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Sample records for repeater sgr bursts

  1. Hard burst emission from the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900+14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Woods; C. Kouveliotou; J. van Paradijs; M.S. Briggs; K. Hurley; E. Göğüş; R.D. Preece; T.W. Giblin; C. Thompson; R.C. Duncan

    1999-01-01

    We present evidence for burst emission from SGR 1900+14 with a power-law high-energy spectrum extending beyond 500 keV. Unlike previous detections of high-energy photons during bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), these emissions are not associated with extraordinarily bright flares. Not only is

  2. Hard Burst Emission from the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadijs, Jan; Briggs, Michael S.; Hurley, Kevin; Gogus, Ersin; Preece, Robert D.; Giblin, Timothy W.; Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    We present evidence for burst emission from SGR 1900 + 14 with a power-law high-energy spectrum extending beyond 500 keV. Unlike previous detections of high-energy photons during bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), these emissions are not associated with extraordinarily bright flares. Not only is the emission hard, but the spectra are better fitted by D. Band's gamma-ray burst (GRB) function rather than by the traditional optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model. We find that the spectral evolution within these hard events obeys a hardness/intensity anticorrelation. Temporally, these events are distinct from typical SGR burst emissions in that they are longer (approximately 1 s) and have relatively smooth profiles. Despite a difference in peak luminosity of approximately > 10(exp 11) between these bursts from SGR 1900 + 14 and cosmological GRBs, there are striking temporal and spectral similarities between the two kinds of bursts, aside from spectral evolution. We outline an interpretation of these events in the context of the magnetar model.

  3. Hard Burst Emission from the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods; Kouveliotou; van Paradijs J; Briggs; Hurley; Göğüş; Preece; Giblin; Thompson; Duncan

    1999-12-10

    We present evidence for burst emission from SGR 1900+14 with a power-law high-energy spectrum extending beyond 500 keV. Unlike previous detections of high-energy photons during bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), these emissions are not associated with extraordinarily bright flares. Not only is the emission hard, but the spectra are better fitted by D. Band's gamma-ray burst (GRB) function rather than by the traditional optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model. We find that the spectral evolution within these hard events obeys a hardness/intensity anticorrelation. Temporally, these events are distinct from typical SGR burst emissions in that they are longer ( approximately 1 s) and have relatively smooth profiles. Despite a difference in peak luminosity of greater, similar1011 between these bursts from SGR 1900+14 and cosmological GRBs, there are striking temporal and spectral similarities between the two kinds of bursts, aside from spectral evolution. We outline an interpretation of these events in the context of the magnetar model.

  4. An Unusual Burst from Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 Comparisons with Giant Flares and Implications for the Magnetar Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, A I; Woods, P M; Kouveliotou, C; Thompson, C; Duncan, R C; Dieters, S W; Van Paradijs, J; Finger, M H; Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.; Dieters, Stefan; Paradijs, Jan van; Finger, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 entered a remarkable phase of activity during the summer of 1998. This activity peaked on August 27, 1998 when a giant periodic gamma-ray flare resembling the famous March 5, 1979 event from SGR 0526-66 was recorded. Two days later (August 29), a strong, bright burst was detected with RXTE and BATSE. This event reveals several similarities to the giant flares of August 27 and March 5, and shows a number of unique features not previously seen in SGR bursts. Unlike typically short SGR bursts, this event features a 3.5 s burst peak that was preceded by an extended (~ 1 s) complex precursor, and followed by a long (~ 1000 s) periodic tail modulated at the 5.16 s stellar rotation period. Spectral analysis shows a striking distinction between the spectral behavior of the precursor, burst peak and extended tail. While the spectrum during the peak is uniform, a significant spectral evolution is detected in both the precursor and tail emissions. Temporal behavior shows a sharp rise ...

  5. Statistical properties of SGR 1900+14 bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göğüş, E.; Woods, P.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; van Paradijs, J.; Briggs, M.S.; Duncan, R.C.; Thompson, C.

    1999-01-01

    We study the statistics of soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts using a database of 187 events detected with BATSE and 837 events detected with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array; all events are from SGR 1900+14 during its 1998-1999 active phase. We find that the fluence or energ

  6. Variable Spin-Down in the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 and Correlations with Burst Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadijs, Jan; Finger, Mark H.; Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.; Hurley, Kevin; Strohmayer, Tod; Swank, Jean; Murakami, Toshio

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations of the pulsed emission from SGR 1900+ 14 during 1996 September, 1998 June-October, and early 1999. Using these measurements and results reported elsewhere, we construct a period history of this source for 2.5 yr. We find significant deviations from a steady spin-down trend during quiescence and the burst active interval. Burst and Transient Source Experiment observations of the burst emission are presented and correlations between the burst activity and spin-down rate of SGR 1900+14 are discussed. We find an 80 day interval during the summer of 1998 when the average spin-down rate is larger than the rate elsewhere by a factor approximately 2.3. This enhanced spin-down may be the result of a discontinuous spin-down event or "braking glitch" at the time of the giant flare on 1998 August 27. Furthermore, we find a large discrepancy between the pulsar period and average spin-down rate in X-rays as compared to radio observations for 1998 December and 1999 January.

  7. Statistical Properties of SGR 1900+14 Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, Ersin; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadijs, Jan

    1999-01-01

    We study the statistics of soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts using a database of 187 events detected with BATSE and 837 events detected with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array: all events are from SGR 1900+14 during its 1998-1999 active phase. We find that the fluence or energy distribution of bursts is consistent with a power law of index 1.66, over 4 orders of magnitude. This scale-free distribution resembles the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and gives evidence for self-organized criticality in SGRS. The distribution of time intervals between successive bursts from SGR 1900+14 is consistent with a lognormal distribution. There is no correlation between burst intensity and the waiting times till the next burst, but there is some evidence for a correlation between burst intensity and the time elapsed since the previous burst. We also find a correlation between the duration and the energy of the bursts, but with significant scatter. In all these statistical properties, SGR bursts resemble earthquakes and solar flares more closely than they resemble any known accretion-powered or nuclear-powered phenomena. Thus, our analysis lends support to the hypothesis that the energy source for SGR bursts is internal to the neutron star and plausibly magnetic.

  8. Statistical Properties of SGR 1806-20 Bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göğüş; Woods; Kouveliotou; van Paradijs J; Briggs; Duncan; Thompson

    2000-04-01

    We present statistics of SGR 1806-20 bursts, combining 290 events detected with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array, 111 events detected with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment, and 134 events detected with the International Cometary Explorer. We find that the fluence distribution of bursts observed with each instrument are well described by power laws with indices 1.43, 1.76, and 1.67, respectively. The distribution of time intervals between successive bursts from SGR 1806-20 is described by a lognormal function with a peak at 103 s. There is no correlation between the burst intensity and either the waiting times until the next burst or the time elapsed since the previous burst. In all these statistical properties, SGR 1806-20 bursts resemble a self-organized critical system, similar to earthquakes and solar flares. Our results thus support the hypothesis that the energy source for soft gamma repeater bursts is crustquakes due to the evolving, strong magnetic field of the neutron star, rather than any accretion or nuclear power.

  9. Statistical Properties of SGR 1806-20 Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, Ersin; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadijs, Jan; Briggs, Michael S.; Duncan, Robert C.; Thompson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    We present statistics of SGR 1806-20 bursts, combining 290 events detected with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array, 111 events detected with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment, and 134 events detected with the International Cometary, Explorer. We find that the fluence distribution of bursts observed with each instrument are well described by power laws with indices 1.43, 1.76, and 1.67, respectively. The distribution of time intervals between successive bursts from SGR 1806-20 is described by a lognormal function with a peak at 103 s. There is no correlation between the burst intensity and either the waiting times until the next burst or the time elapsed since the previous burst. In all these statistical properties, SGR 1806-20 bursts resemble a self-organized critical system, similar to earthquakes and solar flares. Our results thus support the hypothesis that the energy source for soft gamma repeater bursts is crustquakes due to the evolving, strong magnetic field of the neutron star, rather than any accretion or nuclear power.

  10. Discovery of a new soft gamma repeater, SGR J1833-0832

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Göğüş; G. Cusumano; A.J. Levan; C. Kouveliotou; T. Sakamoto; S.D. Barthelmy; S. Campana; Y. Kaneko; B.W. Stappers; A. de Ugarte Postigo; T. Strohmayer; D.M. Palmer; J. Gelbord; D.N. Burrows; A.J. van der Horst; T. Muñoz-Darias; N. Gehrels; J.W.T. Hessels; A.P. Kamble; S. Wachter; K. Wiersema; R.A.M.J. Wijers; P.M. Woods

    2010-01-01

    On 2010 March 19, the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope triggered on a short burst with temporal and spectral characteristics similar to those of soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts. The source location, however, did not coincide with any known SGR. Subsequent observations of the source error box with the Sw

  11. Discovery of a new soft gamma repeater: SGR J0418 + 5729

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Horst; V. Connaughton; C. Kouveliotou; E. Göğüş; Y. Kaneko; S. Wachter; M.S. Briggs; J. Granot; E. Ramirez-Ruiz; P.M. Woods; R.L. Aptekar; S.D. Barthelmy; J.R. Cummings; M.H. Finger; D.D. Frederiks; N. Gehrels; C.R. Gelino; D.M. Gelino; S. Golenetskii; K. Hurley; H.A. Krimm; E.P. Mazets; J.E. McEnery; C.A. Meegan; P.P. Oleynik; D.M. Palmer; V.D. Pal'shin; A. Pe'er; D. Svinkin; M.V. Ulanov; M. van der Klis; A. von Kienlin; A.L. Watts; C.A. Wilson-Hodge

    2010-01-01

    On 2009 June 5, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope triggered on two short and relatively dim bursts with spectral properties similar to soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts. Independent localizations of the bursts by triangulation with the Konus-RF and with the

  12. Search for Gravitational-Wave Bursts from Soft Gamma Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bastarrika, M.; Bayer, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Brunet, G.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Casebolt, T.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Cokelaer, T.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cutler, R. M.; Dalrymple, J.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Duke, I.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Echols, C.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Flasch, K.; Fotopoulos, N.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimaldi, F.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayama, K.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Ito, M.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kamat, S.; Kanner, J.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Khan, R.; Khazanov, E.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Kozhevatov, I.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lang, M. M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leindecker, N.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McIntyre, G.; McIvor, G.; McKechan, D.; McKenzie, K.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Miller, J.; Minelli, J.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, H.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Dell, J.; Ogin, G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Petrie, T.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; de La Jordana, L. Sancho; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S. W.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.

    2008-11-01

    We present a LIGO search for short-duration gravitational waves (GWs) associated with soft gamma ray repeater (SGR) bursts. This is the first search sensitive to neutron star f modes, usually considered the most efficient GW emitting modes. We find no evidence of GWs associated with any SGR burst in a sample consisting of the 27 Dec. 2004 giant flare from SGR 1806-20 and 190 lesser events from SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. The unprecedented sensitivity of the detectors allows us to set the most stringent limits on transient GW amplitudes published to date. We find upper limit estimates on the model-dependent isotropic GW emission energies (at a nominal distance of 10 kpc) between 3×1045 and 9×1052 erg depending on waveform type, detector antenna factors and noise characteristics at the time of the burst. These upper limits are within the theoretically predicted range of some SGR models.

  13. BROADBAND SPECTRAL INVESTIGATIONS OF SGR J1550-5418 BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Lin; Goegues, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Baring, Matthew G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Granot, Jonathan [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Van der Horst, Alexander; Watts, Anna L. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gruber, David; Von Kienlin, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Younes, George [USRA, National Space Science and Technology Center, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Gehrels, Neil, E-mail: linlin@sabanciuniv.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We present the results of our broadband spectral analysis of 42 SGR J1550-5418 bursts simultaneously detected with the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), during the 2009 January active episode of the source. The unique spectral and temporal capabilities of the XRT windowed timing mode have allowed us to extend the GBM spectral coverage for these events down to the X-ray domain (0.5-10 keV). Our earlier analysis of the GBM data found that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra were described equally well with either a Comptonized model or with two blackbody functions; the two models were statistically indistinguishable. Our new broadband (0.5-200 keV) spectral fits show that, on average, the burst spectra are better described with two blackbody functions than with the Comptonized model. Thus, our joint XRT-GBM analysis clearly shows for the first time that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra might naturally be expected to exhibit a more truly thermalized character, such as a two-blackbody or even a multi-blackbody signal. Using the Swift and RXTE timing ephemeris for SGR J1550-5418 we construct the distribution of the XRT burst counts with spin phase and find that it is not correlated with the persistent X-ray emission pulse phase from SGR J1550-5418. These results indicate that the burst emitting sites on the neutron star need not to be co-located with hot spots emitting the bulk of the persistent X-ray emission. Finally, we show that there is a significant pulse phase dependence of the XRT burst counts, likely demonstrating that the surface magnetic field of SGR J1550-5418 is not uniform over the emission zones, since it is anticipated that regions with stronger surface magnetic field could trigger bursts more efficiently.

  14. Broadband Spectral Investigations of SGR J1550-5418 Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Goegues, Ersin; Baring, Matthew G.; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kaneko, Yuki; van der Horst, Alexander; Gruber, David; von Kienlin, Andreas; Younes, George; Watts, Anna L.; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of our broadband spectral analysis of 42 SGR J1550-5418 bursts simultaneously detected with the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), during the 2009 January active episode of the source. The unique spectral and temporal capabilities of the XRT windowed timing mode have allowed us to extend the GBM spectral coverage for these events down to the X-ray domain (0.5-10 keV). Our earlier analysis of the GBM data found that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra were described equally well with either a Comptonized model or with two blackbody functions; the two models were statistically indistinguishable. Our new broadband (0.5-200 keV) spectral fits show that, on average, the burst spectra are better described with two blackbody functions than with the Comptonized model. Thus, our joint XRT-GBM analysis clearly shows for the first time that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra might naturally be expected to exhibit a more truly thermalized character, such as a two-blackbody or even a multi-blackbody signal. Using the Swift and RXTE timing ephemeris for SGR J1550-5418 we construct the distribution of the XRT burst counts with spin phase and find that it is not correlated with the persistent X-ray emission pulse phase from SGR J1550-5418. These results indicate that the burst emitting sites on the neutron star need not to be co-located with hot spots emitting the bulk of the persistent X-ray emission. Finally, we show that there is a significant pulse phase dependence of the XRT burst counts, likely demonstrating that the surface magnetic field of SGR J1550-5418 is not uniform over the emission zones, since it is anticipated that regions with stronger surface magnetic field could trigger bursts more efficiently.

  15. Statistical properties of SGR 1806-20 bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göğüş, E.; Woods, P.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; van Paradijs, J.; Briggs, M.S.; Duncan, R.C.; Thompson, C.

    2000-01-01

    We present statistics of SGR 1806-20 bursts, combining 290 events detected with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array, 111 events detected with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment, and 134 events detected with the International Cometary Explorer. We find that the fluence d

  16. SWIFT DISCOVERY OF A NEW SOFT GAMMA REPEATER, SGR J1745-29, NEAR SAGITTARIUS A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Science and Technology Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Palmer, D. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Goegues, E.; Kaneko, Y. [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Evans, P. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Degenaar, N.; Reynolds, M. T.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wijnands, R. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mori, K. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Gehrels, N., E-mail: kennea@swift.psu.edu [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Starting in 2013 February, Swift has been performing short daily monitoring observations of the G2 gas cloud near Sgr A* with the X-Ray Telescope to determine whether the cloud interaction leads to an increase in the flux from the Galactic center. On 2013 April 24 Swift detected an order of magnitude rise in the X-ray flux from the region near Sgr A*. Initially thought to be a flare from Sgr A*, the detection of a short hard X-ray burst from the same region by the Burst Alert Telescope suggested that the flare was from an unresolved new Soft Gamma Repeater, SGR J1745-29. Here we present the discovery of SGR J1745-29 by Swift, including analysis of data before, during, and after the burst. We find that the spectrum in the 0.3-10 keV range is well fit by an absorbed blackbody model with kT{sub BB} {approx_equal} 1 keV and absorption consistent with previously measured values from the quiescent emission from Sgr A*, strongly suggesting that this source is at a similar distance. Only one SGR burst has been detected so far from the new source, and the persistent light curve shows little evidence of decay in approximately two weeks of monitoring after outburst. We discuss this light curve trend and compare it with those of other well covered SGR outbursts. We suggest that SGR J1745-29 belongs to an emerging subclass of magnetars characterized by low burst rates and prolonged steady X-ray emission one to two weeks after outburst onset.

  17. Discovery of a new Soft Gamma Repeater, SGR J1833-0832

    CERN Document Server

    Gogus, E; Levan, A J; Kouveliotou, C; Sakamoto, T; Barthelmy, S D; Campana, S; Kaneko, Y; Stappers, B W; de Ugarte-Postigo, A; Strohmayer, T; Palmer, D M; Gelbord, J; Burrows, D N; van der Horst, A J; Munoz-Darias, T; Gehrels, N; Hessels, J W T; Kamble, A P; Wachter, S; Wiersema, K; Wijers, R A M J; Woods, P M

    2010-01-01

    On 2010 March 19, the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope triggered on a short burst with temporal and spectral characteristics similar to those of Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR) bursts. The source location, however, did not coincide with any known SGR. Subsequent observations of the source error box with the Swift/X-ray Telescope and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) led to the discovery of a new X-ray source, with a spin period of 7.56 s, confirming SGR J1833-0832 as a new magnetar. Based on our detailed temporal and spectral analyses, we show that the new SGR is rapidly spinning down (4 x 10^{-12} s/s) and find an inferred dipole magnetic field of 1.8 x 10^{14} G. We also show that the X-ray flux of SGR J1833-0832 remained constant for approximately 20 days following the burst and then started to decline. We derived an accurate location of the source with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and we searched for a counterpart in deep optical and infrared observations of SGR J1833-0832, and for radio pulsed emission with t...

  18. Discovery of a new Soft Gamma Repeater: SGR J0418+5729

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, A J; Kouveliotou, C; Gogus, E; Kaneko, Y; Wachter, S; Briggs, M S; Granot, J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Woods, P M; Aptekar, R L; Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J R; Finger, M H; Frederiks, D D; Gehrels, N; Gelino, C R; Gelino, D M; Golenetskii, S; Hurley, K; Krimm, H A; Mazets, E P; McEnery, J E; Meegan, C A; Oleynik, P P; Palmer, D M; Pal'shin, V D; Pe'er, A; Svinkin, D; Ulanov, M V; van der Klis, M; von Kienlin, A; Watts, A L; Wilson-Hodge, C A

    2009-01-01

    On 2009 June 5, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope triggered on two short, and relatively dim bursts with spectral properties similar to Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR) bursts. Independent localizations of the bursts by triangulation with the Konus-RF and with the Swift satellite, confirmed their origin from the same, previously unknown, source. The subsequent discovery of X-ray pulsations with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), confirmed the magnetar nature of the new source, SGR J0418+5729. We describe here the Fermi/GBM observations, the discovery and the localization of this new SGR, and our infrared and Chandra X-ray observations. We also present a detailed temporal and spectral study of the two GBM bursts. SGR J0418+5729 is the second source discovered in the same region of the sky in the last year, the other one being SGR J0501+4516. Both sources lie in the direction of the galactic anti-center and presumably at the nearby distance of ~2 kpc (assuming they resi...

  19. Broadband Spectral Investigations of SGR J1550-5418 Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin; Baring, Matthew G; Granot, Jonathan; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Kaneko, Yuki; van der Horst, Alexander; Gruber, David; von Kienlin, Andreas; Younes, George; Watts, Anna L; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of our broadband spectral analysis of 42 SGR J1550-5418 bursts simultaneously detected with the Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), during the 2009 January active episode of the source. The unique spectral and temporal capabilities of the XRT Windowed Timing mode have allowed us to extend the GBM spectral coverage for these events down to the X-ray domain (0.5-10 keV). Our earlier analysis of the GBM data found that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra were described equally well with a Comptonized model or with two blackbody functions; the two models were statistically indistinguishable. Our new broadband (0.5 - 200 keV) spectral fits show that, on average, the burst spectra are better described with two blackbody functions than with the Comptonized model. Thus, our joint XRT/GBM analysis clearly shows for the first time that the SGR J1550-5418 burst spectra might naturally be expected to exhibit a more truly thermalized character, such as a two-blackbo...

  20. Period derivative of the Soft Gamma-ray Repeater SGR 1627-41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Esposito; A. Tiengo; S. Mereghetti; A. De Luca; G.L. Israel; D. Gotz; N. Rea; R. Turolla; S. Zane; P. Romano; M. Burgay; A. Possenti

    2009-01-01

    After nearly a decade of quiescence, the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41 reactivated on 2008 May 28 with a bursting episode (Esposito et al. 2008, MNRAS, 390, L34). On 2008 September 27-28 we performed an XMM-Newton target of opportunity observation of the source and discovered its long-sought s

  1. Suzaku observation of the new Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 0501+4516 in outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Enoto; Y.E. Nakagawa; N. Rea; P. Esposito; D. Götz; K. Hurley; G.L. Israel; M. Kokubun; K. Makishima; S. Mereghetti; H. Murakami; K. Nakazawa; T. Sakamoto; L. Stella; A. Tiengo; R. Turolla; S. Yamada; K. Yamaoka; A. Yoshida; S. Zane

    2009-01-01

    We present the first Suzaku observation of the new Soft Gamma Repeater, SGR 0501+4516, performed on 2008 August 26, four days after the onset of bursting activity of this new member of the magnetar family. The soft X-ray persistent emission was detected with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) at a

  2. Fermi/GBM Observations of SGR J0501+4516 Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin; Baring, Matthew G; van der Horst, Alexander J; Guiriec, Sylvain; Woods, Peter M; Gogus, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Scargle, Jeffrey; Granot, Jonathan; Preece, Robert; von Kienlin, Andreas; Chaplin, Vandiver; Watts, Anna L; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Zhang, Shuang Nan; Bhat, Narayan; Finger, Mark H; Gehrels, Neil; Harding, Alice; Kaper, Lex; Kaspi, Victoria; Mcenery, Julie; Meegan, Charles A; Paciesas, William S; Pe'er, Asaf; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; van der Klis, Michiel; Wachter, Stefanie; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    We present our temporal and spectral analyses of 29 bursts from SGR J0501+4516, detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during the 13 days of the source activation in 2008 (August 22 to September 3). We find that the T90 durations of the bursts can be fit with a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ~ 123 ms. We also estimate for the first time event durations of Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR) bursts in photon space (i.e., using their deconvolved spectra) and find that these are very similar to the T90s estimated in count space (following a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ~ 124 ms). We fit the time-integrated spectra for each burst and the time-resolved spectra of the five brightest bursts with several models. We find that a single power law with an exponential cutoff model fits all 29 bursts well, while 18 of the events can also be fit with two black body functions. We expand on the physical interpretation of these two models and we compare their p...

  3. X-ray Spectroscopy of Bursts from SGR 1806-20 with RXTE

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, T E; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Ibrahim, Alaa

    1998-01-01

    We report on new RXTE X-ray spectral analysis of bursts from SGR 1806-20, the most prolific SGR source known. Previous studies of bursts from this source revealed a remarkable lack of spectral variability both in single bursts as well as from burst to burst. We present here some of the first evidence for significant spectral evolution within SGR bursts. We find that optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB) spectra including photoelectric absorption provide the best fits to most bursts, however, other models (power law, Band GRB) can also produce statistically acceptable fits. We confirm the existence of a rolloff in the photon number spectrum below 5 keV.

  4. Discovery of a New Soft Gamma Repeater, SGR 1627-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; VanParadijs, Jan; Hurley, Kevin; Kippen, R. Marc; Finger, Mark H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Dieters, Stefan; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new soft gamma repeater (SGR), SGR 1627-41, and present BATSE observations of the burst emission and BeppoSAX Narrow-Field Instrument observations of the probable persistent X-ray counterpart to this SGR. All but one burst spectrum are well fit by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT values between 25 and 35 keV. The spectrum of the X-ray counterpart, SAX J1635.8-4736, is similar to that of other persistent SGR X-ray counterparts. We find weak evidence for a periodic signal at 6.41 s in the light curve for this source. Like other SGRs, this source appears to be associated with a young supernova remnant, G337.0-0.1. Based upon the peak luminosities of bursts observed from this SGR, we find a lower limit on the dipole magnetic field of the neutron star of B(sub dipole) approximately > 5 x 10(exp 14) G.

  5. Discovery of a New Soft $\\gamma$ Repeater, SGR 1627-41

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, P M; Van Paradijs, J; Hurley, K; Kippen, R M; Finger, M H; Briggs, M S; Dieters, S W; Fishman, G J; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Paradijs, Jan van; Hurley, Kevin; Finger, Mark H.; Briggs, Michael S.; Dieters, Stefan; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new soft gamma repeater (SGR), SGR 1627-41, and present BATSE observations of the burst emission and BeppoSAX NFI observations of the probable persistent X-ray counterpart to this SGR. All but one burst spectrum are well fit by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB) model with kT values between 25 and 35 keV. The spectrum of the X-ray counterpart, SAX J1635.8-4736, is similar to that of other persistent SGR X-ray counterparts. We find weak evidence for a periodic signal at 6.41 s in the light curve for this source. Like other SGRs, this source appears to be associated with a young supernova remnant G337.0-0.1. Based upon the peak luminosities of bursts observed from this SGR, we find a lower limit on the dipole magnetic field of the neutron star B_dipole > 5 * 10^14 Gauss.

  6. Search for gravitational-wave bursts from soft gamma repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M A; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Armor, P; Aso, Y; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bastarrika, M; Bayer, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bodiya, T P; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Brunet, G; Bullington, A; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Casebolt, T; Castaldi, G; Cepeda, C; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Christensen, N; Clark, D; Clark, J; Cokelaer, T; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cutler, R M; Dalrymple, J; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; Debra, D; Degallaix, J; Degree, M; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Desalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Dickson, J; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Duke, I; Dumas, J-C; Dupuis, R J; Dwyer, J G; Echols, C; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Flasch, K; Fotopoulos, N; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Grimaldi, F; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayama, K; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Hennessy, M; Heptonstall, A; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Ito, M; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kamat, S; Kanner, J; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalili, F Ya; Khan, R; Khazanov, E; Kim, C; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R K; Kozak, D; Kozhevatov, I; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lang, M M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leindecker, N; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lin, H; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lormand, M; Lu, P; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Machenschalk, B; Macinnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Mandic, V; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McIntyre, G; McIvor, G; McKechan, D; McKenzie, K; Meier, T; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Miller, J; Minelli, J; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mowlowry, C; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, H; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Petrie, T; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Principe, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ramsunder, M; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rodriguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; de la Jordana, L Sancho; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Schediwy, S W; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Stein, L C; Stochino, A; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K-X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D; Ulmen, J; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Van Den Broeck, C; van der Sluys, M; Vass, S; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P

    2008-11-21

    We present a LIGO search for short-duration gravitational waves (GWs) associated with soft gamma ray repeater (SGR) bursts. This is the first search sensitive to neutron star f modes, usually considered the most efficient GW emitting modes. We find no evidence of GWs associated with any SGR burst in a sample consisting of the 27 Dec. 2004 giant flare from SGR 1806-20 and 190 lesser events from SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14. The unprecedented sensitivity of the detectors allows us to set the most stringent limits on transient GW amplitudes published to date. We find upper limit estimates on the model-dependent isotropic GW emission energies (at a nominal distance of 10 kpc) between 3x10;{45} and 9x10;{52} erg depending on waveform type, detector antenna factors and noise characteristics at the time of the burst. These upper limits are within the theoretically predicted range of some SGR models.

  7. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  8. Time Resolved Spectroscopy of SGR J1550-5418 Bursts Detected with Fermi/Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Younes, G.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A.J.; Baring, M.G.; Granot, J.; Watts, A.L.; Bhat, P.N.; Collazzi, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gorgone, N.; Göğüş, E.; Gruber, D.; Grunblatt, S.; Huppenkothen, D.; Kaneko, Y.; von Kienlin, A.; van der Klis, M.; Lin, L.; Mcenery, J.; van Putten, T.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a time-resolved spectroscopy of the 63 brightest bursts of SGR J1550-5418, detected with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor during its 2008-2009 intense bursting episode. We performed spectral analysis down to 4 ms timescales to characterize the spectral evolution of the bursts. Using a

  9. XMM-Newton discovery of 2.6 s pulsations in the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Esposito; A. Tiengo; S. Mereghetti; G.L. Israel; A. De Luca; D. Götz; N. Rea; R. Turolla; S. Zane

    2009-01-01

    After nearly a decade of quiescence, the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41 reactivated on 2008 May 28 with a bursting episode followed by a slowly decaying enhancement of its persistent emission. To search for the still unknown spin period of this SGR taking advantage of its high flux state, we pe

  10. Magnetar Twists: Fermi/Gamma ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detection of SGR 1550-5418

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, Y; Kouveliotou, C; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Granot, J; van der Horst, A J; Watts, A L; Finger, M H; Gehrels, N; Pe'er, A; van der Klis, M; von Kienlin, A; Wachter, S; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Woods, P M

    2009-01-01

    SGR 1550-5418 (previously known as AXP 1E 1547.0-5408) went into three active bursting episodes in 2008 October and in 2009 January and March, emitting hundreds of typical Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR) bursts in soft gamma rays. The second episode was especially intense, and our untriggered burst search on Fermi/GBM data (8-1000 keV) revealed ~450 bursts emitted over 24 hours during the peak of this activity. Using the GBM data, we identified a ~150-s-long enhanced persistent emission during 2009 January 22 that exhibited intriguing timing and spectral properties: (i) clear pulsations up to ~110 keV at the spin period of the neutron star (P ~2.07 s, the fastest of all magnetars), (ii) an additional (to a power-law) blackbody component required for the enhanced emission spectra with kT ~17 keV, (iii) pulsed fraction that is strongly energy dependent and highest in the 50-74 keV energy band. A total isotropic-equivalent energy emitted during this enhanced emission is estimated to be 4.3 x 10^{40} ergs. We conclude ...

  11. Understanding the Continuum Spectra of Short Soft Gamma Repeater Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, Ersin; Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Finger, Mark H.; Lenter, Geoffrey; Patel, Sandeep K.; Swank, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The spectra of short soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts at photon energies above -15 keV are often well described by an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung model (i.e., F(E) - E^-1 * exp(-E/kT) ) with kT=20-40 keV. However, the spectral shape burst continuum at lower photon energies (down to -2 keV) is not well established. It is important to better understand the SGR burst spectral properties at lower energies since inadequate description of the burst spectral continuum could lead to incorrect conclusions, such as existence of spectral lines. Here, we present detailed spectral investigations (in 2-200 keV) of 163 bursts from SGR 1806-20, all detected with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2004 active episode that included the giant flare on 27 December 2004. We find that the great majority of burst spectra are well represented by the combination of a blackbody plus a OTTB models.

  12. Time resolved spectroscopy of SGR J1550–5418 bursts detected with Fermi/gamma-ray burst monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, G. [Universities Space Research Association, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 450, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Collazzi, A. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Van der Horst, A. J.; Watts, A. L.; Huppenkothen, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Van Putten, T. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raánana 43537 (Israel); Bhat, P. N.; Gorgone, N. [University of Alabama in Huntsville CSPAR, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Gehrels, N.; Mcenery, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Göğüş, E.; Kaneko, Y.; Lin, L. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Gruber, D.; Von Kienlin, A. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Grunblatt, S. [University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2500 Campus Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2014-04-10

    We report on a time-resolved spectroscopy of the 63 brightest bursts of SGR J1550–5418, detected with the Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor during its 2008-2009 intense bursting episode. We performed spectral analysis down to 4 ms timescales to characterize the spectral evolution of the bursts. Using a Comptonized model, we find that the peak energy, E {sub peak}, anti-correlates with flux, while the low-energy photon index remains constant at ∼ – 0.8 up to a flux limit F ≈ 10{sup –5} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Above this flux value, the E {sub peak}–flux correlation changes sign, and the index positively correlates with the flux reaching ∼1 at the highest fluxes. Using a two blackbody model, we find that the areas and fluxes of the two emitting regions correlate positively. Further, we study here for the first time the evolution of the temperatures and areas as a function of flux. We find that the area–kT relation follows the lines of constant luminosity at the lowest fluxes, R {sup 2}∝kT {sup –4}, with a break at the higher fluxes (F > 10{sup –5.5} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}). The area of the high-kT component increases with the flux while its temperature decreases, which we interpret as being due to an adiabatic cooling process. The area of the low-kT component, on the other hand, appears to saturate at the highest fluxes, toward R {sub max} ≈ 30 km. Assuming that crust quakes are responsible for soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts and considering R {sub max} as the maximum radius of the emitting photon-pair plasma fireball, we relate this saturation radius to a minimum excitation radius of the magnetosphere, and we put a lower limit on the internal magnetic field of SGR J1550–5418, B {sub int} ≳ 4.5 × 10{sup 15} G.

  13. SGR J1550-5418 BURSTS DETECTED WITH THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITOR DURING ITS MOST PROLIFIC ACTIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Horst, A. J.; Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gorgone, N. M. [Connecticut College, New London, CT 06320 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Goegues, E.; Lin, L. [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul 34956 (Turkey); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Guiriec, S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chaplin, V. L.; Goldstein, A. [University of Alabama, Huntsville, CSPAR, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Granot, J. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Watts, A. L. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissaldi, E.; Gruber, D. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M., E-mail: A.J.VanDerHorst@uva.nl [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

    2012-04-20

    We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2009 January, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties. We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles, and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J1550-5418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law (PL) with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two blackbody (BB) functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model, we find a mean PL index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlation between the Comptonized E{sub peak} and the burst fluence and average flux. For the BB+BB fits, we find that the fluences and emission areas of the two BB functions are correlated. The low-temperature BB has an emission area comparable to the neutron star surface area, independent of the temperature, while the high-temperature BB has a much smaller area and shows an anti-correlation between emission area and temperature. We compare the properties of these bursts with bursts observed from other SGR sources during extreme activations, and discuss the implications of our results in the context of magnetar burst models.

  14. SGR J1550-5418 bursts detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor during its most prolific activity

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, A J; Gorgone, N M; Kaneko, Y; Baring, M G; Guiriec, S; Gogus, E; Granot, J; Watts, A L; Lin, L; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Chaplin, V L; Connaughton, V; Finger, M H; Gehrels, N; Gibby, M H; Giles, M M; Goldstein, A; Gruber, D; Harding, A K; Kaper, L; von Kienlin, A; van der Klis, M; McBreen, S; Mcenery, J; Meegan, C A; Paciesas, W S; Pe'er, A; Preece, R D; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rau, A; Wachter, S; Wilson-Hodge, C; Woods, P M; Wijers, R A M J

    2012-01-01

    We have performed detailed temporal and time-integrated spectral analysis of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418 detected with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in January 2009, resulting in the largest uniform sample of temporal and spectral properties of SGR J1550-5418 bursts. We have used the combination of broadband and high time-resolution data provided with GBM to perform statistical studies for the source properties. We determine the durations, emission times, duty cycles and rise times for all bursts, and find that they are typical of SGR bursts. We explore various models in our spectral analysis, and conclude that the spectra of SGR J1550-5418 bursts in the 8-200 keV band are equally well described by optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung (OTTB), a power law with an exponential cutoff (Comptonized model), and two black-body functions (BB+BB). In the spectral fits with the Comptonized model we find a mean power-law index of -0.92, close to the OTTB index of -1. We show that there is an anti-correlati...

  15. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  16. Precise Localization of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41 with Chandra and the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar AXP 1E1841-045 with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Stefanie; Patel, Sandeep K.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Bouchet, Patrice; Ozel, Feryal; Tennant, Allyn F.; Woods, Peter M.; Hurley, Kevin; Becker, Werner; Slane, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We present precise localizations of AXP 1E184-045 and SGR 1627-41 with Chandra. We obtained new infrared observations of SGR 1627-41 and reanalyzed archival observations of AXP 1E1841-045 in order to refine their positions and search for infrared counterparts. A faint source is detected inside the error circle of AXP 1E1841-045. In the case of SGR 1627-41, several sources are located within the error radius of the X-ray position, and we discuss the likelihood of one of them being the counterpart. We compare the properties of our candidates to those of other known anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) and soft gamma repeater (SGR) counterparts. We find that the counterpart candidates for SGR 1627-41 and SGR 1806-20 would have to be intrinsically much brighter than AXPs in order to have counterparts detectable with the observational limits currently available for these sources. To confirm the reported counterpart of SGR 1806-20, we obtained new infrared observations during the 2003 July burst activation of the source. No brightening of the suggested counterpart is detected, implying that the counterpart of SGR 1806-20 remains yet to be identified.

  17. Unraveling the Cooling Trend of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Eichler, D.; Woods, P. M.; Lyubarsky, Y.; Patel, S. K.; Gogus, E.; vanderKlis, M.; Tennant, A.; Wachter, S.; Hurley, K.

    2003-01-01

    SGR 1627-41 was discovered in 1998 after a single active episode that lasted approximately 6 weeks. We report here our monitoring results of the decay trend of the persistent X-ray luminosity of the source during the last 5 years. We find an initial temporal power-law decay with index 0.47, reaching a plateau that is followed by a sharp (factor of 10) flux decline approximately 800 days after the source activation. The source spectrum is best described during the entire period by a single power law with high absorption [N(sub H) = 9.0(7) x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter]; the spectral index, however, varies dramatically between 2.2 and 3.8 spanning the entire range for all known soft gamma repeater sources. We discuss the cooling behavior of the neutron star assuming a deep crustal heating initiated by the burst activity of the source during 1998.

  18. How Soft Gamma Repeaters May Make Fast Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2015-01-01

    The high brightness of Fast Radio Bursts requires coherent emission by particles "bunched" by plasma instability at powers far in excess of those of pulsar spindown. Dissipation of magnetic energy in a neutron star magnetosphere, as in popular models of Soft Gamma Repeaters, can meet the energy requirement and produces an electron-positron pair plasma. Annihilation gamma rays are scattered by cooler plasma, producing a broad beam of electrons. The resulting electron distribution function is unstable to the "bump-on-tail" plasma instability. Electron plasma waves grow exponentially, scattering on density gradients to produce propagating electromagnetic waves, in analogy to Solar Type III Radio Bursts. Galactic SGR may make Galactic FRB, many orders of magnitude brighter than FRB at "cosmological" distances, that could be observed by radio telescopes out of beam or by modest arrays of dipole antennas.

  19. Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM observations of SGR J1935+2154 bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin

    2016-07-01

    SGR J1935+2154 is a new member of the magnetar family. It was discovered from a short burst which triggered Swift/BAT on 2014 July 5. In 2015 February, the source was detected in the burst active episode again which lasted for about 11 days. We searched for magnetar burst using Bayesian Blocks method through Swift/BAT and Fermi/GBM observations, and totally found 27 events including 3 in 2014 and 24 in 2015. In this talk we will present the result of our detailed analysis of the temporal and spectral properties of these short bursts, and briefly discuss the connection between burst activity and the persistent emission of the source.

  20. How Soft Gamma Repeaters Might Make Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. I.

    2016-08-01

    There are several phenomenological similarities between soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and fast radio bursts (FRBs), including duty factors, timescales, and repetition. The sudden release of magnetic energy in a neutron star magnetosphere, as in popular models of SGRs, can meet the energy requirements of FRBs, but requires both the presence of magnetospheric plasma, in order for dissipation to occur in a transparent region, and a mechanism for releasing much of that energy quickly. FRB sources and SGRs are distinguished by long-lived (up to thousands of years) current-carrying coronal arches remaining from the formation of the young neutron star, and their decay ends the phase of SGR/AXP/FRB activity even though “magnetar” fields may persist. Runaway increases in resistance when the current density exceeds a threshold, releases magnetostatic energy in a sudden burst, and produces high brightness GHz emission of FRB by a coherent process. SGRs are produced when released energy thermalizes as an equlibrium pair plasma. The failures of some alternative FRB models and the non-detection of SGR 1806-20 at radio frequencies are discussed in the appendices.

  1. SROSS C-2 Detections of Gamma Ray Bursts and the SGR 1627-41

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Sinha; P. Sreekumar; K. Kasturirangan

    2002-03-01

    The GRB monitor (GRBM) on board the Indian SROSS C-2 satellite has detected 53 classical gamma ray bursts since its launch in May, 1994 till its re-entry in July, 2001. For a subset of 26 events, locations were obtained from simultaneous observations by other gamma-ray detectors in space. The sky distribution of these 26 SROSS C-2 bursts is consistent with isotropy. The distribution of event durations shows evidence for bimodality. There is an evidence for a moderate hardness ratio-intensity (HIC) correlation in the data. The SROSS C-2 GRBM has also detected three episodes of emission from the SGR 1627-41.

  2. BURST TAILS FROM SGR J1550–5418 OBSERVED WITH THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muş, Sinem Şaşmaz; Gögüş, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Aydın, Berk, E-mail: sinemsmus@sabanciuniv.edu [Sabancı University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Orhanlı Tuzla 34956 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of our extensive search using the Bayesian block method for long tails following short bursts from a magnetar, SGR J1550–5418, over all RXTE observations of the source. We identified four bursts with extended tails, most of which occurred during its 2009 burst active episode. The durations of tails range between ∼13 s and over 3 ks, which are much longer than the typical duration of bursts. We performed detailed spectral and temporal analyses of the burst tails. We find that the spectra of three tails show a thermal nature with a trend of cooling throughout the tail. We compare the results of our investigations with the properties of four other extended tails detected from SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806–20 and suggest a scenario for the origin of the tail in the framework of the magnetar model.

  3. Radio Nondetection of the SGR 1806-20 Giant Flare and Implications for Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Patel, Chitrang

    2016-08-01

    We analyze archival data from the Parkes radio telescope, which was observing a location 35.°6 away from SGR 1806-20 during its giant γ-ray flare of 2004 December 27. We show that no fast radio burst (FRB)-like burst counterpart was detected, and set a radio limit of 110 MJy at 1.4 GHz, including the estimated 70 dB suppression of the signal due to its location in the far sidelobe of Parkes and the predicted scattering from the interstellar medium. The upper limit for the ratio of magnetar giant flare radio to γ-ray fluence is η SGR ≲ 107 Jy ms erg-1 cm2. Based on the nondetection of a short and prompt γ-ray counterpart of 15 FRBs in γ-ray transient monitors, we set a lower limit on the fluence ratios of FRBs to be η FRB ≳ 107-9 Jy ms erg-1 cm2. The fluence ratio limit for SGR 1806-20 is inconsistent with all but one of the 15 FRBs. We discuss possible variations in the magnetar-FRB emission mechanism and observational caveats that may reconcile the theory with observations.

  4. Discovery of Cyclotron Resonance Features in the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Safi-Harb, Samar; Swank, Jean H.; Parke, William; Zane, Silvia; Turolla, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence of cyclotron resonance features from the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1806-20 in outburst, detected with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer in the spectrum of a long, complex precursor that preceded a strong burst. The features consist of a narrow 5.0 keV absorption line with modulation near its second and third harmonics (at 11.2 keV and 17.5 keV respectively). The line features are transient and are detected in the harder part of the precursor. The 5.0 keV feature is strong, with an equivalent width of approx. 500 eV and a narrow width of less than 0.4 keV. Interpreting the features as electron cyclotron lines in the context of accretion models leads to a large mass-radius ratio (M/R greater than 0.3 solar mass/km) that is inconsistent with neutron stars or that requires a low (5-7) x 10(exp 11) G magnetic field that is unlikely for SGRs. The line widths are also narrow compared with those of electron cyclotron resonances observed so far in X-ray pulsars. In the magnetar picture, the features are plausibly explained as ion cyclotron resonances in an ultra-strong magnetic field that have recently been predicted from magnetar candidates. In this view, the 5.0 keV feature is consistent with a proton cyclotron fundamental whose energy and width are close to model predictions. The line energy would correspond to a surface magnetic field of 1.0 x 10(exp 15) G for SGR 1806-20, in good agreement with that inferred from the spin-down measure in the source.

  5. The Distance to the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel; Chapuis; Dame; Durouchoux

    1999-11-20

    We report millimeter observations of the line of sight to the recently discovered soft gamma repeater SGR 1627-41, which has been tentatively associated with the supernova remnant (SNR) G337.0-0.1. Among the eight molecular clouds along the line of sight to SGR 1627-41, we show that SNR G337.0-0.1 is probably interacting with one of the most massive giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Galaxy, at a distance of 11 kpc from the Sun. Based on the high extinction to the persistent X-ray counterpart of SGR 1627-41, we present evidence for an association of this new soft gamma repeater (SGR) with the SNR G337.0-0.1; they both appear to be located on the near side of the GMC. This is the second SGR located near an extraordinarily massive GMC. We suggest that SGR 1627-41 is a neutron star with a high transverse velocity ( approximately 1000 km s-1) escaping the young ( approximately 5000 yr) SNR G337.0-0.1.

  6. The Precise Location of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41 with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Patel, S. K.; Tennant, A. F.; Woods, P. M.; Eichler, D.; Lyubarsky, Y.; Bouchet, P.

    2003-01-01

    We report the precise localization of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1627-41 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The best position for SGR 1627-41 was determined to be RA=16:35:51.844, DEC=-47:35:23.31 (J2000) with an accuracy of 0.6 arcsec. We present the results of our search for an IR counterpart to SGR 1627-41 and compare our results to the existing detections and limits of other magnetar infrared and optical observations in the literature. We also present new observations of SGR 1806-20 obtained during the recent reactivation of the source. In addition, we have determined a precise location for archival Chandra observations and reanalyzed archival IR data in the search for a counterpart.

  7. An exceptionally bright flare from SGR 1806-20 and the origins of short-duration gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, K; Boggs, S E; Smith, D M; Duncan, R C; Lin, R; Zoglauer, A; Krucker, S; Hurford, G; Hudson, H; Wigger, C; Hajdas, W; Thompson, C; Mitrofanov, I; Sanin, A; Boynton, W; Fellows, C; von Kienlin, A; Lichti, G; Rau, A; Cline, T

    2005-04-28

    Soft-gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are galactic X-ray stars that emit numerous short-duration (about 0.1 s) bursts of hard X-rays during sporadic active periods. They are thought to be magnetars: strongly magnetized neutron stars with emissions powered by the dissipation of magnetic energy. Here we report the detection of a long (380 s) giant flare from SGR 1806-20, which was much more luminous than any previous transient event observed in our Galaxy. (In the first 0.2 s, the flare released as much energy as the Sun radiates in a quarter of a million years.) Its power can be explained by a catastrophic instability involving global crust failure and magnetic reconnection on a magnetar, with possible large-scale untwisting of magnetic field lines outside the star. From a great distance this event would appear to be a short-duration, hard-spectrum cosmic gamma-ray burst. At least a significant fraction of the mysterious short-duration gamma-ray bursts may therefore come from extragalactic magnetars.

  8. Multiwavelength Observations of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 during Its 2001 April Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kouveliotou; A. Tennant; P.M. Woods; M.C. Weisskopf; K. Hurley; R.P. Fender; S.T. Garrington; S.K. Patel; E. Göğüş

    2001-01-01

    The soft gamma repeater SGR 1900+14 became active on 2001 April 18 after about 2 years of quiescence; it had remained at a very low state of activity since the fall of 1998, when it exhibited extraordinary flaring. We have observed the source in the gamma-rays and X-rays with Ulysses and Chandra and

  9. Quiet but still bright: XMM-Newton observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 0526-66

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tiengo; P. Esposito; S. Mereghetti; G.L. Israel; L. Stella; R. Turolla; S. Zane; N. Rea; D. Götz; M. Feroci

    2009-01-01

    SGR 0526-66 was the first soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) from which a giant flare was detected in March 1979, suggesting the existence of magnetars, i.e. neutron stars powered by the decay of their extremely strong magnetic field. Since then, very little information has been obtained on this object,

  10. Unraveling the Cooling Trend of the Soft Gamma Repeater, SGR162-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Eichler, D.; Woods, P. M.; Lybarsky, Y.; Patel, S. K.; Gogus, E.; vanderKlis, M.; Tennant, A.; Wachter, S.

    2003-01-01

    SGR 1627-41 was discovered in 1998 after a single active episode which lasted approx. 6 weeks. We report here our monitoring results of the decay trend of the persistent X-ray luminosity of the source during the last 5 years. We find an initial temporal power law decay with index 0.47, reaching a piateau which is followed by a sharp (factor of ten) flux decline approx. 800 days after the source activation. The source spectrum is best described during the entire period by a single power law with high absorption (N(sub H) = 9.0(7) x 10(exp 22)/sq cm); the spectral index, however, varies dramatically between 2.2-3.8 spanning the entire range for all known SGR sources. We discuss the cooling behavior of the neutron star assuming a deep crustal heating initiated by the burst activity of the source during 1998.

  11. Quasi-periodic oscillations in short recurring bursts of the soft gamma repeater J1550–5418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppenkothen, D.; D' Angelo, C.; Watts, A. L.; Heil, L.; Van der Klis, M.; Van der Horst, A. J. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek," University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouveliotou, C. [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Göğüş, E.; Kaneko, Y. [SabancıUniversity, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Ra' anana 43537 (Israel); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Von Kienlin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Younes, G., E-mail: D.Huppenkothen@uva.nl [NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. The scarcity of giant flares makes a search for QPOs in the shorter, far more numerous bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) desirable. In Huppenkothen et al., we developed a Bayesian method for searching for QPOs in short magnetar bursts, taking into account the effects of the complicated burst structure, and have shown its feasibility on a small sample of bursts. Here we apply the same method to a much larger sample from a burst storm of 286 bursts from SGR J1550–5418. We report a candidate signal at 260 Hz in a search of the individual bursts, which is fairly broad. We also find two QPOs at ∼93 Hz, and one at 127 Hz, when averaging periodograms from a number of bursts in individual triggers, at frequencies close to QPOs previously observed in magnetar giant flares. Finally, for the first time, we explore the overall burst variability in the sample and report a weak anti-correlation between the power-law index of the broadband model characterizing aperiodic burst variability and the burst duration: shorter bursts have steeper power-law indices than longer bursts. This indicates that longer bursts vary over a broader range of timescales and are not simply longer versions of the short bursts.

  12. Discovery of a Magnetar Associated with the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Strohmayer, T.; Hurley, K.; vanParadus, J.; Finger, M. H.; Dieters, S.; Woods, P.; Thompson, C.; Duncan, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    The soft gamma repeater SGR 1900+14 became active again in June 1998 after a long period of quiescence; it remained at a low state of activity until August 1998, when it emitted a series of extraordinarily intense outbursts. We have observed the source with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer twice, during the onset of each active episode. We confirm the pulsations at the 5.16 s period reported earlier from SGR 1900+14. Here we report the detection of a secular spin-down of the pulse period at an average rate of 1.1 x 10(exp -10)s/s. In view of the strong similarities between SGRs, we attribute the spin-down of SGR 1900+14 to magnetic dipole radiation, possibly accelerated by a quiescent flux, as in the case of SGR 1806-20. This allows an estimate of the pulsar dipolar magnetic field, which is (2-8) x 10(exp 14) G. Our results confirm that SGRs are magnetars.

  13. Multiwavelength Observations of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 During Its 2001 April Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Tennant, A.; Woods, P. M.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Hurley, K.; Fender, R. P.; Garrington, S. T.; Patel, S. K.; Goegues, E.

    2001-01-01

    The soft gamma repeater SGR 1900+14 became active on 2001 April 18 after about two years of quiescence; it had remained at a very low state of activity since the fall of 1998, when it exhibited extraordinary flaring. We have observed the source in the gamma-rays and X-rays with Ulysses and Chandra and in the radio with MERLIN. We report here the confirmation of a two-component X-ray spectrum (power law and blackbody), indicating emission from the neutron star surface. We have determined that there is a dust halo, due to scattering in the interstellar medium, surrounding the source that extends up to approximately 100 arcsec from the center of SGR 1900+14.

  14. Two years of INTEGRAL monitoring of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1806-20: from quiescence to frenzy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotz, D.; Mereghetti, S.; Molkov, S.;

    2006-01-01

    SGR 1806-20 has been observed for more than 2 years with the INTEGRAL satellite. In this period the source went from a quiescent state into a very active one culminating in a giant flare on December 27, 2004. Here we report on the properties of all the short bursts detected with INTEGRAL before t...

  15. The Suzaku Discovery of A Hard Power-Law Component in the Spectra of Short Bursts from SGR 0501+4516

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Yujin E; Enoto, Teruaki

    2011-01-01

    Using data with the Suzaku XIS and HXD, spectral studies of short bursts from the soft gamma repeater SGR 0501+4516 were performed. In total, 32 bursts were detected during the ~60 ks of observation conducted in the 2008 August activity. Excluding the strongest one, the remaining 31 bursts showed an average 2--40 keV fluence of 1.0(-0.5,+0.3)*10^-9 erg cm^-2. A 1--40 keV spectrum summed over them leaves significant positive residuals in the HXD-PIN band with chi^2/d.o.f. = 74/50, when fitted with a two-blackbody function. By adding a power law model, the fit became acceptable with chi^2/d.o.f. = 56/48, yielding a photon index of Gamma=1.0(-0.3,+0.4). This photon index is comparable to Gamma=1.33(-0.16,+0.23) (Enoto et al. 2010a) for the persistent emission of the same object obtained with Suzaku. The two-blackbody components showed very similar ratios, both in the temperature and the emission radii, to those comprising the persistent emission. However, the power-law to two-blackbody flux ratio was possibly hi...

