A promising scheme for such an improvement is direct seeding with high harmonic generation (HHG) in a noble gas target. A free-electron laser seeded by an external extreme ultraviolet (XUV) source is planned for FLASH2 at DESY in Hamburg. The requirements for the XUV/soft X-ray source can be summarized as follows: A repetition rate of at least 100 kHz in a 10 Hz burst is needed at variable wavelengths from 10 to 40 nm and pulse energies of several nJ within a single laser harmonic. This application requires a laser amplifier system with exceptional parameters, mJ-level pulse energy, 10-15 fs pulse duration at 100 kHz (1 MHz) burst repetition rate. A new optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system is under development in order to meet these requirements, and very promising results have been achieved in the last three years. In parallel to this development, a new HHG concept is necessary to sustain high average power of the driving laser system and to generate harmonics with high conversion efficiencies. Currently, the highest conversion efficiency with HHG has been demonstrated using gas-filled capillary targets. For our application, only a free-jet target can be used for HHG, in order to overcome damage threshold limitations of HHG target optics at a high repetition rate. A novel dual-gas multijet gas target has been developed and first experiments show remarkable control of the degree of phase matching forming the basis for improved control of the harmonic photon flux and the XUV pulse characteristics. The basic idea behind the dual-gas concept is the insertion of matching zones in between multiple HHG sources. These matching sections are filled with hydrogen which

  5. Femtosecond Ti:sapphire cryogenic amplifier with high gain and MHz repetition rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Laurat, Julien; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate high gain amplification of 160-femtosecond pulses in a compact double-pass cryogenic Ti:sapphire amplifier. The setup involves a negative GVD mirrors recompression stage, and operates with a repetition rate between 0.2 and 4 MHz with a continuous pump laser. Amplification factors a...... as high as 17 and 320 nJ Fourier-limited pulses are obtained at a 800 kHz repetition rate....

  6. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Geloni, Gianluca [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Madsen, Anders [European X-ray Free-Electron Laser, Albert-Einstein-Ring 19, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd’ko, Yuri, E-mail: shvydko@aps.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-12

    This article explores novel opportunities for ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) at high-repetition-rate self-seeded XFELs. These next-generation light sources are promising a more than three orders of magnitude increase in average spectral flux compared with what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. In combination with the advanced IXS spectrometer described here, this may become a real game-changer for ultra-high-resolution X-ray spectroscopies, and hence for the studies of dynamics in condensed matter systems. Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup −1} spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup −1} are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10{sup 12} photons s{sup −1} in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  7. All-fiber interferometer-based repetition-rate stabilization of mode-locked lasers to 10-14-level frequency instability and 1-fs-level jitter over 1  s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dohyeon; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-12-15

    We report on all-fiber Michelson interferometer-based repetition-rate stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked lasers down to 1.3×10 -14 frequency instability and 1.4 fs integrated jitter in a 1 s time scale. The use of a compactly packaged 10 km long single-mode fiber (SMF)-28 fiber link as a timing reference allows the scaling of phase noise at a 10 GHz carrier down to -80  dBc/Hz at 1 Hz Fourier frequency. We also tested a 500 m long low-thermal-sensitivity fiber as a reference and found that, compared to standard SMF-28 fiber, it can mitigate the phase noise divergence by ∼10  dB/dec in the 0.1-1 Hz Fourier frequency range. These results suggest that the use of a longer low-thermal-sensitivity fiber may achieve sub-femtosecond integrated timing jitter with sub-10 -14 -level frequency instability in repetition rate by a simple and robust all-fiber-photonic method.

  8. Dual-Comb Coherent Raman Spectroscopy with Lasers of 1-GHz Pulse Repetition Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler, Kathrin J.; Bohn, Bernhard J.; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    We extend the technique of multiplex coherent Raman spectroscopy with two femtosecond mode-locked lasers to oscillators of a pulse repetition frequency of 1 GHz. We demonstrate spectra of liquids, which span 1100 cm$^{-1}$ of Raman shifts. At a resolution of 6 cm$^{-1}$, their measurement time may be as short as 5 microseconds for a refresh rate of 2 kHz. The waiting period between acquisitions is improved ten-fold compared to previous experiments with two lasers of 100-MHz repetition frequen...

  9. Dual-comb coherent Raman spectroscopy with lasers of 1-GHz pulse repetition frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Bohn, Bernhard J; Yan, Ming; Mélen, Gwénaëlle; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2017-01-15

    We extend the technique of multiplex coherent Raman spectroscopy with two femtosecond mode-locked lasers to oscillators of a pulse repetition frequency of 1 GHz. We demonstrate a spectra of liquids, which span 1100  cm-1 of Raman shifts. At a resolution of 6  cm-1, their measurement time may be as short as 5 μs for a refresh rate of 2 kHz. The waiting period between acquisitions is improved 10-fold compared to previous experiments with two lasers of 100-MHz repetition frequencies.

  10. Front-End Light Source for aWaveform-Controlled High-Contrast Few-Cycle Laser System for High-Repetition Rate Relativistic Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lopez-Martens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the current development of an injector for a high-contrast, ultrashort laser system devoted to relativistic laser-plasma interaction in the few-cycle regime. The front-end is based on CEP-stabilized Ti:Sa CPA followed by XPW filter designed at the mJ level for temporal cleaning and shortening. Accurate characterization highlights the fidelity of the proposed injector. Measured CEP drift is 170 mrad rms.

  11. High Repetition Rate Thermometry System And Method

    KAUST Repository

    Chrystie, Robin

    2015-05-14

    A system and method for rapid thermometry using intrapulse spectroscopy can include a laser for propagating pulses of electromagnetic radiation to a region. Each of the pulses can be chirped. The pulses from the region can be detected. An intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined from the pulses. An instantaneous temperature of the region based on the intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined.

  12. High Repetition Rate Thermometry System And Method

    KAUST Repository

    Chrystie, Robin; Farooq, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    A system and method for rapid thermometry using intrapulse spectroscopy can include a laser for propagating pulses of electromagnetic radiation to a region. Each of the pulses can be chirped. The pulses from the region can be detected. An intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined from the pulses. An instantaneous temperature of the region based on the intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined.

  13. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.; Akiyama, M.; Lukeš, P.

    2014-01-01

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H 2 O 2 and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  14. Soft-X-Ray Projection Lithography Using a High-Repetition-Rate Laser-Induced X-Ray Source for Sub-100 Nanometer Lithography Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Louis,; F. Bijkerk,; Shmaenok, L.; Voorma, H. J.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Schlatmann, R.; Verhoeven, J.; van der Drift, E. W. J. M.; Romijn, J.; Rousseeuw, B. A. C.; Voss, F.; Desor, R.; Nikolaus, B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we present the status of a joint development programme on soft x-ray projection lithography (SXPL) integrating work on high brightness laser plasma sources. fabrication of multilayer x-ray mirrors. and patterning of reflection masks. We are in the process of optimization of a

  15. Comparison of the noise performance of 10 GHz repetition rate quantum-dot and quantum well monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, G.; Thompson, M. G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    fabricated with different material gain systems, one quantum well and the other quantum dot (QD), both with a monolithic all-active two-section mode-locked structure. Two important factors are identified as having a significant effect on the noise performance, the RF linewidth of the first harmonic......Mode-locked lasers are commonly used in carrier-wave signal generation systems because of their excellent phase noise performance. Owing to the importance of this key parameter, this study presents a like-for-like comparison of the noise performance of the passive mode-locked regime of two devices...... and the shape of the noise pedestals, both depending on the passive mode-locked bias conditions. Nevertheless, the dominant contribution of the RF linewidth to the phase noise, which is significantly narrower for the QD laser, makes this material more suitable for optical generation of low-noise millimetre...

  16. Collection and spectral control of high-order harmonics generated with a 50 W high-repetition rate Ytterbium femtosecond laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabasse, A; Hazera, Ch; Quintard, L; Cormier, E; Petit, S; Constant, E

    2016-01-01

    We generate high-order harmonics with a 50 W, Yb femtosecond fiber laser system operating at 100 kHz in a tight focusing configuration. We achieve a high photon flux even with pulses longer than 500 fs. We collect the diverging extreme ultraviolet (XUV) harmonic beam in a 35 mrad wide solid angle by using a spectrometer designed to handle the high thermal load under vacuum and refocus the XUV beam onto a detector where the beam is characterised or can alternatively be used for experiments. This setup is designed for a 50 eV XUV bandwidth and offers the possibility to perform XUV-IR pump probe experiments with both temporal and spectral resolution. The high-order harmonics were generated and optimized at 100 kHz by using several gas target geometries (a gas jet and a semi-infinite gas cell) and several gases (argon, krypton, xenon) that provide XUV beams with different characteristics. After the spectrometer and for high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in xenon, we detect more than 4 × 10 10 photons per second over four harmonics, that is a useful XUV power on target of 0.1 μW. This corresponds to the emission of more than 1 μW per harmonic at the source and we achieved a similar flux with both the semi-infinite cell and the jet. In addition, we observe a strong spectral selectivity when generating harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell as few harmonics clearly dominate the neighbouring harmonics. We attribute this spectral selectivity to phase matching effects. (paper)

  17. Design of a low emittance and high repetition rate S-band photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jang-Hui

    2014-09-01

    As an electron beam injector of X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), photoinjectors have been developed for the past few decades. Such an injector starting with a photocathode RF gun provides high brightness beams and therefore it is being adopted as an injector of X-ray FELs. In this paper we show how to improve photoinjector performance in terms of emittance and repetition rates by means of injector components optimization, especially with the gun. Transverse emittance at the end of an injector is reduced by optimizing the gun design, gun solenoid position, and accelerating section position. The repetition rate of an injector mainly depends on the gun. It is discussed that a repetition rate of 1 kHz at a normal-conducting S-band photoinjector is feasible by adopting a coaxial RF coupler and improving cooling-water channels surrounding the gun.

  18. Ultrafast high-repetition imaging of fuel sprays using picosecond fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Harsh; Wang, Hongjie; Tang, Mincheng; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Godin, Thomas; Hideur, Ammar

    2015-12-28

    Modern diesel injectors operate at very high injection pressures of about 2000 bar resulting in injection velocities as high as 700 m/s near the nozzle outlet. In order to better predict the behavior of the atomization process at such high pressures, high-resolution spray images at high repetition rates must be recorded. However, due to extremely high velocity in the near-nozzle region, high-speed cameras fail to avoid blurring of the structures in the spray images due to their exposure time. Ultrafast imaging featuring ultra-short laser pulses to freeze the motion of the spray appears as an well suited solution to overcome this limitation. However, most commercial high-energy ultrafast sources are limited to a few kHz repetition rates. In the present work, we report the development of a custom-designed picosecond fiber laser generating ∼ 20 ps pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at a repetition rate of 8.2 MHz, suitable for high-speed imaging of high-pressure fuel jets. This fiber source has been proof tested by obtaining backlight images of diesel sprays issued from a single-orifice injector at an injection pressure of 300 bar. We observed a consequent improvement in terms of image resolution compared to standard white-light illumination. In addition, the compactness and stability against perturbations of our fiber laser system makes it particularly suitable for harsh experimental conditions.

  19. Terahertz repetition frequencies from harmonic mode-locked monolithic compound-cavity laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanson, D. A.; Street, M. W.; McDougall, S. D.; Thayne, I. G.; Marsh, J. H.; Avrutin, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Compound-cavity laser diodes are mode locked at a harmonic of the fundamental round-trip frequency to achieve repetition rates of up to 2.1 THz. The devices are fabricated from GaAs/AlGaAs material at a wavelength of 860 nm and incorporate two gain sections with an etched slot reflector between them, and a saturable absorber section. Autocorrelation studies are used to investigate device behavior for different reflector types and reflectivity. These lasers may find applications in terahertz imaging, medicine, ultrafast optical links, and atmospheric sensing. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. Pulse repetition frequency effects in a high average power x-ray preionized excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, B.; Forestier, B.; Delaporte, P.; Canarelli, P.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental study of waves damping in a high repetition rate excimer laser is undertaken. Excitation of laser active medium in a subsonic loop is achieved by means of a classical discharge, through transfer capacitors. The discharge stability is controlled by a wire ion plasma (w.i.p.) X-rays gun. The strong acoustic waves induced by the active medium excitation may lead to a decrease, at high PRF, of the energy per pulse. First results of the influence of a damping of induced density perturbations between two successive pulses are presented

  1. Power neodymium-glass amplifier of a repetitively pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Gaganov, V E; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Krotov, V A; Martynenko, S P; Pozdnyakov, E V; Solomatin, I I [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-30

    A neodymium-glass diode-pumped amplifier with a zigzag laser beam propagation through the active medium was elaborated; the amplifier is intended for operation in a repetitively pulsed laser. An amplifier unit with an aperture of 20 Multiplication-Sign 25 mm and a {approx}40-cm long active medium was put to a test. The energy of pump radiation amounts to 140 J at a wavelength of 806 nm for a pump duration of 550 {mu}s. The energy parameters of the amplifier were experimentally determined: the small-signal gain per pass {approx}3.2, the linear gain {approx}0.031 cm{sup -1} with a nonuniformity of its distribution over the aperture within 15%, the stored energy of 0.16 - 0.21 J cm{sup -3}. The wavefront distortions in the zigzag laser-beam propagation through the active element of the amplifier did not exceed 0.4{lambda} ({lambda} = 0.63 {mu}m is the probing radiation wavelength).

  2. Power neodymium-glass amplifier of a repetitively pulsed laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Gaganov, V E; Garanin, Sergey G; Zhidkov, N V; Krotov, V A; Martynenko, S P; Pozdnyakov, E V; Solomatin, I I

    2011-01-01

    A neodymium-glass diode-pumped amplifier with a zigzag laser beam propagation through the active medium was elaborated; the amplifier is intended for operation in a repetitively pulsed laser. An amplifier unit with an aperture of 20 × 25 mm and a ∼40-cm long active medium was put to a test. The energy of pump radiation amounts to 140 J at a wavelength of 806 nm for a pump duration of 550 μs. The energy parameters of the amplifier were experimentally determined: the small-signal gain per pass ∼3.2, the linear gain ∼0.031 cm -1 with a nonuniformity of its distribution over the aperture within 15%, the stored energy of 0.16 - 0.21 J cm -3 . The wavefront distortions in the zigzag laser-beam propagation through the active element of the amplifier did not exceed 0.4λ (λ = 0.63 μm is the probing radiation wavelength).

  3. Repetitive laser fusion experiment and operation using a target injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Komeda, Osamu; Mori, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    Since 2008, a collaborative research project on laser fusion development based on a high-speed ignition method using repetitive laser has been carried out with several collaborative research institutes. This paper reports the current state of operation of high repetition laser fusion experiments, such as target introduction and control based on a target injection system that allows free falling under 1 Hz, using a high repetition laser driver that has been under research and development, as well as the measurement of targets that freely fall. The HAMA laser driver that enabled high repetition fusion experiments is a titanium sapphire laser using a diode-pumped solid-state laser KURE-I of green light output as a driver pump light source. In order to carry out high repetition laser fusion experiments, the target injection device allows free falling of deuterated polystyrene solid sphere targets of 1 mm in diameter under 1 Hz. The authors integrated the developed laser and injection system, and succeeded first in the world in making the nuclear fusion reaction continuously by hitting the target to be injected with laser, which is essential technology for future laser nuclear fusion reactor. In order to realize repetition laser fusion experiments, stable laser, target synchronization control, and target position measurement technologies are indispensable. (A.O.)

  4. Development of a cryogenic hydrogen microjet for high-intensity, high-repetition rate experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Göde, S.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-11-01

    The advent of high-intensity, high-repetition-rate lasers has led to the need for replenishing targets of interest for high energy density sciences. We describe the design and characterization of a cryogenic microjet source, which can deliver a continuous stream of liquid hydrogen with a diameter of a few microns. The jet has been imaged at 1 μm resolution by shadowgraphy with a short pulse laser. The pointing stability has been measured at well below a mrad, for a stable free-standing filament of solid-density hydrogen.

  5. High repetition rate burst-mode spark gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.; Reginato, L.; Hester, R.; Chesterman, A.; Cook, E.; Yokota, T.; Dexter, W.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented on the design and testing of a pressurized gas blown spark gap switch capable of high repetition rates in a burst mode of operation. The switch parameters which have been achieved are as follows: 220-kV, 42-kA, a five pulse burst at 1-kHz, 12-ns risetime, 2-ns jitter at a pulse width of 50-ns

  6. High-repetition-rate hydrogen chamber: Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    This report is a conclusion to the tests realised with an experimental bubbles chamber in view to study the possibilities to increase the repetition rate. The more important parameters (the evolution of the bubbles, the expansion system) are considered in a theoretical way. Then the hardware is described. To end, experimental results are compared with the first evaluations. The calculations and the experimentation are against an oscillation system for the expansion. A system with a locking is to he considered. (authors) [fr

  7. Studies of high repetition rate laser-produced plasma soft-X-ray amplifiers; Etudes d'amplificateurs plasma laser a haute cadence dans le domaine X-UV et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassou, K

    2006-12-15

    The progress made as well on the Ti:Sa laser system, as in the control and the knowledge of laser produced X-UV sources allowed the construction of a X-UV laser station dedicated to the applications. My thesis work falls under the development of this station and more particularly on the characterization of a X-UV laser plasma amplifier. The experimental study relates to the coupling improvement of the pump infra-red laser with plasma within the framework of the transient collisional X-UV laser generation. These X-UV lasers are generated in a plasma formed by the interaction of a solid target and a laser pulse of approximately 500 ps duration, followed by a second infra-red laser pulse known as of pump (about 5 ps) impinging on the target in grazing incidence. For the first time, a complete parametric study was undertaken on the influence of the grazing angle on the pumping of the amplifying medium. One of the results was to reach very high peak brightness about 10{sup 28} ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/(0.1%bandwidth), which compares well with the free-electron laser brightness. Moreover, we modified then used a new two-dimensional hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement in order to understand the influence of the space-time properties of the infra-red laser on the formation and the evolution of the amplifying plasma. Our modeling highlighted the interest to use a super Gaussian transverse profile for the line focus leading to an increase in a factor two of the gain region size and a reduction of the electron density gradient by three orders of magnitude. These improvements should strongly increase the energy contained in X-UV laser beam. We thus used X-UV laser to study the appearance of transient defects produced by a laser IR on a beam-splitter rear side. We also began research on the mechanisms of DNA damage induced by a very intense X-UV radiation. (author)

  8. High energy high repetition-rate thin-disk amplifier for OPCPA pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Michael

    2013-08-15

    The development of a pump laser system for a high power and high repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is presented in this thesis. The OPCPA system requires pump pulse energies in the range of tens of millijoules at high repetition rates with sub-picosecond pulse durations. This can be achieved to some extend with Innoslab amplifier technology. However, scaling to higher pulse energies at high repetition rates may be problematic. With the thin-disk amplifier presented in this thesis, output energies of 140 mJ at 100 kHz repetition rate could be achieved in burst-mode operation, which is a world record for this type of laser amplifier. Due to its material and spectral properties, ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is used as a gain medium for the high power amplifier stages. The low quantum defect and the comparatively large emission bandwidth makes this material the choice for high power operation and sub-picosecond compressed pulse durations. The output beam profile as well as the shape of the output bursts is ideal to pump an OPCPA system. An OPCPA output energy in the millijoule range with repetition rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz is needed to generate seed pulses for the FEL and for the application as pump-probe laser at the FEL facility. Since the development of this laser system needs to meet requirements set by the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), the amplifier is conceived for burst-mode operation. The main requirement is a high intra-burst pulse repetition rate of more than 100 kHz and a uniform pulse train (burst) with equal properties for every pulse. The burst-mode is an operation mode where the laser never reaches a lasing equilibrium, which means that the behavior of the amplifier is similar to a switch-on of the laser system for every burst. This makes the development of the amplifier system difficult. Therefore, an analytical model has been developed to study the amplification process during the burst. This includes the

  9. High energy high repetition-rate thin-disk amplifier for OPCPA pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The development of a pump laser system for a high power and high repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) is presented in this thesis. The OPCPA system requires pump pulse energies in the range of tens of millijoules at high repetition rates with sub-picosecond pulse durations. This can be achieved to some extend with Innoslab amplifier technology. However, scaling to higher pulse energies at high repetition rates may be problematic. With the thin-disk amplifier presented in this thesis, output energies of 140 mJ at 100 kHz repetition rate could be achieved in burst-mode operation, which is a world record for this type of laser amplifier. Due to its material and spectral properties, ytterbium doped YAG (Yb:YAG) is used as a gain medium for the high power amplifier stages. The low quantum defect and the comparatively large emission bandwidth makes this material the choice for high power operation and sub-picosecond compressed pulse durations. The output beam profile as well as the shape of the output bursts is ideal to pump an OPCPA system. An OPCPA output energy in the millijoule range with repetition rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz is needed to generate seed pulses for the FEL and for the application as pump-probe laser at the FEL facility. Since the development of this laser system needs to meet requirements set by the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), the amplifier is conceived for burst-mode operation. The main requirement is a high intra-burst pulse repetition rate of more than 100 kHz and a uniform pulse train (burst) with equal properties for every pulse. The burst-mode is an operation mode where the laser never reaches a lasing equilibrium, which means that the behavior of the amplifier is similar to a switch-on of the laser system for every burst. This makes the development of the amplifier system difficult. Therefore, an analytical model has been developed to study the amplification process during the burst. This includes the

  10. Vibrational sum-frequency generation spectroscopy of lipid bilayers at repetition rates up to 100 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Freeda; Mero, Mark; Kneipp, Janina; Heiner, Zsuzsanna

    2018-03-01

    Broadband vibrational sum-frequency generation (BB-VSFG) spectroscopy has become a well-established surface analytical tool capable of identifying the orientation and structure of molecular layers. A straightforward way to boost the sensitivity of the technique could be to increase the laser repetition rate beyond that of standard BB-VSFG spectrometers, which rely on Ti:sapphire lasers operating at repetition rates of 1-5 kHz. Nevertheless, possible thermally induced artifacts in the vibrational spectra due to higher laser average powers are unexplored. Here, we discuss laser power induced temperature accumulation effects that distort the BB-VSFG spectra of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at an interface between two transparent phases at repetition rates of 5, 10, 50, and 100 kHz at constant pulse energy. No heat-induced distortions were found in the spectra, suggesting that the increase in the laser repetition rate provides a feasible route to an improved signal-to-noise ratio or shorter data acquisition times in BB-VSFG spectroscopy for thin films on transparent substrates. The results have implications for future BB-VSFG spectrometers pushing the detection limit for molecular layers with low surface coverage.

  11. Influence of Music Style and Rate on Repetitive Finger Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Tatz, Joshua R; Warnecke, Alison; Hibbing, Paul; Bates, Brandon; Zaman, Andrew

    2018-03-09

    Auditory cues, including music, are commonly used in the treatment of persons with Parkinson's disease. Yet, how music style and movement rate modulate movement performance in persons with Parkinson's disease have been neglected and remain limited in healthy young populations. The purpose of this study was to determine how music style and movement rate influence movement performance in healthy young adults. Healthy participants were asked to perform repetitive finger movements at two pacing rates (70 and 140 beats per minute) for the following conditions: (a) a tone only, (b) activating music, and (c) relaxing music. Electromyography, movement kinematics, and variability were collected. Results revealed that the provision of music, regardless of style, reduced amplitude variability at both pacing rates. Intermovement interval was longer, and acceleration variability was reduced during both music conditions at the lower pacing rate only. These results may prove beneficial for designing therapeutic interventions for persons with Parkinson's disease.

  12. Investigation of monolithic passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers with extremely low repetition frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianhong; Cao, Juncheng; Montrosset, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical regimes and performance optimization of quantum dot monolithic passively mode-locked lasers with extremely low repetition rate are investigated using the numerical method. A modified multisection delayed differential equation model is proposed to accomplish simulations of both two-section and three-section passively mode-locked lasers with long cavity. According to the numerical simulations, it is shown that fundamental and harmonic mode-locking regimes can be multistable over a wide current range. These dynamic regimes are studied, and the reasons for their existence are explained. In addition, we demonstrate that fundamental pulses with higher peak power can be achieved when the laser is designed to work in a region with smaller differential gain.

  13. High repetition ration solid state switched CO2 TEA laser employed in industrial ultrasonic testing of aircraft parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, Hubertus; Morkel, Francois; Stehmann, Timo

    2015-02-01

    Laser Ultrasonic Testing (UT) is an important technique for the non-destructive inspection of composite parts in the aerospace industry. In laser UT a high power, short pulse probe laser is scanned across the material surface, generating ultrasound waves which can be detected by a second low power laser system and are used to draw a defect map of the part. We report on the design and testing of a transversely excited atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser system specifically optimised for laser UT. The laser is excited by a novel solid-state switched pulsing system and utilises either spark or corona preionisation. It provides short output pulses of less than 100 ns at repetition rates of up to 1 kHz, optimised for efficient ultrasonic wave generation. The system has been designed for highly reliable operation under industrial conditions and a long term test with total pulse counts in excess of 5 billion laser pulses is reported.

  14. Highly efficient repetitively pulsed electric-discharge industrial CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, V V; Ivanov, M G; Lisenkov, V V; Platonov, V V

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of a repetitively pulsed CO 2 laser with an active medium volume of 1000 cm 3 pumped by a combined discharge are generalised. It is shown that, at pump pulse durations of 200-500 μs the optimal characteristics are achieved at active-medium pressures of 60-100 Torr. In this case, the laser efficiency at the initial stage of its operation can reach 22% and; if the energy dissipated in the region of the cathode potential drop is neglected, the efficiency is 28%. After emission of 3x10 5 pulses, the laser efficiency falls to 12%. It has been found that adding CO with a relative concentration [CO]/[CO 2 ] ∼0.75 increases the input and output power by almost 50%. The lasing efficiency is then 10%-12%, and the service life of the laser is by more than 10 6 pulses with a power decrease of no more than 10%. Adding hydrogen up to a concentration [H 2 ]/[CO 2 ] ∼10 leads to an increase in the energy supplied to the gas due to a decrease in the rate of ionisation processes. However, the optimal ratio is [H 2 ]/[CO 2 ] ∼ 1, at which the output power increases by 15%. In a long-term operating mode, the laser power is 1 kW at a peak power of 10 kW and an efficiency of 12%. (lasers)

  15. Closed-cycle 1-kHz-pulse-repetition-frequency HF(DF) laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael R.; Morris, A. V.; Gorton, Eric K.

    1998-05-01

    We describe the design and performance of a closed cycle, high pulse repetition frequency HF(DF) laser. A short duration, glow discharge is formed in a 10 SF6:1 H2(D2) gas mixture at a total pressure of approximately 110 torr. A pair of profiled electrodes define a 15 X 0.5 X 0.5 cm3 discharge volume through which gas flow is forced in the direction transverse to the optical axis. A centrifugal fan provides adequate gas flow to enable operation up to 3 kHz repetition frequency. The fan also passes the gas through a scrubber cell in which ground state HF(DF) is eliminated from the gas stream. An automated gas make-up system replenishes the spent fuel gases removed by the scrubber. Total gas admission is regulated by monitoring the system pressure, whilst the correct fuel balance is maintained through measurement of the discharge voltage. The HF(DF) generation rate is determined to be close to 5 X 1019 molecules per second per watt of laser output. Typical mean laser output powers of up to 3 watts can be delivered for extended periods of time. The primary limitation to life is found to be the discharge pre- ionization system. A distributed resistance corona pre- ionizer is shown to be advantageous when compared with an alternative arc array scheme.

  16. Direct electron acceleration in plasma waveguides for compact high-repetition-rate x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M-W; Jovanovic, I

    2014-01-01

    Numerous applications in fundamental and applied research, security, and industry require robust, compact sources of x-rays, with a particular recent interest in monochromatic, spatially coherent, and ultrafast x-ray pulses in well-collimated beams. Such x-ray sources usually require production of high-quality electron beams from compact accelerators. Guiding a radially polarized laser pulse in a plasma waveguide has been proposed for realizing direct laser acceleration (DLA), where the electrons are accelerated by the axial electric field of a co-propagating laser pulse (Serafim et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28 1190). A moderate laser peak power is required for DLA when compared to laser wakefield acceleration, thus offering the prospect for high repetition rate operation. By using a density-modulated plasma waveguide for DLA, the acceleration distance can be extended with pulse guiding, while the density-modulation with proper axial structure can realize the quasi-phase matching between the laser pulses and electrons for a net gain accumulation (York et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 195001; York et al 2008 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25 B137; Palastro et al 2008 Phys. Rev. E 77 036405). We describe the development and application of a test particle model and particle-in-cell model for DLA. Experimental setups designed for fabrication of optically tailored plasma waveguides via the ignitor-heater scheme, and for generation and characterization of radially polarized short pulses used to drive DLA, are presented. (paper)

  17. Repetition rates in heavy ion beam driven fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    The limits on the cavity gas density required for beam propagation and condensation times for material vaporized by target explosions can determine the maximum repetition rate of Heavy Ion Beam (HIB) driven fusion reactors. If the ions are ballistically focused onto the target, the cavity gas must have a density below roughly 10-4 torr (3×1012 cm-3) at the time of propagation; other propagation schemes may allow densities as high as 1 torr or more. In some reactor designs, several kilograms of material may be vaporized off of the target chamber walls by the target generated x-rays, raising the average density in the cavity to 100 tor or more. A one-dimensional combined radiation hydrodynamics and vaporization and condensation computer code has been used to simulate the behavior of the vaporized material in the target chambers of HIB fusion reactors.

  18. Repetition rates in heavy ion beam driven fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The limits on the cavity gas density required for beam propagation and condensation times for material vaporized by target explosions can determine the maximum repetition rate of Heavy Ion Beam (HIB) driven fusion reactors. If the ions are ballistically focused onto the target, the cavity gas must have a density below roughly 10 -4 torr (3 x 10 12 cm -3 ) at the time of propagation; other propagation schemes may allow densities as high as 1 torr or more. In some reactor designs, several kilograms of material may be vaporized off of the target chamber walls by the target generated x-rays, raising the average density in the cavity to 100 tor or more. A one-dimensional combined radiation hydrodynamics and vaporization and condensation computer code has been used to simulate the behavior of the vaporized material in the target chambers of HIB fusion reactors

  19. Development of a Watt-level gamma-ray source based on high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, D.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.

    2017-07-01

    A high-brilliance (~1022 photon s-1 mm-2 mrad-2 /0.1%) gamma-ray source experiment is currently being planned at Fermilab (Eγ≃1.1 MeV). The source implements a high-repetition-rate inverse Compton scattering by colliding electron bunches formed in a ~300-MeV superconducting linac with a high-intensity laser pulse. This paper describes the design rationale along with some of technical challenges associated to producing high-repetition-rate collision. The expected performances of the gamma-ray source are also presented.

  20. Repetitive output laser system and method using target reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    An improved laser system and method for implosion of a thermonuclear fuel pellet is described in which that portion of a laser pulse reflected by the target pellet is utilized in the laser system to initiate a succeeding target implosion, and in which the energy stored in the laser system to amplify the initial laser pulse, but not completely absorbed thereby, is used to amplify succeeding laser pulses initiated by target refγlection

  1. Optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with hybrid mode-locking and a broad tunable range of repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honglei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shijie; Yang, Lijun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-12-01

    We present an optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with a broad repetition rate tuning range based on a hybrid mode-locked oscillator. We lock two comb modes to narrow-linewidth reference lasers in turn to investigate the best performance of control loops. The control bandwidth of fast and slow piezoelectric transducers reaches 70 kHz, while that of pump current modulation with phase-lead compensation is extended to 32 kHz, exceeding laser intrinsic response. Eventually, simultaneous lock of both loops is realized to totally phase-stabilize the comb, which will facilitate precision dual-comb spectroscopy, laser ranging, and timing distribution. In addition, a 1.8-MHz span of the repetition rate is achieved by an automatic optical delay line that is helpful in manufacturing a secondary comb with a similar repetition rate. The oscillator is housed in a homemade temperature-controlled box with an accuracy of ±0.02  K, which not only keeps high signal-to-noise ratio of the beat notes with reference lasers, but also guarantees self-starting at the same mode-locking every time.

  2. Pulse repetition rate multiplication by Talbot effect in a coaxial fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Nikhil; Saxena, Geetika Jain; Anand, Jyoti; Sharma, Enakshi K.

    2018-03-01

    We use a coaxial fiber, which is a cylindrical coupled waveguide structure consisting of two concentric cores, the inner rod and an outer ring core as a first order dispersive media to achieve temporal Talbot effect for pulse repetition rate multiplication (PRRM) in high bit rate optical fiber communication. It is observed that for an input Gaussian pulse train with pulse width, 2τ0=1ps at a repetition rate of 40 Gbps (repetition period, T=25ps), an output repetition rate of 640 Gbps can be achieved without significant distortion at a length of 40.92 m.

  3. R and D toward highly repetitive laser fusion demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Nakahiro; Matsukado, Koji; Watari, Takeshi; Sekine, Takashi; Takeuchi, Yasuki; Kawashima, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Hamamatsu Photonics conducts research on a unique continuous neutron generation method by integrating and utilizing elemental technologies such as laser, target, and measurement for laser nuclear fusion research. In addition, in collaboration with the Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, Toyota Motor Corporation, and others, it is conducting research on laser fusion. As a high power laser of element technology, it constructed an ultrahigh intensity laser system by combining glass slab laser KURE-I and ultrahigh intensity femtosecond laser MATSU-I equipped with titanium sapphire transmitter, and achieved a peak output of 20 TW, It plans to further increase this to 100 TW. As other element technologies, it is also considering nuclear fusion fuel - target technology and light - high energy particle measurement technology. Regarding the demonstration of continuous generation of laser fusion neutrons, it performed 100 times of continuous laser beam irradiation at 1 Hz, and actually measured the number of neutrons generated. It measured 4.5x10 4 pieces of neutrons on average (maximum 10 5 ) with a frequency of 98%. Since 100% of neutron generation should occur in principle, in the future it will be necessary to enhancing laser collecting intensity and to improve solid particle number density in order to put this process into practical use as a neutron source. (A.O.)

  4. Short-Pulse-Width Repetitively Q-Switched ~2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 Ceramic Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A short-pulse-width repetitively Q-switched 2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser is demonstrated using a specially designed mechanical switch, a metal plate carved with slits of both slit-width and duty-cycle optimized. With a 20% transmission output coupler, stable pulse trains with durations (full-width at half-maximum, FWHM of 27–38 ns were generated with a repetition rate within the range of 0.26–4 kHz. The peak power at a 0.26 kHz repetition rate was ~3 kW.

  5. Heavy-duty high-repetition-rate generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, van E.J.M.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    We present our results on high-power repetitive pulse sources for continuous operation. Two 1-10-kW systems using advanced spark gap technology and a transmission line transformer have been tested for several hundred hours at a 60-MW pulse level. High reliability and above 90% overall efficiency are

  6. New results on spin determination of nanosatellite BLITS from High Repetition Rate SLR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, D.; Kirchner, G.; Lim, H.-C.; Koidl, F.

    2013-03-01

    The nanosatellite BLITS (Ball Lens In The Space) demonstrates a successful design of the new spherical lens type satellite for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). The spin parameters of the satellite were calculated from more than 1000 days of SLR data collected from 6 High Repetition Rate (HRR) systems: Beijing, Changchun, Graz, Herstmonceux, Potsdam, Shanghai.Analysis of the 892 passes (September 26, 2009-June 18, 2012) shows precession of the spin axis around orientation of the along track vector calculated at the launch epoch of the satellite RA = 9h16m39s, Dec = 43.1°. The spin period of BLITS remains stable with the mean value Tmean = 5.613 s, RMS = 11 ms. The incident angle between the spin axis and the symmetry axis of the body changes within 60° range.

  7. Design of a high repetition rate S-band photocathode gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Janghui; Cox, Matthew; Huang, Houcheng; Pande, Shivaji

    2011-01-01

    Photocathode RF guns have been developed in many laboratories for generating high quality electron beams for free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators. Such guns can generate electron beams with an exceptionally high peak current as well as a small transverse emittance. Their applications have been recently expanded for ultrafast electron diffraction, coherent terahertz radiation, and X-ray or γ-ray radiation by Compton scattering. In this paper, we design an S-band normal-conducting gun with capabilities of high quality beam generation and high repetition rate operation. The RF design and thermal analysis of the gun cavity and coupler are introduced. Optimal position of the gun focusing solenoid for low emittance beam generation is found by performing particle tracking simulations. Then, the gun system is designed to be able to afford the optimal solenoid position. The cooling-water channel surrounding the gun cavity and coupler is designed and analyzed numerically. The pressure in the gun is simulated with a vacuum model containing the detailed inner structure of the gun. An injector for a free-electron laser application is designed by using this gun and the beam dynamics simulation is shown. A cold test with a prototype gun for confirmation of the RF design is reported. - Highlights: → We design an S-band gun for low emittance beam generation and high repetition rate operation. → The RF design and thermal analysis of the gun cavity and coupler are studied. → An FEL injector is designed by using this gun and the beam dynamics simulation is shown. → A cold test with a prototype gun for confirmation of the RF design is reported.

  8. Repetitive 1 Hz fast-heating fusion driver HAMA pumped by diode pumped solid state laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshitaka; Sekine, Takashi; Komeda, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    We describe a repetitive fast-heating fusion driver called HAMA pumped by Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL) to realize the counter irradiation of sequential implosion and heating laser beams. HAMA was designed to activate DPSSL for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and to realize a unified ICF machine for power plants. The details of a four-beam alignment scheme and the results of the counter irradiation of stainless plates are shown. (author)

  9. Laser induced fluorescence in nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges for CO2 conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, L. M.; Gatti, N.; Dilecce, G.; Scotoni, M.; Tosi, P.

    2018-01-01

    A CO2 nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharge (NRP) is a harsh environment for laser induced fluorescence (LIF) diagnostics. The difficulties arise from it being a strongly collisional system in which the gas composition, pressure and temperature, have quick and strong variations. The relevant diagnostic problems are described and illustrated through the application of LIF to the measurement of the OH radical in three different discharge configurations, with gas mixtures containing CO2 + H2O. These range from a dielectric barrier NRP with He buffer gas, a less hostile case in which absolute OH density measurement is possible, to an NRP in CO2+H2O, where the full set of drawbacks is at work. In the last case, the OH density measurement is not possible with laser pulses and detector time resolution in the ns time scale. Nevertheless, it is shown that with a proper knowledge of the collisional rate constants involved in the LIF process, a collisional energy transfer-LIF methodology is still applicable to deduce the gas composition from the analysis of LIF spectra.

  10. 200 ps FWHM and 100 MHz repetition rate ultrafast gated camera for optical medical functional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhring, Wilfried; Poulet, Patrick; Hanselmann, Walter; Glazenborg, René; Zint, Virginie; Nouizi, Farouk; Dubois, Benoit; Hirschi, Werner

    2012-04-01

    The paper describes the realization of a complete optical imaging device to clinical applications like brain functional imaging by time-resolved, spectroscopic diffuse optical tomography. The entire instrument is assembled in a unique setup that includes a light source, an ultrafast time-gated intensified camera and all the electronic control units. The light source is composed of four near infrared laser diodes driven by a nanosecond electrical pulse generator working in a sequential mode at a repetition rate of 100 MHz. The resulting light pulses, at four wavelengths, are less than 80 ps FWHM. They are injected in a four-furcated optical fiber ended with a frontal light distributor to obtain a uniform illumination spot directed towards the head of the patient. Photons back-scattered by the subject are detected by the intensified CCD camera; there are resolved according to their time of flight inside the head. The very core of the intensified camera system is the image intensifier tube and its associated electrical pulse generator. The ultrafast generator produces 50 V pulses, at a repetition rate of 100 MHz and a width corresponding to the 200 ps requested gate. The photocathode and the Micro-Channel-Plate of the intensifier have been specially designed to enhance the electromagnetic wave propagation and reduce the power loss and heat that are prejudicial to the quality of the image. The whole instrumentation system is controlled by an FPGA based module. The timing of the light pulses and the photocathode gating is precisely adjustable with a step of 9 ps. All the acquisition parameters are configurable via software through an USB plug and the image data are transferred to a PC via an Ethernet link. The compactness of the device makes it a perfect device for bedside clinical applications.