  16. INTEGRAL Observations of SGR1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, K.; Mazets, E.; Golenetskii, S.; Frederiks, D.; Atteia, J. L.; Boer, M.; Brandt, S.; Lund, N.; Pedersen, H.; Cline, T.; Ibrahim, A.; Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Ubertini, P.; Del Santo, M.; Frontera, F.; Pizzichini, G.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Gimenez, A.; Winkler, C.; Schoenfelder, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Lichti, G.; Sunyaev, R.; Kretschmar, P.; Produit, N.; Mereghetti, S.; Goetz, D.; Mirabel, F.; Woods, P.; Kouveliotou; Finger, M.; Gogus, E.; Thompson, C.; Duncan, R.; Pavlov, G.; van der Klis, M.; Molkov, S.

    2004-12-01

    INTEGRAL has observed the soft gamma repeater SGR1806-20 for over 2.2 million seconds in the course of two target of opportunity observations and two Galactic center deep exposures in the AO-1 and AO-2 periods. In these observations, the quiescent emission was detected and its spectrum measured to over 100 keV for the first time by IBIS. More than 100 bursts were detected by IBIS in the 15-200 keV energy range, and more than 30 of them were also detected by JEM-X in the 3-35 keV energy range. We discuss the fluence distribution of SGR1806 bursts, and their spectral evolution. We also set an upper limit to the quiescent flux from the SGR-like source discovered by HETE, SGR1808-20. This work was supported by the INTEGRAL U.S. Guest Investigator program under NASA grant NAG5-13738.

  17. BURST FLUENCE DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOFT GAMMA REPEATERS 1806-20 AND 1900+14 IN THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER PCA ERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieskorn, Zachary; Kaaret, Philip, E-mail: prieskorn@psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We study the fluence distributions of over 3040 bursts from SGR 1806-20 and over 1963 bursts from SGR 1900+14 using the complete set of observations available from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array through 2011 March. Cumulative event distributions are presented for both sources and are fitted with single and broken power laws as well as an exponential cutoff. The distributions are best fitted by a broken power law with exponential cutoff; however the statistical significance of the cutoff is not high and the upper portion of the broken power law can be explained as the expected number of false bursts due to random noise fluctuations. Event distributions are also examined in high and low burst rate regimes and power-law indices are found to be consistent, independent of the burst rate. The contribution function of the event fluence is calculated. This distribution shows that the energy released in the soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts is dominated by the most powerful events for both sources. The power-law nature of these distributions combined with the dominant energy dissipation of the system occurring in the large, less frequent bursts is indicative of a self-organized critical system, as suggested by Gogus et al. in 1999.

  18. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Short Recurring Bursts of the Soft-Gamma Repeater J1550-5418

    CERN Document Server

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Watts, Anna L; Heil, Lucy; van der Klis, Michiel; van der Horst, Alexander J; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Baring, Matthew G; Gogus, Ersin; Granot, Jonathan; Kaneko, Yuki; Lin, Lin; von Kienlin, Andreas; Younes, George

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. The scarcity of giant flares makes a search for QPOs in the shorter, far more numerous bursts from Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) desirable. In Huppenkothen et al (2013), we developed a Bayesian method for searching for QPOs in short magnetar bursts, taking into account the effects of the complicated burst structure, and have shown its feasibility on a small sample of bursts. Here, we apply the same method to a much larger sample from a burst storm of 286 bursts from SGR J1550-5418. We report a candidate signal at 260 Hz in a search of the individual bursts, which is fairly broad. We also find two QPOs at 93 Hz and one at 127 Hz, when averaging periodograms from a number of bursts in individual triggers, at frequencies close to QPOs previously observed in magnetar giant flares. Finally, for the first time, we explore the overall burst variability in the sample, and report a weak...

  19. Precise Interplanetary Network Localization of a New Soft Gamma Repeater, SGR1627-41

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, K; Woods, P; Mazets, E; Golenetskii, S V; Fredericks, D D; Cline, T; Van Paradijs, J

    1999-01-01

    We present Ulysses, KONUS-WIND, and BATSE observations of bursts from a new soft gamma repeater which was active in 1998 June and July. Triangulation of the bursts results in a ~ 1.8 degree by 16 '' error box whose area is ~ 7.6 arcminutes^2, which contains the Galactic supernova remnant G337.0-0.1. This error box intersects the position of a BeppoSAX X-ray source which is also consistent with the position of G337.0-0.1 (Woods et al. 1999), and is thought to be the quiescent counterpart to the repeater. If so, the resulting error box is ~ 2 ' by 16 '' and has an area of ~ 0.6 arcminutes^2. The error box location within the supernova remnant suggests that the neutron star has a transverse velocity of ~ 200 - 2000 km/s.

  20. An X-ray Pulsar with a Superstrong Magnetic Field in the Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater SGR1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Dieters, S.; Strohmayer, T.; vanParadijs, J.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Hurley, K.; Kommers, J.; Smith, I.; Frail, D.; Murakami, T.

    1998-01-01

    Soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) emit multiple, brief (approximately O.1 s) intense outbursts of low-energy gamma-rays. They are extremely rare; three are known in our galaxy and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Two SGRs are associated with young supernova remnants (SNRs), and therefore most probably with neutron stars, but it remains a puzzle why SGRs are so different from 'normal' radio pulsars. Here we report the discovery of pulsations in the persistent X-ray flux of SGR1806-20, with a period of 7.47 s and a spindown rate of 2.6 x 10(exp -3) s/yr. We argue that the spindown is due to magnetic dipole emission and find that the pulsar age and (dipolar) magnetic field strength are approximately 1500 years and 8 x 10(exp 14) gauss, respectively. Our observations demonstrate the existence of 'magnetars', neutron stars with magnetic fields about 100 times stronger than those of radio pulsars, and support earlier suggestions that SGR bursts are caused by neutron-star 'crust-quakes' produced by magnetic stresses. The 'magnetar' birth rate is about one per millenium, a substantial fraction of that of radio pulsars. Thus our results may explain why some SNRs have no radio pulsars.

  1. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  2. Konus catalog of SGR activity to 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Aptekar, R L; Golenetskii, S V; Ilinskii, V N; Mazets, E P; Palshin, V D; Butterworth, P S; Cline, T L

    2000-01-01

    Observational data on the bursting activity of all five known Soft Gamma Repeaters are presented. This information was obtained with Konus gamma-ray burst experiments on board Venera 11-14, Wind, and Kosmos-2326 spacecraft in the period from 1978 to 2000. These data on appearance rates, time histories, and energy spectra of repeated soft bursts obtained with similar instruments and collected together in a comparable form should be useful for further studies of SGRs. (available at http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/LEA/SGR/Catalog/).

  3. Spin-down rate and inferred dipole magnetic field of the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Esposito; M. Burgay; A. Possenti; R. Turolla; S. Zane; A. De Luca; A. Tiengo; G.L. Israel; F. Mattana; S. Mereghetti; M. Bailes; P. Romano; D. Götz; N. Rea

    2009-01-01

    Using Chandra data taken on 2008 June, we detected pulsations at 2.59439(4) s in the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1627-41. This is the second measurement of the source spin period and allows us to derive for the first time a long-term spin-down rate of (1.9 +/- 0.4)E-11 s/s. From this value we infer

  4. Multi-Wavelength Observations of the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1900+14 During its April 2001 Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Tennant, A. F.; Woods, P.; Hurley, K.; Fender, R. P.; Garrington, S. T.; Patel, S. K.; Gogus, E.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The soft-gamma repeater SGR became active on 18 April 2001 after about a year of quiescence; it had remained at a very low state of activity since the fall of 1998, when it exhibited extraordinary flaring. We have observed the source in the gamma and X-rays with \\ulysses and \\chandra, and in the radio with MERLIN. We report here the confirmation of a two component X-ray spectrum (power law $+$ blackbody), indicating emission from the neutron star surface. We have determined that there is a dust halo surrounding the source that extends up to $\\gtrsim100^{\\prime\\prime}$ from the SGR center, which is due to the scattering in the Interstellar Medium.

  5. Swift Discovery of a New Soft Gamma Repeater, SGR J1745-29, near Sagittarius A*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennea, J.A.; Burrows, D.N.; Kouveliotou, C.; Palmer, D.M.; Gogus, E.; Kaneko, Y.; Evans, P.A.; Degenaar, N.; Reynolds, M.T.; Miller, J.M.; Wijnands, R.; Mori, K.; Gehrels, N.

    2013-01-01

    Starting in 2013 February, Swift has been performing short daily monitoring observations of the G2 gas cloud near Sgr A* with the X-Ray Telescope to determine whether the cloud interaction leads to an increase in the flux from the Galactic center. On 2013 April 24 Swift detected an order of magnitud

  6. Discovery and Monitoring of the likely IR Counterpart of SGR 1806-20 during the 2004 gamma-ray burst-active state

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Mignani, R; Stella, L; Marconi, G; Testa, V; Mereghetti, S; Campana, S; Rea, N; Gotz, D; Perna, R; Curto, G L; Israel, GianLuca; Covino, Stefano; Mignani, Roberto; Stella, Luigi; Marconi, Gianni; Testa, Vincenzo; Mereghetti, Sandro; Campana, Sergio; Rea, Nanda; Gotz, Diego; Perna, Rosalba; Curto, Gaspare Lo

    2005-01-01

    The sky region including the Chandra position of SGR 1806-20 was monitored in the IR band during 2004, following its increased high energy bursting activity. Observations were performed using NAOS-CONICA, the adaptive optics IR camera mounted on Yepun VLT, which provided images of unprecedented quality (FWHM better than 0.1"). After the 2004 December 27th giant flare, the source position has been nailed by VLA observations of its radio counterpart, reducing the positional uncertainty to 0.04". Using IR data from our monitoring campaign, we discovered the likely IR counterpart to SGR 1806-20 based on positional coincidence with the Chandra and VLA uncertainty regions and flux variability of a factor of about 2 correlated with that at higher energies. We compare our findings with other isolated neutron star classes thought to be related, at some level, with SGRs.

  7. Search for high-frequency periodicities in time-tagged event data from gamma ray bursts and soft gamma repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Kruger, A T; Wasserman, I M; Kruger, Adam T.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Wasserman, Ira

    2002-01-01

    We analyze the Time-Tagged Event (TTE) data from observations of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). These data provide the best available time resolution for GRBs and SGRs. We have performed an extensive search for weak periodic signals in the frequency range 400 Hz to 2500 Hz using the burst records for 2203 GRBs and 152 SGR flares. The study employs the Rayleigh power as a test statistic to evaluate the evidence for periodic emissions. We find no evidence of periodic emissions from these events at these frequencies. In all but a very few cases the maximum power values obtained are consistent with what would be expected by chance from a non-periodic signal. In those few instances where there is marginal evidence for periodicity there are problems with the data that cast doubt on the reality of the signal. For classical GRBs, the largest Rayleigh power occurs in bursts whose TTE data appear to be corrupted. For SGRs, our largest Raylei...

  8. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2017-09-01

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  9. The repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102: Multi-wavelength observations and additional bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, P; Hessels, J W T; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Kaspi, V M; Wharton, R S; Bassa, C G; Bogdanov, S; Camilo, F; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; van Leeuwen, J; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Mickaliger, M; Parent, E; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; Tendulkar, S P

    2016-01-01

    We report on radio and X-ray observations of the only known repeating Fast Radio Burst (FRB) source, FRB 121102. We have detected six additional radio bursts from this source: five with the Green Bank Telescope at 2 GHz, and one at 1.4 GHz at the Arecibo Observatory for a total of 17 bursts from this source. All have dispersion measures consistent with a single value ($\\sim559$ pc cm$^{-3}$) that is three times the predicted maximum Galactic value. The 2-GHz bursts have highly variable spectra like those at 1.4 GHz, indicating that the frequency structure seen across the individual 1.4 and 2-GHz bandpasses is part of a wideband process. X-ray observations of the FRB 121102 field with the Swift and Chandra observatories show at least one possible counterpart; however, the probability of chance superposition is high. A radio imaging observation of the field with the Jansky Very Large Array at 1.6 GHz yields a 5$\\sigma$ upper limit of 0.3 mJy on any point-source continuum emission. This upper limit, combined wit...

  10. Repeated injections of energy in the first 600 ms of the giant flare of SGR 1806-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Toshio; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Takei, Yasuhiro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Saito, Yoshifumi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takashima, Takeshi; Mukai, Toshifumi; Noda, Hirotomo; Murakami, Toshio; Watanabe, Kyoko; Muraki, Yasushi; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2005-04-28

    The massive flare of 27 December 2004 from the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1806-20, a possible magnetar, saturated almost all gamma-ray detectors, meaning that the profile of the pulse was poorly characterized. An accurate profile is essential to determine physically what was happening at the source. Here we report the unsaturated gamma-ray profile for the first 600 ms of the flare, with a time resolution of 5.48 ms. The peak of the profile (of the order of 10(7) photons cm(-2) s(-1)) was reached approximately 50 ms after the onset of the flare, and was then followed by a gradual decrease with superposed oscillatory modulations possibly representing repeated energy injections with approximately 60-ms intervals. The implied total energy is comparable to the stored magnetic energy in a magnetar (approximately 10(47) erg) based on the dipole magnetic field intensity (approximately 10(15) G), suggesting either that the energy release mechanism was extremely efficient or that the interior magnetic field is much stronger than the external dipole field.

  11. The 2008 October Swift detection of X-ray bursts/outburst from the transient SGR-like AXP 1E 1547.0-5408

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Rea, N; Dall'Osso, S; Senziani, F; Romano, P; Mangano, V; Götz, D; Zane, S; Tiengo, A; Palmer, D M; Krimm, H; Gehrels, N; Mereghetti, S; Stella, L; Turolla, R; Campana, S; Perna, R; Angelini, L; De Luca, A

    2010-01-01

    We report on the detailed study of the 2008 October outburst from the anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 1E 1547.0-5408 discovered through the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) detection of SGR-like short X-ray bursts on 2008 October 3. The Swift/X-ray Telescope (XRT) started observing the source after less than 100 s since the BAT trigger, when the flux (about 6E-11 erg/cm^2/s in the 2-10 keV range) was >50 times higher than its quiescent level. Swift monitored the outbursting activity of 1E 1547.0-5408 on a daily basis for approximately three weeks. This strategy allowed us to find a phase-coherent solution for the source pulsations after the burst, which, besides period and period derivative, requires a positive Period second derivative term (spin-down increase). The time evolution of the pulse shape is complex and variable, with the pulsed fraction increasing from 20% to 50% within the Swift observational window. The XRT spectra can be fitted well by means of a single component, either a power-law (PL) or a bla...

  12. Upper limit on the radio emission from the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1833-0832

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Esposito, P.; Israel, G. L.; Rea, N.; Sarkissian, J.; Tiengo, A.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Gotz, D.; Stella, L.; Mereghetti, S.

    2010-03-01

    The soft gamma-ray repeater J1833-0832 has been discovered on 2010 March 19 thanks to the detection of a short burst by Swift (GCN #10526). Prompted by the detection of a radio outburst following the X-ray transient activity of two other magnetars, the anomalous X-ray pulsars XTE J1810-197 and 1E 1547.0-5408 (Camilo et al. 2006, Nature, 442, 892; 2007, ApJ, 666, L93), we observed the source with the 64-m Parkes radio telescope.

  13. Search for soft gamma repeaters in the SMM/HXRBS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Norris, J. P.; Wood, K. S.; Cline, T. L.; Dennis, B. R.; Desal, U. D.; Orwig, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    The triggered fast memory of the hard X-ray burst spectrometer (HXRBS) on board the SMM is used to describe the results of a search for short transients resembling soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts. Memory data for a total of about 4000 burst triggers, out of which only a very few could be considered as valid SGR candidate events, are analyzed. The search methodology is outlined, the HXRBS exposure and sensitivity to SGR bursts are calculated, and the criteria which constrain the number of candidate events are described. An upper limit is given for the SGR source number density. This limit, combined with results from other relevant observations and the assumption of a neutron star origin, are applied to obtain a constraint on SGR-active lifetimes.

  14. An INTEGRAL ToO Observation of SGR1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, K.; Aptekar, R.; Mazets, E.; Golenetskii, S.; Atteia, J.-L.; Boer, M.; Brandt, S.; Lund, N.; Cline, T.; Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Ubertini, P.; Del Santo, M.; Frontera, F.; Pizzichini, G.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Giminez, A.; Winkler, C.; Schoenfelder, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Lichti, G.; Kretschmar, P.; Produit, N.; Mereghetti, S.; Gotz, D.; Mirabel, F.; Woods, P.; Gogus, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Finger, M.; Thompson, C.; Duncan, R.; Pedersen, H.; Pavlov, G.; van der Klis, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Soft Gamma Repeater SGR1806-20 entered a new period of activity in July 2003. An INTEGRAL target of opportunity observation was triggered, and it took place during the waning phase of this period. The observation lasted 240 ks starting on September 3, and included both "stare" and "dither" modes to optimize IBIS/JEM-X observations and SPI observations, respectively. At least three weak bursts were detected by IBIS/ISGRI in the 15-100 keV range, with fluences between ˜ 10-9 and 10-8 erg cm-2. Analysis is underway to determine whether the quiescent source associated with SGR1806-20 was detected, and whether a source associated with the possible new SGR, 1808-20, was present. Preliminary results on the continuum and on the possible line spectrum of SGR1806 will be presented. This work was supported by the NASA INTEGRAL Guest Investigator program.

  15. The nature of plerions surrounding soft gamma-ray repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    1995-01-01

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  16. The first observation of an intermediate flare from SGR 1935+2154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, A. V.; Israel, G. L.; Svinkin, D. S.; Frederiks, D. D.; Pal'shin, V. D.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Hurley, K.; Goldsten, J.; Golovin, D. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Zhang, X.-L.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the bright burst detected by four Interplanetary network (IPN) spacecraft on 2015 April 12. The IPN localization of the source is consistent with the position of the recently discovered soft gamma-repeater SGR 1935+2154. From the Konus-Wind (KW) observation, we derive temporal and spectral parameters of the emission, and the burst energetics. The rather long duration of the burst (˜1.7 s) and the large measured energy fluence (˜2.5 × 10-5 erg cm-2) put it in the class of rare `intermediate' soft gamma-repeater (SGR) flares, and this is the first one observed from SGR 1935+2154. A search for quasi-periodic oscillations in the KW light curve yields no statistically significant signal. Of four spectral models tested, optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung and a single blackbody (BB) function can be rejected on statistical grounds; two more complex models, a cutoff power law (CPL) and a sum of two BB functions (2BB), fit the burst spectra well and neither of them may be ruled out by the KW observation. The CPL and 2BB model parameters we report for this bright flare are typical of SGRs; they are also consistent with those obtained from observations of much weaker and shorter SGR 1935+2154 bursts with other instruments. From the distribution of 2BB spectral fit parameters we estimate the SGR 1935+2154 distance to be <10.0 kpc, in agreement with that of the Galactic supernova remnant G57.2+0.8 at 9.1 kpc.

  17. The new SGR 1550-5418 is the old AXP 1E1547.0-5408

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, N.; Esposito, P.; Krimm, H. A.; Palmer, D. M.; Mereghetti, S.; Tiengo, A.; Israel, G. L.

    2008-10-01

    N. Rea (U. Amsterdam), P. Esposito (INAF-IASF, Milan), H. A. Krimm (CRESST/GSFC/USRA), D. M. Palmer (LANL), S. Mereghetti, A. Tiengo (INAF-IASF, Milan), G.L. Israel (INAF-OAR) Swift-BAT triggered today on several Galactic short bursts (Krimm et al. GCN 8311, 8312), which were claimed to come from a new Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1550-5418. However, given the positional coincidence of this new putative SGR 1550-5418 with the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 1E1547.0-5408 (Gelfand & Gaensler 2007; Camilo et al.

  18. Simultaneous X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Radio Observations of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, P.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Lynch, R. S.; Spitler, L. G.; Bassa, C. G.; Bower, G. C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Gourdji, K.; Kaspi, V. M.; Law, C. J.; Marcote, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Michilli, D.; Paragi, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Tendulkar, S. P.; Wharton, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    We undertook coordinated campaigns with the Green Bank, Effelsberg, and Arecibo radio telescopes during Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton observations of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 to search for simultaneous radio and X-ray bursts. We find 12 radio bursts from FRB 121102 during 70 ks total of X-ray observations. We detect no X-ray photons at the times of radio bursts from FRB 121102 and further detect no X-ray bursts above the measured background at any time. We place a 5σ upper limit of 3 × 10‑11 erg cm‑2 on the 0.5–10 keV fluence for X-ray bursts at the time of radio bursts for durations fast radio bursts in general.

  19. CENTRAL ENGINE MEMORY OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucá (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: zhang.grb@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs.

  20. Central Engine Memory of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Bing; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.

    2016-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bursts of γ-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries “memory” of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, and suggest a common physical mechanism behind GRBs and SGRs, which points toward a magnetar central engine of GRBs.

  1. Central Engine Memory of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are bursts of $\\gamma$-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries "memory" of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, an...

  2. A Neutron Star-White Dwarf Binary Model for Repeating Fast Radio Burst 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Ma, Renyi; Wang, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    We propose a compact binary model for the fast radio burst (FRB) repeaters, where the system consists of a magnetic white dwarf (WD) and a neutron star (NS) with strong bipolar magnetic fields. When the WD fills its Roche lobe, mass transfer will occur from the WD to the NS through the inner Lagrange point. The accreted magnetized materials may trigger magnetic reconnection when they approach the NS surface, and therefore the electrons can be accelerated to an ultra-relativistic speed. In this scenario, the curvature radiation of the electrons moving along the NS magnetic field lines can account for the characteristic frequency and the timescale of an FRB. Owing to the conservation of angular momentum, the WD may be kicked away after a burst, and the next burst may appear when the system becomes semi-detached again through the gravitational radiation. By comparing our analyses with the observations, we show that such an intermittent Roche lobe overflow mechanism can be responsible for the observed repeating b...

  3. The first observation of an intermediate flare from SGR 1935+2154

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlova, A V; Svinkin, D S; Frederiks, D D; Pal'shin, V D; Tsvetkova, A E; Hurley, K; Goldsten, J; Golovin, D V; Mitrofanov, I G; Zhang, X -L

    2016-01-01

    We report on the bright burst detected by four Interplanetary network (IPN) spacecraft on 2015 April 12. The IPN localization of the source is consistent with the position of the recently discovered soft gamma-repeater SGR 1935+2154. From the Konus-Wind (KW) observation, we derive temporal and spectral parameters of the emission, and the burst energetics. The rather long duration of the burst ($\\sim$1.7 s) and the large measured energy fluence ($\\sim2.5\\times10^{-5}$ erg cm$^{-2}$) put it in the class of rare "intermediate" SGR flares, and this is the first one observed from SGR 1935+2154. A search for quasi-periodic oscillations in the KW light curve yields no statistically significant signal. Of four spectral models tested, optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung and a single blackbody (BB) function can be rejected on statistical grounds; two more complex models, a cutoff power law (CPL) and a sum of two BB functions (2BB), fit the burst spectra well and neither of them may be ruled out by the KW observation....

  4. Repeating Fast Radio Bursts from Highly Magnetized Pulsars Travelling through Asteroid Belts

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Z G; Wu, X F; Huang, Y F

    2016-01-01

    Very recently Spitler et al. (2016) reported their detections of ten additional bright bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst (FRB) 121102. This repeating FRB is obviously distinct from the other non-repeating FRBs and thus challenges all of the energy source models but giant pulses from young pulsars. Here we propose a different model, in which highly magnetized pulsars travel through asteroid belts of other stars. We show that a repeating FRB could originate from this pulsar encountering with lots of asteroids in the belt. During such an impact, an electric field induced on a radially elongated, transversely compressed asteroid near the pulsar's surface is strong enough to accelerate electrons to an ultra-relativistic speed instantaneously. Subsequent movement of these electrons along the magnetic field lines not only gives rise to a current loop, but also produces coherent curvature radiation, which can well account for the properties of an FRB. While the high repetitive rate estimated is well c...

  5. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    OpenAIRE

    Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bassa, Cees; Cordes, James M.; Bower, Geoffery C.; Law, Casey J.; Chatterjee, Shamibrata; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Bogdanov, Slavko; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Butler, Bryan J.; Demorest, Paul; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Maddox, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability $p\\lesssim3\\times10^{-4}$) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended ($0.6^{\\prime\\prime}-0.8^{\\prime\\prime}$) object displaying prominent Balmer and [OIII] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classif...

  6. Gravitational-wave bursts from soft gamma-ray repeaters Can they be detected?

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, H J M; Aguiar, O D; Horváth, J E

    1998-01-01

    In this letter we suggest a scenario for simultaneous emission of gravitational-wave and $\\gamma$-ray bursts (GRBs) from soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). we argue that both of the radiations can be generated by a super-Eddington accreting neutron stars in X-ray binaries. In this model a supercritical accretion transient takes back onto the remnant star the disk leftover by the hydrodynamic instability phase of a low magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron star in a X-ray binary system. We estimate the rise timescale effective associated temperature $T_{eff} = 740 keV$, and the timescale for repeating a burst of $\\gamma$-rays $\\Delta \\tau_R = 11.3 yr$. Altogether, we find the associated GW amplitude and frequency to be $h_c = 2.7 \\times 10^{-23}/{(Hz)}^{1/2}$ and $f_{gw} = 966 Hz$, for a source distance $\\sim 55 kpc$. Detectability of the pulses by t he forthcoming GW anntenas is discussed and found likely.

  7. Stacked Search for Gravitational Waves from the 2006 SGR 1900+14 Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Behnke, B.; Benacquista, M.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Bridges, D. O.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brummit, A.; Brunet, G.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Caride, S.; Castaldi, G.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Christensen, N.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R. C.; Cornish, N.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Danilishin, S. L.; Danzmann, K.; Daudert, B.; Davies, G.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dueck, J.; Duke, I.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, J. G.; Echols, C.; Edgar, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Faltas, Y.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Finn, L. S.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J. A.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimaldi, F.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G. D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hughey, B.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D. R.; Isogai, T.; Ito, M.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, R.; Khazanov, E.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, H.; Lei, M.; Leindecker, N.; Leonor, I.; Li, C.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lu, P.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McIntyre, G.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McKenzie, K.; Mehmet, M.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miller, J.; Minelli, J.; Mino, Y.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moreno, G.; Morioka, T.; Mors, K.; Mossavi, K.; Mow Lowry, C.; Mueller, G.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Muhammad, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, H.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Dell, J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ochsner, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Prokhorov, L.; Punken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raics, Z.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Raymond, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.

    2009-08-01

    We present the results of a LIGO search for short-duration gravitational waves (GWs) associated with the 2006 March 29 SGR 1900+14 storm. A new search method is used, "stacking" the GW data around the times of individual soft-gamma bursts in the storm to enhance sensitivity for models in which multiple bursts are accompanied by GW emission. We assume that variation in the time difference between burst electromagnetic emission and potential burst GW emission is small relative to the GW signal duration, and we time-align GW excess power time-frequency tilings containing individual burst triggers to their corresponding electromagnetic emissions. We use two GW emission models in our search: a fluence-weighted model and a flat (unweighted) model for the most electromagnetically energetic bursts. We find no evidence of GWs associated with either model. Model-dependent GW strain, isotropic GW emission energy E GW, and γ ≡ E GW/E EM upper limits are estimated using a variety of assumed waveforms. The stacking method allows us to set the most stringent model-dependent limits on transient GW strain published to date. We find E GW upper limit estimates (at a nominal distance of 10 kpc) of between 2 × 1045 erg and 6 × 1050 erg depending on the waveform type. These limits are an order of magnitude lower than upper limits published previously for this storm and overlap with the range of electromagnetic energies emitted in soft gamma repeater (SGR) giant flares.

  8. Quasi-periodic Oscillations in Short Recurring Bursts of the Soft Gamma Repeater J1550-5418

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Huppenkothen; C. D'Angelo; A.L. Watts; L.M. Heil; M. van der Klis; A.J. van der Horst; C. Kouveliotou; M.G. Baring; E. Gögüs; J. Granot; Y. Kaneko; L. Lin; A. von Kienlin; G. Younes

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in magnetar giant flares has opened up prospects for neutron star asteroseismology. The scarcity of giant flares makes a search for QPOs in the shorter, far more numerous bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) desirable. In Huppenkothen et al., we

  9. The Host Galaxy and Redshift of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendulkar, S. P.; Bassa, C. G.; Cordes, J. M.; Bower, G. C.; Law, C. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Adams, E. A. K.; Bogdanov, S.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Demorest, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Maddox, N.; Marcote, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Paragi, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Seymour, A.; Spitler, L. G.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Wharton, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    The precise localization of the repeating fast radio burst (FRB 121102) has provided the first unambiguous association (chance coincidence probability p ≲ 3 × 10‑4) of an FRB with an optical and persistent radio counterpart. We report on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the counterpart and find that it is an extended (0.″6–0.″8) object displaying prominent Balmer and [O iii] emission lines. Based on the spectrum and emission line ratios, we classify the counterpart as a low-metallicity, star-forming, mr‧ = 25.1 AB mag dwarf galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.19273(8), corresponding to a luminosity distance of 972 Mpc. From the angular size, the redshift, and luminosity, we estimate the host galaxy to have a diameter ≲4 kpc and a stellar mass of M* ∼ (4–7) × 107 M⊙, assuming a mass-to-light ratio between 2 to 3 M⊙ L⊙‑1. Based on the Hα flux, we estimate the star formation rate of the host to be 0.4 M⊙ yr‑1 and a substantial host dispersion measure (DM) depth ≲324 pc cm‑3. The net DM contribution of the host galaxy to FRB 121102 is likely to be lower than this value depending on geometrical factors. We show that the persistent radio source at FRB 121102’s location reported by Marcote et al. is offset from the galaxy’s center of light by ∼200 mas and the host galaxy does not show optical signatures for AGN activity. If FRB 121102 is typical of the wider FRB population and if future interferometric localizations preferentially find them in dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and prominent emission lines, they would share such a preference with long gamma-ray bursts and superluminous supernovae.

  10. SMM hard X-ray observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater 1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Norris, J. P.; Cline, T. L.; Dennis, B. R.; Desai, U. D.; Orwig, L. E.

    1987-01-01

    Six bursts from the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 1806-20 have been recorded with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer during a highly active phase in 1983. Rise and decay times of less than 5 ns have been detected. Time profiles of these events indicate low-level emission prior to and after the main peaks. The results suggest that SGRs are distinguished from classical gamma-ray bursts by repetition, softer nonvarying spectra, short durations, simple temporal profiles, and a tendency for source locations to correlate with Population I objects. SGR characteristics differ from those of type I X-ray bursts, but they appear to have similarities with the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster.

  11. A giant gamma-ray flare from the magnetar SGR 1806-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, D M; Barthelmy, S; Gehrels, N; Kippen, R M; Cayton, T; Kouveliotou, C; Eichler, D; Wijers, R A M J; Woods, P M; Granot, J; Lyubarsky, Y E; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Barbier, L; Chester, M; Cummings, J; Fenimore, E E; Finger, M H; Gaensler, B M; Hullinger, D; Krimm, H; Markwardt, C B; Nousek, J A; Parsons, A; Patel, S; Sakamoto, T; Sato, G; Suzuki, M; Tueller, J

    2005-04-28

    Two classes of rotating neutron stars-soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars-are magnetars, whose X-ray emission is powered by a very strong magnetic field (B approximately 10(15) G). SGRs occasionally become 'active', producing many short X-ray bursts. Extremely rarely, an SGR emits a giant flare with a total energy about a thousand times higher than in a typical burst. Here we report that SGR 1806-20 emitted a giant flare on 27 December 2004. The total (isotropic) flare energy is 2 x 10(46) erg, which is about a hundred times higher than the other two previously observed giant flares. The energy release probably occurred during a catastrophic reconfiguration of the neutron star's magnetic field. If the event had occurred at a larger distance, but within 40 megaparsecs, it would have resembled a short, hard gamma-ray burst, suggesting that flares from extragalactic SGRs may form a subclass of such bursts.

  12. The Giant Flare from SGR 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroci, M.; Hurley, K.; Duncan, R. C.; Thompson, C.

    2000-10-01

    We present a joint analysis of the Ulysses (25-150 keV) and BeppoSAX/GRBM (40-700 keV) data on the giant flare of 1998 August 27 from SGR 1900+14. This event was extraordinary in many ways: it was the most intense flux of gamma rays ever detected from a source outside our solar system; it was longer than any previously detected burst from a soft gamma repeater (SGR) in our Galaxy by more than an order of magnitude; and it showed a remarkable four-peaked, periodic pattern in hard X-rays with the same 5.16-s period that was observed in X-rays from the quiescent star. Since the two instruments operate in different energy ranges, a comparison of their data allow for both time-average and time-resolved spectral studies. We discuss some implications of these results for the SGRs. We also compare this event with the 1979 March 5 giant flare from SGR 0526-26, by newly-analyzed Venera/SIGNE and ISEE-3 data. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that giant flares are due to catastrophic magnetic instabilities in highly magnetized neutron stars, or ``magnetars". In particular, observations indicate that the initial hard spike involved a relativistic outflow of pairs and hard gamma rays, plausibly triggered by a large propagating fracture in the crust of a neutron star with a field exceeding 1014 Gauss. Later stages in the light curve are accurately fit by a model for emission from the envelope of a magnetically-confined pair-photon fireball, anchored to the surface of the rotating star, which contracts as it emits X-rays and then evaporates completely in a finite time. The complex four-peaked shape of the light curve likely provides the most direct evidence known for a multipolar geometry in the magnetic field of a neutron star.

  13. Gamma-Ray Observations of a Giant Flare From the Magnetar Sgr 1806-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, D.

    2005-03-09

    Magnetars comprise two classes of rotating neutron stars (Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars), whose X-ray emission is powered by an ultrastrong magnetic field, B {approx} 10{sup 15} G. Occasionally SGRs enter into active episodes producing many short X-ray bursts; extremely rarely (about once per 50 years per source), SGRs emit a giant flare, an event with total energy at least 103 higher than their typical bursts. Here we report that, on 2004 December 27, SGR 1806-20 emitted the brightest extra-solar transient event ever recorded, even surpassing the full moon brightness for 0.2 seconds. The total (isotropic) flare energy is 2 x 10{sup 46} erg, {approx}100 times higher than the only two previous events, making this flare a once in a century event. This colossal energy release likely occurred during a catastrophic reconfiguration of the magnetar's magnetic field. Such an event would have resembled a short, hard Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) if it had occurred within 40 Mpc, suggesting that extragalactic SGR flares may indeed form a subclass of GRBs.

  14. Broadband Spectral Study of Magnetar Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizibayrak, Demet; Gogus, Ersin; Sasmaz Mus, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki

    2016-07-01

    Magnetar bursts occur sporadically on random occasions, and every burst-active episode carries unique information about the bursting magnetar. Therefore, in-depth spectral and temporal analyses of each of the magnetar bursts provide new insights into the bursting and radiation mechanisms. There have been a number of studies over the last decade, investigating the spectral and temporal properties of magnetar bursts. The spectra of typical magnetar bursts were generally described with the Comptonized model or the sum of two blackbody functions. However, it was recently shown that the actual spectral nature of these bursts can be conclusively determined if the spectral analysis is performed on a wide energy coverage. We present the results of in-depth systematic broadband (2 - 250 keV) spectral analysis of a large number of bursts originated from three magnetars: SGR 1806-20, SGR 1900+14, and SGR J1550-5418, observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer.

  15. New Evidence For Proton Cyclotron Resonance In a Magnetar Strength Field From SGR 1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, William; Ibrahim, Alaa I.; Swank, Jean H.

    2002-01-01

    A great deal of evidence has recently been gathered in favor of the picture that Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars are powered by ultra-strong magnetic fields (B greater than 10(exp 14) G; i.e. magnetars). Nevertheless, present determination of the magnetic field in such magnetar candidates has been indirect and model dependent. A key prediction concerning magnetars is the detection of ion cyclotron resonance features, which would offer a decisive diagnostic of the field strength. Here we present the detection of a 5 keV absorption feature in a variety of bursts from the Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 1806-20, confirming our initial discovery and establishing the presence of the feature in the source's burst spectra. The line feature is well explained as proton cyclotron resonance in an ultra-strong magnetic field, offering a direct measurement of SGR 1806-20's magnetic field (B approx. 10(exp 15) G) and a clear evidence of a magnetar. Together with the source's spin-down rate, the feature also provides the first measurement of the gravitational redshift, mass and radius of a magnetar.

  16. Suzaku Observations of SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806-20

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Yujin E; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Sugita, Satoshi; Murakami, Toshio; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Suzuki, Motoko; Nakajima, Motoki; Tashiro, Makoto; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    Spectral and timing studies of Suzaku ToO observations of two SGRs, 1900+14 and 1806-20, are presented. The X-ray quiescent emission spectra were well fitted by a two blackbody function or a blackbody plus a power law model. The non-thermal hard component discovered by INTEGRAL was detected by the PIN diodes and its spectrum was reproduced by the power law model reported by INTEGRAL. The XIS detected periodicity P = 5.1998+/-0.0002 s for SGR 1900+14 and P = 7.6022+/-0.0007 s for SGR 1806-20. The pulsed fraction was related to the burst activity for SGR 1900+14.

  17. The energy spectrum, time history, and IPN error ellipse of GRB051103, a possible extragalactic SGR giant flare

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley, K; Perley, D; Mitrofanov, I G; Golovin, D V; Kozyrev, A S; Litvak, M L; Sanin, A B; Boynton, W; Fellows, C; Harshmann, K; Ohno, M; Yamaoka, K; Nakagawa, Y E; Smith, D M; Cline, T; Gehrels, N; Krimm, H; Palmer, D M; Duncan, R C; Wigger, C; Hajdas, W; Atteia, J -L; Ricker, G; Vanderspek, R; Rau, A; Von Kienlin, A

    2009-01-01

    GRB051103 is considered to be a candidate soft gamma repeater (SGR) extragalactic giant magnetar flare by virtue of its time history, localization, and energy spectrum. We have derived a refined interplanetary network localization for this burst which reduces the size of the error box by over a factor of two. We examine its time history for evidence of a periodic component, which would be one signature of an SGR giant flare, and conclude that this component is neither detected nor detectable under reasonable assumptions. We analyze the time-resolved energy spectra of this event with improved time- and energy resolution, and conclude that although the spectrum is very hard, its temporal evolution at late times cannot be determined, which further complicates the giant flare association.

  18. The Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 as Seen on Milliarcsecond Angular Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcote, B.; Paragi, Z.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Keimpema, A.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Huang, Y.; Bassa, C. G.; Bogdanov, S.; Bower, G. C.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Butler, B. J.; Campbell, R. M.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Demorest, P.; Garrett, M. A.; Ghosh, T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Law, C. J.; Lazio, T. J. W.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Ransom, S. M.; Salter, C. J.; Scholz, P.; Seymour, A.; Siemion, A.; Spitler, L. G.; Tendulkar, S. P.; Wharton, R. S.

    2017-01-01

    The millisecond-duration radio flashes known as fast radio bursts (FRBs) represent an enigmatic astrophysical phenomenon. Recently, the sub-arcsecond localization (∼100 mas precision) of FRB 121102 using the Very Large Array has led to its unambiguous association with persistent radio and optical counterparts, and to the identification of its host galaxy. However, an even more precise localization is needed in order to probe the direct physical relationship between the millisecond bursts themselves and the associated persistent emission. Here, we report very-long-baseline radio interferometric observations using the European VLBI Network and the 305 m Arecibo telescope, which simultaneously detect both the bursts and the persistent radio emission at milliarcsecond angular scales and show that they are co-located to within a projected linear separation of ≲40 pc (≲12 mas angular separation, at 95% confidence). We detect consistent angular broadening of the bursts and persistent radio source (∼2–4 mas at 1.7 GHz), which are both similar to the expected Milky Way scattering contribution. The persistent radio source has a projected size constrained to be ≲ 0.7 pc (≲0.2 mas angular extent at 5.0 GHz) and a lower limit for the brightness temperature of {T}b≳ 5× {10}7 {{K}}. Together, these observations provide strong evidence for a direct physical link between FRB 121102 and the compact persistent radio source. We argue that a burst source associated with a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus or a young neutron star energizing a supernova remnant are the two scenarios for FRB 121102 that best match the observed data.

  19. Search for Gravitational Wave Bursts from Six Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Boyle, M.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brummit, A.; Budzyński, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cain, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campagna, E.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Clara, F.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Coward, D. M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Das, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garofoli, J. A.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Jaranowski, P.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Kelner, M.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, N.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.

    2011-06-01

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are thought to be magnetars: neutron stars powered by extreme magnetic fields. These rare objects are characterized by repeated and sometimes spectacular gamma-ray bursts. The burst mechanism might involve crustal fractures and excitation of non-radial modes which would emit gravitational waves (GWs). We present the results of a search for GW bursts from six galactic magnetars that is sensitive to neutron star f-modes, thought to be the most efficient GW emitting oscillatory modes in compact stars. One of them, SGR 0501+4516, is likely ~1 kpc from Earth, an order of magnitude closer than magnetars targeted in previous GW searches. A second, AXP 1E 1547.0-5408, gave a burst with an estimated isotropic energy >1044 erg which is comparable to the giant flares. We find no evidence of GWs associated with a sample of 1279 electromagnetic triggers from six magnetars occurring between 2006 November and 2009 June, in GW data from the LIGO, Virgo, and GEO600 detectors. Our lowest model-dependent GW emission energy upper limits for band- and time-limited white noise bursts in the detector sensitive band, and for f-mode ringdowns (at 1090 Hz), are 3.0 × 1044 d 2 1 erg and 1.4 × 1047 d 2 1 erg, respectively, where d_{1} = \\frac{d_{{0501}}}{1\\,{kpc}} and d 0501 is the distance to SGR 0501+4516. These limits on GW emission from f-modes are an order of magnitude lower than any previous, and approach the range of electromagnetic energies seen in SGR giant flares for the first time.

  20. The first outburst of the new magnetar candidate SGR 0501+4516

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Nanda; Turolla, Roberto; Esposito, Paolo; Mereghetti, Sandro; Gotz, Diego; Zane, Silvia; Tiengo, Andrea; Hurley, Kevin; Feroci, Marco; Still, Martin; Yershov, Vladimir; Winkler, Christoph; Perna, Rosalba; Bernardini, Federico; Ubertini, Pietro; Stella, Luigi; Campana, Sergio; van der Klis, Michiel; Woods, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    We report here on the outburst onset and evolution of the new Soft Gamma Repeater SGR 0501+4516. We monitored the new SGR with XMM-Newton starting on 2008 August 23, one day after the source became burst-active, and continuing with 4 more observations, with the last one on 2008 September 30. Combining the data with the Swift-XRT and Suzaku data, we modelled the outburst decay over 160 days, and we found that the source flux decreased exponentially with a timescale of t_c=23.8 days. In the first XMM-Newton observation a large number of short X-ray bursts were observed, the rate of which decayed drastically in the following observations. We found large changes in the spectral and timing behavior of the source during the outburst, with softening emission as the flux decayed, and the non-thermal soft X-ray spectral component fading faster than the thermal one. Almost simultaneously to our XMM-Newton observations (on 2008 August 29 and September 2), we observed the source in the hard X-ray range with INTEGRAL, whi...

  1. An Expanding Radio Nebula Produced by a Giant Flare from the Magnetar SGR 1806-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, B.

    2005-03-04

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are ''magnetars'', a small class of slowly spinning neutron stars with extreme surface magnetic fields, B {approx} 10{sup 15} gauss. On 2004 December 27, a giant flare was detected from the magnetar SGR 1806-20, the third such event ever recorded. This burst of energy was detected by a variety of instruments and even caused an ionospheric disturbance in the Earth's upper atmosphere recorded around the globe. Here we report the detection of a fading radio afterglow produced by this outburst, with a luminosity 500 times larger than the only other detection of a similar source. From day 6 to day 19 after the flare from SGR 1806-20, a resolved, linearly polarized, radio nebula was seen, expanding at approximately a quarter the speed of light. To create this nebula, at least 4 x 10{sup 43} ergs of energy must have been emitted by the giant flare in the form of magnetic fields and relativistic particles. The combination of spatially resolved structure and rapid time evolution allows a study in unprecedented detail of a nearby analog to supernovae and gamma-ray bursts.

  2. Timing Noise in SGR 1806-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods; Kouveliotou; Finger; Göğüş; Scott; Dieters; Thompson; Duncan; Hurley; Strohmayer; Swank; Murakami

    2000-05-20

    We have phase-connected a sequence of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations of SGR 1806-20 covering 178 days. We find that a simple secular spin-down model does not adequately fit the data. The period derivative varies gradually during the observations between 8.1x10-11 and 11.7x10-11 s s(-1) (at its highest, approximately 40% larger than the long-term trend), while the average burst rate as seen with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment drops throughout the time interval. The phase residuals give no compelling evidence for periodicity, but more closely resemble timing noise as seen in radio pulsars. The magnitude of the timing noise, however, is large relative to the noise level typically found in radio pulsars (Delta8=4.8; frequency derivative average power approximately 7x10-20 cycles(2) s(-3)). Combining these results with the noise levels measured for some anomalous X-ray pulsars, we find that all magnetar candidates have Delta(8) values larger than those expected from a simple extrapolation of the correlation found in radio pulsars. We find that the timing noise in SGR 1806-20 is greater than or equal to the levels found in some accreting systems (e.g., Vela X-1, 4U 1538-52, and 4U 1626-67), but the spin-down of SGR 1806-20 has thus far maintained coherence over 6 yr. Alternatively, an orbital model with a period Porb=733 days provides a statistically acceptable fit to the data. If the phase residuals are created by Doppler shifts from a gravitationally bound companion, then the allowed parameter space for the mass function (small) and orbital separation (large) rule out the possibility of accretion from the companion sufficient to power the persistent emission from the SGR.

  3. Pulse Phase Dependence of the Magnetar Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chetana Jain; Anjan Dutta; Biswajit Paul

    2007-12-01

    We report here results from a study of X-ray bursts from 3 magnetar candidates (SGR 1806–20, SGR 1900+14 and AXP 1E 2259+586). We have searched for a pulse phase dependence of the X-ray burst rate from these sources. X-ray light curves were obtained with the Proportional Counter Array on-board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the periods of intense burst activity in these sources. On detailed analysis of the three sources, we found a very significant burst rate for all pulsar phases. However, some locations appear to produce bursts slightly more often, rendering the non-isotropic distribution. Only in the case of SGR 1900+14, there is a clear pulse phase dependence of burst rate.

  4. Giant flares in soft gamma-ray repeaters and short GRBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, S

    2007-05-15

    Soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a peculiar family of bursting neutron stars that, occasionally, have been observed to emit extremely energetic giant flares (GFs), with energy release up to approximately 10(47) ergs(-1). These are exceptional and rare events. It has been recently proposed that GFs, if emitted by extragalactic SGRs, may appear at Earth as short gamma-ray bursts. Here, I will discuss the properties of the GFs observed in SGRs, with particular emphasis on the spectacular event registered from SGR 1806-20 in December 2004. I will review the current scenario for the production of the flare, within the magnetar model, and the observational implications.

  5. An expanding radio nebula produced by a giant flare from the magnetar SGR 1806-20

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, B M; Gelfand, J D; Taylor, G B; Eichler, D; Wijers, R A M J; Granot, J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Lyubarsky, Y E; Hunstead, R W; Campbell-Wilson, D; Van der Host, A J; McLaughlin, M A; Fender, R P; Garrett, M A; Newton-McGee, K J; Palmer, D M; Gehrels, N; Woods, P M

    2005-01-01

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are "magnetars", a small class of slowly spinning neutron stars with extreme surface magnetic fields, ~10^15 gauss. On 2004 December 27, a giant flare was detected from the magnetar SGR 1806-20, the third such event ever recorded. This burst of energy was detected by a variety of instruments and even caused an ionospheric disturbance in the Earth's upper atmosphere recorded around the globe. Here we report the detection of a fading radio afterglow produced by this outburst, with a luminosity 500 times larger than the only other detection of a similar source. From day 6 to day 19 after the flare from SGR 1806-20, a resolved, linearly polarized, radio nebula was seen, expanding at approximately a quarter the speed of light. To create this nebula, at least 4x10^43 ergs of energy must have been emitted by the giant flare in the form of magnetic fields and relativistic particles. The combination of spatially resolved structure and rapid time evolution allows a study in unprecedented det...

  6. An expanding radio nebula produced by a giant flare from the magnetar SGR 1806-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensler, B M; Kouveliotou, C; Gelfand, J D; Taylor, G B; Eichler, D; Wijers, R A M J; Granot, J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Lyubarsky, Y E; Hunstead, R W; Campbell-Wilson, D; van der Horst, A J; McLaughlin, M A; Fender, R P; Garrett, M A; Newton-McGee, K J; Palmer, D M; Gehrels, N; Woods, P M

    2005-04-28

    Soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are 'magnetars', a small class of slowly spinning neutron stars with extreme surface magnetic fields, B approximately 10(15) gauss (refs 1 , 2 -3). On 27 December 2004, a giant flare was detected from the magnetar SGR 1806-20 (ref. 2), only the third such event recorded. This burst of energy was detected by a variety of instruments and even caused an ionospheric disturbance in the Earth's upper atmosphere that was recorded around the globe. Here we report the detection of a fading radio afterglow produced by this outburst, with a luminosity 500 times larger than the only other detection of a similar source. From day 6 to day 19 after the flare from SGR 1806-20, a resolved, linearly polarized, radio nebula was seen, expanding at approximately a quarter of the speed of light. To create this nebula, at least 4 x 10(43) ergs of energy must have been emitted by the giant flare in the form of magnetic fields and relativistic particles.

  7. An Expanding Radio Nebula Produced by a Giant Flare from the Magnetar SGR 1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensler, B. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Gelfand, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Eichler, D.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Lyubarsky, Y. E.; Hunstead, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are "magnetars", a small class of slowly spinning neutron stars with extreme surface magnetic fields, B approx. 10(sup 15) gauss. On 2004 December 27, a giant flare was detected from the magnetar SGR 1806-20, the third such event ever recorded. This burst of energy, which resulted in the highest flux of gamma-rays ever measured from a celestial object, was detected by a variety of instruments and even caused an ionospheric disturbance in the Earth's upper atmosphere recorded around the globe. Here we report the detection of a very bright but rapidly-fading radio source at the position of SGR 1806-20 following this outburst. From day 6 to day 19 after the flare, we see a resolved, linearly polarized, radio nebula, expanding at a velocity of approximately 0.3c. To create this nebula, at least 4 x 10(exp 43) ergs of energy must have been emitted by the giant flare in the form of magnetic fields and relativistic particles. The steep decline of the radio flux may indicate episodic particle acceleration followed by adiabatic expansion, as could occur if the ejecta have energized a thin shell surrounding a preexisting cavity.

  8. The Giant Flare of 1998 August 27 from SGR 1900+14 I. An Interpretive Study of BeppoSAX and Ulysses Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Feroci, M; Duncan, R; Thompson, C

    2001-01-01

    The giant flare of 1998 August 27 from SGR 1900+14 was extraordinary in many ways: it was the most intense flux of gamma rays ever detected from a source outside our solar system; it was longer than any previously detected burst from a soft gamma repeater (SGR) in our Galaxy by more than an order of magnitude; and it showed a remarkable four-peaked, periodic pattern in hard X-rays with the same rotation period that was found modulating soft X-rays from the star in quiescence. The event was detected by several gamma-ray experiments in space, including the Ulysses gamma-ray burst detector and the BeppoSAX Gamma Ray Burst Monitor. These instruments operate in different energy ranges, and comparisons of their measurements reveal complex patterns of spectral evolution as the intensity varies. In this paper, we present a joint analysis of the BeppoSAX and Ulysses data and discuss some implications of these results for the SGRs. We also present newly-analyzed Venera/SIGNE and ISEE-3 data on the 1979 March 5 giant fl...

  9. Photospheric radius expansion during magnetar bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Watts; C. Kouveliotou; A.J. van der Horst; E. Göğüş; Y. Kaneko; M. van der Klis; R.A.M.J. Wijers; A.K. Harding; M.G. Baring

    2010-01-01

    On 2008 August 24 the new magnetar SGR 0501+4516 (discovered by Swift) emitted a bright burst with a pronounced double-peaked structure in hard X-rays, reminiscent of the double-peaked temporal structure seen in some bright thermonuclear bursts on accreting neutron stars. In the latter case this is

  10. Background Information: Magnetars, Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters and the Most Powerful Magnetic Fields in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    bags" containing the accumulated history of this bursting activity. The study of these plerionic supernova remnants (detailed below) gives us a new and different perspective on the magnetar phenomena. SGR 0526-66: The Famous March 5 1979 Burst SGR 0526-66 lays claim to having produced the brightest gamma-ray burst ever observed: the famous March 5 1979 burst. Owing to the large number of satellites which saw this burst (10 in total) an accurate position could be determined. This put SGR 0526-66 on the edge of the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud 180,000 light years from our Sun. This should have been sufficient to convince everyone that the burst and the supernova remnant were associated. However, in 1979 astronomers were working under the misconception that all gamma-ray bursts came from a local (500 light years) population of neutron stars. This new piece of the puzzle didn't fit. Real progress in this area had to wait until the mid-1980's when soft gamma-ray repeaters were recognized as a distinct class of high energy transient and then in the early 1990's when SGR 1806-20 was tied to its supernova remnant (see below). The significance of two other important clues also went unnoticed in the early 1980's. The first was the large offset in the location of SGR 0526-66 from the center of the supernova remnant (i.e. its birthplace) and the second was a compact X-ray source at this same location. These observations, combined with the known age of the supernova remnant (5000 years), require that the magnetar be moving at a high speed and depositing energy into its surroundings as it goes. SGR 1806-20: A Magnetar Powers a Nebula While SGR 1806-20 was the most prolific burster in the 1980's, its true location wasn't known until it was detected by the Japanese X-ray ASCA satellite in 1993, verifying an earlier claim that it was associated with the supernova remnant G10.0-0.3. SGR 1806-20 lies at the center of this egg-shaped supernova remnant whose radio

  11. No radio pulsations detected from SGR 1627-41 following renewed X- ray activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, F.; Sarkissian, J.

    2008-06-01

    Starting on May 28, 2008, the SGR 1627-41 displayed X-ray bursting and enhanced flux after nearly 10 years of relative inactivity (ATEL #1548, #1549, #1555). Two magnetars are known to emit radio pulses (Camilo et al. 2007, ApJ, 666, L93), and in at least one case these are transient and have followed an X-ray outburst after many years in quiescence (Camilo et al. 2006, Nature, 442, 892). Therefore, although previous radio searches of SGR 1627-41 have been unsuccessful, we are searching for radio emission following its recent renewed burst of activity.

  12. An origin in the local Universe for some short gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, N R; Chapman, R; Levan, A J; Priddey, R S

    2005-12-15

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) divide into two classes: 'long', which typically have initial durations of T90 > 2 s, and 'short', with durations of T90 origin of short bursts has remained mysterious until recently. A subsecond intense 'spike' of gamma-rays during a giant flare from the Galactic soft gamma-ray repeater, SGR 1806-20, reopened an old debate over whether some short GRBs could be similar events seen in galaxies out to approximately 70 Mpc (refs 6-10; redshift z approximately 0.016). Shortly after that, localizations of a few short GRBs (with optical afterglows detected in two cases) have shown an apparent association with a variety of host galaxies at moderate redshifts. Here we report a correlation between the locations of previously observed short bursts and the positions of galaxies in the local Universe, indicating that between 10 and 25 per cent of short GRBs originate at low redshifts (z < 0.025).

  13. A low-magnetic-field soft gamma repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, N; Esposito, P; Turolla, R; Israel, G L; Zane, S; Stella, L; Mereghetti, S; Tiengo, A; Götz, D; Göğüş, E; Kouveliotou, C

    2010-11-12

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous x-ray pulsars form a rapidly increasing group of x-ray sources exhibiting sporadic emission of short bursts. They are believed to be magnetars, that is, neutron stars powered by extreme magnetic fields, B ~ 10(14) to 10(15) gauss. We report on a soft gamma repeater with low magnetic field, SGR 0418+5729, recently detected after it emitted bursts similar to those of magnetars. X-ray observations show that its dipolar magnetic field cannot be greater than 7.5 × 10(12) gauss, well in the range of ordinary radio pulsars, implying that a high surface dipolar magnetic field is not necessarily required for magnetar-like activity. The magnetar population may thus include objects with a wider range of B-field strengths, ages, and evolutionary stages than observed so far.

  14. The Complex Circumstellar and Circumbinary Environment of V356 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, Andrew; Lomax, Jamie R.; Malatesta, Michael A.; Babler, Brian L.; Bednarski, Daniel; Berdis, Jodi; Bjorkman, Karen S.; Bjorkman, Jon Eric; Carciofi, Alex C.; Davidson, James W.; Keil, Marcus; Meade, Marilyn; Nordsieck, Kenneth H.; Scheffler, Matt; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Wisniewski, John P.

    2017-01-01

    The eclipsing, interacting binary star V356 Sgr is a particularly exciting object for analysis due to its probable nonconservative mass loss and the possible progenitor link between Roche-lobe overflow systems and core-collapse supernovae. We present the results of 45 spectropolarimetric observations of V356 Sgr taken over 21 years, which we used to characterize the geometry of the system's circumstellar material. We find that V356 Sgr exhibits a large intrinsic polarization signature arising from electron scattering. The lack of repeatable eclipses in the polarization phase curves indicates the presence of a substantial pool of scatterers not occulted by either star. We suggest that these scatterers form either a circumbinary disk coplanar with the gainer's accretion disk, or an elongated structure perpendicular to the orbital plane of V356 Sgr, possibly formed by bipolar outflows.We also observe small-scale, cycle-to-cycle variations in the magnitude of intrinsic polarization at individual phases. These may indicate a mass transfer or mass loss rate that varies on the time-scale of the system's orbital period. Finally, we present a comparison of V356 Sgr with the well studied beta Lyr system; the significant differences observed between the two systems suggests diversity in the basic circumstellar geometry of Roche-lobe overflow binaries.

  15. Temporal Study of Magnetar Bursts with Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmaz Mus, Sinem; Gogus, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki

    2016-07-01

    We performed detailed temporal analyses of all bursts observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer originated from four magnetars: SGR 1806-20, SGR 1900+14, SGR J1550-5418, and AXP 1E 2259+586. We first implemented a Bayesian block algorithm to identify bursts, and constructed Bayesian block representations of all identified bursts from these magnetars. Based on these results, we formed the burst duration distributions, and compared to those previously reported using different approach. We also performed detailed investigation of time lag between various energy intervals in order to uncover any possible time delay between soft and hard X-ray emission components.

  16. Fermi/GBM Observations of SGR J0501+4516

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; van der Horst, Alexander J.

    2011-08-01

    The magnetar candidate SGR J0501+4516 was discovered when it became active for about 13 days from August 22 to September 3, 2008. During this period, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) onboard Fermi detected over 30 bursts. We present here our results on the temporal and spectral analysis of the 29 bursts for which high spectral and time resolution data is available. We find that the T90 durations of the bursts follow a log-normal distribution with a mean value of ~123 ms. We fit the time-integrated spectrum of each burst with several models: a black body function, optically thin thermal brehmsstrahlung, a power law with an exponential cut-off, two black body functions, and the combination of a black body and a power law. We discuss our results in the context of the spectral properties of other magnetar bursts and we also present some correlations between the spectral parameters of the best fit models for all bursts. Finally, we present the results of our time-resolved spectral analysis of the five brightest bursts and discuss how they compare with our time-integrated results.

  17. The Giant Flare of 1998 August 27 from SGR 1900+14. I. An Interpretive Study of BeppoSAX and Ulysses Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroci, M.; Hurley, K.; Duncan, R. C.; Thompson, C.

    2001-03-01

    The giant flare of 1998 August 27 from SGR 1900+14 was extraordinary in many ways: it was the most intense flux of gamma rays ever detected from a source outside our solar system; it was longer than any previously detected burst from a soft gamma repeater (SGR) in our Galaxy by more than an order of magnitude; and it showed a remarkable four-peaked, periodic pattern in hard X-rays with the same rotation period that was found modulating soft X-rays from the star in quiescence. The event was detected by several gamma-ray experiments in space, including the Ulysses gamma-ray burst detector and the BeppoSAX Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor. These instruments operate in different energy ranges, and comparisons of their measurements reveal complex patterns of spectral evolution as the intensity varies. In this paper, we present a joint analysis of the BeppoSAX and Ulysses data and discuss some implications of these results for the SGRs. We also present newly analyzed Venera/SIGNE and ISEE-3 data on the 1979 March 5 giant flare from an SGR in the Large Magellanic Cloud (SGR 0526-66) and compare them with the August 27 event. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that giant flares are due to catastrophic magnetic instabilities in highly magnetized neutron stars, or ``magnetars.'' In particular, observations indicate that the initial hard spike involved a relativistic outflow of pairs and hard gamma rays, plausibly triggered by a large propagating fracture in the crust of a neutron star with a field exceeding 1014 G. Later stages in the light curve are accurately fitted by a model for emission from the envelope of a magnetically confined pair-photon fireball, anchored to the surface of the rotating star, which contracts as it emits X-rays and then evaporates completely in a finite time. The complex four-peaked shape of the light curve likely provides the most direct evidence known for a multipolar geometry in the magnetic field of a neutron star.

  18. Numerical Models of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Moscibrodzka, M; Dolence, J; Shiokawa, H; Leung, P K

    2010-01-01

    We review results from general relativistic axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations of accretion in Sgr A*. We use general relativistic radiative transfer methods and to produce a broad band (from millimeter to gamma-rays) spectrum. Using a ray tracing scheme we also model images of Sgr A* and compare the size of image to the VLBI observations at 230 GHz. We perform a parameter survey and study radiative properties of the flow models for various black hole spins, ion to electron temperature ratios, and inclinations. We scale our models to reconstruct the flux and the spectral slope around 230 GHz. The combination of Monte Carlo spectral energy distribution calculations and 230 GHz image modeling constrains the parameter space of the numerical models. Our models suggest rather high black hole spin ($a_*\\approx 0.9$), electron temperatures close to the ion temperature ($T_i/T_e \\sim 3$) and high inclination angles ($i \\approx 90 \\deg$).

  19. Sgr A* and General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Tim

    2015-01-01

    General relativity has been widely tested in weak gravitational fields but still stands largely untested in the strong-field regime. According to the no-hair theorem, black holes in general relativity depend only on their masses and spins and are described by the Kerr metric. Mass and spin are the first two multipole moments of the Kerr spacetime and completely determine all higher-order moments. The no-hair theorem and, hence, general relativity can be tested by measuring potential deviations from the Kerr metric affecting such higher-order moments. Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) is a prime target for precision tests of general relativity with several experiments across the electromagnetic spectrum. First, near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of stars orbiting around Sgr A* with current and new instruments is expected to resolve their orbital precessions. Second, timing observations of radio pulsars near the Galactic center may detect characteristic residuals induced by the spin and quadrupole moment of Sgr A*. Third, th...

  20. The Complex Circumstellar and Circumbinary Environment of V356 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Jamie R; Malatesta, Michael A; Babler, Brian; Bednarski, Daniel; Berdis, Jodi R; Bjorkman, Karen S; Bjorkman, Jon E; Carciofi, Alex C; Davidson, James W; Keil, Marcus; Meade, Marilyn R; Nordsieck, Kenneth; Scheffler, Matt; Hoffman, Jennifer L; Wisniewski, John P

    2016-01-01

    We analyze 45 spectropolarimetric observations of the eclipsing, interacting binary star V356 Sgr, obtained over a period of 21 years, to characterize the geometry of the system's circumstellar material. After removing interstellar polarization from these data, we find the system exhibits a large intrinsic polarization signature arising from electron scattering. In addition, the lack of repeatable eclipses in the polarization phase curves indicates the presence of a substantial pool of scatterers not occulted by either star. We suggest that these scatterers form either a circumbinary disk coplanar with the gainer's accretion disk or an elongated structure perpendicular to the orbital plane of V356 Sgr, possibly formed by bipolar outflows. We also observe small-scale, cycle-to-cycle variations in the magnitude of intrinsic polarization at individual phases, which we interpret as evidence of variability in the amount of scattering material present within and around the system. This may indicate a mass transfer ...

  1. Hα Intensity Map of the Repeating Fast Radio Burst FRB 121102 Host Galaxy from Subaru/Kyoto 3DII AO-assisted Optical Integral-field Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Mitsuru; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Sugai, Hajime; Ozaki, Shinobu; Minowa, Yosuke; Hattori, Takashi; Hayano, Yutaka; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Shimono, Atsushi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Doi, Mamoru

    2017-08-01

    We present the Hα intensity map of the host galaxy of the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102 at a redshift of z = 0.193 obtained with the AO-assisted Kyoto 3DII optical integral-field unit mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. We detected a compact Hα-emitting (i.e., star-forming) region in the galaxy, which has a much smaller angular size (GMOS z\\prime -band image (≃ 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 4 (4.6 kpc) at FWHM with ellipticity b/a=0.45). The spatial offset between the centroid of the Hα emission region and the position of the radio bursts is 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 08+/- 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 02 (0.26 ± 0.07 kpc), indicating that FRB 121102 is located within the star-forming region. This close spatial association of FRB 121102 with the star-forming region is consistent with expectations from young pulsar/magnetar models for FRB 121102, and it also suggests that the observed Hα emission region can make a major dispersion measure (DM) contribution to the host galaxy DM component of FRB 121102. Nevertheless, the largest possible value of the DM contribution from the Hα emission region inferred from our observations still requires a significant amount of ionized baryons in intergalactic medium (IGM; the so-called “missing” baryons) as the DM source of FRB 121102, and we obtain a 90% confidence level lower limit on the cosmic baryon density in the IGM in the low-redshift universe as {{{Ω }}}{IGM}> 0.012. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  2. Life after eruption - VI. Recovery of the old novae EL Aql, V606 Aql, V908 Oph, V1149 Sgr, V1583 Sgr and V3964 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Tappert, C; Morales, I Fuentes; Vogt, N; Ederoclite, A; Schmidtobreick, L

    2016-01-01

    We report on the recovery of the six old novae EL Aql, V606 Aql, V908 Oph, V1149 Sgr, V1583 Sgr and V3964 Sgr, using photometric and spectroscopic data. Analysing several properties, we find that EL Aql is a good candidate for an intermediate polar. Furthermore, the system inclination of EL Aql, V606 Aql, V1583 Sgr and V3964 Sgr appears to be sufficiently high to suggest them as good targets for time series observations. We also eliminate some previously suggested candidates for the post-novae V1301 Aql and V1151 Sgr.

  3. Probing the Nature of Short Swift Bursts via Deep INTEGRAL Monitoring of GRB 050925

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barbier, L.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present results from Swift, XMM-Newton, and deep INTEGRAL monitoring in the region of GRB 050925. This short Swift burst is a candidate for a newly discovered soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) with the following observational burst properties: 1) galactic plane (b=-0.1 deg) localization, 2) 150 msec duration, and 3) a blackbody rather than a simple power-law spectral shape (with a significance level of 97%). We found two possible X-ray counterparts of GRB 050925 by comparing the X-ray images from Swift XRT and XMM-Newton. Both X-ray sources show the transient behavior with a power-law decay index shallower than -1. We found no hard X-ray emission nor any additional burst from the location of GRB 050925 in approximately 5 Ms of INTEGRAL data. We discuss about the three BATSE short bursts which might be associated with GRB 050925, based on their location and the duration. Assuming GRB 050925 is associated with the H(sub II), regions (W 58) at the galactic longitude of 1=70 deg, we also discuss the source frame properties of GRB 050925.

  4. THE FIVE YEAR FERMI/GBM MAGNETAR BURST CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collazzi, A. C. [SciTec, Inc., 100 Wall Street, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Kouveliotou, C.; Horst, A. J. van der; Younes, G. A. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Kaneko, Y.; Göğüş, E. [Sabancı University, Orhanlı-Tuzla, İstanbul 34956 (Turkey); Lin, L. [François Arago Centre, APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris (France); Granot, J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The Open University of Israel, 1 University Road, P.O. Box 808, Raanana 43537 (Israel); Finger, M. H. [Universities Space Research Association, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Chaplin, V. L. [School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Avenue S, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Huppenkothen, D. [Center for Data Science, New York University, 726 Broadway, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Watts, A. L. [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Baring, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, MS-108, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Gruber, D. [Planetarium Südtirol, Gummer 5, I-39053 Karneid (Italy); Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Gibby, M. H., E-mail: acollazzi@scitec.com [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); and others

    2015-05-15

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present the Fermi/GBM magnetar catalog, providing the results of the temporal and spectral analyses of 440 magnetar bursts with high temporal and spectral resolution. This catalog covers the first five years of GBM magnetar observations, from 2008 July to 2013 June. We provide durations, spectral parameters for various models, fluences, and peak fluxes for all the bursts, as well as a detailed temporal analysis for SGR J1550–5418 bursts. Finally, we suggest that some of the bursts of unknown origin are associated with the newly discovered magnetar 3XMM J185246.6+0033.7.

  5. Fast Radio Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akshaya Rane; Duncan Lorimer

    2017-09-01

    We summarize our current state of knowledge of fast radio bursts (FRBs) which were first discovered a decade ago. Following an introduction to radio transients in general, including pulsars and rotating radio transients, we discuss the discovery of FRBs. We then discuss FRB follow-up observations in the context of repeat bursts before moving on to review propagation effects on FRB signals, FRB progenitor models and an outlook on FRBs as potential cosmological tools.

  6. Magnetar Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi/Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) was launched in June 2008. During the last five years the instrument has observed several hundreds of bursts from 8 confirmed magnetars and 19 events from unconfirmed sources. I will discuss the results of the GBM magnetar burst catalog, expand on the different properties of their diverse source population, and compare these results with the bursting activity of past sources. I will then conclude with thoughts of how these properties fit the magnetar theoretical models.

  7. Modelling the flare activity of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, E M

    2016-01-01

    Latest observational data provides evidence that the emissions from Sgr A* originate from an accretion disc within ten gravitational radii of the dynamical centre of Milky Way. We investigate the physical processes responsible for the variable observed emissions from the compact radio source Sgr A*. We study the evolution of the variable emission region and analyse light curves and time-resolved spectra of emissions originated at the surface of the accretion disk, close to the event horizon, near the marginally stable orbit of a Kerr black hole.

  8. New Methods for Timing Analysis of Transient Events, Applied to Fermi/GBM Magnetar Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Huppenkothen, Daniela; Uttley, Phil; van der Horst, Alexander J; van der Klis, Michiel; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Granot, Jonathan; Vaughan, Simon; Finger, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    In order to discern the physical nature of many gamma-ray sources in the sky, we must look not only in spectral and spatial dimensions, but also understand their temporal variability. However, timing analysis of sources with a highly transient nature, such as magnetar bursts, is difficult: standard Fourier techniques developed for long-term variability generally observed, for example, from AGN often do not apply. Here, we present newly developed timing methods applicable to transient events of all kinds, and show their successful application to magnetar bursts observed with Fermi/GBM. Magnetars are a prime subject for timing studies, thanks to the detection of quasi-periodicities in magnetar Giant Flares and their potential to help shed light on the structure of neutron stars. Using state-of-the art statistical techniques, we search for quasi-periodicities (QPOs) in a sample of bursts from Soft Gamma Repeater SGR J0501+4516 observed with Fermi/GBM and provide upper limits for potential QPO detections. Additio...

  9. V4743 Sgr, a magnetic nova?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemko, P.; Orio, M.; Mukai, K.; Bianchini, A.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.

    2016-08-01

    Two XMM-Newton observations of Nova V4743 Sgr (Nova Sgr 2002) were performed shortly after it returned to quiescence, 2 and 3.5 yr after the explosion. The X-ray light curves revealed a modulation with a frequency of ≃0.75 mHz, indicating that V4743 Sgr is most probably an intermediate polar (IP). The X-ray spectra have characteristics in common with known IPs, with a hard thermal plasma component that can be fitted only assuming a partially covering absorber. In 2004, the X-ray spectrum had also a supersoft blackbody-like component, whose temperature was close to that of the white dwarf (WD) in the supersoft X-ray phase following the outburst, but with flux by at least two orders of magnitude lower. In quiescent IPs, a soft X-ray flux component originates at times in the polar regions irradiated by an accretion column, but the supersoft component of V4743 Sgr disappeared in 2006, indicating a possible origin different from accretion. We suggest that it may have been due to an atmospheric temperature gradient on the WD surface, or to continuing localized thermonuclear burning at the bottom of the envelope, before complete turn-off. An optical spectrum obtained with Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) 11.5 yr after the outburst showed a prominent He II λ4686 line and the Bowen blend, which reveal a very hot region, but with peak temperature shifted to the ultraviolet range. V4743 Sgr is the third post-outburst nova and IP candidate showing a low-luminosity supersoft component in the X-ray flux a few years after the outburst.

  10. Radio Pulsation Search and Imaging Study of SGR J1935+2154

    CERN Document Server

    Surnis, Mayuresh; Maan, Yogesh; Krishnakumar, M A; Manoharan, P K; Naidu, Arun

    2016-01-01

    We present the results obtained from imaging observations, and search for radio pulsations towards the magnetar SGR J1935+2154 made using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, and the Ooty Radio Telescope. We present the high resolution radio image of the supernova remnant (SNR) G57.2+0.8, which is positionally associated with SGR J1935+2154. We did not detect significant periodic radio pulsations from the magnetar, with 8$\\sigma$ upper limits on its flux density of 0.4, and 0.2 mJy at 326.5, and 610 MHz, respectively, for an assumed duty cycle of 10\\%. The corresponding 6$\\sigma$ upper limits at the two frequencies for any burst emission with an assumed width of 10 ms are 0.5 Jy, and 63 mJy, respectively. No continuum radio point source was detected at the position of SGR J1935+2154 with a 3$\\sigma$ upper limit of 1.2 mJy. We also did not detect significant diffuse radio emission in a radius of 70 arc seconds in coincidence with the diffuse X-ray emission reported recently, with a 3$\\sigma$ upper limit of 4.5...

  11. Assisted stellar suicide in V617 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Steiner, J E; Cieslinski, D; Ricci, T V

    2005-01-01

    V617 Sgr is a V Sagittae star - a group of binaries thought to be the galactic counterparts of the Compact Binary Supersoft X-ray Sources - CBSS. To check this hypothesis, we measured the time derivative of its orbital period. Observed timings of eclipse minima spanning over 30,000 orbital cycles are presented. We found that the orbital period evolves quite rapidly: P/Pdot = 1.1 x 10^{6} years. This is consistent with the idea that V617 Sgr is a wind driven accretion supersoft source. As the binary system evolves with a time-scale of about one million years, which is extremely short for a low mass evolved binary, it is likely that the system will soon end either by having its secondary completely evaporated or by the primary exploding as a supernova of type Ia.

  12. The Submillimeter Polarization of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Marrone, D P; Zhao, J H; Rao, R; Marrone, Daniel P.; Moran, James M.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Rao, Ramprasad

    2006-01-01

    We report on the submillimeter properties of Sagittarius A* derived from observations with the Submillimeter Array and its polarimeter. We find that the spectrum of Sgr A* between 230 and 690 GHz is slightly decreasing when measured simultaneously, indicating a transition to optically thin emission around 300-400 GHz. We also present very sensitive and well calibrated measurements of the polarization of Sgr A* at 230 and 345 GHz. With these data we are able to show for the first time that the polarization of Sgr A* varies on hour timescales, as has been observed for the total intensity. On one night we find variability that may arise from a polarized "blob" orbiting the black hole. Finally, we use the ensemble of observations to determine the rotation measure. This represents the first statistically significant rotation measure determination and the only one made without resorting to comparing position angles measured at separate epochs. We find a rotation measure of (-5.6+/-0.7)x10^5 rad/m^2, with no evidenc...

  13. Bipartisan proposal calls for SGR repeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Washington Post (11/1, Carey reports a bipartisan group of legislators has agreed on a framework replacing the “problematic” Medicare payment formula in an attempt to end the annual Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR or “doc fix” debate. The current system is set to reduce Medicare physician payments by approximately 25% on Jan. 1 without Congressional intervention. Senate Finance Committee Chairman Max Baucus (D-MT and House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Dave Camp (R-MI introduced a draft proposal that would “encourage care management services for individuals with complex chronic care needs through the development of new payment codes for such services, as well as leverage physician-developed standard of care guidelines to avoid the unnecessary provision of services”. The Committees value your feedback on this proposal. Please submit written comments to the Finance SGR comments mailbox at sgrcomments@finance.senate.gov and the Ways & Means SGR comments mailbox at sgrwhitepaper@mail.house.gov by Tuesday, November 12, …

  14. Young Stellar Objects close to Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, B; Eckart, A; Zwart, S Portegies; Sabha, N; Borkar, A; Moultaka, J; Muzic, K; Moser, L

    2013-01-01

    We aim at modelling small groups of young stars such as IRS 13N, 0.1 pc away from Sgr A*, which is suggested to contain a few embedded massive young stellar objects. We perform hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of molecular clumps orbiting about a $4\\times10^6 ~ M_{\\odot}$ black hole, to constrain the formation and the physical conditions of such groups. We find that, the strong compression due to the black hole along the orbital radius vector of clumps evolving on highly eccentric orbits causes the clumps densities to increase to higher than the tidal density of Sgr A*, and required for star formation. This suggests that the tidal compression from the black hole could support star formation. Additionally, we speculate that the infrared excess source G2/DSO approaching Sgr A* on a highly eccentric orbit could be associated with a dust enshrouded star that may have been formed recently through the mechanism supported by our models.

  15. High-frequency VLBI Imaging of Sgr A* and VX Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R.-S.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Zensus, A. J.

    VLBI observations at millimeter wavelengths provide unprecedented high angular resolution and allow to image regions, which are self-absorbed at longer wavelengths. Here we present new results from a multi-frequency VLBA monitoring of SgrA* at 22, 43, and 86 GHz performed on 10 consecutive days in May 2007. We discuss the source structure of Sgr A* through the analysis of the closure phase and closure amplitude, of which the latter improves the calibration accuracy and shows indications of a non-Gaussian brightness distribution at the highest frequency. We also present preliminary maps of the maser emission lines (v=1, J=1-0, and J=2-1) in the circumstellar SiO maser of VX Sgr. This will put new constraints on the kinematics and the pumping mechanisms of SiO masers.

  16. Bayesian timing analysis of giant flare of SGR 1806-20 by RXTE PCA

    CERN Document Server

    Hambaryan, V; Kokkotas, K D

    2010-01-01

    By detecting high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and estimating frequencies of them during the decaying tail of giant flares from Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) useful constraints for the equation of state (EoS) of superdense matter may be obtained via comparison with theoretical predictions of eigenfrequencies. We used the data collected by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE/XTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of a giant flare of SGR 1806-20 on 2004 Dec 27 and applied a Bayesian periodicity detection method (Gregory & Loredo, 1992) for the search of oscillations of transient nature. In addition to the already detected frequencies, we found a few new frequencies (f_{QPOs} ~ 16.9, 21.4, 36.4, 59.0, 116.3 Hz) of oscillations predicted by Colaiuda et al. (2009) based on the APR_{14} EoS (Akmal et al., 1998) for SGR 1806-20.

  17. Evidence for a Sudden Magnetic Field Reconfiguration in Soft Gamma Repeater 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Swank, Jean; Smith, Don A.; Hurley, Kevin; Thompson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of large flux changes in the persistent X-ray flux of soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1900 + 14 during its burst active episode in 1998. Most notably, we find a factor of approx. 700 increase in the nonburst X-ray flux following the August 27 flare, which decayed in time as a power law. Our measurements indicate that the pulse fraction remains constant throughout this decay. This suggests a global flux enhancement as a consequence of the August 27 flare rather than localized heating. While the persistent flux has since recovered to the preoutburst level, the pulse profile has not. The pulse shape changed to a near sinusoidal profile within the tail of the August 27 flare (in gamma-rays), and this effect has persisted for more than 1.5 years (in X-rays). The results presented here suggest that the magnetic field of the neutron star in SGR 1900 + 14 was significantly altered (perhaps globally) during the giant flare of August 27.

  18. Evidence for a Sudden Magnetic Field Reconfiguration in Soft Gamma Repeater 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Peter M.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; Finger, Mark H.; Swank, Jean; Smith, Don A.; Hurley, Kevin; Thompson, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of large flux changes in the persistent X-ray flux of soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1900 + 14 during its burst active episode in 1998. Most notably, we find a factor of approx. 700 increase in the nonburst X-ray flux following the August 27 flare, which decayed in time as a power law. Our measurements indicate that the pulse fraction remains constant throughout this decay. This suggests a global flux enhancement as a consequence of the August 27 flare rather than localized heating. While the persistent flux has since recovered to the preoutburst level, the pulse profile has not. The pulse shape changed to a near sinusoidal profile within the tail of the August 27 flare (in gamma-rays), and this effect has persisted for more than 1.5 years (in X-rays). The results presented here suggest that the magnetic field of the neutron star in SGR 1900 + 14 was significantly altered (perhaps globally) during the giant flare of August 27.

  19. Searching for Magnetar SGR 0755-2933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Amanda; Lynch, Ryan; NRAO Green Bank Telescope

    2017-01-01

    We observed SGR 0755-2933 in multiple sessions using C-band to observe it at the middle frequency of 6 GHz and S-band to observe it at 2 GHz.Although other radio telescopes have attempted to detect this candidate magnetar, the main thing we wanted to do differently with the Green Bank Radio Telescope is to observe it at high frequencies. We decided to do this because the Chandra X-ray spectrum hinted at there being a high column of neutral hydrogen density which could mean more scattering and mean the possibility of a high dispersion measurement. In high frequencies, high DM doesn't effect the magnetar signal as much. Also higher frequencies are better to detect a magnetar’s signal because the intensity of the pulses increase.We performed a single pulse search since magnetars have long periods and period pulses could get lost in the noise. SGR 0755-2933 was observed in X-ray to have a long rotational period of 308 which is unprecedented. This could mean it has the strongest known magnetic field being 10^16 G or would change our understanding of neutron stars magnetic field theory. Unfortunately, we were unable to detect a strong signal so we cannot confirm whether SGR 0755-2933 is a magnetar and even more specifically a radio magnetar, the 5th known radio magnetar. With no radio data, we cannot do pulsar timing, calculate spin down nor confirm if this magnetar is in a binary system with a main sequence star.

  20. Studying MHD and radiative processes in Sgr A*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dibi

    2014-01-01

    This thesis details four different studies of accretion and emission processes around the Galactic Center Sgr A*. We are studying Sgr A* in particular because it is the closest supermassive black hole and therefore we have incomparable observational data to test our theories and predictions. However

  1. The Jet Model for Sgr $A^{*}$

    CERN Document Server

    Falcke, H

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the jet model for the supermassive black hole candidate Sgr A* in the Center of the Galaxy is reviewed. The most recent model, with a reduced set of parameters, is able to account for all major radio properties of the source: size, structure, flux density, and spectrum. The model requires a minimum jet power of ~10^39 erg/sec and in a symbiotic jet/disk system implies a minimum accretion rate of a few times 10^-8 M_sun/yr for a radio loud jet or flux then imply that the accretion flow onto the central black hole must be radiatively deficient, but most likely has a high viscosity. Within the jet model the high-frequency part of the Sgr A* spectrum is self-consistently explained as the nozzle of the outflow. In a symbiotic model this innermost region of the jet could possibly be identified with the innermost region of an advection dominated accretion disk, a Bondi-Hoyle accretion flow, or any other type of under-luminous accretion process. The compact nozzle region is of particular importance sinc...

  2. Radio Pulsation Search and Imaging Study of SGR J1935+2154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surnis, Mayuresh. P.; Joshi, Bhal Chandra; Maan, Yogesh; Krishnakumar, M. A.; Manoharan, P. K.; Naidu, Arun

    2016-08-01

    We present the results obtained from imaging observations and a search for radio pulsations toward the magnetar SGR J1935+2154 made using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and the Ooty Radio Telescope. We present the high-resolution radio image of the supernova remnant (SNR) G57.2+0.8, which is positionally associated with SGR J1935+2154. We did not detect significant periodic radio pulsations from the magnetar, with 8σ upper limits on its flux density of 0.4 and 0.2 mJy at 326.5 and 610 MHz, respectively, for an assumed duty cycle of 10%. The corresponding 6σ upper limits at the two frequencies for any burst emission with an assumed width of 10 ms are 0.5 Jy and 63 mJy, respectively. No continuum radio point source was detected at the position of SGR J1935+2154 with a 3σ upper limit of 1.2 mJy. We also did not detect significant diffuse radio emission in a radius of 70 arc s coinciding with the recently reported diffuse X-ray emission, with a 3σ upper limit of 4.5 mJy. Using the archival HI spectra, we estimate the distance of SNR G57.2+0.8 to be 11.7 ± 2.8 kpc. Based on the measured HI column density (N H ) along this line of sight, we argue that the magnetar could be physically associated with SNR G57.2+0.8. Based on the present data, we cannot rule out either a pulsar wind nebula or a dust-scattering halo origin for the diffuse X-ray emission seen around the magnetar.

  3. SEARCH FOR THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO SGR 0418+5729

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, Martin; Kargaltsev, Oleg [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Pavlov, George G., E-mail: martin.durant@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We report broadband Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the field of soft {gamma}-ray repeater SGR 0418+5729 with Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel and Wide Field Camera 3/IR. Observing in two wide filters, F606W and F110W, we find no counterpart within the positional error circle derived from Chandra observations, to limiting magnitudes m{sub F606W} > 28.6 and m{sub F110W} > 27.4 (Vega system), equivalent to reddening-corrected luminosity limits L{sub F606W} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 28} and L{sub F110W} < 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 28} erg s{sup -1} for a distance d = 2 kpc, at 3{sigma} confidence. This, in turn, imposes lower limits on the contemporaneous X-ray/optical flux ratio of {approx_equal}1100 and the X-ray/near-infrared flux ratio of {approx_equal}1000. We derive an upper limit on the temperature and/or size of any fall-back disk around the magnetar. We also compare the detection limits with observations of other magnetars.

  4. A Magnetic Flux Tube Oscillation Model for QPOs in SGR Giant Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Bo; Chen, P F

    2008-01-01

    Giant flares from soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are one of the most violent phenomena in neutron stars. Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) with frequencies ranging from 18 to 1840 Hz have been discovered in the tails of giant flares from two SGRs, and were ascribed to be seismic vibrations or torsional oscillations of magnetars. Here we propose an alternative explanation for the QPOs in terms of standing sausage mode oscillations of flux tubes in the magnetar coronae. We show that most of the QPOs observed in SGR giant flares could be well accounted for except for those with very high frequencies (625 and 1840 Hz).

  5. Timing and flux evolution of the galactic center magnetar SGR J1745–2900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.; Archibald, Robert F.; Dufour, François; An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Bhalerao, Varun [Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Gotthelf, Eric V.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kennea, Jamie A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kouveliotou, Chryssa [Astrophysics Office, ZP 12, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Markwardt, Craig B. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: vkaspi@physics.mcgill.ca [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

    2014-05-10

    We present the X-ray timing and spectral evolution of the Galactic Center magnetar SGR J1745–2900 for the first ∼4 months post-discovery using data obtained with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and Swift observatories. Our timing analysis reveals a large increase in the magnetar spin-down rate by a factor of 2.60 ± 0.07 over our data span. We further show that the change in spin evolution was likely coincident with a bright X-ray burst observed in 2013 June by Swift, and if so, there was no accompanying discontinuity in the frequency. We find that the source 3-10 keV flux has declined monotonically by a factor of ∼2 over an 80 day period post-outburst accompanied by a ∼20% decrease in the source's blackbody temperature, although there is evidence for both flux and kT having leveled off. We argue that the torque variations are likely to be magnetospheric in nature and will dominate over any dynamical signatures of orbital motion around Sgr A*.

  6. 9 Sgr spectra 1999-2011 (Rauw+, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rauw; H. Sana; M. Spano; E. Gosset; L. Mahy; M. De Becker; P. Eenens

    2012-01-01

    The best quality wavelength-calibrated and normalized spectra of 9 Sgr are provided. These data were obtained with the FEROS, UVES and Coralie spectrographs. The wavelengths are given in the heliocentric frame of reference.

  7. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the SGR gene family in Cucumis melo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, R G; Bao, M L; Jin, W Y; Ma, Y; Niu, Y D; Hasi, A

    2016-10-17

    Chlorophyll (CHL) is present in many plant organs, and its metabolism is strongly regulated throughout plant development. Understanding the fate of CHL in senescent leaves or during fruit ripening is a complex process. The stay-green (SGR) protein has been shown to affect CHL degradation. In this study, we used the conserved sequences of STAY-GREEN domain protein (NP_567673) in Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe to search SGR family genes in the genome-wide melon protein database. Four candidate SGR family genes were identified in melon (Cucumis melo L. Hetao). The phylogenetic evolution, gene structure, and conserved motifs were subsequently analyzed. In order to verify the function of CmSGR genes in CHL degradation, CmSGR1 and CmSGR2 were transiently overexpressed and silenced using different plasmids in melon. Overexpression of CmSGR1 or CmSGR2 induced leaf yellowing or fruit ripening, while silencing of CmSGR1 or CmSGR2 via RNA interference delayed CHL breakdown during fruit ripening or leaf senescence compared with the wild type. Next, the expression profile was analyzed, and we found that CmSGR genes were expressed ubiquitously. Moreover, CmSGR1 and CmSGR2 were upregulated, and promoted fruit ripening. CmSGR3 and CmSGR4 were more highly expressed in leaves, cotyledon, and stem compared with CmSGR1 or CmSGR2. Thus, we conclude that CmSGR genes are crucial for fruit ripening and leaf senescence. CmSGR protein structure and function were further clarified to provide a theoretical foundation and valuable information for improved performance of melon.

  8. Hard x-ray Morphological and Spectral Studies of the Galactic Center Molecular Cloud SGR B2: Constraining Past SGR A* Flaring Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya;

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, NuSTAR observed the Sgr B2 region and for the first time resolved its hard X-ray emission on subarcminute scales. Two prominent features are detected above 10 keV:. a newly emerging cloud, G0.66-0.13, and the central 90 '' radius region containing two compact cores, Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(...

  9. Sgr A* at low radio frequencies: GMRT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, S; Roy, Subhashis

    2004-01-01

    The central region of the Galaxy has been observed at 580, 620 and 1010 MHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect emission from Sgr-A*, the compact object at the dynamical centre of the Galaxy, and estimate its flux density at 620 MHz to be 0.5 +/- 0.1 Jy. This is the first detection of Sgr A* below 1 GHz (Roy & Rao 2002, 2003), which along with a possible detection at 330 MHz (Nord et al. 2004) provides its spectrum below 1 GHz. Comparison of the 620 MHz map with maps made at other frequencies indicates that most parts of the Sgr A West HII region have optical depth 2. However, Sgr A*, which is seen in the same region in projection, shows a slightly inverted spectral index between 1010 MHz and 620 MHz. This is consistent with its high frequency spectral index, and indicates that Sgr A* is located in front of the Sgr A West complex, and rules out any low frequency turnover around 1 GHz, as suggested by Davies et al. (1976).

  10. Stirling Colgate and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Donald

    2014-10-01

    Even before the discovery of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), Stirling Colgate proposed that bursts of x rays and gamma rays might be produced by a relativistic shock created in the supernova explosion of a massive star. We trace the scientific story of GRBs from their detection to the present, highlighting along the way Stirling's interest in them and his efforts to understand them. We summarize our current understanding that short, soft, repeating bursts are produced by magnetic neutron stars; short, hard bursts are produced by the mergers of neutron star-neutron star binaries; and long, hard bursts are produced by the core collapse of massive stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium envelopes. We then discuss some important open questions about GRBs and how they might be answered. We conclude by describing the recent serendipitous discovery of an x-ray burst of exactly the kind he proposed, and the insights into core collapse supernovae and GRBs that it provided.

  11. Burst and Persistent Emission Properties during the Recent Active Episode of the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Gogus, Ersin; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Watts, Anna L.; Baring, Matthew G.; Kaneko, Yuki; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Woods, Peter M.; Barthelmy, Scott; Burgess, J. Michael; Chaplin, Vandiver; Gehrels, Neil; Goldstein, Adam; Granot, Jonathan; Guiriec, Sylvain; Mcenery, Julie; Preece, Robert D.; Tierney, David; van der Klis, Michiel; von Kienlin, Andreas; Zhang, Shuang Nan

    2011-01-01

    SWift/BAT detected the first burst from 1E 1841-045 in May 2010 with intermittent burst activity recorded through at least July 2011. Here we present Swift and Fermi/GBM observations of this burst activity and search for correlated changes to the persistent X-ray emission of the source. The T90 durations of the bursts range between 18 - 140 ms, comparable to other magnetar burst durations, while the energy released in each burst ranges between (0.8-25) x 1038 erg, which is in the low side of SGR bursts. We find that the bursting activity did not have a significant effect on the persistent flux level of the source. We argue that the mechanism leading to this sporadic burst activity in IE 1841-045 might not involve large scale restructuring (either crustal or magnetospheric) as seen in other magnetar sources.

  12. Burst and Persistent Emission Properties during the Recent Active Episode of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin; Gogus, Ersin; van der Horst, Alexander J; Watts, Anna L; Baring, Matthew G; Kaneko, Yuki; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woods, Peter M; Barthelmy, Scott; Burgess, J Michael; Chaplin, Vandiver; Gehrels, Neil; Goldstein, Adam; Granot, Jonathan; Guiriec, Sylvain; Mcenery, Julie; Preece, Robert D; Tierney, David; van der Klis, Michiel; von Kienlin, Andreas; Zhang, Shuang Nan

    2011-01-01

    Swift/BAT detected the first burst from 1E 1841-045 in May 2010 with intermittent burst activity recorded through at least July 2011. Here we present Swift and Fermi/GBM observations of this burst activity and search for correlated changes to the persistent X-ray emission of the source. The T90 durations of the bursts range between 18-140 ms, comparable to other magnetar burst durations, while the energy released in each burst ranges between (0.8 - 25)E38 erg, which is in the low side of SGR bursts. We find that the bursting activity did not have a significant effect on the persistent flux level of the source. We argue that the mechanism leading to this sporadic burst activity in 1E 1841-045 might not involve large scale restructuring (either crustal or magnetospheric) as seen in other magnetar sources.

  13. RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION FROM THE MAGNETAR SGR J1745-2900: INTERACTION WITH GAS ORBITING Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Diesing, R.; Royster, M.; Roberts, D. [CIERA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Sjouwerman, L. O. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cotton, W. D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Room #238 CEB, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton AB T6G 2G7 (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    We present radio continuum light curves of the magnetar SGR J1745−2900 and Sgr A* obtained with multi-frequency, multi-epoch Very Large Array observations between 2012 and 2014. During this period, a powerful X-ray outburst from SGR J1745−2900 occurred on 2013 April 24. Enhanced radio emission is delayed with respect to the X-ray peak by about seven months. In addition, the flux density of the emission from the magnetar fluctuates by a factor of 2–4 at frequencies between 21 and 41 GHz and its spectral index varies erratically. Here, we argue that the excess fluctuating emission from the magnetar arises from the interaction of a shock generated from the X-ray outburst with the orbiting ionized gas at the Galactic center. In this picture, variable synchrotron emission is produced by ram pressure variations due to inhomogeneities in the dense ionized medium of the Sgr A West bar. The pulsar with its high transverse velocity is moving through a highly blueshifted ionized medium. This implies that the magnetar is at a projected distance of ∼0.1 pc from Sgr A* and that the orbiting ionized gas is partially or largely responsible for a large rotation measure detected toward the magnetar. Despite the variability of Sgr A* expected to be induced by the passage of the G2 cloud, monitoring data show a constant flux density and spectral index during this period.

  14. Low Frequency Radio Emission of Pulsar PSR J1907+0919 Associated with the Magnetar SGR 1900+14

    CERN Document Server

    Shitov, Yu P; Kutuzov, S M; Shitov, Yu. P.

    2000-01-01

    The soft gamma repeater SGR 1900+14 was observed in Pushchino observatorysince 1988 December using BSA radio telescope operating at 111 MHz. We havedetected the pulsed radio emission (Shitov 1999) with the same 5.16 s periodthat was reported earlier for this object. The timing analysis has shown thatthis new radio pulsar PSR J1907+0919 associated with SGR 1900+14 has asuperstrong magnetic field, which is 8.1 * 10^14 G, thereby confirming that itis a "magnetar". The dispersion measure of PSR J1907+0919 is 281.4(9) pc *cm^(-3) which gives an estimate of the pulsar's distance as about 5.8 kpc.

  15. Soft $\\gamma$-ray Repeaters in Clusters of Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F; Chaty, S; Mirabel, Felix I; Fuchs, Yael; Chaty, and Sylvain

    1999-01-01

    Infrared observations of the environment of the two Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters(SGRs) with the best known locations on the sky show that they are associatedto clusters of massive stars. Observations with ISO revealed that SGR 1806-20is in a cluster of giant massive stars, still enshrouded in a dense cloud ofgas and dust. SGR 1900+14 is at the edge of a similar cluster that was recentlyfound hidden in the glare of a pair of M5 supergiant stars. Since none of thestars of these clusters has shown in the last years significant flux variationsin the infrared, these two SGRs do not form bound binary systems with massivestars. SGR 1806-20 is at only ~ 0.4 pc, and SGR 1900+14 at ~ 0.8 pc from thecenters of their parental star clusters. If these SGRs were born with typicalneutron star runaway velocities of ~ 300 km/s, they are not older than a few10$^{3}$ years. We propose that SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 are ideallaboratories to study the evolution of supernovae explosions insideinterstellar bubbles produced by the stro...

  16. Sgr A* flares: tidal disruption of asteroids and planets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zubovas, K.; Nayakshin, S.; Markoff, S.

    2012-01-01

    It is theoretically expected that a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the centre of a typical nearby galaxy disrupts a solar-type star every ∼105 yr, resulting in a bright flare lasting for months. Sgr A*, the resident SMBH of the Milky Way, produces (by comparison) tiny flares that last only hours

  17. Intrinsic Size OF Sgr A* 72 Schwarzschild Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, K Y; Zhao, J H; Ho, P T P

    1998-01-01

    Recent proper motion studies of stars at the very center of the Galaxy strongly suggest that Sagittarius (Sgr) A*, the compact nonthermal radio source at the Galactic Center, is a 2.5 million solar mass black hole. By means of near-simultaneous multi-wavelength Very Long Baseline Array measurements, we determine for the first time the intrinsic size and shape of Sgr A* to be 72 Rsc by < 20 Rsc, with the major axis oriented essentially north-south, where Rsc (= 7.5 x 10^{11} cm) is the Schwarzschild radius for a 2.5 million solar mass black hole. Contrary to previous expectation that the intrinsic structure of Sgr A* is observable only at wavelengths shorter than 1 mm, we can discern the intrinsic source size at 7 mm because (1) the scattering size along the minor axis is half that along the major axis, and (2) the near simultaneous multi-wavelength mapping of Sgr A* with the same interferometer makes it possible to extrapolate precisely the minor axis scattering angle at 7 mm. The intrinsic size and shape ...

  18. Outward Motions of SiO Masers around VX Sgr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. B. Su; Z.-Q. Shen; X. Chen; D. R. Jiang

    2014-09-01

    We report the proper motions of SiO maser features around VX Sgr from the two-epoch VLBA observations (2006 December 15 and 2007 August 19). The majority of maser feature activities show a trend of outward motions. It is consistent with our previous finding that the outflow may play an important role for SiO maser pumping.

  19. Herschel observations of deuterated water towards Sgr B2(M)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comito, C.; Schilke, P.; Rolffs, R.; Lis, D. C.; Belloche, A.; Bergin, E. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Bell, T. A.; Crockett, N. R.; Wang, S.; Blake, G. A.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Gupta, H.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. D.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pearson, J. C.; Pérault, M.; Plume, R.; Qin, S.-L.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Olberg, M.; Szczerba, R.; Larsson, B.; Liseau, R.; Lin, R. H.; Samoska, L. A.; Schlecht, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of HDO are an important complement for studies of water, because they give strong constraints on the formation processes - grain surfaces versus energetic process in the gas phase, e.g. in shocks. The HIFI observations of multiple transitions of HDO in Sgr B2(M) presented here allow the

  20. Hard X-ray Morphological and Spectral Studies of The Galactic Center Molecular Cloud Sgr B2: Constraining Past Sgr A* Flaring Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuo; Mori, Kaya; Clavel, Maïca; Terrier, Régis; Ponti, Gabriele; Goldwurm, Andrea; Bauer, Franz E; Boggs, Steven E; Craig, William W; Christensen, Finn E; Harrison, Fiona A; Hong, Jaesub; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Soldi, Simona; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    Galactic Center (GC) molecular cloud Sgr B2 is the best manifestation of an X-ray reflection nebula (XRN) reprocessing a past giant outburst from the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. Alternatively, Sgr B2 could be illuminated by low-energy cosmic ray electrons (LECRe) or protons (LECRp). In 2013, NuSTAR for the first time resolved Sgr B2 hard X-ray emission on sub-arcminute scales. Two prominent features are detected above 10 keV - a newly emerging cloud G0.66-0.13 and the central 90" radius region containing two compact cores Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) surrounded by diffuse emission. It is inconclusive whether the remaining level of Sgr B2 emission is still decreasing or has reached a constant background level. A decreasing Fe K$\\alpha$ emission can be best explained by XRN while a constant background emission can be best explained by LECRp. In the XRN scenario, the 3-79 keV Sgr B2 spectrum can well constrain the past Sgr A* outburst, resulting in an outburst spectrum with a peak luminosity of $L_{3-79\\rm~keV} \\...

  1. Diagnosing the Black Hole Accretion Physics of Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Giovanni; Ashby, Matthew; Baganoff, Frederick; Becklin, Eric; Carey, Sean; Gammie, Charles; Ghez, Andrea; Glaccum, William; Gurwell, Mark; Haggard, Daryl; Hora, Joseph; Ingalls, James; Marrone, Daniel; Meyer, Leo; Morris, Mark; Smith, Howard; Willner, Steven; Witzel, Gunther

    2016-08-01

    The Galactic center offers the closest opportunity for studying accretion onto supermassive black holes. The fluctuating source, Sgr A*, is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum and may originate in the accretion flow or jet. Recent general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (GRMHD) models indicate that variability can be produced by a tilted inner disk, gravitational lensing of bright spots in the disk by the hole, or particle acceleration in reconnection events. These models produce different flare characteristics, and in particular better characterization of flares may enable us to distinguish between strong and weakly magnetized disks. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of the flares is a central challenge to our understanding of the Sgr A* accretion flow. Following our successful observations of the variability of Sgr A* with IRAC in 2013 and 2014, we propose simultaneous IRAC (4.5 micron) and Chandra (2-10 keV) observations to (1) probe the accretion physics of Sgr A* on event-horizon scales and (2) detect any effect of the object G2 on Sgr A*. Specifically, we propose six additional epochs of observation, each of 24 uninterrupted hours; four in 2017 July and two in 2018 July. In this proposal we request two 24-hour (86.4 ks) Chandra periods, and are requesting another four through the Chandra TAC to have simultaneous X-ray observations in each of the six Spitzer epochs. Independent of this proposal we will also request NuSTAR (3-79 keV), SMA/ALMA/APEX (0.8 mm), and Keck/Magellan NIR (2.2 micron) observations during the IRAC/Chandra epochs. Only such long-duration, continuous, multi-wavelength observations can achieve a comprehensive view of the dominant emission process(es) and quantify the physical properties near the event horizon. Theoretical models are increasing in physical sophistication, and our study will provide essential constraints for the next generation of models.

  2. Odin spectral line observations of Sgr A and Sgr B2 at submm wavelengths and in the 118-GHz band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandqvist, A [Stockholm Observatory, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergman, P [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Bernath, P [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Frisk, U [Swedish Space Corporation, PO Box 4207, SE-171 04 Solna (Sweden); Hjalmarson, A [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Larsson, B [Stockholm Observatory, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Lindqvist, M [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Olberg, M [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Olofsson, A O H [Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Pagani, L [LERMA and ERE 2460 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, FR-75014 Paris (France)

    2006-12-15

    Since its launch in 2001, the Odin satellite has been observing the Galactic Centre Sgr A Complex (CND, +20 and +50 km s{sup -1} Clouds) as well as the nearby star formation region, Sgr B2, a number of times. Observations have been made in the 118-119 GHz and 486-581 GHz bands. A limited mapping of the Sgr A Complex in the H{sup 16}{sub 2}O line has been performed and new observations of the H{sup 18}{sub 2}O line took place in 2006. In the 118-119 GHz band, a strong line of HC{sub 3}N (J = 13 - 12) has been detected at a number of positions - sensitive upper limits have been obtained for the O{sub 2} (1{sub 1} - 1{sub 0}) and the SiC (3{pi}{sub 2}, J = 3 - 2) lines. Towards Sgr B2, submm observations have yielded absorption profles of H{sup 16}{sub 2}O, H{sup 18}{sub 2}O, H{sup 17}{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, and {sup 15}NH{sub 3}.