  11. High-energy, high-repetition-rate picosecond pulses from a quasi-CW diode-pumped Nd:YAG system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noom, Daniel W E; Witte, Stefan; Morgenweg, Jonas; Altmann, Robert K; Eikema, Kjeld S E

    2013-08-15

    We report on a high-power quasi-CW pumped Nd:YAG laser system, producing 130 mJ, 64 ps pulses at 1064 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 300 Hz. Pulses from a Nd:YVO(4) oscillator are first amplified by a regenerative amplifier to the millijoule level and then further amplified in quasi-CW diode-pumped Nd:YAG modules. Pulsed diode pumping enables a high gain at repetition rates of several hundred hertz, while keeping thermal effects manageable. Birefringence compensation and multiple thermal-lensing-compensated relay-imaging stages are used to maintain a top-hat beam profile. After frequency doubling, 75 mJ pulses are obtained at 532 nm. The intensity stability is better than 1.1%, which makes this laser an attractive pump source for a high-repetition-rate optical parametric amplification system.

  12. Reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H; Langkau, R; Schirm, N [Hamburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1976-04-01

    A system for the reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the energy-variable Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron comprising beam pulse supression in the cyclotron center and in the external beam is described.

  13. First high-repetition-rate Thomson scattering for fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehr, H.; Steuer, K.H.; Schramm, G.; Hirsch, K.; Salzmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    Electron temperature and density measurements by Thomson scattering were performed for the first time for the whole duration of a tokamak discharge. A Nd:YAG laser of 60 pulses per second at 1.06μm was used in ASDEX in combination with silicon avalanche photodiode detectors. Density calibration was done by rotational anti-Stokes Raman scattering from hydrogen. The system is used for measurements at electron densities as low as 3x10 12 cm -3 . (author)

  14. Crystallization of 21.25Gd2O3-63.75MoO3-15B2O3 glass induced by femtosecond laser at the repetition rate of 250 kHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, M.J.; Han, Y.M.; Liu, L.P.; Zhou, P.; Du, Y.Y.; Guo, Q.T.; Ma, H.L.; Dai, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of β'-Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 (GMO) crystal on the surface of the 21.25Gd 2 O 3 -63.75MoO 3 -15B 2 O 3 glass, induced by 250 kHz, 800 nm femtosecond laser irradiation. The morphology of the modified region in the glass was clearly examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By micro-Raman spectra, the laser-induced crystals were confirmed to be GMO phases and it is found that these crystals have a strong dependence on the number and power of the femtosecond laser pulses. When the irradiation laser power was 900 mW, not only the Raman peaks of GMO crystals but also some new peaks at 214 cm -1 , 240 cm -1 , 466 cm -1 , 664 cm -1 and 994 cm -1 which belong to the MoO 3 crystals were observed. The possible mechanisms are proposed to explain these phenomena.

  15. Technique for long and absolute distance measurement based on laser pulse repetition frequency sweeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Alves, D.; Abreu, Manuel; Cabral, A.; Jost, Michael; Rebordão, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we present a technique to perform long and absolute distance measurements based on mode-locked diode lasers. Using a Michelson interferometer, it is possible to produce an optical cross-correlation between laser pulses of the reference arm with the pulses from the measurement arm, adjusting externally their degree of overlap either changing the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or the position of the reference arm mirror for two (or more) fixed frequencies. The correlation of the travelling pulses for precision distance measurements relies on ultra-short pulse durations, as the uncertainty associated to the method is dependent on the laser pulse width as well as on a highly stable PRF. Mode-locked Diode lasers are a very appealing technology for its inherent characteristics, associated to compactness, size and efficiency, constituting a positive trade-off with regard to other mode-locked laser sources. Nevertheless, main current drawback is the non-availability of frequency-stable laser diodes. The laser used is a monolithic mode-locked semiconductor quantum-dot (QD) laser. The laser PRF is locked to an external stabilized RF reference. In this work we will present some of the preliminary results and discuss the importance of the requirements related to laser PRF stability in the final metrology system accuracy.

  16. Hypersonic wave drag reduction performance of cylinders with repetitive laser energy depositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J; Hong, Y J; Li, Q; Huang, H

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely research that wave drag reduction on hypersonic vehicle by laser energy depositions. Using laser energy to reduce wave drag can improve vehicle performance. A second order accurate scheme based on finite-difference method and domain decomposition of structural grid is used to compute the drag performance of cylinders in a hypersonic flow of Mach number 2 at altitude of 15km with repetitive energy depositions. The effects of frequency on drag reduction are studied. The calculated results show: the recirculation zone is generated due to the interaction between bow shock over the cylinder and blast wave produced by energy deposition, and a virtual spike which is supported by an axis-symmetric recirculation, is formed in front of the cylinder. By increasing the repetitive frequency, the drag is reduced and the oscillation of the drag is decreased; however, the energy efficiency decreases by increasing the frequency.

  17. High-repetition-rate hydrogen chamber: Preliminary studies; Chambre a hydrogene a haut taux de repetition: Etudes preliminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-01-01

    This report is a conclusion to the tests realised with an experimental bubbles chamber in view to study the possibilities to increase the repetition rate. The more important parameters (the evolution of the bubbles, the expansion system) are considered in a theoretical way. Then the hardware is described. To end, experimental results are compared with the first evaluations. The calculations and the experimentation are against an oscillation system for the expansion. A system with a locking is to he considered. (authors) [French] Ce rapport est une conclusion aux essais realises avec une chambre a bulles experimentale en vue d'etudier les possibilites d'accroitre les taux de repetition. Les parametres les plus importants (evolution des bulles, mecanique de la detente) sont etudies par voie theorique. Puis l'appareillage est decrit. Enfin, les resultats experimentaux sont compares aux evaluations donnees au debut. Ces calculs et cette experimentation ne sont pas en faveur d'un systeme oscillant pour la detente et il faut envisager un systeme avec verrouillage. (auteurs)

  18. Influence of the reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles in the plasma plume induced by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metallic targets at atmospheric pressure and high repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Le Garrec, J.-L.; Mitchell, J.B.A. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Jouvard, J.-M. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Carvou, E. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Menneveux, J.; Yu, J. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ouf, F.-X. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN/PSN-RES/SCA/LPMA BP 68, 91192 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Carles, S. [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 CNRS-Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Potin, V.; Pillon, G.; Bourgeois, S. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Perez, J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marco de Lucas, M.C., E-mail: delucas@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 6303 CNRS-Univ. Bourgogne Franche-Comté, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); and others

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • NPs formed in a plasma-plume during laser irradiation of metals (Al, Ti, Ag) were studied. • In situ SAXS and ex situ TEM, XRD and Raman spectra were measured. • NPs size decreased when increasing the O{sub 2} fraction in a controlled O{sub 2}+N{sub 2} atmosphere. • The oxidation of metal NPs in the plasma restricts the increase of the size of the NPs. - Abstract: The influence of a reactive atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles (NPs) in the plasma plume generated by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation of metal targets (Ti, Al, Ag) was probed in situ using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). Air and different O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixtures were used as reactive gas within atmospheric pressure. SAXS results showed the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume with a mean radius varying in the 2–5 nm range. A decrease of the NPs size with increasing the O{sub 2} percentage in the O{sub 2}–N{sub 2} gas mixture was also showed. Ex situ observations by transmission electron microscopy and structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were also performed for powders collected in experiments done using air as ambient gas. The stability of the different metal oxides is discussed as being a key parameter influencing the formation of NPs in the plasma-plume.

  19. A HIGH REPETITION RATE VUV-SOFT X-RAY FEL CONCEPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.; Byrd, J.; Fawley, W.M.; Gullans, M.; Li, D.; Lidia, S.M.; Padmore, H.; Penn, G.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Robin, D.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.W.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Virostek, S.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zholents, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on design studies for a seeded FEL light source that is responsive to the scientific needs of the future. The FEL process increases radiation flux by several orders of magnitude above existing incoherent sources, and offers the additional enhancements attainable by optical manipulations of the electron beam: control of the temporal duration and bandwidth of the coherent output, reduced gain length in the FEL, utilization of harmonics to attain shorter wavelengths, and precise synchronization of the x-ray pulse with seed laser systems. We describe an FEL facility concept based on a high repetition rate RF photocathode gun, that would allow simultaneous operation of multiple independent FEL's, each producing high average brightness, tunable over the VUV-soft x-ray range, and each with individual performance characteristics determined by the configuration of the FEL. SASE, enhanced-SASE (ESASE), seeded, harmonic generation, and other configurations making use of optical manipulations of the electron beam may be employed, providing a wide range of photon beam properties to meet varied user demands

  20. Effect of Bench Press Load Knowledge on Repetitions, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Attentional Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christina M; Cox, Zachary; Dundore, Tyler; Thomas, Tayler; Kim, Johnathon; Pillivant, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Beaudoin, CM, Cox, Z, Dundore, T, Thomas, T, Kim, J, and Pillivant, D. Effect of bench press load knowledge on repetitions, rating of perceived exertion, and attentional focus. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 514-519, 2018-Few studies have examined the role of the teleoanticipation during resistance training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bench press (BP) load knowledge on repetitions completed, ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs), and attentional focus (% associative). Thirty-six recreationally active resistance-trained men (n = 25) and women (n = 11) participated in this study (age = 20.97 ± 1.87 years; ht = 174.12 ± 9.41 cm; and mass = 80.14 ± 14.03 kg). All subjects completed 3 testing sessions: (a) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) BP determination; (b) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue known load (KL); and (c) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue unknown load (UL). Known load and UL sessions were randomized and counterbalanced and both completed at 70% 1RM. An estimated weight ratio was computed using the subject's estimate of the UL weight relative to the KL weight. An independent samples t-test revealed no significant testing order difference for the estimated weight ratio. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variances revealed no significant differences in the number of repetitions (p = 0.63), RPE (p = 0.18), or attentional focus (% associative) (p = 0.93) between the KL and UL conditions. Pearson correlations found a moderate positive association between KL repetitions completed and % associative focus when the UL was completed before the KL. Load knowledge did not influence the number of repetitions, RPE, or attentional focus while completing the BP. Further research examining the use of pacing strategies, RPE, and attentional focus during KL and UL conditions are warranted.

  1. Time-resolved studies at PETRA III with a highly repetitive synchronized laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlie, Mortiz

    2013-09-15

    Atomic and molecular processes can nowadays be directly followed in the time domain. This is a core technique for a better understanding of the involved fundamental physics, thus auguring new applications in the future as well. Usually the so-called pump-probe technique making use of two synchronized ultrashort light pulses is utilized to obtain this time-resolved data. In this work, the development and characterization of a synchronization system enabling such pump-probe studies at the storage ring PETRA III in combination with an external, then synchronized fs-laser system is described. The synchronization is based on an extended PLL approach with three interconnected feedback loops allowing to monitor short-time losses of the lock and thus prevent them. This way, the jitter between the laser PHAROS and the PETRA III reference signal is reduced to {sigma} <5 ps. Thus the system allows to conduct experiments at a repetition rate of 130 kHz with a temporal resolution limited only by the X-ray pulse length. A major emphasis in the fundamental introductory chapters is an intuitive explanation of the basic principles of phase locked loops and the different aspects of phase noise to allow a deeper understanding of the synchronization. Furthermore, first pump-probe experiments conducted at different beamlines at PETRA III are presented, demonstrating the usability of the laser system in a scientific environment as well. In first characterizing experiments the pulse duration of PETRA III X-ray pulses has been measured to be 90 ps FWHM. In particular, there have been time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments on Gaq3 and Znq2 conducted at beamline P11. First results show dynamics of the electronic excitation on the timescale of a few hundred pico seconds up to a few nano seconds and provide a basic understanding for further research on those molecules. For Gaq3 this data is analyzed in detail and compared with visible fluorescence measurements suggesting at

  2. Time-resolved studies at PETRA III with a highly repetitive synchronized laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlie, Mortiz

    2013-09-01

    Atomic and molecular processes can nowadays be directly followed in the time domain. This is a core technique for a better understanding of the involved fundamental physics, thus auguring new applications in the future as well. Usually the so-called pump-probe technique making use of two synchronized ultrashort light pulses is utilized to obtain this time-resolved data. In this work, the development and characterization of a synchronization system enabling such pump-probe studies at the storage ring PETRA III in combination with an external, then synchronized fs-laser system is described. The synchronization is based on an extended PLL approach with three interconnected feedback loops allowing to monitor short-time losses of the lock and thus prevent them. This way, the jitter between the laser PHAROS and the PETRA III reference signal is reduced to σ <5 ps. Thus the system allows to conduct experiments at a repetition rate of 130 kHz with a temporal resolution limited only by the X-ray pulse length. A major emphasis in the fundamental introductory chapters is an intuitive explanation of the basic principles of phase locked loops and the different aspects of phase noise to allow a deeper understanding of the synchronization. Furthermore, first pump-probe experiments conducted at different beamlines at PETRA III are presented, demonstrating the usability of the laser system in a scientific environment as well. In first characterizing experiments the pulse duration of PETRA III X-ray pulses has been measured to be 90 ps FWHM. In particular, there have been time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments on Gaq3 and Znq2 conducted at beamline P11. First results show dynamics of the electronic excitation on the timescale of a few hundred pico seconds up to a few nano seconds and provide a basic understanding for further research on those molecules. For Gaq3 this data is analyzed in detail and compared with visible fluorescence measurements suggesting at least

  3. High-q microring resonator with narrow free spectral range for pulse repetition rate multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Ji, Hua; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz.......We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator microring resonator with a free-spectral-range of 0.32 nm, an extinction ratio of 27 dB, and a quality factor of ~140900 at 1550 nm that is used for pulse repetition-rate multiplication from 10 to 40 GHz....

  4. Fabrication of SLM NiTi Shape Memory Alloy via Repetitive Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Zhong Xun; Liu, Yong; Low, Zhi Hong; An, Jia; Chua, Chee Kai; Leong, Kah Fai

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing has the potential to overcome the poor machinability of NiTi shape-memory alloy in fabricating smart structures of complex geometry. In recent years, a number of research activities on selective laser melting (SLM) of NiTi have been carried out to explore the optimal parameters for producing SLM NiTi with the desired phase transformation characteristics and shape-memory properties. Different effects of energy density and processing parameters on the properties of SLM NiTi were reported. In this research, a new approach—repetitive laser scanning—is introduced to meet these objectives as well. The results suggested that the laser absorptivity and heat conductivity of materials before and after the first scan significantly influence the final properties of SLM NiTi. With carefully controlled repetitive scanning process, the fabricated samples have demonstrated shape-memory effect of as high as 5.11% (with an average value of 4.61%) and exhibited comparable transformation characteristics as the NiTi powder used. These results suggest the potential for fabricating complex NiTi structures with similar properties to that of the conventionally produced NiTi parts.

  5. Fabrication of SLM NiTi Shape Memory Alloy via Repetitive Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Zhong Xun; Liu, Yong; Low, Zhi Hong; An, Jia; Chua, Chee Kai; Leong, Kah Fai

    2018-03-01

    Additive manufacturing has the potential to overcome the poor machinability of NiTi shape-memory alloy in fabricating smart structures of complex geometry. In recent years, a number of research activities on selective laser melting (SLM) of NiTi have been carried out to explore the optimal parameters for producing SLM NiTi with the desired phase transformation characteristics and shape-memory properties. Different effects of energy density and processing parameters on the properties of SLM NiTi were reported. In this research, a new approach—repetitive laser scanning—is introduced to meet these objectives as well. The results suggested that the laser absorptivity and heat conductivity of materials before and after the first scan significantly influence the final properties of SLM NiTi. With carefully controlled repetitive scanning process, the fabricated samples have demonstrated shape-memory effect of as high as 5.11% (with an average value of 4.61%) and exhibited comparable transformation characteristics as the NiTi powder used. These results suggest the potential for fabricating complex NiTi structures with similar properties to that of the conventionally produced NiTi parts.

  6. Operation and Thermal Modeling of the ISIS H– Source from 50 to 2 Hz Repetition Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, H; Lettry, J

    2013-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 accelerator H− ion source, currently under construction, will operate at a 2 Hz repetition rate, with pulse length of 0.5 ms and a beam current of 80 mA. Its reliability must exceed 99 % with a mandatory 3 month uninterrupted operation period. A Penning ion source is successfully operated at ISIS; at 50 Hz repetition rate it reliably provides 55 mA H− pulses of 0.25 ms duration over 1 month. The discharge plasma ignition is very sensitive to the temperatures of the discharge region, especially of its cathode. The investigation by modeling and measurement of operation parameters suitable for arc ignition and H− production at 2 Hz is of paramount importance and must be understood prior to the implementation of discharge ion sources in the Linac4 accelerator. In its original configuration, the ISIS H− source delivers beam only if the repetition rate is above 12.5 Hz, this paper describes the implementation of a temperature control of the discharge region aiming at lower repetition rate op...

  7. A fast 30 kV 5 kHz repetition rate resonant capacitor charger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Huiskamp, T.; van Heesch, E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel circuit topology of a fast 30 kV resonant capacitor charger is presented in this paper. The charger is designed for high repetition rate spark gap based pulsed power modulators. A spark gap can fire spontaneously (pre-firing) during charging of a capacitor bank due to poor dielectric

  8. Phase-stable, multi-µJ femtosecond pulses from a repetition-rate tunable Ti:Sa-oscillator-seeded Yb-fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saule, T.; Holzberger, S.; De Vries, O.; Plötner, M.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.; Pupeza, I.

    2017-01-01

    We present a high-power, MHz-repetition-rate, phase-stable femtosecond laser system based on a phase-stabilized Ti:Sa oscillator and a multi-stage Yb-fiber chirped-pulse power amplifier. A 10-nm band around 1030 nm is split from the 7-fs oscillator output and serves as the seed for subsequent amplification by 54 dB to 80 W of average power. The µJ-level output is spectrally broadened in a solid-core fiber and compressed to 30 fs with chirped mirrors. A pulse picker prior to power amplification allows for decreasing the repetition rate from 74 MHz by a factor of up to 4 without affecting the pulse parameters. To compensate for phase jitter added by the amplifier to the feed-forward phase-stabilized seeding pulses, a self-referencing feed-back loop is implemented at the system output. An integrated out-of-loop phase noise of less than 100 mrad was measured in the band from 0.4 Hz to 400 kHz, which to the best of our knowledge corresponds to the highest phase stability ever demonstrated for high-power, multi-MHz-repetition-rate ultrafast lasers. This system will enable experiments in attosecond physics at unprecedented repetition rates, it offers ideal prerequisites for the generation and field-resolved electro-optical sampling of high-power, broadband infrared pulses, and it is suitable for phase-stable white light generation.

  9. Probing background ionization: positive streamers with varying pulse repetition rate and with a radioactive admixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijdam, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U; Wormeester, G

    2011-01-01

    Positive streamers need a source of free electrons ahead of them to propagate. A streamer can supply these electrons by itself through photo-ionization, or the electrons can be present due to external background ionization. Here we investigate the effects of background ionization on streamer propagation and morphology by changing the gas composition and the repetition rate of the voltage pulses, and by adding a small amount of radioactive 85 Kr. We find that the general morphology of a positive streamer discharge in high-purity nitrogen depends on background ionization: at lower background ionization levels the streamers branch more and have a more feather-like appearance. This is observed both when varying the repetition rate and when adding 85 Kr, though side branches are longer with the radioactive admixture. But velocities and minimal diameters of streamers are virtually independent of the background ionization level. In air, the inception cloud breaks up into streamers at a smaller radius when the repetition rate and therefore the background ionization level is higher. When measuring the effects of the pulse repetition rate and of the radioactive admixture on the discharge morphology, we found that our estimates of background ionization levels are consistent with these observations; this gives confidence in the estimates. Streamer channels generally do not follow the paths of previous discharge channels for repetition rates of up to 10 Hz. We estimate the effect of recombination and diffusion of ions and free electrons from the previous discharge and conclude that the old trail has largely disappeared at the moment of the next voltage pulse; therefore the next streamers indeed cannot follow the old trail.

  10. Laser Pyro System Standardization and Man Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews an X-38 laser pyro system standardization system designed for a new manned rated program. The plans to approve this laser initiation system and preliminary ideas for this system are also provided.

  11. Stabilization of the composition of the gas medium of a repetitively pulsed CO2 laser by means of hopcalite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, V. Iu.; Drokov, G. F.; Kuzmenko, V. A.; Mezhevov, V. S.; Pigulskaia, V. V.

    1986-05-01

    Results of experiments in which hopcalite was used to stabilize the composition of the gas medium of repetitively pulsed and monopulse CO2 lasers are reported. In particular, the mechanisms of the decrease in the catalyst activity with time under conditions for catalyst regeneration are determined. It is shown that the use of hopcalite has made it possible to achieve long-term operation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser without changing the gas mixture in a closed circuit. Some details related to the use of hopcalite are discussed.

  12. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  13. Studies of a Linac Driver for a High Repetition Rate X-Ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, M.; Corlett, J.; Doolittle, L.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C.; Penn, G.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Reinsch, M.; Ryne, R.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Wells, R.; Wurtele, J.; Zolotorev, M.; Zholents, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report on on-going studies of a superconducting CW linac driver intended to support a high repetition rate FEL operating in the soft x-rays spectrum. We present a pointdesign for a 1.8 GeV machine tuned for 300 pC bunches and delivering low-emittance, low-energy spread beams as needed for the SASE and seeded beamlines.

  14. Impact of visual repetition rate on intrinsic properties of low frequency fluctuations in the visual network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing network is one of the functional networks which have been reliably identified to consistently exist in human resting brains. In our work, we focused on this network and investigated the intrinsic properties of low frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz fluctuations (LFFs during changes of visual stimuli. There were two main questions to be discussed in this study: intrinsic properties of LFFs regarding (1 interactions between visual stimuli and resting-state; (2 impact of repetition rate of visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed scanning sessions that contained rest and visual stimuli in various repetition rates with a novel method. The method included three numerical approaches involving ICA (Independent Component Analyses, fALFF (fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation, and Coherence, to respectively investigate the modulations of visual network pattern, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity during changes of visual stimuli. We discovered when resting-state was replaced by visual stimuli, more areas were involved in visual processing, and both stronger low frequency fluctuations and higher interregional functional connectivity occurred in visual network. With changes of visual repetition rate, the number of areas which were involved in visual processing, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity in this network were also modulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To combine the results of prior literatures and our discoveries, intrinsic properties of LFFs in visual network are altered not only by modulations of endogenous factors (eye-open or eye-closed condition; alcohol administration and disordered behaviors (early blind, but also exogenous sensory stimuli (visual stimuli with various repetition rates. It demonstrates that the intrinsic properties of LFFs are valuable to represent physiological states of human brains.

  15. Meaningful Words and Non-Words Repetitive Articulatory Rate (Oral Diadochokinesis) in Persian Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Peyman; Rezai, Hossein; Garmatani, Neda Tahmasebi

    2017-08-01

    Repetitive articulatory rate or Oral Diadochokinesis (oral-DDK) shows a guideline for appraisal and diagnosis of subjects with oral-motor disorder. Traditionally, meaningless words repetition has been utilized in this task and preschool children have challenges with them. Therefore, we aimed to determine some meaningful words in order to test oral-DDK in Persian speaking preschool children. Participants were 142 normally developing children, (age range 4-6 years), who were asked to produce /motæka, golabi/ as two meaningful Persian words and /pa-ta-ka/ as non-word in conventional oral-DDK task. We compared the time taken for 10-times fast repetitions of two meaningful Persian words and the tri-syllabic nonsense word /pa-ta-ka/. Praat software was used to calculate the average time that subjects took to produce the target items. In 4-5 year old children, [Formula: see text] of time taken for 10-times repetitions of /pa-ta-ka, motæka, golabi/ were [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] seconds respectively, and in 5-6 year old children were [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] seconds respectively. Findings showed that the main effect of type of words on oral diadochokinesis was significant ([Formula: see text]). Children repeated meaningful words /motæka, golabi/ faster than the non-word /pa-ta-ka/. Sex and age factors had no effect on time taken for repetition of oral-DDK test. It is suggested that Speech Therapists can use meaningful words to facilitate oral-DDK test for children.

  16. Novel fast-neutron activation counter for high repetition rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Springham, S. V.; Zhang, T.; Rawat, R. S.; Tan, T. L.; Krishnan, M.; Beg, F. N.; Lee, S.; Schmidt, H.; Lee, P.

    2006-01-01

    A fast-neutron beryllium activation counter has been constructed for neutron measurements on a high repetition rate deuterium plasma focus. Beryllium activation is especially suitable for measurements of DD neutron yields. The cross section for the relevant reaction, 9 Be(n,α) 6 He, results in a maximum sensitivity at the characteristic energy of the DD neutrons (∼2.5 MeV) and practically no sensitivity to neutrons with energies 6 He enabled the shot-to-shot neutron yield from the plasma focus to be measured for repetition rates from 0.2 to 3 Hz (and for a range of deuterium gas pressures). With careful analysis, the shot-to-shot yield can be measured up to a maximum repetition rate of 3 Hz, beyond which the pileup of counts from the previous shots reduces the accuracy of the measurements to an unacceptable level. This new beryllium activation counter has been cross-checked against an indium activation counter to obtain absolute neutron yields. At a charging voltage of 12.5 kV (bank energy of 2.2 kJ), the average neutron yield was found to be (7.9±0.7)x10 7 per shot (standard deviation of 4x10 7 ). It was found that activation of the plasma focus construction materials (especially aluminum) must be taken into account

  17. An All-Solid-State High Repetiton Rate Titanium:Sapphire Laser System For Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattolat, C.; Rothe, S.; Schwellnus, F.; Gottwald, T.; Raeder, S.; Wendt, K.

    2009-03-01

    On-line production facilities for radioactive isotopes nowadays heavily rely on resonance ionization laser ion sources due to their demonstrated unsurpassed efficiency and elemental selectivity. Powerful high repetition rate tunable pulsed dye or Ti:sapphire lasers can be used for this purpose. To counteract limitations of short pulse pump lasers, as needed for dye laser pumping, i.e. copper vapor lasers, which include high maintenance and nevertheless often only imperfect reliability, an all-solid-state Nd:YAG pumped Ti:sapphire laser system has been constructed. This could complement or even replace dye laser systems, eliminating their disadvantages but on the other hand introduce shortcomings on the side of the available wavelength range. Pros and cons of these developments will be discussed.

  18. Measurement of acoustic velocity components in a turbulent flow using LDV and high-repetition rate PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon, Olivier; Piot, Estelle; Sebbane, Delphine; Simon, Frank

    2017-06-01

    The present study provides theoretical details and experimental validation results to the approach proposed by Minotti et al. (Aerosp Sci Technol 12(5):398-407, 2008) for measuring amplitudes and phases of acoustic velocity components (AVC) that are waveform parameters of each component of velocity induced by an acoustic wave, in fully turbulent duct flows carrying multi-tone acoustic waves. Theoretical results support that the turbulence rejection method proposed, based on the estimation of cross power spectra between velocity measurements and a reference signal such as a wall pressure measurement, provides asymptotically efficient estimators with respect to the number of samples. Furthermore, it is shown that the estimator uncertainties can be simply estimated, accounting for the characteristics of the measured flow turbulence spectra. Two laser-based measurement campaigns were conducted in order to validate the acoustic velocity estimation approach and the uncertainty estimates derived. While in previous studies estimates were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), it is demonstrated that high-repetition rate particle image velocimetry (PIV) can also be successfully employed. The two measurement techniques provide very similar acoustic velocity amplitude and phase estimates for the cases investigated, that are of practical interest for acoustic liner studies. In a broader sense, this approach may be beneficial for non-intrusive sound emission studies in wind tunnel testings.

  19. High voltage nanosecond generator with pulse repetition rate of 1,000 p.p.s.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubanov, V P; Korovin, S D; Stepchenko, A S [High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A compact high voltage nanosecond generator is described with a pulse repetition rate up to 1000 p.p.s. The generator includes a 30-Ohm coaxial forming line charged by a built-in Tesla transformer with a high coupling coefficient, and a high voltage (N{sub 2}) gas gap switch with gas blowing between the electrodes. The maximum forming line charge voltage is 450 kV, the pulse duration is about 4 ns, and its amplitude for a matched load is up to 200 kV. (author). 3 figs., 9 refs.

  20. Power scaling of supercontinuum seeded megahertz-repetition rate optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, R; Stephanides, A; Prandolini, M J; Gronloh, B; Jungbluth, B; Mans, T; Tavella, F

    2014-03-15

    Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifiers with high average power are possible with novel high-power Yb:YAG amplifiers with kW-level output powers. We demonstrate a compact wavelength-tunable sub-30-fs amplifier with 11.4 W average power with 20.7% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency. For parametric amplification, a beta-barium borate crystal is pumped by a 140 W, 1 ps Yb:YAG InnoSlab amplifier at 3.25 MHz repetition rate. The broadband seed is generated via supercontinuum generation in a YAG crystal.

  1. Observation of Repetition-Rate Dependent Emission From an Un-Gated Thermionic Cathode Rf Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, J. P.; Sun, Y.; Harris, J.R.; Lewellen, J.W.

    2017-06-02

    Recent work at Fermilab in collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source and members of other national labs, designed an experiment to study the relationship between the RF repetition rate and the average current per RF pulse. While existing models anticipate a direct relationship between these two parameters we observed an inverse relationship. We believe this is a result of damage to the barium coating on the cathode surface caused by a change in back-bombardment power that is unaccounted for in the existing theories. These observations shed new light on the challenges and fundamental limitations associated with scaling an ungated thermionic cathode RF gun to high average current.

  2. Gas-dynamic perturbations in an electric-discharge repetitively pulsed DF laser and the role of He in their suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, P A; Sokolov, D V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The gas-dynamic perturbations in a repetitively pulsed DF laser are studied using a Michelson interferometer. Based on the analysis of experimental data obtained in two experimental sets (working medium without buffer gas and with up to 90% of He), it is concluded that such phenomena as isentropic expansion of a thermal plug, gas heating by shock waves and resonance acoustic waves do not considerably decrease the upper limit of the pulse repetition rate below a value determined by the time of the thermal plug flush out of the discharge gap. It is suggested that this decrease for a DF laser with the SF{sub 6} – D{sub 2} working mixture is caused by the development of overheat instability due to an increased energy deposition into the near-electrode regions and to the formation of electrode shock waves. Addition of He to the active media of the DF laser changes the discharge structure and improves its homogeneity over the discharge gape cross section, thus eliminating the reason for the development of this instability. A signification dilution of the active medium of a DF laser with helium up to the atmospheric pressure allowed us to achieve the limiting discharge initiation frequencies with the active medium replacement ratio K ∼ 1. (active media)

  3. Electra: Repetitively Pulsed Angularly Multiplexed KrF Laser System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, Matthew; Myers, Matthew; Giuliani, John; Sethian, John; Burns, Patrick; Hegeler, Frank; Jaynes, Reginald

    2008-11-01

    As in a full size fusion power plant beam line, Electra is a multistage laser amplifier system. The multistage amplifier system consists of a commercial discharge laser and two doubled sided electron beam pumped amplifiers. Angular multiplexing is used in the optical layout to provide pulse length control and to maximize laser extraction from the amplifiers. Two angularly multiplexed beams have extracted 30 J of KrF laser light with an aperture 8 x 10 cm^2, which is sufficient to extract over 500 J from the main amplifier and models agree. The main amplifier of Electra in oscillator mode has demonstrated single shot and rep-rate laser energies exceeding 700 J with 100 ns pulsewidth at 248 nm with an aperture 29 x 29 cm^2. Continuous operation of the KrF electron beam pumped oscillator has lasted for more than 2.5 hours without failure at 1 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The measured intensity and pulse energy for durations greater than thousand shots are consistent at measurable rep-rates of 1 Hz, 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz.

  4. Generation of tunable, high repetition rate frequency combs with equalized spectra using carrier injection based silicon modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarjun, K. P.; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2016-03-01

    High repetition-rate frequency combs with tunable repetition rate and carrier frequency are extensively used in areas like Optical communications, Microwave Photonics and Metrology. A common technique for their generation is strong phase modulation of a CW-laser. This is commonly implemented using Lithium-Niobate based modulators. With phase modulation alone, the combs have poor spectral flatness and significant number of missing lines. To overcome this, a complex cascade of multiple intensity and phase modulators are used. A comb generator on Silicon based on these principles is desirable to enable on-chip integration with other functionalities while reducing power consumption and footprint. In this work, we analyse frequency comb generation in carrier injection based Silicon modulators. We observe an interesting effect in these comb generators. Enhanced absorption accompanying carrier injection, an undesirable effect in data modulators, shapes the amplitude here to enable high quality combs from a single modulator. Thus, along with reduced power consumption to generate a specific number of lines, the complexity has also been significantly reduced. We use a drift-diffusion solver and mode solver (Silvaco TCAD) along with Soref-Bennett relations to calculate the variations in refractive indices and absorption of an optimized Silicon PIN - waveguide modulator driven by an unbiased high frequency (10 Ghz) voltage signal. Our simulations demonstrate that with a device length of 1 cm, a driving voltage of 2V and minor shaping with a passive ring-resonator filter, we obtain 37 lines with a flatness better than 5-dB across the band and power consumption an order of magnitude smaller than Lithium-Niobate modulators.

  5. Repetition rate multiplication of frequency comb using all-pass fiber resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lijun; Yang, Honglei; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a stable method for repetition rate multiplication of a 250-MHz Er-fiber frequency comb by a phase-locked all-pass fiber ring resonator, whose phase-locking configuration is simple. The optical path length of the fiber ring resonator is automatically controlled to be accurately an odd multiple of half of the original cavity length using an electronical phase-locking unit with an optical delay line. As for shorter cavity length of the comb, high-order odd multiple is preferable. Because the power loss depends only on the net-attenuation of the fiber ring resonator, the energetic efficiency of the proposed method is high. The input and output optical spectrums show that the spectral width of the frequency comb is clearly preserved. Besides, experimental results show less pulse intensity fluctuation and 35 dB suppression ratio of side-modes while providing a good long-term and short-term frequency stability. Higher-order repetition rate multiplication to several GHz can be obtained by using several fiber ring resonators in cascade configuration.

  6. Repetition rate multiplication of frequency comb using all-pass fiber resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lijun; Yang, Honglei; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-09-15

    We propose a stable method for repetition rate multiplication of a 250-MHz Er-fiber frequency comb by a phase-locked all-pass fiber ring resonator, whose phase-locking configuration is simple. The optical path length of the fiber ring resonator is automatically controlled to be accurately an odd multiple of half of the original cavity length using an electronical phase-locking unit with an optical delay line. As for shorter cavity length of the comb, high-order odd multiple is preferable. Because the power loss depends only on the net-attenuation of the fiber ring resonator, the energetic efficiency of the proposed method is high. The input and output optical spectrums show that the spectral width of the frequency comb is clearly preserved. Besides, experimental results show less pulse intensity fluctuation and 35 dB suppression ratio of side-modes while providing a good long-term and short-term frequency stability. Higher-order repetition rate multiplication to several GHz can be obtained by using several fiber ring resonators in cascade configuration.

  7. A 7.8 kV nanosecond pulse generator with a 500 Hz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Liao, H.; Liu, M.; Zhu, G.; Yang, Z.; Shi, P.; Lu, Q.; Sun, X.

    2018-04-01

    Pseudospark switches are widely used in pulsed power applications. In this paper, we present the design and performance of a 500 Hz repetition rate high-voltage pulse generator to drive TDI-series pseudospark switches. A high-voltage pulse is produced by discharging an 8 μF capacitor through a primary windings of a setup isolation transformer using a single metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as a control switch. In addition, a self-break spark gap is used to steepen the pulse front. The pulse generator can deliver a high-voltage pulse with a peak trigger voltage of 7.8 kV, a peak trigger current of 63 A, a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~30 ns, and a rise time of 5 ns to the trigger pin of the pseudospark switch. During burst mode operation, the generator achieved up to a 500 Hz repetition rate. Meanwhile, we also provide an AC heater power circuit for heating a H2 reservoir. This pulse generator can be used in circuits with TDI-series pseudospark switches with either a grounded cathode or with a cathode electrically floating operation. The details of the circuits and their implementation are described in the paper.

  8. Diagnostic for a high-repetition rate electron photo-gun and first measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippetto, D.; Doolittle, L.; Huang, G.; Norum, E.; Portmann, G.; Qian, H.; Sannibale, F.

    2015-05-01

    The APEX electron source at LBNL combines the high-repetition-rate with the high beam brightness typical of photoguns, delivering low emittance electron pulses at MHz frequency. Proving the high beam quality of the beam is an essential step for the success of the experiment, opening the doors of the high average power to brightness-hungry applications as X-Ray FELs, MHz ultrafast electron diffraction etc.. As first step, a complete characterization of the beam parameters is foreseen at the Gun beam energy of 750 keV. Diagnostics for low and high current measurements have been installed and tested, and measurements of cathode lifetime and thermal emittance in a RF environment with mA current performed. The recent installation of a double slit system, a deflecting cavity and a high precision spectrometer, allow the exploration of the full 6D phase space. Here we discuss the present layout of the machine and future upgrades, showing the latest results at low and high repetition rate, together with the tools and techniques used.

  9. MHz repetition rate solid-state driver for high current induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksby, C; Caporaso, G; Goerz, D; Hanks, R; Hickman, B; Kirbie, H; Lee, B; Saethre, R.

    1999-01-01

    A research team from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel Nevada Corporation is developing an all solid-state power source for high current induction accelerators. The original power system design, developed for heavy-ion fusion accelerators, is based on the simple idea of using an array of field effect transistors to switch energy from a pre-charged capacitor bank to an induction accelerator cell. Recently, that idea has been expanded to accommodate the greater power needs of a new class of high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography. For this purpose, we developed a 3-stage induction adder that uses over 4,000 field effect transistors to switch peak voltages of 45 kV at currents up to 4.8 kA with pulse repetition rates of up to 2 MHz. This radically advanced power system can generate a burst of five or more pulses that vary from 200 ns to 2 ampersand micro;s at a duty cycle of up to 25%. Our new source is precise, robust, flexible, and exceeds all previous drivers for induction machines by a factor of 400 in repetition rate and a factor of 1000 in duty cycle

  10. Design, fabricate, and test a 1.06μ repetitively pulsed laser. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleston, J.M.; Crawford, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a program to develop the Thomson scattering diagnostic laser are described. Background material and technical justification for the design approach are given. Principal results of the developmental program were the construction of a rep rated slab glass amplifier, and the accumulation of the design knowledge necessary to build such amplifiers for maximum performance. Significant advances were made in reducing second order optical distortions

  11. Criteria for formation of low-frequency sound under wide-aperture repetitively pulsed laser irradiation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tishchenko, V N; Posukh, V G; Gulidov, A I; Zapryagaev, V I; Pavlov, A A; Boyarintsev, Ye L; Golubev, M P; Kavun, I N; Melekhov, A V; Golobokova, L S; Miroshnichenko, I B; Pavlov, Al A; Shmakov, A S

    2011-01-01

    The criteria for merging shock waves formed by optical breakdowns on the surface of solids have been investigated. Targets made of different materials were successively irradiated by two CO 2 -laser pulses with energies up to 200 J and a duration of ∼1 μs. It is shown that the criteria under consideration can be applied to different targets and irradiation regimes and make it possible to calculate the parameters of repetitively pulsed laser radiation that are necessary to generate low-frequency sound and ultrasound in air.

  12. 500 MW peak power degenerated optical parametric amplifier delivering 52 fs pulses at 97 kHz repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, J; Hädrich, S; Röser, F; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2008-06-09

    We present a high peak power degenerated parametric amplifier operating at 1030 nm and 97 kHz repetition rate. Pulses of a state-of-the art fiber chirped-pulse amplification (FCPA) system with 840 fs pulse duration and 410 microJ pulse energy are used as pump and seed source for a two stage optical parametric amplifier. Additional spectral broadening of the seed signal in a photonic crystal fiber creates enough bandwidth for ultrashort pulse generation. Subsequent amplification of the broadband seed signal in two 1 mm BBO crystals results in 41 microJ output pulse energy. Compression in a SF 11 prism compressor yields 37 microJ pulses as short as 52 fs. Thus, pulse shortening of more than one order of magnitude is achieved. Further scaling in terms of average power and pulse energy seems possible and will be discussed, since both concepts involved, the fiber laser and the parametric amplifier have the reputation to be immune against thermo-optical effects.

  13. Accumulation effects in modulation spectroscopy with high-repetition-rate pulses: Recursive solution of optical Bloch equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Vladimir Al.; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2017-10-01

    Application of the phase-modulated pulsed light for advance spectroscopic measurements is the area of growing interest. The phase modulation of the light causes modulation of the signal. Separation of the spectral components of the modulations allows to distinguish the contributions of various interaction pathways. The lasers with high repetition rate used in such experiments can lead to appearance of the accumulation effects, which become especially pronounced in systems with long-living excited states. Recently it was shown that such accumulation effects can be used to evaluate parameters of the dynamical processes in the material. In this work we demonstrate that the accumulation effects are also important in the quantum characteristics measurements provided by modulation spectroscopy. In particular, we consider a model of quantum two-level system driven by a train of phase-modulated light pulses, organized in analogy with the two-dimensional spectroscopy experiments. We evaluate the harmonics' amplitudes in the fluorescent signal and calculate corrections appearing from the accumulation effects. We show that the corrections can be significant and have to be taken into account at analysis of experimental data.

  14. System for increasing laser pulse rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A technique of static elements is disclosed for combining a plurality of laser beams having time sequenced, pulsed radiation to achieve an augmented pulse rate. The technique may also be applied in a system for combining both time sequenced pulses and frequency distinct pulses for use in a system for isotope enrichment. (author)

  15. Characteristics of the evolution of a plasma generated by radiation from CW and repetitively pulsed CO2 lasers in different gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanevskii, M. F.; Stepanova, M. A.

    1990-06-01

    The interaction between high-power CW and repetitively pulsed CO2 laser radiation and a low-threshold optical-breakdown plasma near a metal surface is investigated. The characteristics of the breakdown plasma are examined as functions of the experimental conditions. A qualitative analysis of the results obtained was performed using a simple one-dimensional model for laser combustion waves.

  16. The effect of the pulse repetition rate on the fast ionization wave discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bang-Dou; Carbone, Emile; Takashima, Keisuke; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2018-06-01

    The effect of the pulse repetition rate (PRR) on the generation of high energy electrons in a fast ionization wave (FIW) discharge is investigated by both experiment and modelling. The FIW discharge is driven by nanosecond high voltage pulses and is generated in helium with a pressure of 30 mbar. The axial electric field (E z ), as the driven force of high energy electron generation, is strongly influenced by PRR. Both the measurement and the model show that, during the breakdown, the peak value of E z decreases with the PRR, while after the breakdown, the value of E z increases with the PRR. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is calculated with a model similar to Boeuf and Pitchford (1995 Phys. Rev. E 51 1376). It is found that, with a low value of PRR, the EEDF during the breakdown is strongly non-Maxwellian with an elevated high energy tail, while the EEDF after the breakdown is also non-Maxwellian but with a much depleted population of high energy electrons. However, with a high value of PRR, the EEDF is Maxwellian-like without much temporal variation both during and after the breakdown. With the calculated EEDF, the temporal evolution of the population of helium excited species given by the model is in good agreement with the measured optical emission, which also depends critically on the shape of the EEDF.

  17. Choppers to optimise the repetition rate multiplication technique on a direct geometry neutron chopper spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickery, A.; Deen, P. P.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the use of repetition rate multiplication (RRM) on direct geometry neutron spectrometers has been established and is the common mode of operation on a growing number of instruments. However, the chopper configurations are not ideally optimised for RRM with a resultant 100 fold flux difference across a broad wavelength band. This paper presents chopper configurations that will produce a relative constant (RC) energy resolution and a relative variable (RV) energy resolution for optimised use of RRM. The RC configuration provides an almost uniform ΔE/E for all incident wavelengths and enables an efficient use of time as the entire dynamic range is probed with equivalent statistics, ideal for single shot measurements of transient phenomena. The RV energy configuration provides an almost uniform opening time at the sample for all incident wavelengths with three orders of magnitude in time resolution probed for a single European Spallation Source (ESS) period, which is ideal to probe complex relaxational behaviour. These two chopper configurations have been simulated for the Versatile Optimal Resolution direct geometry spectrometer, VOR, that will be built at ESS

  18. Drilling and cutting of thin metal plates in water with radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glova, A F; Lysikov, A Yu [State Research Center of Russian Federation ' Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research' , Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    The conditions of drilling and cutting of 0.15-mm-thick titanium and stainless steel plates in water with the radiation of a repetitively pulsed Nd : YAG laser having the mean power up to 30 W are studied experimentally in the absence of water and gas jets. Dependences of the maximal cutting speed in water on the radiation power are obtained, the cutting efficiency is determined, and the comparison with the conditions of drilling and cutting of plates in air is carried out.

  19. High power all-solid-state fourth harmonic generation of 266 nm at the pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q; Yan, X P; Fu, X; Gong, M; Wang, D S

    2009-01-01

    14.8 W UV laser at 266 nm was reported with the extra cavity frequency quartered configuration. The fundamental frequency IR source is a high-power high-beam-quality acoustic-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser. The type-I phase-matched LBO and type-I phase-matched BBO crystals were used as the extra-cavity frequency doubled and quartered crystal respectively. 14.8 W UV laser of 266 nm was obtained at the pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz with the conversion efficiency of 18.3% from green to UV, and the pulse duration of the UV laser was 10 ns corresponding to the pulse peak power of 14.8 kW. At 150 kHz, 11.5 W power output was obtained. The highest peak power of 21 kW was also achieved at 80 kHz with the average output power of 14.5 W

  20. Calculation of mass transfer in the remote cutting of metals by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladush, G G; Rodionov, N B

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of remote cutting of steel plates by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO 2 laser is theoretically studied. The models of melt removal by the gravity force and the recoil pressure of material vapour are proposed and the sufficient conditions for the initiation of cutting are determined. A numerical model of a thermally thin plate was employed to describe the cutting for large focal spots. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  1. Design study of a low-emittance high-repetition rate thermionic rf gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Opanasenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel gridless continuous-wave radiofrequency (rf thermionic gun capable of generating nC ns electron bunches with a rms normalized slice emittance close to the thermal level of 0.3 mm mrad. In order to gate the electron emission, an externally heated thermionic cathode is installed into a stripline-loop conductor. Two high-voltage pulses propagating towards each other in the stripline-loop overlap in the cathode region and create a quasielectrostatic field gating the electron emission. The repetition rate of pulses is variable and can reach up to one MHz with modern solid-state pulsers. The stripline attached to a rf gun cavity wall has with the wall a common aperture that allows the electrons to be injected into the rf cavity for further acceleration. Thanks to this innovative gridless design, simulations suggest that the bunch emittance is approximately at the thermal level after the bunch injection into the cavity provided that the geometry of the cathode and aperture are properly designed. Specifically, a concave cathode is adopted to imprint an Ƨ-shaped distribution onto the beam transverse phase-space to compensate for an S-shaped beam distribution created by the spherical aberration of the aperture-cavity region. In order to compensate for the energy spread caused by rf fields of the rf gun cavity, a 3rd harmonic cavity is used. A detailed study of the electrodynamics of the stripline and rf gun cavity as well as the beam optics and bunch dynamics are presented.

  2. Upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements: a general population job exposure matrix based on expert ratings and technical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbøge, Annett; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2016-08-01

    We recently constructed a general population job exposure matrix (JEM), The Shoulder JEM, based on expert ratings. The overall aim of this study was to convert expert-rated job exposures for upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements to measurement scales. The Shoulder JEM covers all Danish occupational titles, divided into 172 job groups. For 36 of these job groups, we obtained technical measurements (inclinometry) of upper arm elevation and repetitive shoulder movements. To validate the expert-rated job exposures against the measured job exposures, we used Spearman rank correlations and the explained variance[Formula: see text] according to linear regression analyses (36 job groups). We used the linear regression equations to convert the expert-rated job exposures for all 172 job groups into predicted measured job exposures. Bland-Altman analyses were used to assess the agreement between the predicted and measured job exposures. The Spearman rank correlations were 0.63 for upper arm elevation and 0.64 for repetitive shoulder movements. The expert-rated job exposures explained 64% and 41% of the variance of the measured job exposures, respectively. The corresponding calibration equations were y=0.5%time+0.16×expert rating and y=27°/s+0.47×expert rating. The mean differences between predicted and measured job exposures were zero due to calibration; the 95% limits of agreement were ±2.9% time for upper arm elevation >90° and ±33°/s for repetitive shoulder movements. The updated Shoulder JEM can be used to present exposure-response relationships on measurement scales. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Influence of repetitive pulsed laser irradiation on the surface characteristics of an aluminum alloy in the melting regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Ho; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of repetitive near-infrared (NIR) pulsed laser shots in the melting regime on the surface characteristics of an aluminum 6061-T6 alloy. Characteristics of interest include surface morphology, surface roughness, and surface hardness in the melted zone as well as the size of the melted zone. For this study, the proper pulse energy for inducing surface melting at one shot is selected using numerical simulations that calculate the variation in temperature at the laser beam spot for various input pulse energies in order to find the proper pulse energy for raising the temperature to the melting point. In this study, 130 mJ was selected as the input energy for a Nd:YAG laser pulse with a duration of 5 ns. The size of the melted zone measured using optical microscopy (OM) increased logarithmically with an increasing shot number. The surface morphology observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) clearly showed a re-solidified microstructure evolution after surface melting. The surface roughness and hardness were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-indentation, respectively. The surface roughness showed almost no variation due to the surface texturing after laser shots over 10. The hardness inside the melted zone was lower than that outside the zone because the β'' phase was transformed to a β phase or dissolved into a matrix.

  4. Stabilization of the composition of the gas medium of a repetitively pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser by means of hopcalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranov, V.IU.; Drokov, G.F.; Kuzmenko, V.A.; Mezhevov, V.S.; Pigulskaia, V.V.

    1986-05-01

    Results of experiments in which hopcalite was used to stabilize the composition of the gas medium of repetitively pulsed and monopulse CO/sub 2/ lasers are reported. In particular, the mechanisms of the decrease in the catalyst activity with time under conditions for catalyst regeneration are determined. It is shown that the use of hopcalite has made it possible to achieve long-term operation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser without changing the gas mixture in a closed circuit. Some details related to the use of hopcalite are discussed. 11 references.

  5. Tunable dispersion compensator based on uniform fiber Bragg grating and its application to tunable pulse repetition-rate multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Geun; Lee, Sang

    2005-11-14

    A new technique to control the chromatic dispersion of a uniform fiber Bragg grating based on the symmetrical bending is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The specially designed two translation stages with gears and a sawtooth wheel can simultaneously induce the tension and compression strain corresponding to the bending direction. The tension and compression strain can effectively control the chirp ratio along the fiber grating attached on a flexible cantilever beam and consequently the dispersion value without the center wavelength shift. We successfully achieve the wide tuning range of chromatic dispersion without the center wavelength shift, which is less than 0.02 nm. We also reduce the group delay ripple as low as ~+/-5 ps. And we also demonstrate the application of the proposed tunable dispersion compensation technique to the tunable pulse repetition-rate multiplication and obtain high-quality pulses at repetition rates of 20 ~ 40 GHz.

  6. Influence of thermal reduced depolarization on a repetition-frequency laser amplifier and compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ying Jiang; Xiong-wei Yan; Zhen-guo Wang; Jian-gang Zheng; Ming-zhong Li; Jing-qin Su

    2015-01-01

    Thermal stress can induce birefringence in a laser medium, which can cause depolarization of the laser. The depolarization effect will be very severe in a high-average-power laser. Because the depolarization will make the frequency doubling efficiency decline, it should be compensated. In this paper, the thermal characteristics of two kinds of materials are analyzed in respect of temperature, thermal deformation and thermal stress. The depolarization result from thermal stress was simulated. Depolarization on non-uniform pumping was also simulated, and the compensation method is discussed.

  7. Tunable, high-repetition-rate, dual-signal-wavelength femtosecond optical parametric oscillator based on BiB3O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianghao; Wang, Zhaohua; Tian, Wenlong; Fang, Shaobo; Wei, Zhiyi

    2018-01-01

    We have demonstrated a high-repetition-rate tunable femtosecond dual-signal-wavelength optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on BiB3O6 (BiBO) crystal, synchronously pumped by a frequency-doubled mode-locked Yb:KGW laser. The cavity is simple since no dispersion compensators are used in the cavity. The wavelength range of dual-signal is widely tunable from 710 to 1000 nm. Tuning is accomplished by rotating phase-matching angle of BiBO, and optimizing cavity length and output coupler. Using a 3.75 W pump laser, the maximum average dual-signal output power is 760 mW at 707 and 750 nm, leading to a conversion efficiency of 20.3% not taking into account the idler power. Our experimental results show a non-critical phase-matching configuration pumped by a high peak power laser source. The operation of the dual-signal benefits from the balance of phase matching and group velocity mismatching between the two signals.

  8. A Simulation of the Effects of Varying Repetition Rate and Pulse Width of Nanosecond Discharges on Premixed Lean Methane-Air Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Soo Bak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional kinetic simulation has been carried out to investigate the effects of repetition rate and pulse width of nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges on stabilizing premixed lean methane-air combustion. The repetition rate and pulse width are varied from 10 kHz to 50 kHz and from 9 ns to 2 ns while the total power is kept constant. The lower repetition rates provide larger amounts of radicals such as O, H, and OH. However, the effect on stabilization is found to be the same for all of the tested repetition rates. The shorter pulse width is found to favor the production of species in higher electronic states, but the varying effects on stabilization are also found to be small. Our results indicate that the total deposited power is the critical element that determines the extent of stabilization over this range of discharge properties studied.

  9. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Effect of repetitive laser pulses on the electrical conductivity of intervertebral disc tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel'chenko, A. I.; Sobol', E. N.

    2009-03-01

    The thermomechanical effect of 1.56-μm fibre laser pulses on intervertebral disc cartilage has been studied using ac conductivity measurements with coaxial electrodes integrated with an optical fibre for laser radiation delivery to the tissue. The observed time dependences of tissue conductivity can be interpreted in terms of hydraulic effects and thermomechanical changes in tissue structure. The laserinduced changes in the electrical parameters of the tissue are shown to correlate with the structural changes, which were visualised using shadowgraph imaging. Local ac conductivity measurements in the bulk of tissue can be used to develop a diagnostic/monitoring system for laser regeneration of intervertebral discs.

  10. Laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge in a Xe – CsCl mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boichenko, A M; Klenovskii, M S

    2015-01-01

    By using the previously developed kinetic model, we have carried out simulations to study the possibility of laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in the working medium based on a mixture of Xe with CsCl vapours, excited by a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge. The formation mechanism of exciplex molecules in this mixture is fundamentally different from the formation mechanisms in the traditional mixtures of exciplex lasers. The conditions that make the laser generation possible are discussed. For these conditions, with allowance for available specific experimental conditions of the repetitively pulsed discharge excitation, we have obtained the calculated dependences of the power and efficiency of generation on the reflectivity of mirrors in a laser cavity. (active media)

  11. Laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge in a Xe - CsCl mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, A. M.; Klenovskii, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    By using the previously developed kinetic model, we have carried out simulations to study the possibility of laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in the working medium based on a mixture of Xe with CsCl vapours, excited by a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge. The formation mechanism of exciplex molecules in this mixture is fundamentally different from the formation mechanisms in the traditional mixtures of exciplex lasers. The conditions that make the laser generation possible are discussed. For these conditions, with allowance for available specific experimental conditions of the repetitively pulsed discharge excitation, we have obtained the calculated dependences of the power and efficiency of generation on the reflectivity of mirrors in a laser cavity.

  12. Laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge in a Xe – CsCl mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boichenko, A M [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klenovskii, M S [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    By using the previously developed kinetic model, we have carried out simulations to study the possibility of laser generation of XeCl exciplex molecules in the working medium based on a mixture of Xe with CsCl vapours, excited by a longitudinal repetitively pulsed discharge. The formation mechanism of exciplex molecules in this mixture is fundamentally different from the formation mechanisms in the traditional mixtures of exciplex lasers. The conditions that make the laser generation possible are discussed. For these conditions, with allowance for available specific experimental conditions of the repetitively pulsed discharge excitation, we have obtained the calculated dependences of the power and efficiency of generation on the reflectivity of mirrors in a laser cavity. (active media)

  13. Oral-diadochokinetic rates for Hebrew-speaking school-age children: real words vs. non-words repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icht, Michal; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2015-02-01

    Oral-diadochokinesis (DDK) tasks are a common tool for evaluating speech disorders. Usually, these tasks involve repetitions of non-words. It has been suggested that repeating real words can be more suitable for preschool children. But, the impact of using real words with elementary school children has not been studied yet. This study evaluated oral-DDK rates for Hebrew-speaking elementary school children using non-words and real words. The participants were 60 children, 9-11 years old, with normal speech and language development, who were asked to repeat "pataka" (non-word) and "bodeket" (Hebrew real word). Data replicate the advantage generally found for real word repetition with preschoolers. Children produced real words faster than non-words for all age groups, and repetition rates were higher for the older children. The findings suggest that adding real words to the standard oral-DDK task with elementary school children may provide a more comprehensive picture of oro-motor function.

  14. Repetitively pulsed, high energy KrF lasers for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, M.C.; Sethian, J.D.; Giuliani, J.L.; Lehmberg, R.; Kepple, P.; Wolford, M.F.; Hegeler, F.; Friedman, M.; Jones, T.C.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Weidenheimer, D.; Rose, D.

    2004-01-01

    Krypton fluoride (KrF) lasers produce highly uniform beams at 248 nm, allow the capability of 'zooming' the spot size to follow an imploding pellet, naturally assume a modular architecture and have been developed into a pulsed-power- based industrial technology that readily scales to a fusion power plant sized system. There are two main challenges for the fusion power plant application: to develop a system with an overall efficiency of greater than 6% (based on target gains of 100) and to achieve a durability of greater than 3 x 10 8 shots (two years at 5 Hz). These two issues are being addressed with the Electra (700 J, 5 Hz) and Nike (3000 J, single shot) KrF lasers at the Naval Research Laboratory. Based on recent advances in pulsed power, electron beam generation and transport, hibachi (foil support structure) design and KrF physics, wall plug efficiencies of greater than 7% should be achievable. Moreover, recent experiments show that it may be possible to realize long lived electron beam diodes using ceramic honeycomb cathodes and anode foils that are convectively cooled by periodically deflecting the laser gas. This paper is a summary of the progress in the development of the critical KrF technologies for laser fusion energy. (author)

  15. Bio-effects of repetitively pulsed ultra-fast distributed feedback dye lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Ahmad, M.I.; Sheikh, A.

    1999-01-01

    Results of experimental study showing an unexpected rise in pulses of distributed feedback dye laser (DFDL) output due to temperature accumulation in dye cell during passively Q-Switched, a Mode-locked operation is reported. This unintended increase in number of pulse duration, per pulse energy may cause side-effects when used for selective photo thermolysis. To probe this phenomenon most commonly dye was excited with 10 to 20 pulses of second harmonic of a passively Q-Switched and Mode-locked Nd-YaG laser. The outputs of DFDL and Nd:YaG laser were recorded by Imacon 675-streak camera. The peak of DFDL output pulses was found delayed proportionally from the peak of the NYAG pulses by more than one inter-pulse period of excitation laser. A computer program was used to simulate the experimentally measured delay to estimate thermal decay constants and energy retained by the medium to determine the amount of incremental fluctuations in output. The delay between peaks of Nd:YAG (input) and DFDL(output) pulses was found to vary from 10 to 14 nanoseconds for various cavity lengths. It was found that for smaller inter-pulse periods the effect of gradual build-up satisfies the threshold conditions for some of the pulses that otherwise can not. This may lead to unintended increase in energy fluence causing overexposure-induced side-effects. (author)

  16. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  17. Compact variable rate laser for space application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will focus on the development and test of high reliable, radiation tolerant, compact laser for planetary mission.  The laser will be able to operate at variable...

  18. Flashlamp excited fluid laser amplified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The patent describes a laser amplifier with chambers for containing and amplifying an intensifier medium. It serves the need for a large impulse repetition rate and high intensities as required e.g. for laser isotope separation

  19. Recent advances in Thomson scattering: high repetition rate Thomson scattering diagnostics on large plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehr, H.; Steuer, K.H.; Hirsch, K.; Salzmann, H.

    1982-09-01

    In contrast to conventional ruby laser scattering devices allowing only singly pulse measurements, time evolution of Te and ne can be obtained with multipulse lasers. Within a short time interval ( proportional 1 ms) rapid variations can be investigated by employing a periodically Q-switched ruby laser. Several scattering systems under construction in different laboratories to register the time evolution of Tsub(e) and nsub(e) during the whole plasma discharge will be reported. The set-up operating successfully on the Garching tokamak ASDEX will be described in detail. This scattering system uses a Nd:YAG laser (1 J/pulse, up to 100 pps, pulse duration 30 ns, burst of max. 400 pulses) and silicon avalanche diodes as detectors. Time resolved nsub(e) and Tsub(e) measurements on different types of ASDEX discharges are shown, e.g. the electron density and electron heating during neutral beam injection in a divertor discharge. As an example of relatively fast changes of nsub(e) and Tsub(e), results on pellet injection are presented. Interferometric and ECE measurements are in good agreement with the Thomson results. Stationary ''long pulse discharges'' in ASDEX (10 s) at low densitites (10 12 cm -3 ) were diagnosed with reduced time resolution by averaging over several laser pulses. Measurements of the time evolution of electron temperature and -density profiles were done in a first step with a scanning mirror system. These results enables optimazing out 15 spatial-point Thomson scattering system on ASDEX. (orig./AH)

  20. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Calculation of mass transfer in the remote cutting of metals by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladush, G. G.; Rodionov, N. B.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanism of remote cutting of steel plates by radiation of a high-power repetitively pulsed CO2 laser is theoretically studied. The models of melt removal by the gravity force and the recoil pressure of material vapour are proposed and the sufficient conditions for the initiation of cutting are determined. A numerical model of a thermally thin plate was employed to describe the cutting for large focal spots.

  1. Crystallization of 21.25Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-63.75MoO{sub 3}-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass induced by femtosecond laser at the repetition rate of 250 kHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, M.J.; Han, Y.M. [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, L.P. [Hunan Biological and Electromechanical Polytechnic, Changsha 410126 (China); Zhou, P.; Du, Y.Y.; Guo, Q.T. [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ma, H.L., E-mail: mahl@staff.shu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China); Dai, Y. [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2010-12-01

    We report the formation of {beta}'-Gd{sub 2}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} (GMO) crystal on the surface of the 21.25Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-63.75MoO{sub 3}-15B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass, induced by 250 kHz, 800 nm femtosecond laser irradiation. The morphology of the modified region in the glass was clearly examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By micro-Raman spectra, the laser-induced crystals were confirmed to be GMO phases and it is found that these crystals have a strong dependence on the number and power of the femtosecond laser pulses. When the irradiation laser power was 900 mW, not only the Raman peaks of GMO crystals but also some new peaks at 214 cm{sup -1}, 240 cm{sup -1}, 466 cm{sup -1}, 664 cm{sup -1} and 994 cm{sup -1}which belong to the MoO{sub 3} crystals were observed. The possible mechanisms are proposed to explain these phenomena.

  2. Damage threshold from large retinal spot size repetitive-pulse laser exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Brian J; Lund, David J; Edsall, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    The retinal damage thresholds for large spot size, multiple-pulse exposures to a Q-switched, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm wavelength, 7 ns pulses) have been measured for 100 μm and 500 μm retinal irradiance diameters. The ED50, expressed as energy per pulse, varies only weakly with the number of pulses, n, for these extended spot sizes. The previously reported threshold for a multiple-pulse exposure for a 900 μm retinal spot size also shows the same weak dependence on the number of pulses. The multiple-pulse ED50 for an extended spot-size exposure does not follow the n dependence exhibited by small spot size exposures produced by a collimated beam. Curves derived by using probability-summation models provide a better fit to the data.

  3. Tropical cyclone turbulent mixing as observed by autonomous oceanic profilers with the high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, D B; Malinowski, S P; Flatau, P J

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the ocean mixed layer caused by passage of two consecutive typhoons in the Western Pacific are presented. Ocean profiles were measured by a unique Argo float sampling the upper ocean in high repetition cycle with a period of about one day. It is shown that the typhoon passage coincides with cooling of the mixed layer and variations of its salinity. Independent data from satellite measurements of surface winds were used to set-up an and idealized numerical simulation of mixed layer evolution. Results, compared to Argo profiles, confirm known effect that cooling is a result of increased entrainment from the thermocline due to enhancement of turbulence in the upper ocean by the wind stress. Observed pattern of salinity changes in the mixed layer suggest important role of typhoon precipitation. Fast changes of the mixed layer in course of typhoon passage show that fast profiling (at least once a day) is crucial to study response of the upper ocean to tropical cyclone.

  4. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, He [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Xu, Yiming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ulonska, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Robinson, Joseph S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Ranitovic, Predrag [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Kaindl, Robert A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  5. A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for the ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of crystalline lenses with laser-induced microbubbles interrogated by acoustic radiation force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Emelianov, Stanislav; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for an ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of an animal crystalline lens was developed and validated. We measured the bulk displacement of laser-induced microbubbles created at different positions within the lens using nanosecond laser pulses. An impulsive acoustic radiation force was applied to the microbubble, and spatio-temporal measurements of the microbubble displacement were assessed using a custom-made high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system consisting of two 25 MHz focused ultrasound transducers. One of these transducers was used to emit a train of ultrasound pulses and another transducer was used to receive the ultrasound echoes reflected from the microbubble. The developed system was operating at 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Based on the measured motion of the microbubble, Young’s moduli of surrounding tissue were reconstructed and the values were compared with those measured using the indentation test. Measured values of Young’s moduli of four bovine lenses ranged from 2.6 ± 0.1 to 26 ± 1.4 kPa, and there was good agreement between the two methods. Therefore, our studies, utilizing the high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system, suggest that the developed approach can be used to assess the mechanical properties of ex vivo crystalline lenses. Furthermore, the potential of the presented approach for in vivo measurements is discussed. (paper)

  6. High resolution Thomson scattering on the COMPASS tokamak - extending edge plasma view and increasing repetition rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Aftanas, Milan; Šos, Miroslav; Havránek, Aleš; Šesták, David; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Hron, Martin; Pánek, Radomír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2018), č. článku C01024. ISSN 1748-0221. [International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD2017) /18./. Prague, 24.09.2017-28.09.2017] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma diagnostics - interferometry * spectroscopy and imaging * Trigger concepts and systems (hardware and software) Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/C01024/meta

  7. New concept for a high-repetition-rate reactor for inertial-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.

    1980-11-01

    A new design concept was developed that has three additional features that are very important in reducing program risk: (1) through a proper choice of the working temperature (400 to 540 0 C) and of the liquid metal (lithium or lead-lithium eutectic alloy), we can select a chamber pressure within the range of 10 -1 to 10 -4 Torr, required for the propagation of either a laser-beam or a heavy-ion-beam driver; (2) presently available ferritic steels can be used for the structural material; and (3) the new concept allows flexibility in irradiaton geometry. Although two-sided irradiation at high f/Nos. seems most attractive from the standpoints of minimizing the number of chamber penetrations and of simplifing the layout of the balance of plant, we must provide for the possibility that target-implosion physics will require a more symmetrical illumination geometry

  8. Time-gated single-photon detection module with 110 ps transition time and up to 80 MHz repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttafava, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.buttafava@polimi.it; Boso, Gianluca; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Mora, Alberto [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    We present the design and characterization of a complete single-photon counting module capable of time-gating a silicon single-photon avalanche diode with ON and OFF transition times down to 110 ps, at repetition rates up to 80 MHz. Thanks to this sharp temporal filtering of incoming photons, it is possible to reject undesired strong light pulses preceding (or following) the signal of interest, allowing to increase the dynamic range of optical acquisitions up to 7 decades. A complete experimental characterization of the module highlights its very flat temporal response, with a time resolution of the order of 30 ps. The instrument is fully user-configurable via a PC interface and can be easily integrated in any optical setup, thanks to its small and compact form factor.

  9. Time-gated single-photon detection module with 110 ps transition time and up to 80 MHz repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttafava, Mauro; Boso, Gianluca; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Tosi, Alberto; Dalla Mora, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and characterization of a complete single-photon counting module capable of time-gating a silicon single-photon avalanche diode with ON and OFF transition times down to 110 ps, at repetition rates up to 80 MHz. Thanks to this sharp temporal filtering of incoming photons, it is possible to reject undesired strong light pulses preceding (or following) the signal of interest, allowing to increase the dynamic range of optical acquisitions up to 7 decades. A complete experimental characterization of the module highlights its very flat temporal response, with a time resolution of the order of 30 ps. The instrument is fully user-configurable via a PC interface and can be easily integrated in any optical setup, thanks to its small and compact form factor

  10. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  11. Laser requirements for a laser fusion energy power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen; E.Bodner; Andrew; J.Schmitt; John; D.Sethian

    2013-01-01

    We will review some of the requirements for a laser that would be used with a laser fusion energy power plant, including frequency, spatial beam smoothing, bandwidth, temporal pulse shaping, efficiency, repetition rate, and reliability. The lowest risk and optimum approach uses a krypton fluoride gas laser. A diode-pumped solid-state laser is a possible contender.

  12. High-average-power 2 μm few-cycle optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier at 100 kHz repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Yariv; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Demmler, Stefan; Tschernajew, Maxim; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Sources of long wavelengths few-cycle high repetition rate pulses are becoming increasingly important for a plethora of applications, e.g., in high-field physics. Here, we report on the realization of a tunable optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier at 100 kHz repetition rate. At a central wavelength of 2 μm, the system delivered 33 fs pulses and a 6 W average power corresponding to 60 μJ pulse energy with gigawatt-level peak powers. Idler absorption and its crystal heating is experimentally investigated for a BBO. Strategies for further power scaling to several tens of watts of average power are discussed.

  13. 2 ~ 5 times tunable repetition-rate multiplication of a 10 GHz pulse source using a linearly tunable, chirped fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Han; Chang, You; Han, Young-Geun; Kim, Sang; Lee, Sang

    2004-08-23

    We experimentally demonstrate a simple scheme for the tunable pulse repetition-rate multiplication based on the fractional Talbot effect in a linearly tunable, chirped fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The key component in this scheme is our linearly tunable, chirped FBG with no center wavelength shift, which was fabricated with the S-bending method using a uniform FBG. By simply tuning the group velocity dispersion of the chirped FBG, we readily multiply an original 8.5 ps, 10 GHz soliton pulse train by a factor of 2 ~ 5 to obtain high quality pulses at repetition-rates of 20 ~ 50 GHz without significantly changing the system configuration.

  14. Increased ionization rate in laser enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Pike, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    A system employing multiple, upper excitation levels in a technique for isotopically selective ionization to improve the ionization efficiency is described. Laser radiation is employed to excite particles with isotopic selectivity. Excitation is produced to a plurality of excited states below the ionization level with the result of increasing the number of available excited particles for ionization and thereby increasing the ionization cross section for improved system efficiency

  15. Changes in patellofemoral pain resulting from repetitive impact landings are associated with the magnitude and rate of patellofemoral joint loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Lee T; James, C Roger; Yang, Hyung Suk; Sizer, Phillip S; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Sawyer, Steven F; Powers, Christopher M

    2018-03-01

    Although a relationship between elevated patellofemoral forces and pain has been proposed, it is unknown which joint loading variable (magnitude, rate) is best associated with pain changes. The purpose of this study was to examine associations among patellofemoral joint loading variables and changes in patellofemoral pain across repeated single limb landings. Thirty-one females (age: 23.5(2.8) year; height: 166.8(5.8) cm; mass: 59.6(8.1) kg) with PFP performed 5 landing trials from 0.25 m. The dependent variable was rate of change in pain obtained from self-reported pain scores following each trial. Independent variables included 5-trial averages of peak, time-integral, and average and maximum development rates of the patellofemoral joint reaction force obtained using a previously described model. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate individual associations between rate of change in pain and each independent variable (α = 0.05). Stepwise linear multiple regression (α enter  = 0.05; α exit  = 0.10) was used to identify the best predictor of rate of change in pain. Subjects reported an average increase of 0.38 pain points with each landing trial. Although, rate of change in pain was positively correlated with peak force (r = 0.44, p = 0.01), and average (r = 0.41, p = 0.02) and maximum force development rates (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), only the peak force entered the predictive model explaining 19% of variance in rate of change in pain (r 2  = 0.19, p = 0.01). Peak patellofemoral joint reaction force was the best predictor of the rate of change in pain following repetitive singe limb landings. The current study supports the theory that patellofemoral joint loading contributes to changes in patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High-power repetitively pulsed CO{sub 2} laser with mechanical Q-switching and its application to studies in aerodynamic installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malov, Aleksei N; Orishich, Anatolii M; Shulyat' ev, Viktor B [S.A. Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-30

    A new method for organising the repetitively pulsed regime of CO{sub 2} laser oscillation at the expense of a self-filtering resonator and two concave cylindrical mirrors with equal curvature in the intracavity modulator is considered. The studies of the energy and temporal characteristics of the laser radiation show that the constructed laser has high efficiency close to that of a cw laser. The mean and pulse power of 4.5 and 200 kW, respectively, are obtained. For a wide range of gas-dynamic characteristics the possibility of the optical breakdown in the supersonic wide-aperture air flow is demonstrated. The coefficient of absorption of laser radiation in optical breakdown plasma in a supersonic air flow is investigated and its value amounting to 60% is obtained. For the first time it is found that the threshold density of air, corresponding to the efficiency jump, is equal to 1.8 - 2 kg m{sup -3} and independent of the Mach number M = 1.7 - 3.7. (lasers)

  17. Test-Retest Reliability of Rating of Perceived Exertion and Agreement With 1-Repetition Maximum in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; DePaul, Samantha M; Terhorst, Lauren; Irrgang, James J; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background It has been suggested that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) may be a useful alternative to 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to determine proper resistance exercise dosage. However, the test-retest reliability of RPE for resistance exercise has not been determined. Additionally, prior research regarding the relationship between 1RM and RPE is conflicting. Objectives The purpose of this study was to (1) determine test-retest reliability of RPE related to resistance exercise and (2) assess agreement between percentages of 1RM and RPE during quadriceps resistance exercise. Methods A sample of participants with and without knee pathology completed a series of knee extension exercises and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale, then repeated the procedure 1 to 2 weeks later for test-retest reliability. To determine agreement between RPE and 1RM, participants completed knee extension exercises at various percentages of their 1RM (10% to 130% of predicted 1RM) and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale. Percent agreement was calculated between the 1RM and RPE at each resistance interval. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated excellent test-retest reliability of RPE for quadriceps resistance exercises (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.895; 95% confidence interval: 0.866, 0.918). Overall percent agreement between RPE and 1RM was 60%, but agreement was poor within the ranges that would typically be used for training (50% 1RM for muscle endurance, 70% 1RM and greater for strength). Conclusion Test-retest reliability of perceived exertion during quadriceps resistance exercise was excellent. However, agreement between the RPE and 1RM was poor, especially in common training zones for knee extensor strengthening. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):768-774. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6498.

  18. Efficacy Of The Repetitions In Reserve-Based Rating Of Perceived Exertion For The Bench Press In Experienced And Novice Benchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Carzoli, Joseph P; Klemp, Alex; Allman, Brittany R; Zourdos, Michael C; Kim, Jeong-Su; Panton, Lynn B

    2017-03-13

    Autoregulation (AR) is the practice of adjusting training variables in response to athlete feedback. One component of AR postulated to enhance resistance training adaptations involves implementing a resistance training-specific rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale measuring repetitions in reserve (RIR). The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of this method using the bench press exercise. Twenty-seven college-aged men were assigned to one of two groups based upon training age: experience benchers (EB) (n=14, training age: 4.7±2.0 yrs) and novice benchers (NB) (n=13, training age: 1.1±0.6 yrs). Subjects performed one-repetition maximum (1RM) followed by single-repetition sets with loads corresponding to 60, 75, and 90% of 1RM and an 8-repetition set at 70% 1RM. Subjects reported a corresponding RPE, based on RIR, for every set. Average velocity was recorded for each single-repetition set along with the first and last repetitions of the 8-repetition set at 70% 1RM. Average velocity at 100% of 1RM in EB was slower (0.14±0.04 m[BULLET OPERATOR]s) compared to NB (0.20±0.05 m[BULLET OPERATOR]s) (pvelocity or RPE at any other intensity. Both EB (r=0.85, pvelocity and RPE at all intensities. Our findings suggest that the RIR-based RPE scale may be an efficacious approach for AR of bench press training load and volume in college-aged men.

  19. Strain rate dependency of laser sintered polyamide 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook J.E.T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parts processed by Additive Manufacturing can now be found across a wide range of applications, such as those in the aerospace and automotive industry in which the mechanical response must be optimised. Many of these applications are subjected to high rate or impact loading, yet it is believed that there is no prior research on the strain rate dependence in these materials. This research investigates the effect of strain rate and laser energy density on laser sintered polyamide 12. In the study presented here, parts produced using four different laser sintered energy densities were exposed to uniaxial compression tests at strain rates ranging from 10−3 to 10+3 s−1 at room temperature, and the dependence on these parameters is presented.

  20. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  1. Upgrade of repetitive fast-heating fusion driver HAMA to implode a shell target by using diode pumped solid state laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MORI, Yoshitaka; NISHIMURA, Yasuhiko; Nakayama, Suisei; HANAYAMA, Ryohei; ISHII, Katsuhiro; SEKINE, Takashi; SATO, Nakahiro; KURITA, Takashi; KAWASHIMA, Toshiyuki; KAN, Hirofumi; KOMEDA, Osamu; NAKAMURA, Naoki; KONDO, Takuya; FUJINE, Manabu; SUNAHARA, Atsushi; MIURA, Eisuke; AZUMA, Hirozumi; HIOKI, Tatsumi; KAKENO, Mitsutaka; KAJINO, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    The HAMA is 1-Hz fast heating fusion driver pumped by a 10 J second-harmonic of diode-pumped Nd:glass laser: KURE-1. We have upgraded HAMA to realize an implosion of spherical shell target by using a remaining fundamental beam from KURE-1. This beam of 6 J/1 Hz is transported to the current counter irradiation system. The resulting beam includes three pulses in sequence: 2.2 J/15 ns and 0.7 J/300 ps for implosion, and 0.5 J/ 190 fs for heating. We estimate the implosion dynamics from 1-D radiation hydrodynamic code (START- 1D). It indicates a possibility of tailored-pulse implosion by optimizing the beam spot sizes of imploding beams on the target surface. This upgrade leads to a demonstration of repetitive implosion and additional heating of a spherical shell target in accordance with a repetition of laser operation and that of a target injection system. (paper)

  2. A pilot study to determine medical laser generated air contaminant emission rates for a simulated surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John; Conroy, Lorraine; Breskey, John; Esmen, Nurtan; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that half a million health-care workers are exposed to laser surgical smoke each year. The purpose of this study was to establish a methodology to (1) estimate emission rates of laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs) using an emission chamber, and to (2) perform a screening study to differentiate the effects of three laser operational parameters. An emission chamber was designed, fabricated, and assessed for performance to estimate the emission rates of gases and particles associated with LGACs during a simulated surgical procedure. Two medical lasers (Holmium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet [Ho:YAG] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) were set to a range of plausible medical laser operational parameters in a simulated surgery to pyrolyze porcine skin generating plume in the emission chamber. Power, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and beam diameter were evaluated to determine the effect of each operational parameter on emission rate using a fractional factorial design. The plume was sampled for particulate matter and seven gas phase combustion byproduct contaminants (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide): the gas phase emission results are presented here. Most of the measured concentrations of gas phase contaminants were below their limit of detection (LOD), but detectable measurements enabled us to determine laser operation parameter influence on CO2 emissions. Confined to the experimental conditions of this screening study, results indicated that beam diameter was statistically significantly influential and power was marginally statistically significant to emission rates of CO2 when using the Ho:YAG laser but not with the carbon dioxide laser; PRF was not influential vis-a-vis emission rates of these gas phase contaminants.

  3. Ballistic phonon and thermal radiation transport across a minute vacuum gap in between aluminum and silicon thin films: Effect of laser repetitive pulses on transport characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Ali, H.

    2016-08-15

    Short-pulse laser heating of aluminum and silicon thin films pair with presence of a minute vacuum gap in between them is considered and energy transfer across the thin films pair is predicted. The frequency dependent Boltzmann equation is used to predict the phonon intensity distribution along the films pair for three cycles of the repetitive short-pulse laser irradiation on the aluminum film surface. Since the gap size considered is within the Casimir limit, thermal radiation and ballistic phonon contributions to energy transfer across the vacuum gap is incorporated. The laser irradiated field is formulated in line with the Lambert's Beer law and it is considered as the volumetric source in the governing equations of energy transport. In order to assess the phonon intensity distribution in the films pair, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced. It is demonstrated that thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems in the aluminum film, due to the short-pulse laser irradiation, takes place and electron temperature remains high in the aluminum film while equivalent equilibrium temperature for phonons decays sharply in the close region of the aluminum film interface. This behavior is attributed to the phonon boundary scattering at the interface and the ballistic phonon transfer to the silicon film across the vacuum gap. Energy transfer due to the ballistic phonon contribution is significantly higher than that of the thermal radiation across the vacuum gap.