  3. The interplanetary gamma ray burst network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.

    The Interplanetary Gamma-Ray Burst Network (IPN) is providing gamma-ray burst (GRB) alerts and localizations at the maximum rate anticipated before the launch of the Swift mission. The arc-minute source precision of the IPN is again permitting searches for GRB afterglows in the radio and optical regimes with delays of only hours up to 2 days. The successful addition of the Mars Odyssey mission has compensated for the loss of the asteroid mission NEAR, to reconstitute a fully long- baseline interplanetary network, with Ulysses at > 5 AU and Konus-Wind and HETE-2 near the Earth. In addition to making unassisted GRB localizations that enable a renewed supply of counterpart observations, the Mars/Ulysses/Wind IPN is confirming and reinforcing GRB source localizations with HETE-2. It has also confirmed and reinforced localizations with the BeppoSAX mission before the BeppoSAX termination in May and has detected and localized both SGRs and an unusual hard x-ray transient that is neither an SGR nor a GRB. This IPN is expected to operate until at least 2004.

  4. GLAST Burst Monitor Trigger Classification Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, D. J.; Sidman, E. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), currently set for launch in the first quarter of 2007, will consist of two instruments, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT). One of the goals of the GBM is to identify and locate gamma-ray bursts using on-board software. The GLAST observatory can then be re-oriented to allow observations by the LAT. A Bayesian analysis will be used to distinguish gamma-ray bursts from other triggering events, such as solar flares, magnetospheric particle precipitation, soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), and Cygnus X-1 flaring. The trigger parameters used in the analysis are the burst celestial coordinates, angle from the Earth's horizon, spectral hardness, and the spacecraft geomagnetic latitude. The algorithm will be described and the results of testing will be presented.

  5. Testing General Relativity with the Shadow Size of Sgr A(*).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Tim; Broderick, Avery E; Plewa, Philipp M; Chatzopoulos, Sotiris; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fish, Vincent L; Genzel, Reinhard; Gerhard, Ortwin; Johnson, Michael D

    2016-01-22

    In general relativity, the angular radius of the shadow of a black hole is primarily determined by its mass-to-distance ratio and depends only weakly on its spin and inclination. If general relativity is violated, however, the shadow size may also depend strongly on parametric deviations from the Kerr metric. Based on a reconstructed image of Sagittarius A^{*} (Sgr A^{*}) from a simulated one-day observing run of a seven-station Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, we employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to demonstrate that such an observation can measure the angular radius of the shadow of Sgr A^{*} with an uncertainty of ∼1.5  μas (6%). We show that existing mass and distance measurements can be improved significantly when combined with upcoming EHT measurements of the shadow size and that tight constraints on potential deviations from the Kerr metric can be obtained.

  6. NIR triggered observations of Sgr A* at 43 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, C.; Ros, E.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Eckart, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Lu, R.-S.; Shahzamanian, B.; Mužić, K.; Peißker, F.

    2017-01-01

    The compact radio and near-infrared (NIR) source Sagittarius A* has been observed in the context of two NIR triggered global VLT and VLBA campaigns at 43 GHz (7 mm) on May 16-18 2012 and October 4 2014. While on October 4 2014 Sgr A* remained in a quiescent state, a NIR flare on May 17 2012 is accompanied by an increase in flux density of 0.22 Jy at 7 mm delayed by 4.5+/-0.5 h. Additionally, Sgr A* seems to develop a weak secondary radio off-core component of 0.02 Jy at a position angle of 140° and an angular distance of 1.5 mas shortly before the peak of the flare. This spatial extension and the time delay are in the range of expected values for events casually connected by adiabatic expansion.

  7. An infrared ring around the magnetar SGR 1900+14

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, S; Dwarkadas, V V; Kouveliotou, C; Granot, J; Patel, S K; Figer, D

    2008-01-01

    Magnetars are a special class of slowly rotating neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields -- at least an order of magnitude larger than those of the "normal" radio pulsars. The potential evolutionary links and differences between these two types of objects are still unknown; recent studies, however, have provided circumstantial evidence connecting magnetars with very massive progenitor stars. Here we report the discovery of an infrared elliptical ring or shell surrounding the magnetar SGR 1900+14. The appearance and energetics of the ring are difficult to interpret within the framework of the progenitor's stellar mass loss or the subsequent evolution of the supernova remnant. We suggest instead that a dust-free cavity was produced in the magnetar environment by the giant flare emitted by the source in August 1998. Considering the total energy released in the flare, the theoretical dust--destruction radius matches well with the observed dimensions of the ring. We conclude that SGR 1900+14 is unambig...

  8. Testing General Relativity with the Shadow Size of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Tim; Plewa, Philipp M; Chatzopoulos, Sotiris; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fish, Vincent L; Genzel, Reinhard; Gerhard, Ortwin; Johnson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    In general relativity, the angular radius of the shadow of a black hole is primarily determined by its mass-to-distance ratio and depends only weakly on its spin and inclination. If general relativity is violated, however, the shadow size may also depend strongly on parametric deviations from the Kerr metric. Based on a reconstructed image of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) from a simulated one-day observing run of a seven-station Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, we employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to demonstrate that such an observation can measure the angular radius of the shadow of Sgr A* with an uncertainty of ~1.5 uas (6%). We show that existing mass and distance measurements can be improved significantly when combined with upcoming EHT measurements of the shadow size and that tight constraints on potential deviations from the Kerr metric can be obtained.

  9. SGR: an online genomic resource for the woodland strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Omar; Slovin, Janet P; Kang, Chunying; Hollender, Courtney A; Geretz, Aviva; Houston, Sam; Liu, Zhongchi; Alkharouf, Nadim W

    2013-12-23

    Fragaria vesca, a diploid strawberry species commonly known as the alpine or woodland strawberry, is a versatile experimental plant system and an emerging model for the Rosaceae family. An ancestral F. vesca genome contributed to the genome of the octoploid dessert strawberry (F. ×ananassa), and the extant genome exhibits synteny with other commercially important members of the Rosaceae family such as apple and peach. To provide a molecular description of floral organ and fruit development at the resolution of specific tissues and cell types, RNAs from flowers and early developmental stage fruit tissues of the inbred F. vesca line YW5AF7 were extracted and the resulting cDNA libraries sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq2000. To enable easy access as well as mining of this two-dimensional (stage and tissue) transcriptome dataset, a web-based database, the Strawberry Genomic Resource (SGR), was developed. SGR is a web accessible database that contains sample description, sample statistics, gene annotation, and gene expression analysis. This information can be accessed publicly from a web-based interface at http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/strawberry/Default.aspx. The SGR website provides user friendly search and browse capabilities for all the data stored in the database. Users are able to search for genes using a gene ID or description or obtain differentially expressed genes by entering different comparison parameters. Search results can be downloaded in a tabular format compatible with Microsoft excel application. Aligned reads to individual genes and exon/intron structures are displayed using the genome browser, facilitating gene re-annotation by individual users. The SGR database was developed to facilitate dissemination and data mining of extensive floral and fruit transcriptome data in the woodland strawberry. It enables users to mine the data in different ways to study different pathways or biological processes during reproductive development.

  10. PROSPECTS FOR PROBING THE SPACETIME OF Sgr A* WITH PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K.; Wex, N.; Kramer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Lazio, T. J. W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, M/S 138-308, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The discovery of radio pulsars in compact orbits around Sgr A* would allow an unprecedented and detailed investigation of the spacetime of this supermassive black hole. This paper shows that pulsar timing, including that of a single pulsar, has the potential to provide novel tests of general relativity, in particular its cosmic censorship conjecture and no-hair theorem for rotating black holes. These experiments can be performed by timing observations with 100 {mu}s precision, achievable with the Square Kilometre Array for a normal pulsar at frequency above 15 GHz. Based on the standard pulsar timing technique, we develop a method that allows the determination of the mass, spin, and quadrupole moment of Sgr A*, and provides a consistent covariance analysis of the measurement errors. Furthermore, we test this method in detailed mock data simulations. It seems likely that only for orbital periods below {approx}0.3 yr is there the possibility of having negligible external perturbations. For such orbits, we expect a {approx}10{sup -3} test of the frame dragging and a {approx}10{sup -2} test of the no-hair theorem within five years, if Sgr A* is spinning rapidly. Our method is also capable of identifying perturbations caused by distributed mass around Sgr A*, thus providing high confidence in these gravity tests. Our analysis is not affected by uncertainties in our knowledge of the distance to the Galactic center, R{sub 0}. A combination of pulsar timing with the astrometric results of stellar orbits would greatly improve the measurement precision of R{sub 0}.

  11. CO and its Isotopomers Observation towards Sgr B2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. L. Sun; J. S. Zhang; D. R. Lu; J. J. Qiu

    2014-09-01

    We present our observations toward Sgr B2 region in = 1−0 lines of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and C17O using 13.7-m Delingha millimeter telescope with newly installed 9-beam SIS superconducting receiver. From the integrated line intensity, we derive the abundance ratio of C18O/C17O with a mean value of 3.11 ± 0.10, which is consistent with the previous results.

  12. The 492 GHz emission of Sgr A* constrained by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Requena-Torres, Miguel A; Matsushita, Satoki; Martín, Sergio; Ott, Jürgen; Morris, Mark R; Longmore, Steven N; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Falcke, Heino

    2016-01-01

    We report linearly polarized continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at $\\sim$492 GHz, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We used the observations of the likely unpolarized continuum emission of Titan, and the observations of C\\textsc{i} line emission, to gauge the degree of spurious polarization. The Stokes I flux of 3.6$\\pm$0.72 Jy during our run is consistent with extrapolations from the previous, lower frequency observations. We found that the continuum emission of Sgr A* at $\\sim$492 GHz shows large amplitude differences between the XX and the YY correlations. The observed intensity ratio between the XX and YY correlations as a function of parallactic angle may be explained by a constant polarization position angle of $\\sim$158$^{\\circ}$$\\pm$3$^{\\circ}$. The fitted polarization percentage of Sgr A* during our observational period is 14\\%$\\pm$1.2\\%. The calibrator quasar J1744-3116 we observed at the same night can be fitted to Stokes I = 252 mJy, with 7.9\\%$\\pm$0.9\\% polariz...

  13. ALMA and VLA Observations of Proplyd Candidates near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Cotton, William D.; Royster, Marc; Kunneriath, Devaky; Wardle, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, Al; Schoedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows. To confirm this interpretation, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We determine the mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  14. Testing the No-Hair Theorem with Sgr A*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Johannsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The no-hair theorem characterizes the fundamental nature of black holes in general relativity. This theorem can be tested observationally by measuring the mass and spin of a black hole as well as its quadrupole moment, which may deviate from the expected Kerr value. Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is a prime candidate for such tests thanks to its large angular size, high brightness, and rich population of nearby stars. In this paper, I discuss a new theoretical framework for a test of the no-hair theorem that is ideal for imaging observations of Sgr A* with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI. The approach is formulated in terms of a Kerr-like spacetime that depends on a free parameter and is regular everywhere outside of the event horizon. Together with the results from astrometric and timing observations, VLBI imaging of Sgr A* may lead to a secure test of the no-hair theorem.

  15. Spectral Evolution of the Unusual Slow Nova V5558 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Jumpei; Fujii, Mitsugu; Ayani, Kazuya; Kato, Taichi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Nakajima, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We report on the spectral evolution of the enigmatic, very slow nova V5558 Sgr, based on the low-resolution spectra obtained at the Fujii-Bisei Observatory and the Bisei Astronomical Observatory, Japan during a period of 2007 April 6 to 2008 May 3. V5558 Sgr shows a pre-maximum halt and then several flare-like rebrightenings, which is similar to another very slow nova V723 Cas. In our observations, the spectral type of V5558 Sgr evolved from the He/N type toward the Fe II type during the pre-maximum halt, and then toward the He/N type again. This course of spectral transition was observed for the first time in the long history of the nova research. In the rebrightening stage after the initial brightness maximum, we could identify many emission lines accompanied by a stronger absorption component of the P-Cygni profile at the brightness maxima. We found that the velocity of the P-Cygni absorption component measured from the emission peak decreased at the brightness maxima. Furthermore, we compared the spectra ...

  16. Surviving the hole I: Spatially resolved chemistry around Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, S; Montero-Castaño, M; Ho, P T P; Blundell, R

    2011-01-01

    The interstellar region within the few central parsecs around the super-massive black hole, Sgr A* at the very Galactic center is composed by a number of overlapping molecular structures which are subject to one of the most hostile physical environments in the Galaxy. We present high resolution (4"x3"~0.16x0.11 pc) interferometric observations of CN, 13CN, H2CO, SiO, c-C3H2 and HC3N emission at 1.3 mm towards the central ~4 pc of the Galactic center region. Strong differences are observed in the distribution of the different molecules. The UV resistant species CN, the only species tracing all previously identified circumnuclear disk (CND) structures, is mostly concentrated in optically thick clumps in the rotating filaments around Sgr A*. H2CO emission traces a shell-like structure that we interpret as the expansion of Sgr A East against the 50 km/s and 20 km/s giant molecular clouds (GMCs). We derive isotopic ratios 12C/13C~15-45 across most of the CND region. The densest molecular material, traced by SiO an...

  17. A Kinship between the EGRET SNR's and Sgr A East

    CERN Document Server

    Melia, M F F

    2003-01-01

    Sgr A East appears to be a single, mixed morphology 10,000 year-old supernova remnant (SNR) at the Galactic Center. It also appears to belong to a class of remnants that have been observed and detected at 1720 MHz, the transition frequency of OH maser emission. However, if the EGRET source 3EG J1746-2852 conincident with the Galactic center is itself associated with this object, it would endow it with a gamma-ray luminosity almost two orders of magnitude greater than that of the other EGRET-detected SNR's. We here reconsider the viability of a pion-production mechanism as the source of the broadband emission observed from Sgr A East, and show that what connects these objects -- and ultimately also accounts for their different gamma-ray emissivity -- is the very important interaction between the expanding SNR shell and the surrounding molecular cloud environment. The singularly high gamma-ray luminosity of Sgr A East, as well as its unusually steep radio spectral index, can thereby be attributed to the high-de...

  18. Long-term monitoring of Sgr A* at 7 mm with VERA and KaVA

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Kazunori; Sohn, Bong Won; Lee, Sang Sung; Trippe, Sascha; Honma, Mareki

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of radio monitoring observations of Sgr A* at 7 mm (i.e. 43 GHz) with VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), which is a VLBI array in Japan. VERA provides angular resolutions on millisecond scales, resolving structure within ~100 Schwarzschild radii of Sgr A* similar to Very Large Baseline Array (VLBA). We performed multi-epoch observations of Sgr A* in 2005 - 2008, and started monitoring it again with VERA from January 2013 for tracing the current G2 encounter event. Our preliminary results in 2013 show that Sgr A* on mas scales has been in ordinary state as of August 2013, although some fraction of the G2 cloud already passed pericenter of Sgr A* in April 2013. We will continue on monitoring Sgr A* with VERA and newly developed KaVA (KVN and VERA Array).

  19. The 492 GHz emission of Sgr A* constrained by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; Matsushita, Satoki; Martín, Sergio; Ott, Jürgen; Morris, Mark R.; Longmore, Steven N.; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Falcke, Heino

    2016-09-01

    Aims: Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz. This frequency, well into the submillimeter bump where the emission is supposed to become optically thin, allows us to see down to the event horizon. Hence the reported observations contain potentially vital information on black hole properties. We have compared our measurements with previous, lower frequency observations, which provides information in the time domain. Methods: We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz, based on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from the central fields of our ALMA mosaic observations. We used calibration observations of the likely unpolarized continuum emission of Titan and the observations of Ci line emission, to gauge the degree of spurious polarization. Results: The flux density of 3.6 ± 0.72 Jy which we measured during our run is consistent with extrapolations from previous, lower frequency observations. We found that the continuum emission of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz shows large amplitude differences between the XX and the YY correlations. The observed intensity ratio between the XX and YY correlations as a function of parallactic angle can be explained by a constant polarization position angle of ~158°± 3°. The fitted polarization percentage of Sgr A* during our observational period is 14% ± 1.2%. The calibrator quasar J1744-3116 we observed on the same night can be fitted to Stokes I = 252 mJy, with 7.9% ± 0.9% polarization at position angle PA = 14°± 4.2°. Conclusions: The observed polarization percentage and polarization position angle in the present work appear consistent with those expected from longer wavelength observations in the period of 1999-2005. In particular, the polarization position angle at 492 GHz expected from the previously fitted 167°± 7° intrinsic

  20. Star Formation Close to Sgr A* and Beyond the Nuclear Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2016-01-01

    Two modes of star formation are involved to explain the origin of young stars near Sgr A*. One is a disk-based mode, which explains the disk of stars orbiting Sgr A*. The other is the standard cloud-based mode observed in the Galactic disk. We discuss each of these modes of star formation and apply these ideas to the inner few parsecs of Sgr A*. In particular, we focus on the latter mode in more detail. We also discuss how the tidal force exerted by the nuclear cluster makes the Roche density approaching zero and contributes to the collapse of molecular clouds located tens of parsecs away from Sgr A*.

  1. Burst Mechanisms in Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, E

    1999-01-01

    Different mechanisms believed to be responsible for the generation of bursts in hydrodynamical systems are reviewed and a new mechanism capable of generating regular or irregular bursts of large dynamic range near threshold is described. The new mechanism is present in the interaction between oscillatory modes of odd and even parity in systems of large but finite aspect ratio, and provides an explanation for the bursting behavior observed in binary fluid convection. Additional applications of the new mechanism are proposed.

  2. Propeller tone bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succi, G. P.; Munro, D. H.; Ingard, K. U.

    1983-01-01

    Intense high frequency (25-38 kHz) tone bursts have been observed in acoustic tests of a scale model of a general aviation propeller. The amplitude of the tone burst is approximately equal to the amplitude of the propeller noise signature. The conditions necessary for the production of these tone bursts are described. The experiments indicate that the origin of these bursts is a periodic flow oscillation on the suction surface of the propeller blade tips which may be due to the interaction between an oscillating shock wave and a laminar boundary layer.

  3. Gravitational lensing by black holes: The case of Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, Italy. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli (Italy)

    2014-01-14

    The strong gravitational fields created by black holes dramatically affect the propagation of photons by bending their trajectories. Gravitational lensing thus stands as the main source of information on the space-time structure in such extreme regimes. We will review the theory and phenomenology of gravitational lensing by black holes, with the generation of higher order images and giant caustics by rotating black holes. We will then focus on Sgr A*, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, for which next-to-come technology will be able to reach resolutions of the order of the Schwarzschild radius and ultimately test the existence of an event horizon.

  4. Pumping Mechanisms for SiO Masers around VX Sgr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. B. Su; Z.-Q. Shen; X. Chen; Jiyune Yi; D. R. Jiang; Y. J. Yun

    2011-03-01

    VX Sgr, a semi-regular variable, is a red giant star with intense SiO maser emission at 43 GHz. The pumping mechanism of the circumstellar SiO masers has been controversial for decades since its discovery. In order to pursue this long-standing problem further, we have carried out simultaneous VLBA observations of two 7 mm SiO masers at five epochs in about two years. We present relatively aligned = 1 and = 2, = 1-0 SiO maser maps and discuss the dominant pumping mechanism, which may be epoch dependent or a combination of both mechanisms.

  5. Pumping Mechanisms for SiO Masers around VX Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J. B.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Chen, X.; Yi, Jiyune; Jiang, D. R.; Yun, Y. J.

    2011-06-01

    VX Sgr, a semi-regular variable, is a red giant star with intense SiO maser emission at 43 GHz. The pumping mechanism of the circumstellar SiO masers has been controversial for decades since its discovery. In order to pursue this long-standing problem further, we have carried out simultaneous VLBA observations of two 7 mm SiO masers at five epochs in about two years. We present relatively aligned υ = 1 and υ = 2, J = 1-0 SiO maser maps and discuss the dominant pumping mechanism, which may be epoch dependent or a combination of both mechanisms.

  6. Anatomy of the Sagittarius A complex; 4, Sgr A* and the central cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Zylka, R; Ward-Thompson, D; Duschl, W J; Lesch, H; Zylka, R; Mezger, P G; Ward-Thompson, D; Duschl, W J; Lesch, H

    1994-01-01

    We present submm images of Sgr A* and its surroundings obtained at 800, 600 and 450 \\mum with the JCMT and derive flux densities of Sgr A* at all three wave- lengths. Combined with upper limits by Gezari and associates at MIR wavelengths a time averaged radio spectrum is obtained which increases \\propto \

  7. Optimal Codes for the Burst Erasure Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Deep space communications over noisy channels lead to certain packets that are not decodable. These packets leave gaps, or bursts of erasures, in the data stream. Burst erasure correcting codes overcome this problem. These are forward erasure correcting codes that allow one to recover the missing gaps of data. Much of the recent work on this topic concentrated on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes. These are more complicated to encode and decode than Single Parity Check (SPC) codes or Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, and so far have not been able to achieve the theoretical limit for burst erasure protection. A block interleaved maximum distance separable (MDS) code (e.g., an SPC or RS code) offers near-optimal burst erasure protection, in the sense that no other scheme of equal total transmission length and code rate could improve the guaranteed correctible burst erasure length by more than one symbol. The optimality does not depend on the length of the code, i.e., a short MDS code block interleaved to a given length would perform as well as a longer MDS code interleaved to the same overall length. As a result, this approach offers lower decoding complexity with better burst erasure protection compared to other recent designs for the burst erasure channel (e.g., LDPC codes). A limitation of the design is its lack of robustness to channels that have impairments other than burst erasures (e.g., additive white Gaussian noise), making its application best suited for correcting data erasures in layers above the physical layer. The efficiency of a burst erasure code is the length of its burst erasure correction capability divided by the theoretical upper limit on this length. The inefficiency is one minus the efficiency. The illustration compares the inefficiency of interleaved RS codes to Quasi-Cyclic (QC) LDPC codes, Euclidean Geometry (EG) LDPC codes, extended Irregular Repeat Accumulate (eIRA) codes, array codes, and random LDPC codes previously proposed for burst erasure

  8. The Growth, Polarization, and Motion of the Radio Afterglow from the Giant Flare from SGR 1806-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G

    2005-04-20

    The extraordinary giant flare (GF) of 2004 December 27 from the soft gamma repeater (SGR) 1806-20 was followed by a bright radio afterglow. We present an analysis of VLA observations of this radio afterglow from SGR1806-20, consisting of previously reported 8.5 GHz data covering days 7 to 20 after the GF, plus new observations at 8.5 and 22 GHz from day 24 to 81. For a symmetric outflow, we find a deceleration in the expansion, from {approx}4.5 mas/day to <2.5 mas/day. The time of deceleration is roughly coincident with the rebrightening in the radio light curve, as expected to result when the ejecta from the GF sweeps up enough of the external medium, and transitions from a coasting phase to the Sedov-Taylor regime. The radio afterglow is elongated and maintains a 2:1 axis ratio with an average position angle of -40{sup o} (north through east), oriented perpendicular to the average intrinsic linear polarization angle. We also report on the discovery of motion in the flux centroid of the afterglow, at an average velocity of 0.26 {+-} 0.03 c (assuming a distance of 15 kpc) at a position angle of -45{sup o}. This motion, in combination with the growth and polarization measurements, suggests an initially asymmetric outflow, mainly from one side of the magnetar.

  9. Revised spin down of SGR 0418+5729: a no longer so low dipole magnetic field?

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, H

    2012-01-01

    The spin down behaviors of SGR 0418+5729 are investigated. The pulsar spin down model of Contopoulos & Spitkovsky (2006) is applied to SGR 0418+5729. It is shown that SGR 0418+5729 lies below the pulsar death line and its rotation-powered magnetospheric activities may therefore have stopped. The compact star is now spun down by the magnetic dipole moment perpendicular to its rotation axis. Our calculations show that SGR 0418+5729 may be a low magnetic field magnetar. However, it may also have a strong dipole magnetic field, if there is a small magnetic inclination angle. This result is obtained under the general assumption that its braking mechanism is similar to that of rotation-powered pulsars. Its dipole magnetic field may be much higher than the characteristic magnetic field. Therefore, SGR 0418+5729 may be a normal magnetar instead of a low magnetic field magnetar.

  10. Hydrodynamical Accretion Onto Sgr A* From Distributed Point Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, R F; Coker, Robert F.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral and kinematic studies suggest that the nonthermal radio source Sgr A*, located at the center of the Milky Way, is a supermassive compact object with a mass 2-3 million solar masses. Winds from nearby stars, located approximately 0.06 pc to the east of Sgr A*, should, in the absence of any outflow from the putative black hole itself, be accreting onto this object. We report the results of the first 3D Bondi-Hoyle hydrodynamical numerical simulations of this process under the assumption that the Galactic center wind is generated by several different point sources (here assumed to be 10 pseudo-randomly placed stars). Our results show that the accretion rate onto the central object can be higher than in the case of a uniform flow since wind-wind shocks dissipate some of the bulk kinetic energy and lead to a higher capture rate for the gas. However, even for this highly non-uniform medium, most of the accreting gas carries with it a relatively low level of specific angular momentum, though large transient...

  11. The pattern of accretion flow onto Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Czerny, M M T K D B

    2006-01-01

    The material accreting onto Sgr A* most probably comes from the nearby stars. We analyze the pattern of this flow at distances of a fraction of a parsec and we argue that the net angular momentum of this material is low but non-negligible, and the initially supersonic disk accretion changes into subsonic flow with constant angular momentum. Next we estimate the flow parameters at a distance $R_{BHL}$ from the black hole and we argue that for the plausible parameter range the accretion flow is non-stationary. The inflow becomes supersonic at distance of $\\sim 10^4 R_g$ but the solution does not continue below the horizon and the material piles up forming a torus, or a ring, at a distance of a few up to tens of Schwarzchild radii. Such a torus is known to be unstable and may explain strong variability of the flow in Sgr A*. Our considerations show that the temporary formation of such a torus seems to be unavoidable. Our best fitting model predicts a rather large accretion rate of around $4 \\cdot 10^{-6} M_{\\odo...

  12. Detection of amino acetonitrile in Sgr B2(N)

    CERN Document Server

    Belloche, A; Comito, C; Müller, H S P; Schilke, P; Ott, J; Thorwirth, S; Hieret, C

    2008-01-01

    Amino acids are building blocks of proteins and therefore key ingredients for the origin of life. The simplest amino acid, glycine, has long been searched for in the interstellar medium but has not been unambiguously detected so far. Since the search for glycine has turned out to be extremely difficult, we aimed at detecting a chemically related species (possibly a direct precursor), amino acetonitrile. With the IRAM 30m telescope we carried out a complete line survey of the hot core regions Sgr B2(N) and (M) in the 3 mm range, plus partial surveys at 2 and 1.3 mm. We analyzed our 30m line survey in the LTE approximation and modeled the emission of all known molecules simultaneously. We identified spectral features at the frequencies predicted for amino acetonitrile lines having intensities compatible with a unique rotation temperature. We also used the VLA to look for cold, extended emission from amino acetonitrile. We detected amino acetonitrile in Sgr B2(N) in our 30m telescope line survey and conducted co...

  13. An infrared ring around the magnetar SGR 1900+14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Dwarkadas, V V; Kouveliotou, C; Granot, J; Patel, S K; Figer, D

    2008-05-29

    Magnetars are a special class of slowly rotating (period approximately 5-12 s) neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields (>10(14 )G)--at least an order of magnitude larger than those of the 'normal' radio pulsars. The potential evolutionary links and differences between these two types of object are still unknown; recent studies, however, have provided circumstantial evidence connecting magnetars with very massive progenitor stars. Here we report the discovery of an infrared elliptical ring or shell surrounding the magnetar SGR 1900+14. The appearance and energetics of the ring are difficult to interpret within the framework of the progenitor's stellar mass loss or the subsequent evolution of the supernova remnant. We suggest instead that a dust-free cavity was produced in the magnetar environment by the giant flare emitted by the source in August 1998. Considering the total energy released in the flare, the theoretical dust-destruction radius matches well with the observed dimensions of the ring. We conclude that SGR 1900+14 is unambiguously associated with a cluster of massive stars, thereby solidifying the link between magnetars and massive stars.

  14. A polarised fast radio burst at low Galactic latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, Emily; SUPERB Collaboration; HESS Collaboration; ANTARES Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are a growing population of transients detected with radio telescopes which are thought to originate outside the Milky Way. Fewer than 20 sources exist in the literature and the majority of bursts have been found away from the plane of the Galaxy or where the Galactic contribution to the total electron column density is low. Here we report on the discovery of a new burst, FRB 150215, discovered with the Parkes radio telescope in real-time in February 2015. The burst was found to be 43±5% linearly polarised with an imprecisely determined rotation measure (RM) consistent with zero. The burst was followed-up with 9 telescopes to search for radio, optical, X-ray, γ-ray and neutrino emission from the location of the burst. No transient or variable emission was found to be associated with the burst and no repeat pulses have been observed in nine hours of Parkes observations. Radio images of the field were obtained following the FRB but would not have been sensitive enough to pick up a signal like the one emanating from WISE J071634.59-190039.2 following FRB150418 if it had been present. The sightline to the burst is close to the Galactic plane and the Galactic RM foreground may approach a null along this sightline, corresponding to a decreased total electron column density from the Milky Way. This might explain why this burst was detectable at low latitude whereas previous searches have been relatively unsuccessful.

  15. The Drift Burst Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim; Oomen, Roel; Renò, Roberto

    The Drift Burst Hypothesis postulates the existence of short-lived locally explosive trends in the price paths of financial assets. The recent US equity and Treasury flash crashes can be viewed as two high profile manifestations of such dynamics, but we argue that drift bursts of varying magnitude......, currencies and commodities. We find that the majority of identified drift bursts are accompanied by strong price reversals and these can therefore be regarded as “flash crashes” that span brief periods of severe market disruption without any material longer term price impacts....

  16. A unique HEAT repeat-containing protein SHOOT GRAVITROPISM6 is involved in vacuolar membrane dynamics in gravity-sensing cells of Arabidopsis inflorescence stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Yano, Daisuke; Nagafusa, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takehide; Saito, Chieko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Tasaka, Masao; Terao Morita, Miyo

    2014-04-01

    Plant vacuoles play critical roles in development, growth and stress responses. In mature cells, vacuolar membranes (VMs) display several types of structures, which are formed by invagination and folding of VMs into the lumenal side and can gradually move and change shape. Although such VM structures are observed in a broad range of tissue types and plant species, the molecular mechanism underlying their formation and maintenance remains unclear. Here, we report that a novel HEAT-repeat protein, SHOOT GRAVITROPISM6 (SGR6), of Arabidopsis is involved in the control of morphological changes and dynamics of VM structures in endodermal cells, which are the gravity-sensing cells in shoots. SGR6 is a membrane-associated protein that is mainly localized to the VM in stem endodermal cells. The sgr6 mutant stem exhibits a reduced gravitropic response. Higher plants utilize amyloplast sedimentation as a means to sense gravity direction. Amyloplasts are surrounded by VMs in Arabidopsis endodermal cells, and the flexible and dynamic structure of VMs is important for amyloplast sedimentation. We demonstrated that such dynamic features of VMs are gradually lost in sgr6 endodermal cells during a 30 min observation period. Histological analysis revealed that amyloplast sedimentation was impaired in sgr6. Detailed live-cell imaging analyses revealed that the VM structures in sgr6 had severe defects in morphological changes and dynamics. Our results suggest that SGR6 is a novel protein involved in the formation and/or maintenance of invaginated VM structures in gravity-sensing cells.

  17. The physical and chemical structure of Sagittarius B2. II. Continuum millimeter emission of Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Schilke, P.; Schmiedeke, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Lis, D. C.; Qin, S.-L.; Müller, H. S. P.; Bergin, E.; Comito, C.; Möller, Th.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The two hot molecular cores Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N), which are located at the center of the giant molecular cloud complex Sagittarius B2, have been the targets of numerous spectral line surveys, revealing a rich and complex chemistry. Aims: We seek to characterize the physical and chemical structure of the two high-mass star-forming sites Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N) using high-angular resolution observations at millimeter wavelengths, reaching spatial scales of about 4000 au. Methods: We used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to perform an unbiased spectral line survey of both regions in the ALMA band 6 with a frequency coverage from 211 GHz to 275 GHz. The achieved angular resolution is 0.̋4, which probes spatial scales of about 4000 au, i.e., able to resolve different cores and fragments. In order to determine the continuum emission in these line-rich sources, we used a new statistical method, STATCONT, which has been applied successfully to this and other ALMA datasets and to synthetic observations. Results: We detect 27 continuum sources in Sgr B2(M) and 20 sources in Sgr B2(N). We study the continuum emission variation across the ALMA band 6 (i.e., spectral index) and compare the ALMA 1.3 mm continuum emission with previous SMA 345 GHz and VLA 40 GHz observations to study the nature of the sources detected. The brightest sources are dominated by (partially optically thick) dust emission, while there is an important degree of contamination from ionized gas free-free emission in weaker sources. While the total mass in Sgr B2(M) is distributed in many fragments, most of the mass in Sgr B2(N) arises from a single object, with filamentary-like structures converging toward the center. There seems to be a lack of low-mass dense cores in both regions. We determine H2 volume densities for the cores of about 107-109 cm-3 (or 105-107 M⊙ pc-3), i.e., one to two orders of magnitude higher than the stellar densities of super star clusters. We

  18. A single HII region model of the strong interstellar scattering towards Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicheneder, Egid; Dexter, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, the strong interstellar scattering observed towards the Galactic center (GC) black hole, Sgr A*, was thought to come from dense gas within the GC region. The pulse broadening towards the transient magnetar SGR J1745-2900 near Sgr A* has shown that the source of the scattering is instead located much closer to Earth, possibly in a nearby spiral arm. We show that a single HII region along the line of sight, 1.5 - 4.8 kpc away from Earth with density ne of a few ˜eq 100 cm^{-3} and radius R ≃ 1.8 - 3.2 pc can explain the observed angular broadening of Sgr A*. Clouds closer to the GC overproduce the observed DM, providing an independent location constraint that agrees with that from the magnetar pulse broadening. Our model predicts that sources within ≲ 10 pc should show the same scattering origin as the magnetar and Sgr A*, while the nearest known pulsars with separations >20 pc should not. The radio spectrum of Sgr A* should show a cutoff from free-free absorption at 0.2 ≲ ν ≲ 1 GHz. For a magnetic field strength B ˜eq 15 - 70 {μ}G, the HII region could produce the rotation measure of the magnetar, the largest of any known pulsar, without requiring the gas near Sgr A* to be strongly magnetised.

  19. A single H II region model of the strong interstellar scattering towards Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicheneder, Egid; Dexter, Jason

    2017-05-01

    Until recently, the strong interstellar scattering observed towards the Galactic centre (GC) black hole, Sgr A*, was thought to come from dense gas within the GC region. The pulse broadening towards the transient magnetar SGR J1745-2900 near Sgr A* has shown that the source of the scattering is instead located much closer to Earth, possibly in a nearby spiral arm. We show that a single H II region along the line of sight, 1.5-4.8 kpc away from Earth with density ne of a few ≃ 100 cm^{-3} and radius R ≃ 1.8-3.2 pc can explain the observed angular broadening of Sgr A*. Clouds closer to the GC overproduce the observed disperson measure, providing an independent location constraint that agrees with that from the magnetar pulse broadening. Our model predicts that sources within ≲10 pc should show the same scattering origin as the magnetar and Sgr A*, while the nearest known pulsars with separations >20 pc should not. The radio spectrum of Sgr A* should show a cut-off from free-free absorption at 0.2 ≲ ν ≲ 1 GHz. For a magnetic field strength B ≃ 15-70 μG, the H II region could produce the rotation measure of the magnetar, the largest of any known pulsar, without requiring the gas near Sgr A* to be strongly magnetized.

  20. Dust Radiative Transfer Modeling of the Infrared Ring around the Magnetar SGR 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, G.; Rea, N.; Lazzati, D.; Perna, R.; Torres, D. F.; Girart, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    A peculiar infrared ring-like structure was discovered by Spitzer around the strongly magnetized neutron star SGR 1900+14. This infrared (IR) structure was suggested to be due to a dust-free cavity, produced by the Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) Giant Flare occurring in 1998, and kept illuminated by surrounding stars. Using a 3D dust radiative transfer code, we aimed to reproduce the emission morphology and the integrated emission flux of this structure assuming different spatial distributions and densities for the dust, and different positions for the illuminating stars. We found that a dust-free ellipsoidal cavity can reproduce the shape, flux, and spectrum of the ring-like IR emission, provided that the illuminating stars are inside the cavity and that the interstellar medium has high gas density (n H ˜ 1000 cm-3). We further constrain the emitting region to have a sharp inner boundary and to be significantly extended in the radial direction, possibly even just a cavity in a smooth molecular cloud. We discuss possible scenarios for the formation of the dustless cavity and the particular geometry that allows it to be IR-bright.

  1. A Re-brightening of the Radio Nebula associated with the 2004 December 27 giant flare from SGR 1806--20

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, J D; Eichler, D; Gaensler, B M; Taylor, G B; Granot, J; Newton-McGee, K J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Kouveliotou, C; Wijers, R A M J

    2005-01-01

    On 2004 Dec. 27, a giant $\\gamma$-ray flare was detected from the magnetar SGR 1806--20. A radio observation seven days later revealed an expanding radio nebula at this position. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring campaign of this source with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Array. These data indicate that there was an increase in the observed flux $\\sim$25 days after the initial $\\gamma$-ray flare that lasted for $\\sim$3--5 days. In this {\\em Letter}, we argue that this rebrightening marks the end of the coasting phase of the blast wave and the transition to the Sedov-Taylor phase. Assuming a distance to SGR 1806--20 of 15 kpc, we infer from the properties of this rebrightening that the blast wave is baryonic material of mass $M \\ga 10^{24.5}$ g, initially expanding with a velocity of about $0.3c$, and therefore has a kinetic energy $E \\ga 10^{44}$ ergs. If this mass was blown off the outer layers of the magnetar, it may have emitted a burst of ultra-high energy ($E > 1$ ...

  2. A Burst and Simultaneous Short-Term Pulsed Flux Enhancement From The Magnetar Candidate 1E 1048.1-5937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Woods, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the 2004 June 29 X-ray burst detected from the direction of the AXP 1E 1048.1-5937 using the RXTE. We find a simultaneous increase of approx. 3.5 times the quiescent value in the 2-10 keV pulsed flux of 1E 1048.1-5937 during the tail of the burst, which identifies the AXP as the burst s origin. The burst was overall very similar to the two others reported from the direction of this source in 2001. The unambiguous identification of 1E 1048.1-5937 as the burster here confirms that it was the origin of the 2001 bursts as well. The epoch of the burst peak was very close to the arrival time of 1E 1048.1-5937 s pulse peak. The burst exhibited significant spectral evolution, with the trend going from hard to soft. Although the average spectrum of the burst was comparable in hardness (Lambda approx. 1.6) to those,of the 2001 bursts, the peak of this burst was much harder (Lambda approx. 0.3). During the 11 days following the burst, the AXP was observed further with RXTE, XMM-Newton, and Chandra. Pre- and post-burst observations revealed no change in the total flux or spectrum of the quiescent emission. Comparing all three bursts detected thus far from this source, we find that this event was the most fluent (>3.3 x 10(exp-8 ergs/sq cm) in the 2-20 keV band), had the highest peak flux (59+/-9 x 10(exp -10)ergs/s/sq cm) in the 2-20 keV band), and had the longest duration (>699 s). The long duration of the burst difFerentiates it from SGR bursts, which have typical durations of approx.0.1 s. Bursts that occur preferentially at pulse maximum, have fast rises, and long X-tails containing the majority of the total burst energy have been seen uniquely from AXPs. The marked differences between AXP and SGRs bursts may provide new clues to help understand the physical differences between these objects.

  3. Hard x-ray Morphological and Spectral Studies of the Galactic Center Molecular Cloud SGR B2: Constraining Past SGR A* Flaring Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, NuSTAR observed the Sgr B2 region and for the first time resolved its hard X-ray emission on subarcminute scales. Two prominent features are detected above 10 keV:. a newly emerging cloud, G0.66-0.13, and the central 90 '' radius region containing two compact cores, Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N......-energy cosmic-ray (CR) proton bombardment. In this scenario, from the NuSTAR measurements we infer a CR ion power of dW/dt = (1 - 4) x 1039 erg s-1 and a CR ionization rate of ζH = (6 - 10) x 10-15 H-1 s-1. measurements can become powerful tools to constrain the GC CR population....

  4. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  5. A Burst to See

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    On 19 March, Nature was particularly generous and provided astronomers with the wealth of four gamma-ray bursts on the same day. But that was not all: one of them is the most luminous object ever observed in the Universe. Despite being located in a distant galaxy, billions of light years away, it was so bright that it could have been seen, for a brief while, with the unaided eye. ESO PR Photo 08a/08 ESO PR Photo 08a/08 The REM Telescope and TORTORA Camera Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short flashes of energetic gamma-rays lasting from less than a second to several minutes. They release a tremendous quantity of energy in this short time making them the most powerful events since the Big Bang. It is now widely accepted that the majority of the gamma-ray bursts signal the explosion of very massive, highly evolved stars that collapse into black holes. Gamma-ray bursts, which are invisible to our eyes, are discovered by telescopes in space. After releasing their intense burst of high-energy radiation, they become detectable for a short while in the optical and in the near-infrared. This 'afterglow' fades very rapidly, making detailed analysis possible for only a few hours after the gamma-ray detection. This analysis is important in particular in order to determine the GRB's distance and, hence, intrinsic brightness. The gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B was detected by the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift satellite. "It was so bright that it almost blinded the Swift instruments for a while," says Guido Chincarini, Italian principal investigator of the mission. A bright optical counterpart was soon identified in the Boötes Constellation (the "Bear Driver" or "Herdsman"). A host of ground-based telescopes reacted promptly to study this new object in the sky. In particular, the optical emission was detected by a few wide-field cameras on telescopes that constantly monitor a large fraction of the sky, including the TORTORA camera in symbiosis with the 0.6-m REM telescope located at La Silla

  6. The physical and chemical structure of Sagittarius B2. II. Continuum millimeter emission of SgrB2(M) and SgrB2(N) with ALMA

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Monge, A.; Schilke, P.; Schmiedeke, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Cesaroni, R.; Lis, D. C.; Qin, S. -L.; Mueller, H. S. P.; Bergin, E.; Comito, C.; Moeller, Th.

    2017-01-01

    The high-mass star forming sites SgrB2(M) and SgrB2(N) have been the target of numerous studies, revealing e.g. a rich chemistry. We want to characterize their physical and chemical structure using ALMA high-angular resolution observations at mm wavelengths, reaching spatial scales of about 4000 au, and covering the whole band 6 (from 211 to 275 GHz). In order to determine the continuum emission in line-rich sources, we use a new statistical method: STATCONT. We detect 27 continuum sources in...

  7. The Glast Burst Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will include a secondary instrument to augment the observatory's capabilities for GRB studies. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBK is a collaboration between Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Huntsville, Alabama, and the Max Plank Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. The purpose of the GBM is to extend energy coverage below the main instrument's lower limit of about 20 MeV, and to provide an on-board burst trigger and approximate location. The instrument consists of twelve NaI detectors and two BGO detectors. This combination provides energy coverage from a few keV up to about 30 MeV.

  8. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  9. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  10. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov-Maxwell system.A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma.It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light,as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction.The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period.The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade,which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures.For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation,higher-harmonic generation and wave-wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter.In addition,stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light.

  11. Radiative Models of Sgr A* from GRMHD Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Moscibrodzka, Monika; Dolence, Joshua C; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Leung, Po Kin

    2009-01-01

    Using flow models based on axisymmetric general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) simulations, we construct radiative models for sgr A*. Spectral energy distributions that include the effects of thermal synchrotron emission and absorption, and Compton scattering, are calculated using a Monte Carlo technique. Images are calculated using a ray-tracing scheme. All models are scaled so that the 230 GHz flux density is 3.4 Jy. The key model parameters are the dimensionless black hole spin a*, the inclination i, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio Ti/Te. We find that: (1) models with Ti/Te=1 are inconsistent with the observed submillimeter spectral slope; (2) the X-ray flux is a strongly increasing function of a*; (3) the X-ray flux is a strongly increasing function of i; (4) 230 GHz image size is a complicated function of i, a*, and Ti/Te, but the Ti/Te = 10 models are generally large and at most marginally consistent with the 230 GHz VLBI data; (5) for models with Ti/Te=10 and i=85 deg the event hor...

  12. Low angular momentum flow model II for Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Okuda, Toru

    2014-01-01

    We examine 1D two-temperature accretion flows around a supermassive black hole, adopting the specific angular momentum \\lambda, the total specific energy \\epsilon and the input accretion rate \\dot M_{input} = 4.0x10^{-6} solar mass/yr estimated in the recent analysis of stellar wind of nearby stars around Sgr A*. The two-temperature flow is almost adiabatic even if we take account of the heating of electrons by ions, the bremsstrahlung cooling and the synchrotron cooling, as long as the ratio \\beta of the magnetic energy density to the thermal energy density is taken to be as \\beta < 1. The different temperatures of ions and electrons are caused by the different adiabatic indices of ions and electrons which depend on their temperature states under the relativistic regime. The total luminosity increases with increasing \\beta and results in - 10^{35} - 10^{36} erg/s for \\beta=10^{-3} - 1. Furthermore, from 2D time-dependent hydrodynamical calculations of the above flow, we find that the irregularly oscillati...

  13. Sgr A* Observations with H.E.S.S. II

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, R D; King, J; Lefranc, V; Moulin, E; Poon, H; Veh, J

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic Centre has been studied with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) for over 10 years, revealing a bright, complex gamma-ray morphology. Besides a strong point-like very-high-energy gamma-ray source coincident with the supermassive black hole Sgr A*, pre- vious analyses also revealed a diffuse ridge of gamma-ray emission, indicative of a powerful cosmic-ray accelerator in this region. The addition of a fifth telescope with 600 m 2 mirror area to the centre of the H.E.S.S. array has increased the energy range accessible, allowing observations to take place down to 100 GeV and potentially below. This wider energy range allows an important overlap in observations with satellite instruments such as the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray telescope. We will present the results of new H.E.S.S observations of the Galactic Centre region and show a detailed analysis of the central source, including comparisons to results at other wavelengths.

  14. Gas infall towards Sgr A* from the clumpy circumnuclear disk

    CERN Document Server

    Montero-Castaño, María; Ho, Paul T P

    2009-01-01

    We present the first large-scale mosaic performed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in the Galactic center. We have produced a 25-pointing mosaic, covering a ~2' x 2' area around Sgr A*. We have detected emission from two high-density molecular tracers, HCN(4-3) and CS(7-6), the latter never before reported in this region. The data have an angular resolution of 4.6" x 3.1", and the spectral window coverage is from -180 km/s to 1490 km/s for HCN(4-3) and from -1605 km/s to 129 km/s for CS(7-6). Both molecular tracers present a very clumpy distribution along the circumnuclear disk (CND), and are detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio in the southern part of the CND, while they are weaker towards the northern part. Assuming that the clumps are as close to the Galactic center as their projected distances, they are still dense enough to be gravitationally stable against the tidal shear produced by the supermassive black hole. Therefore, the CND is a non-transient structure. This geometrical distribution of bo...

  15. Dense Ionized and Neutral Gas Surrounding Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Hemant; Scoville, N Z

    2004-01-01

    We present high resolution H41a hydrogen recombination line observations of the 1.2' (3 pc) region surrounding Sgr A* at 92 GHz using the OVRO Millimeter Array with an angular resolution of 7" x 3" and velocity resolution of 13 km/s. New observations of H31a, H35a, H41a, and H44a lines were obtained using the NRAO 12-m telescope, and their relative line strengths are interpreted in terms of various emission mechanisms. These are the most extensive and most sensitive observations of recombination line to date. Observations of HCO+ (1 - 0) transition at 89 GHz are also obtained simultaneously with a 40% improved angular resolution and 4-15 times improved sensitivity over previous observations, and the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas in the circumnuclear disk (CND) are mapped and compared with those of the ionized gas. The line brightness ratios of the hydrogen recombination lines are consistent with purely spontaneous emission from 7000 K gas with n_e = 20,000 cm$^{-3}$ near LTE condition...

  16. Mapping photodissociation and shocks in the vicinity of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Amo-Baladrón, M A; Martín, S

    2010-01-01

    We have obtained maps of the molecular emission within the central five arcminutes (12 pc) of the Galactic center (GC) in selected molecular tracers: SiO(2-1), HNCO(5_{0,5}-4_{0,4}), and the J=1-->0 transition of H^{13}CO+, HN^{13}C, and C^{18}O at an angular resolution of 30" (1.2 pc). The mapped region includes the circumnuclear disk (CND) and the two surrounding giant molecular clouds (GMCs) of the Sgr A complex, known as the 20 and 50 km s^{-1} molecular clouds.Additionally, we simultaneously observed the J=2-1 and 3-2 transitions of SiO toward selected positions to estimate the physical conditions of the molecular gas. The SiO(2-1) and H^{13}CO+(1-0) emission covers the same velocity range and presents a similar distribution. In contrast, HNCO(5-4) emission appears in a narrow velocity range mostly concentrated in the 20 and 50 km s^{-1} GMCs. The HNCO column densities and fractional abundances present the highest contrast, with difference factors of $\\geq$60 and 28, respectively. Their highest values ar...

  17. Accurate absolute parameters of the binary system V4089 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Veramendi, M E

    2014-01-01

    We carried out a spectroscopic-photometric analysis of the binary V4089 Sgr with the aim to obtain absolute masses and radii of the components and to contrast these parameters with stellar evolution theoretical models. We took high-resolution spectra and measured radial velocity using standard cross-correlations and a technique of spectral disentangling. Absolute parameters of the components were determined through the simultaneous fitting of measured radial velocities and Geneva photometric data available in the literature. In this way we obtained Ma=2.584+-0.008 Msun, Mb=1.607+-0.007 Msun, Ra=3.959+-0.013 Rsun, and Rb=1.605+-0.016 Rsun. The comparison of these parameters with two grids of theoretical models led to estimate narrow ranges of possible values for system metallicity and age. According circularization theory it is not expected that the binary had been achieved a circular orbit as a result of tidal friction, so the null eccentricity found is an interesting fact. On the other hand, we measured proj...

  18. The progenitor mass of the magnetar SGR1900+14

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Ben; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Trombley, Christine; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wachter, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Magnetars are young neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (B > 10^{14}-10^{15}G). How these fields relate to the properties of their progenitor stars is not yet clearly established. However, from the few objects associated with young clusters it has been possible to estimate the initial masses of the progenitors, with results indicating that a very massive progenitor star (M_prog >40Msun) is required to produce a magnetar. Here we present adaptive-optics assisted Keck/NIRC2 imaging and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy of the cluster associated with the magnetar SGR 1900+14, and report that the initial progenitor star mass of the magnetar was a factor of two lower than this limit, M_prog=17 \\pm 2 Msun. Our result presents a strong challenge to the concept that magnetars can only result from very massive progenitors. Instead, we favour a mechanism which is dependent on more than just initial stellar mass for the production of these extreme magnetic fields, such as the "fossil-field" model or a process involving c...

  19. Herschel observations of deuterated water towards Sgr B2(M)

    CERN Document Server

    Comito, Claudia; Rolffs, Rainer; Lis, D C; Belloche, A; Bergin, E A; Phillips, T G; Bell, T A; Crockett, N R; Wang, S; Blake, G A; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Goldsmith, P F; Gupta, H; Herbst, E; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Langer, W D; Latter, W D; Lord, S D; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Menten, K M; Morris, P; Mueller, H S P; Murphy, J A; Neufeld, D A; Ossenkopf, V; Pearson, J C; Perault, M; Plume, R; Qin, S -L; Schlemmer, S; Stutzki, J; Trappe, N; van der Tak, F F S; Vastel, C; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Olberg, M; Szczerba, R; Larsson, B; Liseau, R; Lin, R H; Samoska, L A; Schlecht, E

    2010-01-01

    Observations of HDO are an important complement for studies of water, because they give strong constraints on the formation processes -- grain surfaces versus energetic process in the gas phase, e.g. in shocks. The HIFI observations of multiple transitions of HDO in Sgr~B2(M) presented here allow the determination of the HDO abundance throughout the envelope, which has not been possible before with ground-based observations only. The abundance structure has been modeled with the spherical Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RATRAN, which also takes radiative pumping by continuum emission from dust into account. The modeling reveals that the abundance of HDO rises steeply with temperature from a low abundance ($2.5\\times 10^{-11}$) in the outer envelope at temperatures below 100~K through a medium abundance ($1.5\\times 10^{-9}$) in the inner envelope/outer core, at temperatures between 100 and 200~K, and finally a high abundance ($3.5\\times 10^{-9}$) at temperatures above 200~K in the hot core.

  20. The Double Firing Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Astronomers from around the world combined data from ground- and space-based telescopes to paint a detailed portrait of the brightest explosion ever seen. The observations reveal that the jets of the gamma-ray burst called GRB 080319B were aimed almost directly at the Earth. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 28/08 A Gamma-Ray Burst with Two Jets Read more on this illuminating blast in the additional story. GRB 080319B was so intense that, despite happening halfway across the Universe, it could have been seen briefly with the unaided eye (ESO 08/08). In a paper to appear in the 11 September issue of Nature, Judith Racusin of Penn State University, Pennsylvania (USA), and a team of 92 co-authors report observations across the electromagnetic spectrum that began 30 minutes before the explosion and followed it for months afterwards. "We conclude that the burst's extraordinary brightness arose from a jet that shot material almost directly towards Earth at almost the speed of light - the difference is only 1 part in 20 000," says Guido Chincarini, a member of the team. Gamma-ray bursts are the Universe's most luminous explosions. Most occur when massive stars run out of fuel. As a star collapses, it creates a black hole or neutron star that, through processes not fully understood, drives powerful gas jets outward. As the jets shoot into space, they strike gas previously shed by the star and heat it, thereby generating bright afterglows. The team believes the jet directed toward Earth contained an ultra-fast component just 0.4 degrees across (this is slightly smaller than the apparent size of the Full Moon). This jet is contained within another slightly less energetic jet about 20 times wider. The broad component is more typical of other bursts. "Perhaps every gamma-ray burst has a narrow jet, but astronomers miss it most of the time," says team member Stefano Covino. "We happened to view this monster down the barrel of the very narrow and energetic jet, and the chance for

  1. A Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the N 49 Region around the Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater 0526-66

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, S.; Henden, A. A.; Geppert, U.; Greiner, J.; Guetter, H. H.; Hartmann, D. H.; Kouveliotou, C.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Stecklurn, B.; Vrba, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a deep near-infrared survey of the vicinity of supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which contains the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 0526-66. Two of the four confirmed SGRs are potentially associated with compact stellar clusters. We thus searched for a similar association of SGR0526-66, and find the unexplored young stellar cluster SL 463 at a projected distance of approx. 30 pc from the SGR. This constitutes the third cluster-SGR link, and lends support to scenarios in which SGR progenitors originate in young, embedded clusters. If real, the cluster-SGR association constrains the age and thus the initial mass of these stars. In addition, our high-resolution images of the super- nova remnant N49 reveal an area of excess K-band flux in the southeastern part of the SNR. This feature coincides with the maximum flux area at 8.28 microns as detected by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX satellite), which we identify with IRAS 052594607.

  2. ALMA SiO (5-4) Observations: Protostellar Outflows near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Royster, M.; Wardle, M.; Arendt, R.; Bushouse, H. A.; Lis, D. C.; Pound, M. W.; Roberts, D. A.; Whitney, B.; Wootten, A.

    2013-06-01

    ALMA observations of the Galactic center resulted in the detection of a number of SiO (5-4) clumps of molecular gas in the 2-pc molecular ring orbiting Sgr A*. Eleven clumps of SiO (5-4) are also found within 0.6pc (15'') of Sgr A*. The three SiO (5-4) clumps closest to Sgr A* show the largest central velocities of ~150 km/s and broadest asymmetric linewidths with full width zero intensity (FWZI) 110-147 km/s. Other clumps beyond the inner 15'' show narrow linewidths (FWZI ~18-56 km/s. Using CARMA SiO (2-1) data, LVG modeling of the broad velocity clumps, constrain the H2 gas density (3-9)x10^5 cm^-3 for an assumed kinetic temperature 100-200K. The SiO clumps combined with evidence of YSO candidates are interpreted as highly embedded protostellar outflows, signifying an early stage of massive star formation near Sgr A* in the last 10^4-10^5 years. Star formation near Sgr A* is forbidden, unless the gas density is large enough for self-gravity to overcome the strong tidal shear of the back hole. We discuss different mechanisms that increase the gas density so that star formation can take place in this tidally stressed environment.

  3. Diagnosing the Black Hole Accretion Physics of Sgr A*: Spitzer/Chandra Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Willner, Steven P.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Smith, Howard Alan; Ashby, Matthew; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Witzel, Gunther; Morris, Mark; Ghez, Andrea M.; Meyer, Leo; Becklin, Eric E.; Ingalls, James G.; Glaccum, William J.; Carey, Sean J.; Haggard, Daryl; Marrone, Daniel P.; Gammie, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    The Galactic center offers the closest opportunity for studying accretion onto a supermassive black hole. The fluctuating source, Sgr A*, is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum and its flux may originate in either the accretion flow or a jet, or both. Disentangling the power source and emission mechanisms of the flares is a central challenge to our understanding of the Sgr A* accretion flow. Recent general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (GRMHD) models indicate that variability can be produced by a tilted inner disk, gravitational lensing of bright spots in the disk by the hole, or particle acceleration in reconnection events. These models produce different flare characteristics, and better characterization of flares may enable us to distinguish between strong and weakly magnetized disks. Following our successful Spitzer observations of the variability of Sgr A* in 2013 and 2014, we have undertaken a program of simultaneous IRAC (4.5 micron) and Chandra (2-10 keV) observations to (1) probe the accretion physics of Sgr A* on event-horizon scales and (2) detect any effect of the object G2 on Sgr A*. In addition, several ground-based observatories participated in the campaigns, at wavelengths including radio, sub-mm, and the near-infrared. We will present initial Spitzer/Chandra results from the two 24-hour epochs in 2016 July. Only such long-duration, continuous, multi-wavelength observations can achieve a comprehensive view of the dominant emission process(es) and quantify the physical properties near the event horizon.

  4. On the Origin of the Wide HI Absorption Line towards Sgr A*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. S. Dwarakanath; W. M. Goss; J. H. Zhao; C. C. Lang

    2004-09-01

    We have imaged a region of ∼ 5' extent surrounding Sgr A* in the HI 21 cm-line absorption using the Very Large Array. A Gaussian decomposition of the optical depth spectra at positions within ∼ 2' (∼ 5 pc at 8.5 kpc) of Sgr A∙ detects a wide line underlying the many narrow absorption lines. The wide line has a mean peak optical depth of 0.32 ± 0.12 centered at a mean velocity of lsr = -4 ± 15 km s-1. The mean full width at half maximum is 119±42 km s-1. Such a wide line is absent in the spectra at positions beyond ∼ 2' from Sgr A*. The position-velocity diagrams in optical depth reveal that the wide line originates in various components of the circumnuclear disk (radius ∼ 1.3') surrounding Sgr A*. These components contribute to the optical depth of the wide line in different velocity ranges. The position-velocity diagrams do not reveal any diffuse feature which could be attributed to a large number of HI clouds along the line of sight to Sgr A*. Consequently, the wide line has no implications either to a global population of shocked HI clouds in the Galaxy or to the energetics of the interstellar medium as was earlier thought.

  5. X-ray Weekly Monitoring of the Galactic Center Sgr A* with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yoshitomo; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Saitoh, Takayuki; Murakami, Hiroshi

    A small gas cloud, G2, is on an orbit almost straight into the supermassive blackhole Sgr A* by spring 2014. This event gives us a rare opportunity to test the mass feeding onto the blackhole by a gas. To catch a possible rise of the mass accretion from the cloud, we have been performing the bi-week monitoring of Sgr A* in autumn and spring in the 2013 fiscal year. The key feature of Suzaku is the high-sensitivity wide-band X-ray spectroscopy all in one observatory. It is characterized by a large effective area combined with low background and good energy resolution, in particular a good line spread function in the low-energy range. Since the desired flare events associated with the G2 approach is a transient event, the large effective area is critical and powerful tools to hunt them. The first monitoring in 2013 autumn was successfully made. The X-rays from Sgr A* and its nearby emission were clearly resolved from the bright transient source AX J1745.6-2901. No very large flare from Sgr A*was found during the monitoring. We also may report the X-ray properties of two serendipitous sources, the neutron star binary AX J1745.6-2901 and a magnetar SGR J1745-29.

  6. X-Ray Bursts from the Transient Magnetar Candidate XTE J1810-197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Woods, Peter M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Ibrahim, Alaa; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Finger, Mark H.

    2005-01-01

    We have discovered four X-ray bursts, recorded with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array between 2003 September and 2004 April, that we show to originate from the transient magnetar candidate XTE 51810-197. The burst morphologies consist of a short spike or multiple spikes lasting approx. 1 s each followed by extended tails of emission where the pulsed flux from XTE 51810-197 is significantly higher. The burst spikes are likely correlated with the pulse maxima, having a chance probability of a random phase distribution of 0.4%. The burst spectra are best fit to a blackbody with temperatures 4-8 keV, considerably harder than the persistent X-ray emission. During the X-ray tails following these bursts, the temperature rapidly cools as the flux declines, maintaining a constant emitting radius after the initial burst peak. The temporal and spectral characteristics of these bursts closely resemble the bursts seen from 1E 1048.1-5937 and a subset of the bursts detected from 1E 2259+586, thus establishing XTE J1810-197 as a magnetar candidate. The bursts detected from these three objects are sufficiently similar to one another, yet si,g&cantly differe2t from those seen from soft gamma repeaters, that they likely represent a new class of bursts from magnetar candidates exclusive (thus far) to the anomalous X-ray pulsar-like sources.

  7. Kinematics of star complexes within the Sgr-Car arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkova, E. V.; Uglova, I. M.

    Kinematics of open star clusters (OCL) was studied in the region of A, B, and C star complexes isolated by Avedisova (1989, Astrofizika V.30, P.140) in Sgr-Car arm. As raw data, we involved the absolute proper motions of OCL derived by the stars from the 4-Million Star Catalog of Positions and Proper Motions compiled in Sternberg Institute. The typical accuracy of these proper motions am ounts to 0.005 arcsec/yr. The distances to the clusters were taken from the catalog by Dambis (1998, in press). On the first stage, the kinematic models were calculated for three cases: (i) expansion of the complex from its center at a constant velocity in the galactic plane; (ii) the symmetric case of the complex compression, and (iii) its rotation around the center, also in the plane of Galaxy. The curves V_l(l), V_l(r), V_r(l), and V_r(r) were calculated for the objects under study (here, V_l stands for the tangential velocity component along the galactic longitude, V_r denotes the radial velocity, l is the galactic longitude, and r is the heliocentric distance. For each level of the accuracy of the input data, we calculated the minimum velocity of expansion (compression, rotation), at which the effect could ever be noticed. Our analysis of the residual velocities of 19 OCL has shown that complex A is static. This conclusion was confirmed by the behavior of 11 cepheids belonging to this complex. The study of 24 OCL in complex B provided an evidence of the fact that the complex is apparently expanding at the velocity of about 25 km/s. The investigation of the tangential velocities of 15 cepheids from this complex confirmed this fact. For complex C, where we studied 32 OCL and the radial velocities of 13 cepheids, it was found to compress at about 15 km/s.

  8. Statistics of Magnetar Crusts Magnetoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyev, V. N.; Korovina, Yu. V.

    2016-05-01

    Soft repeating gamma-ray (SGR) bursts are considered as magnetoemission of crusts of magnetars (ultranamagnetized neutron stars). It is shown that all the SGR burst observations can be described and systematized within randomly jumping interacting moments model including quantum fluctuations and internuclear magnetic interaction in an inhomogeneous crusty nuclear matter.

  9. Statistics of Magnetar Crusts Magnetoemission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratyev V. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft repeating gamma-ray (SGR bursts are considered as magnetoemission of crusts of magnetars (ultranamagnetized neutron stars. It is shown that all the SGR burst observations can be described and systematized within randomly jumping interacting moments model including quantum fluctuations and internuclear magnetic interaction in an inhomogeneous crusty nuclear matter.

  10. Relative astrometry of compact flaring structures in Sgr A* with polarimetric very long baseline interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fish, Vincent L. [Haystack Observatory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Broderick, Avery E. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Wardle, John F. C. [Department of Physics MS-057, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454-0911 (United States); Marrone, Daniel P., E-mail: mjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu [Arizona Radio Observatory, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate that polarimetric interferometry can be used to extract precise spatial information about compact polarized flares of Sgr A*. We show that, for a faint dynamical component, a single interferometric baseline suffices to determine both its polarization and projected displacement from the quiescent intensity centroid. A second baseline enables two-dimensional reconstruction of the displacement, and additional baselines can self-calibrate using the flare, enhancing synthesis imaging of the quiescent emission. We apply this technique to simulated 1.3 mm wavelength observations of a 'hot spot' embedded in a radiatively inefficient accretion disk around Sgr A*. Our results indicate that, even with current sensitivities, polarimetric interferometry with the Event Horizon Telescope can achieve ∼5 μas relative astrometry of compact flaring structures near Sgr A* on timescales of minutes.

  11. Does Sgr A* Have an Intrinsic Magnetic Moment Instead of an Event Horizon?

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, S L; Robertson, Stanley L.; Leiter, Darryl J.

    2006-01-01

    We have previously developed a general relativistic model of a gravitationally compact, intrinsically magnetic, eternally collapsing object (MECO). It has been shown to account for the low quiescent x-ray luminosities and spectral state switches in galactic black hole candidates (GBHC) while correctly predicting the radio/x-ray luminosity correlations of both GBHC and active galactic nuclei. We show here that a MECO model for Sgr A* is consistent with its observed low NIR luminosity levels. It has the unique property of providing an explanation for observed polarizations in the context of an inverted polar jet flow while reconciling the low luminosity of Sgr A* with a standard Bondi accretion flow. Thus the conclusion that Sgr A* contains a black hole with an event horizon is still unsubstantiated.

  12. Relative Astrometry of Compact Flaring Structures in Sgr A* with Polarimetric VLBI

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Michael D; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Broderick, Avery E; Wardle, John F C; Marrone, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that polarimetric interferometry can be used to extract precise spatial information about compact polarized flares of Sgr A*. We show that, for a faint dynamical component, a single interferometric baseline suffices to determine both its polarization and projected displacement from the quiescent intensity centroid. A second baseline enables two-dimensional reconstruction of the displacement, and additional baselines can self-calibrate using the flare, enhancing synthesis imaging of the quiescent emission. We apply this technique to simulated 1.3-mm wavelength observations of a "hot spot" embedded in a radiatively inefficient accretion disk around Sgr A*. Our results indicate that, even with current sensitivities, polarimetric interferometry with the Event Horizon Telescope can achieve ~5 microarcsecond relative astrometry of compact flaring structures near Sgr A* on timescales of minutes.

  13. Can we see pulsars around Sgr A*? - The latest searches with the Effelsberg telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Eatough, R P; Klein, B; Karuppusamy, R; Champion, D J; Freire, P C C; Wex, N; Liu, K

    2012-01-01

    Radio pulsars in relativistic binary systems are unique tools to study the curved space-time around massive compact objects. The discovery of a pulsar closely orbiting the super-massive black hole at the centre of our Galaxy, Sgr A*, would provide a superb test-bed for gravitational physics. To date, the absence of any radio pulsar discoveries within a few arc minutes of Sgr A* has been explained by one principal factor: extreme scattering of radio waves caused by inhomogeneities in the ionized component of the interstellar medium in the central 100 pc around Sgr A*. Scattering, which causes temporal broadening of pulses, can only be mitigated by observing at higher frequencies. Here we describe recent searches of the Galactic centre region performed at a frequency of 18.95 GHz with the Effelsberg radio telescope.

  14. Shock-powered radio emission from V5589 Sagittarii (Nova Sgr 2012 #1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Jennifer H. S.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Chomiuk, Laura; Linford, Justin D.; Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Finzell, Tom; Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael P.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2016-08-01

    Since the Fermi discovery of γ-rays from novae, one of the biggest questions in the field has been how novae generate such high-energy emission. Shocks must be a fundamental ingredient. Six months of radio observations of the 2012 Nova V5589 Sgr with the VLA and 15 weeks of X-ray observations with Swift/XRT show that the radio emission consisted of: (1) a shock-powered, non-thermal flare; and (2) weak thermal emission from 10-5 M⊙ of freely expanding, photoionized ejecta. Absorption features in the optical spectrum and the peak optical brightness suggest that V5589 Sgr lies 4 kpc away (3.2-4.6 kpc). The shock-powered flare dominated the radio light curve at low frequencies before day 100. The spectral evolution of the radio flare, its high radio brightness temperature, the presence of unusually hard (kTx > 33 keV) X-rays, and the ratio of radio to X-ray flux near radio maximum all support the conclusions that the flare was shock-powered and non-thermal. Unlike most other novae with strong shock-powered radio emission, V5589 Sgr is not embedded in the wind of a red-giant companion. Based on the similar inclinations and optical line profiles of V5589 Sgr and V959 Mon, we propose that shocks in V5589 Sgr formed from collisions between a slow flow with an equatorial density enhancement and a subsequent faster flow. We speculate that the relatively high speed and low mass of the ejecta led to the unusual radio emission from V5589 Sgr, and perhaps also to the non-detection of γ-rays.

  15. Near-infrared Observations of Magnetars: XTE J1810-197, 1RXS J1708-4009, 1E 1841-045 and SGR 1900+14

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, V; Mignani, R P; Israel, G L; Perna, R; Chaty, S; Stella, L; Covino, S; Turolla, R; Zane, S; Curto, G Lo; Campana, S; Marconi, G; Mereghetti, S

    2007-01-01

    . We report on near-infrared (IR) observations of the three anomalous X-ray pulsars XTE J1810-197, 1RXS J1708-4009, 1E 1841-045 and the soft gamma-ray repeater SGR 1900+14, taken with the ESO-VLT, the Gemini, and the CFHT telescopes. . This work is aimed at identifying and/or confirming the IR counterparts of these magnetars, as well as at measuring their possible IR variability. . In order to perform photometry of objects as faint as Ks~20, we have used data taken with the largest telescopes, equipped with the most advanced IR detectors and in most of the cases with Adaptive Optics devices. The latter are critical to achieve the sharp spatial accuracy required to pinpoint faint objects in crowded fields. . We confirm with high confidence the identification of the IR counterpart to XTE J1810-197, and its IR variability. For 1E 1841-045 and SGR 1900+14 we propose two candidate IR counterparts based on the detection of IR variability. For 1RXS J1708-4009 we show that none of the potential counterparts within th...

  16. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  17. Millimeter-wave Spectral Line Surveys toward the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk and Sgr A*

    OpenAIRE

    Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; TANAKA, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Miura, Kodai; Sakai, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    We have performed unbiased spectral line surveys at 3 mm band toward the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and Sgr A* using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) 45 m radio telescope. The target positions are two tangential points of the CND and the direction of Sgr A*. We have obtained three wide-band spectra which cover the frequency range from 81.3 GHz to 115.8 GHz, detecting 46 molecular lines from 30 species including 10 rare isotopomers and four hydrogen recombination lines. Each line pr...

  18. Solar Partial N-burst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Jun Ning; Yu-Ying Liu; Qi-Jun Fu; Fu-Ying Xu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new sub-class of type III solar radio burst at the highfrequencies around 6.0 GHz. In addition to a descending and an ascending branchon the dynamic spectrum, it has an inverted morphology different from the simpletype U-burst. We call it "partial N-burst" because it is interpreted as the knownN-burst minus its first branch. The partial N-burst presented here was detectedamong a reverse slope type III (RS-III) burst group prior to the type V solar radiocontinuum and was simultaneously recorded by two spectrometers at the NationalAstronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC, 5.20-7.60 GHz)and at Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO, 4.50-7.50 GHz) on 1999 August 25.After the N-burst and M-burst, the partial N-burst is a third piece of evidence for amagnetic mirror effect in solar radio observation, when the same electron is reflectedat a pinched foot of a flare loop.

  19. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events.

  20. Ionospheric response to magnetar flare: signature of SGR J1550-5418 on coherent ionospheric Doppler radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrous, Ayman

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents observational evidence of frequent ionospheric perturbations caused by the magnetar flare of the source SGR J1550-5418, which took place on 22 January 2009. These ionospheric perturbations are observed in the relative change of the total electron content (ΔTEC/Δt) measurements from the coherent ionospheric Doppler radar (CIDR). The CIDR system makes high-precision measurements of the total electron content (TEC) change along ray-paths from ground receivers to low Earth-orbiting (LEO) beacon spacecraft. These measurements can be integrated along the orbital track of the beacon satellite to construct the relative spatial, not temporal, TEC profiles that are useful for determining the large-scale plasma distribution. The observed spatial TEC changes reveal many interesting features of the magnetar signatures in the ionosphere. The onset phase of the magnetar flare was during the CIDR's nighttime satellite passage. The nighttime small-scale perturbations detected by CIDR, with ΔTEC/Δt ≥ 0.05 TECU s-1, over the eastern Mediterranean on 22 January 2009 were synchronized with the onset phase of the magnetar flare and consistent with the emission of hundreds of bursts detected from the source. The maximum daytime large-scale perturbation measured by CIDR over northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean was detected after ˜ 6 h from the main phase of the magnetar flare, with ΔTEC/Δt ≤ 0.10 TECU s-1. These ionospheric perturbations resembled an unusual poleward traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) caused by the extraterrestrial source. The TID's estimated virtual velocity is 385.8 m s-1, with ΔTEC/Δt ≤ 0.10 TECU s-1.

  1. Dark Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Brdar, Vedran; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Many theories of dark matter (DM) predict that DM particles can be captured by stars via scattering on ordinary matter. They subsequently condense into a DM core close to the center of the star and eventually annihilate. In this work, we trace DM capture and annihilation rates throughout the life of a massive star and show that this evolution culminates in an intense annihilation burst coincident with the death of the star in a core collapse supernova. The reason is that, along with the stellar interior, also its DM core heats up and contracts, so that the DM density increases rapidly during the final stages of stellar evolution. We argue that, counterintuitively, the annihilation burst is more intense if DM annihilation is a p-wave process than for s-wave annihilation because in the former case, more DM particles survive until the supernova. If among the DM annihilation products are particles like dark photons that can escape the exploding star and decay to Standard Model particles later, the annihilation bu...

  2. A 3 pc Scale Jet-driven Outflow from Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Arendt, R.; Bushouse, H.; Cotton, W.; Haggard, D.; Pound, M. W.; Roberts, D. A.; Royster, M.; Wardle, M.

    2012-10-01

    The compact radio source Sgr A* is coincident with a 4 × 106 M ⊙ black hole at the dynamical center of the Galaxy and is surrounded by dense orbiting ionized and molecular gas. We present high-resolution radio continuum images of the central 3' and report a faint continuous linear structure centered on Sgr A* with a P.A. ~ 60°. The extension of this feature appears to be terminated symmetrically by two linearly polarized structures at 8.4 GHz, ~75'' from Sgr A*. A number of weak blobs of radio emission with X-ray counterparts are detected along the axis of the linear structure. The linear structure is best characterized by a mildly relativistic jet from Sgr A* with an outflow rate 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1. The near and far sides of the jet are interacting with orbiting ionized and molecular gas over the last 1-3 hundred years and are responsible for a 2'' hole, the "minicavity," characterized by disturbed kinematics, enhanced Fe II/III line emission, and diffuse X-ray gas. The estimated kinetic luminosity of the outflow is ~1.2 × 1041 erg s-1, so the interaction with the bar may be responsible for the Galactic center X-ray flash inferred to be responsible for much of the fluorescent Fe Kα line emission from the inner 100 pc of the Galaxy.

  3. A Three Parsec-Scale Jet-Driven Outflow from Sgr A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Arendt, R.; Bushouse, H.; Cotton, W.; Haggard, D.; Pound, M. W.; Roberts, D. A.; Royster, M.; Wardle, M.

    2012-01-01

    The compact radio source Sgr A* is coincident with a 4x 10(exp 6) solar Mass black hole at the dynamical center of the Galaxy and is surrounded by dense orbiting ionized and molecular gas. We present high resolution radio continuum images of the central 3' and report a faint continuous linear structure centered on Sgr A*. This feature is rotated by 28 deg in PA with respect to the Galactic plane. A number of weak blobs of radio emission with X-ray counterparts are detected along the axis of the linear structure. In addition, the continuous linear feature appears to be terminated symmetrically by two linearly polarized structures at 8.4 GHz, approx 75" from Sgr A*. The linear structure is best characterized by a mildly relativistic jet-driven outflow from Sgr A*, and an outflow rate 10(exp 6) solar M / yr. The near and far-sides of the jet are interacting with orbiting ionized and molecular gas over the last 1-3 hundred years and are responsible for the origin of a 2" hole, the "minicavity", where disturbed kinematics, enhanced FeII/III line emission, and diffuse X-ray gas have been detected. The estimated kinetic luminosity of the outflow is approx 1.2 X 10(exp 41) erg/s which can produce the Galactic center X-ray flash that has recently been identified

  4. The X-Ray Flaring Properties of Sgr A* during Six Years of Monitoring with Swift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J.M.; Kennea, J.; Gehrels, N.; Reynolds, M.T.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-01-01

    Starting in 2006, Swift has been targeting a region of sime 21' × 21' around Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) with the onboard X-Ray Telescope. The short, quasi-daily observations offer a unique view of the long-term X-ray behavior of the supermassive black hole. We report on the data obtained between 2006

  5. Investigating the Sources of Flickering and Superhumps in the Dwarf Nova V4140 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, R.; Borges, B.; Oliveira, A.

    2012-04-01

    We report the results of maximum entropy eclipse-mapping analysis of an ensemble of light curves of the dwarf nova V4140 Sagitarii (V4140 Sgr) with the objective of studying the spatial distribution of its steady-light and flickering sources in quiescence, and the changing disk structure during an outburst.

  6. Molecules in the disk orbiting the twin young suns of V4046 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, Joel H; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Forveille, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of a mm-wave molecular line survey of the nearby (D ~ 70 pc), 12 Myr-old system V4046 Sgr -- a tight (9 R_sun separation), short-period (2.42 day) binary with nearly equal component masses of ~0.9 M_sun -- conducted with the 30 m telescope of the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM). We detected rotational transitions of 12CO 13CO, HCN, CN, and HCO+. The double-peaked CO line profiles of V4046 Sgr are well fit by a model invoking a Keplerian disk with outer radius of ~250 AU that is viewed at an inclination i = 35 degrees. We infer minimum disk gas and dust masses of ~13 and ~20 Earth masses from the V4046 Sgr CO line and submm continuum fluxes, respectively. The actual disk gas mass could be much larger if the gas-phase CO is highly depleted and/or 13CO is very optically thick. The overall similarity of the circumbinary disk of V4046 Sgr to the disk orbiting the single, ~8 Myr-old star TW Hya -- a star/disk system often regarded as representative of the early solar nebula -...

  7. Evidence for large superhumps in TX Col and V4742 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Retter, A; Liu, A; Bos, Marc; Liu, Alexander; Retter, Alon

    2004-01-01

    Since the discovery of the largest positive superhump period in TV Col, we have started a program to search for superhumps in CVs with large orbital periods. Here, we summarize preliminary results of TX Col and V4742 Sgr. TX Col is an intermediate polar with a 5.7-h orbital period. V4742 Sgr is a recent nova with no known periods. CCD unfiltered continuous photometry of these 2 objects was carried out during 56 nights in 2002-3. In TX Col, in addition to the orbital period of 5.7 h, we found peaks at 7.1 h and 5.0 h. These are interpreted as positive and negative superhumps correspondingly, although the effects of the quasi-periodic oscillations at about 2 h were not taken into consideration. In the light curve of V4742 Sgr 2 long periods are detected -- 6.1 and 5.4 h as well as a short-term period at 1.6 h. This result suggests that V4742 Sgr is an intermediate polar candidate and a permanent superhump system with a large orbital period (5.4 h) and a superhump period excess of 13 percent. If these results ar...

  8. Modelling of the surface emission of the low magnetic field magnetar SGR 0418+5729

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillot, S.; Perna, R.; Rea, N.; Viganò, D.; Pons, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed modelling of the post-outburst surface emission of the low magnetic field magnetar SGR 0418+5729. The dipolar magnetic field of this source, B=6×1012G estimated from its spin-down rate, is in the observed range of magnetic fields for normal pulsars. The source is further

  9. Discoveries of Diffuse Iron Line Sources from the Sgr B Region

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K; Hyodo, Y; Matsumoto, H; Tsuru, T G; Maeda, Y; Murakami, H; Yamauchi, S; Kissel, S E; Soong, C Y; Koyama, Katsuji; Inui, Tatsuya; Hyodo, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Kissel, Steven E.; Soong, Chan Yang

    2006-01-01

    The radio complex Sgr B region is observed with the X-Ray Imaging Spectrometers (XIS) on board Suzaku. This region exhibits diffuse iron lines at 6.4, 6.7 and 6.9 keV, which are K$\\alpha$ lines of Fe \\emissiontype{I} (neutral iron), Fe\\emissiontype{XXV} (He-like iron) and Fe\\emissiontype{XXVI} (H-like iron), respectively. The high energy resolving power of the XIS provides the separate maps of the K-shell transition lines from Fe\\emissiontype{I} (6.4 keV) and Fe\\emissiontype{XXV} (6.7 keV). Although the 6.7 keV line is smoothly distributed over the Sgr B region, a local excess is found near at $(l, b) = (\\timeform {0D.61}, \\timeform{0D.01})$, possibly a new SNR. The plasma temperature is \\textit{kT} $\\sim$3 keV and the age is estimated to be around several$\\times10^{3}$ years. The 6.4 keV image is clumpy with local excesses nearby Sgr B2 and at $(l, b) = (\\timeform{0D.74}, -\\timeform{0D.09})$. Like Sgr B2, this excess may be another candidate of an X-ray reflection nebula (XRN).

  10. Is the Sgr dSph a dark matter dominated system?

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Barbosa, Carmen A

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of possible progenitors of Sgr dSph}using several numerical N-body simulations of different dwarf spheroidal galaxies both with and without dark matter, as they orbit the Milky Way. The barionic and dark components of the dwarfs were made obeying a Plummer and NFW potentials of one million particles respectively. The Milky Way was modeled like a tree-component rigid potential and the simulations were performed using a modified Gadget-2 code. We found that none of the simulated galaxies without dark matter reproduced the physical properties observed in Sgr dSph, suggesting that, at the beginning of its evolution, Sgr dSph might have been immersed in a dark matter halo. The simulations of progenitors immersed in dark matter halos suggest that Sgr dSph at its beginning might have been an extended system, i.e. its Plummer radius could have had a value approximated to 1.2 kpc or higher; furthermore, this galaxy could have been immersed in a dark halo with a mass higher than 10^8 solar masses...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 22GHz observations of VX Sgr (Murakawa+, 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakawa, K.; Yates, J. A.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cohen, R. J.

    2012-07-01

    The 22-GHz H2O maser emission from VX Sgr was observed on 1994 26 and 1999 January 16 for 5 and 7hr, respectively, in both left and right circular polarization, using 5 antennas of MERLIN. (3 data files).

  12. GROND observations of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schady, P.; Kann, D. A.; Greiner, J.

    2016-06-01

    We observed the field of GRB 160622A/SNR RCW 103/SGR 1617-5103 (Swift trigger 700791; D'Ai et al., GCN #19547. ATel #9180) simultaneously in g'r'i'z'JHK with GROND (Greiner et al. 2008, PASP 120, 405) mounted at the 2.2 m MPG telescope at ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile).

  13. Timing and flux evolution of the galactic center magnetar SGR J1745–2900

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.; Archibald, Robert F.; Bhalerao, Varun;

    2014-01-01

    We present the X-ray timing and spectral evolution of the Galactic Center magnetar SGR J1745–2900 for the first ∼4 months post-discovery using data obtained with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and Swift observatories. Our timing analysis reveals a large increase in the magnetar spin-do...

  14. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2004-10-01

    After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  15. Studying the SGR 1806-20/Cl* 1806-20 Region Using the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Paul K. H.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Tam, P. H. Thomas; Lin, Lupin C. C.; Hui, C. Y.; Hu, Chin-Ping; Cheng, K. S.

    2016-08-01

    The region around SGR 1806-20 and its host stellar cluster Cl* 1806-20 is a potentially important site of particle acceleration. The soft γ-ray repeater and Cl* 1806-20, which also contains several very massive stars including a luminous blue variable hypergiant LBV 1806-20, are capable of depositing a large amount of energy to the surroundings. Using the data taken with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), we identified an extended LAT source to the southwest of Cl* 1806-20. The centroid of the 1-50 GeV emission is consistent with that of HESS J1808-204 (until now unidentified). The LAT spectrum is best-fit by a broken power law with the break energy {E}{{b}}=297+/- 15 {MeV}. The index above E b is 2.60 ± 0.04 and is consistent with the flux and spectral index above 100 GeV for HESS J1808-204, suggesting an association between the two sources. Meanwhile, the interacting supernova remnant SNR G9.7-0.0 is also a potential contributor to the LAT flux. A tentative flux enhancement at the MeV band during a 45 day interval (2011 January 21-March 7) is also reported. We discuss possible origins of the extended LAT source in the context of both leptonic and hadronic scenarios.

  16. Studying the SGR 1806-20/Cl* 1806-20 region using the \\emph{Fermi} Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, Paul K H; Tam, P H Thomas; Lin, Lupin C C; Hui, C Y; Hu, Chin-Ping; Cheng, K S

    2016-01-01

    The region around SGR 1806-20 and its host stellar cluster Cl* 1806-20 is a potentially important site of particle acceleration. The soft $\\gamma-$ray repeater and Cl* 1806-20, which also contains several very massive stars including a luminous blue variable hypergiant LBV 1806-20, are capable of depositing a large amount of energy to the surroundings. Using the data taken with the \\emph{Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT), we identified an extended LAT source to the south-west of Cl* 1806-20. The centroid of the 1-50~GeV emission is consistent with that of HESS J1808-204 (until now unidentified). The LAT spectrum is best-fit by a broken power-law with the break energy $E_\\mathrm{b}=297\\pm15$ MeV. The index above $E_\\mathrm{b}$ is $2.60\\pm0.04$, and is consistent with the flux and spectral index above 100 GeV for HESS J1808-204, suggesting an association between the two sources. Meanwhile, the interacting supernova remnant SNR G9.7-0.0 is also a potential contributor to the LAT flux. A tentative flux enhancemen...

  17. Relativistic Precessing Jets and Cosmological $\\gamma$ Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, E G; Field, G B; Blackman, Eric G.; Yi, Insu; Field, George B.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that gamma-ray bursts may result from cosmological relativistic blob emitting neutron star jets that precess past the line of sight. Beaming reduces the energy requirements, so that the jet emission can last longer than the observed burst duration. One precession mode maintains a short duration time scale, while a second keeps the beam from returning to the line of sight, consistent with the paucity of repeaters. The long life of these objects reduces the number required for production as compared to short lived jets. Blobs can account for the time structure of the bursts. Here we focus largely on kinematic and time scale considerations of beaming, precession, and blobs--issues which are reasonably independent of the acceleration and jet collimation mechanisms. We do suggest that large amplitude electro-magnetic waves could be a source of blob acceleration.

  18. A novel optical burst switching architecture for high speed networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Garg; R. S. Kaler

    2008-01-01

    A novel optical burst switching (OBS) high speed network architecture has been proposed. To verify its feasibility and evaluate its performance, just-enough-time (JET) signaling has been considered as a high performance protocol. In the proposed architecture, to avoid burst losses, firstly, a short-priorconfirrnation-packet (SPCP) is sent over the control channel that simulates the events that the actual packet will experience. Once SPCP detects a drop at any of the intermediate nodes, the actual packet is not sent but the process repeats. In order to increase network utilization, cost effectiveness and to overcome some limitations of conventional OBS, inherent codes (e.g., orthogonal optical codes (OOC)),which are codified only in intensity, has been used. Through simulations, it shows that a decrease in burst loss probability, cost effectiveness and a gain in processing time are obtained when optical label processing is used as compared with electronic processing.

  19. Bursts de raios gama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, J.

    2003-02-01

    Nos últimos anos, graças principalmente aos dados obtidos pelo Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory e pelo satélite ítalo-holandês BeppoSAX, grandes avanços foram obtidos no nosso conhecimento sobre os fascinantes e enigmáticos fenômenos conhecidos por "bursts"de raios gama. Neste trabalho é feita uma revisão sobre a fenomenologia desses misteriosos objetos e são apresentados os desenvolvimentos recentes nessa área palpitante da astrofísica moderna, ressaltando tanto os resultados observacionais obtidos até o momento quanto os modelos teóricos propostos para explixá-los.

  20. Quantum Key Based Burst Confidentiality in Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Balamurugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS is an emergent result to the technology concern that could achieve a feasible network in future. They are endowed with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of those applications that require intensive bandwidth. There are more domains opening up in the OBS that evidently shows their advantages and their capability to face the future network traffic. However, the concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution, and quality of service (QoS. This paper deals with employing RC4 (stream cipher to encrypt and decrypt bursts thereby ensuring the confidentiality of the burst. Although the use of AES algorithm has already been proposed for the same issue, by contrasting the two algorithms under the parameters of burst encryption and decryption time, end-to-end delay, it was found that RC4 provided better results. This paper looks to provide a better solution for the confidentiality of the burst in OBS networks.

  1. Quantum key based burst confidentiality in optical burst switched networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A M; Sivasubramanian, A

    2014-01-01

    The optical burst switching (OBS) is an emergent result to the technology concern that could achieve a feasible network in future. They are endowed with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of those applications that require intensive bandwidth. There are more domains opening up in the OBS that evidently shows their advantages and their capability to face the future network traffic. However, the concept of OBS is still far from perfection facing issues in case of security threat. The transfer of optical switching paradigm to optical burst switching faces serious downfall in the fields of burst aggregation, routing, authentication, dispute resolution, and quality of service (QoS). This paper deals with employing RC4 (stream cipher) to encrypt and decrypt bursts thereby ensuring the confidentiality of the burst. Although the use of AES algorithm has already been proposed for the same issue, by contrasting the two algorithms under the parameters of burst encryption and decryption time, end-to-end delay, it was found that RC4 provided better results. This paper looks to provide a better solution for the confidentiality of the burst in OBS networks.

  2. Supernova remnant candidates for the soft gamma-ray repeater 1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasisht, G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Frail, D. A.; Greiner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Motivated by the association of two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) with supernova remnants (SNR) we have carried out radio, optical and X-ray studies of two cataloged SNRs in the large KONUS error box 11 deg x 8 min of SGR 1900+14. Our very large array (VLA) observations of SNR G43.9+1.6 do not reveal any obvious plerionic component. A radio flat-spectrum source, close to, but outside the error box was found. We suggest this to be a distant H II region foreground to the SNR. A sensitive VLA image at meter wavelengths show that the other SNR, G42.8+0.6, is an ordinary typical SNR with a shell morphology with no peculiarities such as a plerionic component. No ROSAT source with an apparent flux greater than or approximately 10(exp -13) ergs cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) is found within the two SNRs. Recently, Hurley et al. have reported a new very small error box close to G42.8+0.6. There is no radio feature within or close to the error box. However, a ROSAT source is found just outside this localization. We speculate that this is the quiescent X-ray counterpart of SGR 1900+14. We suggest that SGR 1900+14 is a neutron star that was born with high speed which has now overtaken the expanding shell of SNR G42.8+0.6. Owing to the low confining pressure, there has been no development of a synchrotron bubble which explains the absence of the radio plerion. In our picture, SGR 1900+14 is the oldest known SGR.

  3. The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)

    OpenAIRE

    Lichti, G. G.; Briggs, M.S.; Diehl, R.; Fishman, G.; Georgii, R.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.; Paciesas, W.; Preece, R.; Schoenfelder, V.; von Kienlin, A.

    2001-01-01

    The selection of the GLAST burst monitor (GBM) by NASA will allow the investigation of the relation between the keV and the MeV-GeV emission from gamma-ray bursts. The GBM consists of 12 NaI and 2 BGO crystals allowing a continuous measurement of the energy spectra of gamma-ray bursts from ~5 keV to \\~30 MeV. One feature of the GBM is its high time resolution for time-resolved gamma-ray spectroscopy. Moreover the arrangement of the NaI crystals allows a rapid on-board location (

  4. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  5. X-ray flares of γ-ray bursts: Quakes of solid quark stars?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU RenXin; LIANG EnWei

    2009-01-01

    A star-quake model is proposed to understand X-ray flares of both long and short γ-ray bursts (GRBs) in a solid quark star regime. Two kinds of central engines for GRBs are available if pulsar-like stars are actually (solid) quark stars, I.e., the SNE-type GRBs and the SGR-type GRBs. It is found that a quark star could be solidified about 103 to 106 s later after its birth if the critical temperature of phase transi-tion is a few Metga-electron-volts, and then s new source of free energy (I.e., elastic and gravitational ones, rather than rotational or magnetic energy) could be possible to power GRB X-ray flares.

  6. X-ray flares of γ-ray bursts: Quakes of solid quark stars?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A star-quake model is proposed to understand X-ray flares of both long and short γ-ray bursts (GRBs) in a solid quark star regime. Two kinds of central engines for GRBs are available if pulsar-like stars are actually (solid) quark stars, i.e., the SNE-type GRBs and the SGR-type GRBs. It is found that a quark star could be solidified about 103 to 106 s later after its birth if the critical temperature of phase transi- tion is a few Metga-electron-volts, and then a new source of free energy (i.e., elastic and gravitational ones, rather than rotational or magnetic energy) could be possible to power GRB X-ray flares.

  7. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons...

  8. Disinhibition Bursting of Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin J Lobb

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc dopaminergic neurons receive strong tonic inputs from GABAergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr and globus pallidus (GP, and glutamatergic neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. The presence of these tonic inputs raises the possibility that phasic disinhibition may trigger phasic bursts in dopaminergic neurons. We first applied constant NMDA and GABAA conductances onto a two-compartment single cell model of the dopaminergic neuron (Kuznetsov et al., 2006. The model exhibited disinhibition bursting upon stepwise removal of inhibition. A further bifurcation analysis suggests that disinhibition may be more robust than excitation alone in that for most levels of NMDA conductance, the cell remains capable of bursting even after a complete removal of inhibition, whereas too much excitatory input will drive the cell into depolarization block. To investigate the network dynamics of disinhibition, we used a modified version of an integrate-and-fire based model of the basal ganglia (Humphries et al., 2006. Synaptic activity generated in the network was delivered to the two-compartment single cell dopaminergic neuron. Phasic activation of the D1-expressing medium spiny neurons in the striatum (D1STR produced disinhibition bursts in dopaminergic neurons through the direct pathway (D1STR to SNpr to SNpc. Anatomical studies have shown that D1STR neurons have collaterals that terminate in GP. Adding these collaterals to the model, we found that striatal activation increased the intra-burst firing frequency of the disinhibition burst as the weight of this connection was increased. Our studies suggest that striatal activation is a robust means by which disinhibition bursts can be generated by SNpc dopaminergic neurons, and that recruitment of the indirect pathway via collaterals may enhance disinhibition bursting.

  9. Burst Suppression: A Review and New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Dillon Kenny

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Burst suppression is a pattern of brain electrical activity characterized by alternating periods of high-amplitude bursts and electrical silence. Burst suppression can arise from several different pathological conditions, as well as from general anesthesia. Here we review current algorithms that are used to quantify burst suppression, its various etiologies, and possible underlying mechanisms. We then review clinical applications of anesthetic-induced burst suppression. Finally, we report the results of our new study showing clear electrophysiological differences in burst suppression patterns induced by two common general anesthetics, sevoflurane and propofol. Our data suggest that the circuit mechanisms that generate burst suppression activity may differ between different general anesthetics.

  10. Gamma-ray burst models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts.

  11. Rings of C2H in the Molecular Disks Orbiting TW Hya and V4046 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, J H; Gorti, U; Hily-Blant, P; Oberg, K; Forveille, T; Andrews, S; Wilner, D

    2015-01-01

    We have used the Submillimeter Array to image, at ~1" resolution, C2H(3-2) emission from the molecule-rich circumstellar disks orbiting the nearby, classical T Tauri star systems TW Hya and V4046 Sgr. The SMA imaging reveals that the C2H emission exhibits a ring-like morphology within each disk, the inner hole radius of the C2H ring within the V4046 Sgr disk (~70 AU) is somewhat larger than than of its counterpart within the TW Hya disk (~45 AU). We suggest that, in each case, the C2H emission likely traces irradiation of the tenuous surface layers of the outer disks by high-energy photons from the central stars.

  12. The Flare Activity of SgrA*; New Coordinated mm to X-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, A; Bautz, M W; Bower, G C; Brandt, W N; Garmire, G P; Genzel, R; Marrone, D; Moran, J M; Morris, M; Ott, T; Rao, R; Ricker, G R; Roberts, D A; Schödel, R; Straubmeier, C; Trippe, S; Viehmann, T; Yusef-Zadeh, F; Zhao, J H

    2005-01-01

    We report new simultaneous near-infrared/sub-millimeter/X-ray observations of the SgrA* counterpart associated with the massive 3-4x10**6 solar mass black hole at the Galactic Center. The main aim is to investigate the physical processes responsible for the variable emission from SgrA*. The observations have been carried out using the NACO adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope and the ACIS-I instrument aboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as the Submillimeter Array SMA on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and the Very Large Array in New Mexico. We detected one moderately bright flare event in the X-ray domain and 5 events at infrared wavelengths.

  13. Properties of the Radio-Emitting Gas Around SgrA*

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, A L E

    2007-01-01

    We show that the radial profiles of the temperature and density of the electrons as well as the magnetic field strength around the massive black hole at the Galactic center, SgrA*, may be constrained directly from existing radio data without any need to make prior assumptions about the dynamics of the emitting gas. The observed spectrum and wavelength-dependent angular size of SgrA* indicate that the synchrotron emission originates from an optically-thick plasma of quasi-thermal electrons. We find that the electron temperature rises above the virial temperature within tens of Schwarzschild radii from the black hole, suggesting that the emitting plasma may be outflowing. Constraints on the electron density profile are derived from polarization measurements. Our best-fit results differ from expectations based on existing theoretical models. However, these models cannot be ruled out as of yet due to uncertainties in the source size measurements. Our constraints could tighten considerably with future improvements...

  14. A New Clue in the Mystery of Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the mysterious fast radio bursts has eluded us for more than a decade. With the help of a particularly cooperative burst, however, scientists may finally be homing in on the answer to this puzzle.A Burst RepeatsThe host of FRB 121102 is placed in context in this Gemini image. [Gemini Observatory/AURA/NSF/NRC]More than 20 fast radio bursts rare and highly energetic millisecond-duration radio pulses have been observed since the first was discovered in 2007. FRB 121102, however, is unique in its behavior: its the only one of these bursts to repeat. The many flashes observed from FRB 121102 allowed us for the first time to follow up on the burst and hunt for its location.Earlier this year, this work led to the announcement that FRB 121102s host galaxy has been identified: a dwarf galaxy located at a redshift of z = 0.193 (roughly 3 billion light-years away). Now a team of scientists led by Cees Bassa (ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy) has performed additional follow-up to learn more about this host and what might be causing the mysterious flashes.Hubble observation of the host galaxy. The object at the bottom right is a reference star. The blue ellipse marks the extended diffuse emission of the galaxy, the red circle marks the centroid of the star-forming knot, and the white cross denotes the location of FRB 121102 ad the associated persistent radio source. [Adapted from Bassa et al. 2017]Host ObservationsBassa and collaborators used the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telecsope, and the Gemini North telecsope in Hawaii to obtain optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of FRB 121102s host galaxy.The authors determined that the galaxy is a dim, irregular, low-metallicity dwarf galaxy. Its resolved, revealing a bright star-forming region roughly 4,000 light-years across in the galaxys outskirts. Intriguingly, the persistent radio source associated with FRB 121102 falls directly within that star-forming knot

  15. A 3 pc SCALE JET-DRIVEN OUTFLOW FROM SGR A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Haggard, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Royster, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Arendt, R. [CRESST/UMBC/NASA GSFC, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bushouse, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Pound, M. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2012-10-10

    The compact radio source Sgr A* is coincident with a 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} black hole at the dynamical center of the Galaxy and is surrounded by dense orbiting ionized and molecular gas. We present high-resolution radio continuum images of the central 3' and report a faint continuous linear structure centered on Sgr A* with a P.A. {approx} 60 Degree-Sign . The extension of this feature appears to be terminated symmetrically by two linearly polarized structures at 8.4 GHz, {approx}75'' from Sgr A*. A number of weak blobs of radio emission with X-ray counterparts are detected along the axis of the linear structure. The linear structure is best characterized by a mildly relativistic jet from Sgr A* with an outflow rate 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The near and far sides of the jet are interacting with orbiting ionized and molecular gas over the last 1-3 hundred years and are responsible for a 2'' hole, the 'minicavity', characterized by disturbed kinematics, enhanced Fe II/III line emission, and diffuse X-ray gas. The estimated kinetic luminosity of the outflow is {approx}1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, so the interaction with the bar may be responsible for the Galactic center X-ray flash inferred to be responsible for much of the fluorescent Fe K{alpha} line emission from the inner 100 pc of the Galaxy.

  16. Signatures of Young Star Formation Activity within Two Parsecs of Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Sewilo, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Smith, I.; Arendt, R.; Cotton, W.; Lacy, J.; Martin, S.; Pound, M. W.; Rickert, M.; Royster, M.

    2015-07-01

    We present radio and infrared observations indicating ongoing star formation activity inside the ˜2-5 pc circumnuclear ring at the Galactic center. Collectively these measurements suggest a continued disk-based mode of ongoing star formation has taken place near Sgr A* over the last few million years. First, Very Large Array observations with spatial resolution 2.″17 × 0.″81 reveal 13 water masers, several of which have multiple velocity components. The presence of interstellar water masers suggests gas densities that are sufficient for self-gravity to overcome the tidal shear of the 4× {10}6 {M}⊙ black hole. Second, spectral energy distribution modeling of stellar sources indicates massive young stellar object (YSO) candidates interior to the molecular ring, supporting in situ star formation near Sgr A* and appear to show a distribution similar to that of the counter-rotating disks of ˜100 OB stars orbiting Sgr A*. Some YSO candidates (e.g., IRS 5) have bow shock structures, suggesting that they have gaseous disks that are phototoevaporated and photoionized by the strong radiation field. Third, we detect clumps of SiO (2-1) and (5-4) line emission in the ring based on Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and Sub-Millimeter Array observations. The FWHM and luminosity of the SiO emission is consistent with shocked protostellar outflows. Fourth, two linear ionized features with an extent of ˜0.8 pc show blue and redshifted velocities between +50 and -40 km s-1, suggesting protostellar jet driven outflows with mass-loss rates of ˜ 5× {10}-5 {M}⊙ yr-1. Finally, we present the imprint of radio dark clouds at 44 GHz, representing a reservoir of molecular gas that feeds star formation activity close to Sgr A*.

  17. Constraining the Cardoso-Pani-Rico metric with future observations of SgrA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-03-01

    SgrA*, the supermassive black hole (BH) candidate at the center of our Galaxy, seems to be one of the most promising objects to test the Kerr BH hypothesis with near future observations. In a few years, it will hopefully be possible to measure a number of relativistic effects around this body, and the combination of different observations can be used to constrain possible deviations from the Kerr solution. In this paper, I discuss the combination of three promising techniques in the framework of the Cardoso-Pani-Rico parametrization: the observation of blobs of plasma orbiting near the innermost stable circular orbit, the detection of the BH shadow, and timing observations of a radio pulsar in a compact orbit. The observations of blobs of plasma and of the shadow can probe the strong gravitational field around SgrA*, while the radio pulsar would be sensitive to the weak field region at larger radii. In the case of a fast-rotating object, the combination of the three measurements could provide strong constraints on the actual nature of SgrA*. For a non-rotating or slow-rotating object, the bounds would be weak.

  18. Signatures of Young Star Formation Activity Within Two Parsecs of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Sewilo, M; Roberts, D A; Smith, I; Arendt, R; Cotton, W; Lacy, J; Martin, S; Pound, M W; Rickett, M; Royster, M

    2015-01-01

    We present radio and infrared observations indicating on-going star formation activity inside the $\\sim2-5$ pc circumnuclear ring at the Galactic center. Collectively these measurements suggest a continued disk-based mode of on-going star formation has taken place near Sgr A* over the last few million years. First, VLA observations with spatial resolution 2.17$"\\times0.81"$ reveal 13 water masers, several of which have multiple velocity components. The presence of interstellar water masers suggests gas densities that are sufficient for self-gravity to overcome the tidal shear of the 4$\\times10^6$ \\msol\\, black hole. Second, SED modeling of stellar sources indicate massive YSO candidates interior to the molecular ring, supporting in-situ star formation near Sgr A* and appear to show a distribution similar to that of the counter-rotating disks of $\\sim$100 OB stars orbiting Sgr A*. Some YSO candidates (e.g., IRS~5) have bow shock structures suggesting that they have have gaseous disks that are phototoevaporated...