  4. Ballistic phonon and thermal radiation transport across a minute vacuum gap in between aluminum and silicon thin films: Effect of laser repetitive pulses on transport characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.

    2016-08-01

    Short-pulse laser heating of aluminum and silicon thin films pair with presence of a minute vacuum gap in between them is considered and energy transfer across the thin films pair is predicted. The frequency dependent Boltzmann equation is used to predict the phonon intensity distribution along the films pair for three cycles of the repetitive short-pulse laser irradiation on the aluminum film surface. Since the gap size considered is within the Casimir limit, thermal radiation and ballistic phonon contributions to energy transfer across the vacuum gap is incorporated. The laser irradiated field is formulated in line with the Lambert's Beer law and it is considered as the volumetric source in the governing equations of energy transport. In order to assess the phonon intensity distribution in the films pair, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced. It is demonstrated that thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems in the aluminum film, due to the short-pulse laser irradiation, takes place and electron temperature remains high in the aluminum film while equivalent equilibrium temperature for phonons decays sharply in the close region of the aluminum film interface. This behavior is attributed to the phonon boundary scattering at the interface and the ballistic phonon transfer to the silicon film across the vacuum gap. Energy transfer due to the ballistic phonon contribution is significantly higher than that of the thermal radiation across the vacuum gap.

  5. Ballistic phonon and thermal radiation transport across a minute vacuum gap in between aluminum and silicon thin films: Effect of laser repetitive pulses on transport characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilbas, B.S.; Ali, H.

    2016-01-01

    Short-pulse laser heating of aluminum and silicon thin films pair with presence of a minute vacuum gap in between them is considered and energy transfer across the thin films pair is predicted. The frequency dependent Boltzmann equation is used to predict the phonon intensity distribution along the films pair for three cycles of the repetitive short-pulse laser irradiation on the aluminum film surface. Since the gap size considered is within the Casimir limit, thermal radiation and ballistic phonon contributions to energy transfer across the vacuum gap is incorporated. The laser irradiated field is formulated in line with the Lambert's Beer law and it is considered as the volumetric source in the governing equations of energy transport. In order to assess the phonon intensity distribution in the films pair, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced. It is demonstrated that thermal separation of electron and lattice sub-systems in the aluminum film, due to the short-pulse laser irradiation, takes place and electron temperature remains high in the aluminum film while equivalent equilibrium temperature for phonons decays sharply in the close region of the aluminum film interface. This behavior is attributed to the phonon boundary scattering at the interface and the ballistic phonon transfer to the silicon film across the vacuum gap. Energy transfer due to the ballistic phonon contribution is significantly higher than that of the thermal radiation across the vacuum gap.

  6. Development of frequency tunable Ti:sapphire laser and dye laser pumped by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jong Hoon; Horn, Roland; Wendt, K.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated lasing characteristics of two kinds of tunable laser, liquid dye laser and solid Ti:sapphire crystal laser, pumped by high pulse repetition rate Nd:YAG laser. Dye laser showed drastically reduced pulsewidth compared with that of pump laser and it also contained large amount of amplified spontaneous emission. Ti:sapphire laser showed also reduced pulsewidth. But, the laser conversion pump laser and Ti:sapphire laser pulse, we used a Brewster-cut Pockel's cell for Q-switching. The laser was frequency doubled by a type I BBO crystal outside of the cavity.

  7. Temperature dependence of dose rate laser simulation adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorobogatov, P.K.; Nikiforov, A.Y.; Demidov, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    2-D numerical modeling was carried out to analyze the temperature dependence of dose rate laser simulation adequacy in application to p-n junction ionising current. Experimental validation was performed using test structure in the temperature range of 0 to 100 deg.C. (authors)

  8. Experimental study of the inverse diffusion flame using high repetition rate OH/acetone PLIF and PIV

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.; Roberts, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most previous work on inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) has focused on laminar IDF emissions and the soot formation characteristics. Here, we investigate the characteristics and structure of methane IDFs using high speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of OH, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and acetone PLIF imaging for non-reacting cases. First, the flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux) but with varying airflow rates, yielding a central air jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1,000 to 6,000 (when blow-off occurs). Next, it was investigated a fixed central air jet Re of 4500, but with varied methane mass flux such that the global equivalence ratio spanned 0.5 to 4. It was observed that at Re smaller than 2000, the inner air jet promotes the establishment of an inverse diffusion flame surrounded by a normal diffusion flame. However, when the Re was increased to 2500, two distinct zones became apparent in the flame, a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. 10 kHz OH-PLIF images, and 2D PIV allow the identification of the fate and spatial flame structure. Many flame features were identified and further analyzed using simple but effective image processing methods, where three types of structure in all the flames investigated here: flame holes or breaks; closures; and growing kernels. Insights about the rate of evolution of these features, the dynamics of local extinction, and the sequence of events that lead to re-ignition are reported here. In the lower entrainment zone, the occurrence of the flame break events is counterbalanced by closure events, and the edge propagation appears to control the rate at which the flame holes and closures propagate. The rate of propagation of holes was found to be statistically faster than the rate of closure. As the flames approach blow-off, flame kernels become the main mechanism for flame re-ignition further downstream. The simultaneous OH-PLIF/Stereo PIV

  9. Experimental study of the inverse diffusion flame using high repetition rate OH/acetone PLIF and PIV

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.

    2015-10-29

    Most previous work on inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) has focused on laminar IDF emissions and the soot formation characteristics. Here, we investigate the characteristics and structure of methane IDFs using high speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of OH, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and acetone PLIF imaging for non-reacting cases. First, the flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux) but with varying airflow rates, yielding a central air jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1,000 to 6,000 (when blow-off occurs). Next, it was investigated a fixed central air jet Re of 4500, but with varied methane mass flux such that the global equivalence ratio spanned 0.5 to 4. It was observed that at Re smaller than 2000, the inner air jet promotes the establishment of an inverse diffusion flame surrounded by a normal diffusion flame. However, when the Re was increased to 2500, two distinct zones became apparent in the flame, a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. 10 kHz OH-PLIF images, and 2D PIV allow the identification of the fate and spatial flame structure. Many flame features were identified and further analyzed using simple but effective image processing methods, where three types of structure in all the flames investigated here: flame holes or breaks; closures; and growing kernels. Insights about the rate of evolution of these features, the dynamics of local extinction, and the sequence of events that lead to re-ignition are reported here. In the lower entrainment zone, the occurrence of the flame break events is counterbalanced by closure events, and the edge propagation appears to control the rate at which the flame holes and closures propagate. The rate of propagation of holes was found to be statistically faster than the rate of closure. As the flames approach blow-off, flame kernels become the main mechanism for flame re-ignition further downstream. The simultaneous OH-PLIF/Stereo PIV

  10. Testing of super conducting low-beta 704 Mhz cavities at 50 Hz pulse repetition rate in view of SPL- first results

    CERN Document Server

    Höfle, W; Lollierou, J; Valuch, D; Chel, S; Devanz, G; Desmons, M; Piquet, O; Paparella, R; Pierini, P

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the preparatory phase for the luminosity upgrade of the LHC (SLHC-PP ) it is foreseen to characterize two superconducting RF cavities and demonstrate compliance of the required SPL field stability in amplitude and phase using a prototype LLRF system. We report on the preparation for testing of two superconducting low-beta cavities at 50 Hz pulse repetition rate including the setting-up of the low level RF control system to evaluate the performance of the piezo-tuning system and cavity field stability in amplitude and phase. Results from tests with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate are presented. Simulations of the RF system will be used to predict the necessary specifications for power and bandwidth to control the cavity field and derive specifications for the RF system and its control. Exemplary results of the simulation are presented.

  11. Design windows of laser fusion power plants and conceptual design of laser-diode pumped slab laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Y.; Eguchi, T.; Izawa, Y.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the design space available to laser fusion power plants has been carried out, in terms of design key parameters such as target gain, laser energy and laser repetition rate, the number of fusion react ion chambers, and plant size. The design windows of economically attractive laser fusion plants is identified with the constraints of key design parameters and the cost conditions. Especially, for achieving high repetition rate lasers, we have proposed and designed a diode-pumped solid-state laser driver which consists of water-cooled zig-zag path slab amplifiers. (author)

  12. Observation of repetitive bursts in emission of fast ions and neutrons in sub-nanosecond laser-solid experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Klír, D.; Velyhan, Andriy; Margarone, Daniele; Krouský, Eduard; Jungwirth, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Kravárik, J.; Kubeš, P.; Řezáč, K.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2013), s. 395-401 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA ČR GAP205/12/0454; GA MŠk LM2010014 Grant - others:OPVK 3 Laser Zdroj(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Program:EE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-plasma interactions * neutron yield scaling * bursts in ion emission Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 1.701, year: 2013

  13. Gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line generator of high voltage pulses modulated at 4 GHz frequency with 1000 Hz pulse repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmasculov, M R; Sharypov, K A; Shunailov, S A; Shpak, V G; Yalandin, M I; Pedos, M S; Rukin, S N

    2017-01-01

    Results of testing of a generator based on a solid-state drive and the parallel gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines with external bias are presented. Stable rf-modulated high-voltage nanosecond pulses were shaped in each of the four channels in 1 s packets with 1000 Hz repetition frequencies. Pulse amplitude reaches -175 kV, at a modulation depth of rf-oscillations to 50 % and the effective frequency ∼4 GHz. (paper)

  14. Molecular dynamics study of lubricant depletion by pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Woo; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Talke, Frank E.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to numerically investigate the effect of pulsed laser heating on lubricant depletion. The maximum temperature, the lubricant depletion width, the number of evaporated lubricant beads and the number of fragmented lubricant chains were studied as a function of laser peak power, pulse duration and repetition rate. A continuous-wave laser and a square pulse laser were simulated and compared to a Gaussian pulse laser. With increasing repetition rate, pulsed laser heating was found to approach continuous-wave laser heating.

  15. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  16. High-precision cutting of polyimide film using femtosecond laser for the application in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, D. V.; Lapshin, K. E.; Obidin, A. Z.; Vartapetov, S. K.

    2018-01-01

    The experimental results of cutting a polyimide film on the optical glass substrate by means of femtosecond lasers are given. Two modes of laser cutting of this film without damages to a glass base are determined. The first is the photo graphitization using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser. The second is ablative, under the effect of femtosecond laser pulses with high energy and low repetition rate. Cutting of semiconductor chips formed on the polyimide film surface is successfully demonstrated.

  17. Onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures on indium tin oxide thin films for clean ablation using a repetitively pulsed picosecond laser at low fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, N.; Dasgupta, P.; O’Connor, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is of key importance to obtain clean ablated features on indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films at low fluences. The evolution of subwavelength periodic nanostructures on a 175 nm thick ITO film, using 10 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1032 nm, operating at 400 kHz, is investigated. Initially nanoblisters are observed when a single pulse is applied below the damage threshold fluence (0.45 J cm‑2) the size and distribution of nanoblisters are found to depend on fluence. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations support the hypothesis that conductive nanoblisters can enhance the local intensity of the applied electromagnetic field. The LIPSS are observed to evolve from regions where the electric field enhancement has occurred; LIPSS has a perpendicular orientation relative to the laser polarization for a small number (5) pulses, the orientation of the periodic structures appears to rotate and evolve to become aligned in parallel with the laser polarization at approximately the same periodicity. These orientation effects are not observed at higher fluence—due to the absence of the nanoblister-like structures; this apparent rotation is interpreted to be due to stress-induced fragmentation of the LIPSS structure. The application of subsequent pulses leads to clean ablation. LIPSS are further modified into features of a shorter period when laser scanning is used. Results provide evidence that the formation of conductive nanoblisters leads to the enhancement of the applied electromagnetic field and thereby can be used to precisely control laser ablation on ITO thin films.

  18. On the Optimality of Repetition Coding among Rate-1 DC-offset STBCs for MIMO Optical Wireless Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Sapenov, Yerzhan

    2017-07-06

    In this paper, an optical wireless multiple-input multiple-output communication system employing intensity-modulation direct-detection is considered. The performance of direct current offset space-time block codes (DC-STBC) is studied in terms of pairwise error probability (PEP). It is shown that among the class of DC-STBCs, the worst case PEP corresponding to the minimum distance between two codewords is minimized by repetition coding (RC), under both electrical and optical individual power constraints. It follows that among all DC-STBCs, RC is optimal in terms of worst-case PEP for static channels and also for varying channels under any turbulence statistics. This result agrees with previously published numerical results showing the superiority of RC in such systems. It also agrees with previously published analytic results on this topic under log-normal turbulence and further extends it to arbitrary turbulence statistics. This shows the redundancy of the time-dimension of the DC-STBC in this system. This result is further extended to sum power constraints with static and turbulent channels, where it is also shown that the time dimension is redundant, and the optimal DC-STBC has a spatial beamforming structure. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the difference in performance for systems with different numbers of receiving apertures and different throughput.

  19. Human sensory-evoked responses differ coincident with either "fusion-memory" or "flash-memory", as shown by stimulus repetition-rate effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baird Bill

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: A new method has been used to obtain human sensory evoked-responses whose time-domain waveforms have been undetectable by previous methods. These newly discovered evoked-responses have durations that exceed the time between the stimuli in a continuous stream, thus causing an overlap which, up to now, has prevented their detection. We have named them "A-waves", and added a prefix to show the sensory system from which the responses were obtained (visA-waves, audA-waves, somA-waves. Results: When A-waves were studied as a function of stimulus repetition-rate, it was found that there were systematic differences in waveshape at repetition-rates above and below the psychophysical region in which the sensation of individual stimuli fuse into a continuity. The fusion phenomena is sometimes measured by a "Critical Fusion Frequency", but for this research we can only identify a frequency-region [which we call the STZ (Sensation-Transition Zone]. Thus, the A-waves above the STZ differed from those below the STZ, as did the sensations. Study of the psychophysical differences in auditory and visual stimuli, as shown in this paper, suggest that different stimulus features are detected, and remembered, at stimulation rates above and below STZ. Conclusion: The results motivate us to speculate that: 1 Stimulus repetition-rates above the STZ generate waveforms which underlie "fusion-memory" whereas rates below the STZ show neuronal processing in which "flash-memory" occurs. 2 These two memories differ in both duration and mechanism, though they may occur in the same cell groups. 3 The differences in neuronal processing may be related to "figure" and "ground" differentiation. We conclude that A-waves provide a novel measure of neural processes that can be detected on the human scalp, and speculate that they may extend clinical applications of evoked response recordings. If A-waves also occur in animals, it is likely that A-waves will provide

  20. Human sensory-evoked responses differ coincident with either "fusion-memory" or "flash-memory", as shown by stimulus repetition-rate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Don L; Hart, Toryalai; Larson-Prior, Linda J; Baird, Bill; Olson, Marram; Trumpis, Michael; Makayed, Katherine; Bavafa, Payam

    2006-01-01

    Background: A new method has been used to obtain human sensory evoked-responses whose time-domain waveforms have been undetectable by previous methods. These newly discovered evoked-responses have durations that exceed the time between the stimuli in a continuous stream, thus causing an overlap which, up to now, has prevented their detection. We have named them "A-waves", and added a prefix to show the sensory system from which the responses were obtained (visA-waves, audA-waves, somA-waves). Results: When A-waves were studied as a function of stimulus repetition-rate, it was found that there were systematic differences in waveshape at repetition-rates above and below the psychophysical region in which the sensation of individual stimuli fuse into a continuity. The fusion phenomena is sometimes measured by a "Critical Fusion Frequency", but for this research we can only identify a frequency-region [which we call the STZ (Sensation-Transition Zone)]. Thus, the A-waves above the STZ differed from those below the STZ, as did the sensations. Study of the psychophysical differences in auditory and visual stimuli, as shown in this paper, suggest that different stimulus features are detected, and remembered, at stimulation rates above and below STZ. Conclusion: The results motivate us to speculate that: 1) Stimulus repetition-rates above the STZ generate waveforms which underlie "fusion-memory" whereas rates below the STZ show neuronal processing in which "flash-memory" occurs. 2) These two memories differ in both duration and mechanism, though they may occur in the same cell groups. 3) The differences in neuronal processing may be related to "figure" and "ground" differentiation. We conclude that A-waves provide a novel measure of neural processes that can be detected on the human scalp, and speculate that they may extend clinical applications of evoked response recordings. If A-waves also occur in animals, it is likely that A-waves will provide new methods for

  1. High power all solid state VUV lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shen-jin; Cui, Da-fu; Zhang, Feng-feng; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Zhi-min; Yang, Feng; Zong, Nan; Tu, Wei; Chen, Ying; Xu, Hong-yan; Xu, Feng-liang; Peng, Qin-jun; Wang, Xiao-yang; Chen, Chuang-tian; Xu, Zu-yan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable ps 177.3 nm laser was developed. • Wavelength tunable ns, ps and fs VUV lasers were developed. • High power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth was investigated. - Abstract: We report the investigation on the high power all solid state vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) lasers by means of nonlinear frequency conversion with KBe 2 BO 3 F 2 (KBBF) nonlinear crystal. Several all solid state VUV lasers have developed in our group, including polarization and pulse repetition rate adjustable picosecond 177.3 nm VUV laser, wavelength tunable nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond VUV lasers, high power ns 177.3 nm laser with narrow linewidth. The VUV lasers have impact, accurate and precise advantage

  2. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz.

  3. Nanosecond pulsed power generator for a voltage amplitude up to 300 kV and a repetition rate up to 16 Hz for fine disintegration of quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastelev, E. G.; Sedin, A. A.; Tugushev, V. I.

    2015-01-01

    A generator of high-power high-voltage nanosecond pulses is intended for electrical discharge disintegration of mineral quartz and other nonconducting minerals. It includes a 320 kV Marx pulsed voltage generator, a high-voltage glycerin-insulated coaxial peaking capacitor, and an output gas spark switch followed by a load, an electric discharge disintegration chamber. The main parameters of the generator are as follows: a voltage pulse amplitude of up to 300 kV, an output impedance of ≈10 Ω, a discharge current amplitude of up to 25 kA for a half-period of 80–90 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of up to 16 Hz

  4. MHz-rate nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Naibo; Webster, Matthew; Lempert, Walter R; Miller, Joseph D; Meyer, Terrence R; Ivey, Christopher B; Danehy, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    Nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence (NO PLIF) imaging at repetition rates as high as 1 MHz is demonstrated in the NASA Langley 31 in. Mach 10 hypersonic wind tunnel. Approximately 200 time-correlated image sequences of between 10 and 20 individual frames were obtained over eight days of wind tunnel testing spanning two entries in March and September of 2009. The image sequences presented were obtained from the boundary layer of a 20° flat plate model, in which transition was induced using a variety of different shaped protuberances, including a cylinder and a triangle. The high-speed image sequences captured a variety of laminar and transitional flow phenomena, ranging from mostly laminar flow, typically at a lower Reynolds number and/or in the near wall region of the model, to highly transitional flow in which the temporal evolution and progression of characteristic streak instabilities and/or corkscrew-shaped vortices could be clearly identified.

  5. Use of a high repetition rate neutron generator for in vivo body composition measurements via neutron inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, J.J.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.; Weinlein, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A small D-T neutron generator with a high pulse rate is used for the in vivo measurement of body carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. The core of the neutron generator is a 13 cm-long Zetatron tube pulsed at a rate of 10 kHz delivering 10 3 to 10 4 neutrons per pulse. A target-current feedback system regulates the source of the accelerator to assure constant neutron output. Carbon is measured by detecting the 4.44 MeV γ-rays from inelastic scattering. The short half-life of the 4.44 MeV state of carbon requires detection of the γ-rays during the 10 μs neutron pulse. Generators with low pulsing rate were found inappropriate for carbon measurements because of their low duty-cycle (high neutron output during the pulse). In vivo measurements were performed with normal volunteers using a scanning bed facility for a dose less than 25 mrem. This technique offers medical as well as general bulk analysis applications. 8 refs., 5 figs

  6. An injection modelocked Ti-sapphire laser for synchronous photoinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovater, C.; Poelker, M.

    1997-01-01

    The CEBAF 4 GeV accelerator has recently begun delivering spin-polarized electrons for nuclear physics experiments. Spin-polarized electrons are emitted from a GaAs photocathode that is illuminated with pulsed laser light from a diode laser system synchronized to the injector chopping frequency (499 MHz). The present diode laser system is compact, reliable and relatively maintenance-free; however, output power is limited to less than 500 mW. In an effort to obtain higher average power and thereby prolong the effective operating lifetime of the source, they have constructed an injection modelocked Ti-sapphire laser with picosecond pulsewidths and gigahertz repetition rates. Modelocked operation is obtained through gain modulation within the Ti-sapphire crystal as a result of injection seeding with a gain-switched diode laser. Unlike conventional modelocked lasers, the pulse repetition rate of this laser can be discretely varied by setting the seed laser repetition rate equal to multiples of the Ti-sapphire laser cavity fundamental frequency. They observe pulse repetition rates from 223 MHz (fundamental) to 1,560 MHz (seventh harmonic) with average output power of 700 mW for all repetition rates. Pulsewidths ranged from 21 to 39 ps (FWHM) under various pump laser conditions

  7. The use of laser diodes for control of uranium vaporization rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagans, K.; Galkowski, J.

    1993-09-01

    Within the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) program we have successfully used the laser absorption spectroscopy technique (LAS) to diagnose process physics performance and control vaporization rate. In the LAS technique, a narrow line-width laser is tuned to an absorption line of the species to be measured. The laser light that is propagated through the sample is and, from this data, the density of the species can be calculated. These laser systems have exclusively consisted of expensive, cumbersome, and difficult to maintain argon-ion-pumped ring dye lasers. While the wavelength flexibility of dye lasers is very useful in a laboratory environment, these laser systems are not well suited for the industrial process control system under development for an AVLIS plant. Diode-lasers offer lower system costs, reduced man power requirements, reduced space requirements, higher system availability, and improved operator safety. We report the. successful deployment and test of a prototype laser diode based uranium vapor rate control system. Diode-laser generated LAS data was used to control the uranium vaporization rate in a hands-off mode for greater than 50 hours. With one minor adjustment the system successfully controlled the vaporization rate for greater than 147 hours. We report excellent agreement with ring dye laser diagnostics and uranium weigh-back measurements

  8. Estimation of the dust production rate from the tungsten armour after repetitive ELM-like heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestchanyi, S.; Garkusha, I.; Makhlaj, V.; Landman, I.

    2011-12-01

    Experimental simulations for the erosion rate of tungsten targets under ITER edge-localized mode (ELM)-like surface heat loads of 0.75 MJ m-2 causing surface melting and of 0.45 MJ m-2 without melting have been performed in the QSPA-Kh50 plasma accelerator. Analytical considerations allow us to conclude that for both energy deposition values the erosion mechanism is solid dust ejection during surface cracking under the action of thermo-stress. Tungsten influx into the ITER containment of NW~5×1018 W per medium size ELM of 0.75 MJ m-2 and 0.25 ms time duration has been estimated. The radiation cooling power of Prad=150-300 MW due to such influx of tungsten is intolerable: it should cool the ITER core to 1 keV within a few seconds.

  9. Estimation of the dust production rate from the tungsten armour after repetitive ELM-like heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestchanyi, S; Landman, I; Garkusha, I; Makhlaj, V

    2011-01-01

    Experimental simulations for the erosion rate of tungsten targets under ITER edge-localized mode (ELM)-like surface heat loads of 0.75 MJ m - 2 causing surface melting and of 0.45 MJ m - 2 without melting have been performed in the QSPA-Kh50 plasma accelerator. Analytical considerations allow us to conclude that for both energy deposition values the erosion mechanism is solid dust ejection during surface cracking under the action of thermo-stress. Tungsten influx into the ITER containment of N W ∼5×10 18 W per medium size ELM of 0.75 MJ m - 2 and 0.25 ms time duration has been estimated. The radiation cooling power of P rad =150-300 MW due to such influx of tungsten is intolerable: it should cool the ITER core to 1 keV within a few seconds.

  10. A high power gain switched diode laser oscillator and amplifier for the CEBAF polarized electron injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, M.; Hansknecht, J.

    1996-01-01

    The photocathode in the polarized electron source at Jefferson Lab is illuminated with pulsed laser light from a gain switched diode laser and diode optical amplifier. Laser pulse repetition rates up to 2,000 MHz, optical pulsewidths between 31 and 123 ps, and average power > 100 mW are demonstrated. The laser system is highly reliable and completely remotely controlled

  11. Shock-tube study of the decomposition of tetramethylsilane using gas chromatography and high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, P; Peukert, S; Herzler, J; Fikri, M; Schulz, C

    2018-04-25

    The decomposition of tetramethylsilane was studied in shock-tube experiments in a temperature range of 1270-1580 K and pressures ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 bar behind reflected shock waves combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high-repetition-rate time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HRR-TOF-MS). The main observed products were methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6), and acetylene (C2H2). In addition, the formation of a solid deposit was observed, which was identified to consist of silicon- and carbon-containing nanoparticles. A kinetics sub-mechanism with 13 silicon species and 20 silicon-containing reactions was developed. It was combined with the USC_MechII mechanism for hydrocarbons, which was able to simulate the experimental observations. The main decomposition channel of TMS is the Si-C bond scission forming methyl (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals (Si(CH3)3). The rate constant for TMS decomposition is represented by the Arrhenius expression ktotal[TMS → products] = 5.9 × 1012 exp(-267 kJ mol-1/RT) s-1.

  12. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.

  13. Repetition and the Concept of Repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Grøn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a description of the meaning of the category of repetition. Firstly, it is pointed out that Constantin uses repetition as a concept that means the creation of epochs; the passing from Greece to Modernity is accomplished distinguishing between recollection, a concept that looks back to the past, and repetition, a concept that looks forward to future. Secondly, it is showed that the category of repetition, as a religious category, relates with what Climacus calls “ethic despair” and with what Vigilius calls “second ethics”; it is through repetition that it can be understood that sin finds its place in ethics and these shows the tension between it and dogmatics. And thirdly, it is showed that the descovery of the new category of repetition is a rediscovery of what Kierkegaard calls category of spirit; repetition has for its object the individuality, and coming to be oneself is what Kierkegaard undertands as liberty. At the end of the paper it is questioned if the category of repetition is inconsistent with the book Repetition.

  14. High-Rate Laser Communications for Human Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, B. S.; Shih, T.; Khatri, F. I.; King, T.; Seas, A.

    2018-02-01

    Laser communication links has been successfully demonstrated on recent near-Earth and lunar missions. We present a status of this development work and its relevance to a future Deep Space Gateway supporting human exploration and science activities.

  15. The effect of laser process parameters on microstructure and dilution rate of cladding coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Liu; Heping, Liu; Xingbin, Jing; Yuxin, Li; Peikang, Bai

    2018-02-01

    In order to broaden the range of application of Q235 steel, it is necessary to repair the surface of steel. High performance 316L stainless steel coating was successfully obtained on Q235 steel by laser cladding technology. The effect of laser cladding parameters on the geometrical size and appearance of single cladding layer was investigated. The experimental results show that laser current has an important influence on the surface morphology of single channel cladding. When the current is from 155A to 165A, the cladding coating becomes smooth. The laser current has an effect on the geometric cross section size and dilution rate of single cladding. The results revealed that with the rising of laser current, the width, height and depth of layer increase gradually. With the rising of laser current, the dilution rate of cladding layer is gradually increasing.

  16. Distributed feedback dye laser pumped with copper-vapor laser emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, S Yu; Soldatov, A N; Sukhanov, V B

    1983-10-01

    The power-spectrum characteristics of the emission of a distributed feedback dye laser pumped with a copper vapor laser have been studied. Laser action has been observed in five dyes over a tuning range of 530-723 nm with an efficiency of 12.4%. The specfic features of the distributed feedback dye laser operating at pulse repetition rates of 4 kHz are discussed.

  17. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perin J.P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  18. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  19. Characteristics of quantum dash laser under the rate equation model framework

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2010-09-01

    The authors present a numerical model to study the carrier dynamics of InAs/InP quantum dash (QDash) lasers. The model is based on single-state rate equations, which incorporates both, the homogeneous and the inhomogeneous broadening of lasing spectra. The numerical technique also considers the unique features of the QDash gain medium. This model has been applied successfully to analyze the laser spectra of QDash laser. ©2010 IEEE.

  20. Laser Rate Equation Based Filtering for Carrier Recovery in Characterization and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Xue, Weiqi

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a semiconductor laser rate equationbased approach to carrier recovery in a Bayesian filtering framework. Filter stability and the effect of model inaccuracies (unknown or un-useable rate equation coefficients) are discussed. Two potential application areas are explored: laser...... characterization and carrier recovery in coherent communication. Two rate equation based Bayesian filters, the particle filter and extended Kalman filter, are used in conjunction with a coherent receiver to measure frequency noise spectrum of a photonic crystal cavity laser with less than 20 nW of fiber...

  1. Effect of the Bit Rate on the Pulses of the Laser Diodes | Ayadi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The qualities required for Laser Diodes are their spatial and temporal coherence, and their performance in terms modulation. This paper presents the effect data rate of optical pulses delivered by diode laser using software COMSIS. Two types of modulation have been considered: direct modulation and external modulation.

  2. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  3. Survey on modern pulsed high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements to be met by lasers for particle acceleration are partially similar to those already known for fusion lasers. The power level wanted in both caes is up to 100 TW or even more. The pulse durations favourable for laser accelerators are in the range from 1 ps to 1000 ps whereas fusion lasers require several ns. The energy range for laser accelerators is thus correspondingly smaller than that for fusion lasers: 1-100 kJ versus several 100 kJ. The design criteria of lasers meeting the requirements are discussed in the following. The CO 2 , iodine, Nd:glass and excimer lasers are treated in detail. The high repetition rate aspect will not be particularly addressed since for the present generation of lasers the wanted rates of far above 1 Hz are completely out of scope. Moreover, for the demonstration of principle these rates are not needed. (orig./HSI)

  4. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  5. High-repetition intra-cavity source of Compton radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I; Polyanskiy, M; Agustsson, R; Campese, T; Murokh, A; Ovodenko, A; Shaftan, T

    2014-01-01

    We report our progress in developing a high-power Compton source for a diversity of applications ranging from university-scale compact x-ray light sources and metrology tools for EUV lithography, to high-brilliance gamma-sources for nuclear analysis. Our conceptual approach lies in multiplying the source’s repetition rate and increasing its average brightness by placing the Compton interaction point inside the optical cavity of an active laser. We discuss considerations in its design, our simulations, and tests of the laser’s cavity that confirm the feasibility of the proposed concept. (paper)

  6. Status of High Data Rate Intersatellite Laser Communication as an Enabler for Earth and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, F.; Zech, H.; Motzigemba, M.

    2017-12-01

    Space based laser communication is supporting earth observation and science missions with Gbps data download capabilities. Currently the Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 spacecrafts from the Copernicus earth observation program of the European Commission are using the Gbps laser communication links developed by Tesat Spacecom to download low latency data products via a commercial geostationary laser relay station- the European Data Relay Service- (EDRS) as a standard data path, in parallel to the conventional radio frequency links. The paper reports on the status of high bandwidth space laser communication as an enabler for small and large space science missions ranging from cube sat applications in low earth orbit to deep space missions. Space based laser communication has left the experimental phase and will support space science missions with unprecedented data rates.

  7. Dose rate laser simulation tests adequacy: Shadowing and high intensity effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Skorobogatov, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The adequacy of laser based simulation of the flash X-ray effects in microcircuits may be corrupted mainly due to laser radiation shadowing by the metallization and the non-linear absorption in a high intensity range. The numerical joint solution of the optical equations and the fundamental system of equations in a two-dimensional approximation were performed to adjust the application range of laser simulation. As a result the equivalent dose rate to laser intensity correspondence was established taking into account the shadowing as well as the high intensity effects. The simulation adequacy was verified in the range up to 4·10 11 rad(Si)/s with the comparative laser test of a specially designed test structure

  8. Design study of laser fusion rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Hideki; Shoyama, Hidetoshi; Kanda, Yukinori

    1991-01-01

    A design study was made on a rocket powered by laser fusion. Dependence of its flight performance on target gain, driver repetition rate and fuel composition was analyzed to obtain optimal design parameters of the laser fusion rocket. The results indicate that the laser fusion rocket fueled with DT or D 3 He has the potential advantages over other propulsion systems such as fission rocket for interplanetary travel. (author)

  9. The rates of elementary atomic processes and laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudzikas, Z.; Sereapinas, P.; Kaulakys, B.

    1989-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy and physics of the atom are closely interrelated. Spectra are the fundamental characteristics of atoms. Modern atomic spectroscopy deals with the structure and properties of any atom of the periodic table as well as of ions of any ionization degree. Therefore, one has to develop fairly universal and, at the same time, exact methods. In this paper briefly analyze the contemporary status of the theory of many-electron atoms and ions, the peculiarities of their structure and spectra, as well as of the processes of their interaction with radiation, interatomic interaction and of the plasma spectroscopy. The attention mainly is paid to the spectroscopy of multiply charged ions and to the processes with highly excited atoms

  10. High power excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterlin, P.; Muckenheim, W.; Basting, D.

    1988-01-01

    Excimer lasers emitting more than 200 W output power are not commercially available. A significant increase requires new technological efforts with respect to both the gas circulation and the discharge system. The authors report how a research project has yielded a laser which emits 0.5 kW at 308 nm when being UV preionized and operated at a repetition rate of 300 Hz. The laser, which is capable of operating at 500 Hz, can be equipped with an x-ray preionization module. After completing this project 1 kW output power will be available

  11. Some characteristics of isotopic separation laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochon, E.

    1988-01-01

    The principle of Laser Isotope Separation (LIS) is simple and based on either selective electronic photoexcitation and photoionization of atomic vapor, or selective vibrational photoexcitation and photodissociation of molecules in the gas phase. These processes, respectively called SILVA (AVLIS) and SILMO (MLIS) in France, both use specific laser systems with wavelengths spanning from infrared to ultraviolet. This article describes briefly some of the characteristics of a SILVA laser system. Following a three-step process, a SILVA laser system is based on dye copper vapor lasers. The pulse dye lasers provide the tunable laser light and are optically pumped by copper vapor laser operating at high repetition rates. In order to meet plant laser system requirements, the main improvements under way relate to copper vapor laser devices the power capability, efficiency, reliability and lifetime of which have to be increased. 1 fig

  12. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread

  13. LASER: A Maximum Likelihood Toolkit for Detecting Temporal Shifts in Diversification Rates From Molecular Phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Rabosky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of species origination and extinction can vary over time during evolutionary radiations, and it is possible to reconstruct the history of diversification using molecular phylogenies of extant taxa only. Maximum likelihood methods provide a useful framework for inferring temporal variation in diversification rates. LASER is a package for the R programming environment that implements maximum likelihood methods based on the birth-death process to test whether diversification rates have changed over time. LASER contrasts the likelihood of phylogenetic data under models where diversification rates have changed over time to alternative models where rates have remained constant over time. Major strengths of the package include the ability to detect temporal increases in diversification rates and the inference of diversification parameters under multiple rate-variable models of diversification. The program and associated documentation are freely available from the R package archive at http://cran.r-project.org.

  14. Cryogenic flow rate measurement with a laser Doppler velocimetry standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, R.; Strzelecki, A.; Auclercq, C.; Lehot, Y.; Loubat, S.; Chevalier, J.; Ben Rayana, F.

    2018-03-01

    A very promising alternative to the state-of-the-art static volume measurements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) custody transfer processes is the dynamic principle of flow metering. As the Designated Institute (DI) of the LNE (‘Laboratoire National de métrologie et d’Essais’, being the French National Metrology Institute) for high-pressure gas flow metering, Cesame-Exadebit is involved in various research and development programs. Within the framework of the first (2010-2013) and second (2014-2017) EURAMET Joint Research Project (JRP), named ‘Metrological support for LNG custody transfer and transport fuel applications’, Cesame-Exadebit explored a novel cryogenic flow metering technology using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) as an alternative to ultrasonic and Coriolis flow metering. Cesame-Exadebit is trying to develop this technique as a primary standard for cryogenic flow meters. Currently, cryogenic flow meters are calibrated at ambient temperatures with water. Results are then extrapolated to be in the Reynolds number range of real applications. The LDV standard offers a unique capability to perform online calibration of cryogenic flow meters in real conditions (temperature, pressure, piping and real flow disturbances). The primary reference has been tested on an industrial process in a LNG terminal during truck refuelling. The reference can calibrate Coriolis flow meters being used daily with all the real environmental constraints, and its utilisation is transparent for LNG terminal operators. The standard is traceable to Standard International units and the combined extended uncertainties have been determined and estimated to be lower than 0.6% (an ongoing improvement to reducing the correlation function uncertainty, which has a major impact in the uncertainty estimation).

  15. Roles of repetitive sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  16. Optimizing the efficiency of femtosecond-laser-written holograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Hansen, Henrik Dueholm; Balling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Computer-generated binary holograms are written on a polished copper surface using single 800-nm, 120-fs pulses from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate laser system. The hologram efficiency (i.e. the power in the holographic reconstructed image relative to the incoming laser power) is investigated...

  17. Influence of acoustic waves on TEA CO2 laser performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Bergmann, H

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author’s present results on the influence of acoustic waves on the output laser beam from high repetition rate TEA CO2 lasers. The authors show that acoustic waves generated inside the cavity lead to deterioration in beam quality...

  18. Repetitively pulsed TEA CO{sub 2} laser and its application for second harmonic generation in ZnGeP{sub 2} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' chuk, L V; Grezev, A N; Niz' ev, V G; Yakunin, V P [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Mezhevov, V S [Kaluga Laser Innovation and Technology Centre, Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Goryachkin, D A [Russian State Scientific Center for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Sergeev, V V; Kalintsev, A G [Open Joint Stock Company S.I.Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-31

    Experimental results are presented on the development of a radiation source emitting at a wavelength of 4.775 μm with a pulse energy up to 50 mJ and an average power up to several watts in short pulse trains. A TEA CO{sub 2} laser and a nonlinear converter based on a ZnGeP{sub 2} crystal, which are specially designed for these experiments, are described. The main limitations of nonlinear conversion and possible ways to overcome these limitations are considered. (lasers)

  19. Investigations of uv TEA N/sub 2/ lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, I; Racz, B; Kozma, L; Nemet, B

    1978-01-01

    A simple transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) nitrogen uv laser with double Blumlein-circuit switched by triggered spark gap was investigated. The Blumlein-circuits were based on flatplate wave guide and ceramic capacitors, as well. The output laser energy and the pulse shape exhibited strong dependence on the setting of the angle between the two laser electrodes, but less on the electrode separation. The minimum flowing rate to obtain the maximum output energy was determined at 25 and 50 Hz repetition rate.

  20. Pulsed and cw laser oscillations in LiF:F-2 color center crystal under laser diode pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Vassiliev, Sergey V; Konjushkin, Vasily A; Gapontsev, Valentin P

    2006-07-15

    Continuous-wave laser oscillations in LiF:F-2 crystal optically pumped by a laser diode at 970 nm were demonstrated for what is believed to be the first time. The slope efficiency of 14% and conversion efficiency of 5.5% were achieved for 80 micros pump pulse duration and 5 Hz pulse repetition rate. An efficiency twice as low was measured at a 6.25 kHz pulse repetition rate (50% off-duty factor) and in cw mode of laser operation.

  1. High Strain Rate Response of 7055 Aluminum Alloy Subject to Square-spot Laser Shock Peening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rujian; Zhu, Ying; Li, Liuhe; Guo, Wei; Peng, Peng

    2017-12-01

    The influences of laser pulse energy and impact time on high strain rate response of 7055 aluminum alloy subject to square-spot laser shock peening (SLSP) were investigate. Microstructural evolution was characterized by OM, SEM and TEM. Microhardness distribution and in-depth residual stress in 15 J with one and two impacts and 25 J with one and two impacts were analyzed. Results show that the original rolling structures were significantly refined due to laser shock induced recrystallization. High density of microdefects was generated, such as dislocation tangles, dislocation wall and stacking faults. Subgrains and nanograins were induced in the surface layer, resulting in grain refinement in the near surface layer after SLSP. Compressive residual stresses with maximum value of more than -200 MPa and affected depths of more than 1 mm can be generated after SLSP. Impact time has more effectiveness than laser pulse energy in increasing the magnitude of residual stress and achieving thicker hardening layer.