  19. Simultaneous Chandra, CSO and VLA Observations of Sgr A*: The Nature of Flaring Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Heinke, C; Dowell, C D; Roberts, D; Baganoff, F K; Bower, G C

    2007-01-01

    Sgr A*, the massive black hole at the center of the Galaxy, varies in radio through X-ray emission on hourly time scales. The flare activity is thought to arise from the innermost region of an accretion flow onto Sgr A*. We present simultaneous light curves of Sgr A* in radio, sub-mm and X-rays that show a possible time delay of 110$\\pm17$ minutes between X-ray and 850 $\\mu$m suggesting that the sub-mm flare emission is optically thick. At radio wavelengths, we detect time lags of of $20.4\\pm6.8, 30\\pm12$ and 20$\\pm6$ minutes between the flare peaks observed at 13 and 7 mm in three different epochs using the VLA. Linear polarization of 1$\\pm0.2$% and 0.7$\\pm0.1$% is detected at 7 and 13 mm, respectively, when averaged over the entire observation on 2006 July 17. A simple picture of an expanding bubble of synchrotron emitting hot plasma can explain the time delay between various wavelengths, the asymmetric shape of the light curves, and the observed polarization of the flare emission at 43 and 22 GHz. The deri...

  20. V4046 Sgr: Touchstone to Investigate Spectral Type Discrepancies for Pre-main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kastner, Joel H; Sargent, Benjamin; Smith, C T; Rayner, John

    2014-01-01

    Determinations of the fundamental properties (e.g., masses and ages) of late-type, pre-main sequence (pre-MS) stars are complicated by the potential for significant discrepancies between the spectral types of such stars as ascertained via optical vs. near-infrared observations. To address this problem, we have obtained near-IR spectroscopy of the nearby, close binary T Tauri system V4046 Sgr AB with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) SPEX spectrometer. The V4046 Sgr close binary (and circumbinary disk) system provides an important test case for spectral type determination thanks to the stringent observational constraints on its component stellar masses (i.e., ~0.9 Msun each) as well as on its age (12-21 Myr) and distance (73 pc). Analysis of the IRTF data indicates that the composite near-IR spectral type for V4046 Sgr AB lies in the range M0-M1, i.e., significantly later than the K5+K7 composite type previously determined from optical spectroscopy. However, the K5+K7 composite type is in better agre...

  1. Giant Flare in SGR 1806-20 and Its Compton Reflection from the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiks, D D; Palshin, V D; Aptekar, R L; Ilyinskii, V N; Oleinik, F P; Mazets, E P; Cline, T L

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the data obtained when the Konus-Wind gamma-ray spectrometer detected a giant flare in SGR 1806-20 on December 27, 2004. The flare is similar in appearance to the two known flares in SGR 0526-66 and SGR 1900+14 while exceeding them significantly in intensity. The enormous X-ray and gamma-ray flux in the narrow initial pulse of the flare leads to almost instantaneous deep saturation of the gamma-ray detectors, ruling out the possibility of directly measuring the intensity, time profile, and energy spectrum of the initial pulse. In this situation, the detection of an attenuated signal of Compton back-scattering of the initial pulse emission by the Moon with the Helicon gamma-ray spectrometer onboard the Coronas-F satellite was an extremely favorable circumstance. Analysis of this signal has yielded the most reliable temporal, energy, and spectral characteristics of the pulse. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the pulsating flare tail have been determined from Konus-Wind data. Its soft spec...

  2. Linearly Polarized Millimeter and Submillimeter Continuum Emission of Sgr A* Constrained by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Ho, Paul T P; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Martín, Sergio; Falcke, Heino; Matsushita, Satoki; Martí-Vidal, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at $\\sim$100 (3.0 mm), $\\sim$230 (1.3 mm), $\\sim$345 (0.87 mm), $\\sim$500 (0.6 mm), and $\\sim$700 GHz (0.43 mm). We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at the above frequency bands, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from ALMA single pointing and mosaic observations. We performed sinusoidal fittings to the observed (XX-YY)/I intensity ratios, to derive the polarization position angles and polarization percentages. We successfully detect polarized continuum emission from all observed frequency bands. We observed lower Stokes I intensity at $\\sim$700 GHz than that at $\\sim$500 GHz, which suggests that emission at $\\gtrsim$500 GHz is from optically thin part of a synchrotron emission spectrum. Both the Stokes I intensity and the polarization position angle at our highest observin...

  3. All quiet on the Western front? New evidence for massive star formation in Sgr C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrew, Sarah; Ginsburg, Adam; Johnston, Katharine; Beuther, Henrik; Bally, John; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Battersby, Cara

    2014-05-01

    We summarize here our recent findings from near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified extended green object (EGO) in Sgr C, whose observational characteristics suggest early-stage massive star formation is taking place. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved Hii region associated with Sgr C in the Western central molecular zone (CMZ), the EGO measures ˜10″ (0.4 pc at 8.5 kpc). We confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C Hii region. The data show clear detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H2 and Brackett γ emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ˜103 M⊙, with column densities of 1-2 × 1024 cm-2. The host molecular clouds mass is approximately 105 M⊙. Despite these favorable conditions, the cloud is curiously devoid of any further star formation, making it comparable to other remarkably quiescent clouds, such as G0.253 in the Eastern CMZ.

  4. Non-thermal radio emission from O-type stars. V. 9 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Blomme, R

    2013-01-01

    The colliding winds in a massive binary system generate synchrotron emission due to a fraction of electrons that have been accelerated to relativistic speeds around the shocks in the colliding-wind region. We studied the radio light curve of 9 Sgr = HD 164794, a massive O-type binary with a 9.1-yr period. We investigated whether the radio emission varies consistently with orbital phase and we determined some parameters of the colliding-wind region. We reduced a large set of archive data from the Very Large Array (VLA) to determine the radio light curve of 9 Sgr at 2, 3.6, 6 and 20 cm. We also constructed a simple model that solves the radiative transfer in the colliding-wind region and both stellar winds. The 2-cm radio flux shows clear phase-locked variability with the orbit. The behaviour at other wavelengths is less clear, mainly due to a lack of observations centred on 9 Sgr around periastron passage. The high fluxes and nearly flat spectral shape of the radio emission show that synchrotron radiation domi...

  5. Ground-state ammonia and water in absorption towards Sgr B2

    CERN Document Server

    Wirström, E S; Black, J H; Hjalmarson, Å; Larsson, B; Olofsson, A O H; Encrenaz, P J; Falgarone, E; Frisk, U; Olberg, M; Sandqvist, Aa

    2010-01-01

    We have used the Odin submillimetre-wave satellite telescope to observe the ground state transitions of ortho-ammonia and ortho-water, including their 15N, 18O, and 17O isotopologues, towards Sgr B2. The extensive simultaneous velocity coverage of the observations, >500 km/s, ensures that we can probe the conditions of both the warm, dense gas of the molecular cloud Sgr B2 near the Galactic centre, and the more diffuse gas in the Galactic disk clouds along the line-of-sight. We present ground-state NH3 absorption in seven distinct velocity features along the line-of-sight towards Sgr B2. We find a nearly linear correlation between the column densities of NH3 and CS, and a square-root relation to N2H+. The ammonia abundance in these diffuse Galactic disk clouds is estimated to be about (0.5-1)e-8, similar to that observed for diffuse clouds in the outer Galaxy. On the basis of the detection of H218O absorption in the 3 kpc arm, and the absence of such a feature in the H217O spectrum, we conclude that the water...

  6. Radio Continuum Observations of the Galactic Center: Photoevaporative Proplyd-like Objects near Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Wardle, M; Cotton, W; Schödel, R; Royster, M J

    2015-01-01

    We present radio images within 30$''$ of Sgr A* based on recent VLA observations at 34 GHz with 7.8 microJy sensitivity and resolution $\\sim88\\times46$ milliarcseconds (mas). We report 44 partially resolved compact sources clustered in two regions in the E arm of ionized gas that orbits Sgr A*. These sources have size scales ranging between ~50 and 200 mas (400 to 1600 AUs), and a bow-shock appearance facing the direction of Sgr A*. Unlike the bow-shock sources previously identified in the near-IR but associated with massive stars, these 34 GHz sources do not appear to have near-IR counterparts at 3.8 $\\mu$m. We interpret these sources as a candidate population of photoevaporative protoplanetary disks (proplyds) that are associated with newly formed low mass stars with mass loss rates ~10^{-7} - 10^{-6} solar mass per year and are located at the edge of a molecular cloud outlined by ionized gas. The disks are externally illuminated by strong Lyman continuum radiation from the ~100 OB and WR massive stars dist...

  7. ALMA and VLA Observations: Evidence for Ongoing Low-mass Star Formation near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Cotton, W.; Wardle, M.; Royster, M. J.; Kunneriath, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, A.; Schödel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows from the photoionized layer surrounding cool and dense gaseous disks. To confirm this picture, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We present the derived disk masses for four sources as a function of the assumed dust temperature. The mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission ranges between 0.03 - 0.05 M⊙. These estimates are consistent with the disk masses found in star forming sites in the Galaxy. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  8. An Improved Distance and Mass Estimate for Sgr A* from a Multistar Orbit Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Boehle, A; Schödel, R; Meyer, L; Yelda, S; Albers, S; Martinez, G D; Becklin, E E; Do, T; Lu, J R; Matthews, K; Morris, M R; Sitarski, B; Witzel, G

    2016-01-01

    We present new, more precise measurements of the mass and distance of our Galaxy's central supermassive black hole, Sgr A*. These results stem from a new analysis that more than doubles the time baseline for astrometry of faint stars orbiting Sgr A*, combining two decades of speckle imaging and adaptive optics data. Specifically, we improve our analysis of the speckle images by using information about a star's orbit from the deep adaptive optics data (2005 - 2013) to inform the search for the star in the speckle years (1995 - 2005). When this new analysis technique is combined with the first complete re-reduction of Keck Galactic Center speckle images using speckle holography, we are able to track the short-period star S0-38 (K-band magnitude = 17, orbital period = 19 years) through the speckle years. We use the kinematic measurements from speckle holography and adaptive optics to estimate the orbits of S0-38 and S0-2 and thereby improve our constraints of the mass ($M_{bh}$) and distance ($R_o$) of Sgr A*: $...

  9. Near-infrared studies of V5558 Sgr: an unusually slow nova with multiple outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ramkrishna; Nandi, Arpita; Ashok, N M; Mondal, Soumen

    2014-01-01

    We present near-infrared (1-2.5 $\\mu$m) $JHK$ photo-spectroscopic results of the unusually slow nova V5558 Sgr (2007). V5558 Sgr showed a slow climb to maximum that lasted for about 60 days and then underwent at least five strong secondary outbursts. We have analyzed the optical light curve to derive large t${_2}$ and t${_3}$ values of 281 $\\pm$ 3 and 473 $\\pm$ 3 days respectively. An alternate approach is adopted to derive a distance estimate of 1.55 $\\pm$ 0.25 kpc as conventional MMRD relation may not be applicable for a slow nova. In the pre-maxima stage the spectra showed narrow (FWHM $\\sim$ 400 - 550 km s$^{-1}$) and strong emission lines of Paschen and Brackett series with prominent P-Cygni components. In the later phase the spectra show significant changes with the development of strong and broad ($\\sim$ 1000 km s$^{-1}$) emission lines of HI, HeI, OI, and NI and some uncommon Fe II emission lines. No evidence of dust formation is seen. V5558 Sgr has been shown to be a rare hybrid nova showing a transi...

  10. EARLY-STAGE MASSIVE STAR FORMATION NEAR THE GALACTIC CENTER: Sgr C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrew, S.; Johnston, K.; Beuther, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ginsburg, A.; Bally, J.; Battersby, C. [CASA, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cyganowski, C. J., E-mail: kendrew@mpia.de [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved H II region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object (EGO) measuring ∼10'' in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C H II region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H{sub 2} and Brackett γ emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ∼10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}, with column densities of 1-2 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ∼10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favorable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star formation outside of the EGO, indicating that the cloud is predominantly quiescent. Given its mass, density, and temperature, the cloud is comparable to other remarkable non-star-forming clouds such as G0.253 in the eastern CMZ.

  11. Early stage massive star formation near the Galactic Center: Sgr C

    CERN Document Server

    Kendrew, Sarah; Johnston, Katharine; Beuther, Henrik; Bally, John; Cyagnowski, Claudia J; Battersby, Cara

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and 1 mm line and continuum observations of a recently identified site of high mass star formation likely to be located in the Central Molecular Zone near Sgr C. Located on the outskirts of the massive evolved HII region associated with Sgr C, the area is characterized by an Extended Green Object measuring ~10" in size (0.4 pc), whose observational characteristics suggest the presence of an embedded massive protostar driving an outflow. Our data confirm that early-stage star formation is taking place on the periphery of the Sgr C HII region, with detections of two protostellar cores and several knots of H2 and Brackett gamma emission alongside a previously detected compact radio source. We calculate the cores' joint mass to be ~10^3 Msun, with column densities of 1-2 x 10^24 cm-2. We show the host molecular cloud to hold ~10^5 Msun of gas and dust with temperatures and column densities favourable for massive star formation to occur, however, there is no evidence of star f...

  12. Burst-generating neurones in the dorsal horn in an in vitro preparation of the turtle spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    horn, was distinguished by the ability to generate a burst response following a hyperpolarization from rest or during a depolarization from a hyperpolarized holding potential. The burst response was inactivated at the resting membrane potential. 3. The burst response was mediated by a low threshold Ca2......+ spike assumed to be mediated by T-type Ca2+ channels since it resisted tetrodotoxin and was blocked by 3 mM Co2+ or 100-300 microM Ni2+ and resembled the low threshold spike (LTS) described elsewhere. 4. Some burst-generating cells also displayed plateau potentials mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels....... In these cells the burst following a hyperpolarizing current pulse, applied from the resting membrane potential, facilitated the activation of the plateau potential. Wind-up of the plateau potential was produced when the hyperpolarizing pulse generating the burst was repeated at 0.1-0.3 Hz or faster. 5...

  13. Amplitude-Modulated Bursting: A Novel Class of Bursting Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Theodore; Kramer, Mark A.; Kaper, Tasso J.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the discovery of a novel class of bursting rhythms, called amplitude-modulated bursting (AMB), in a model for intracellular calcium dynamics. We find that these rhythms are robust and exist on open parameter sets. We develop a new mathematical framework with broad applicability to detect, classify, and rigorously analyze AMB. Here we illustrate this framework in the context of AMB in a model of intracellular calcium dynamics. In the process, we discover a novel family of singularities, called toral folded singularities, which are the organizing centers for the amplitude modulation and exist generically in slow-fast systems with two or more slow variables.

  14. On the three harmonics of solar type III bursts at the decameter wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhenko, Anatolii; Pylaev, Oleg; Melnik, Valentin; Konovalenko, Alexandr; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Rucker, Helmut; Frantsuzenko, Anatolii; Dorovskyy, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Harmonic structure of type III bursts are explained in terms of plasma emission mechanism. The second harmonic emission is well known. But there are theoretical papers about the third harmonic of type III bursts. And there were observations of the third harmonic of such types of bursts as U, J, V, II. We observed triple type III bursts where frequency ratio is close to 1:2:3. They are structures where type III emission is repeated at the double and triple frequencies. Incidentally, components of triple type III bursts are not only standard type III but also type IIIb bursts. We registered 30 triple bursts during 2011 and 2012 years. Observations were made by radio telescope URAN-2, Poltava, Ukraine. It enables polarization measurements at the frequencies 8 - 32 MHz. URAN-2 allows registration of radio emission with time and frequency resolution 10 ms and 4 kHz correspondingly. We analyze properties of the components of triple bursts and their dependencies on frequency, type of burst and on the position of the component within the triplet. The main properties of the components of triple bursts such as duration and drift rate are similar to those of standard type III and IIIb bursts. We find usual for type III bursts dependencies such as follow: duration decreases with frequency, the type IIIb bursts have always smaller duration at the same frequencies, all bursts drift from high to low frequencies. But we also find the linear dependence of drift rate on frequency. All components of a trio have the same sign of polarization. Polarization of the first component is always the highest in triple bursts. It corresponds to the generally accepted viewpoint about the first harmonic emission. The second and the third components of trio have low polarization. It is typical for the second and the third harmonics according to the plasma radiation mechanism. We discuss possible emission mechanisms and theoretical aspects of observed dependencies. The most of detected regularities

  15. Bursts in intermittent aeolian saltation

    CERN Document Server

    Carneiro, M V; Herrmann, H J

    2014-01-01

    Close to the onset of Aeolian particle transport through saltation we find in wind tunnel experiments a regime of intermittent flux characterized by bursts of activity. Scaling laws are observed in the time delay between each burst and in the measurements of the wind fluctuations at the critical Shields number $\\theta_c$. The time delay between each burst decreases on average with the increase of the Shields number until saltation becomes non-intermittent and the sand flux becomes continuous. A numerical model for saltation including the wind-entrainment from the turbulent fluctuations can reproduce these observations and gives insight about their origin. We present here also for the first time measurements showing that with feeding it becomes possible to sustain intermittent flux even below the threshold $\\theta_c$ for natural saltation initiation.

  16. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst

    CERN Document Server

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K

    2015-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1. These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast radio burst showed circular polarization [21(7)%] of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in a newly detected burst - FRB 110523. It has radio flux at least 0.6 Jy and dispersion measure 623.30(5) pc cm$^{-3}$. Using Galactic contribution 45 pc cm$^{-3}$ and a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the s...

  17. Fast radio bursts as pulsar lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. I.

    2017-07-01

    There are striking phenomenological similarities between fast radio bursts (FRBs) and lightning in the Earth's and planetary atmospheres. Both have very low duty factors, ≲10-8-10-5 for FRBs and (very roughly) ˜10-4 for the main return strokes in an active thundercloud. Lightning occurs in an electrified insulating atmosphere when a conducting path is created by and permits current flow. FRBs may occur in neutron star magnetospheres whose plasma is believed to be divided by vacuum gaps. Vacuum is a perfect insulator unless electric fields are sufficient for electron-positron pair production by curvature radiation, a high-energy analogue of electrostatic breakdown in an insulating gas. FRB may be 'electrars' powered by the release of stored electrostatic energy, counterparts to soft gamma repeaters powered by the release of stored magnetostatic energy (magnetars). This frees pulsar FRB models from the constraint that their power not exceeds the instantaneous spin-down power. Energetic constraints imply that the sources of more energetic FRBs have shorter spin-down lifetimes, perhaps even less than the 3 yr over which FRB 121102 has been observed to repeat.

  18. High Redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 gamma-ray bursts per year for 7 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. GRBs are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=9.4 giving information on metallicity, star formation rate and reionization. The talk will present the latest results.

  19. Perils at the heart of the Milky Way: Systematic effects for studying low-luminosity accretion onto Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Lia; Mon, Brayden; Haggard, Daryl; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Garmire, Gordon; Degenaar, Nathalie; Reynolds, Mark

    2017-08-01

    The supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy, Sgr A*, is surprisingly under-luminous. This problem has motivated a host of theoretical models to explain low-level radiatively inefficient accretion flows onto compact objects. We discuss how the Galactic Center sight line, which is optically thick to the scattering of soft X-rays (tau ~ 5), affects high resolution studies of the accretion flow around Sgr A*. X-ray light from compact objects in the dense GC environment is scattered by foreground dust, producing scattering echoes that are time delayed relative to the X-ray source's light curve. We discuss the scattering halo of SWIFT J174540.7-290015, which underwent the brightest X-ray outburst within 30’' of Sgr A*. Preliminary fits to the scattering halo suggest that a small amount of foreground dust, within 250 pc of the GC, affects the X-ray surface brightness profile within 10’' of any GC point source. The associated time delay is on the order of several hours, which is important for understanding the quiescent accretion flow of Sgr A*. We take advantage of the Chandra Galactic Center XVP dataset to explore the effect of the interstellar medium on the inferred characteristics of Sgr A*.

  20. Spitzer/IRAC Observations of the Variability of Sgr A* and the Object G2 at 4.5 microns

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, J L; Ashby, M L N; Becklin, E E; Carey, S; Fazio, G G; Ghez, A; Ingalls, J; Meyer, L; Morris, M R; Smith, H A; Willner, S P

    2014-01-01

    We present the first detection from the Spitzer Space Telescope of 4.5 micron variability from Sgr A*, the emitting source associated with the Milky Way's central black hole. The >23 hour continuous light curve was obtained with the IRAC instrument in 2013 December. The result characterizes the variability of Sgr A* prior to the closest approach of the G2 object, a putative infalling gas cloud that orbits close to Sgr A*. The high stellar density at the location of Sgr A* produces a background of ~250 mJy at 4.5 microns in each pixel with a large pixel-to-pixel gradient, but the light curve for the highly variable Sgr A* source was successfully measured by modeling and removing the variations due to pointing wobble. The observed flux densities range from the noise level of ~0.7 mJy rms in a 6.4-s measurement to ~10 mJy. Emission was seen above the noise level ~34% of the time. The light curve characteristics, including the flux density distribution and structure function, are consistent with those previously ...

  1. Sgr A* and its Environment: Low Mass Star Formation, the Origin of X-ray Gas and Collimated Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Schödel, R; Roberts, D A; Cotton, W; Bushouse, H; Arendt, R; Royster, M

    2016-01-01

    We present high-resolution multiwavelength radio continuum images of the region within 150$"$ of Sgr A*, revealing a number of new extended features and stellar sources in this region. First, we detect a continuous 2" east-west ridge of radio emission, linking Sgr A* and a cluster of stars associated with IRS 13N and IRS 13E. The ridge suggests that an outflow of east-west blob-like structures is emerging from Sgr A*. We also find arc-like features within the ridge with morphologies suggestive of photoevaporative protoplanetary disks. We use near-IR fluxes to show that the emission has similar characteristics to those of a protoplanetary disk irradiated by the intense radiation field at the Galactic center. This suggests that star formation has taken place within the S cluster 2$"$ from Sgr A*. We suggest that the diffuse X-ray emission associated with Sgr A* is due to an expanding hot wind produced by the mass loss from B-type main sequence stars, and/or the disks of photoevaporation of low mass YSOs at a ra...

  2. FERMIGBRST - Fermi GBM Burst Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This table lists all of the triggers observed by a subset of the 14 GBM detectors (12 NaI and 2 BGO) which have been classified as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Note that...

  3. Microscopic characteristics of burst coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, C. [Shandong University of Science and Technology (China)

    2000-08-01

    Based on the analytical results of coal samples with microscope and scanning electron microscope, the paper explains the petrographic characteristics and microscopic depredation of burst coal. Quantitative analysis on the components and microstructures of the burst coal is conducted. The influence of the microscopic characteristics on coal burst is discussed. For coal seams with burst tendency, it has provided the necessary forecasting parameters. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Millisecond extragalactic radio bursts as magnetar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, S B

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the population of millisecond extragalactic radio bursts discovered by Thornton et al. (2013) are in good correspondence with the hypothesis that such events are related to hyperflares of magnetars, as was proposed by us after the first observation of an extragalactic millisecond radio burst by Lorimer et al. (2007). We also point that some of multiple millisecond radio bursts from M31 discovered by Rubio-Herrera et al. (2013) also can be related to weaker magnetar bursts.

  5. Towards self-consistent modelling of the Sgr A* accretion flow: linking theory and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shawn R.; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Wang, Q. Daniel; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2017-04-01

    The interplay between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their environments is believed to command an essential role in galaxy evolution. The majority of these SMBHs are in the radiative inefficient accretion phase where this interplay remains elusive, but suggestively important, due to few observational constraints. To remedy this, we directly fit 2D hydrodynamic simulations to Chandra observations of Sgr A* with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling, self-consistently modelling the 2D inflow-outflow solution for the first time. We find the temperature and density at flow onset are consistent with the origin of the gas in the stellar winds of massive stars in the vicinity of Sgr A*. We place the first observational constraints on the angular momentum of the gas and estimate the centrifugal radius, rc ≈ 0.056 rb ≈ 8 × 10-3 pc, where rb is the Bondi radius. Less than 1 per cent of the inflowing gas accretes on to the SMBH, the remainder being ejected in a polar outflow. We decouple the quiescent point-like emission from the spatially extended flow. We find this point-like emission, accounting for ˜4 per cent of the quiescent flux, is spectrally too steep to be explained by unresolved flares, nor bremsstrahlung, but is likely a combination of a relatively steep synchrotron power law and the high-energy tail of inverse-Compton emission. With this self-consistent model of the accretion flow structure, we make predictions for the flow dynamics and discuss how future X-ray spectroscopic observations can further our understanding of the Sgr A* accretion flow.

  6. Testing a class of non-Kerr metrics with hot spots orbiting SgrA*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dan; Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: danliu12@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: zilongli@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China)

    2015-01-01

    SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Center, exhibits flares in the X-ray, NIR, and sub-mm bands that may be interpreted within a hot spot model. Light curves and images of hot spots orbiting a black hole are affected by a number of special and general relativistic effects, and they can be potentially used to check whether the object is a Kerr black hole of general relativity. However, in a previous study we have shown that the relativistic features are usually subdominant with respect to the background noise and the model-dependent properties of the hot spot, and eventually it is at most possible to estimate the frequency of the innermost stable circular orbit. In this case, tests of the Kerr metric are only possible in combination with other measurements. In the present work, we consider a class of non-Kerr spacetimes in which the hot spot orbit may be outside the equatorial plane. These metrics are difficult to constrain from the study of accretion disks and indeed current X-ray observations of stellar-mass and supermassive black hole candidates cannot put interesting bounds. Here we show that near future observations of SgrA* may do it. If the hot spot is sufficiently close to the massive object, the image affected by Doppler blueshift is brighter than the other one and this provides a specific observational signature in the hot spot's centroid track. We conclude that accurate astrometric observations of SgrA* with an instrument like GRAVITY should be able to test this class of metrics, except in the more unlikely case of a small viewing angle.

  7. The discovery, monitoring and environment of SGR J1935+2154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, G. L.; Esposito, P.; Rea, N.; Coti Zelati, F.; Tiengo, A.; Campana, S.; Mereghetti, S.; Rodriguez Castillo, G. A.; Götz, D.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Zane, S.; Turolla, R.; Perna, R.; Cannizzaro, G.; Pons, J.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the discovery of a new member of the magnetar class, SGR J1935+2154, and on its timing and spectral properties measured by an extensive observational campaign carried out between 2014 July and 2015 March with Chandra and XMM-Newton (11 pointings). We discovered the spin period of SGR J1935+2154 through the detection of coherent pulsations at a period of about 3.24 s. The magnetar is slowing down at a rate of dot{P} = 1.43(1)× 10^{-11} s s-1 and with a decreasing trend due to a negative ddot{P} of -3.5(7) × 10-19 s s-2. This implies a surface dipolar magnetic field strength of ˜2.2 × 1014 G, a characteristic age of about 3.6 kyr and a spin-down luminosity Lsd ˜1.7 × 1034 erg s-1. The source spectrum is well modelled by a blackbody with temperature of about 500 eV plus a power-law component with photon index of about 2. The source showed a moderate long-term variability, with a flux decay of about 25 per cent during the first four months since its discovery, and a re-brightening of the same amount during the second four months. The X-ray data were also used to study the source environment. In particular, we discovered a diffuse emission extending on spatial scales from about 1 arcsec up to at least 1 arcmin around SGR J1935+2154 both in Chandra and XMM-Newton data. This component is constant in flux (at least within uncertainties) and its spectrum is well modelled by a power-law spectrum steeper than that of the pulsar. Though a scattering halo origin seems to be more probable we cannot exclude that part, or all, of the diffuse emission is due to a pulsar wind nebula.

  8. Modelling accretion disc and stellar wind interactions: the case of Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2016-07-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disc, the ram and thermal pressures of the disc terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geometry of the termination shock formed in the wind. With the employment of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, this model is both verified and extended to a region prone to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Because the characteristic wind and stellar velocities are in ˜108 cm s-1 range, the shocked wind may produce detectable X-rays via thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The application of this model to the pericentre passage of S2, the brightest member of the S-cluster, shows that the shocked wind produces roughly a month long X-ray flare with a peak luminosity of L ≈ 4 × 1033 erg s-1 for a stellar mass-loss rate, disc number density, and thermal pressure strength of dot{M}_w= 10^{-7} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, nd = 105 cm-3, and α = 0.1, respectively. This peak luminosity is comparable to the quiescent X-ray emission detected from Sgr A* and is within the detection capabilities of current X-ray observatories. Its detection could constrain the density and thickness of the disc at a distance of ˜3000 gravitational radii from the supermassive black hole.

  9. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  10. Formation and characterization of the vortices generated by a DBD plasma actuator in burst mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bal Krishan; Panigrahi, P. K.

    2017-02-01

    The present study reports the formation and evolution characteristics of the continuously generated vortical structure and resulting flow field in quiescent air induced by a dielectric-barrier-discharge (DBD) plasma actuator in burst mode operation. A starting vortex is formed during the initial actuation period, which disappears after a small time interval for continuous mode operation of the DBD plasma actuator. A burst input signal to the actuator generates a train of self-similar vortices. The behaviour of vortices and the average flow field induced by the actuator has been studied using high speed schlieren visualization and particle image velocimetry technique for different actuation amplitude and duty cycle parameters. These repeating vortices travel faster than the starting vortex, and the vortex core velocity of these repeating vortices increases with increase in duty cycle parameter. Fuller u-velocity profile, higher v-velocity near the edge of the outer shear layer region, and higher growth of the wall jet thickness is observed due to enhanced entrainment by repeating vortices for burst mode operation. The repeating vortices travel at an angle of 21° relative to the wall surface for duty cycle parameter of 90.9% in comparison to 31° for the starting vortex. Self-similarity of the velocity profile is delayed in the streamwise direction for burst mode operation in comparison to that for the continuous mode of operation. This can be attributed to delay in attaining the maximum velocity of the wall jet profile and presence of coherent structures for the burst mode operation. The non-dimensional vortex core location and size for repeating vortices follow power law fit similar to the starting vortex with difference in value of the power law exponent. The phase difference between the input voltage and current drawn is in the range of π/12 to π/9 (in radians) for both continuous and burst mode operation indicating identical electrical behaviour of the

  11. Infrared point sources aligned with the SgrA(asterisk) non-thermal radio source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, W. A.; Forrest, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Assembled 0.7-5.0 micron observational data for two point sources approximately aligned with the compact nonthermal radio source SgrA(asterisk) in the Galactic center, thus far interpreted as being from the same object on the basis of their position and spectral continuity, are presently given alternative interpretations. While the object must be a hot star surrounded by a circumstellar dust cloud if it is a foreground star, a Galactic center position calls for an unorthodox extinction curve which suggests that the IR emission may be the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of a hot star or star cluster, or perhaps a thermal accretion disk.

  12. Simultaneous NIR/sub-mm observation of flare emission from SgrA*

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, A; García-Marín, M; Witzel, G; Weiss, A; Baganoff, F K; Morris, M R; Bertram, T; Dovciak, M; Duschl, W J; Karas, V; König, S; Krichbaum, T P; Krips, M; Kunneriath, D; Lu, R S; Markoff, S; Mauerhan, J; Meyer, L; Moultaka, J; Muzic, K; Najarro, F; Pott, J U; Schuster, K F; Sjouwerman, L O; Straubmeier, C; Thum, C; Vogel, S N; Wiesemeyer, H; Zamaninasab, M; Zensus, J A

    2008-01-01

    We report on a successful, simultaneous observation and modeling of the sub-millimeter to near-infrared flare emission of the Sgr A* counterpart associated with the super-massive black hole at the Galactic center. Our modeling is based on simultaneous observations that have been carried out on 03 June, 2008 using the NACO adaptive optics (AO) instrument at the ESO VLT and the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Inspection and modeling of the light curves show that the sub-mm follows the NIR emission with a delay of 1.5+/-0.5 hours. We explain the flare emission delay by an adiabatic expansion of the source components.

  13. Release from informational masking in children: Effect of multiple signal bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, Lori J.; Bonino, Angela Yarnell

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which increasing the number of signal presentations provides children with a release from informational masking. Listeners were younger children (5–7 years), older children (8–10 years), and adults. Detection thresholds were measured for a sequence of repeating 50-ms bursts of a 1000-Hz pure-tone signal embedded in a sequence of 10- and 50-ms bursts of a random-frequency, two-tone masker. Masker bursts were played at an overall level of 60-dB sound pressure level in each interval of a two-interval, forced choice adaptive procedure. Performance was examined for conditions with two, four, five, and six signal bursts. Regardless of the number of signal bursts, thresholds for most children were higher than thresholds for most adults. Despite developmental effects in informational masking, however, masked threshold decreased with additional signal bursts by a similar amount for younger children, older children, and adults. The magnitude of masking release for both groups of children and for adults was inconsistent with absolute energy detection. Instead, increasing the number of signal bursts appears to aid children in the perceptual segregation of the fixed-frequency signal from the random-frequency masker as has been previously reported for adults [Kidd, G., et al. (2003). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2835–2845]. PMID:19354396

  14. Dependence of X-Ray Burst Models on Nuclear Reaction Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyburt, R. H.; Amthor, A. M.; Heger, A.; Johnson, E.; Keek, L.; Meisel, Z.; Schatz, H.; Smith, K.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear flashes on the surface of accreting neutron stars, and reliable burst models are needed to interpret observations in terms of properties of the neutron star and the binary system. We investigate the dependence of X-ray burst models on uncertainties in (p, γ), (α, γ), and (α, p) nuclear reaction rates using fully self-consistent burst models that account for the feedbacks between changes in nuclear energy generation and changes in astrophysical conditions. A two-step approach first identified sensitive nuclear reaction rates in a single-zone model with ignition conditions chosen to match calculations with a state-of-the-art 1D multi-zone model based on the Kepler stellar evolution code. All relevant reaction rates on neutron-deficient isotopes up to mass 106 were individually varied by a factor of 100 up and down. Calculations of the 84 changes in reaction rate with the highest impact were then repeated in the 1D multi-zone model. We find a number of uncertain reaction rates that affect predictions of light curves and burst ashes significantly. The results provide insights into the nuclear processes that shape observables from X-ray bursts, and guidance for future nuclear physics work to reduce nuclear uncertainties in X-ray burst models.

  15. The 3 Ms Chandra Campaign on Sgr A*: A Census of X-ray Flaring Activity from the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Neilsen, J; Gammie, C; Dexter, J; Markoff, S; Haggard, D; Nayakshin, S; Wang, Q D; Grosso, N; Porquet, D; Tomsick, J A; Degenaar, N; Fragile, P C; Houck, J C; Wijnands, R; Miller, J M; Baganoff, F K

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, X-ray observations of Sgr A* have revealed a black hole in a deep sleep, punctuated roughly once per day by brief flares. The extreme X-ray faintness of this supermassive black hole has been a long-standing puzzle in black hole accretion. To study the accretion processes in the Galactic Center, Chandra (in concert with numerous ground- and space-based observatories) undertook a 3 Ms campaign on Sgr A* in 2012. With its excellent observing cadence, sensitivity, and spectral resolution, this Chandra X-ray Visionary Project (XVP) provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the behavior of the closest supermassive black hole. We present a progress report from our ongoing study of X-ray flares, including the brightest flare ever seen from Sgr A*. Focusing on the statistics of the flares and the quiescent emission, we discuss the physical implications of X-ray variability in the Galactic Center.

  16. Spindle Bursts in Neonatal Rat Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenq-Wei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous and sensory evoked spindle bursts represent a functional hallmark of the developing cerebral cortex in vitro and in vivo. They have been observed in various neocortical areas of numerous species, including newborn rodents and preterm human infants. Spindle bursts are generated in complex neocortical-subcortical circuits involving in many cases the participation of motor brain regions. Together with early gamma oscillations, spindle bursts synchronize the activity of a local neuronal network organized in a cortical column. Disturbances in spindle burst activity during corticogenesis may contribute to disorders in cortical architecture and in the activity-dependent control of programmed cell death. In this review we discuss (i the functional properties of spindle bursts, (ii the mechanisms underlying their generation, (iii the synchronous patterns and cortical networks associated with spindle bursts, and (iv the physiological and pathophysiological role of spindle bursts during early cortical development.

  17. Spindle Bursts in Neonatal Rat Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous and sensory evoked spindle bursts represent a functional hallmark of the developing cerebral cortex in vitro and in vivo. They have been observed in various neocortical areas of numerous species, including newborn rodents and preterm human infants. Spindle bursts are generated in complex neocortical-subcortical circuits involving in many cases the participation of motor brain regions. Together with early gamma oscillations, spindle bursts synchronize the activity of a local neuronal network organized in a cortical column. Disturbances in spindle burst activity during corticogenesis may contribute to disorders in cortical architecture and in the activity-dependent control of programmed cell death. In this review we discuss (i) the functional properties of spindle bursts, (ii) the mechanisms underlying their generation, (iii) the synchronous patterns and cortical networks associated with spindle bursts, and (iv) the physiological and pathophysiological role of spindle bursts during early cortical development.

  18. G359.87+0.18 An FR II Radio Galaxy 15 Arcminutes from Sgr $A^{*}$

    CERN Document Server

    Lazio, T J W; Goss, W M; Kassim, N E; Cordes, J M; Kassim, Namir E.; Cordes, James M.

    1999-01-01

    G359.87+0.18 is an enigmatic object located 15' from Sgr A*. It has been variously classified as an extragalactic source, Galactic jet source, and young supernova remnant. We present new observations of G359.87+0.18 between 0.33 and 15 GHz and use these to argue that this source is an Faranoff-Riley II radio galaxy. We are able to place a crude limit on its redshift of z > 0.1. The source has a spectral index \\alpha ~ 2. The scattering diameters of Sgr A* and several nearby OH masers (~ 1" at 1 GHz) indicate that a region of enhanced scattering is along the line of sight to the Galactic center. If the region covers the Galactic center uniformly, the implied diameter for a background source is at least 600" at 0.33 GHz, in contrast with the observed 20" diameter of G359.87+0.18. Using the scattering diameter of a nearby OH maser OH 359.762+0.120 and the widths of two, nearby, non-thermal threads, G0.08+0.15 and G359.79+0.17, we show that a uniform scattering region should cover G359.87+0.18. We therefore concl...

  19. Shock-powered radio emission from V5589 Sagittarii (Nova Sgr 2012 #1)

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, Jennifer H S; Chomiuk, Laura; Linford, Justin D; Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Finzell, Tom; Mioduszewski, Amy; Rupen, Michael P; Walter, Frederick M

    2015-01-01

    Since the Fermi discovery of $\\gamma$-rays from novae, one of the biggest questions in the field has been how novae generate such high-energy emission. Shocks must be a fundamental ingredient. Six months of radio observations of the 2012 nova V5589 Sgr with the VLA and 15 weeks of X-ray observations with Swift/XRT show that the radio emission consisted of: 1) a shock-powered, non-thermal flare; and 2) weak thermal emission from $10^{-5}$ M$_\\odot$ of freely expanding, photoionized ejecta. Absorption features in the optical spectrum and the peak optical brightness suggest that V5589 Sgr lies at 4 kpc (3.2-4.6 kpc). The shock-powered flare was the dominant component in the radio light curve at low frequencies before day 100. The spectral evolution of the flare, its high radio brightness temperature, the presence of unusually hard ($kT_x > 33$ keV) X-rays, and the ratio of radio to X-ray flux near the peak of the flare all support the conclusions that the flare is shock-powered and non-thermal. Unlike other nova...

  20. The Role of Magnetic Field Dissipation in the Black Hole Candidate Sgr $A^{*}$

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, R F; Coker, Robert F.; Melia, Fulvio

    1999-01-01

    The compact, nonthermal radio source Sgr A* at the Galactic Center appears to be coincident with a 2.6 million solar mass point-like object. Its energy source may be the release of gravitational energy as gas from the interstellar medium descends into its potential well. Simple attempts at calculating the spectrum and flux based on this picture have come close to the observations, yet have had difficulty in accounting for the low efficiency in this source. There now appear to be two reasons for this low conversion rate: (1) the plasma separates into two temperatures, with the protons attaining a significantly higher temperature than that of the radiating electrons, and (2) the magnetic field, B, is sub-equipartition, which reduces the magnetic bremsstrahlung emissivity, and therefore the overall power of Sgr A*. We investigate the latter with improvement over what has been attempted before: rather than calculating B based on a presumed model, we instead infer its distribution with radius empirically with the ...

  1. Spectrum of Optically Thin Advection Dominated Accretion Flow around a Black Hole Application to Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Manmoto, T; Kusunose, M

    1997-01-01

    The global structure of optically thin advection dominated accretion flows which are composed of two-temperature plasma around black holes is calculated. We adopt the full set of basic equations including the advective energy transport in the energy equation for the electrons. The spectra emitted by the optically thin accretion flows are also investigated. The radiation mechanisms which are taken into accout are bremsstrahlung, synchrotron emission, and Comptonization. The calculation of the spectra and that of the structure of the accretion flows are made to be completely consistent by calculating the radiative cooling rate at each radius. As a result of the advection domination for the ions, the heat transport from the ions to the electrons becomes practically zero and the radiative cooling balances with the advective heating in the energy equation of the electrons. Following up on the successful work of Narayan et al. (1995), we applied our model to the spectrum of Sgr A*. We find that the spectrum of Sgr ...

  2. Star Formation in the vicinity of Nuclear Black Holes: Young Stellar Objects close to Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, B; Eckart, A; Zwart, S Portegies; Sabha, N; Borkar, A; Moultaka, J; Mužić, K; Moser, L

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the strong gravitational field of a super-massive black hole disrupts an adjacent molecular cloud preventing classical star formation in the deep potential well of the black hole. Yet, young stars have been observed across the entire nuclear star cluster of the Milky Way including the region close ($<$0.5~pc) to the central black hole, Sgr A*. Here, we focus particularly on small groups of young stars, such as IRS 13N located 0.1 pc away from Sgr A*, which is suggested to contain about five embedded massive young stellar objects ($<$1 Myr). We perform three dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of molecular clumps orbiting about a $4\\times10^6~M_{\\odot}$ black hole, to constrain the formation and the physical conditions of such groups. The molecular clumps in our models assumed to be isothermal containing 100 $M_{\\odot}$ in $<$0.2 pc radius. Such molecular clumps exist in the circumnuclear disk of the Galaxy. In our highly eccentrically orbiting clump...

  3. Herschel observations of the Sgr B2 cores: Hydrides, warm CO, and cold dust

    CERN Document Server

    Etxaluze, M; Cernicharo, J; Polehampton, E T; Noriega-Crespo, A; Molinari, S; Swinyard, B M; Wu, R; Bally, J

    2013-01-01

    Sagittarius B2 (Sgr B2) is one of the most massive and luminous star-forming regions in the Galaxy and shows chemical and physical conditions similar to those in distant extragalactic starbursts. We present large-scale far-IR/submm photometric images and spectroscopic maps taken with the PACS and SPIRE instruments onboard Herschel. The spectra towards the Sgr B2 star-forming cores, B2(M) and B2(N), are characterized by strong CO line emission, emission lines from high-density tracers (HCN, HCO+, and H2S), [N II] 205 um emission from ionized gas, and absorption lines from hydride molecules (OH+, H2O+, H2O, CH+, CH, SH+, HF, NH, NH2, and NH3). The rotational population diagrams of CO suggest the presence of two gas temperature components: an extended warm component, which is associated with the extended envelope, and a hotter component, which is seen towards the B2(M) and B2(N) cores. As observed in other Galactic Center clouds, the gas temperatures are significantly higher than the dust temperatures inferred f...

  4. K-shell Emission of Neutral Iron Line from Sgr B2 Excited by Subrelativistic Protons

    CERN Document Server

    Dogiel, Vladimir; Koyama, Katsuji; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Cheng, Kwong-Sang

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the emission of K$\\alpha$ iron line from the massive molecular clouds in the Galactic center (GC). We assume that at present the total flux of this emission consists of time variable component generated by primary X-ray photons ejected by Sagittarius A$^\\ast$ (Sgr A$^\\ast$) in the past and a relatively weak quasi-stationary component excited by impact of protons which were generated by star accretion onto the central black hole. The level of background emission was estimated from a rise of the 6.4 keV line intensity in the direction of several molecular clouds, that we interpreted as a stage when the X-ray front ejected by Sgr A$^\\ast$ entered into these clouds. The 6.4 keV emission before this intensity jump we interpreted as emission generated by subrelativistic cosmic rays there. The cross-section of K$\\alpha$ vacancies produced by protons differs from that of electrons or X-rays. Therefore, we expect that this processes can be distinguished from the analysis of the equivalent width of the ...

  5. Towards Self-Consistent Modelling of the Sgr A* Accretion Flow: Linking Theory and Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Shawn R; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2016-01-01

    The interplay between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their environments is believed to command an essential role in galaxy evolution. The majority of these SMBHs are in the radiative inefficient accretion phase where this interplay remains elusive, but suggestively important, due to few observational constraints. To remedy this, we directly fit 2-D hydrodynamic simulations to Chandra observations of Sgr A* with Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling, self-consistently modelling the 2-D inflow-outflow solution for the first time. We find the temperature and density at flow onset are consistent with the origin of the gas in the stellar winds of massive stars in the vicinity of Sgr A*. We place the first observational constraints on the angular momentum of the gas and estimate the centrifugal radius, r$_c$ $\\approx$ 0.056 r$_b$ $\\approx8\\times10^{-3}$ pc, where r$_b$ is the Bondi radius. Less than 1\\% of the inflowing gas accretes onto the SMBH, the remainder being ejected in a polar outflow. For the first time...

  6. Modelling of the Surface Emission of the Low-Magnetic Field Magnetar SGR 0418+5729

    CERN Document Server

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rea, Nanda; Vigano, Daniele; Pons, Jose

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed modelling of the post-outburst surface emission of the low magnetic field magnetar SGR 0418+5729. The dipolar magnetic field of this source, B=6x10^12 G estimated from its spin-down rate, is in the observed range of magnetic fields for normal pulsars. The source is further characterized by a high pulse fraction and a single-peak profile. Using synthetic temperature distribution profiles, and fully accounting for the general-relativistic effects of light deflection and gravitational redshift, we generate synthetic X-ray spectra and pulse profiles that we fit to the observations. We find that asymmetric and symmetric surface temperature distributions can reproduce equally well the observed pulse profiles and spectra of SGR 0418. Nonetheless, the modelling allows us to place constraints on the system geometry (i.e. the angles $\\psi$ and $\\xi$ that the rotation axis makes with the line of sight and the dipolar axis, respectively), as well as on the spot size and temperature contrast on the n...

  7. G2 and Sgr A*: A Cosmic Fizzle At The Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Morsony, Brian; Workman, Jared; Yoon, DooSoo

    2015-01-01

    We carry out a series of simulations of G2-type clouds interacting with the black hole Sgr A* at the galactic center. We determine that the accretion rate from the gas cloud onto Sgr A* for a range of simulation parameters, such as cloud structure, background structure, background density, grid resolution, and accretion radius. Regardless of the numerical considerations, the amount of cloud material accreted is small, both compared to the total cloud mass and the normal background accretion rate. The accretion rate will remain small for at least 30 years after periapsis. We also model Br-gamma, bolometric, and X-ray emission from the cloud with a variety of density profiles, and compare to observational data. In simulations, the bolometric and X-ray luminosity have a peak in luminosity lasting from about 1 year before to 1 year after periapsis, a feature not detected in observations. Simulated Br-gamma emission remains nearly flat with a small peak 1 month to 1 year before periapsis, depending on how centrall...

  8. Modelling Accretion Disk and Stellar Wind Interactions: the Case of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Christie, I M; Mimica, P; Giannios, D

    2016-01-01

    Sgr A* is an ideal target to study low-luminosity accreting systems. It has been recently proposed that properties of the accretion flow around Sgr A* can be probed through its interactions with the stellar wind of nearby massive stars belonging to the S-cluster. When a star intercepts the accretion disk, the ram and thermal pressures of the disk terminate the stellar wind leading to the formation of a bow shock structure. Here, a semi-analytical model is constructed which describes the geometry of the termination shock formed in the wind. With the employment of numerical hydrodynamic simulations, this model is both verified and extended to a region prone to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Because the characteristic wind and stellar velocities are in $\\sim10^{8}$ cm s$^{-1}$ range, the shocked wind may produce detectable X-rays via thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The application of this model to the pericenter passage of S2, the brightest member of the S-cluster, shows that the shocked wind produces roughly ...

  9. The discovery, monitoring and environment of SGR J1935+2154

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, G L; Rea, N; Zelati, F Coti; Tiengo, A; Campana, S; Castillo, S Mereghetti G A Rodriguez; Gotz, D; Burgay, M; Possenti, A; Zane, S; Turolla, R

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a new member of the magnetar class, SGR J1935+2154, and on its timing and spectral properties measured by an extensive observational campaign carried out between July 2014 and March 2015 with Chandra and XMM-Newton (11 pointings). We discovered the spin period of SGR J1935+2154 through the detection of coherent pulsations at a period of about 3.24s. The magnetar is slowing-down at a rate of 1.43(1)x10^{-11} s/s and with a decreasing trend due to a negative second period derivative of -3.5(7)x10^{-19} s/s^2. This implies a surface dipolar magnetic field strength of about 2.2x10^{14} G, a characteristic age of about 3.6kyr and, a spin-down luminosity L_{sd} of about 1.7x10^{34} erg/s. The source spectrum is well modelled by a blackbody with temperature of about 500eV plus a power-law component with photon index of about 2. The source showed a moderate long-term variability, with a flux decay of about 25\\% during the first four months since its discovery, and a re-brightening of the...

  10. GRMHD simulations of visibility amplitude variability for Event Horizon Telescope images of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Medeiros, Lia; Ozel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Kim, Junhan; Marrone, Daniel P; Sadowski, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis imaging of the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*, with the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) rests on the assumption of a stationary image. We explore the limitations of this assumption using high-cadence GRMHD simulations of Sgr A*. We employ analytic models that capture the basic characteristics of the images to understand the origin of the variability in the simulated visibility amplitudes. We find that, in all simulations, the visibility amplitudes for baselines oriented perpendicular to the spin axis of the black hole typically decrease smoothly over baseline lengths that are comparable to those of the EHT. On the other hand, the visibility amplitudes for baselines oriented parallel to the spin axis show significant structure with one or more minima. This suggests that fitting EHT observations with geometric models will lead to reasonably accurate determination of the orientation of the black-hole on the plane of the sky. However, in the disk-dominated models, the locations and dept...

  11. Polarization and long-term variability of Sgr A* X-ray echo

    CERN Document Server

    Churazov, E; Ponti, G; Sunyaev, R

    2016-01-01

    We use a model of the molecular gas distribution within ~100 pc from the center of the Milky Way (Kruijssen, Dale & Longmore) to simulate time evolution and polarization properties of the reflected X-ray emission, associated with the past outbursts from Sgr A*. While this model is too simple to describe the complexity of the true gas distribution, it illustrates the importance and power of long-term observations of the reflected emission. We show that the variable part of X-ray emission observed by Chandra and XMM from prominent molecular clouds is well described by a pure reflection model, providing strong support of the reflection scenario. While the identification of Sgr A* as a primary source for this reflected emission is already a very appealing hypothesis, a decisive test of this model can be provided by future X-ray polarimetric observations, that will allow placing constraints on the location of the primary source. In addition, X-ray polarimeters (like, e.g., XIPE) have sufficient sensitivity to ...

  12. Cyclical period changes in the dwarf novae V2051 Oph and V4140 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, R; Bond, H E; Jablonski, F J; Steiner, J E; Grauer, A D

    2003-01-01

    We report the identification of cyclical changes in the orbital period of the eclipsing dwarf novae V2051 Ophiuchi and V4140 Sagitarii. We used sets of white dwarf mid-eclipse timings to construct observed-minus-calculated diagrams covering, respectively, 25 and 16 years of observations. The V2051 Oph data present cyclical variations that can be fitted by a linear plus sinusoidal function with period 22 +/- 2 yr and amplitude 17 +/- 3 s. The statistical significance of this period by an F-test is larger than 99.9 per cent. The V4140 Sgr data present cyclical variations of similar amplitude and period 6.9 +/- 0.3 yr which are statistically significant at the 99.7 per cent level. We derive upper limits for secular period changes of |dP/dt| < 3x10^{-12} and |dP/dt| < 1.8x10^{-11}, respectively for V2051 Oph and V4140 Sgr. We combined our results with those in the literature to construct a diagram of the amplitude versus period of the modulation for a sample of 11 eclipsing cataclysmic variables (CVs). If t...

  13. Particle Acceleration and the Origin of X-ray Flares in GRMHD simulations of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, David; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chan, Chi-kwan

    2016-01-01

    Significant X-ray variability and flaring has been observed from Sgr A* but is poorly understood from a theoretical standpoint. We perform GRMHD simulations that take into account a population of non-thermal electrons with energy distributions and injection rates that are motivated by PIC simulations of magnetic reconnection. We explore the effects of including these non-thermal electrons on the predicted broadband variability of Sgr A* and find that X-ray variability is a generic result of localizing non-thermal electrons to highly magnetized regions, where particles are likely to be accelerated via magnetic reconnection. The proximity of these high-field regions to the event horizon forms a natural connection between IR and X-ray variability and accounts for the rapid timescales associated with the X-ray flares. The qualitative nature of this variability is consistent with observations, producing X-ray flares that are always coincident with IR flares, but not vice versa, i.e., there are a number of IR flare...

  14. The role of feedback in accretion on Low Luminosity AGN: Sgr A* case study

    CERN Document Server

    Cuadra, Jorge; Wang, Q Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We present numerical models of the gas dynamics in the inner parsec of the Galactic centre. We follow the gas from its origin as stellar winds of several observed young massive stars, until it is either captured by the central black hole, or leaves the system. Unlike our previous models, we include an outflow from the inner accretion flow. Two different kinds of outflows are modelled: (i) an instantaneous-response feedback mode, in which the outflow rate is directly proportional to the current black hole gas capture rate; and (ii) an outburst mode, which is stronger but lasts for a limited time. The latter situation may be particularly relevant to Sgr A*, since there is evidence that Sgr A* was much brighter in the recent past. We find that both types of outflow perturb the gas dynamics near the Bondi radius and the black hole capture rate significantly. The effects persist longer than the outflow itself. We also compare the effects of spherically symmetric and collimated outflows, and find that the latter ar...

  15. MILLIMETER-WAVE SPECTRAL LINE SURVEYS TOWARD THE GALACTIC CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK AND Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takekawa, Shunya; Oka, Tomoharu; Matsumura, Shinji; Miura, Kodai [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tanaka, Kunihiko [Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Sakai, Daisuke, E-mail: shunya@z2.keio.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    We have performed unbiased spectral line surveys at the 3 mm band toward the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and Sgr A* using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. The target positions are two tangential points of the CND and the direction of Sgr A*. We have obtained three wide-band spectra that cover the frequency range from 81.3 GHz to 115.8 GHz, detecting 46 molecular lines from 30 species, including 10 rare isotopomers and 4 hydrogen recombination lines. Each line profile consists of multiple velocity components which arise from the CND, +50 km s{sup –1} and +20 km {sup –1} giant molecular clouds (GMCs), and the foreground spiral arms. We define the specific velocity ranges that represent the CND and the GMCs toward each direction, and classify the detected lines into three categories: the CND, GMC, HBD types, based on the line intensities integrated over the defined velocity ranges. The CND and GMC types are the lines that mainly trace the CND and the GMCs, respectively. The HBD types possesses the both characteristics of the CND and GMC types. We also present lists of line intensities and other parameters, as well as intensity ratios, which must be useful to investigate the difference between the nuclear environments of our Galaxy and others.

  16. Millimeter-wave Spectral Line Surveys toward the Galactic Circumnuclear Disk and Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Takekawa, Shunya; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Miura, Kodai; Sakai, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    We have performed unbiased spectral line surveys at 3 mm band toward the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and Sgr A* using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) 45 m radio telescope. The target positions are two tangential points of the CND and the direction of Sgr A*. We have obtained three wide-band spectra which cover the frequency range from 81.3 GHz to 115.8 GHz, detecting 46 molecular lines from 30 species including 10 rare isotopomers and four hydrogen recombination lines. Each line profile consists of multiple velocity components which arise from the CND, +50 km/s and +20 km/s clouds (GMCs), and the foreground spiral arms. We define the specific velocity ranges which represent the CND and the GMCs toward each direction, and classify the detected lines into three categories: the CND-/GMC-/HBD-types, based on the line intensities integrated over the defined velocity ranges. The CND- and GMC-types are the lines which mainly trace the CND and the GMCs, respectively. The HBD-type possesses the both charact...

  17. Radio and Millimeter Monitoring of Sgr A*: Spectrum, Variability, and Constraints on the G2 Encounter

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Geoffrey C; Dexter, Jason; Gurwell, Mark A; Moran, James M; Brunthaler, Andreas; Falcke, Heino; Fragile, P Chris; Maitra, Dipankar; Marrone, Dan; Peck, Alison; Rushton, Anthony; Wright, Melvyn C H

    2015-01-01

    We report new observations with the Very Large Array, Atacama Large Millimeter Array, and Submillimeter Array at frequencies from 1.0 to 355 GHz of the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A*. These observations were conducted between October 2012 and November 2014. While we see variability over the whole spectrum with an amplitude as large as a factor of 2 at millimeter wavelengths, we find no evidence for a change in the mean flux density or spectrum of Sgr A* that can be attributed to interaction with the G2 source. The absence of a bow shock at low frequencies is consistent with a cross-sectional area for G2 that is less than $2 \\times 10^{29}$ cm$^2$. This result fits with several model predictions including a magnetically arrested cloud, a pressure-confined stellar wind, and a stellar photosphere of a binary merger. There is no evidence for enhanced accretion onto the black hole driving greater jet and/or accretion flow emission. Finally, we measure the millimeter wavelength spectral index of Sgr A* ...

  18. Approaching hell's kitchen: molecular daredevil clouds in the vicinity of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, Lydia; Eckart, Andreas; Requena-Torres, Miguel Angel; García-Marin, Macarena; Kunneriath, Devaky; Zensus, Anton; Britzen, Silke; Sabha, Nadeen; Shahzamanian, Banafsheh; Borkar, Abhijeet; Fischer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We report serendipitous detections of line emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in band 3, 6, and 7 in the central parsec down to within 1" around Sgr A* at an up to now highest resolution (<0.5") view of the Galactic Center (GC) in the sub-millimeter (sub-mm) domain. From the 100 GHz continuum and the H39\\alpha emission we obtain a uniform electron temperature around 6000 K for the minispiral. The spectral index of Sgr A* is ~ 0.5 at 100 - 250 GHz and ~ 0.0 at 230 - 340 GHz. The bright sources in the center show spectral indices around -0.1 implying Bremsstrahlung emission, while dust emission is emerging in the minispiral exterior. Apart from CS, which is most widespread in the center, also H13CO+, HC3N, SiO, SO, C2H, CH3OH, 13CS and N2H+ are detected. The bulk of the clumpy emission regions is at positive velocities and in a region confined by the minispiral Northern Arm, Bar and the sources IRS 3 and 7. Though partly spatially overlapping with the radio recombination li...

  19. Searching for visual companions of close Cepheids. VLT/NACO lucky imaging of Y~Oph, FF~Aql, X~Sgr, W~Sgr and $\\eta$~Aql

    CERN Document Server

    Gallenne, A; Mérand, A; Evans, N R; Girard, J H V; Gieren, W; Pietrzynski, G

    2014-01-01

    Aims: High-resolution imaging in several photometric bands can provide color and astrometric information of the wide-orbit component of Cepheid stars. Such measurements are needed to understand the age and evolution of pulsating stars. In addition, binary Cepheids have the potential to provide direct and model-independent distances and masses. Methods: We used the NAOS-CONICA adaptive optics instrument (NACO) in the near-infrared to perform a deep search for wide components around the classical Cepheids, Y~Oph, FF~Aql, X~Sgr, W~Sgr, and $\\eta$~Aql, within a field of view (FoV) of $1.7"\\times 1.7"$ ($3.4"\\times 3.4"$ for $\\eta$~Aql). Results: We were able to reach contrast $\\Delta H = 5$-8\\,mag and $\\Delta K_\\mathrm{s} = 4$-7\\,mag in the radius range $r > 0.2"$, which enabled us to constrain the presence of wide companions. For Y~Oph, FF~Aql, X~Sgr, W~Sgr, and $\\eta$~Aql at $r > 0.2"$, we ruled out the presence of companions with a spectral type that is earlier than a B7V, A9V, A9V, A1V, and G5V star, respecti...

  20. ALMA Observations of the Galactic Center: SiO Outflows and High-mass Star Formation near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M.; Wardle, M.; Arendt, R.; Bushouse, H.; Lis, D. C.; Pound, M. W.; Roberts, D. A.; Whitney, B.; Wootten, A.

    2013-04-01

    ALMA observations of the Galactic center with a spatial resolution of 2.''61 × 0.''97 resulted in the detection of 11 SiO (5-4) clumps of molecular gas within 0.6 pc (15'') of Sgr A*, interior to the 2 pc circumnuclear molecular ring. The three SiO (5-4) clumps closest to Sgr A* show the largest central velocities, ~150 km s-1, and the broadest asymmetric line widths with full width zero intensity (FWZI) ~110-147 km s-1. The remaining clumps, distributed mainly to the NE of the ionized mini-spiral, have narrow FWZI (~18-56 km s-1). Using CARMA SiO (2-1) data, Large Velocity Gradient modeling of the SiO line ratios for the broad velocity clumps constrains the column density N(SiO) ~1014 cm-2, and the H2 gas density n_H_2=(3{--}9)\\times 10^5 cm-3 for an assumed kinetic temperature 100-200 K. The SiO clumps are interpreted as highly embedded protostellar outflows, signifying an early stage of massive star formation near Sgr A* in the last 104-105 yr. Support for this interpretation is provided by the SiO (5-4) line luminosities and velocity widths which lie in the range measured for protostellar outflows in star-forming regions in the Galaxy. Furthermore, spectral energy distribution modeling of stellar sources shows two young stellar object candidates near SiO clumps, supporting in situ star formation near Sgr A*. We discuss the nature of star formation where the gravitational potential of the black hole dominates. In particular, we suggest that external radiative pressure exerted on self-shielded molecular clouds enhances the gas density, before the gas cloud becomes gravitationally unstable near Sgr A*. Alternatively, collisions between clumps in the ring may trigger gravitational collapse.

  1. ALMA Observations of the Galactic Center: SiO Outflows and High Mass Star Formation Near Sgr A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M.; Wardle, M.; Arendt, R.; Bushouse, H.; Gillessen, S.; Lis, D.; Pound, M. W.; Roberts, D. A.; Whitney, B.; Wooten, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using ALMA observations of the Galactic center with a spatial resolution of 2.61" x 0.97 ", we detected 11 SiO (5-4) clumps of molecular gas in the within 0.6pc (15") of Sgr A*, interior of the 2-pc circumnuclear molecular ring. Three SiO (5-4) clumps closest to Sgr A* show the largest central velocities of approximately 150 kilometers per second and broadest asymmetric linewidths with total linewidths FWZI approximately 110-147 kilometers per second. Other clumps are distributed mainly to the NE of the ionized minispiral with narrow linewidths of FWHM approximately 11-27 kilometers per second. Using CARMA data, LVG modeling of the broad velocity clumps, the SiO (5-4) and (2-1) line ratios constrain the column density N(SiO) approximately 10(exp 14) per square centimeter, and the H2 gas density n(sub H2) = (3-9) x 10(exp 5) per cubic centimeter for an assumed kinetic temperature 100-200K. The SiO (5-4) clumps with broad and narrow linewidths are interpreted as highly embedded protostellar outflows, signifying an early stage of massive star formation near Sgr A* in the last 104 years. Additional support for the presence of YSO outflows is that the luminosities and velocity widths lie in the range detected from protostellar outflows in star forming regions in the Galaxy. Furthermore, SED modeling of stellar sources along the N arm show two YSO candidates near SiO clumps supporting in-situ star formation near Sgr A*. We discuss the nature of star formation where the gravitational potential of the black hole dominates. In particular, we suggest that external radiative pressure exerted on self-shielded molecular clouds enhance the gas density, before the gas cloud become gravitationally unstable near Sgr A*.

  2. Physics of gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, D. Q.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the accumulating evidence for the view that gamma-ray bursts come from strongly magnetic neutron stars, discussing the physical properties of the emission region and the radiation processes expected in strong magnetic fields, and emphasizing that the observed burst spectra require that the emission region be optically thin. This entails that the energy of the emitting plasma and/or the plasma itself be continuously replenished during a burst, and that the cooling time scale of the emitting plasma be much shorter than the observed duration of the bursts. This characteristic of the cooling time scale implies that the burst intensity and spectrum can vary on extremely short time scales, and that the burst duration must have a separate explanation. It is emphasized that synchrotron emission is favored as the gamma-ray production mechanism; it is the only mechanism capable of satisfying the optical thinness constraint while producing the observed luminosity.

  3. Statistics of gamma ray burst temporal asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Link, B; Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard

    1996-01-01

    We study the temporal asymmetry of over 600 bursts from the BATSE 3B catalog, encompassing a 200-fold range in peak flux. By comparing the rates of rise and fall of the flux near the highest burst peak, we find that about two-thirds of the bursts exhibit a preferred asymmetry in the sense that the flux rises more rapidly than it falls, confirming the conclusions of previous studies employing smaller databases. The statistical significance of the average time asymmetry of the sample is >99.999\\%; therefore, models that predict time symmetry of the burst profile are ruled out. We find no statistically significant correlation between burst temporal asymmetry and peak. This result is consistent with both cosmological and local interpretations of the gamma ray burst phenomenon.

  4. Hardness/intensity correlations among BATSE bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Conclusions about the nature of gamma-ray bursts derived from the size-frequency distribution may be altered if a significant correlation exists between burst intensity and spectral shape. Moreover, if gamma-ray bursts have a cosmological origin, such a correlation may be expected to result from the expansion of the universe. We have performed a rudimentary search of the BATSE bursts for hardness/intensity correlations. The range of spectral shapes was determined for each burst by computing the ratio of the intensity in the range 100-300 keV to that in 55-300 keV. We find weak evidence for the existence of a correlation, the strongest effect being present when comparing the maximum hardness ratio for each burst with its maximum rate.

  5. Three types of $\\gamma$-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, S; Babu, G J; Murtagh, F; Fraley, C; Raftery, A E; Mukherjee, Soma; Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh; Murtagh, Fionn; Fraley, Chris; Raftery, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of gamma-ray burst (GRB) bulk properties is presented to discriminate between distinct classes of GRBs. Several variables representing burst duration, fluence and spectral hardness are considered. Two multivariate clustering procedures are used on a sample of 797 bursts from the Third BATSE Catalog: a nonparametric average linkage hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedure validated with Wilks' $\\Lambda^*$ and other MANOVA tests; and a parametric maximum likelihood model-based clustering procedure assuming multinormal populations calculated with the EM Algorithm and validated with the Bayesian Information Criterion. The two methods yield very similar results. The BATSE GRB population consists of three classes with the following Duration/Fluence/Spectrum bulk properties: Class I with long/bright/intermediate bursts, Class II with short/hard/faint bursts, and Class III with intermediate/intermediate/soft bursts. One outlier with poor data is also present. Classes I and II correspond...

  6. Ballerina - pirouettes in search of gamma bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, S.; Lund, N.; Pedersen, H.; Hjorth, J.; BALLERINA Collaboration

    1999-09-01

    The cosmological origin of gamma ray bursts has now been established with reasonable certainty. Many more bursts will need to be studied to establish the typical distance scale, and to map out the large diversity in properties which have been indicated by the first handful of events. We are proposing Ballerina, a small satellite to provide accurate positions and new data on the gamma-ray bursts. We anticipate a detection rate an order of magnitude larger than obtained from Beppo-SAX.

  7. United assembly algorithm for optical burst switching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Yu(于金辉); Yijun Yang(杨教军); Yuehua Chen(陈月华); Ge Fan(范戈)

    2003-01-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising optical switching technology. The burst assembly algorithm controls burst assembly, which significantly impacts performance of OBS network. This paper provides a new assembly algorithm, united assembly algorithm, which has more practicability than conventional algorithms. In addition, some factors impacting selections of parameters of this algorithm are discussed and the performance of this algorithm is studied by computer simulation.

  8. Fast Radio Burst/Gamma-Ray Burst Cosmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, He; Li, Zhuo; Zhang, Bing

    2014-06-01

    Recently, both theoretical arguments and observational evidence suggested that a small fraction of fast radio bursts (FRBs) could be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). If such FRB/GRB association systems are commonly detected in the future, the combination of dispersion measures (DM) derived from FRBs and redshifts derived from GRBs makes these systems a plausible tool to conduct cosmography. We quantify uncertainties in deriving the redshift-dependent DM_{IGM} as a function of z and test how well dark energy models can be constrained with Monte Carlo simulations. We show that with several tens of FRB/GRB systems potentially detected in a decade or so, one may reach reasonable constraints on wCDM models. When combined with Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, unprecedented constraints on the dark energy equation of state may be achieved, thanks to the prospects of detecting FRB/GRB systems at relatively high redshifts. The ratio between the mean value \\lt {DM_IGM} (z)\\gt and luminosity distance (D L(z)) is insensitive to dark energy models. This gives the prospect of applying SN Ia data to calibrate \\lt {DM_IGM} (z)\\gt using a relatively small sample of FRB/GRB systems, allowing a reliable constraint on the baryon inhomogeneity distribution as a function of redshift. The methodology developed in this paper can also be applied if the FRB redshifts can be measured by other means. Some caveats of putting this method into practice are also discussed.

  9. Fast radio burst/gamma-ray burst cosmography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Li, Zhuo, E-mail: gaohe@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu, E-mail: zhuo.li@pku.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-20

    Recently, both theoretical arguments and observational evidence suggested that a small fraction of fast radio bursts (FRBs) could be associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). If such FRB/GRB association systems are commonly detected in the future, the combination of dispersion measures (DM) derived from FRBs and redshifts derived from GRBs makes these systems a plausible tool to conduct cosmography. We quantify uncertainties in deriving the redshift-dependent DM{sub IGM} as a function of z and test how well dark energy models can be constrained with Monte Carlo simulations. We show that with several tens of FRB/GRB systems potentially detected in a decade or so, one may reach reasonable constraints on wCDM models. When combined with Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, unprecedented constraints on the dark energy equation of state may be achieved, thanks to the prospects of detecting FRB/GRB systems at relatively high redshifts. The ratio between the mean value and luminosity distance (D {sub L}(z)) is insensitive to dark energy models. This gives the prospect of applying SN Ia data to calibrate using a relatively small sample of FRB/GRB systems, allowing a reliable constraint on the baryon inhomogeneity distribution as a function of redshift. The methodology developed in this paper can also be applied if the FRB redshifts can be measured by other means. Some caveats of putting this method into practice are also discussed.

  10. Are Fast Radio Bursts the Birthmark of Magnetars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A model of fast radio bursts, which enlists young, short period extragalactic magnetars satisfying B/P > 2 × 1016 G s‑1 (1 G = 1 statvolt cm‑1) as the source, is proposed. When the parallel component {{\\boldsymbol{E}}}\\parallel of the surface electric field (under the scenario of a vacuum magnetosphere) of such pulsars approaches 5% of the critical field {E}c={m}e2{c}3/(e{\\hslash }), in strength, the field can readily decay via the Schwinger mechanism into electron–positron pairs, the back reaction of which causes {{\\boldsymbol{E}}}\\parallel to oscillate on a characteristic timescale smaller than the development of a spark gap. Thus, under this scenario, the open field line region of the pulsar magnetosphere is controlled by Schwinger pairs, and their large creation and acceleration rates enable the escaping pairs to coherently emit radio waves directly from the polar cap. The majority of the energy is emitted at frequencies ≲ 1 {GHz} where the coherent radiation has the highest yield, at a rate large enough to cause the magnetar to lose spin significantly over a timescale ≈ a few × {10}-3 s, the duration of a fast radio burst. Owing to the circumstellar environment of a young magnetar, however, the ≲1 GHz radiation is likely to be absorbed or reflected by the overlying matter. It is shown that the brightness of the remaining (observable) frequencies of ≈ 1 {GHz} and above are on a par with a typical fast radio burst. Unless some spin-up mechanism is available to recover the original high rotation rate that triggered the Schwinger mechanism, the fast radio burst will not be repeated again in the same magnetar.

  11. Testing the fireball/blastwave model by monitoring afterglows from soft gamma repeaters

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Y. F.

    2005-01-01

    The popular fireball/blastwave model of classical gamma-ray bursts is applied to soft gamma-ray bursts. It is found that X-ray afterglows from strong events may be above their quiescent levels for 40 -- 400 seconds. Optical afterglows may also be detectable. By monitoring the three repeaters, we will have an ideal way to check the fireball/blastwave model.

  12. Two classes of gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    1995-01-01

    Data from the 3B Catalogue suggest that short and long GRB are the results of different classes of events, rather than different parameter values within a single class: Short bursts have harder spectra in the BATSE bands, but chiefly long bursts are detected at photon energies over 1 MeV, implying that their hard photons are radiated by a process not found in short bursts. The values of \\langle V/V_{max} \\rangle for short and long bursts differ by 4.3 \\sigma, implying different spatial distributions. Only the soft gamma-ray radiation mechanisms are the same in both classes.

  13. Bubble burst as jamming phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Saito, Yukiko Umeno; Watanabe, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Recently research on bubble and its burst attract much interest of researchers in various field such as economics and physics. Economists have been regarding bubble as a disorder in prices. However, this research strategy has overlooked an importance of the volume of transactions. In this paper, we have proposed a bubble burst model by focusing the transactions incorporating a traffic model that represents spontaneous traffic jam. We find that the phenomenon of bubble burst shares many similar properties with traffic jam formation by comparing data taken from US housing market. Our result suggests that the transaction could be a driving force of bursting phenomenon.

  14. Anisotropy in the angular broadening of Sgr A$^*$ at the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Wardle, M; Melia, F; Roberts, D

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a $\\lambda$20 cm VLA observation of the compact Galactic center radio source Sgr A$^*$. The scatter-broadened image is elongated in the East-West direction, with an axial ratio of 0.6$\\pm$0.05 and a position angle of 87$^0\\pm$3$^0$. A similar shape and orientation has been found previously at shorter wavelengths using VLBI and VLBA. Both the major and minor axes follow the $\\lambda^2$ law appropriate for scattering by turbulence in the intervening medium. Assuming that the anisotropy is caused by a magnetic field permeating the scattering medium, we argue that the scattering occurs within extended HII regions lying in the central 100 pc of the Galaxy. The magnetic field in this region must be poloidal, organized and is estimated to have a strength of at least 30 to 100 $\\mu$Gauss.

  15. Phase-resolved Spectroscopy of the Intermediate Polars -- TV Col and V1223 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.

    The cataclysmic variables called intermediate polars are characterized by magnetic fields that rip material from an accretion disk and funnel it to a WD that is not phase-locked to the binary period of the system. This is a proposal to use FUSE to conduct a time-resolved spectroscopic study to dissect the emission of two long-period intermediate polars, V1223 Sgr and TV Col, with very different inclination angles. These, along with the short-period high-inclination IP EX Hya (already observed with FUSE), comprise the only IPs with accurate distances derived from HST astrometry. We will isolate emission from the photosphere of the WD, the magnetically dominated accretion curtain, and the accretion stream. Having characterized the emission sources, we will explore the physical conditions in these same regions, and develop an integrated picture of these two intermediate polars.

  16. Variability in GRMHD simulations of Sgr A$^*$: Implications for EHT closure phase observations

    CERN Document Server

    Medeiros, Lia; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Kim, Junhan; Marrone, Daniel; Sądowski, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    The observable quantities that carry the most information regarding the structures of the images of black holes in the interferometric observations with the Event Horizon Telescope are the closure phases along different baseline triangles. We use long time span, high cadence, GRMHD+radiative transfer models of Sgr A$^*$ to investigate the expected variability of closure phases in such observations. We find that, in general, closure phases along small baseline triangles show little variability, except in the cases when one of the triangle vertices crosses one of a small regions of low visibility amplitude. The closure phase variability increases with the size of the baseline triangle, as larger baselines probe the small-scale structures of the images, which are highly variable. On average, the jet-dominated MAD models show less closure phase variability than the disk-dominated SANE models, even in the large baseline triangles, because the images from the latter are more sensitive to the turbulence in the accre...

  17. The Interaction of two Prominent Galactic Center Sources Sgr A East and the Molecular Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Burton, M; Wardle, M; Melia, F; Lazio, T J W; Kassim, N E

    1999-01-01

    We present a synthesis of a number of recent observations in the near-IR H_2 and [Fe II] lines, OH (1720 MHz) maser line and various radio continuum measurements using the NICMOS of the HST, UNSWIRF on the AAT and the VLA. These observations suggest that the outer edge of the CND is collisionally excited whereas the inner edge is likely to be heated predominantly by the IRS 16 cluster. The velocity and spatial correlation of H_2 and OH (1720 MHz) as well as the spatial distribution of radio continuum emission at 90cm suggest that Sgr A East is responsible for shocking the gas and interacting with the circumnuclear ring at the Galactic center.

  18. Anchors for the Cosmic Distance Scale: the Cepheids U Sgr, CF Cas and CEab Cas

    CERN Document Server

    Majaess, D; Bidin, C Moni; Bonatto, C; Berdnikov, L; Balam, D; Moyano, M; Gallo, L; Turner, D; Lane, D; Gieren, W; Borissova, J; Kovtyukh, V; Beletsky, Y

    2013-01-01

    New and existing X-ray, UBVJHKsW(1-4), and spectroscopic observations were analyzed to constrain fundamental parameters for M25, NGC 7790, and dust along their sight-lines. The star clusters are of particular importance given they host the classical Cepheids U Sgr, CF Cas, and the visual binary Cepheids CEa and CEb Cas. Precise results from the multiband analysis, in tandem with a comprehensive determination of the Cepheids' period evolution (dP/dt) from ~140 years of observations, helped resolve concerns raised regarding the clusters and their key Cepheid constituents. Specifically, distances derived for members of M25 and NGC 7790 are 630+-25 pc and 3.40+-0.15 kpc, respectively.

  19. A Low Progenitor Mass for the Magnetar SGR1900+14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ben; Figer, Don F.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Trombley, Christine; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wachter, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Magnetars are young neutron stars with extreme magnetic fields (B>10(exp 14)-10(exp 15) G). How these fields relate to the properties of their progenitor stars is not yet clearly established. However, from the few objects with initial mass estimates it has been suggested that a very massive progenitor star (M(sub prog) >40M ) is required to produce a magnetar. Here we report that the initial progenitor star mass of the magnetar SGR 1900+14 was a factor of two lower than this limit, M(sub prog)=17+/-1M . Our results strongly contradict the prevalent hypothesis that only very massive stars can produce magnetars. Instead, we favour the "fossil-field" model as a possible explanation of the origin of these extreme magnetic fields.

  20. Modelling of the surface emission of the low magnetic field magnetar SGR 0418+5729

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, S.; Perna, R.; Rea, N.; Viganò, D.; Pons, J. A.

    2015-10-01

    We perform a detailed modelling of the post-outburst surface emission of the low magnetic field magnetar SGR 0418+5729. The dipolar magnetic field of this source, B=6 {× 10^{12}}{ G} estimated from its spin-down rate, is in the observed range of magnetic fields for normal pulsars. The source is further characterized by a high pulse fraction and a single-peak profile. Using synthetic temperature distribution profiles, and fully accounting for the general-relativistic effects of light deflection and gravitational redshift, we generate synthetic X-ray spectra and pulse profiles that we fit to the observations. We find that asymmetric and symmetric surface temperature distributions can reproduce equally well the observed pulse profiles and spectra of SGR 0418. None the less, the modelling allows us to place constraints on the system geometry (i.e. the angles ψ and ξ that the rotation axis makes with the line of sight and the dipolar axis, respectively), as well as on the spot size and temperature contrast on the neutron star surface. After performing an analysis iterating between the pulse profile and spectra, as done in similar previous works, we further employed, for the first time in this context, a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo approach to extract constraints on the model parameters from the pulse profiles and spectra, simultaneously. We find that, to reproduce the observed spectrum and flux modulation: (a) the angles must be restricted to 65° ≲ ψ + ξ ≲ 125° or 235° ≲ ψ + ξ ≲ 295°; (b) the temperature contrast between the poles and the equator must be at least a factor of ˜6, and (c) the size of the hottest region ranges between 0.2 and 0.7 km (including uncertainties on the source distance). Lastly, we interpret our findings within the context of internal and external heating models.

  1. Odin observations of ammonia in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 cloud and circumnuclear disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Aa.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Frisk, U.; Lundin, S.; Nordh, L.; Olberg, M.; Olofsson, G.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The Odin satellite is now into its sixteenth year of operation, much surpassing its design life of two years. One of the sources which Odin has observed in great detail is the Sgr A complex in the centre of the Milky Way. Aims: To study the presence of NH3 in the Galactic centre and spiral arms. Methods: Recently, Odin has made complementary observations of the 572 GHz NH3 line towards the Sgr A +50 km s-1 cloud and circumnuclear disk (CND). Results: Significant NH3 emission has been observed in both the +50 km s-1 cloud and the CND. Clear NH3 absorption has also been detected in many of the spiral arm features along the line of sight from the Sun to the core of our Galaxy. Conclusions: The very large velocity width (80 km s-1) of the NH3 emission associated with the shock region in the southwestern part of the CND may suggest a formation/desorption scenario similar to that of gas-phase H2O in shocks/outflows. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by the Swedish National Space Board (SNSB), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes), the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES), France, and the European Space Agency (ESA). The former Space division of the Swedish Space Corporation, today OHB Sweden, is the prime contractor, also responsible for Odin operations.The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A135

  2. A direct localization of a fast radio burst and its host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Law, C. J.; Wharton, R. S.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bower, G. C.; Cordes, J. M.; Tendulkar, S. P.; Bassa, C. G.; Demorest, P.; Butler, B. J.; Seymour, A.; Scholz, P.; Abruzzo, M. W.; Bogdanov, S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Keimpema, A.; Lazio, T. J. W.; Marcote, B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Paragi, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Rupen, M.; Spitler, L. G.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Fast radio bursts are astronomical radio flashes of unknown physical nature with durations of milliseconds. Their dispersive arrival times suggest an extragalactic origin and imply radio luminosities that are orders of magnitude larger than those of all known short-duration radio transients. So far all fast radio bursts have been detected with large single-dish telescopes with arcminute localizations, and attempts to identify their counterparts (source or host galaxy) have relied on the contemporaneous variability of field sources or the presence of peculiar field stars or galaxies. These attempts have not resulted in an unambiguous association with a host or multi-wavelength counterpart. Here we report the subarcsecond localization of the fast radio burst FRB 121102, the only known repeating burst source, using high-time-resolution radio interferometric observations that directly image the bursts. Our precise localization reveals that FRB 121102 originates within 100 milliarcseconds of a faint 180-microJansky persistent radio source with a continuum spectrum that is consistent with non-thermal emission, and a faint (twenty-fifth magnitude) optical counterpart. The flux density of the persistent radio source varies by around ten per cent on day timescales, and very long baseline radio interferometry yields an angular size of less than 1.7 milliarcseconds. Our observations are inconsistent with the fast radio burst having a Galactic origin or its source being located within a prominent star-forming galaxy. Instead, the source appears to be co-located with a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus or a previously unknown type of extragalactic source. Localization and identification of a host or counterpart has been essential to understanding the origins and physics of other kinds of transient events, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruption events. However, if other fast radio bursts have similarly faint radio and optical counterparts, our findings imply that

  3. A direct localization of a fast radio burst and its host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S; Law, C J; Wharton, R S; Burke-Spolaor, S; Hessels, J W T; Bower, G C; Cordes, J M; Tendulkar, S P; Bassa, C G; Demorest, P; Butler, B J; Seymour, A; Scholz, P; Abruzzo, M W; Bogdanov, S; Kaspi, V M; Keimpema, A; Lazio, T J W; Marcote, B; McLaughlin, M A; Paragi, Z; Ransom, S M; Rupen, M; Spitler, L G; van Langevelde, H J

    2017-01-04

    Fast radio bursts are astronomical radio flashes of unknown physical nature with durations of milliseconds. Their dispersive arrival times suggest an extragalactic origin and imply radio luminosities that are orders of magnitude larger than those of all known short-duration radio transients. So far all fast radio bursts have been detected with large single-dish telescopes with arcminute localizations, and attempts to identify their counterparts (source or host galaxy) have relied on the contemporaneous variability of field sources or the presence of peculiar field stars or galaxies. These attempts have not resulted in an unambiguous association with a host or multi-wavelength counterpart. Here we report the subarcsecond localization of the fast radio burst FRB 121102, the only known repeating burst source, using high-time-resolution radio interferometric observations that directly image the bursts. Our precise localization reveals that FRB 121102 originates within 100 milliarcseconds of a faint 180-microJansky persistent radio source with a continuum spectrum that is consistent with non-thermal emission, and a faint (twenty-fifth magnitude) optical counterpart. The flux density of the persistent radio source varies by around ten per cent on day timescales, and very long baseline radio interferometry yields an angular size of less than 1.7 milliarcseconds. Our observations are inconsistent with the fast radio burst having a Galactic origin or its source being located within a prominent star-forming galaxy. Instead, the source appears to be co-located with a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus or a previously unknown type of extragalactic source. Localization and identification of a host or counterpart has been essential to understanding the origins and physics of other kinds of transient events, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruption events. However, if other fast radio bursts have similarly faint radio and optical counterparts, our findings imply that

  4. Analysis of historic bursts and burst detection in water supply areas of different size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Trietsch, E.A.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in water distribution networks lead to water losses and a risk of damaging the urban environment. We studied hydraulic data and customer contact records of 44 real bursts for a better understanding of the phenomena. We found that most bursts were reported to the water company shortly aft

  5. Magnetars and Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Bucciantini, N

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, evidences for a long-lived and sustained engine in Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have increased the attention to the so called millisecond-magnetar model, as a competitive alternative to the standard collapsar scenario. I will review here the key aspects of the {\\it millisecond magnetar} model for Long Duration Gamma Ray Bursts (LGRBs). I will briefly describe what constraints, present observations put on any engine model, both in term of energetic, outflow properties, and the relation with the associated Supernova (SN). For each of these I will show how the millisecond magnetar model satisfies the requirements, what are the limits of the model, how can it be further tested, and what observations might be used to discriminate against it. I will also discuss numerical results that show the importance of the confinement by the progenitor star in explaining the formation of a collimated outflow, how a detailed model for the evolution of the central engine can be built, and show that a wide varie...

  6. A Fast Radio Burst Every Second?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    How frequently do fast radio busts occur in the observable universe? Two researchers have now developed a new estimate.Extragalactic SignalsIn 2007, scientists looking through archival pulsar data discovered a transient radio pulse a flash that lasted only a few milliseconds. Since then, weve found another 22 such fast radio bursts (FRBs), yet we still dont know what causes these energetic signals.Artists illustration of the Very Large Array pinpointing the location of FRB 121102. [Bill Saxton/NRAO/AUI/NSF/Hubble Legacy Archive/ESA/NASA]Recently, some clues have finally come from FRB 121102, the only FRB ever observed to repeat. The multiple pulses detected from this source over the last five years have allowed us to confirm its extragalactic origin and pinpoint an origin for this FRB: a small, low-mass, metal-poor dwarf galaxy located about three billion light-years away.Is FRB 121102 typical? How frequently do such bursts occur, and how frequently can we hope to be able to detect them in the future? And what might these rates tell us about their origins? Two scientists from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Anastasia Fialkov and Abraham Loeb, have now taken a phenomenological approach to answering these questions.Influencing FactorsFialkov and Loeb arguethat there are three main factors that influence the rate of observable FRBs in the universe:The spectral shape of the individual FRBsFRB 121102 had a Gaussian-like spectral profile, which means it peaks in a narrow range of frequencies and may not be detectable outside of that band. If this is typical for FRBs, then signals of distant FRBs may become redshifted to outside of the frequency band that we observe, making them undetectable.FRB detection rates in the 1.253.5GHz band predicted by the authors models (red and blue solid and dashed lines), as a function of the flux limit for detection (top) and as a function of the FRB hosts redshift (bottom). Grey circles mark our detections of FRBs thus

  7. Coding Bounds for Multiple Phased-Burst Correction and Single Burst Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Wai Han

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two upper bounds on the achievable code rate of linear block codes for multiple phased-burst correction (MPBC) are presented. One bound is constrained to a maximum correctable cyclic burst length within every subblock, or equivalently a constraint on the minimum error free length or gap within every phased-burst. This bound, when reduced to the special case of a bound for single burst correction (SBC), is shown to be the Abramson bound when the cyclic burst length is less than half the block length. The second MPBC bound is developed without the minimum error free gap constraint and is used as a comparison to the first bound.

  8. Coupling and noise induced spiking-bursting transition in a parabolic bursting model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lin; Zhang, Jia; Lang, Xiufeng; Zhang, Xiuhui

    2013-03-01

    The transition from tonic spiking to bursting is an important dynamic process that carry physiologically relevant information. In this work, coupling and noise induced spiking-bursting transition is investigated in a parabolic bursting model with specific discussion on their cooperation effects. Fast/slow analysis shows that weak coupling may help to induce the bursting by changing the geometric property of the fast subsystem so that the original unstable periodical solution are stabilized. It turned out that noise can play the similar stabilization role and induce bursting at appropriate moderate intensity. However, their cooperation may either strengthen or weaken the overall effect depending on the choice of noise level.

  9. Using temporal bursts for query modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to query modeling that leverages the temporal distribution of documents in an initially retrieved set of documents. In news-related document collections such distributions tend to exhibit bursts. Here, we define a burst to be a time period where unusually many documents are pu

  10. Astronomy: Radio burst caught red-handed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Heino

    2017-01-01

    For almost a decade, astronomers have observed intense bursts of radio waves from the distant cosmos whose origins were unknown. The source of one such burst has now been identified, but this has only deepened the mystery. See Letter p.58

  11. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  12. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS OF THORACOLUMBAR BURST FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-yang Dai

    2004-01-01

    Objective To review imaging use in the diagnosis ofthoracolumbar burst fractures and to determine the diagnostic value of different imaging methods.Methods One hundred and fourteen patients with 120 thoracolumbar burst fractures were retrospectively reviewed. Plain radiographs were available in all cases; CT scans and MRI were obtained in 96 and 74 cases, respectively.Results A total of 27 burst fractures were misdiagnosed as other types of fractures on radiographs alone, and accounted for 22.5% of all fractures. The results indicated that plain radiographs often fail to delineate the pathological features of thoracolumbar burst fractures, leading to delay in diagnosis.Conclusion In regard to thoracolumbar injury diagnosis, burst fractures should be differentiated from compression fractures. CT should be routinely indicated and MRI examination, when necessary, may be simultaneously considered.

  13. Bright 30 THz Impulsive Solar Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, P; Marcon, R; Kudaka, A S; Cabezas, D P; Cassiano, M M; Francile, C; Fernandes, L O T; Ramirez, R F Hidalgo; Luoni, M; Marun, A; Pereyra, P; de Souza, R V

    2015-01-01

    Impulsive 30 THz continuum bursts have been recently observed in solar flares, utilizing small telescopes with a unique and relatively simple optical setup concept. The most intense burst was observed together with a GOES X2 class event on October 27, 2014, also detected at two sub-THz frequencies, RHESSI X-rays and SDO/HMI and EUV. It exhibits strikingly good correlation in time and in space with white light flare emission. It is likely that this association may prove to be very common. All three 30 THz events recently observed exhibited intense fluxes in the range of 104 solar flux units, considerably larger than those measured for the same events at microwave and sub-mm wavelengths. The 30 THz burst emission might be part of the same spectral burst component found at sub-THz frequencies. The 30 THz solar bursts open a promising new window for the study of flares at their origin

  14. FRBCAT: The Fast Radio Burst Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroff, E.; Barr, E. D.; Jameson, A.; Keane, E. F.; Bailes, M.; Kramer, M.; Morello, V.; Tabbara, D.; van Straten, W.

    2016-09-01

    Here, we present a catalogue of known Fast Radio Burst sources in the form of an online catalogue, FRBCAT. The catalogue includes information about the instrumentation used for the observations for each detected burst, the measured quantities from each observation, and model-dependent quantities derived from observed quantities. To aid in consistent comparisons of burst properties such as width and signal-to-noise ratios, we have re-processed all the bursts for which we have access to the raw data, with software which we make available. The originally derived properties are also listed for comparison. The catalogue is hosted online as a Mysql database which can also be downloaded in tabular or plain text format for off-line use. This database will be maintained for use by the community for studies of the Fast Radio Burst population as it grows.

  15. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  16. Methods of rock burst prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genkin, V.A.; Minin, Yu.Ya.; Morozov, G.D.; Proskuryakov, V.M.; Cmirnov, V.A.

    1979-07-01

    Some methods of predicting rock bursts in underground coal and iron ore mines are evaluated: using BP-18 indenters and the MGD indenter with automatic recording; seismic method consisting in measuring the speed of shock waves travelling through various layers (apparatus SB-20 is designed for use in coal mines); electrometric method (measuring resistance between two electrodes when electric currents flow through coal and rocks). The design of the AEhSSh-1 measuring instrument, used in the electrometric method in coal mines is also described. Each of the methods is described and mathematical fomulae used as their theoretical basis are presented. The calculating process is explained and brief information on the design and use of the measuring instrument is given. The methods are evaluated from the viewpoint of precision. (In Russian)

  17. Observational appearance of inefficient accretion flows and jets in 3D GRMHD simulations: Application to Sgr~A*

    CERN Document Server

    Moscibrodzka, Monika; Shiokawa, Hotaka; Gammie, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    Radiatively inefficient accretion flows (RIAFs) are believed to power supermassive black holes (SMBH) in the underluminous cores of galaxies. Such black holes are typically accompanied by flat-spectrum radio cores indicating the presence of moderately relativistic jets. One of the best constrained RIAFs is associated with the SMBH in the Galactic center, Sgr A*. Since the plasma in RIAFs is only weakly collisional, the dynamics and the radiative properties of these systems are very uncertain. Here we want to study the impact of varying electron temperature on the appearance of accretion flows and jets. Using 3-D GRMHD accretion flow simulations, we use ray tracing methods to predict spectra and radio images of RIAFs allowing for different electron heating mechanisms in the in- and outflowing parts of the simulations. We find that small changes in the electron temperature can result in dramatic differences in the relative dominance of jets and accretion flows. Application to Sgr A* shows that radio spectrum an...

  18. Asymmetric structure in Sgr A* at 3mm from closure phase measurements with VLBA, GBT and LMT

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Falcke, Heino; Bower, Geoffrey C; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Castillo, Edgar; Deller, Adam T; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Fraga-Encinas, Raquel; Goddi, Ciriaco; Hernández-Gómez, Antonio; Hughes, David H; Kramer, Michael; León-Tavares, Jonathan; Loinard, Laurent; Montaña, Alfredo; Mościbrodzka, Monika; Ortiz-León, Gisela N; Sanchez-Arguelles, David; Tilanus, Remo P J; Wilson, Grant W; Zensus, J Anton

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a closure phase analysis of 3 mm very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) measurements performed on Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We have analyzed observations made in May 2015 using the Very Long Baseline Array, the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope and the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano and obtained non-zero closure phase measurements on several station triangles - indicative of a non-point-symmetric source structure. The data are fitted with an asymmetric source structure model in Sgr A*, represented by a simple two-component model, which favours a fainter component due East of the main source. This result is discussed in light of a scattering screen with substructure or an intrinsically asymmetric source.

  19. Self-consistent spectra from GRMHD simulations with radiative cooling A link to reality for Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drappeau, Samia; Dibi, Salomé; Markoff, Sera; Fragile, Chris

    2011-02-01

    Cosmos++ (Anninos et al. 2005) is one of the first fully relativistic magneto-hydro-dynamical (MHD) codes that can self-consistently account for radiative cooling, in the optically thin regime. As the code combines a total energy conservation formulation with a radiative cooling function, we have now the possibility to produce spectra energy density from these simulations and compare them to data. In this paper, we present preliminary results of spectra calculated using the same cooling functions from 2D Cosmos++ simulations of the accretion flow around Sgr A*. The simulation parameters were designed to roughly reproduce Sgr A*'s behavior at very low (10-8-10-7 Msolar/yr) accretion rate, but only via spectra can we test that this has been achieved.

  20. Self-consistent spectra from GRMHD simulations with radiative cooling: A link to reality for Sgr A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drappeau, S.; Dibi, S.; Dexter, J.; Markoff, S.; Fragile, P. C.

    2011-12-01

    Cosmos++ (Anninos et al., 2005) is one of the first fully relativistic magneto-hydro-dynamical (MHD) codes that can self-consistently account for radiative cooling, in the optically thin regime. As the code combines a total energy conservation formulation with a radiative cooling function, we have now the possibility to produce spectra energy density from these simulations and compare them to data. In this paper, we present preliminary results of spectra calculated using the same cooling functions from 2D Cosmos++ simulations of the accretion flow around Sgr A*. The simulation parameters were designed to roughly reproduce Sgr A*'s behavior at very low ( 10^{-8}-10^{-7} M_{⊙}/yr) accretion rate, but only via spectra can we test that this has been achieved.

  1. Detection of the magnetar SGR J1745-2900 up to 291 GHz with evidence of polarized millimetre emission

    CERN Document Server

    Torne, P; Eatough, R P; Karuppusamy, R; Paubert, G; Kramer, M; Cognard, I; Champion, D J; Spitler, L G

    2016-01-01

    In Torne et al. (2015), we showed detections of SGR J1745-2900 up to 225 GHz (1.33 mm); at that time the highest radio frequency detection of pulsar emission. In this work, we present the results of new observations of the same magnetar with detections up to 291 GHz (1.03 mm), together with evidence of linear polarization in its millimetre emission. SGR J1745-2900 continues to show variability and is, on average, a factor $\\sim$4 brighter in the millimetre band than in our observations of July 2014. The new measured spectrum is slightly inverted, with $\\left = +0.4\\pm0.2$ (for $S_{\

  2. Multi-resonance orbital model applied to high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Kotrlova, Andrea; Torok, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The multi-resonance orbital model of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) enables precise determination of the black hole dimensionless spin a if observed set of oscillations demonstrates three (or more) commensurable frequencies. The black hole spin is related to the frequency ratio only, while its mass M is related to the frequency magnitude. The model is applied to the triple frequency set of HF QPOs observed in Sgr A* source with frequency ratio 3:2:1. Acceptable versions of the multi-resonance model are determined by the restrictions on the Sgr A* supermassive black hole mass. Among the best candidates the version of strong resonances related to the black hole "magic" spin a=0.983 belongs. However, the version demonstrating the best agreement with the mass restrictions predicts spin a=0.980.

  3. Herschel observations of ortho- and para-oxidaniumyl (H2O+) in spiral arm clouds toward Sgr B2(M)

    CERN Document Server

    Schilke, P; Mueller, H S P; Bergin, E A; Herbst, E; Lis, D C; Neufeld, D A; Phillips, T G; Bell, T A; Blake, G A; Cabrit, S; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Cernicharo, J; Crockett, N R; Daniel, F; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; ~Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Goldsmith, P F; Gupta, H; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Langer, W D; Latter, W B; Lord, S D; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Menten, K M; Morris, P; Murphy, J A; Ossenkopf, V; Pagani, L; Pearson, J C; Perault, M; Plume, R; Qin, S -L; Salez, M; Schlemmer, S; Stutzki, J; Trappe, N; van der Tak, F F S; Vastel, C; Wang, S; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Erickson, N; Maiwald, F W; Kooi, J; Karpov, A; Zmuidzinas, J; Boogert, A; Schieder, R; Zaal, P

    2010-01-01

    H2O+ has been observed in its ortho- and para- states toward the massive star forming core Sgr B2(M), located close to the Galactic center. The observations show absorption in all spiral arm clouds between the Sun and Sgr B2. The average o/p ratio of H2O+ in most velocity intervals is 4.8, which corresponds to a nuclear spin temperature of 21 K. The relationship of this spin temperature to the formation temperature and current physical temperature of the gas hosting H2O+ is discussed, but no firm conclusion is reached. In the velocity interval 0 to 60 km/s, an ortho/para ratio of below unity is found, but if this is due to an artifact of contamination by other species or real is not clear.

  4. Observing a Burst with Sunglasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Unique Five-Week VLT Study of the Polarisation of a Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow "Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)" are certainly amongst the most dramatic events known in astrophysics. These short flashes of energetic gamma-rays, first detected in the late 1960's by military satellites, last from less than one second to several minutes. GRBs have been found to be situated at extremely large ("cosmological") distances. The energy released in a few seconds during such an event is larger than that of the Sun during its entire lifetime of more than 10,000 million years. The GRBs are indeed the most powerful events since the Big Bang known in the Universe, cf. ESO PR 08/99 and ESO PR 20/00. During the past years circumstantial evidence has mounted that GRBs signal the collapse of extremely massive stars, the so-called hypernovae. This was finally demonstrated some months ago when astronomers, using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), documented in unprecedented detail the changes in the spectrum of the light source ("the optical afterglow") of the gamma-ray burst GRB 030329 (cf. ESO PR 16/03). A conclusive and direct link between cosmological gamma-ray bursts and explosions of very massive stars was provided on this occasion. Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 030329 was discovered on March 29, 2003 by NASA's High Energy Transient Explorer spacecraft. Follow-up observations with the UVES spectrograph at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the Paranal Observatory (Chile) showed the burst to have a redshift of 0.1685 [1]. This corresponds to a distance of about 2,650 million light-years, making GRB 030329 the second-nearest long-duration GRB ever detected. The proximity of GRB 030329 resulted in very bright afterglow emission, permitting the most extensive follow-up observations of any afterglow to date. A team of astronomers [2] led by Jochen Greiner of the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (Germany) decided to make use of this unique opportunity to study the

  5. Swift follow-up observations of the new outburst of the black hole candidate V4641 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, D.; Bahramian, A.; Sivakoff, G.; Middleton, M.; Knigge, C.; Gandhi, P.; Hynes, R.; Johnson, C.; Casella, P.; Motta, S.; Miller-Jones, J.; Neilsen, J.

    2015-08-01

    The MAXI team has recently reported on the outburst onset of the black hole candidate V4641 Sgr as detected with MAXI/GSC (ATEL #7858). In order to confirm the outburst and characterize its current accretion state, a Swift/XRT PC-mode pointed observation was performed on UT 07:31:00 02/08/2015 for a total of 435 seconds.

  6. Optical Spectroscopy of the Classical Novae V339 Del (2013) and V5668 Sgr (2015 No. 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. Mark; Woodward, Charles E.; Starrfield, Sumner; Ilyin, Ilya; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Page, Kim; Osborne, Julian P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of optical spectroscopy of the gamma-ray classical novae V339 Del (2013) and V5668 Sgr (PNV J18365700-2855420/Nova Sgr 2015 No. 2) supplemented by UV and X-ray observations obtained with Swift. Our spectra were obtained with the Steward Observatory Bok 2.3 m telescope (+B&C), the MDM 2.4 m Hiltner telescope (+OSMOS), the 6.5 m MMT (+BlueChannel), and the 2 x 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope (+MODS1 and PEPSI) between 2013 August and 2015 September. The PEPSI spectra cover all or part of the 384-907 nm spectral region at a resolution of up to 270,000 (1 km/s). This is the highest resolution available on any 8-10 m class telescope. V339 Del was discovered on 2015 August 14.58 by Itagaki at V about 6.8. This nova reached a peak magnitude of about 4.3 making it one of the brightest novae of this century. Because of its exceptional brightness it has been observed at a variety of wavelengths and by a host of observatories both on the ground and in space. V5668 Sgr was discovered on 2015 March 15.634 by Seach at a magnitude of 6.0. It subsequently reached a maximum brightness of about 4.0 in late March. High resolution PEPSI spectra obtained in early April show dramatic variations in the multi-component P Cygni-type line profiles. V5668 Sgr was observed to form dust in June thereafter fading to about 13th magnitude. Our recent observations show that it has now evolved into the nebular phase. SS acknowledges partial support from NSF and NASA grants to ASU. CEW acknowledges support from NASA.

  7. A GENERAL RELATIVISTIC NULL HYPOTHESIS TEST WITH EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLACK HOLE SHADOW IN Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Marrone, Daniel P. [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The half opening angle of a Kerr black hole shadow is always equal to (5 ± 0.2)GM/Dc{sup 2}, where M is the mass of the black hole and D is its distance from the Earth. Therefore, measuring the size of a shadow and verifying whether it is within this 4% range constitutes a null hypothesis test of general relativity. We show that the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*, is the optimal target for performing this test with upcoming observations using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). We use the results of optical/IR monitoring of stellar orbits to show that the mass-to-distance ratio for Sgr A* is already known to an accuracy of ∼4%. We investigate our prior knowledge of the properties of the scattering screen between Sgr A* and the Earth, the effects of which will need to be corrected for in order for the black hole shadow to appear sharp against the background emission. Finally, we explore an edge detection scheme for interferometric data and a pattern matching algorithm based on the Hough/Radon transform and demonstrate that the shadow of the black hole at 1.3 mm can be localized, in principle, to within ∼9%. All these results suggest that our prior knowledge of the properties of the black hole, of scattering broadening, and of the accretion flow can only limit this general relativistic null hypothesis test with EHT observations of Sgr A* to ≲10%.

  8. Statistics of X-ray flares of Sgr A*: evidence for solar-like self-organized criticality phenomenon

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ya-Ping; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Q Daniel; Chen, P F; Neilsen, Joseph; Fang, Taotao; Zhang, Shuo; Dexter, Jason

    2015-01-01

    X-ray flares have routinely been observed from the supermassive black hole, Sgr A*, at our Galactic center. The nature of these flares remains largely unclear, despite of many theoretical models,. In this paper, we study the statistical properties of the Sgr A* X-ray flares, by fitting the count rate (CR) distribution and the structure function (SF) of the light curve with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. With the 3 million second \\textit{Chandra} observations accumulated in the Sgr A* X-ray Visionary Project, we construct the theoretical light curves through Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the $2-8$ keV X-ray light curve can be decomposed into a quiescent component with a constant count rate of $ 6\\times10^{-3} $count s$^{-1}$ and a flare component with a power-law fluence distribution $dN/dE\\propto E^{-\\alpha_{\\rm E}}$ with $\\alpha_{\\rm E}=1.65\\pm0.17$. The duration-fluence correlation can also be modelled as a power-law $T\\propto E^{\\alpha_{\\rm ET}}$ with $\\alpha_{\\rm ET} < 0.55$ ($95\\%$ ...