  2. Prototype high-speed tape target transport for a laser plasma soft-x-ray projection lithography source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, S.J.; Berger, K.W.; Kubiak, G.D.; Rockett, P.D.; Hunter, J.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype high-speed tape target transport is constructed for use in a high-repetition-rate laser plasma source. To reduce plasma debris, a 1000--5000-A-thick film of target material is supported by thin Mylar tape backing. Tape is transported to the laser focal volume at a maximum velocity of 356 cm/s, a rate sufficient to accommodate laser repetition rates of 1 kHz. The transport is fully vacuum compatible and can be retracted and then isolated from the laser plasma vacuum enclosure during tape reel replacement. The operating characteristics of the transport are described

  3. Repetition and Translation Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Zupan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Repetition manifests itself in different ways and at different levels of the text. The first basic type of repetition involves complete recurrences; in which a particular textual feature repeats in its entirety. The second type involves partial recurrences; in which the second repetition of the same textual feature includes certain modifications to the first occurrence. In the article; repetitive patterns in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Fall of the House of Usher” and its Slovene translation; “Konec Usherjeve hiše”; are compared. The author examines different kinds of repetitive patterns. Repetitions are compared at both the micro- and macrostructural levels. As detailed analyses have shown; considerable microstructural translation shifts occur in certain types of repetitive patterns. Since these are not only occasional; sporadic phenomena; but are of a relatively high frequency; they reduce the translated text’s potential for achieving some of the gothic effects. The macrostructural textual property particularly affected by these shifts is the narrator’s experience as described by the narrative; which suffers a reduction in intensity.

  4. 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam

  5. X-ray emission as a potential hazard during ultrashort pulse laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legall, Herbert; Schwanke, Christoph; Pentzien, Simone; Dittmar, Günter; Bonse, Jörn; Krüger, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    In laser machining with ultrashort laser pulses unwanted X-ray radiation in the keV range can be generated when a critical laser intensity is exceeded. Even if the emitted X-ray dose per pulse is low, high laser repetition rates can lead to an accumulation of X-ray doses beyond exposure safety limits. For 925 fs pulse duration at a center wavelength of 1030 nm, the X-ray emission was investigated up to an intensity of 2.6 × 1014 W/cm2. The experiments were performed in air with a thin disk laser at a repetition rate of 400 kHz. X-ray spectra and doses were measured for various planar target materials covering a wide range of the periodic table from aluminum to tungsten. Without radiation shielding, the measured radiation doses at this high repetition rate clearly exceed the regulatory limits. Estimations for an adequate radiation shielding are provided.

  6. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  7. Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  8. Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  9. Laser Measurements of the H Atom + Ozone Rate Constant at Atmospheric Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Smith, G. P.; Peng, J.; Reppert, K. J.; Callahan, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The exothermic H + O3 reaction produces OH(v) Meinel band emissions, used to derive mesospheric H concentrations and chemical heating rates. We have remeasured its rate constant to reduce resulting uncertainties and the measurement extend to lower mesospheric temperatures using modern laser techniques. H atoms are produced by pulsed ultraviolet laser trace photolysis of O3, followed by reaction of O(D) with added H2. A second, delayed, frequency-mixed dye laser measures the reaction decay rate with the remaining ozone by laser induced fluorescence. We monitor either the H atom decay by 2 photon excitation at 205 nm and detection of red fluorescence, or the OH(v=9) product time evolution with excitation of the B-X (0,9) band at 237 nm and emission in blue B-A bands. By cooling the enclosed low pressure flow cell we obtained measurements from 146-305 K. Small kinetic modeling corrections are made for secondary regeneration of H atoms. The results fully confirm the current NASA JPL recommendation for this rate constant, and establish its extrapolation down to the lower temperatures of the mesosphere. This work was supported by the NSF Aeronomy Program and an NSF Physics summer REU student grant.

  10. A multi-rate DPSK modem for free-space laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellmeyer, N. W.; Browne, C. A.; Caplan, D. O.; Carney, J. J.; Chavez, M. L.; Fletcher, A. S.; Fitzgerald, J. J.; Kaminsky, R. D.; Lund, G.; Hamilton, S. A.; Magliocco, R. J.; Mikulina, O. V.; Murphy, R. J.; Rao, H. G.; Scheinbart, M. S.; Seaver, M. M.; Wang, J. P.

    2014-03-01

    The multi-rate DPSK format, which enables efficient free-space laser communications over a wide range of data rates, is finding applications in NASA's Laser Communications Relay Demonstration. We discuss the design and testing of an efficient and robust multi-rate DPSK modem, including aspects of the electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical design. The modem includes an optically preamplified receiver, an 0.5-W average power transmitter, a LEON3 rad-hard microcontroller that provides the command and telemetry interface and supervisory control, and a Xilinx Virtex-5 radhard reprogrammable FPGA that both supports the high-speed data flow to and from the modem and controls the modem's analog and digital subsystems. For additional flexibility, the transmitter and receiver can be configured to support operation with multi-rate PPM waveforms.

  11. Repetition code of 15 qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, James R.; Loss, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The repetition code is an important primitive for the techniques of quantum error correction. Here we implement repetition codes of at most 15 qubits on the 16 qubit ibmqx3 device. Each experiment is run for a single round of syndrome measurements, achieved using the standard quantum technique of using ancilla qubits and controlled operations. The size of the final syndrome is small enough to allow for lookup table decoding using experimentally obtained data. The results show strong evidence that the logical error rate decays exponentially with code distance, as is expected and required for the development of fault-tolerant quantum computers. The results also give insight into the nature of noise in the device.

  12. Laser plasmas as x-ray sources for lithographic imaging of submicron structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijkerk, F.; van Dorssen, G.E.; van der Wiel, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Laser radiation can be used efficiently to generate x-rays for lithographic imaging of submicron patterns, e.g., for VLSI device fabrication. Due to their short wavelength and high average power, excimer lasers show much potential for this application. Results are presented of scaling studies for high repetition rate excimer laser application, using the frequency doubled output of a low repetition rate Nd:YAG/Glass laser. Spectral and spatial characteristics of x-ray emission of the laser plasma are shown. The power density in the laser focus was 3 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . With this source Si x-ray masks with submicron Au absorber profiles are imaged into high sensitivity x-ray photoresist. For the exposures 80 laser shots sufficed to yield high quality submicron structures. Extrapolation of the results to a high power excimer laser reduces the exposure time of the photoresists to several seconds, enabling a wafer throughput at an industrial level

  13. Role of heat accumulation in the multi-shot damage of silicon irradiated with femtosecond XUV pulses at a 1 MHz repetition rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobierajski, R.; Jacyna, I.; Dlužewski, P.; Klepka, M.T.; Klinger, D.; Pełka, J.B.; Burian, T.; Hájková, V.; Juha, Libor; Saksl, K.; Vozda, V.; Makhotkin, I.; Louis, E.; Faatz, B.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Enkisch, H.; Hermann, M.; Strobel, S.; Loch, R.A.; Chalupský, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 14 (2016), s. 15468-15477 ISSN 1094-4087 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : free -electron lasers * damage * x-rays * soft x-rays * extreme ultraviolet (EUV) * semiconductor materials * materials processing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016 https://doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.015468

  14. Role of heat accumulation in the multi-shot damage of silicon irradiated with femtosecond XUV pulses at a 1 MHz repetition rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobierajski, R.; Jacyna, I.; Dlužewski, P.; Klepka, M.T.; Klinger, D.; Pelka, J. B.; Burian, Tomáš; Hájková, Věra; Juha, Libor; Saksl, K.; Vozda, Vojtěch; Makhotkin, I.; Louis, E.; Faatz, B.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Enkisch, H.; Hermann, M.; Strobel, S.; Loch, R.A.; Chalupský, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 14 (2016), s. 15468-15477 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14072; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : free -electron lasers * damage * x-rays * soft x-rays * extreme ultraviolet (EUV) * semiconductor materials * materials processing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016

  15. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  16. Automation of the positioning of a laser anemometer flow rate measurement bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobillot, G.

    1998-01-01

    The laser anemometry technique is commonly used by the Core Hydraulics Laboratory of the CEA for the determination of the field of flow rates inside fuel rod bundles. The adjustment of measurement point coordinates represents an important part of the velocimetry campaign. In order to increase the number of measurements and the preciseness of the positioning operation, the automation of these preliminary tasks was decided. This work describes first the principle of Doppler laser velocimetry, the components of the measurement system and their functioning conditions. Then, the existing software for tuning and measurement is presented. A new software, called PAMELA, for the automatic positioning of the laser anemometer using a moving table with 5 degrees of freedom, has been developed and tested. This software, written with the LabView language, advises the operator, drives the bench and executes the tunings with a greater precision than manually. (J.S.)

  17. Balanced cross-rate model for saturated molecular fluorescence in flames using a nanosecond pulse length laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucht, R.P.; Sweeney, D.W.; Laurendeau, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    The balanced cross-rate model is proposed to analyze laser-induced molecular fluorescence signals when the laser pulse length is of the order of nanoseconds. Nanosecond pulse length lasers. specifically Q-switched Nd:YAG-pumped dye lasers, are attractive for saturated molecular fluorescence spectroscopy because of their high peak power and because of their short pulse length minimizes the risk of laser-induced chemistry. In the balanced cross-rate model, single upper and lower rotational levels are assumed to be directly coupled by the laser radiation. Because the laser-induced processes which couple these levels are so fast at saturation intensities, a steady state is established between the two levels within picoseconds. Provided that the total population of the two laser-coupled rotational levels is constant during the laser pulse, the total molecular population can be calculated from the observed upper rotational level population using a two-level saturation model and Boltzmann statistics. Numerical simulation of the laser excitation dynamics of OH in an atmospheric pressure H 2 /O 2 /N 2 flame indicates that the balanced cross-rate model will give accurate results provided that the rotational relaxation rates in the upper and lower sets of rotational levels are approximately equal

  18. The laser second threshold: Its exact analytical dependence on detuning and relaxation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakasov, A.A.; Abraham, N.B.

    1992-11-01

    An exact analysis has been carried out for general analytical expressions for the second threshold of a single-mode homogeneously broadened laser and for the initial pulsation frequency at the second threshold for arbitrary physical values of the relaxation rates, and at arbitrary detuning between the cavity frequency and the atomic resonance frequency. These expressions also give correspondingly exact forms for asymptotic cases that have previously studied with some approximations. Earlier approximate results are partly confirmed and partly improved by these more general expressions. The physical status of various expressions and approximations is re-considered and specified more clearly, including an analysis of which reasonably can be attained in lasers or masers. A general analytical proof is given that for larger detuning of the laser cavity from resonance a higher value of the laser excitation is required to destabilize the steady state solution (the second threshold). We also present results for the minimum value of the second threshold at fixed detuning as a function of the other parameters of the system and on the dependence of the ratio of the second threshold to the first threshold as a function of detuning. Minima of the second threshold and of the threshold ratio occur only if the population relaxation rate is equal to zero. The minima of the threshold ratio are shown to be bounded from above as well as from below (as functions of the relaxation rates, so long as the second threshold exists). The upper bound on the threshold ratio is equal to 17. The variation of the second threshold in the semi-infinite parameter space of the decay rates is shown at various detunings in plots with a finite domain by normalizing the material relaxation rates to the cavity decay rate. (author). 53 refs, 22 figs, 3 tabs

  19. Time resolved laser induced fluorescence on argon intermediate pressure microwave discharges: Measuring the depopulation rates of the 4p and 5p excited levels as induced by electron and atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares, J.M., E-mail: j.m.palomares-linares@tue.nl; Graef, W.A.A.D.; Hübner, S.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der, E-mail: jjamvandermullen@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    The reaction kinetics in the excitation space of Ar is explored by means of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) experiments using the combination of high rep-rate YAG–Dye laser systems with a well defined and easily controllable surfatron induced plasma setup. The high rep-rate favors the photon statistics while the low energy per pulse avoids intrusive plasma laser interactions. An analysis shows that, despite the low energy per pulse, saturation can still be achieved even when the geometrical overlap and spectral overlap are optimal. Out of the various studies that can be performed with this setup we confine the current paper to the study of the direct responses to the laser pump action of three 4p and one 5p levels of the Ar system. By changing the plasma in a controlled way one gets for these levels the rates of electron and atom quenching and therewith the total destruction rates of electron and atom collisions. Comparison with literature shows that the classical hard sphere collision rate derived for hydrogen gives a good description for the observed electron quenching (e-quenching) in Ar whereas for heavy particle quenching (a-quenching) this agreement was only found for the 5p level. An important parameter in the study of electron excitation kinetics is the location of the boundary in the atomic system for which the number of electron collisions per radiative life time equals unity. It is observed that for the Ar system this boundary is positioned lower than what is expected on grounds of H-like formulas. - Highlights: • Time resolved laser induced fluorescence at high repetition rate • Decay times as function of pressure, electron density and temperature • Measurement of total electron atom depopulation rates • Reasonable agreement of electron total rates with hard sphere approximations.

  20. The influence of various cooling rates during laser alloying on nodular iron surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowska, Marta; Makuch, Natalia; Kulka, Michał

    2018-06-01

    The results of research referring to modification of the nodular iron surface layer by laser alloying with cobalt were presented. The aim of this study was to analyze the possibilities of cobalt implementation into the surface layer of nodular iron in various laser heat treatment conditions (by generating different cooling rates of melted surface layer). The modified surface layer of nodular iron was analyzed with OM, SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS and Vickers microhardness tester. The modified surface layer of nodular iron after laser alloying consisted of: the alloyed zone (melted with cobalt), the transition zone and the hardened zone from solid state. The alloyed zone was characterized by higher microstructure homogeneity - in contrast to the transition and the hardened zones. All the alloyed zones contained a dendritic microstructure. Dendrites consisted of martensite needles and retained austenite. Cementite was also detected. It was stated, that due to similar dimension of iron and cobalt atoms, their mutual replacement in the crystal lattice could occur. Thus, formation of phases based on α solution: Co-Fe (44-1433) could not be excluded. Although cobalt should be mostly diluted in solid solutions (because of its content in the alloyed zone), the other newly formed phases as Co (ε-hex.), FeC and cobalt carbides: Co3C, CoC0.25 could be present in the alloyed zones as a result of unique microstructure creation during laser treatment. Pearlite grains were observed in the zone, formed using lower power density of the laser beam and its longer exposition time. Simply, such conditions resulted in the cooling rate which was lower than critical cooling rate. The alloyed zones, produced at a higher cooling rate, were characterized by better microstructure homogeneity. Dendrites were finer in this case. This could result from a greater amount of crystal nuclei appearing at higher cooling rate. Simultaneously, the increased amount of γ-Fe and Fe3C precipitates was expected in

  1. Efficacy of single versus three sessions of high rate repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in chronic migraine and tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jayantee; Laskar, Sanghamitra; Bhoi, Sanjeev Kumar; Misra, Usha Kant

    2016-11-01

    We report the efficacy of three versus single session of 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in chronic migraine (CM) and chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Ninety-eight patients with CM or CTTH were included and their headache frequency, severity, functional disability and number of abortive medications were noted. Fifty-two patients were randomly assigned to group I (three true sessions) and 46 to group II (one true and two sham rTMS sessions) treatment. 10 Hz rTMS comprising 600 pulses was delivered in 412.4 s on the left frontal cortex. Outcomes were noted at 1, 2 and 3 months. The primary outcome was 50 % reduction in headache frequency, and secondary outcomes were improvement in severity, functional disability, abortive drugs and side effects. The baseline headache characteristics were similar between the two groups. Follow up at different time points revealed significant improvement in headache frequency, severity, functional disability and number of abortive drugs compared to baseline in both group I and group II patients, although these parameters were not different between the two groups. In group I, 31 (79.4 %) had reduction of headache frequency and 29 (74.4 %) converted to episodic headache. In group II, these were 24 (64.8 %) and 22 (59.2 %), respectively. In chronic migraine, the severity of headache at 2 months reduced in group I compared to group II (62.5 vs 35.3 %; P = 0.01). Both single and three sessions of 10 Hz rTMS were found to be equally effective in CM and CTTH, and resulted in conversion of chronic to episodic headache in 67.1 % patients.

  2. Laser acceleration... now with added fibre

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Laser acceleration technology is plagued by two main issues: efficiency and repetition rates. In other words, lasers consume too much power and cannot sustain accelerating particles long enough to produce collisions. ICAN, a new EU-funded project, is examining how fibre lasers may help physicists tackle these issues.   A diode-pumped fibre laser. (Image courtesy of Laser Zentrum Hannover.) The International Coherent Amplification Network (ICAN) is studying the potential of lasers for collision physics. CERN is a beneficiary of the project and will collaborate with 15 other institutes from around the world, including KEK in Japan, Fermilab in the USA, and DESY in Germany. “The network is looking into existing fibre laser technology, which we believe has fantastic potential for accelerators,” says Gerard Mourou, ICAN co-ordinator at the École Polytechnique in France. “The hope is to make laser acceleration competitive with traditional radio-fre...

  3. Evaluation of repetitive-PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS for rapid strain typing of Bacillus coagulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Sato

    Full Text Available In order to establish rapid and accurate typing method for Bacillus coagulans strains which is important for controlling in some canned foods and tea-based beverages manufacturing because of the high-heat resistance of the spores and high tolerance of the vegetative cells to catechins and chemicals, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and repetitive-PCR (rep-PCR were evaluated. For this purpose, 28 strains of B. coagulans obtained from various culture collections were tested. DNA sequence analyses of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase classified the test strains into two and three groups, respectively, regardless of their phenotypes. Both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods classified the test strains in great detail. Strains classified in each group showed similar phenotypes, such as carbohydrate utilization determined using API 50CH. In particular, the respective two pairs of strains which showed the same metabolic characteristic were classified into the same group by both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods separating from the other strains. On the other hand, the other strains which have the different profiles of carbohydrate utilization were separated into different groups by these methods. These results suggested that the combination of MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR analyses was advantageous for the rapid and detailed typing of bacterial strains in respect to both phenotype and genotype.

  4. Evaluation of repetitive-PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid strain typing of Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun; Nakayama, Motokazu; Tomita, Ayumi; Sonoda, Takumi; Hasumi, Motomitsu; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    In order to establish rapid and accurate typing method for Bacillus coagulans strains which is important for controlling in some canned foods and tea-based beverages manufacturing because of the high-heat resistance of the spores and high tolerance of the vegetative cells to catechins and chemicals, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and repetitive-PCR (rep-PCR) were evaluated. For this purpose, 28 strains of B. coagulans obtained from various culture collections were tested. DNA sequence analyses of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase classified the test strains into two and three groups, respectively, regardless of their phenotypes. Both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods classified the test strains in great detail. Strains classified in each group showed similar phenotypes, such as carbohydrate utilization determined using API 50CH. In particular, the respective two pairs of strains which showed the same metabolic characteristic were classified into the same group by both MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR methods separating from the other strains. On the other hand, the other strains which have the different profiles of carbohydrate utilization were separated into different groups by these methods. These results suggested that the combination of MALDI-TOF MS and rep-PCR analyses was advantageous for the rapid and detailed typing of bacterial strains in respect to both phenotype and genotype.

  5. Measurement of the electron quenching rate in an electron beam pumped KrF* laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Hajime; Kurashima, Toshio; Kuranishi, Hideaki; Ueda, Kenichi; Takuma, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Akira; Kasuya, Koichi.

    1988-01-01

    The electron quenching rate of KrF * in an electron beam pumped laser has been studied by accurately measuring the saturation intensity in a mixture of Ar/Kr/F 2 = 94/6/0.284. The input intensity of the measurements was widely varied from 100 W cm -2 (small signal region) to 100 MW cm -2 (absorption dominant region) in order to separate laser parameters which are small signal gain coefficient, absorption coefficient, and saturation intensity from the measured net gain coefficients. The gas pressure and the pump rate were varied in the range of 0.5 to 2.5 atm and 0.3 to 1.4 MW cm -3 , respectively. The electron quenching rate constant of 4.5 x 10 -7 cm 3 s -1 was obtained from the pressure and the pump rate dependence of the KrF * saturation intensity with the temperature dependence of the rate gas 3-body quenching rate as a function of gas temperature to the -3rd power. The small signal gain coefficients calculated with the determined quenching rate constants shows excellent agreement with the measurements. (author)

  6. Measurement of the electron quenching rate in an electron beam pumped KrF/sup */ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Hajime; Kurashima, Toshio; Kuranishi, Hideaki; Ueda, Kenichi; Takuma, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Akira; Kasuya, Koichi.

    1988-09-01

    The electron quenching rate of KrF/sup */ in an electron beam pumped laser has been studied by accurately measuring the saturation intensity in a mixture of Ar/Kr/F/sub 2/ = 94/6/0.284. The input intensity of the measurements was widely varied from 100 W cm/sup -2/ (small signal region) to 100 MW cm/sup -2/ (absorption dominant region) in order to separate laser parameters which are small signal gain coefficient, absorption coefficient, and saturation intensity from the measured net gain coefficients. The gas pressure and the pump rate were varied in the range of 0.5 to 2.5 atm and 0.3 to 1.4 MW cm/sup -3/, respectively. The electron quenching rate constant of 4.5 x 10/sup -7/ cm/sup 3/s/sup -1/ was obtained from the pressure and the pump rate dependence of the KrF/sup */ saturation intensity with the temperature dependence of the rate gas 3-body quenching rate as a function of gas temperature to the -3rd power. The small signal gain coefficients calculated with the determined quenching rate constants shows excellent agreement with the measurements.

  7. Improved model for the angular dependence of excimer laser ablation rates in polymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedder, J. E. A.; Holmes, A. S.; Dyer, P. E.

    2009-10-01

    Measurements of the angle-dependent ablation rates of polymers that have applications in microdevice fabrication are reported. A simple model based on Beer's law, including plume absorption, is shown to give good agreement with the experimental findings for polycarbonate and SU8, ablated using the 193 and 248 nm excimer lasers, respectively. The modeling forms a useful tool for designing masks needed to fabricate complex surface relief by ablation.

  8. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F.J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M.A.; Laserna, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2–8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%. - Highlights: • Aerosol generation by optical catapulting has been successfully optimized. • We study the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. • We use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. • Effects of temporal conditions and laser fluence on the elevation of the aerosol cloud have been investigated. • The observed LIBS sampling rate increased from 50% reported before to approximately 90%

  9. Laser sources for polarized electron beams in cw and pulsed accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziefremidis, A; Fraser, D; Avramopoulos, H

    1999-01-01

    We report the characterization of a high power, high repetition rate, mode-locked laser system to be used in continuous wave and pulsed electron accelerators for the generation of polarized electron beams. The system comprises of an external cavity diode laser and a harmonically mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator and it can provide up to 3.4 W average power, with a corresponding pulse energy exceeding 1 nJ at 2856 MHz repetition rate. The system is tunable between 770-785 and 815-835 nm with two sets of diodes for the external cavity diode laser. (author)

  10. Acoustic waves in transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser discharges: effect on performance and reduction techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    von Bergmann, HM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the influence of acoustic waves on the performance of high-repetition-rate TEA CO2 lasers. It is shown that acoustic waves generated inside the laser cavity lead to nonuniform discharges, resulting in a deterioration...

  11. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  12. Laser assisted removal of fixed contamination from metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Prakash, Tej; Shail, Shailini; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.; Mohd Afzal; Kumar, Arun; Biswas, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    A single mode pulsed fiber laser was used to remove fixed contamination from stainless steel substrate by ablation. Samples were simulated by electro-deposition technique with 232 U as the test contaminant. Laser power, repetition rate, laser beam scanning speed and number of passes were optimised to obtain the desired ablation depth in the substrate. Ablation depth varying between few microns to few hundreds of microns could be achieved through careful control of these processing parameters. The absence of any activity in laser treated samples provided experimental signature of the efficacy of the laser assisted removal of fixed contamination. (author)

  13. KrF laser development for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolford, Matthew F.; Sethian, John D.; Myers, Matthew C.; Giuliani, John L.; Obenschain, Stephen P.; Hegeler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The United States Naval Research Laboratory is developing an electron beam pumped krypton fluoride laser technology for a direct drive inertial fusion energy power plant. The repetitively pulsed krypton fluoride laser technology being developed meets the fusion energy requirements for laser beam quality, wavelength, and repetition rate. The krypton fluoride laser technology is projected, based on experiments, to meet the requirements for wall plug efficiency and durability. The projected wall plug efficiency based on experiments is greater than 7 percent. The Electra laser using laser triggered gas switches has conducted continuous operation for 90,000 shots at 2.5 Hertz operation (ten hours). The Electra laser has achieved greater than 700 Joules per pulse at 1 and 2.5 Hertz repetition rate. The comparison of krypton fluoride laser performance with krypton fluoride kinetics code shows good agreement for pulse shape and laser yield. Development and operation of a durable pulse power system with solid state switches has achieved a continuous run of 11 million pulses into a resistive load at 10 Hz. (author)

  14. Nd:YAG Laser Firmware Design under RTOS Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. G.; Kim, W. Y.; Park, G. R.; Moon, D. S.; Hong, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. S. [Pusan National University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    A pulsed Nd:YAG laser is used widely for materials processing and medical instrument. It's very important to control the laser energy density in those fields using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A pulse repetition rate and a pulse width are regarded as the most dominant factors to control the energy density of laser beam. In this paper, the alternating charge and discharge system was designed to adjust a pulse repetition rate. This system is controlled by microprocessor and allows to replace an expensive condenser for high frequency to cheap one of low frequency. In addition, The microcontroller monitors the flow of cooling water, short circuit, and miss firing and so on. We designed Nd:YAG laser firmware with smart microcontroller, and want to explain general matters about the firmware from now. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs.

  15. High-speed scanning ablation of dental hard tissues with a λ = 9.3 μm CO2 laser: adhesion, mechanical strength, heat accumulation, and peripheral thermal damage

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Daniel; Chang, Kwang; Hedayatollahnajafi, Saba; Staninec, Michal; Chan, Kenneth; Lee, Robert; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    CO2 lasers can be operated at high laser pulse repetition rates for the rapid and precise removal of dental decay. Excessive heat accumulation and peripheral thermal damage is a concern when using high pulse repetition rates. Peripheral thermal damage can adversely impact the mechanical strength of the irradiated tissue, particularly for dentin, and reduce the adhesion characteristics of the modified surfaces. The interpulpal temperature rise was recorded using microthermocouples situated at ...

  16. Highly Controlled Codeposition Rate of Organolead Halide Perovskite by Laser Evaporation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Sugita, Takeshi; Tampo, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Koji; Chikamatsu, Masayuki

    2016-10-05

    Organolead-halide perovskites can be promising materials for next-generation solar cells because of its high power conversion efficiency. The method of precise fabrication is required because both solution-process and vacuum-process fabrication of the perovskite have problems of controllability and reproducibility. Vacuum deposition process was expected to achieve precise control; however, vaporization of amine compound significantly degrades the controllability of deposition rate. Here we achieved the reduction of the vaporization by implementing the laser evaporation system for the codeposition of perovskite. Locally irradiated continuous-wave lasers on the source materials realized the reduced vaporization of CH 3 NH 3 I. The deposition rate was stabilized for several hours by adjusting the duty ratio of modulated laser based on proportional-integral control. Organic-photovoltaic-type perovskite solar cells were fabricated by codeposition of PbI 2 and CH 3 NH 3 I. A power-conversion efficiency of 16.0% with reduced hysteresis was achieved.

  17. Harmonic mode-locking using the double interval technique in quantum dot lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chiragh, Furqan L; Xin, Yong-Chun; Lin, Chang-Yi; Kim, Junghoon; Christodoulou, Christos G; Lester, Luke F

    2010-07-05

    Passive harmonic mode-locking in a quantum dot laser is realized using the double interval technique, which uses two separate absorbers to stimulate a specific higher-order repetition rate compared to the fundamental. Operating alone these absorbers would otherwise reinforce lower harmonic frequencies, but by operating together they produce the harmonic corresponding to their least common multiple. Mode-locking at a nominal 60 GHz repetition rate, which is the 10(th) harmonic of the fundamental frequency of the device, is achieved unambiguously despite the constraint of a uniformly-segmented, multi-section device layout. The diversity of repetition rates available with this method is also discussed.

  18. Repetitive Questioning II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  19. Rate equation analysis and non-Hermiticity in coupled semiconductor laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zihe; Johnson, Matthew T.; Choquette, Kent D.

    2018-05-01

    Optically coupled semiconductor laser arrays are described by coupled rate equations. The coupled mode equations and carrier densities are included in the analysis, which inherently incorporate the carrier-induced nonlinearities including gain saturation and amplitude-phase coupling. We solve the steady-state coupled rate equations and consider the cavity frequency detuning and the individual laser pump rates as the experimentally controlled variables. We show that the carrier-induced nonlinearities play a critical role in the mode control, and we identify gain contrast induced by cavity frequency detuning as a unique mechanism for mode control. Photon-mediated energy transfer between cavities is also discussed. Parity-time symmetry and exceptional points in this system are studied. Unbroken parity-time symmetry can be achieved by judiciously combining cavity detuning and unequal pump rates, while broken symmetry lies on the boundary of the optical locking region. Exceptional points are identified at the intersection between broken symmetry and unbroken parity-time symmetry.

  20. Typing of Ochrobactrum anthropi clinical isolates using automated repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction DNA fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino, Angela; Pulcrano, Giovanna; Rametti, Linda; Puccio, Rossana; Marascio, Nadia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Matera, Giovanni; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2014-03-22

    Ochrobactrum anthropi (O. anthropi), is a non-fermenting gram-negative bacillus usually found in the environment. Nevertheless, during the past decade it has been identified as pathogenic to immunocompromised patients. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of the automated repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR-based DiversiLab™ system, bioMèrieux, France) and of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF MS) for typing of twentythree O. anthropi clinical isolates that we found over a four-months period (from April 2011 to August 2011) in bacteriemic patients admitted in the same operative unit of our hospital. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), commonly accepted as the gold standard technique for typing, was also used. Analysis was carried out using the Pearson correlation coefficient to determine the distance matrice and the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) to generate dendogram. Rep-PCR analysis identified four different patterns: three that clustered together with 97% or more pattern similarity, and one whose members showed < 95% pattern similarity. Interestingly, strains isolated later (from 11/06/2011 to 24/08/2011) displayed a pattern with 99% similarity. MALDI-TOF MS evaluation clustered the twentythree strains of O. anthropi into a single group containing four distinct subgroups, each comprising the majority of strains clustering below 5 distance levels, indicating a high similarity between the isolates. Our results indicate that these isolates are clonally-related and the methods used afforded a valuable contribution to the epidemiology, prevention and control of the infections caused by this pathogen.

  1. High-frequency strontium vapor laser for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvorostovsky, A.; Kolmakov, E.; Kudashev, I.; Redka, D.; Kancer, A.; Kustikova, M.; Bykovskaya, E.; Mayurova, A.; Stupnikov, A.; Ruzankina, J.; Tsvetkov, K.; Lukyanov, N.; Paklinov, N.

    2018-02-01

    Sr-laser with high pulse repetition rate and high peak radiation power is a unique tool for studying rapidly occurring processes in time (plasma diagnostics, photoablation, etc.). In addition, the study of the frequency characteristics of the active medium of the laser helps to reveal the physics of the formation of an inverse medium in metal vapor lasers. In this paper, an experimental study of an Sr-laser with an active volume of 5.8 cm3 in the pulse repetition frequency range from 25 to 200 kHz is carried out, and a comparison with the frequency characteristics of media with large active volumes is given. We considered the frequency characteristics of the active medium in two modes: at a constant energy in the excitation pulse CU2 / 2 and at a constant average power consumed by the rectifier. In the presented work with a small-volume GRT using the TASITR-5/12 TASITRON switch, a laser was generated for Pairs of strontium at a CSF of 200 kHz. The behavior of the characteristics of the generation lines of 6.456 μm, 1 μm, and 3 μm at increased repetition frequencies is considered. Using the example of large-volume GRT, it is shown that tubes with a large active volume increase their energy characteristics with the growth of the CSF. The possibility of laser operation at pulse repetition rates above 200 kHz is shown.

  2. High-rate reactive magnetron sputtering of zirconia films for laser optics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juskevicius, K.; Subacius, A.; Drazdys, R.; Juskenas, R.; Audronis, M.; Matthews, A.; Leyland, A.

    2014-01-01

    ZrO 2 exhibits low optical absorption in the near-UV range and is one of the highest laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) materials; it is, therefore, very attractive for laser optics applications. This paper reports explorations of reactive sputtering technology for deposition of ZrO 2 films with low extinction coefficient k values in the UV spectrum region at low substrate temperature. A high deposition rate (64 % of the pure metal rate) process is obtained by employing active feedback reactive gas control which creates a stable and repeatable deposition processes in the transition region. Substrate heating at 200 C was found to have no significant effect on the optical ZrO 2 film properties. The addition of nitrogen to a closed-loop controlled process was found to have mostly negative effects in terms of deposition rate and optical properties. Open-loop O 2 gas-regulated ZrO 2 film deposition is slow and requires elevated (200 C) substrate temperature or post-deposition annealing to reduce absorption losses. Refractive indices of the films were distributed in the range n = 2.05-2.20 at 1,000 nm and extinction coefficients were in the range k = 0.6 x 10 -4 and 4.8 x 10 -3 at 350 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed crystalline ZrO 2 films consisted of monoclinic + tetragonal phases when produced in Ar/O 2 atmosphere and monoclinic + rhombohedral or a single rhombohedral phase when produced in Ar/O 2 + N 2 . Optical and physical properties of the ZrO 2 layers produced in this study are suitable for high-power laser applications in the near-UV range. (orig.)

  3. Inter fraction variations in rectum and bladder volumes and dose distributions during high dose rate brachytherapy treatment of the uterine cervix investigated by repetitive CT-examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Dale, Einar; Skjoensberg, Ane; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate variation of dose to organs at risk for patients receiving fractionated high dose rate gynaecological brachytherapy by using CT-based 3D treatment planning and dose-volume histograms (DVH). Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with cancer of the uterine cervix underwent three to six CT examinations (mean 4.9) during their course of high-dose-rate brachytherapy using radiographically compatible applicators. The rectal and bladder walls were delineated and DVHs were calculated. Results: Inter fraction variation of the bladder volume (CV mean =44.1%) was significantly larger than the inter fraction variation of the mean dose (CV mean =19.9%, P=0.005) and the maximum dose (CV mean =17.5%, P=0.003) of the bladder wall. The same trend was seen for rectum, although the figures were not significantly different. Performing CT examinations at four of seven brachytherapy fractions reduced the uncertainty to 4 and 7% for the bladder and rectal doses, respectively. A linear regression analysis showed a significant, negative relationship between time after treatment start and the whole bladder volume (P=0.018), whereas no correlation was found for the rectum. For both rectum and bladder a linear regression analysis revealed a significant, negative relationship between the whole volume and median dose (P<0.05). Conclusion: Preferably a CT examination should be provided at every fraction. However, this is logistically unfeasible in most institutions. To obtain reliable DVHs the patients will in the future undergo 3-4 CT examinations during the course of brachytherapy at our institution. Since this study showed an association between large bladder volumes and dose reductions, the patients will be treated with a standardized bladder volume

  4. Long- and short-lived electrons with anomalously high collision rates in laser-ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampfrath, Tobias; Perfetti, Luca; Tegeder, Petra; Wolf, Martin; Frischkorn, Christian; Gericke, Dirk O.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrashort broadband terahertz pulses are applied to probe the electron dynamics of gaseous Ar and O 2 following ionization by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. The conductivity in the plasma center is extracted by a modified Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approach. It exhibits a nearly perfect Drude-like spectral shape and yields the temporal evolution of the free-electron density and collision rate. While the electron density in the Ar plasma remains nearly constant during the first 200 ps after generation, it decays much faster in O 2 due to dissociative recombination which is only possible in molecular plasmas. Adding a small amount of the electron scavenger SF 6 to Ar reduces the electron lifetime in the plasma dramatically and allows us to determine the electron temperature to about 20 000 K. Furthermore, anomalously high, metal-like electron collision rates of up to 25 THz are found. Kinetic plasma theory substantially underestimates these rates pointing towards additional and more complex processes randomizing the total electronic momentum. Our results are relevant to both lightning control and generation of terahertz radiation by intense laser pulses in gases

  5. Initial Demonstration of 9-MHz Framing Camera Rates on the FAST UV Drive Laser Pulse Trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Edstrom Jr., D. [Fermilab; Ruan, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-09

    We report the configuration of a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera as a framing camera to record transverse spatial information of green-component laser micropulses at 3- and 9-MHz rates for the first time. The latter is near the time scale of the ~7.5-MHz revolution frequency of the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) ring and its expected synchroton radiation source temporal structure. The 2-D images are recorded with a Gig-E readout CCD camera. We also report a first proof of principle with an OTR source using the linac streak camera in a semi-framing mode.

  6. Repetitive pulse accelerator technology for light ion inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttram, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Successful ignition of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pellet is calculated to require that several megajoules of energy be deposited in the pellet's centimeter-sized shell within 10 ns. This implies a driver power of several hundreds of terawatts and power density around 100 TW/cm 2 . The Sandia ICF approach is to deposit the energy with beams of 30 MV lithium ions. The first accelerator capable of producing these beams (PBFA II, 100 TW) will be used to study beam formation and target physics on a single pulse basis. To utilize this technology for power production, repetitive pulsing at rates that may be as high as 10 Hz will be required. This paper will overview the technologies being studied for a repetitively pulsed ICF accelerator. As presently conceived, power is supplied by rotating machinery providing 16 MJ in 1 ms. The generator output is transformed to 3 MV, then switched into a pulse compression system using laser triggered spark gaps. These must be synchronized to about 1 ns. Pulse compression is performed with saturable inductor switches, the output being 40 ns, 1.5 MV pulses. These are transformed to 30 MV in a self-magnetically insulated cavity adder structure. Space charge limited ion beams are drawn from anode plasmas with electron counter streaming being magnetically inhibited. The ions are ballistically focused into the entrances of guiding discharge channels for transport to the pellet. The status of component development from the prime power to the ion source will be reviewed

  7. Multi-purpose two- and three-dimensional momentum imaging of charged particles for attosecond experiments at 1 kHz repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Månsson, Erik P., E-mail: erik.mansson@sljus.lu.se; Sorensen, Stacey L.; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Arnold, Cord L.; Kroon, David; Guénot, Diego; Fordell, Thomas; Johnsson, Per; L’Huillier, Anne [Division of Atomic Physics, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Lépine, Franck [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306, Université Lyon 1-CNRS, 10 rue Ada Byron, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the versatile design and operation of a two-sided spectrometer for the imaging of charged-particle momenta in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D). The benefits of 3D detection are to discern particles of different mass and to study correlations between fragments from multi-ionization processes, while 2D detectors are more efficient for single-ionization applications. Combining these detector types in one instrument allows us to detect positive and negative particles simultaneously and to reduce acquisition times by using the 2D detector at a higher ionization rate when the third dimension is not required. The combined access to electronic and nuclear dynamics available when both sides are used together is important for studying photoreactions in samples of increasing complexity. The possibilities and limitations of 3D momentum imaging of electrons or ions in the same spectrometer geometry are investigated analytically and three different modes of operation demonstrated experimentally, with infrared or extreme ultraviolet light and an atomic/molecular beam.

  8. Dichromatic and monochromatic laser radiation effects on antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and division rate of Pantoea agglomerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, A. M. C.; Souza, B. P.; Mendes, J. P. M.; Cardoso, A. F. R.; Soares, L. C.; Trajano, E. T. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    Since infection is a common cause of delayed wound healing, it is important to understand the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in bacterial mechanisms. In this study we evaluated the effects of LLLT on antibiotic resistance, division rate, and biofilm formation of Pantoea agglomerans. P. agglomerans samples were isolated from human pressure injuries in humans and cultures were exposed to low-level monochromatic and simultaneous dichromatic laser radiation to study the susceptibility of an antimicrobial to ampicillin and piperacillin  +  tazobactam, quantification of areas of bacterial colonies, and biofilm formation of bacterial cells. Fluence, wavelength, and emission mode were used in the therapeutic protocols for wound healing. The data showed no changes in the areas of the colonies, but dichromatic laser radiation decreased biofilm formation, while a monochromatic red laser at low dose increased biofilm formation and infrared at high dose decreased antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. LLLT modulates antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of P. agglomerans, but these depend on the laser irradiation parameters, since dichromatic laser radiation induces biological effects that differ from those induced by monochromatic laser radiation. Thus, simultaneous dichromatic low-level red and infrared lasers could be a new option for the treatment of infected wounds, reducing biofilm formation, without altering antibiotic resistance and the division rate of P. agglomerans cultures.

  9. Micron-scale copper wires printed using femtosecond laser-induced forward transfer with automated donor replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant-Jacob, J.A.; Mills, B.; Feinaeugle, M.; Sones, C.L.; Oosterhuis, G.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.B.; Eason, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) in combination with a novel donor replenishment scheme to print continuous copper wires. Wires of mm length, a few microns wide and submicron in height have been printed using a 800 nm, 1 kHz repetition rate, 150 fs pulsed laser. A 120

  10. Laser program annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.; Strack, J.R.

    1980-03-01

    Volume 3 comprises three sections, beginning with Section 7 on advanced quantum electronics. Both theoretical and experimental research and development activities on advanced laser concepts in the quest for high efficiency and high repetition rate are presented. Section 8 contains the results of studies by the Energy and Military Applications group. Section 9 presents results from some of the activities of the advanced isotope separation program

  11. Laser program annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, L.W.; Strack, J.R. (eds.)

    1980-03-01

    Volume 3 comprises three sections, beginning with Section 7 on advanced quantum electronics. Both theoretical and experimental research and development activities on advanced laser concepts in the quest for high efficiency and high repetition rate are presented. Section 8 contains the results of studies by the Energy and Military Applications group. Section 9 presents results from some of the activities of the advanced isotope separation program. (MOW)

  12. Repetition or Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst

    , the cognitive quality of knowledge held by individual professionals is the key microfoundation for project level performance. This paper empirically tests effects of project participants with and without knowledge diversity for project level performance for projects aiming for varying degrees of repetition...... and reconfiguration. The results indicate that project performance benefits form contributions from individuals holding diverse knowledge only when projects aim for high differentiation levels. This positive association is not just moderated, it may even be reversed in the case of professionals participating in low...

  13. MIMICRY, DIFFERENCE AND REPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Mendes de Souza

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Homi K. Bhabha’s concept of mimicry in a broader context, other than that of cultural studies and post-colonial studies, bringing together other concepts, such as that of Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition, among other texts, and other names, such as Silviano Santiago, Jorge Luís Borges, Franz Kafka and Giorgio Agamben. As a partial conclusion, the article intends to oppose Bhabha’s freudian-marxist view to Five propositions on Psychoanalysis (1973, Gilles Deleuze’s text about Psychoanalysis published right after his book The Anti-Oedipus.

  14. Laser-electron Compton interaction in plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Hirose, T.

    1998-10-01

    A concept of high intensity femtosecond laser synchrotron source (LSS) is based on Compton backscattering of focused electron and laser beams. The short Rayleigh length of the focused laser beam limits the length of interaction to a few picoseconds. However, the technology of the high repetition rate high-average power picosecond lasers required for high put through LSS applications is not developed yet. Another problem associated with the picosecond laser pulses is undesirable nonlinear effects occurring when the laser photons are concentrated in a short time interval. To avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering, the laser beam has to be split, and the required hard radiation flux is accumulated over a number of consecutive interactions that complicates the LSS design. In order to relieve the technological constraints and achieve a practically feasible high-power laser synchrotron source, the authors propose to confine the laser-electron interaction region in the extended plasma channel. This approach permits to use nanosecond laser pulses instead of the picosecond pulses. That helps to avoid the nonlinear Compton scattering regime and allows to utilize already existing technology of the high-repetition rate TEA CO 2 lasers operating at the atmospheric pressure. They demonstrate the advantages of the channeled LSS approach by the example of the prospective polarized positron source for Japan Linear Collider

  15. Effect of Laser Power and Gas Flow Rate on Properties of Directed Energy Deposition of Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.

    2018-03-01

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) process belongs to the directed energy deposition class of additive manufacturing processes. It is an important manufacturing technology with lots of potentials especially for the automobile and aerospace industries. The laser metal deposition process is fairly new, and the process is very sensitive to the processing parameters. There is a high level of interactions among these process parameters. The surface finish of part produced using the laser metal deposition process is dependent on the processing parameters. Also, the economy of the LMD process depends largely on steps taken to eliminate or reduce the need for secondary finishing operations. In this study, the influence of laser power and gas flow rate on the microstructure, microhardness and surface finish produced during the laser metal deposition of Ti6Al4V was investigated. The laser power was varied between 1.8 kW and 3.0 kW, while the gas flow rate was varied between 2 l/min and 4 l/min. The microstructure was studied under an optical microscope, the microhardness was studied using a Metkon microhardness indenter, while the surface roughness was studied using a Jenoptik stylus surface analyzer. The results showed that better surface finish was produced at a laser power of 3.0 kW and a gas flow rate of 4 l/min.

  16. Universal data compression and repetition times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Frans M J

    1989-01-01

    A new universal data compression algorithm is described. This algorithm encodes L source symbols at a time. For the class of binary stationary sources, its rate does not exceed [formula omitted] [formula omitted] bits per source symbol. In our analysis, a property of repetition times turns out to be

  17. Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity of Micro-struts Manufactured Using the Selective Laser Melting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümrük, Recep; Mines, R. A. W.; Karadeniz, Sami

    2018-03-01

    Micro-lattice structures manufactured using the selective laser melting (SLM) process provides the opportunity to realize optimal cellular materials for impact energy absorption. In this paper, strain rate-dependent material properties are measured for stainless steel 316L SLM micro-lattice struts in the strain rate range of 10-3 to 6000 s-1. At high strain rates, a novel version of the split Hopkinson Bar has been developed. Strain rate-dependent materials data have been used in Cowper-Symonds material model, and the scope and limit of this model in the context of SLM struts have been discussed. Strain rate material data and the Cowper-Symonds model have been applied to the finite element analysis of a micro-lattice block subjected to drop weight impact loading. The model output has been compared to experimental results, and it has been shown that the increase in crush stress due to impact loading is mainly the result of strain rate material behavior. Hence, a systematic methodology has been developed to investigate the impact energy absorption of a micro-lattice structure manufactured using additive layer manufacture (SLM). This methodology can be extended to other micro-lattice materials and configurations, and to other impact conditions.

  18. Comparing the intraoperative complication rate of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery to traditional phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the complication rate of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS and traditional phacoemulsification for the first 18mo of FLACS use at a private surgical center in Hawaii. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted from January 2012 to June 2013. The first 273 consecutive eyes receiving FLACS and 553 eyes receiving traditional phacoemulsification were examined. All surgeries were performed at a single surgical center in Hawaii. The presence of intraoperative complications was used as the main outcome measure. Approval was obtained from the institutional review board of the University of Hawaii. RESULTS: The overall complication rate for FLACS was 1.8%, while that of the traditional procedure was 5.8% (PCONCLUSION: FLACS is comparable in safety, if not safer, than traditional cataract surgery when performed by qualified cataract surgeons on carefully selected patients.

  19. Elementary reaction rate measurements at high temperatures by tunable-laser flash-absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, J.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The major objective of this program is to measure thermal rate coefficients and branching ratios of elementary reactions. To perform these measurements, the authors constructed an ultrahigh-purity shock tube to generate temperatures between 1000 and 5500 K. The tunable-laser flash-absorption technique is used to measure the rate of change of the concentration of species which absorb below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1} e.g.: OH, CH, and CH{sub 3}. This technique is being extended into the vacuum-ultraviolet spectral region where one can measure atomic species e.g.: H, D, C, O, and N; and diatomic species e.g.: O{sub 2}, CO, and OH.

  20. Precise femtosecond laser ablation of dental hard tissue: preliminary investigation on adequate laser parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikov, Todor; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Todor; Montgomery, Paul; Antoni, Frederic; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    This work aims at evaluating the possibility of introducing state-of-the-art commercial femtosecond laser system in restorative dentistry by maintaining well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also in overcoming disadvantages such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. Femtosecond ablation of dental hard tissue is investigated by changing the irradiation parameters (pulsed laser energy, scanning speed and pulse repetition rate), assessed for enamel and dentin. The femtosecond laser system used in this work may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, due to the expected effective ablation and low temperature increase when using ultra short laser pulses. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this system seems to be promising for promoting a laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach in restorative dentistry. (paper)

  1. Effect of laser parameters on surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau Sheng, Annie; Ismail, Izwan; Nur Aqida, Syarifah

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the effects of laser parameters on the surface roughness of laser modified tool steel after thermal cyclic loading. Pulse mode Nd:YAG laser was used to perform the laser surface modification process on AISI H13 tool steel samples. Samples were then treated with thermal cyclic loading experiments which involved alternate immersion in molten aluminium (800°C) and water (27°C) for 553 cycles. A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) was developed to perform the investigation. Factors for the DOE are the laser parameter namely overlap rate (η), pulse repetition frequency (f PRF) and peak power (Ppeak ) while the response is the surface roughness after thermal cyclic loading. Results indicate the surface roughness of the laser modified surface after thermal cyclic loading is significantly affected by laser parameter settings.

  2. Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbas, Umit; Schmalz, Michael; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Petrich, Gale S; Kolodziejski, Leslie A; Fujimoto, James G; Kärtner, Franz X; Leitenstorfer, Alfred

    2011-10-10

    We report compact, low-cost and efficient Cr:Colquiriite lasers that are pumped by high brightness tapered laser diodes. The tapered laser diodes provided 1 to 1.2 W of output power around 675 nm, at an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of about 30%. Using a single tapered diode laser as the pump source, we have demonstrated output powers of 500 mW and 410 mW together with slope efficiencies of 47% and 41% from continuous wave (cw) Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers, respectively. In cw mode-locked operation, sub-100-fs pulse trains with average power between 200 mW and 250 mW were obtained at repetition rates around 100 MHz. Upon pumping the Cr:Colquiriite lasers with two tapered laser diodes (one from each side of the crystal), we have observed scaling of cw powers to 850 mW in Cr:LiSAF and to 650 mW in Cr:LiCAF. From the double side pumped Cr:LiCAF laser, we have also obtained ~220 fs long pulses with 5.4 nJ of pulse energy at 77 MHz repetition rate. These are the highest energy levels reported from Cr:Colquiriite so far at these repetition rates. Our findings indicate that tapered diodes in the red spectral region are likely to become the standard pump source for Cr:Colquiriite lasers in the near future. Moreover, the simplified pumping scheme might facilitate efficient commercialization of Cr:Colquiriite systems, bearing the potential to significantly boost applications of cw and femtosecond lasers in this spectral region (750-1000 nm).

  3. Single longitudinal mode operation of a solid-state dye laser oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, G; Kim, H S; Cha, B H; Lee, J M

    2000-01-01

    We have operated a single longitudinal mode of a solid-state dye laser oscillator in a Littman configuration. The host material of the solid-state gain medium was rhodamine dye-doped poly (methyl methacrylate). The pumping source was the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measured linewidth of the laser output was about 1.5 GHz.

  4. Diode-pumped Tm:YAP/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiaqun; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Guodong; Cheng, Ping; Xu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The laser performance based on YVO 4 Raman conversion in a diode-pumped actively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser is demonstrated for the first time. With an incident diode power of 10.9 W and a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz, the average output powers for the first Stokes laser at 2.4 μm is about 270 mW. (paper)

  5. Metal halides vapor lasers with inner reactor and small active volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanov, D. V.; Sukhanov, V. B.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2018-04-01

    Investigation of the energy characteristics of copper, manganese, lead halide vapor lasers with inner reactor and small active volume 90 cm3 was made. The optimal operating pulse repetition rates, temperatures, and buffer gas pressure for gas discharge tubes with internal and external electrodes are determined. Under identical pump conditions, such systems are not inferior in their characteristics to standard metal halide vapor lasers. It is shown that the use of a zeolite halogen generator provides lifetime laser operation.

  6. Electrodeless excimer laser; Laser a eccimeri senza elettrodi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisi, N. [ENEA, Divisione Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper it is proposed how to build an excimer laser based on an electrodeless discharge (or Dielectric Barrier Discharge). Such laser could operate with a low energy per pulse (<100 mJ) and a high repetition rate (<100 kHz). The most relevant advantage an electrodeless DBD laser is the much longer gas mixture lifetime. This feature could allow the operation of a sealed laser emitting higher average power with respect to commercially available excimer lasers. Such discharge scheme could be advantageous in order to excite the F{sub 2} excimer molecule, whose emission wavelength in the VUV range (157 nm) at high reprate is particularly interesting in the micro-lithography field. [Italian] In questo documento viene proposto come costruire un laser a eccimeri basato su una scarica priva di elettrodi, o Dielectric Barrier Discharge. Tale laser puo' funzionare con una bassa energia per impulso (<100 mJ) ad alta frequenza di ripetizione (<100 kHz). Il vantaggio fondamentale di un laser a DBD e quindi privo di elettrodi e' la vita media della miscela gassosa molto piu' alta che potrebbe permettere alla camera laser di operare sigillata ad una potenza media superiore a quella dei laser a eccimeri attuali. Tale schema di pompaggio potrebbe essere particolarmente vantaggioso per eccitare la molecola eccimero F{sub 2} la cui lunghezza di emissione nel VUV (157 nm) ad elevata frequenza di ripetizione presenta un notevole interesse nel campo della produzione di microcircuiti.

  7. Can Low-Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning Data Be Used to Model Stream Rating Curves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. Lyon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study explores the potential of using low-resolution (0.2 points/m2 airborne laser scanning (ALS-derived elevation data to model stream rating curves. Rating curves, which allow the functional translation of stream water depth into discharge, making them integral to water resource monitoring efforts, were modeled using a physics-based approach that captures basic geometric measurements to establish flow resistance due to implicit channel roughness. We tested synthetically thinned high-resolution (more than 2 points/m2 ALS data as a proxy for low-resolution data at a point density equivalent to that obtained within most national-scale ALS strategies. Our results show that the errors incurred due to the effect of low-resolution versus high-resolution ALS data were less than those due to flow measurement and empirical rating curve fitting uncertainties. As such, although there likely are scale and technical limitations to consider, it is theoretically possible to generate rating curves in a river network from ALS data of the resolution anticipated within national-scale ALS schemes (at least for rivers with relatively simple geometries. This is promising, since generating rating curves from ALS scans would greatly enhance our ability to monitor streamflow by simplifying the overall effort required.

  8. Can low-resolution airborne laser scanning data be used to model stream rating curves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Steve; Nathanson, Marcus; Lam, Norris; Dahlke, Helen; Rutzinger, Martin; Kean, Jason W.; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study explores the potential of using low-resolution (0.2 points/m2) airborne laser scanning (ALS)-derived elevation data to model stream rating curves. Rating curves, which allow the functional translation of stream water depth into discharge, making them integral to water resource monitoring efforts, were modeled using a physics-based approach that captures basic geometric measurements to establish flow resistance due to implicit channel roughness. We tested synthetically thinned high-resolution (more than 2 points/m2) ALS data as a proxy for low-resolution data at a point density equivalent to that obtained within most national-scale ALS strategies. Our results show that the errors incurred due to the effect of low-resolution versus high-resolution ALS data were less than those due to flow measurement and empirical rating curve fitting uncertainties. As such, although there likely are scale and technical limitations to consider, it is theoretically possible to generate rating curves in a river network from ALS data of the resolution anticipated within national-scale ALS schemes (at least for rivers with relatively simple geometries). This is promising, since generating rating curves from ALS scans would greatly enhance our ability to monitor streamflow by simplifying the overall effort required.

  9. High-power fiber lasers for photocathode electron injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many new applications for electron accelerators require high-brightness, high-average power beams, and most rely on photocathode-based electron injectors as a source of electrons. To achieve such a photoinjector, one requires both a high-power laser system to produce the high average current beam, and also a system at reduced repetition rate for electron beam diagnostics to verify high beam brightness. Here we report on two fiber laser systems designed to meet these specific needs, at 50 MHz and 1.3 GHz repetition rate, together with pulse pickers, second harmonic generation, spatiotemporal beam shaping, intensity feedback, and laser beam transport. The performance and flexibility of these laser systems have allowed us to demonstrate electron beam with both low emittance and high average current for the Cornell energy recovery linac.

  10. An externally heated copper vapour laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, P.A.; Sopchyshyn, F.C.; Selkirk, E.B.; Green, L.W.

    1993-08-01

    A pulsed Copper Vapour Laser (CVL), with a nominal 6 kHz repetition rate, was designed, build, and commissioned at Chalk River laboratories. The laser was required for Resonant Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) experiments and for projects associated with Atomic Vapour laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) studies. For the laser to operate, copper coupons position along the length of a ceramic tube must be heated sufficiently to create an appropriate vapour pressure. The AECL CVL uses an external heater element with a unique design to raise the temperature of the tube. The Cylindrical graphite heating element is shaped to compensate for the large radiation end losses of the laser tube. The use of an external heater saves the expensive high-current-voltage switching device from heating the laser tube, as in most commercial lasers. This feature is especially important given the intermittent usage typical of experimental research. As well, the heater enables better parametric control of the laser output when studying the lasing of copper (or other) vapour. This report outlines the lasing process in copper vapour, describes in detail all three major laser sub-systems: the laser body; the laser tube heater; the high voltage pulsed discharge; and, reports parametric measurements of the individual sub-systems and the laser system as a whole. Also included are normal operating procedures to heat up, run and shut down the laser

  11. Single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements on the OMEGA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J. P.; Betti, R.; Bradley, D. K.; Boehly, T. R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Goncharov, V. N.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Verdon, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five or six 351 nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3 ns ramp and 3 ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%-7% over a 600 μm diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using throughfoil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets. Two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations (ORCHID) [R. L. McCrory and C. P. Verdon, in Inertial Confinement Fusion (Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1989), pp. 83-124] of the growth of 20, 31, and 60 μm wavelength perturbations were in good agreement with the experimental data when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The amplitude of the simulation optical depth is in good agreement with the experimental optical depth; therefore, great care must be taken when the growth rates are compared to dispersion formulas. Since the foil's initial condition just before it is accelerated is not that of a uniformly compressed foil, the optical density measurement does not accurately reflect the amplitude of the ablation surface but is affected by the initial nonuniform density profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements on the OMEGA laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauer, J. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Bradley, D. K. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Boehly, T. R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Collins, T. J. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Goncharov, V. N. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); McKenty, P. W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Smalyuk, V. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Verdon, C. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] (and others)

    2000-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five or six 351 nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Experiments were performed with both 3 ns ramp and 3 ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%-7% over a 600 {mu}m diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using throughfoil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets. Two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamic simulations (ORCHID) [R. L. McCrory and C. P. Verdon, in Inertial Confinement Fusion (Editrice Compositori, Bologna, 1989), pp. 83-124] of the growth of 20, 31, and 60 {mu}m wavelength perturbations were in good agreement with the experimental data when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The amplitude of the simulation optical depth is in good agreement with the experimental optical depth; therefore, great care must be taken when the growth rates are compared to dispersion formulas. Since the foil's initial condition just before it is accelerated is not that of a uniformly compressed foil, the optical density measurement does not accurately reflect the amplitude of the ablation surface but is affected by the initial nonuniform density profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

  14. Excimer laser development for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanielli, D.

    1985-01-01

    The future utility of inertial confinement fusion requires a new driver. Successful experiments coupling laser energy to targets, and our understanding of fuel capsule behavior strongly suggest that a laboratory thermonuclear source is attainable and power production may be considered if a suitable driver with high efficiency, high repetition rate, and most importantly, low capital cost, can be identified. No adequate driver exists today; however, the krypton fluoride laser holds great promise. By the end of this decade, driver development can be brought to the point that a technically justifiable choice can be made for the future direction of ICF

  15. Effects of laser fluence on silicon modification by four-beam laser interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Le; Li, Dayou; Wang, Zuobin; Yue, Yong; Zhang, Jinjin; Yu, Miao; Li, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of laser fluence on silicon modification by four-beam laser interference. In this work, four-beam laser interference was used to pattern single crystal silicon wafers for the fabrication of surface structures, and the number of laser pulses was applied to the process in air. By controlling the parameters of laser irradiation, different shapes of silicon structures were fabricated. The results were obtained with the single laser fluence of 354 mJ/cm 2 , 495 mJ/cm 2 , and 637 mJ/cm 2 , the pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz, the laser exposure pulses of 30, 100, and 300, the laser wavelength of 1064 nm, and the pulse duration of 7–9 ns. The effects of the heat transfer and the radiation of laser interference plasma on silicon wafer surfaces were investigated. The equations of heat flow and radiation effects of laser plasma of interfering patterns in a four-beam laser interference distribution were proposed to describe their impacts on silicon wafer surfaces. The experimental results have shown that the laser fluence has to be properly selected for the fabrication of well-defined surface structures in a four-beam laser interference process. Laser interference patterns can directly fabricate different shape structures for their corresponding applications

  16. Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelet, Yohann; Houard, Aurélien; Arantchouk, Leonid; Forestier, Benjamin; Liu, Yi; Prade, Bernard; Carbonnel, Jérôme; André, Yves-Bernard; Mysyrowicz, André

    2012-04-01

    A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 kHz synchronisable with a nanosecond temporal jitter. Using this compact high voltage generator, we demonstrate reproducible meter long discharges in air at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Triggering and guiding of the discharges are performed in air by femtosecond laser filaments.

  17. Excimer laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mace, P.N.

    1980-01-01

    Scaling presently available excimer laser systems to lasers designed to operate at high average power and high pulse repetition rates for long periods of time requires advances in many areas of engineering technology. For economical application to industrial processes, the efficiency must be increased. This leads to more stringent requirements on preionization techniques, energy delivery systems, and system chemistry. Long life operation (> 10 9 to 10 10 pulses) requires development of new pulse power components, optical elements and flow system components. A broad-based program underway at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is addressing these key technology issues, with the help of advanced component and systems development programs in industry. A prototype XeCl laser meeting all requirements for efficiency, system performance and life is scheduled for completion in 1984

  18. Mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser oscillators pumped by wavelength-multiplexed laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Naoto; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2018-05-01

    We directly pumped a Ti:sapphire laser by combining 478 and 520 nm laser diodes to prevent the effect of absorption loss induced by the pump laser of shorter wavelengths (∼450 nm). We obtain a continuous-wave output power of 660 mW at a total incident pump power of 3.15 W. We demonstrate mode locking using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, and 126 fs pulses were obtained at a repetition rate of 192 MHz. At the maximum pump power, the average output power is 315 mW. Shorter mode-locked pulses of 42 and 48 fs were respectively achieved by Kerr-lens mode locking with average output powers of 280 and 360 mW at a repetition rate of 117 MHz.

  19. The search for solid state fusion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research puts severe demands on the laser driver. In recent years large, multibeam Nd:glass lasers have provided a flexible experimental tool for exploring fusion target physics because of their high powers, variable pulse length and shape, wavelength flexibility using harmonic generation, and adjustable that Nd:glass lasers can be scaled up to provide a single-phase, multi-megajoule, high-gain laboratory microfusion facility, and gas-cooled slab amplifiers with laser diode pump sources are viable candidates for an efficient, high repetition rate, megawatt driver for an ICF reactor. In both applications requirements for energy storage and energy extraction drastically limit the choice of lasing media. Nonlinear optical effects and optical damage are additional design constraints. New laser architectures applicable to ICF drivers and possible laser materials, both crystals and glasses, are surveyed. 20 refs., 2 figs

  20. Quantitative theoretical analysis of lifetimes and decay rates relevant in laser cooling BaH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Keith; Lane, Ian C.

    2018-05-01

    Tiny radiative losses below the 0.1% level can prove ruinous to the effective laser cooling of a molecule. In this paper the laser cooling of a hydride is studied with rovibronic detail using ab initio quantum chemistry in order to document the decays to all possible electronic states (not just the vibrational branching within a single electronic transition) and to identify the most populated final quantum states. The effect of spin-orbit and associated couplings on the properties of the lowest excited states of BaH are analysed in detail. The lifetimes of the A2Π1/2, H2Δ3/2 and E2Π1/2 states are calculated (136 ns, 5.8 μs and 46 ns respectively) for the first time, while the theoretical value for B2 Σ1/2+ is in good agreement with experiments. Using a simple rate model the numbers of absorption-emission cycles possible for both one- and two-colour cooling on the competing electronic transitions are determined, and it is clearly demonstrated that the A2Π - X2Σ+ transition is superior to B2Σ+ - X2Σ+ , where multiple tiny decay channels degrade its efficiency. Further possible improvements to the cooling method are proposed.

  1. Target fabrication using laser and spark erosion machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, X.; Coudeville, A.; Eyharts, P.; Perrine, J.P.; Rouillard, R.

    1982-01-01

    Fabrication of laser fusion targets requires a number of special techniques. We have developed both laser and spark erosion machining to produce minute parts of complex targets. A high repetition rate YAG laser at double frequency is used to etch various materials. For example, marks or patterns are often necessary on structured or advanced targets. The laser is also used to thin down plastic coated stalks. A spark erosion system has proved to be a versatile tool and we describe current fabrication processes like cutting, drilling, and ultra precise machining. Spark erosion has interesting features for target fabrication: it is a highly controllable and reproducible technique as well as relatively inexpensive

  2. Mode locking of an external cavity asymmetric quantum-well GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Petr P; Kan, H; Ohta, H; Hiruma, T; Tanaka, K A

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model of the optical gain in asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers is developed. It is demonstrated that the emission spectrum of asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers is much broader than that of standard quantum-well lasers. The experimental samples of such lasers and superluminescent diodes with the emission bandwidth exceeding 50 nm are fabricated. Wavelength tunable ultrashort pulses with duration of 1-2 ps at repetition rates of 0.4-1 GHz are obtained by active mode locking of an external cavity laser. (lasers)

  3. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubar, Oleg [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II; Geloni, Gianluca; Madsen, Anders [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Shvyd' ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source; Sutter, John [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm{sup -1} spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm{sup -1} are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10{sup 12} ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  4. Novel opportunities for sub-meV inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubar, Oleg; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-08-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm -1 spectral and momentum transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm -1 are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high and low frequency probes. We show that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a hundred-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than possible with storage-ring based radiation sources. Wave-optics propagation shows that about 7 x 10 12 ph/s in a 90-μeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  5. Interband optical pulse injection locking of quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimyung; Delfyett, Peter J

    2008-07-21

    We experimentally demonstrate optical clock recovery from quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor lasers by interband optical pulse injection locking. The passively mode-locked slave laser oscillating on the ground state or the first excited state transition is locked through the injection of optical pulses generated via the opposite transition bands, i.e. the first excited state or the ground state transition from the hybridly mode-locked master laser, respectively. When an optical pulse train generated via the first excited state from the master laser is injected to the slave laser oscillating via ground state, the slave laser shows an asymmetric locking bandwidth around the nominal repetition rate of the slave laser. In the reverse injection case of, i.e. the ground state (master laser) to the first excited state (slave laser), the slave laser does not lock even though both lasers oscillate at the same cavity frequency. In this case, the slave laser only locks to higher injection rates as compared to its own nominal repetition rate, and also shows a large locking bandwidth of 6.7 MHz.

  6. Laser deposition rates of thin films of selected metals and alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen

    Thin films of Cu, Zn and Sn as well as mixtures of these elements have been produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The deposition rate of single and multicomponent metallic targets was determined. The strength of PLD is that the stoichiometry of complex compounds, even of complicated alloys...... or metal oxides, can be preserved from target to film. We apply this technique to design films of a mixture of Cu, Zn and Sn, which are constituents of the chalcogenide CZTS, which has a composition close to Cu2ZnSnS4. This compound is expected to be an important candidate for absorbers in new solar cells...... for alloys of the different elements as well as compounds with S will be presented....

  7. A new approach to model CW CO2 laser using rate equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-11

    Nov 11, 2016 ... Abstract. Two popular methods to analyse the operation of CW CO2 lasers use the temperature model and ... Grouping of the vibration levels helped in restrict- ..... [10] D C Tyte, Carbon dioxide lasers, in: Advances in quan-.

  8. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and methods for monitoring the dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-03-28

    A scanned, pulsed, focused laser irradiation apparatus can measure and image the photocurrent collection resulting from a dose-rate equivalent exposure to infrared laser light across an entire silicon die. Comparisons of dose-rate response images or time-delay images from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems allows precise identification of those specific age-affected circuit structures within a device that merit further quantitative analysis with targeted materials or electrical testing techniques. Another embodiment of the invention comprises a broad-beam, dose rate-equivalent exposure apparatus. The broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. This embodiment can be combined with the synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into a device under test to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure.

  9. Laser amplifier based on a neodymium glass rod 150 mm in diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaykin, A A; Fokin, A P; Soloviev, A A; Kuzmin, A A; Shaikin, I A; Burdonov, K F; Khazanov, E A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Charukhchev, A V [Public Limited Company " Scientific research Institute for Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering" , Leningrad region (Russian Federation)

    2014-05-30

    A unique large-aperture neodymium glass rod amplifier is experimentally studied. The small-signal gain distribution is measured at different pump energies. The aperture-averaged gain is found to be 2.3. The stored energy (500 J), the maximum possible pump pulse repetition rate, and the depolarisation in a single pulse and in a series of pulses with a repetition rate of one pulse per five minutes are calculated based on the investigations performed. It is shown that the use of this amplifier at the exit of the existing laser can increase the output pulse energy from 300 to 600 J. (lasers)

  10. Generation of ultrasound in materials using continuous-wave lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, James N; DiComo, Gregory P; Nikitin, Sergei

    2012-03-01

    Generating and detecting ultrasound is a standard method of nondestructive evaluation of materials. Pulsed lasers are used to generate ultrasound remotely in situations that prohibit the use of contact transducers. The scanning rate is limited by the repetition rates of the pulsed lasers, ranging between 10 and 100 Hz for lasers with sufficient pulse widths and energies. Alternately, a high-power continuous-wave laser can be scanned across the surface, creating an ultrasonic wavefront. Since generation is continuous, the scanning rate can be as much as 4 orders of magnitude higher than with pulsed lasers. This paper introduces the concept, comparing the theoretical scanning speed with generation by pulsed laser. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  11. Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Milonni, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive introduction to the operating principles and applications of lasers. Explains basic principles, including the necessary elements of classical and quantum physics. Provides concise discussions of various laser types including gas, solid state, semiconductor, and free electron lasers, as well as of laser resonators, diffraction, optical coherence, and many applications including holography, phase conjugation, wave mixing, and nonlinear optics. Incorporates many intuitive explanations and practical examples. Discussions are self-contained in a consistent notation and in a style that should appeal to physicists, chemists, optical scientists and engineers.

  12. Recurrence rate and patient satisfaction of CO2 laser evaporation of lesions in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Dufour, Deirde Nathalie; Zarchi, Kian

    2015-01-01

    : To determine the recurrence rate, time to recurrence, and factors influencing disease recurrence in skin treated with CO2 laser evaporation, and healing by secondary intention; and patients' satisfaction with treatment. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients treated with CO2 laser evaporation were interviewed regarding...... recurrence and satisfaction after a mean of 25.7 months. RESULTS: Seventeen of 58 (29%) reported recurrence of HS lesions within the borders of the treated areas after a mean of 12.7 months. Obesity was a risk factor for recurrence with a hazard ratio of 4.53. Fifty-five patients (95%) reported some or great...... improvement, and 91% would recommend the CO2 laser surgery to other HS patients. CONCLUSION: This study supports the claim that CO2 laser treatment is an effective modality for recurrent HS lesions in a majority of patients. The authors identified obesity as a risk factor for recurrence. Self...

  13. Tunable radio-frequency photonic filter based on an actively mode-locked fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa-Blanch, A; Mora, J; Capmany, J; Ortega, B; Pastor, D

    2006-03-15

    We propose the use of an actively mode-locked fiber laser as a multitap optical source for a microwave photonic filter. The fiber laser provides multiple optical taps with an optical frequency separation equal to the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser that governs its repetition rate. All the optical taps show equal polarization and an overall Gaussian apodization, which reduces the sidelobes. We demonstrate continuous tunability of the filter by changing the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser, which shows good fine tunability in the operating range of the laser from 5 to 10 GHz.

  14. Laser shock wave and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojun; Zhang, Yongkang; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Fang; Feng, Aixin

    2007-12-01

    The technology of laser shock wave is used to not only surface modification but also metal forming. It can be divided into three parts: laser shock processing, laser shock forming (LSF) and laser peenforming(LPF). Laser shock processing as a surface treatment to metals can make engineering components have a residual compressive stress so that it obviously improves their fatigue strength and stress corrosion performances, while laser shock forming (LSF) is a novel technique that is used in plastic deformation of sheet metal recently and Laser peen forming (LPF) is another new sheet metal forming process presented in recent years. They all can be carried out by a high-power and repetition pulse Nd:Glass laser device made by Jiangsu University. Laser shock technology has characterized of ultrahigh pressure and high strain rate (10 6 - 10 7s -1). Now, for different materials, we are able to form different metals to contours and shapes and simultaneity leave their surfaces in crack-resistant compressive stress state. The results show that the technology of laser shock wave can strengthen surface property and prolong fatigue life and especially can deform metals to shapes that could not be adequately made using conventional methods. With the development of the technology of laser shock wave, the applied fields of laser will become greater and greater.

  15. Active power filter for harmonic compensation using a digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach for the single-phase shunt active power filter (APF), which aims to enhance the tracking ability and eliminate arbitrary order harmonic. The proposed repetitive control scheme blends the characteristics of both odd......-harmonic repetitive control and even-harmonic repetitive control. Moreover, the convergence rate is faster than conventional repetitive controller. Additionally, the parameters have been designed and optimized for the dual-mode structure repetitive control to improve the performance of APF system. Experimental...

  16. Digital Communication System Based on Polarization Self-Modulation in Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarin, V. A.; Ikonnikov, V. P.; Shatalov, A. N.

    2014-09-01

    Polarization self-modulation in lasers can be used to create instruments for generating optical pulses at very high repetition rates without using high-speed electronics. Self-oscillation is observed when part of the output of a laser is returned to the laser after a 90° polarization change. A practical scheme based on polarization self-modulation in a 3.39-μm helium-neon laser is proposed for pulsed code data transmission with an yttrium-iron garnet magnetooptical Q-switch. Highly efficient transmission of digital signals is implemented with a repetition rate of 75 MHz, equivalent to half the free spectral range of the laser.

  17. Laser-Bioplasma Interaction: The Blood Type Transmutation Induced by Multiple Ultrashort Wavelength Laser Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multi laser beams with the flowing blood thin films leads to the transmutation of the blood types A, B, and AB into O type. This is a novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine. Laser radiation is in resonance with the eigen-frequency modes of the antigen proteins and forces the proteins to parametrically oscillate until they get kicked out from the surface. The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation), upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. The scanning laser beam is partially reflected as long as the antigen(s) is not eliminated. The process of the protein detachment can last a few minutes. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., Stefan University.

  18. Research activities in our laser R and D group (present and future)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Kondo, Kiminori; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Momoko; Nakai, Yoshiki; Sasao, Hajime; Tateno, Ryo; Okada, Hajime; Koike, Masato

    2010-01-01

    Our group has been newly established in this April to develop next high peak power laser systems which can be used for innovative applications. We have developed essential technologies for the upgrade of laser performances in J-KAREN and TOPAZ laser systems in order to supply these advanced laser beams for application studies such as laser acceleration, high optical field science, highly intense X-ray generation, and so on. In the development of J-KAREN laser, we achieved high contrast ratio of over 10 10 by employing OPCPA technique. While in the TOPAZ laser, 0.1 Hz operation was realized with a development of zigzag slab type glass laser which can reduce thermal distortion inside the excited laser medium. This repetition rate was increased by two orders of magnitude compared to previous rod type glass laser system. Using the TOPAZ laser, we have succeeded to generate 13.9-nm x-ray laser beam with beam divergence less than 0.5 mrad at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz. (author)

  19. Emergence of resonant mode-locking via delayed feedback in quantum dot semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykalewicz, B; Goulding, D; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G; Erneux, T; Kelleher, B; Viktorov, E A

    2016-02-22

    With conventional semiconductor lasers undergoing external optical feedback, a chaotic output is typically observed even for moderate levels of the feedback strength. In this paper we examine single mode quantum dot lasers under strong optical feedback conditions and show that an entirely new dynamical regime is found consisting of spontaneous mode-locking via a resonance between the relaxation oscillation frequency and the external cavity repetition rate. Experimental observations are supported by detailed numerical simulations of rate equations appropriate for this laser type. The phenomenon constitutes an entirely new mode-locking mechanism in semiconductor lasers.

  20. Cooling rates and intensity limitations for laser-cooled ions at relativistic energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidam, Lewin; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Winters, Danyal

    2018-04-01

    The ability of laser cooling for relativistic ion beams is investigated. For this purpose, the excitation of relativistic ions with a continuous wave and a pulsed laser is analyzed, utilizing the optical Bloch equations. The laser cooling force is derived in detail and its scaling with the relativistic factor γ is discussed. The cooling processes with a continuous wave and a pulsed laser system are investigated. Optimized cooling scenarios and times are obtained in order to determine the required properties of the laser and the ion beam for the planed experiments. The impact of beam intensity effects, like intrabeam scattering and space charge are analyzed. Predictions from simplified models are compared to particle-in-cell simulations and are found to be in good agreement. Finally two realistic example cases of Carbon ions in the ESR and relativistic Titanium ions in SIS100 are compared in order to discuss prospects for future laser cooling experiments.

  1. Target life time of laser ion source for low charge state ion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2008-06-23

    Laser ion source (LIS) produces ions by irradiating pulsed high power laser shots onto the solid state target. For the low charge state ion production, laser spot diameter on the target can be over several millimeters using a high power laser such as Nd:YAG laser. In this case, a damage to the target surface is small while there is a visible crater in case of the best focused laser shot for high charge state ion production (laser spot diameter can be several tens of micrometers). So the need of target displacement after each laser shot to use fresh surface to stabilize plasma is not required for low charge state ion production. We tested target lifetime using Nd:YAG laser with 5 Hz repetition rate. Also target temperature and vacuum condition were recorded during experiment. The feasibility of a long time operation was verified.

  2. High speed micromachining with high power UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh S.; Bovatsek, James M.

    2013-03-01

    Increasing demand for creating fine features with high accuracy in manufacturing of electronic mobile devices has fueled growth for lasers in manufacturing. High power, high repetition rate ultraviolet (UV) lasers provide an opportunity to implement a cost effective high quality, high throughput micromachining process in a 24/7 manufacturing environment. The energy available per pulse and the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of diode pumped solid state (DPSS) nanosecond UV lasers have increased steadily over the years. Efficient use of the available energy from a laser is important to generate accurate fine features at a high speed with high quality. To achieve maximum material removal and minimal thermal damage for any laser micromachining application, use of the optimal process parameters including energy density or fluence (J/cm2), pulse width, and repetition rate is important. In this study we present a new high power, high PRF QuasarR 355-40 laser from Spectra-Physics with TimeShiftTM technology for unique software adjustable pulse width, pulse splitting, and pulse shaping capabilities. The benefits of these features for micromachining include improved throughput and quality. Specific example and results of silicon scribing are described to demonstrate the processing benefits of the Quasar's available power, PRF, and TimeShift technology.

  3. Regression Rates Following the Treatment of Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity with Bevacizumab Versus Laser: 8-Year Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoară, Simona D.; Ştefănuţ, Anne C.; Nascutzy, Constanta; Zaharie, Gabriela C.; Toader, Laura E.; Drugan, Tudor C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinopathy is a serious complication related to prematurity and a leading cause of childhood blindness. The aggressive posterior form of retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) has a worse anatomical and functional outcome following laser therapy, as compared with the classic form of the disease. The main outcome measures are the APROP regression rate, structural outcomes, and complications associated with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) versus laser photocoagulation in APROP. Material/Methods This is a retrospective case series that includes infants with APROP who received either IVB or laser photocoagulation and had a follow-up of at least 60 weeks (for the laser photocoagulation group) and 80 weeks (for the IVB group). In the first group, laser photocoagulation of the retina was carried out and in the second group, 1 bevacizumab injection was administered intravitreally. The following parameters were analyzed in each group: sex, gestational age, birth weight, postnatal age and postmenstrual age at treatment, APROP regression, sequelae, and complications. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel and IBM SPSS (version 23.0). Results The laser photocoagulation group consisted of 6 premature infants (12 eyes) and the IVB group consisted of 17 premature infants (34 eyes). Within the laser photocoagulation group, the evolution was favorable in 9 eyes (75%) and unfavorable in 3 eyes (25%). Within the IVB group, APROP regressed in 29 eyes (85.29%) and failed to regress in 5 eyes (14.71%). These differences are statistically significant, as proved by the McNemar test (P<0.001). Conclusions The IVB group had a statistically significant better outcome compared with the laser photocoagulation group, in APROP in our series. PMID:27062023

  4. High frame rate multi-resonance imaging refractometry with distributed feedback dye laser sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Dufva, Martin; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    imaging refractometry without moving parts is presented. DFB dye lasers are low-cost and highly sensitive refractive index sensors. The unique multi-wavelength DFB laser structure presented here comprises several areas with different grating periods. Imaging in two dimensions of space is enabled...... by analyzing laser light from all areas in parallel with an imaging spectrometer. With this multi-resonance imaging refractometry method, the spatial position in one direction is identified from the horizontal, i.e., spectral position of the multiple laser lines which is obtained from the spectrometer charged...

  5. Influence of transmission bit rate on performance of optical fibre communication systems with direct modulation of laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Moustafa F

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of the transmission bit rate on the performance of optical fibre communication systems employing laser diodes subjected to high-speed direct modulation. The performance is evaluated in terms of the bit error rate (BER) and power penalty associated with increasing the transmission bit rate while keeping the transmission distance. The study is based on numerical analysis of the stochastic rate equations of the laser diode and takes into account noise mechanisms in the receiver. Correlation between BER and the Q-parameter of the received signal is presented. The relative contributions of the transmitter noise and the circuit and shot noises of the receiver to BER are quantified as functions of the transmission bit rate. The results show that the power penalty at BER = 10 -9 required to keep the transmission distance increases moderately with the increase in the bit rate near 1 Gbps and at high bias currents. In this regime, the shot noise is the main contributor to BER. At higher bit rates and lower bias currents, the power penalty increases remarkably, which comes mainly from laser noise induced by the pseudorandom bit-pattern effect.

  6. Laser melting treatment of Ni-P surface alloys on mild steel. Influence of initial coating thickness and laser scanning rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Alonso, M. C.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Different thickness Ni-P coatings deposited on mild steel are submitted to laser surface melting at different scanning rates. The microstructure of the alloys is characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analysis. It is shown that both the initial coating thickness and the laser scanning rate have an influence on the shape, extent and size of the different structures resulting from the solidification process. Thus, when the laser scanning rate increases a progressive refinement of the structure takes place that could even totally block the dendritic growth produced during solidification for a high initial coating thickness.

    Recubrimientos de Ni-P, con distinto espesor, depositados sobre un acero microaleado fueron tratados con láser a diferentes velocidades de barrido. La microestructura, tanto del recubrimiento como del acero base, ha sido caracterizada por microscopía óptica y electrónica y por microanálisis. En el proceso de solidificación se han obtenido distintas estructuras que varían en cuanto a la forma, extensión y tamaño dependiendo del espesor inicial de recubrimiento y de la velocidad de barrido del haz láser. A medida que la velocidad del haz aumenta, se produce un refinamiento progresivo de la microestructura dendrítica y, en casos extremos de alto espesor de recubrimiento y velocidades grandes, este crecimiento dendrítico se bloquea.

  7. Single-photon emission at a rate of 143 MHz from a deterministic quantum-dot microlens triggered by a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlehahn, A.; Gschrey, M.; Schnauber, P.; Schulze, J.-H.; Rodt, S.; Strittmatter, A.; Heindel, T., E-mail: tobias.heindel@tu-berlin.de; Reitzenstein, S. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin 10623 (Germany); Gaafar, M.; Vaupel, M.; Stolz, W.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Koch, M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2015-07-27

    We report on the realization of a quantum dot (QD) based single-photon source with a record-high single-photon emission rate. The quantum light source consists of an InGaAs QD which is deterministically integrated within a monolithic microlens with a distributed Bragg reflector as back-side mirror, which is triggered using the frequency-doubled emission of a mode-locked vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (ML-VECSEL). The utilized compact and stable laser system allows us to excite the single-QD microlens at a wavelength of 508 nm with a pulse repetition rate close to 500 MHz at a pulse width of 4.2 ps. Probing the photon statistics of the emission from a single QD state at saturation, we demonstrate single-photon emission of the QD-microlens chip with g{sup (2)}(0) < 0.03 at a record-high single-photon flux of (143 ± 16) MHz collected by the first lens of the detection system. Our approach is fully compatible with resonant excitation schemes using wavelength tunable ML-VECSELs, which will optimize the quantum optical properties of the single-photon emission in terms of photon indistinguishability.

  8. Laser technology in biomimetics basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Belegratis, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Lasers are progressively more used as versatile tools for fabrication purposes. The wide range of available powers, wavelengths, operation modes, repetition rates etc. facilitate the processing of a large spectrum of materials at exceptional precision and quality. Hence, manifold methods were established in the past and novel methods are continuously under development. Biomimetics, the translation from nature-inspired principles to technical applications, is strongly multidisciplinary. This field offers intrinsically a wide scope of applications for laser based methods regarding structuring and modification of materials. This book is dedicated to laser fabrication methods in biomimetics. It introduces both, a laser technology as well as an application focused approach.  The book covers the most important laser lithographic methods and various biomimetics application scenarios ranging from coatings and biotechnology to construction, medical applications and photonics.

  9. Flow rate measurement of buoyancy-driven exchange flow by laser Doppler velocimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo

    1993-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out for the buoyancy-driven exchange flow in a narrow vented cylinder concerning the air ingress process during a standing pipe rupture in a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. In the present study, the evaluation method of exchange flow was developed by measuring the velocity distribution in the cylinder using a laser Doppler velocimeter. The experiments were performed under atmospheric pressure with nitrogen as a working fluid. Rayleigh numbers ranged from 2.0x10 4 to 2.1x10 5 . The exchange flow fluctuated irregularly with time and space in the cylinder. It was found that the exchange velocity distribution along the horizontal axis changed from one-hump to two-hump distribution with increasing Rayleigh number. In the case that the hemisphere wall was cooler than the heated disk, the volumetric exchange flow rate was smaller than that in the case where the hemisphere wall and the heated disk were at the same temperature. (author)

  10. A Study of Residual Amplitude Modulation Suppression in Injection Locked Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on a Simplified Rate Equation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J F; Yong, K S C; Haldar, M K

    2015-01-01

    Using results that come out of a simplified rate equation model, the suppression of residual amplitude modulation in injection locked quantum cascade lasers with the master laser modulated by its drive current is investigated. Quasi-static and dynamic expressions for intensity modulation are used. The suppression peaks at a specific value of the injection ratio for a given detuning and linewidth enhancement factor. The intensity modulation suppression remains constant over a range of frequencies. The effects of injection ratio, detuning, coupling efficiency and linewidth enhancement factor are considered. (paper)

  11. Priming With 1-Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Contralesional Leg Motor Cortex Does Not Increase the Rate of Regaining Ambulation Within 3 Months of Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Lin, Li-Fong; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Yen-Nung

    2018-05-01

    The potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied either alone or as a combination treatment, on recovery of lower limbs after stroke have been insufficiently studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of priming with 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over contralesional leg motor area with a double-cone coil before physical therapy on regaining ambulation. Thirty-eight subacute stroke patients with significant leg disabilities were randomly assigned into the experimental group or control group to receive a 15-min real or sham 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, respectively, over the contralesional motor cortex representing the quadriceps muscle followed by 45-min physical therapy for 15 sessions for 3 wks. Functional measures, motor evoked potentials, and quality of life were assessed. There was no significant difference between experimental group and control group regarding the recovery in ambulation, balance, motor functions, and activity of daily living. No significant difference was found in other functional measures and the quality of life. Only the control group displayed significantly increased cortical excitability of the contralesional hemisphere after the intervention. The present study found that insufficient evidence that contralesional priming with 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation improves ambulatory and other motor functions among patients with a severe leg dysfunction in subacute stroke.

  12. Quantifying Effusion Rates at Active Volcanoes through Integrated Time-Lapse Laser Scanning and Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Slatcher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During volcanic eruptions, measurements of the rate at which magma is erupted underpin hazard assessments. For eruptions dominated by the effusion of lava, estimates are often made using satellite data; here, in a case study at Mount Etna (Sicily, we make the first measurements based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, and we also include explosive products. During the study period (17–21 July 2012, regular Strombolian explosions were occurring within the Bocca Nuova crater, producing a ~50 m-high scoria cone and a small lava flow field. TLS surveys over multi-day intervals determined a mean cone growth rate (effusive and explosive products of ~0.24 m3·s−1. Differences between 0.3-m resolution DEMs acquired at 10-minute intervals captured the evolution of a breakout lava flow lobe advancing at 0.01–0.03 m3·s−1. Partial occlusion within the crater prevented similar measurement of the main flow, but integrating TLS data with time-lapse imagery enabled lava viscosity (7.4 × 105 Pa·s to be derived from surface velocities and, hence, a flux of 0.11 m3·s−1 to be calculated. Total dense rock equivalent magma discharge estimates are ~0.1–0.2 m3·s−1 over the measurement period and suggest that simultaneous estimates from satellite data are somewhat overestimated. Our results support the use of integrated TLS and time-lapse photography for ground-truthing space-based measurements and highlight the value of interactive image analysis when automated approaches, such as particle image velocimetry (PIV, fail.

  13. CW and pulsed operation of a diode-end-pumped Tm:GdVO4 laser at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z G; Song, C W; Li, Y F; Ju, Y L; Wang, Y Z

    2009-01-01

    A room-temperature diode-end-pumped acousto-optical (AO) Q-switched Tm:GdVO 4 laser was firstly reported. The minimum AO Q-switch pulse width was measured to be about 48 ns with output power of 2 W and repetition rate of 5 kHz. Continuous-wave output power of 2.8 W at 1912 nm was obtained under the absorbed pump power of 15 W. In addition, laser pulse widths and the ratio of QCW power/CW power at different repetition rates were discussed

  14. Turnover rates in microorganisms by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and pulse-chase analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopka, Sylwia A.; Mansour, Tarek R.; Shrestha, Bindesh [Department of Chemistry, W.M. Keck Institute for Proteomics Technology and Applications, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Maréchal, Éric; Falconet, Denis [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et Végétale, UMR 5168, CEA-CNRS-INRA-Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble (France); Vertes, Akos, E-mail: vertes@gwu.edu [Department of Chemistry, W.M. Keck Institute for Proteomics Technology and Applications, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical processes rely on elaborate networks containing thousands of compounds participating in thousands of reaction. Rapid turnover of diverse metabolites and lipids in an organism is an essential part of homeostasis. It affects energy production and storage, two important processes utilized in bioengineering. Conventional approaches to simultaneously quantify a large number of turnover rates in biological systems are currently not feasible. Here we show that pulse-chase analysis followed by laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) enable the simultaneous and rapid determination of metabolic turnover rates. The incorporation of ion mobility separation (IMS) allowed an additional dimension of analysis, i.e., the detection and identification of isotopologs based on their collision cross sections. We demonstrated these capabilities by determining metabolite, lipid, and peptide turnover in the photosynthetic green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in the presence of {sup 15}N-labeled ammonium chloride as the main nitrogen source. Following the reversal of isotope patterns in the chase phase by LAESI-IMS-MS revealed the turnover rates and half-lives for biochemical species with a wide range of natural concentrations, e.g., chlorophyll metabolites, lipids, and peptides. For example, the half-lives of lyso-DGTS(16:0) and DGTS(18:3/16:0), t{sub 1/2} = 43.6 ± 4.5 h and 47.6 ± 2.2 h, respectively, provided insight into lipid synthesis and degradation in this organism. Within the same experiment, half-lives for chlorophyll a, t{sub 1/2} = 24.1 ± 2.2 h, and a 2.8 kDa peptide, t{sub 1/2} = 10.4 ± 3.6 h, were also determined. - Highlights: • High-throughput pulse-chase analysis using direct sampling of biological cells. • Ion mobility separation for the elucidation of isotopologs. • Identification of isotopologs in difference heat plots of DT vs. m/z. • Simultaneous determination of turnover rates for lipids and

  15. Design of single-longitudinal-mode laser oscillator for edge Thomson scattering system in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatae, Takaki; Kusama, Yoshinori; Kubomura, Hiroyuki; Matsuoka, Shin-ichi

    2006-06-01

    A high output energy (5J) and high repetition rate (100 Hz) laser system is required for the edge Thomson scattering system in ITER. A YAG laser (Nd:YAG laser) is a first candidate for the laser system satisfying the requirements. It is important to develop a high beam quality and single longitudinal mode (SLM) laser oscillator in order to realize this high power laser system. In this design work, following activities relating to the SLM laser oscillator have been carried out: design of the laser head and the resonator, estimation of the output power for the SLM laser oscillator, consideration of the feedback control scheme and consideration of interface for amplification system to achieve required performance (5J, 100 Hz). It is expected that the designed laser diode (LD) pumped SLM laser oscillator realizes: 100 Hz of repetition rate, 10 mJ of output energy, 10 ns of pulse width, single longitudinal mode, TEM 00 of transversal mode, divergence less than 4 times of the diffraction limit, energy stability within 5%. (author)

  16. Progress in developing repetitive pulse systems utilizing inductive energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    High-power, fast-recovery vacuum switches were used in a new repetitive counterpulse and transfer circuit to deliver a 5-kHz pulse train with a peak power of 75 MW (at 8.6 kA) to a 1-..cap omega.. load, resulting in the first demonstration of fully controlled, high-power, high-repetition-rate operation of an inductive energy-storage and transfer system with nondestructive switches. New circuits, analytical and experimental results, and feasibility of 100-kV repetitive pulse generation are discussed. A new switching concept for railgun loads is presented.

  17. [Comparison of four MICS intraocular lenses regarding their rates of neodymium:YAG laser capsulotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridaki, M; Höh, H

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of posterior capsule opacification up to 50 months following 1.7-mm bimanual MICS-cataract surgery. Bimanual MICS cataract surgery was performed in 197 eyes (135 patients) via two 1.7-mm corneal incisions. Four MICS acrylic foldable IOLs were implanted: AcriSmart 48S-5, n = 54 (Acritec GmbH, Hennigsdorf, now AT.Smart 48S Carl-Zeiss-Meditec, AG, Jena, Germany), ThinLens UltraChoice 1.0, n = 53 (Technomed GmbH, Baesweiler, Germany), AcriFlex 46, n = 41 und AcriFlex 48 CSE, n = 7 (Acrimed GmbH, Berlin, now: Lentis L-303, Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany) and CareFlex, n = 43 (w2o Medizintechnik AG, Bruchsal, Germany). Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier technique. High levels of completeness of follow-up rates were: ThinLens 96%, CareFlex 100%, AcriSmart 93%, AcriFlex 92%. The capsulotomy rate was 43.13% for ThinLens within a mean/max. follow-up period of 801/1131 days, 34.88% for CareFlex (565/872 days), 40% for AcriSmart (988/1506 days) and 15.91% for AcriFlex (728/975 days). By limiting the follow-up period to a comparable maximum of 850 days for all four IOLs, our capsulotomy rates were as follows: ThinLens 33.33%, CareFlex 32.56 %, AcriSmart 20.0% and AcriFlex 11.36%. MICS IOLs have higher capsulotomy rates than hydrophobic acrylic lenses and sharp-edged silicone lenses. In literature comparisons MICS-IOLs do not exceed the variance levels of capsulotomy rates of PMMA, hydrophilic acrylic and silicone lenses without sharp edges. Cases of decentration or luxation of MICS-IOLs following Neodym:YAG laser capsulotomy were not detected. Capsulotomy frequency with the CareFlex was statistically significantly higher in comparison to the AcriSmart (Log Rank Mantel Cox Test, p = 0.007) and AcriFlex (log rank Mantel Cox test, p = 0.002). Capsulotomy rates observed varied for the four MICS-IOL-types tested. The posterior capsule opacification frequency of the two best MICS-IOLs (AcriFlex, Acri

  18. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  19. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  20. Electra Laser Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The Electra Laser Facility is used to develop the science and technology needed to develop a reliable, efficient, high-energy, repetitively pulsed krypton...

  1. Recurrence rate and patient satisfaction of CO2 laser evaporation of lesions in patients with hidradenitis suppurativa: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Riis; Dufour, Deirde Nathalie; Zarchi, Kian; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-02-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a debilitating disease and is difficult to treat. Validation of surgical techniques is therefore of great importance in the management of HS. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser evaporation has been shown effective, but larger-scale studies are scarce. To determine the recurrence rate, time to recurrence, and factors influencing disease recurrence in skin treated with CO2 laser evaporation, and healing by secondary intention; and patients' satisfaction with treatment. Fifty-eight patients treated with CO2 laser evaporation were interviewed regarding recurrence and satisfaction after a mean of 25.7 months. Seventeen of 58 (29%) reported recurrence of HS lesions within the borders of the treated areas after a mean of 12.7 months. Obesity was a risk factor for recurrence with a hazard ratio of 4.53. Fifty-five patients (95%) reported some or great improvement, and 91% would recommend the CO2 laser surgery to other HS patients. This study supports the claim that CO2 laser treatment is an effective modality for recurrent HS lesions in a majority of patients. The authors identified obesity as a risk factor for recurrence. Self-reported satisfaction is high, and only 3 of 58 report no change in the condition. None reported a worsening.

  2. Laser pumped lasers for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the isotope separation laser requirements reveals that high pressure polyatomic molecular gas laser pumped lasers can attain the necessary characteristics including tunability, energy output, pulse width, and repetition rate. The results of a search, made for molecules meeting the appropriate requirements for one of several pump schemes utilizing a CO 2 laser and with output in the 12 μm or 16μm wavelength range, are presented. Several methods of pumping are reviewed and two novel pump schemes are presented. A laser pumped laser device design is given, and operation of this device and associated diagnostic equipment is confirmed by repeating experiments in OCS and NH 3 . The results of OCS laser experiments show that an improvement in pump rate and output per unit length is obtained with the device, using a wedged transverse pumping scheme. A new multi-line laser system in NH 3 pumped by a TEA CO 2 laser is reported. More than forty transitions spanning the wavelength range of 9.2 to 13.8 μm are observed and identified. A strong output at 12.08 μm is one of the closest lines yet found to the required laser isotope separation wavelength. Far infrared emission near 65 μm is observed and is responsible for populating levels which lase in pure ammonia near 12.3 μm. Buffer gas (e.g., N 2 or He) pressures of approximately 40--800 torr cause energy transfer by collision-induced rotationaltransitions from the pumped antisymmetric to the lasing symmetric levels in the nu 2 = 1 band of ammonia. Most of the observed lines are aP(J,K) transitions which originate from the nu 2 /sup s/ band. Measurements of the pressure dependence of the laser output shows that some lines lase at pressures greater than one atmosphere. Transient behavior of the 12.08 μm line is calculated from a simplified analytic model and these calculations are compared to the experimental results

  3. Recent progress in high-power slab lasers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, many solid-state lasers have been widely employed in Japanese industries, especially in the electronics industries for precise and reliable processing. To expand the use of solid-state lasers and to achieve higher processing speed, the authors are developing slab lasers of high power, high repetition rate, and high beam quality. Metal processing systems with optical fibers for large and complex 3-D work, multiwork station systems linked to only one laser with optical fibers, and compact x-ray sources for lithography are promising areas for such lasers. Surnitomo Metal Mining is growing Nd:GGG and Nd:YAG crystals 60 mm in diameter and 200 mm long. From 2 at.% Nd-doped GGG crystals without central core regions. The authors obtained two slab materials with dimensions of 35 X 9 X 192 and 55 X 15 X 213 mm/sup 3/. By using the smaller slab, they constructed a slab laser and obtained 370-W laser output power at 24-kW lamp input power and 10-pps repetition rate. Now they are constructing a 1-kW slab laser using the other larger size slab

  4. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2000-01-01

    X-ray lasers have been extensively studied around the world since the first laboratory demonstration on the Novette laser at LLNL in 1984 [l]. The characteristic properties of short wavelength, high monochromaticity, collimation and coherence make x-ray lasers useful for various applications. These include demonstrations of biological imaging within the water window, interferometry of laser plasmas and radiography of laser-heated surfaces. One of the critical issues has been the high power pump required to produce the inversion. The power scaling as a function of x-ray laser wavelength follows a -k4 to law. The shortest x-ray laser wavelength of ∼ 35 (angstrom) demonstrated for Ni-like All was at the limit of Nova laser capabilities. By requiring large, high power lasers such as Nova, the shot rate and total number of shots available have limited the rapid development of x-ray lasers and applications. In fact over the last fifteen years the main thrust has been to develop more efficient, higher repetition rate x-ray lasers that can be readily scaled to shorter wavelengths. The recent state of progress in the field can be found in references. The objective of the project was to develop a soft x-ray laser (XRL) pumped by a short pulse laser of a few joules. In effect to demonstrate a robust, worlung tabletop x-ray laser at LLNL for the first time. The transient collisional scheme as proposed by Shlyaptsev et al [8, 9] was the candidate x-ray laser for study. The successful endeavour of any scientific investigation is often based upon prudent early decisions and the choice of this scheme was both sound and fruitful. It had been demonstrated very recently for Ne-like Ti at 326 A using a small tabletop laser [10] but had not yet reached its full potential. We chose this scheme for several reasons: (a) it was a collisional-type x-ray laser which has been historically the most robust; (b) it had the promise of high efficiency and low energy threshold for lasing; (c) the

  5. Strain rate dependent deformation and failure behavior of laser welded DP780 steel joint under dynamic tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Wang, Lei; Chu, Xi; Wang, Pengfei; Jin, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    Laser welded DP steel joints are used widely in the automotive industry for weight reduction. Understanding the deformation and fracture behavior of the base metal (BM) and its welded joint (WJ), especially at high strain rates, is critical for the design of vehicle structures. This paper is concerned with the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties, deformation and fracture behavior of the laser welded DP780 steel joint. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed on the WJ and BM of the DP780 steel using an electromechanical universal testing machine and a high-speed tensile testing machine over a wide range of strain rate (0.0001–1142 s −1 ). The microstructure change and microhardness distribution of the DP780 steel after laser welding were examined. Digital image correlation (DIC) and high-speed photography were employed for the strain measurement of the DP780 WJ during dynamic tensile tests. The DP780 WJ is a heterogeneous structure with hardening in fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), and softening in outer HAZ. The DP780 BM and WJ exhibit positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS, which is smaller at lower strain rates and becomes larger with increasing strain rate, while ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) tends to increase under dynamic loading. Laser welding leads to an overall reduction in the ductility of the DP780 steel. However, the WJ exhibits a similar changing trend of the ductility to that of the BM with respect to the strain rate over the whole strain rate range. As for the DP780 WJ, the distance of tensile failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The typical ductile failure characteristics of the DP780 BM and WJ do not change with increasing strain rate. DIC measurements reveal that the strain localization starts even before the maximum load is attained in the DP780 WJ and gradual transition from uniform strains to severely localized strains occurs

  6. Strain rate dependent deformation and failure behavior of laser welded DP780 steel joint under dynamic tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dong, Danyang, E-mail: dongdanyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Lei, E-mail: wanglei@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chu, Xi, E-mail: chuxi.ok@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: wpf1963871400@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jin, Mengmeng, E-mail: 24401878@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-03-11

    Laser welded DP steel joints are used widely in the automotive industry for weight reduction. Understanding the deformation and fracture behavior of the base metal (BM) and its welded joint (WJ), especially at high strain rates, is critical for the design of vehicle structures. This paper is concerned with the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties, deformation and fracture behavior of the laser welded DP780 steel joint. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed on the WJ and BM of the DP780 steel using an electromechanical universal testing machine and a high-speed tensile testing machine over a wide range of strain rate (0.0001–1142 s{sup −1}). The microstructure change and microhardness distribution of the DP780 steel after laser welding were examined. Digital image correlation (DIC) and high-speed photography were employed for the strain measurement of the DP780 WJ during dynamic tensile tests. The DP780 WJ is a heterogeneous structure with hardening in fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), and softening in outer HAZ. The DP780 BM and WJ exhibit positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS, which is smaller at lower strain rates and becomes larger with increasing strain rate, while ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) tends to increase under dynamic loading. Laser welding leads to an overall reduction in the ductility of the DP780 steel. However, the WJ exhibits a similar changing trend of the ductility to that of the BM with respect to the strain rate over the whole strain rate range. As for the DP780 WJ, the distance of tensile failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The typical ductile failure characteristics of the DP780 BM and WJ do not change with increasing strain rate. DIC measurements reveal that the strain localization starts even before the maximum load is attained in the DP780 WJ and gradual transition from uniform strains to severely localized strains

  7. Next generation Er:YAG fractional ablative laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, A.; Vizhanyo, A.; Krammer, P.; Summer, S.; Gross, S.; Bragagna, T.; Böhler, C.

    2011-03-01

    Pantec Biosolutions AG presents a portable fractional ablative laser system based on a miniaturized diode pumped Er:YAG laser. The system can operate at repetition rates up to 500 Hz and has an incorporated beam deflection unit. It is smaller, lighter and cost efficient compared to systems based on lamp pumped Er:YAG lasers and incorporates a skin layer detection to guarantee precise control of the microporation process. The pulse parameters enable a variety of applications in dermatology and in general medicine, as demonstrated by first results on transdermal drug delivery of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).

  8. Development of high-power CO2 lasers and laser material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Ashish K.; Choudhary, Praveen; Kumar, Manoj; Kaul, R.

    2000-02-01

    Scaling laws to determine the physical dimensions of the active medium and optical resonator parameters for designing convective cooled CO2 lasers have been established. High power CW CO2 lasers upto 5 kW output power and a high repetition rate TEA CO2 laser of 500 Hz and 500 W average power incorporated with a novel scheme for uniform UV pre- ionization have been developed for material processing applications. Technical viability of laser processing of several engineering components, for example laser surface hardening of fine teeth of files, laser welding of martensitic steel shroud and titanium alloy under-strap of turbine, laser cladding of Ni super-alloy with stellite for refurbishing turbine blades were established using these lasers. Laser alloying of pre-placed SiC coating on different types of aluminum alloy, commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and laser curing of thermosetting powder coating have been also studied. Development of these lasers and results of some of the processing studies are briefly presented here.

  9. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  10. A pulsed single-frequency Nd:GGG/BaWO4 Raman laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaojun; Men, Shaojie; Cong, Zhenhua; Qin, Zengguang; Zhang, Xingyu; Zhang, Huaijin

    2018-04-01

    A single-frequency pulsed laser at 1178.3 nm was demonstrated in a crystalline Raman laser. A crystal combination of Nd:GGG and BaWO4 was selected to realize Raman conversion from a 1062.5 nm fundamental wave to a 1178.3 nm Stokes wave. An entangled cavity was specially designed to form an intracavity Raman configuration. Single-longitudinal-mode operation was realized by introducing two Fabry-Perot etalons into the Raman laser cavity. This laser operated at a pulse repetition rate of 50 Hz with 2 ms long envelopes containing micro pulses at a 30 kHz repetition rate. The highest output power was 41 mW with the micro pulse duration of 15 ns. The linewidth was measured to be less than 130 MHz.

  11. Efficient optical trapping of CdTe quantum dots by femtosecond laser pulses

    KAUST Repository

    Chiang, Weiyi

    2014-12-11

    The development in optical trapping and manipulation has been showing rapid progress, most of it is in the small particle sizes in nanometer scales, substituting the conventional continuous-wave lasers with high-repetition-rate ultrashort laser pulse train and nonlinear optical effects. Here, we evaluate two-photon absorption in optical trapping of 2.7 nm-sized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) with high-repetition-rate femtosecond pulse train by probing laser intensity dependence of both Rayleigh scattering image and the two-photon-induced luminescence spectrum of the optically trapped QDs. The Rayleigh scattering imaging indicates that the two-photon absorption (TPA) process enhances trapping ability of the QDs. Similarly, a nonlinear increase of the two-photon-induced luminescence with the incident laser intensity fairly indicates the existence of the TPA process.

  12. Annual progress and future plans of laser R and D group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Akira; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Momoko; Nakai, Yoshiki; Sasao, Hajime; Tateno, Ryo; Okada, Hajime; Kosuge, Atsushi; Tsubouchi, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    Main subjects of our group in this middle term program are upgrade of J-KAREN and TOPAZ laser systems. The J-KAREN achieves the potential for generating a peak power of 500 TW, and exceeds a contrast ratio of 10E10. The TOPAZ achieves pulse power of 15 J at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz. We also started a development of laser system named QUADRA (Quality Ultra ADvanced RAdiation Source) in C-Phost program. The QUADRA system aims a high averaged short pulse laser pumped by high power LD at kHz-class repetition rate. This development is essential for the elemental technology for the other new laser systems in the next 5-year program of JAEA. (author)

  13. Conceptual design of 100 J cryogenically-cooled multi-slab laser for fusion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divoky M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of two alternative laser layouts for HiLASE and ELI Beamlines projects. The cryogenically cooled laser is 100 J class with 2 ns pulse length and operates at 10 Hz repetition rate. The laser beam is intended for industrial applications in HiLASE, for OPCPA pumping in ELI Beamlines and can serve as a test bed for large scale high repetition rate fusion lasers. First layout utilizes classical scheme with preamplifier and main amplifier, while the second layout utilizes single amplifier scheme with two amplifier heads. The comparison is based on the results obtained from homemade MATLAB code for evaluation of amplified spontaneous emission and stored energy and on a beam propagation simulated in MIRÓ code.

  14. Semiconductor lasers in rheumatological treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Suteanu, S.; Ignat, P.; Pruna, Simion; Chitu, A.

    1995-03-01

    A computer controlled equipment, containing 6 lasers (HeNe and 5 diode lasers--DL) conceived to be used in rheumatological treatment is reported. DL emit at 895 nm and for typical applications, their expanded spots are superposed within the irradiation plane, on the HeNE defocused spot used to define the surface to be irradiated. DL emit 100 nsec pulses between 0.5 KHz and 1.5 KHz repetition rate and 0.5 mW average power (measured at 1 KHz). 150 patients with rheumathologic diseases were treated: lumbar spondylosis (75), gonarthrosis (30), cervical spondylosis (21), coxarthrosis (15), Heberden and Bouchard (9). The treatment consisted of: group I, 50 patients--laser therapy, 10 min/day, 10 days; group II, 50 patients--classical antirheumatic treatment; group III, 50 patients--mixed treatment. Assessment of sympathetic skin activity made using reactometry measurements, shows that latency time was longer before irradiation, 1867 +/- 289) msec then after, (1234 +/- 321) msec. Pain rating indexes decreasing for all three groups of patients were measured. Better results for more superficial diseases were obtained and best results were observed after irradiation with 1 KHz - 1.5 KHz repetition rate IR pulses. Better results were obtained when spot irradiation in a few points combined with zone irradiations was used.

  15. Amplified spontaneous emission and thermal management on a high average-power diode-pumped solid-state laser - the Lucia laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albach, D.

    2010-01-01

    The development of the laser triggered the birth of numerous fields in both scientific and industrial domains. High intensity laser pulses are a unique tool for light/matter interaction studies and applications. However, current flash-pumped glass-based systems are inherently limited in repetition-rate and efficiency. Development within recent years in the field of semiconductor lasers and gain media drew special attention to a new class of lasers, the so-called Diode Pumped Solid State Laser (DPSSL). DPSSLs are highly efficient lasers and are candidates of choice for compact, high average-power systems required for industrial applications but also as high-power pump sources for ultra-high intense lasers. The work described in this thesis takes place in the context of the 1 kilowatt average-power DPSSL program Lucia, currently under construction at the 'Laboratoire d'Utilisation des Laser Intenses' (LULI) at the Ecole Polytechnique, France. Generation of sub-10 nanosecond long pulses with energies of up to 100 joules at repetition rates of 10 hertz are mainly limited by Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) and thermal effects. These limitations are the central themes of this work. Their impact is discussed within the context of a first Lucia milestone, set around 10 joules. The developed laser system is shown in detail from the oscillator level to the end of the amplification line. A comprehensive discussion of the impact of ASE and thermal effects is completed by related experimental benchmarks. The validated models are used to predict the performances of the laser system, finally resulting in a first activation of the laser system at an energy level of 7 joules in a single-shot regime and 6.6 joules at repetition rates up to 2 hertz. Limitations and further scaling approaches are discussed, followed by an outlook for the further development. (author) [fr

  16. Delay induced high order locking effects in semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, B.; Wishon, M. J.; Locquet, A.; Goulding, D.; Tykalewicz, B.; Huyet, G.; Viktorov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Multiple time scales appear in many nonlinear dynamical systems. Semiconductor lasers, in particular, provide a fertile testing ground for multiple time scale dynamics. For solitary semiconductor lasers, the two fundamental time scales are the cavity repetition rate and the relaxation oscillation frequency which is a characteristic of the field-matter interaction in the cavity. Typically, these two time scales are of very different orders, and mutual resonances do not occur. Optical feedback endows the system with a third time scale: the external cavity repetition rate. This is typically much longer than the device cavity repetition rate and suggests the possibility of resonances with the relaxation oscillations. We show that for lasers with highly damped relaxation oscillations, such resonances can be obtained and lead to spontaneous mode-locking. Two different laser types-—a quantum dot based device and a quantum well based device—are analysed experimentally yielding qualitatively identical dynamics. A rate equation model is also employed showing an excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Femtosecond laser micromachining of sapphire capillaries for laser-wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Philipp; Delbos, Niels Matthias; Maier, Andreas R. [CFEL, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Institute of Experimental Physics, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Calmano, Thomas [University of Hamburg, Institute of Experimental Physics, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Laser-plasma accelerator are promising candidates to provide ultra-relativistic electron beams for compact light sources. One factor that limits the achievable electron beam energy in a laser plasma accelerator is the Rayleigh length of the driver laser, which dictates the length over which the electron beams can effectively be accelerated. To overcome this limitation lasers can be guided in a capillary waveguide to extend the acceleration length beyond the Rayleigh length. The production of waveguide structures on scales, that are suitable for plasma acceleration is very challenging. Here, we present experimental results from waveguide machining in sapphire crystals using a Clark MXR CPA 2010 laser with a wavelength of 775nm, 1KHZ repetition rate and a pulse duration of 160 fs. We discuss the effects of different parameters like energy, lens types, writing speed and polarisation on the size and shape of the capillaries, and compare the performance of different parameter sets.

  18. Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a single laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, D. A.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Mavritskiy, A. O.; Perminov, B. E.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Murzina, T. V.; Maydykovskiy, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The performance of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a single 461 nm laser diode is presented for both the continuous-wave and the mode-locked regimes of operation. We introduce a simple astigmatism correction scheme for the laser diode beam consisting of two cylindrical lenses affecting the pump beam along the fast axis of the laser diode, which provides the mode-matching between the nearly square-shaped pump beam and the cavity mode. The resulting efficiency of the suggested Ti:Sapphire oscillator pumped by such a laser diode is analyzed for the Ti:sapphire crystals of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm in length. We demonstrate that such a system provides the generation of ultrashort pulses up to 15 fs in duration with the repetition rate of 87 MHz, the average power being 170 mW.

  19. The Mercury Laser Advances Laser Technology for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbers, C A; Caird, J; Moses, E

    2009-01-21

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is on target to demonstrate 'breakeven' - creating as much fusion-energy output as laser-energy input. NIF will compress a tiny sphere of hydrogen isotopes with 1.8 MJ of laser light in a 20-ns pulse, packing the isotopes so tightly that they fuse together, producing helium nuclei and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. The achievement of breakeven will culminate an enormous effort by thousands of scientists and engineers, not only at Livermore but around the world, during the past several decades. But what about the day after NIF achieves breakeven? NIF is a world-class engineering research facility, but if laser fusion is ever to generate power for civilian consumption, the laser will have to deliver pulses nearly 100,000 times faster than NIF - a rate of perhaps 10 shots per second as opposed to NIF's several shots a day. The Mercury laser (named after the Roman messenger god) is intended to lead the way to a 10-shots-per-second, electrically-efficient, driver laser for commercial laser fusion. While the Mercury laser will generate only a small fraction of the peak power of NIF (1/30,000), Mercury operates at higher average power. The design of Mercury takes full advantage of the technology advances manifest in its behemoth cousin (Table 1). One significant difference is that, unlike the flashlamp-pumped NIF, Mercury is pumped by highly efficient laser diodes. Mercury is a prototype laser capable of scaling in aperture and energy to a NIF-like beamline, with greater electrical efficiency, while still running at a repetition rate 100,000 times greater.

  20. Stem Cell Physics. Laser Manipulation of Blood Types: Laser-Stripping-Away of Red Blood Cell Surface Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-03-01

    A novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine[2] is proposed. The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multilaser beams with the flowing blood thin films can lead to a conversion of blood types A, B, and AB into O type.[3] The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation),[4] upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs, La Jolla, CA.

  1. Mode-locked silicon evanescent lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Brian R; Fang, Alexander W; Cohen, Oded; Bowers, John E

    2007-09-03

    We demonstrate electrically pumped lasers on silicon that produce pulses at repetition rates up to 40 GHz. The mode locked lasers generate 4 ps pulses with low jitter and extinction ratios above 18 dB, making them suitable for data and telecommunication transmitters and for clock generation and distribution. Results of both passive and hybrid mode locking are discussed. This type of device could enable new silicon based integrated technologies, such as optical time division multiplexing (OTDM), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and optical code division multiple access (OCDMA).

  2. Femtosecond laser interaction with protection materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.; Krueger, J.; Hertwig, A.; Fiedler, A.; Kautek, W

    2003-03-15

    Textile, aluminium and polyethylene used as components in laser protection curtains were investigated with respect to their ablation behaviour. Employing 33-fs pulses (800 nm wavelength, 1 kHz repetition rate), ex situ geometrical measurements of the ablation cavities and in situ acoustic investigations with a microphone were performed to determine the ablation thresholds in the single- and multi-pulse cases. The acoustical method proved advantageous for complex surface morphologies and/or single laser pulse interactions. Incubation phenomena can be observed for all the materials studied. Technically relevant multi-pulse ablation thresholds are presented and are compared with the single-pulse (1-on-1) irradiation.

  3. Self-Induced Faraday Instability Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, A. M.; Smirnov, S. V.; Staliunas, K.; Churkin, D. V.; Wabnitz, S.

    2018-05-01

    We predict the onset of self-induced parametric or Faraday instabilities in a laser, spontaneously caused by the presence of pump depletion, which leads to a periodic gain landscape for light propagating in the cavity. As a result of the instability, continuous wave oscillation becomes unstable even in the normal dispersion regime of the cavity, and a periodic train of pulses with ultrahigh repetition rate is generated. Application to the case of Raman fiber lasers is described, in good quantitative agreement between our conceptual analysis and numerical modeling.

  4. Progress toward the Wisconsin Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, Joseph; Bosch, R.A.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.V.; Green, M.A.; Jacobs, K.; Kleman, K.J.; Kulpin, J.; Rogers, G.C.; Lawler, J.E.; Yavuz, D.; Legg, R.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison/Synchrotron Radiation Center is advancing its design for a seeded VUV/soft X-ray Free Electron Laser facility called WiFEL. To support this vision of an ultimate light source, we are pursuing a program of strategic R and D addressing several crucial elements. This includes development of a high repetition rate, VHF superconducting RF electron gun, R and D on photocathode materials by ARPES studies, and evaluation of FEL facility architectures (e.g., recirculation, compressor scenarios, CSR dechirping, undulator technologies) with the specific goal of cost containment. Studies of high harmonic generation for laser seeding are also planned.

  5. Repetition and lag effects in movement recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C R; Buckolz, E

    1982-03-01

    Whether repetition and lag improve the recognition of movement patterns was investigated. Recognition memory was tested for one repetition, two-repetitions massed, and two-repetitions distributed with movement patterns at lags of 3, 5, 7, and 13. Recognition performance was examined both immediately afterwards and following a 48 hour delay. Both repetition and lag effects failed to be demonstrated, providing some support for the claim that memory is unaffected by repetition at a constant level of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972). There was, as expected, a significant decrease in recognition memory following the retention interval, but this appeared unrelated to repetition or lag.

  6. Metal processing with ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Paul S.; Felt, M. D.; Komashko, Aleksey M.; Perry, Michael D.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2000-08-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation has been shown to produce well-defined cuts and holes in metals with minimal heat effect to the remaining material. Ultrashort laser pulse processing shows promise as an important technique for materials processing. We will discuss the physical effects associated with processing based experimental and modeling results. Intense ultra-short laser pulse (USLP) generates high pressures and temperatures in a subsurface layer during the pulse, which can strongly modify the absorption. We carried out simulations of USLP absorption versus material and pulse parameters. The ablation rate as function of the laser parameters has been estimated. Since every laser pulse removes only a small amount of material, a practical laser processing system must have high repetition rate. We will demonstrate that planar ablation is unstable and the initially smooth crater bottom develops a corrugated pattern after many tens of shots. The corrugation growth rate, angle of incidence and the polarization of laser electric field dependence will be discussed. In the nonlinear stage, the formation of coherent structures with scales much larger than the laser wavelength was observed. Also, there appears to be a threshold fluence above which a narrow, nearly perfectly circular channel forms after a few hundred shots. Subsequent shots deepen this channel without significantly increasing its diameter. The role of light absorption in the hole walls will be discussed.

  7. Effects of deposition rates on laser damage threshold of TiO2/SiO2 high reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jianke; Xu Cheng; Ma Jianyong; Fang Ming; Fan Zhengxiu; Jin Yunxia; Zhao Yuanan; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 single layers and TiO 2 /SiO 2 high reflectors (HR) are prepared by electron beam evaporation at different TiO 2 deposition rates. It is found that the changes of properties of TiO 2 films with the increase of rate, such as the increase of refractive index and extinction coefficient and the decrease of physical thickness, lead to the spectrum shift and reflectivity bandwidth broadening of HR together with the increase of absorption and decrease of laser-induced damage threshold. The damages are found of different morphologies: a shallow pit to a seriously delaminated and deep crater, and the different amorphous-to-anatase-to-rutile phase transition processes detected by Raman study. The frequency shift of Raman vibration mode correlates with the strain in film. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis reveals that impurities and non-stoichiometric defects are two absorption initiations resulting to the laser-induced transformation.

  8. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  9. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Brian C.; Eklund, Peter C.; Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin C.; Shinn, Michelle

    2010-04-06

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces an output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  10. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Brian C. (Inventor); Eklund, Peter C. (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Shinn, Michelle (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  11. Microcomponents manufacturing for precise devices by copper vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorny, Sergey; Nikonchuk, Michail O.; Polyakov, Igor V.

    2001-06-01

    This paper presents investigation results of drilling of metal microcomponents by copper vapor laser. The laser consists of master oscillator - spatial filter - amplifier system, electronics switching with digital control of laser pulse repetition rate and quantity of pulses, x-y stage with computer control system. Mass of metal, removed by one laser pulse, is measured and defined by means of diameter and depth of holes. Interaction of next pulses on drilled material is discussed. The difference between light absorption and metal evaporation processes is considered for drilling and cutting. Efficiency of drilling is estimated by ratio of evaporation heat and used laser energy. Maximum efficiency of steel cutting is calculated with experimental data of drilling. Applications of copper vapor laser for manufacturing is illustrated by such microcomponents as pin guide plate for printers, stents for cardio surgery, encoded disks for security systems and multiple slit masks for spectrophotometers.

  12. Gas flow rate and powder flow rate effect on properties of laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available . The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were varied to study their effect on the physical, metallurgical and mechanical properties of the deposits. The physical properties studied are: the track width, the track height and the deposit weight...

  13. Copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, F A; Fedorov, K V; Evtushenko, G S; Fedorov, V F; Shiyanov, D V

    2016-01-01

    We report the development of a copper bromide vapour laser with an output pulse duration of up to 320 ns. To lengthen the pulse, the discharge current was limited using a compound switch comprising a pulsed hydrogen thyratron and a tacitron. This technique permits limiting the excitation of the working levels at the initial stage of the discharge development to lengthen the inversion lifetime. The longest duration of a laser pulse was reached in tubes 25 and 50 mm in diameter for a pulse repetition rate of 2 – 4 kHz. (lasers and laser beams)

  14. Large scale Tesla coil guided discharges initiated by femtosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantchouk, L.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Prade, B.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-07-01

    The guiding of meter scale electric discharges produced in air by a Tesla coil is realized in laboratory using a focused terawatt laser pulse undergoing filamentation. The influence of the focus position, the laser arrival time, or the gap length is studied to determine the best conditions for efficient laser guiding. Discharge parameters such as delay, jitter, and resistance are characterized. An increase of the discharge length by a factor 5 has been achieved with the laser filaments, corresponding to a mean breakdown field of 2 kV/cm for a 1.8 m gap length. Consecutive guided discharges at a repetition rate of 10 Hz are also reported.

  15. A rate-equation model for polarized laser-induced fluorescence to measure electric field in glow discharge He plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, K.; Watanabe, M.; Oda, T.

    1998-01-01

    Possibility of applying polarized laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for measuring the electric field in a plasma with a large collisional depolarization has been investigated. A rate equation model including the depolarization process was employed to analyze the time evolution of LIF polarization components. The polarized LIF pulse shapes observed in the sheath of a He glow discharge plasma were successfully reproduced, and the electric field distribution was obtained with high accuracy. (author)

  16. High-efficiency diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Wei, Z.Y.; Zou, Y.W.

    2010-01-01

    A highly efficient diode-end-pumped femtosecond Yb:yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) ceramic laser was demonstrated. Pumped by a 968 nm fiber-coupled diode laser, 1.9 W mode-locked output power at a repetition rate of 64.27 MHz was obtained with 3.5 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to a slope...... efficiency of 76%. Our measurement showed that the pulse duration was 418 fs with the central wavelength of 1048 nm....

  17. Phosphorus-free mode-locked semiconductor laser with emission wavelength 1550 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodeznyi, E. S.; Novikov, I. I.; Babichev, A. V.; Kurochkin, A. S.; Gladyshev, A. G.; Karachinsky, L. Ya; Gadzhiev, I. M.; Buyalo, M. S.; Usikova, A. A.; Ilynskaya, N. D.; Bougrov, V. E.; Egorov, A. Yu

    2017-11-01

    We have fabricated passive mode-locked laser diodes based on strained InGaAlAs/InGaAs/InP heterostructures with crystal lattice mismatch parameter of +1.0 % between quantum well and barrier. The laser with temperature stabilization at 18 °C was demonstrated 10.027 GHz optical pulse repetition rate with 6 ps pulse duration time. Timing jitter of optical pulses in mode-locked regime was 0.145 ps.

  18. Q-switched pulse laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramics waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Luan, Qingfang; Liu, Fengqin; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez

    2013-08-12

    This work reports on the Q-switched pulsed laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides. Double-cladding waveguides with different combination of diameters were inscribed into a sample of Nd:YAG ceramic. With an additional semiconductor saturable absorber, stable pulsed laser emission at the wavelength of 1064 nm was achieved with pulses of 21 ns temporal duration and ~14 μJ pulse energy at a repetition rate of 3.65 MHz.

  19. Efficient compression of the femtosecond pulses of an ytterbium laser in a gas-filled capillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu

    2011-01-01

    A 290-fs radiation pulse of an ytterbium laser system with a central wavelength of 1028 nm and an energy of 145 μJ was compressed to a 27-fs pulse with an energy of 75 μJ. The compression was realised on the basis of the effect of pulse spectrum broadening in a xenon-filled glass capillary for a pulse repetition rate of 3kHz. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  20. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscope/microscope based on a widely tunable laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dementjev, A.; Gulbinas, V.; Serbenta, A.; Kaucikas, M.; Niaura, G.

    2010-03-01

    We present a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope based on a robust and simple laser source. A picosecond laser operating in a cavity dumping regime at the 1 MHz repetition rate was used to pump a traveling wave optical parametric generator, which serves as a two-color excitation light source for the CARS microscope. We demonstrate the ability of the presented CARS microscope to measure CARS spectra and images by using several detection schemes.

  1. Gating circuit for single photon-counting fluorescence lifetime instruments using high repetition pulsed light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, W.R.; Potter, D.W.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    We have constructed a circuit that permits conventional timing electronics to be used in single photon-counting fluorimeters with high repetition rate excitation sources (synchrotrons and mode-locked lasers). Most commercial time-to-amplitude and time-to-digital converters introduce errors when processing very short time intervals and when subjected to high-frequency signals. This circuit reduces the frequency of signals representing the pulsed light source (stops) to the rate of detected fluorescence events (starts). Precise timing between the start/stop pair is accomplished by using the second stop pulse after a start pulse. Important features of our design are that the circuit is insensitive to the simultaneous occurrence of start and stop signals and that the reduction in the stop frequency allows the start/stop time interval to be placed in linear regions of the response functions of commercial timing electronics

  2. Advances in 193 nm excimer lasers for mass spectrometry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, Ralph; Esser, Hans-Gerd; Bonati, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Ongoing progress in mass analysis applications such as laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry of solid samples and ultraviolet photoionization mediated sequencing of peptides and proteins is to a large extent driven by ultrashort wavelength excimer lasers at 193 nm. This paper will introduce the latest improvements achieved in the development of compact high repetition rate excimer lasers and elaborate on the impact on mass spectrometry instrumentation. Various performance and lifetime measurements obtained in a long-term endurance test over the course of 18 months will be shown and discussed in view of the laser source requirements of different mass spectrometry tasks. These sampling type applications are served by excimer lasers delivering pulsed 193 nm output of several mJ as well as fast repetition rates which are already approaching one Kilohertz. In order to open up the pathway from the laboratory to broader market industrial use, sufficient component lifetimes and long-term stable performance behavior have to be ensured. The obtained long-term results which will be presented are based on diverse 193 nm excimer laser tube improvements aiming at e.g. optimizing the gas flow dynamics and have extended the operational life the laser tube for the first time over several billion pulses even under high duty-cycle conditions.

  3. Compact 4-kHz XeF-laser with multisectional discharge gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andramanov, A. V.; Kabaev, S. A.; Lazhintsev, Boris V.; Nor-Arevyan, Vladimir A.; Selemir, V. D.

    2005-03-01

    An electric-discharge XeF-laser with a pulse repetition rate up to 4 kHz was developed. The laser electrode unit was made on the basis of plate-like electrodes with inductive-capacity discharge stabilization. The narrow discharge width laser energy was 3 mJ by using He/Xe/NF3 and Ne/Xe/NF3 mixtures at the total pressure of 0.8 atm and 1.2 atm, respectively. The maximum laser efficiency was ~ 0.73% The gas flow was formed with the help of a diametrical fan rotated by the direct-current motor with 80 W power. The gas velocity of 20 m/s in the interelectrode gap was achieved. The laser pulse energy for a pulse repetition rate up to 3.5...4 kHz was virtually equal to the laser pulse energy in the infrequently-repeating-pulse regime. The average output power of 12 W at the pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz was achieved. The relative root-mean-square pulse-to-pulse variation of the output energy σ = 2.5% was reached.

  4. Global Repetition Influences Contextual Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuelian; Zinchenko, Artyom; Jia, Lina; Li, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Our visual system has a striking ability to improve visual search based on the learning of repeated ambient regularities, an effect named contextual cueing. Whereas most of the previous studies investigated contextual cueing effect with the same number of repeated and non-repeated search displays per block, the current study focused on whether a global repetition frequency formed by different presentation ratios between the repeated and non-repeated configurations influence contextual cueing effect. Specifically, the number of repeated and non-repeated displays presented in each block was manipulated: 12:12, 20:4, 4:20, and 4:4 in Experiments 1–4, respectively. The results revealed a significant contextual cueing effect when the global repetition frequency is high (≥1:1 ratio) in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, given that processing of repeated displays was expedited relative to non-repeated displays. Nevertheless, the contextual cueing effect reduced to a non-significant level when the repetition frequency reduced to 4:20 in Experiment 3. These results suggested that the presentation frequency of repeated relative to the non-repeated displays could influence the strength of contextual cueing. In other words, global repetition statistics could be a crucial factor to mediate contextual cueing effect. PMID:29636716

  5. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  6. A Spectroscopic Comparison of Femtosecond Laser Modified Fused Silica using kHz and MHz Laser Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichman, W J; Krol, D M; Shah, L; Yoshino, F; Arai, A; Eaton, S M; Herman, P R

    2005-09-29

    Waveguides were written in fused silica using both a femtosecond fiber laser with a 1 MHz pulse repetition rate and a femtosecond amplified Ti:sapphire laser with a 1 kHz repetition rate. Confocal Raman and fluorescence microscopy were used to study structural changes in the waveguides written with both systems. A broad fluorescence band, centered at 650 nm, associated with non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) defects was observed after waveguide fabrication with the MHz laser. With the kHz laser system these defects were only observed for pulse energies above 1 {mu}J. Far fewer NBOHC defects were formed with the MHz laser than with kHz writing, possibly due to thermal annealing driven by heat accumulation effects at 1 MHz. When the kHz laser was used with pulse energies below 1 {mu}J, the predominant fluorescence was centered at 550 nm, a band assigned to the presence of silicon clusters (E{prime}{sub {delta}}). We also observed an increase in the intensity of the 605 cm{sup -1} Raman peak relative to the total Raman intensity, corresponding to an increase in the concentration of 3-membered rings in the lines fabricated with both laser systems.

  7. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Joseph [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  8. Excimer Laser Curing Of Polymer Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, David; Akerman, M. Alfred; Paul, George L.; Supurovic, Darko; Tsuda, Haruki

    1988-12-01

    The use of the excimer laser as a source of energy for photo-assisted curing of industrial polymeric coatings was investigated. Presently, UV lamps are sometimes used to excite a photoinitiating molecule mixed with the starting monomers and oligomers of a coating. The resulting polymeric chain reaction multiplies the effect of the initial photons, making economical use of the light source. The high cost of laser photons may thus be justifiable if lasers provide advantages over lamps. A series of visibly transparent 7 μm coatings (a typical thickness for 'slick' magazine coatings) with various photoinitiators, monomers, and oligomers was illuminated with excimer laser light of various wavelengths, fluences, and pulse repetition rates. For the optimum parameters, it was found that the laser had large advantages in curing speed over existing UV lamp processes, due to its monochromaticity. Pigmented coatings (20 μm TiO2 mixtures typical of appliance or automotive finishes) are not easily cured with UV lamps due to the inability of light to penetrate the absorbing and scattering pigmented layer. However, economically-viable cure rates were achieved with certain photoinitiators using a tunable excimer-pumped dye laser. A prototype of such a laser suitable for factory use was built and used to cure these coatings. Results are scaled to a factory situation, and costs are calculated to show the advantages of the laser method over currently used processes.

  9. Picosecond laser ablation of porcine sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, Wojciech S.; Harvey, Eleanor M.; Dhillon, Baljean; Parson, Simon H.; Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2013-03-01

    Lasers have been shown to be successful in certain medical procedures and they have been identified as potentially making a major contribution to the development of minimally invasive procedures. However, the uptake is not as widespread and there is scope for many other applications where laser devices may offer a significant advantage in comparison to the traditional surgical tools. The purpose of this research is to assess the potential of using a picosecond laser for minimally invasive laser sclerostomy. Experiments were carried out on porcine scleral samples due to the comparable properties to human tissue. Samples were prepared with a 5mm diameter trephine and were stored in lactated Ringer's solution. After laser machining, the samples were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, then dried and investigated under SEM. The laser used in the experiments is an industrial picosecond TRUMPF TruMicro laser operating at a wavelength of 1030nm, pulse length of 6ps, repetition rate of 1 kHz and a focused spot diameter of 30μm. The laser beam was scanned across the samples with the use of a galvanometer scan head and various ablation patterns were investigated. Processing parameters (pulse energy, spot and line separation) which allow for the most efficient laser ablation of scleral tissue without introducing any collateral damage were investigated. The potential to create various shapes, such as linear incisions, square cavities and circular cavities was demonstrated.

  10. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaheen, M.E., E-mail: mshaheen73@science.tanta.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using {sup 66}Zn/{sup 63}Cu, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th/{sup 238}U, {sup 66}Zn/{sup 232}Th and {sup 66}Zn/{sup 208}Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to

  11. Elemental fractionation in 785 nm picosecond and femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, M.E.; Gagnon, J.E.; Fryer, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Elemental fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse width laser beams originating from the same laser system. Femtosecond and picosecond laser beams at pulse widths of 130 fs and 110 ps, respectively, and wavelength of 785 nm were used to ablate NIST 610 synthetic glass and SRM 1107 Naval Brass B at the same spot for 800 to 1000 laser pulses at different repetition rates (5 to 50 Hz). Elemental fractionation was found to depend on repetition rate and showed a trend with femtosecond laser ablation that is opposite to that observed in picosecond laser ablation for most measured isotopes. ICP-MS signal intensity was higher in femtosecond than picosecond LA-ICP-MS in both NIST 610 and naval brass when ablation was conducted under the same fluence and repetition rate. The differences in signal intensity were partly related to differences in particle size distribution between particles generated by femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses and the consequent differences in transport and ionization efficiencies. The main reason for the higher signal intensity resulting from femtosecond laser pulses was related to the larger crater sizes compared to those created during picosecond laser ablation. Elemental ratios measured using 66 Zn/ 63 Cu, 208 Pb/ 238 U, 232 Th/ 238 U, 66 Zn/ 232 Th and 66 Zn/ 208 Pb were found to change with the number of laser pulses with data points being more scattered in picosecond than femtosecond laser pulses. Reproducibility of replicate measurements of signal intensities, fractionation and elemental ratios was better for fs-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 3 to 6%) than ps-LA-ICP-MS (RSD ~ 7 to 11%). - Highlights: • Fractionation and ICP-MS signal response were investigated for two different pulse widths using NIST 610 and Naval Brass. • Dependence of fractionation indices on repetition rate and pulse width. • Higher ablation rate was observed in picosecond compared to femtosecond laser ablation of NIST 610 and Brass

  12. Diode pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 self-Raman laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Fufang; Zhang Xingyu; Wang Qingpu; Ding Shuanghong; Jia Peng; Li Shutao; Fan Shuzhen; Zhang Chen; Liu Bo

    2006-01-01

    By using Nd:YVO 4 as the gain medium and the Raman medium simultaneously, the actively Q-switched operation of the self-Raman Nd:YVO 4 laser at 1176 nm was realized. The output characteristics including the average power, pulse energy and pulse width versus the incident pump power and pulse repetition rate were investigated. At a pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz an average power up to 0.57 W was obtained with the incident pump power of 10.2 W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 5.6% with respect to the diode laser input power. Meanwhile, an analysis of the self-Raman Nd:YVO 4 laser was carried out by using the rate equations. The obtained theoretical results were in agreement with the experimental results on the whole

  13. Simulation of Cooling Rate Effects on Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb Crack Formation in Direct Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Li, Wei; Chen, Xueyang; Zhang, Yunlu; Newkirk, Joe; Liou, Frank; Dietrich, David

    2017-03-01

    Transient temperature history is vital in direct laser deposition (DLD) as it reveals the cooling rate at specific temperatures. Cooling rate directly relates to phase transformation and types of microstructure formed in deposits. In this paper, finite element analysis simulation was employed to study the transient temperature history and cooling rate at different experimental setups in the Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb DLD process. An innovative prediction strategy was developed to model with a moving Gaussian distribution heat source and element birth and death technology in ANSYS®, and fabricate crack-free deposits. This approach helps to understand and analyze the impact of cooling rate and also explain phase information gathered from x-ray diffraction.

  14. Cancer radiotherapy based on femtosecond IR laser-beam filamentation yielding ultra-high dose rates and zero entrance dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesat, Ridthee; Belmouaddine, Hakim; Allard, Jean-François; Tanguay-Renaud, Catherine; Lemay, Rosalie; Brastaviceanu, Tiberius; Tremblay, Luc; Paquette, Benoit; Wagner, J Richard; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul; Lepage, Martin; Huels, Michael A; Houde, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    Since the invention of cancer radiotherapy, its primary goal has been to maximize lethal radiation doses to the tumor volume while keeping the dose to surrounding healthy tissues at zero. Sadly, conventional radiation sources (γ or X rays, electrons) used for decades, including multiple or modulated beams, inevitably deposit the majority of their dose in front or behind the tumor, thus damaging healthy tissue and causing secondary cancers years after treatment. Even the most recent pioneering advances in costly proton or carbon ion therapies can not completely avoid dose buildup in front of the tumor volume. Here we show that this ultimate goal of radiotherapy is yet within our reach: Using intense ultra-short infrared laser pulses we can now deposit a very large energy dose at unprecedented microscopic dose rates (up to 10(11) Gy/s) deep inside an adjustable, well-controlled macroscopic volume, without any dose deposit in front or behind the target volume. Our infrared laser pulses produce high density avalanches of low energy electrons via laser filamentation, a phenomenon that results in a spatial energy density and temporal dose rate that both exceed by orders of magnitude any values previously reported even for the most intense clinical radiotherapy systems. Moreover, we show that (i) the type of final damage and its mechanisms in aqueous media, at the molecular and biomolecular level, is comparable to that of conventional ionizing radiation, and (ii) at the tumor tissue level in an animal cancer model, the laser irradiation method shows clear therapeutic benefits.

  15. ZnO synthesized in air by fs laser irradiation on metallic Zn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda-Barrón, Y.; Herrera, M.; Camacho-López, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present results on rapid femtosecond laser synthesis of nanostructured ZnO. We used metallic Zn thin films to laser scan along straight tracks, until forming nanostructured ZnO. The synthesis dependence on laser irradiation parameters such as the per pulse fluence, integrated fluence, laser scan speed, and number of scans were explored carefully. SEM characterization showed that the morphology of the obtained ZnO is dictated by the integrated fluence and the laser scan speed; micro Raman and XRD results allowed to identify optimal laser processing conditions for getting good quality ZnO; and cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that a single laser scan at high per pulse laser fluence, but a medium integrated laser fluence and a medium laser scan speed favors a low density of point-defects in the lattice. Electrical measurements showed a correlation between resistivity of the laser produced ZnO and point-defects created during the synthesis. Transmittance measurements showed that, the synthesized ZnO can reach down to the supporting fused silica substrate under the right laser irradiation conditions. The physical mechanism for the formation of ZnO, under ultrashort pulse laser irradiation, is discussed in view of the distinct times scales given by the laser pulse duration and the laser pulse repetition rate.

  16. TEM sample preparation by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling for high-rate TEM straining experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, Thomas; Grapes, Michael D. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zhang, Yong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lorenzo, Nicholas; Ligda, Jonathan; Schuster, Brian [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Weihs, Timothy P. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    To model mechanical properties of metals at high strain rates, it is important to visualize and understand their deformation at the nanoscale. Unlike post mortem Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), which allows one to analyze defects within samples before or after deformation, in situ TEM is a powerful tool that enables imaging and recording of deformation and the associated defect motion during mechanical loading. Unfortunately, all current in situ TEM mechanical testing techniques are limited to quasi-static strain rates. In this context, we are developing a new test technique that utilizes a rapid straining stage and the Dynamic TEM (DTEM) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The new straining stage can load samples in tension at strain rates as high as 4×10{sup 3}/s using two piezoelectric actuators operating in bending while the DTEM at LLNL can image in movie mode with a time resolution as short as 70 ns. Given the piezoelectric actuators are limited in force, speed, and displacement, we have developed a method for fabricating TEM samples with small cross-sectional areas to increase the applied stresses and short gage lengths to raise the applied strain rates and to limit the areas of deformation. In this paper, we present our effort to fabricate such samples from bulk materials. The new sample preparation procedure combines femtosecond laser machining and ion milling to obtain 300 µm wide samples with control of both the size and location of the electron transparent area, as well as the gage cross-section and length. - Highlights: • Tensile straining TEM specimens made by femtosecond laser machining and ion milling. • Accurate positioning of the electron transparent area within a controlled gauge region. • Optimization of femtosecond laser and ion milling parameters. • Fast production of numerous samples with a highly repeatable geometry.

  17. High Speed Pump-Probe Apparatus for Observation of Transitional Effects in Ultrafast Laser Micromachining Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Alexeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A pump-probe experimental approach has been shown to be a very efficient tool for the observation and analysis of various laser matter interaction effects. In those setups, synchronized laser pulses are used to create an event (pump and to simultaneously observe it (probe. In general, the physical effects that can be investigated with such an apparatus are restricted by the temporal resolution of the probe pulse and the observation window. The latter can be greatly extended by adjusting the pump-probe time delay under the assumption that the interaction process remains fairly reproducible. Unfortunately, this assumption becomes invalid in the case of high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser material processing, where the irradiation history strongly affects the ongoing interaction process. In this contribution, the authors present an extension of the pump-probe setup that allows to investigate transitional and dynamic effects present during ultrafast laser machining performed at high pulse repetition frequencies.

  18. High power CO2 lasers and their applications in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Carbon dioxide laser is one of the most popular lasers in industry for material processing applications. It has very high power capability and high efficiency, can be operated in continuous wave (CW), modulated and pulsed modes, and has relatively low cost. Due to these characteristics high power CO 2 lasers are being used worldwide in different industries for a wide variety of materials processing operations. In nuclear industry, CO 2 laser has made its way in many applications. Some of the tasks performed by multikilowatt CO 2 laser are cutting operations necessary to remove unprocessible hardware from reactor fuel assemblies, sealing/fixing/removing radioactive contaminations onto/from concrete surfaces and surface modification of engineering components for improved surface mechanical and metallurgical characteristics. We have developed various models of CW CO 2 lasers of power up to 12 kW and a high repetitive rate TEA (Transversely Excited Atmospheric pressure) CO 2 laser of 500 W average power operating at 500 Hz repetition rates. We have carried many materials processing applications of direct relevance to DAE. Recent work includes laser welding of end plug PFBR fuel tubes, martensitic stainless steel and titanium alloy, surface cladding of turbine blades made of Ni-super alloy with stellite 694, fabrication on graded material of stainless steel and stellite, and laser scabbling, drilling and cutting of concrete which have potential application in decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. A brief overview of these indigenous developments will be presented. (author)

  19. New developments in short-pulse eye safe lasers pay the way for future LADARs and 3D mapping performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmanik, Guerman; Latone, Kevin; Shilov, Alex; Shklovsky, Eugeni; Spiro, Alex; Tiour, Larissa

    2005-06-01

    We have demonstrated that direct excitation of 3rd Stokes Raman emission in crystal can produce short (few nanosecond) eye-safe pulses. Produced beam has very high quality and the pulse energy can be as high as tens of millijoules. For pulsed diode pumped solid state lasers the demonstrated repetition rate was 250 Hz but higher repetition rates are certainly achievable. It is important that tested schemes do not have strict requirements on laser pump parameters, namely beam divergence and frequency bandwidth. The obtained results are very relevant to the development of eye-safe lasers, such as the new generation of rangefinders, target designators, and laser tracking and pin-pointing devices, as well as remote 2D and 3D imaging systems.

  20. Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth-rate measurements with the OMEGA laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauer, J.P.; Verdon, C.P.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Boehly, T.R.; Bradley, D.K.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Ofer, D.; McKenty, P.W.; Glendinning, S.G.; Kalantar, D.H.; Watt, R.G.; Gobby, P.L.; Willi, O.; Taylor, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The results from a series of single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth experiments performed on the OMEGA laser system using planar targets are reported. Planar targets with imposed mass perturbations were accelerated using five to six 351-nm laser beams overlapped with total intensities up to 2.5x10 14 W/cm 2 . Experiments were performed with both 3-ns ramp and 3-ns flat-topped temporal pulse shapes. The use of distributed phase plates and smoothing by spectral dispersion resulted in a laser-irradiation nonuniformity of 4%endash 7% over a 600-μm-diam region defined by the 90% intensity contour. The temporal growth of the modulation in optical depth was measured using through-foil radiography and was detected with an x-ray framing camera for CH targets with and without a foam buffer. The growth of both 31-μm and 60-μm wavelength perturbations was found to be in good agreement with ORCHID simulations when the experimental details, including noise, were included. The addition of a 30-mg/cc, 100-μm-thick polystyrene foam buffer layer resulted in reduced growth of the 31-μm perturbation and essentially unchanged growth for the 60-μm case when compared to targets without foam. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. High-resolution in-source laser spectroscopy in perpendicular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinke, R., E-mail: reinhard.heinke@uni-mainz.de; Kron, T. [Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany); Raeder, S. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Reich, T.; Schönberg, P. [Universität Mainz, Institut für Kernchemie (Germany); Trümper, M.; Weichhold, C.; Wendt, K. [Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Operation of the novel laser ion source unit LIST (Laser Ion Source and Trap), operating at the on-line radioactive ion beam facility ISOLDE at CERN allowed for the production of ultra-pure beams of exotic isotopes far-off stability as well as direct isobar-free laser spectroscopy, giving access to the study of atomic and nuclear properties of so far inaccessible nuclides. We present a specific upgrade and adaption of the LIST targeted for high resolution spectroscopy with a Doppler-reduced perpendicular atom - laser beam geometry. With this PI-LIST (Perpendicularly Illuminated Laser Ion Source and Trap) setup, experimental linewidths below 100 MHz could be demonstrated in optical laser spectroscopy off-line, applying a pulsed injection-locked high repetition rate Ti:sapphire laser. A dual repeller configuration ensured highest suppression of isobaric interferences and almost background-free measurements on small samples in the order of 10{sup 11} atoms.

  2. Investigation on a TEA-CO II laser with surface corona pre-ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behjat, A.; Aram, M.; Soltanmoradi, F.; Shabanzadeh, M.

    2006-05-01

    The construction of a surface corona UV pre-ionized TEA CO II laser is described and dependence of its average output energy of the laser to gas mixture, discharge voltage and repetition rate is investigated. The electric circuit diagram and geometry of the pre-ionization system are presented. Configuration of circuit has been designed to produce only impulsive voltage difference between the laser electrodes. Also, the triggering configuration of trigatron is prepared for fast operation to minimize the arc occurrence as much as possible. Some data of current, voltage, laser pulses and average output energy versus gas mixture and applied voltages are given. IR spectrometer is used for measurements of central output wavelength of the laser. Operation of the laser on two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of CO II molecule has been observed that shows the ability of this laser for working on multi-line in a same time for special applications.

  3. Microdrilling of metals with an inexpensive and compact ultra-short-pulse fiber amplified microchip laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancona, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory ' LIT3' , Dipartimento Interuniversitario di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Nodop, D.; Limpert, J.; Nolte, S. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Tuennermann, A. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Jena (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering (IOF), Jena (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    We have investigated the ultra-fast microdrilling of metals using a compact and cheap fiber amplified passively Q-switched microchip laser. This laser system delivers 100-ps pulses with repetition rates higher than 100 kHz and pulse energies up to 80 {mu}J. The ablation process has been studied on metals with quite different thermal properties (copper, carbon steel and stainless steel). The dependence of the ablation depth per pulse on the pulse energy follows the same logarithmic scaling laws governing laser ablation with sub-picosecond pulses. Structures ablated with 100-ps laser pulses are accompanied only by a thin layer of melted material. Despite this, results with a high level of precision are obtained when using the laser trepanning technique. This simple and affordable laser system could be a valid alternative to nanosecond laser sources for micromachining applications. (orig.)

  4. Power and energy scaling of a diode-end-pumped Nd:YLF laser through gain optimization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An end-pumped Nd:YLF laser was demonstrated, which delivered 60.3 W continuous-wave and more than 52 W Q-switched average power for all repetition rates from 5 to 30 kHz. To achieve this, an analytical solution to estimate and optimize...

  5. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deri, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a ∼ 200 (micro)s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  6. Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Computer-Related Repetitive Stress Injuries What's in this article? ...

  7. A SESAM passively mode-locked fiber laser with a long cavity including a band pass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Rui; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Hou, Jing; Lu, Qi-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) passively mode-locked fiber laser with a long cavity length over 700 m is demonstrated. A band pass filter is inserted into the laser cavity to stabilize the lasing wavelength. Some interesting phenomena are observed and discussed. The central wavelength, repetition rate, average power and single pulse energy of the laser are 1064 nm, 281.5 kHz, 11 mW and 39 nJ, respectively. The laser operates stably without Q-switching instabilities, which greatly reduces the damage opportunities of the SESAM

  8. Soft x-ray source by laser produced Xe plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Sho; Masuda, Kazuya; Miyamoto, Shuji; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    2010-01-01

    The laser plasma soft X-ray source in the wavelength rage of 5-17 nm was developed, which consisted of the rotating drum system supplying cryogenic Xe target and the high repetition rate pulse Nd:YAG slab laser. We found the maximum conversion efficiency of 30% and it demonstrated the soft X-ray generation with the high repetition rate pulse of 320 pps and the high average power of 20 W. The soft X-ray cylindrical mirror was developed and successfully focused the soft X-ray with an energy intensity of 1.3 mJ/cm 2 . We also succeeded in the plasma debris mitigation with Ar gas. This will allow a long lifetime of the mirror and a focusing power intensity of 400 mW/cm 2 with 320 pps. The high power soft X-ray is useful for various applications. (author)

  9. Femtosecond laser ablation and cutting technology on PMP foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chengwei; Li Guo; Huang Yanhua; Du Kai; Yang Liang

    2013-01-01

    The femtosecond laser ablation results of PMP foam (density of 90 mg/cm 3 ) were analyzed. The laser pulses used for the study were 800 nm in wavelength, 50 fs in pulse duration and the repetition rate was 1000 Hz. The ablation threshold of the foam was 0.91 J/cm 2 when it was shot by 100 laser pulses. The impacts of laser power, the pulse number and the numerical aperture of the focusing objective on the crater diameter were obtained. In the same femtosecond laser machining system, comparing with the ablation shape into copper foil, the important factor causing the irregular shape of the ablation region was verified that there were many different sizes and randomly distributed pores inside PMP foam. The carbonation phenomenon was observed on the edge of the ablated areas when the sample was ablated using high laser power or/and more laser pulses. Thermal effect was considered to be the causes of the carbonation. A new method based on coupling laser beam to cut thickness greater than 1 mm film-foam with femtosecond laser was proposed. Using this method, the femtosecond laser cutting thickness was greater than 1.5 mm, the angle between the cutting side wall and the laser beam optical axis might be less than 5°, and the cutting surface was clean. (authors)

  10. Repetitive learning control of continuous chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Maoyin; Shang Yun; Zhou Donghua

    2004-01-01

    Combining a shift method and the repetitive learning strategy, a repetitive learning controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. If nonlinear parts in chaotic systems satisfy Lipschitz condition, the proposed controller can be simplified into a simple proportional repetitive learning controller

  11. Improvement of the Dynamic Responses of Heart Rate Variability Patterns after Needle and Laser Acupuncture Treatment in Patients with Burnout Syndrome: A Transcontinental Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated manual needle and laser needle acupuncture as a complementary therapy for patients with burnout syndrome. Twenty patients with a mean age ± SD of 38.7 ± 8.4 years were assigned to two groups, each consisting of ten patients. One group was treated with manual needle acupuncture and the other with laser needle acupuncture. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV, and a new score called dynamic acupuncture treatment score (DATS served as evaluation parameters. The study documented significant effects on heart rate after needle acupuncture treatment and significant effects on HRV caused by both needle and laser needle acupuncture. Based on new neurovegetative acupuncture treatment evaluation scores, it can be stated that both noninvasive laser needle acupuncture and manual needle acupuncture have the potential to be a powerful approach for evidence-based complementary treatment of patients with burnout syndrome. Further transcontinental studies to verify or refute the preliminary findings are in progress.

  12. Nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkin, B.V.; Gaponov-Grekhov, A.V.; Eltchaninov, A.S.; Zagulov, F.Ya.; Korovin, S.D.; Mesyats, G.A.; Osipov, M.L.; Otlivantchik, E.A.; Petelin, M.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of a nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO. A pulsed power repetitive accelerator producing electron beams of electron energy 500-700 keV and current 5 kA in pulses of duraction 10 ns with a repetition rate of 100 pps is described. The results of experiments with a high-voltage gas-filled spark gap and a cold-cathode vacuum diode under the conditions of high repetition rates are given. Also presented are the results of studies of a relativistic BWO operating with a wavelength of 3 cm. It is shown that for a high-current beam electron energy of 500-700 keV, the BWO efficiency can reach 35%, the microwave power being 10 9 W. A superconducting solenoid creating a magnetic field of 30 kOe was used for the formation and transportation of the high-current electron beam. In conclusion, the outcome of tests of a nanosecond radar station based on a pulsed power repetitive accelerator and a relativistic BWO is reported

  13. Advanced chemical oxygen iodine lasers for novel beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kenan; Zhao, Tianliang; Huai, Ying; Jin, Yuqi

    2018-03-01

    Chemical oxygen iodine laser, or COIL, is an impressive type of chemical laser that emits high power beam with good atmospheric transmissivity. Chemical oxygen iodine lasers with continuous-wave plane wave output are well-developed and are widely adopted in directed energy systems in the past several decades. Approaches of generating novel output beam based on chemical oxygen iodine lasers are explored in the current study. Since sophisticated physical processes including supersonic flowing of gaseous active media, chemical reacting of various species, optical power amplification, as well as thermal deformation and vibration of mirrors take place in the operation of COIL, a multi-disciplinary model is developed for tracing the interacting mechanisms and evaluating the performance of the proposed laser architectures. Pulsed output mode with repetition rate as high as hundreds of kHz, pulsed output mode with low repetition rate and high pulse energy, as well as novel beam with vector or vortex feature can be obtained. The results suggest potential approaches for expanding the applicability of chemical oxygen iodine lasers.

  14. 308-nm excimer laser ablation of human cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodoehl, John A.; Rhodes, Anthony L.; Meller, Menachem M.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1993-07-01

    The XeCl excimer laser was investigated as an ablating tool for human fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage. Quantitative measurements were made of tissue ablation rates as a function of fluence in meniscal fibrocartilage and articular hyaline cartilage. A force of 1.47 Newtons was applied to an 800 micrometers fiber with the laser delivering a range of fluences (40 to 190 mj/mm2) firing at a frequency of 5 Hz. To assess the effect of repetition rate on ablation rate, a set of measurements was made at a constant fluence of 60 mj/mm2, with the repetition rate varying from 10 to 40 Hz. Histologic and morphometric analysis was performed using light microscopy. The results of these studies revealed that the ablation rate was directly proportional to fluence over the range tested. Fibrocartilage was ablated at a rate 2.56 times faster than hyaline cartilage at the maximum fluence tested. Repetition rate had no effect on the penetration per pulse. Adjacent tissue damage was noted to be minimal (10 - 70 micrometers ).

  15. Surface quality finish in laser cutting using Taguchi design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, V.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Hloch, Sergej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2017), s. 15-19 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : cutting speed * factorial design * laser pulse width * orthogonal array * pulse repetition rate (PRR) or pulse frequency Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_clanak_jezik=257818

  16. Ultrashort-pulse laser machining system employing a parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.

    2004-04-27

    A method and apparatus are provided for increasing the energy of chirped laser pulses to an output in the range 0.001 to over 10 millijoules at a repetition rate 0.010 to 100 kHz by using a two stage optical parametric amplifier utilizing a bulk nonlinear crystal wherein the pump and signal beam size can be independently adjusted in each stage.

  17. Soot volume fraction fields in unsteady axis-symmetric flames by continuous laser extinction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Bonnety, Jérôme; Guibert, Philippe; Morin, Céline; Legros, Guillaume

    2012-12-17

    A Laser Extinction Method has been set up to provide two-dimensional soot volume fraction field time history at a tunable frequency up to 70 Hz inside an axis-symmetric diffusion flame experiencing slow unsteady phenomena preserving the symmetry. The use of a continuous wave laser as the light source enables this repetition rate, which is an incremental advance in the laser extinction technique. The technique is shown to allow a fine description of the soot volume fraction field in a flickering flame exhibiting a 12.6 Hz flickering phenomenon. Within this range of repetition rate, the technique and its subsequent post-processing require neither any method for time-domain reconstruction nor any correction for energy intrusion. Possibly complemented by such a reconstruction method, the technique should support further soot volume fraction database in oscillating flames that exhibit characteristic times relevant to the current efforts in the validation of soot processes modeling.

  18. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-01

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  19. A robust fibre laser system for electro-optic electron bunch profile measurements at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissmann, Laurens-Georg

    2012-08-15

    For the electro-optic measurement of electron bunch profiles at FLASH a robust ytterbium doped fibre laser (YDFL) system has been developed consisting of a laser oscillator and a two-staged amplifier. The oscillator is designed to meet the specifications of high reliability and low noise operation. The amplifier makes use of tailored nonlinearity to enhance the spectral bandwidth of the output laser pulses. Active repetition rate control enables sub-picosecond synchronisation of the laser to the accelerator reference RF. Using a two-stage gating scheme the output pulse train repetition rate is adopted to the accelerator repetition rate. An experimental site used for electro-optic electron bunch diagnostics has been redesigned to support single-shot bunch profile measurements based on spectral decoding. An existing bunch profile monitor with a similar laser system was upgraded and electro-optic bunch profile measurements were conducted, allowing for a comparison with measurements done with other longitudinal electron bunch diagnostics and with former measurements.

  20. Preparation and characterization of gelatin mediated silver nanoparticles by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Zamiri, Reza; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shameli, Kamyar; Shahril Husin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → To date, no approach has been carried out on the preparation of Ag-NPs using gelatin as a stabilizer in the PLA method. → In this paper, we used the PLA method to focus on the preparation of Ag-NPs from silver plating in water using gelatin as a stabilizer. → The effect of the laser-pulsed repetition rate on size of Ag-NPs is studied. - Abstract: We successfully prepared colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser, λ = 532 nm, with laser fluence of approximately about 0.6 J/pulse, in an aqueous gelatin solution. The size and optical absorption properties of samples were studied as a function of the laser repetition rates. The results from the UV-vis spectroscopy demonstrated that the mean diameter of Ag-NPs increase with the laser repetition rate increases. The Ag-NPs have mean diameters ranging from approximately 9 nm to 15 nm. Compared with other preparation methods, this work is clean, rapid, and simple to use.