  9. NLTE model atmospheres for the hottest white dwarfs: Spectral analysis of the compact component in nova V4743 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, T; Gonzales-Riestra, R; Nelson, T; Still, M; Werner, K; Wilms, J; 10.1088/0004-637X/717/1/363

    2010-01-01

    Half a year after its outburst in September 2002, nova V4743 Sgr evolved into the brightest supersoft X-ray source in the sky with a flux maximum around 30A. We calculated grids of synthetic energy distributions (SEDs) based on NLTE model atmospheres for the analysis of the hottest white dwarfs and present the result of fits to Chandra and XMM-Newton grating X-ray spectra of V4743 Sgr of outstanding quality, exhibiting prominent resonance lines of C V, C VI, N VI, N VII, and O VII in absorption. The nova reached its highest effective temperature (Teff = 740 +/- 70kK) around April 2003 and remained at that temperature at least until September 2003. We conclude that the white dwarf is massive, about 1.1 - 1.2 Msun. The nuclear-burning phase lasted for 2 to 2.5 years after the outburst, probably the average duration for a classical nova. The photosphere of V4743 Sgr was strongly carbon deficient (about times solar) and enriched in nitrogen and oxygen (> 5 times solar). Especially the very low C/N ratio indicates...

  10. A General Relativistic Null Hypothesis Test with Event Horizon Telescope Observations of the black-hole shadow in Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Marrone, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) In General Relativity, the shadow cast by a black hole has a size that depends very weakly on its spin or the orientation of the observer. The half opening angle of the shadow is always equal to 5+-0.2 GM/Dc^2, where M is the mass of the black hole and D is its distance from the Earth. Therefore, measuring the size of the shadow of a black hole of known mass-to-distance ratio and verifying whether it is within the 4% predicted range constitutes a null hypothesis test of GR. We show that Sgr A* is the optimal target for performing this test with the Event Horizon Telescope. We use the results of monitoring of stellar orbits to show that the ratio M/D for Sgr A* is already known to an accuracy of ~6%. We investigate our prior knowledge of the scattering screen towards Sgr A, the effects of which will need to be corrected for in order for the black-hole shadow to appear sharp against the background emission. We argue that, even though the properties of the scattering ellipse at longer wavelengths are ...

  11. A Catalog of Diffuse X-ray-Emitting Features within 20 pc of Sgr A*: Twenty Pulsar Wind Nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Muno, M P; Brandt, W N; Morris, M R; Starck, J -L

    2007-01-01

    We present a catalog of 34 diffuse features identified in X-ray images of the Galactic center taken with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Several of the features have been discussed in the literature previously, including 7 that are associated with a complex of molecular clouds that exhibits fluorescent line emission, 4 that are superimposed on the supernova remnant Sgr A East, 2 that are coincident with radio features that are thought to be the shell of another supernova remnant, and one that is thought to be a pulsar wind nebula only a few arcseconds in projection from Sgr A*. However, this leaves 20 features that have not been reported previously. Based on the weakness of iron emission in their spectra, we propose that most of them are non-thermal. One long, narrow feature points toward Sgr A*, and so we propose that this feature is a jet of synchrotron-emitting particles ejected from the supermassive black hole. For the others, we show that their sizes (0.1-2 pc in length for D=8 kpc), X-ray luminosities (b...

  12. High-resolution VLBA Observations of Three 7 mm SiO Masers toward VX Sgr at Five Epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J. B.; Shen, Z.-Q.; Chen, X.; Yi, Jiyune; Jiang, D. R.; Yun, Y. J.

    2012-07-01

    VX Sgr is a red supergiant at an adopted distance of 1.6 kpc with intense 43 GHz SiO maser emission. In this paper, we present the high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of SiO masers toward VX Sgr at five epochs. We used the Very Long Baseline Array to map the J = 1→0 (v = 1, 2) 28SiO masers and confirmed a ring-like structure. In the first two epochs, the v = 1 masers form a ring, but v = 2 maser spots residing only in the southern and northern regions do not form a complete ring. In the third epoch, the two masers are distributed in a ring structure and the v = 2 masers are a bit closer to the central star. In the last two epochs, many new maser spots appear and overlap each other. These overlapping maser spots can be related to the shock waves and reflect the collisional pumping. We compare the observations with the pumping models and speculate that the real pumping mechanism may be complex in VX Sgr and vary with time. The J = 1→0 (v = 0) 29SiO line emission is also detected, but is too weak to produce any VLBI map.

  13. Massive Star Formation of the SGR a East H (sub II) Regions Near the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Lacy, J. H.; Wardle, M.; Whitney, B.; Bushouse, H.; Roberts, D. A.; Arendt, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    A group of four compact H II regions associated with the well-known 50 km/s molecular cloud is the closest site of on-going star formation to the dynamical center of the Galaxy, at a projected distance of approximately 6 pc. We present a study of ionized gas based on the [Ne II] (12.8 micron) line, as well as multi-frequency radio continuum, Hubble Space Telescope Pa alpha, and Spitzer Infrared Array Camera observations of the most compact member of the H II group, Sgr A East H II D. The radio continuum image at 6 cm shows that this source breaks up into two equally bright ionized features, D1 and D2. The spectral energy distribution of the D source is consistent with it being due to a 25 =/- 3 solar mass star with a luminosity of 8 +/- 3 x 10(exp 4) Solar luminosity . The inferred mass, effective temperature of the UV source, and the ionization rate are compatible with a young O9-B0 star. The ionized features D1 and D2 are considered to be ionized by UV radiation collimated by an accretion disk. We consider that the central massive star photoevaporates its circumstellar disk on a timescale of 3x (exp 4) years giving a mass flux approximately 3 x 10(exp -5) Solar Mass / year and producing the ionized material in D1 and D2 expanding in an inhomogeneous medium. The ionized gas kinematics, as traced by the [Ne II] emission, is difficult to interpret, but it could be explained by the interaction of a bipolar jet with surrounding gas along with what appears to be a conical wall of lower velocity gas. The other H II regions, Sgr A East A-C, have morphologies and kinematics that more closely resemble cometary flows seen in other compact H II regions, where gas moves along a paraboloidal surface formed by the interaction of a stellar wind with a molecular cloud.

  14. Observational properties of decameter type IV bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoly; Rucker, Helmut; Konovalenko, Alexander; Briand, Carine; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Zarka, Philippe; Frantzusenko, Anatoly; Panchenko, Michael; Poedts, Stefan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Shergelashvili, Bidzina

    2013-04-01

    Oscillations of decameter type IV bursts were registered during observations of solar radio emission by UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA in 2011-2012. Large majority of these bursts were accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which were observed by SOHO and STEREO in the visible light. Only in some cases decameter type IV bursts were not associated with CMEs. The largest periods of oscillations P were some tens of minutes. There were some modes of long periods of oscillations simultaneously. Periods of oscillations in flux and in polarization profiles were close. Detailed properties of oscillations at different frequencies were analyzed on the example of two type IV bursts. One of them was observed on April 7, 2011 when a CME happened. Another one (August 1, 2011) was registered without any CME. The 7 April type IV burst had two periods in the frames 75-85 and 35-85 minutes. Interesting feature of these oscillations is decreasing periods with time. The observed decreasing rates dP/dt equaled 0.03-0.07. Concerning type IV burst observed on August 1, 2011 the period of its oscillations increases from 17 min. at 30 MHz to 44 min. at 10 MHz. Connection of type IV burst oscillations with oscillations of magnetic arches and CMEs at corresponding altitudes are discussed. The work is fulfilled in the frame of FP7 project "SOLSPANET".

  15. Biological Effects of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Critical distances for severe damage on the biota

    CERN Document Server

    Galante, D; Galante, Douglas; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    We present in this work a unified, quantitative synthesis of analytical and numerical calculations of the effects caused on an Earth-like planet by a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB), considering atmospheric and biological implications. The main effects of the illumination by a GRB are classified in four distinct ones and analyzed separately, namely the direct gamma radiation transmission, UV flash, ozone layer depletion and cosmic rays. The effectiveness of each of these effects is compared and lethal distances for significant biological damage are given for each one. We find that the first three effects have potential to cause global environmental changes and biospheric damages, even if the source is located at great distances (perhaps up to ~ 100 kpc). Instead, cosmic rays would only be a serious threat for very close sources. As a concrete example of a recorded similar event, the effects of the giant flare from SGR1806-20 of Dec 27, 2004 could cause on the biosphere are addressed. In spite of not belonging to the so...

  16. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  17. The Arecibo Fast Radio Burst: Dense Circum-burst Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, S R; Neill, J D

    2015-01-01

    The nature of fast radio bursts (FRB) has been extensively debated. Here we investigate FRB121102, detected at Arecibo telescope and remarkable for its unusually large spectral index. After extensive study we conclude that the spectral index is caused by a nebula with free-free absorption. We find that putative nebula must lie beyond the Milky Way. We conclude that FRBs are of extra-galactic origin and that they arise in dense star-forming regions. The challenge with extra-galactic models is the the high volumetric rate of FRBs. This high rate allows us to eliminate all models of catastrophic stellar deaths. Hyper-giant flares from young magnetars emerge as the most likely progenitors. Some of the consequences are: (i) Intergalactic FRB models can be safely ignored. (ii) The rich ISM environment of young magnetars can result in significant contribution to DM, Rotation Measure (RM) and in some cases to significant free-free optical depth. (iii) The star-forming regions in the host galaxies can contribute signi...

  18. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  19. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  20. Ballerina - pirouettes in search of gamma bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Lund, Niels; Pedersen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The cosmological origin of gamma ray bursts has now been established with reasonable certainty, Many more bursts will need to be studied to establish the typical distance scale, and to map out the large diversity in properties which have been indicated by the first handful of events. We are propo...... are proposing Ballerina, a small satellite to provide accurate positions and new data on the gamma-ray bursts. We anticipate a detection rate an order of magnitude larger than obtained from Beppo-SAX....

  1. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER: SiO OUTFLOWS AND HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION NEAR Sgr A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M.; Roberts, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Arendt, R. [CREST/UMBC/NASA GSFC, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bushouse, H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lis, D. C. [California Institute of Technology, MC 320-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pound, M. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, MD 20742 (United States); Whitney, B. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Wootten, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    ALMA observations of the Galactic center with a spatial resolution of 2.''61 Multiplication-Sign 0.''97 resulted in the detection of 11 SiO (5-4) clumps of molecular gas within 0.6 pc (15'') of Sgr A*, interior to the 2 pc circumnuclear molecular ring. The three SiO (5-4) clumps closest to Sgr A* show the largest central velocities, {approx}150 km s{sup -1}, and the broadest asymmetric line widths with full width zero intensity (FWZI) {approx}110-147 km s{sup -1}. The remaining clumps, distributed mainly to the NE of the ionized mini-spiral, have narrow FWZI ({approx}18-56 km s{sup -1}). Using CARMA SiO (2-1) data, Large Velocity Gradient modeling of the SiO line ratios for the broad velocity clumps constrains the column density N(SiO) {approx}10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, and the H{sub 2} gas density n{sub H{sub 2}} = (3-9) x 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3} for an assumed kinetic temperature 100-200 K. The SiO clumps are interpreted as highly embedded protostellar outflows, signifying an early stage of massive star formation near Sgr A* in the last 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} yr. Support for this interpretation is provided by the SiO (5-4) line luminosities and velocity widths which lie in the range measured for protostellar outflows in star-forming regions in the Galaxy. Furthermore, spectral energy distribution modeling of stellar sources shows two young stellar object candidates near SiO clumps, supporting in situ star formation near Sgr A*. We discuss the nature of star formation where the gravitational potential of the black hole dominates. In particular, we suggest that external radiative pressure exerted on self-shielded molecular clouds enhances the gas density, before the gas cloud becomes gravitationally unstable near Sgr A*. Alternatively, collisions between clumps in the ring may trigger gravitational collapse.

  2. ESTIMATE OF BURSTING PRESSURE OF MILD STEEL PRESSURE VESSEL AND PRESENTATION OF BURSTING FORMULA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuanxiang

    2006-01-01

    In order to get more precise bursting pressure formula of mild steel, hundreds of bursting experiments of mild steel pressure vessels such as Q235(Gr.D) and 20R(1020) are done. Based on statistical data of bursting pressure and modification of Faupel formula, a more precise modified formula is given out according to the experimental data. It is proved to be more accurate after examining other bursting pressure value presented in many references. This bursting formula is very accurate in these experiments using pressure vessels with different diameter and shell thickness.Obviously, this modified bursting formula can be used in mild steel pressure vessels with different diameter and thickness of shell.

  3. Evolution of the bursting-layer wave during a Type 1 X-ray burst

    CERN Document Server

    Berkhout, R G

    2007-01-01

    In a popular scenario due to Heyl, quasi periodic oscillations (QPOs) which are seen during type 1 X-ray bursts are produced by giant travelling waves in neutron-star oceans. Piro and Bildsten have proposed that during the burst cooling the wave in the bursting layer may convert into a deep crustal interface wave, which would cut off the visible QPOs. This cut-off would help explain the magnitude of the QPO frequency drift, which is otherwise overpredicted by a factor of several in Heyl's scenario. In this paper, we study the coupling between the bursting layer and the deep ocean. The coupling turns out to be weak and only a small fraction of the surface-wave energy gets transferred to that of the crustal-interface wave during the burst. Thus the crustal-interface wave plays no dynamical role during the burst, and no early QPO cut-off should occur.

  4. V5852 Sgr: An Unusual Nova Possibly Associated with the Sagittarius Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Aydi, E; Whitelock, P A; Mohamed, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Udalski, A; Vaisanen, P; Nagayama, T; Dominik, M; Scholz, A; Onozato, H; Williams, R E; Hodgkin, S T; Nishiyama, S; Yamagishi, M; Smith, A M S; Ryu, T; Iwamatsu, A; Kawamata, I

    2016-01-01

    We report spectroscopic and photometric follow-up of the peculiar nova V5852~Sgr (discovered as OGLE-2015-NOVA-01), which exhibits a combination of features from different nova classes. The photometry shows a flat-topped light curve with quasi-periodic oscillations, then a smooth decline followed by two fainter recoveries in brightness. Spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope shows first a classical nova with an Fe II or Fe IIb spectral type. In the later spectrum, broad emissions from helium, nitrogen and oxygen are prominent and the iron has faded which could be an indication to the start of the nebular phase. The line widths suggest ejection velocities around $1000\\,{\\rm km\\,s^{-1}}$. The nova is in the direction of the Galactic bulge and is heavily reddened by an uncertain amount. The $V$ magnitude 16 days after maximum enables a distance to be estimated and this suggests that the nova may be in the extreme trailing stream of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy. If so it is the first no...

  5. A Disk-based Dynamical Mass Estimate for the Young Binary V4046 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Katherine A; Wilner, David J; Stempels, H C

    2012-01-01

    We present sensitive, arcsecond-resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the 12CO J=2-1 line emission from the circumstellar disk orbiting the double-lined spectroscopic binary star V4046 Sgr. Based on a simple model of the disk structure, we use a novel Monte Carlo Markov Chain technique to extract the Keplerian velocity field of the disk from these data and estimate the total mass of the central binary. Assuming the distance inferred from kinematic parallax measurements in the literature (d is approximately 73 pc), we determine a total stellar mass M_star = 1.75^{+0.09}_{-0.06} solar masses and a disk inclination i_d = 33.5^{+0.7}_{-1.4} degrees from face-on. These measurements are in excellent agreement with independent dynamical constraints made from multi-epoch monitoring of the stellar radial velocities, confirming the absolute accuracy of this precise (~ few percent uncertainties) disk-based method for estimating stellar masses and reaffirming previous assertions that the disk and binary orbital ...

  6. Circumstellar HI and CO around the carbon stars V1942 Sgr and V CrB

    CERN Document Server

    Libert, Y; Thum, C; Winters, J M; Matthews, L D; Bertre, T Le

    2009-01-01

    Context. The majority of stars that leave the main sequence are undergoing extensive mass loss, in particular during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution. Observations show that the rate at which this phenomenon develops differs highly from source to source, so that the time-integrated mass loss as a function of the initial conditions (mass, metallicity, etc.) and of the stage of evolution is presently not well understood. Aims. We are investigating the mass loss history of AGB stars by observing the molecular and atomic emissions of their circumstellar envelopes. Methods. In this work we have selected two stars that are on the thermally pulsing phase of the AGB (TP-AGB) and for which high quality data in the CO rotation lines and in the atomic hydrogen line at 21 cm could be obained. Results. V1942 Sgr, a carbon star of the Irregular variability type, shows a complex CO line profile that may originate from a long-lived wind at a rate of ~ 10^-7 Msol/yr, and from a young (< 10^4 years) fast...

  7. Complete Results from a Spectral-Line Survey of Sgr B2(N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, DeWayne T.; Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2016-06-01

    A confusion-limited spectral line survey of the Galactic center molecular cloud Sgr B2(N) at 3, 2, and 1 mm (68 - 116, 130 - 172, and 210 - 280 GHz) using the Kitt Peak 12 m and the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) of the Arizona Radio Observatory was recently completed. About 15,000 spectral lines were observed in the survey range. The data have been analyzed using two techniques. First, the rotational temperature diagram methods was used for each individual species. Second, an LTE code was used to model and ultimately fit the data to a set of parameters for each species, using a least squares approach. Seventy-four molecules are identified in the data, along with 81 isotopologue species. In addition, 26 excited vibrational states of the identified molecules were detected, as well as H and He recombination lines. Source and Galactic absorption lines are seen in several abundant species, as well as multiple maser lines of methanol and possibly SO_2.

  8. A Systematic Chandra study of Sgr A$^{\\star}$: I. X-ray flare detection

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Daily X-ray flaring represents an enigmatic phenomenon of Sgr A$^{\\star}$ --- the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy. We report initial results from a systematic X-ray study of this phenomenon, based on extensive {\\it Chandra} observations obtained from 1999 to 2012, totaling about 4.5 Ms. We detect flares, using a combination of the maximum likelihood and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, which allow for a direct accounting for the pile-up effect in the modeling of the flare lightcurves and an optimal use of the data, as well as the measurements of flare parameters, including their uncertainties. A total of 82 flares are detected. About one third of them are relatively faint, which were not detected previously. The observation-to-observation variation of the quiescent emission has an average root-mean-square of $6\\%-14\\%$, including the Poisson statistical fluctuation of faint flares below our detection limits. We find no significant long-term variation in the quiescent emission and the flar...

  9. Molecular gas in the immediate vicinity of Sgr A* seen with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Lydia; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Eckart, Andreas; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; García-Marin, Macarena; Kunneriath, Devaky; Zensus, Anton; Britzen, Silke; Sabha, Nadeen; Shahzamanian, Banafsheh; Borkar, Abhijeet; Fischer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We report serendipitous detections of line emission with ALMA in band 3, 6, and 7 in the central parsec of the Galactic center at an up to now highest resolution (<0.7''). Among the highlights are the very first and highly resolved images of sub-mm molecular emission of CS, H13CO+, HC3N, SiO, SO, C2H, and CH3OH in the immediate vicinity (~1'' in projection) of Sgr A* and in the circumnuclear disk (CND). The central association (CA) of molecular clouds shows three times higher CS/X (X: any other observed molecule) luminosity ratios than the CND suggesting a combination of higher excitation - by a temperature gradient and/or IR-pumping - and abundance enhancement due to UV- and/or X-ray emission. We conclude that the CA is closer to the center than the CND is and could be an infalling clump consisting of denser cloud cores embedded in diffuse gas. Moreover, we identified further regions in and outside the CND that are ideally suited for future studies in the scope of hot/cold core and extreme PDR/XDR chemistry and consequent star formation in the central few parsecs.

  10. Hydroxyl, water, ammonia, carbon monoxide and neutral carbon towards the Sgr A complex

    CERN Document Server

    Karlsson, Roland; Hjalmarson, Åke; Winnberg, Anders; Fathi, Kambiz; Frisk, Urban; Olberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We observed OH, H$_2$O, HN$_3$, C$^{18}$O, and C$_I$ towards the +50 km/s cloud (M-0.02-0.07), the CND and the +20 km/s (M-0.13-0.08) cloud in the Sgr A complex with the VLA, Odin and SEST. Strong OH absorption, H$_2$O emission and absorption lines were seen at all three positions. Strong C$^{18}$O emissions were seen towards the +50 and +20 km/s clouds. The CND is rich in H$_2$O and OH, and these abundances are considerably higher than in the surrounding clouds, indicating that shocks, star formation and clump collisions prevail in those objects. A comparison with the literature reveals that it is likely that PDR chemistry including grain surface reactions, and perhaps also the influences of shocks has led to the observed abundances of the observed molecular species studied here. In the redward high-velocity line wings of both the +50 and +20 km/s clouds and the CND, the very high H$_2$O abundances are suggested to be caused by the combined action of shock desorption from icy grain mantles and high-temperatu...

  11. Method for detecting a boson star at Sgr A* through gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Bin-Nun, Amitai Y

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the Sgr A* region in the galactic center confirm the presence of a large amount of matter in a small volume, leading to the consensus that a black hole exists there. However, dynamical observations cannot rule out the presence of a boson star, a compact object made up of scalar particles, as both objects are far more compact than the scale of current observational constraints. While a boson star in the galactic center is disfavored for a number of theoretical considerations, we outline the first test that can directly observe a boson star. We accomplish this by studying the strong gravitational lensing of S stars resulting from the assumption of a boson star in the Galactic Center. Boson stars have an extended mass distribution and are transparent to electromagnetic radiation, giving rise to a radial caustic curve. We calculate the brightness of images formed by stars crossing these radial caustics and show that a boson star would give rise to much brighter images than a black hole with a simi...

  12. HST Paschen alpha and 1.9 micron imaging of Sgr A West

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N Z; Rieke, M; Christopher, M H; Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2003-01-01

    We present HST/NICMOS images at 0.2" resolution of the HI Paschen Alpha (PaA) emission line in a 70" x 90" region of the Galactic center centered on the non-thermal radio source Sgr A*. The majority of the emission arises from ionized gas in the mini-spiral in the central parsec. PaA emission is also seen from 26 stellar sources, presumably early-type stars with mass-loss winds. The new data reveal significant small-scale structure (<1"~0.04pc) in the ionized gas of the mini-spiral; low surface brightness emission features are also seen for the first time. Extinction, estimated from the ratio of observed PaA emission to 6-cm continuum emission, varies from 20 to 50 mag with a median Av=31.1 mag, in excellent agreement with earlier estimates for the stellar sources and indepedent measurements derived using H92alpha recombination line data. Large increases in extinction are seen along the periphery of the ionized gas, suggesting that the ionized gas is partially extincted by dust in the molecular clouds at t...

  13. Multiwavelength study of the flaring activity of Sgr A* in 2014 February-April

    CERN Document Server

    Mossoux, E; Bushouse, H; Eckart, A; Yusef-Zadeh, F; Plambeck, R L; Peissker, F; Valencia-S., M; Porquet, D; Cotton, W D; Roberts, D A

    2016-01-01

    The supermassive black hole Sgr A* is located at the Milky Way center. We studied its flaring activity close to the DSO/G2 pericenter passage to constrain the physical properties and origin of the flares. Simultaneous/coordinated observations were made in 2014 Feb-Apr with XMM-Newton, HST/WFC3, VLT/SINFONI, VLA and CARMA. We detected 2 X-ray and 3 NIR flares on Mar. 10 and Apr. 2 with XMM-Newton and HST and 2 NIR flares on Apr. 3 and 4 with VLT. The Mar. 10 X-ray flare has a long rise and a rapid decay. Its NIR counterpart peaked 4320s before the X-ray peak implying a variation in the X-ray-to-NIR flux ratio. This flare may be a single flare where change in the flux ratio is explained by the adiabatic compression of a plasmon or 2 close flares with simultaneous X-ray/NIR peaks. We observed an increase in the rising radio flux density on Mar. 10 with the VLA. It could be the delayed emission from a NIR/X-ray flare preceding our observation. The Apr. 2 X-ray flare occurred for HST in the Earth occultation of Sg...

  14. VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometric imaging of VX Sgr's inhomogenous outer atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Chiavassa, A; Millour, F; Driebe, T; Wittkowski, M; Plez, B; Thiebeaut, E; Josselin, E; Freytag, B; Scholz, M; Haubois, X

    2009-01-01

    Aims. We aim to explore the photosphere of the very cool late-type star VX Sgr and in particular the existence and characterization of molecular layers above the continuum forming photosphere. Methods. We obtained interferometric observations with the VLTI/AMBER interferometer using the fringe tracker FINITO in the spectral domain 1.45-2.50 micron with a spectral resolution of about 35 and baselines ranging from 15 to 88 meters.We perform independent image reconstruction for different wavelength bins and fit the interferometric data with a geometrical toy model.We also compare the data to 1D dynamical models of Miras atmosphere and to 3D hydrodynamical simulations of red supergiant (RSG) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Results. Reconstructed images and visibilities show a strong wavelength dependence. The H-band images display two bright spots whose positions are confirmed by the geometrical toy model. The inhomogeneities are qualitatively predicted by 3D simulations. At about 2,00 micron and in the ...

  15. Radio emission from Sgr A*: pulsar transits through the accretion disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2017-06-01

    Radiatively inefficient accretion flow models have been shown to accurately account for the spectrum and luminosity observed from Sgr A* in the X-ray regime down to mm wavelengths. However, observations at a few GHz cannot be explained by thermal electrons alone but require the presence of an additional non-thermal particle population. Here, we propose a model for the origin of such a population in the accretion flow via means of a pulsar orbiting the supermassive black hole in our Galaxy. Interactions between the relativistic pulsar wind with the disc lead to the formation of a bow shock in the wind. During the pulsar's transit through the accretion disc, relativistic pairs, accelerated at the shock front, are injected into the disc. The radio-emitting particles are long lived and remain within the disc long after the pulsar's transit. Periodic pulsar transits through the disc result in regular injection episodes of non-thermal particles. We show that for a pulsar with spin-down luminosity Lsd ∼ 3 × 1035 erg s-1 and a wind Lorentz factor of γw ∼ 104 a quasi-steady synchrotron emission is established with luminosities in the 1-10 GHz range comparable to the observed one.

  16. The S2 star as a probe of the accretion disk of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Giannios, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    How accretion proceeds around the massive black hole in the Galactic center and other highly sub-Eddington accretors remains poorly understood. The orbit of the S2 star in the Galactic center passes through the accretion disk of the massive black hole and any observational signature from such interaction may be used as an accretion probe. Because of its early stellar type, S2 is expected to possess a fairly powerful wind. We show here that the ram pressure of the accretion disk shocks the stellar wind fairly close to the star. The shocked fluid reaches a temperature of ~ 1 keV and cools efficiently through optically thin, thermal bremsstrahlung emission. The radiation from the shocked wind peaks around the epoch of the pericenter passage of the star at a luminosity potentially comparable to the quiescent emission detected from Sgr A*. Detection of shocked wind radiation can constrain the density of the accretion disk at a distance of several thousands of gravitational radii from the black hole.

  17. A STAY-GREEN protein SlSGR1 regulates lycopene and β-carotene accumulation by interacting directly with SlPSY1 during ripening processes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhidan; Zhang, Junhong; Li, Jinhua; Yang, Changxian; Wang, Taotao; Ouyang, Bo; Li, Hanxia; Giovannoni, James; Ye, Zhibiao

    2013-04-01

    As a primary source of lycopene in the human diet, fleshy fruits synthesize this compound both de novo and via chlorophyll metabolism during ripening. SlSGR1 encodes a STAY-GREEN protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of chlorophyll degradation in tomato leaves and fruits. We report that SlSGR1 can regulate tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lycopene accumulation through direct interaction with a key carotenoid synthetic enzyme SlPSY1, and can inhibit its activity. This interaction with SlSGR1 mediates lycopene accumulation during tomato fruit maturation. We confirmed this inhibitory activity in bacteria engineered to produce lycopene, where the introduction of SlSGR1 reduced dramatically lycopene biosynthesis. The repression of SlSGR1 in transgenic tomato fruits resulted in altered accumulation patterns of phytoene and lycopene, whilst simultaneously elevating SlPSY1 mRNA accumulation and plastid conversion at the early stages of fruit ripening, resulting in increased lycopene and β-carotene (four- and nine-fold, respectively) in red ripe fruits. SlSGR1 influences ethylene signal transduction via the altered expression of ethylene receptor genes and ethylene-induced genes. Fruit shelf-life is extended significantly in SlSGR1-repressed tomatoes. Our results indicate that SlSGR1 plays a pivotal regulatory role in color formation and fruit ripening regulation in tomato, and further suggest that SlSGR1 activity is mediated through direct interaction with PSY1.

  18. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  19. Gamma-Ray Burst Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Andrew; Crowther, Paul; de Grijs, Richard; Langer, Norbert; Xu, Dong; Yoon, Sung-Chul

    2016-12-01

    We review our current understanding of the progenitors of both long and short duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Constraints can be derived from multiple directions, and we use three distinct strands; (i) direct observations of GRBs and their host galaxies, (ii) parameters derived from modelling, both via population synthesis and direct numerical simulation and (iii) our understanding of plausible analog progenitor systems observed in the local Universe. From these joint constraints, we describe the likely routes that can drive massive stars to the creation of long GRBs, and our best estimates of the scenarios that can create compact object binaries which will ultimately form short GRBs, as well as the associated rates of both long and short GRBs. We further discuss how different the progenitors may be in the case of black hole engine or millisecond-magnetar models for the production of GRBs, and how central engines may provide a unifying theme between many classes of extremely luminous transient, from luminous and super-luminous supernovae to long and short GRBs.

  20. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Remo; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Cherubini, Christian; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Fraschetti, Federico; Geralico, Andrea; Guida, Roberto; Patricelli, Barbara; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    (Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the...

  1. Gamma-ray burst progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Levan, Andrew; de Grijs, Richard; Langer, Norbert; Xu, Dong; Yoon, Sung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    We review our current understanding of the progenitors of both long and short duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Constraints can be derived from multiple directions, and we use three distinct strands; i) direct observations of GRBs and their host galaxies, ii) parameters derived from modeling, both via population synthesis and direct numerical simulation and iii) our understanding of plausible analog progenitor systems observed in the local Universe. From these joint constraints, we describe the likely routes that can drive massive stars to the creation of long GRBs, and our best estimates of the scenarios that can create compact object binaries which will ultimately form short GRBs, as well as the associated rates of both long and short GRBs. We further discuss how different the progenitors may be in the case of black hole engine or millisecond-magnetar models for the production of GRBs, and how central engines may provide a unifying theme between many classes of extremely luminous transient, from luminous an...

  2. Gamma-ray Burst Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y; Liang, E W

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous electromagnetic explosions in the Universe, which emit up to $8.8\\times10^{54}$ erg isotropic equivalent energy in the hard X-ray band. The high luminosity makes them detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. GRBs, as bright beacons in the deep Universe, would be the ideal tool to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. In this article, we review the luminosity correlations of GRBs, and implications for constraining the cosmological parameters and dark energy. Observations show that the progenitors of long GRBs are massive stars. So it is expected that long GRBs are tracers of star formation rate. We also review the high-redshift star formation rate derived from GRBs, and implications for the cosmic reionization history. The afterglows of GRBs generally have broken power-law spectra, so it...

  3. Bursting Smoke as an Infrared Countermeasure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amarjit Singh; P. J. Kamale; S. A. Joshi; L. K. Bankar

    1998-01-01

    ...) using cadmium-mercury-telluride (CMI) detector cooled by liquid nitrogen. The particle size and shape of the powders used in the bursting smokes were determined microscopically using Carl Zeiss Jena Neophot- 21...

  4. Expected Performance of the GLAST Burst Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Charles; Fishman, Gerald; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Paciesas, William; Preece, Robert; Briggs, Michael; Bhat, Narayana; Connaughton, Valerie; Greiner, Jochen; vonKienlin, Andreas; Diehl, Roland; Steinle, Helmut; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Kippen, R. Marc

    2007-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage from the LAT threshold down to approx. 8 kev, and will provide a trigger for re-orienting the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from selected bursts outside the LAT field of view. GBM consists of twelve NaI scintillation detectors operating in the 8 kev to 1 MeV energy range and two BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 150 keV to 30 MeV energy range. Detector resolution, effective area, and angular response have been determined by calibrations. Analyses indicate that the on-board burst threshold will be approx. 0.7 photon/cm2/s and the on-board burst localization accuracy will typically be better than 8 degrees.

  5. Plasma Bursts in Deep Penetration Laser Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrňa, L.; Šarbort, M.

    We present an experimental study of the deep penetration laser welding process which aims to analyze the plasma plume oscillations on a short time scale. Using the high-speed camera we show that the plasma comes out of the keyhole in the form of short bursts rather than the continuous flow. We detect these bursts as the short-time intensity oscillations of light emissions coming from the plasma plume. We determine the period of bursts using the statistical signal processing methods and the short-time frequency analysis. Finally, we compare the characteristics of plasma bursts and the geometry of resulting welds carried out on a 2 kW Yb:YAG laser welding machine for the steel workpiece and various welding parameters settings.

  6. Long Burst Error Correcting Codes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long burst error mitigation is an enabling technology for the use of Ka band for high rate commercial and government users. Multiple NASA, government, and commercial...

  7. Bursts from the very early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Stodolsky, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: les@mppmu.mpg.de

    2006-07-27

    Bursts of weakly interacting particles such as neutrinos or even more weakly interacting particles such as wimps and gravitons from the very early universe would offer a much deeper 'look back time' to early epochs than is possible with photons. We consider some of the issues related to the existence of such bursts and their detectability. Characterizing the burst rate by a probability P per Hubble four-volume we find, for events in the radiation-dominated era, that the natural unit of description is the present intensity of the CMB times P. The existence of such bursts would make the observation of pheno associated with very early times in cosmology at least conceptually possible. One might even hope to probe the transplanckian epoch if complexes more weakly interacting than the graviton can exist. Other conceivable applications include the potential detectability of the formation of 'pocket universes' in a multiverse.

  8. FRBCAT: The Fast Radio Burst Catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, E; Jameson, A; Keane, E F; Bailes, M; Kramer, M; Morello, V; Tabbara, D; van Straten, W

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a catalogue of known Fast Radio Burst (FRB) sources in the form of an online catalogue, FRBCAT. The catalogue includes information about the instrumentation used for the observations for each detected burst, the measured quantities from each observation, and model-dependent quantities derived from observed quantities. To aid in consistent comparisons of burst properties such as width and signal-to-noise ratios we have reprocessed all the bursts for which we have access to the raw data, with software which we make available. The originally derived properties are also listed for comparison. The catalogue is hosted online as a MySQL database which can also be downloaded in tabular or plain text format for off-line use. This database will be maintained for use by the community for studies of the FRB population as it grows.

  9. CMEs and frequency cutoff of solar bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislavsky, Al.; Konovalenko, Al.; Koval, Ar.; Volvach, Y.; Zarka, P.

    2016-05-01

    Radio observations of solar bursts with high-frequency cutoff by the radio telescope UTR-2 (near Kharkiv, Ukraine) at 8-33 MHz on 17-19 August 2012 are presented. Such cutoff may be attributed to the emergence of the burst sources behind limb of the Sun with respect to an observer on the Earth. The events are strongly associated with solar eruptions occurred in a new active region. Ray tracing simulations show that the CMEs play a constructive role for the behind-limb bursts to be detected in ground-based observations. Likely, due to tunnel-like cavities with low density in CMEs, the radio emission of behind-limb solar bursts can be directed towards the Earth.

  10. Formation of primordial supermassive stars by burst accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Y; Yoshida, N; Yorke, H W

    2015-01-01

    A promising formation channel of SMBHs at redshift 6 is the so-called DC model, which posits that a massive seed BH forms through gravitational collapse of a $\\sim 10^5~M_\\odot$ SMS. We study the evolution of such a SMS growing by rapid mass accretion. In particular, we examine the impact of time-dependent mass accretion of repeating burst and quiescent phases that are expected to occur with a self-gravitating circumstellar disk. We show that the stellar evolution with such episodic accretion differs qualitatively from that expected with a constant accretion rate, even if the mean accretion rate is the same. Unlike the case of constant mass accretion, whereby the star expands roughly following $R_* \\simeq 2.6 \\times 10^3 R_\\odot (M_*/100~M_\\odot)^{1/2}$, the protostar can substantially contract during the quiescent phases between accretion bursts. The stellar effective temperature and ionizing photon emissivity increase accordingly as the star contracts, which can cause strong ionizing feedback and halt the m...

  11. Research on experiment and calculation of foam bursting device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This research presents experimental data on mechanical foam bursting device, based on the high speed of air fluid impinging insidethe foam bursting device, foam bubbles disrupted as a consequence of pressures changed very quickly as shear force and their impact forces. Experimental data on foam-bursting capacity have been presented. Designed device can provide effective foam bursting on collapse foam.

  12. The Five Year Fermi/GBM Magnetar Burst Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Collazzi; C. Kouveliotou; A.J. van der Horst; G.A. Younes; Y. Kaneko; E. Göğüş; L. Lin; J. Granot; M.H. Finger; V.L. Chaplin; D. Huppenkothen; A.L. Watts; A. von Kienlin; M.G. Baring; D. Gruber; P.N. Bhat; M.H. Gibby; N. Gehrels; J. Mcenery; M. van der Klis; R.A.M.J. Wijers

    2015-01-01

    Since launch in 2008, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected many hundreds of bursts from magnetar sources. While the vast majority of these bursts have been attributed to several known magnetars, there is also a small sample of magnetar-like bursts of unknown origin. Here, we present

  13. Statistical Properties of repeating FRB 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals possibly occurring at cosmological distances. However the physical model of FRBs is mystery, many models have been proposed. Here we study the frequency distributions of peak flux, fluence, duration and waiting time for repeating FRB 121102. The cumulative distributions of peak flux, fluence and duration show power-law forms. The waiting time distribution also shows power-law distribution, and is consistent with a non-stationary Poisson process. We also use the statistical results to test the proposed models for FRBs. Comparing with the model predications, we find that the theoretical models proposed by Dai et al. (2016) and Katz (2016) are favored. These distributions are consistent with the predications from avalanche models of driven systems.

  14. Syudy of Token Generation for Burst Traffic Shaping in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Wan; So Won-ho; Lu Ji-guang; Kim Young-chon

    2004-01-01

    Traffic shaping is one of important control operation to guarantee the Quality of Service (QoS) in optical burst switching (OBS) networks. The efficiency of traffic shaping is mainly determined by token generation method. In this paper, token generation methods of traffic shaping are evaluated by using three kinds of probability distribution, and are analyzed in terms of burst blocking probability, throughput and correlation by simulation. The simulation results show that the token generation methods decrease the burst correlation of Label Switched Paths (LSPs), and solve traffic congestion as well. The different burst arrival processes have small impact on the blocking probability for OBS networks.

  15. QoS-guaranteed burst transmission for VoIP service over optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Takuji; Kasahara, Shoji

    2007-08-01

    We propose a burst transmission method that guarantees the voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service. The proposed method consists of three techniques: round-robin burst assembly with slotted scheduling, priority control with void filling, and hop-based preemption. Each technique is utilized so that the burst loss probability and the burst transmission delay satisfy VoIP quality of service (QoS). We evaluate by simulation the performance of the proposed method in NSFNET with 14 nodes. Numerical examples show that our proposed method is effective for guaranteeing the VoIP QoS while accommodating a large number of VoIP users.

  16. Gamma-Ray Burst Class Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Meegan, Charles A.; Roiger, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    Guided by the supervised pattern recognition algorithm C4.5 developed by Quinlan in 1986, we examine the three gamma-ray burst classes identified by Mukherjee et al. in 1998. C4.5 provides strong statistical support for this classification. However, with C4.5 and our knowledge of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) instrument, we demonstrate that class 3 (intermediate fluence, intermediate duration, soft) does not have to be a distinct source population: statistical/systematic errors in measuring burst attributes combined with the well-known hardness/intensity correlation can cause low peak flux class 1 (high fluence, long, intermediate hardness) bursts to take on class 3 characteristics naturally. Based on our hypothesis that the third class is not a distinct one, we provide rules so that future events can be placed in either class 1 or class 2 (low fluence, short, hard). We find that the two classes are relatively distinct on the basis of Band's work in 1993 on spectral parameters alpha, beta, and E (sub peak) alone. Although this does not indicate a better basis for classification, it does suggest that different physical conditions exist for class 1 and class 2 bursts. In the process of studying burst class characteristics, we identify a new bias affecting burst fluence and duration measurements. Using a simple model of how burst duration can be underestimated, we show how this fluence duration bias can affect BATSE measurements and demonstrate the type of effect it can have on the BATSE fluence versus peak flux diagram.

  17. Phase analysis method for burst onset prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellino, Flavio; Mazzoni, Alberto; Storace, Marco

    2017-02-01

    The response of bursting neurons to fluctuating inputs is usually hard to predict, due to their strong nonlinearity. For the same reason, decoding the injected stimulus from the activity of a bursting neuron is generally difficult. In this paper we propose a method describing (for neuron models) a mechanism of phase coding relating the burst onsets with the phase profile of the input current. This relation suggests that burst onset may provide a way for postsynaptic neurons to track the input phase. Moreover, we define a method of phase decoding to solve the inverse problem and estimate the likelihood of burst onset given the input state. Both methods are presented here in a unified framework, describing a complete coding-decoding procedure. This procedure is tested by using different neuron models, stimulated with different inputs (stochastic, sinusoidal, up, and down states). The results obtained show the efficacy and broad range of application of the proposed methods. Possible applications range from the study of sensory information processing, in which phase-of-firing codes are known to play a crucial role, to clinical applications such as deep brain stimulation, helping to design stimuli in order to trigger or prevent neural bursting.

  18. Modeling gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxham, Amanda

    Discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are huge explosions of energy that happen at cosmological distances. They provide a grand physical playground to those who study them, from relativistic effects such as beaming, jets, shocks and blastwaves to radiation mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation to galatic and stellar populations and history. Through the Swift and Fermi space telescopes dedicated to observing GRBs over a wide range of energies (from keV to GeV), combined with accurate pinpointing that allows ground based follow-up observations in the optical, infrared and radio, a rich tapestry of GRB observations has emerged. The general picture is of a mysterious central engine (CE) probably composed of a black hole or neutron star that ejects relativistic shells of matter into intense magnetic fields. These shells collide and combine, releasing energy in "internal shocks" accounting for the prompt emission and flaring we see and the "external shock" or plowing of the first blastwave into the ambient surrounding medium has well-explained the afterglow radiation. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We have also included a blastwave model, which can constrain X-ray flares and explain the origin of high energy (GeV) emission seen by the Fermi telescope. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares. We calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary

  19. On the origin of the central 1" hole in the stellar disk of Sgr A* and the Fermi gamma-ray bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the center of the Galaxy is surrounded by two counter-rotating disks of young, massive stars extending from ~0.04 to 0.4 pc. The stellar surface density increases as ~ r^-2 towards Sgr A* but is truncated within 1" (0.04pc). We explore the origin of this annulus using a model in which star formation occurs in a disk of gas created through the partial capture of a gas cloud as it sweeps through the inner few parsecs of the galaxy and temporarily engulfs Sgr A*. We identify the locations within which star formation and/or accretion onto Sgr A* take place. Within 0.04 pc the disk is magnetically active and the associated heating and enhanced pressure prevents the disk from becoming self gravitating. Instead, it forms a magneto-turbulent disk that drains onto Sgr A* within 3 Myr. Meanwhile, fragmentation of the gas beyond the central 0.04 pc hole creates the observed young stellar disk. The two large scale bubbles of gamma-ray emission extending perpendicular to the Galactic ...

  20. Not that long time ago in the nearest galaxy: 3D slice of molecular gas revealed by a 110 years old flare of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Churazov, E; Sunyaev, R; Ponti, G

    2016-01-01

    A powerful outburst of X-ray radiation from the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the center of the Milky Way is believed to be responsible for the illumination of molecular clouds in the central ~100 pc of the Galaxy (Sunyaev et al., 1993, Koyama et al., 1996). The reflected/reprocessed radiation comes to us with a delay corresponding to the light propagation time that depends on the 3D position of molecular clouds with respect to Sgr A*. We suggest a novel way of determining the age of the outburst and positions of the clouds by studying characteristic imprints left by the outburst in the spatial and time variations of the reflected emission. We estimated the age of the outburst that illuminates the Sgr A molecular complex to be ~110 yr. This estimate implies that we see the gas located ~10 pc further away from us than Sgr A*. If the Sgr B2 complex is also illuminated by the same outburst, then it is located ~130 pc closer than our Galactic Center. The outburst was short (less than a few years) and the tota...

  1. The search for complex molecules in the ISM: a complete 3 mm line survey of Sgr B2-N and -M

    CERN Document Server

    Belloche, A; Hieret, C; Menten, K M; Müller, H S P; Schilke, P

    2008-01-01

    Famous for the extraordinary richness of its molecular content, the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex is the prime target in the long-standing search for ever more complex species. We have completed a molecular line survey of the hot dense cores Sgr B2(N) and Sgr B2(M) in the 3 mm wavelength range with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We performed the analysis of this huge data set by modeling the whole spectrum at once in the LTE approximation. Ongoing analyses yield an average line density of about 100 features/GHz above 3 sigma for Sgr B2(N), emitted and/or absorbed by a total of 51 molecular species. We find lines from 60 rare isotopologues and from 41 vibrationally excited states in addition to the main species, vibrational ground state lines. For Sgr B2(M), we find about 25 features/GHz above 3 sigma, from 41 molecular species plus 50 isotopologues and 20 vibrationally excited states. Thanks to the constant updates to the Cologne Database for Molecular Spectroscopy, we are working our way through the assignment of...

  2. ASKAP Joins the Hunt for Mysterious Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    A new telescope, the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP), has joined the search for energetic and elusive fast radio bursts. And in just a few days of looking, its already had success!Elusive TransientsThe Parkes radio telescope, which has detected all but five of the fast radio bursts published to date, has a very narrow field of view. [CSIRO]Fast radio bursts are mysterious millisecond-duration radio pulses that were first discovered around a decade ago. Since that time particularly in recent years weve made some progress toward the goal of localizing them. Were now fairly convinced that fast radio bursts come from outside of the galaxy, and yet theyre enormously bright orders of magnitude more luminous than any pulse seen from the Milky Way.Better identification of where these mysterious bursts come from would help us to determine what they are. But so far, weve discovered only around 30 such bursts, despite the fact that theyre estimated to occur at a rate of 3,000 events per day across the whole sky.Why are they so hard to find? Due to their short duration, effective detection would require instantaneous coverage of a very large fraction of the sky. The Parkes radio telescope which has detected all but five of the fast radio bursts published to date has a field of view spanning less than a square degree,significantly limiting our ability to rapidly survey for these transients.FRB 170107s band-averaged pulse (top) and dynamic spectrum (bottom). [Bannister et al. 2017]A New Array in TownA new player is now on the scene, however, and its already had huge success. ASKAP is a wide-field radio telescope made up of an array of 12-meter antennas. Using phased-array-feed technology, ASKAP is able to instantaneously observe an effective area of 160 square degrees an enormous field compared to Parkes 0.6 square degrees! This capability significantly increases our chances of being able to detect fast radio bursts.In a new study led by Keith Bannister

  3. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  4. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.

    1998-04-28

    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time. 12 figs.

  5. Efficient inhibition of bursts by bursts in the auditory system of crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, G; Pollack, G S

    2007-06-01

    In crickets, auditory information about ultrasound is carried bilaterally to the brain by the AN2 neurons. The ON1 neuron provides contralateral inhibitory input to AN2, thereby enhancing bilateral contrast between the left and right AN2s, an important cue for sound localization. We examine how the structures of the spike trains of these neurons affect this inhibitory interaction. As previously shown for AN2, ON1 responds to salient peaks in stimulus amplitude with bursts of spikes. Spike bursts, but not isolated spikes, reliably signal the occurrence of specific features of the stimulus. ON1 and AN2 burst at similar times relative to the amplitude envelope of the stimulus, and bursts are more tightly time-locked to stimulus feature than the isolated spikes. As a consequence, spikes that, in the absence of contralateral inhibition, would occur within AN2 bursts are more likely to be preceded by spikes in ON1 (mainly also in bursts) than are isolated AN2 spikes. This leads to a large decrease in the burst rate of the inhibited AN2. We conclude that the match in coding properties of ON1 and AN2 allows contralateral inhibition to be most efficient for those portions of the response that carry the behaviourally relevant information, i.e. for bursts.

  6. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  7. A new burst assembly technique for supporting QoS in optical burst switching networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolong Yang(阳小龙); Mingrui Dang(党明瑞); Youju Mao(毛幼菊); Lemin Li(李乐民)

    2003-01-01

    This letter proposes a new burst assembly technique for supporting QoS in optical burst switching (OBS)networks. It consists of the adaptive-threshold burst assembly mechanism and QoS-based random offset-time scheme. The assembly mechanism, which is fit well to multi-class burst assembly, not only matcheswith IP QoS mechanism based on packet classification, and also utilizes fairly and efficiently assemblycapacity. Based on token-bucket model and burst segment selective discard (BSSD), the offset-time schemecan smooth the traffic to support OBS QoS. The simulation results show that the technique can improvethe performance in terms of packet loss probability (PLP).

  8. An Intelligent Segmented Burst Assembly Mechanism in Optical Burst Switching Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yi-Yuan; ZHANG Jian-Guo

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the burst assembly mechanism and propose a new intelligent method in which the burst is assembled from several internet protocol (IP) packets in which the number of IP packets is changed according to the traffic load and the burst is segmented into several parts, called the ISOBS mechanism. The average burst assembly time of the ISOBS mechanism decreases as compared with the fixed-assembly-time and fixed-assembly-time-and-length mechanisms. The loss ratio decreases 50% as compared with the general optical burst switching (OBS) mechanism. The last segment can carry high quality of service (QOS) information. We can achieve that the loss ratio of the last segment is almost zero when the traffic load is less than 0.05. When the traffic load is 0.9, the loss ratio of the last segment is 0.0041. The ISOBS can support to transmit different QOS data.

  9. Bursting synchronization in clustered neuronal networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hai-Tao; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal networks in the brain exhibit the modular (clustered) property,i.e.,they are composed of certain subnetworks with differential internal and external connectivity.We investigate bursting synchronization in a clustered neuronal network.A transition to mutual-phase synchronization takes place on the bursting time scale of coupled neurons,while on the spiking time scale,they behave asynchronously.This synchronization transition can be induced by the variations of inter-and intracoupling strengths,as well as the probability of random links between different subnetworks.Considering that some pathological conditions are related with the synchronization of bursting neurons in the brain,we analyze the control of bursting synchronization by using a time-periodic external signal in the clustered neuronal network.Simulation results show a frequency locking tongue in the driving parameter plane,where bursting synchronization is maintained,even in the presence of external driving.Hence,effective synchronization suppression can be realized with the driving parameters outside the frequency locking region.

  10. Diagnostics From Three Rising Submillimeter Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts occurred sequentially in a super-Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu/GHz (corresponding spectral index $\\alpha$ of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, while it can attain values of 235 sfu/GHz ($\\alpha$=4.8) for 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of high relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV , while it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than that in microwave (MW) one. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20--50$\\%$ during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW one increased by 28$\\%$ for the 2003 Novemb...

  11. Olivary subthreshold oscillations and burst activity revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eBazzigaluppi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The inferior olive forms one of the major gateways for information that travels to the cerebellar cortex. Olivary neurons process sensory and motor signals that are subsequently relayed to Purkinje cells. The intrinsic subthreshold membrane potential oscillations of the olivary neurons are thought to be important for gating this flow of information. In vitro studies have revealed that the phase of the subthreshold oscillation determines the size of the olivary burst and may gate the information flow or encode the temporal state of the olivary network. Here, we investigated whether the same phenomenon occurred in murine olivary cells in an intact olivocerebellar system using the in vivo whole-cell recording technique. Our in vivo findings revealed that the number of wavelets within the olivary burst did not encode the timing of the spike relative to the phase of the oscillation but was related to the amplitude of the oscillation. Manipulating the oscillation amplitude by applying Harmaline confirmed the inverse relationship between the amplitude of oscillation and the number of wavelets within the olivary burst. Furthermore, we demonstrated that electrotonic coupling between olivary neurons affect this modulation of the olivary burst size. Based on these results, we suggest that the olivary burst size might reflect the expectancy of a spike to occur rather than the spike timing, and that this process requires the presence of gap junction coupling.

  12. The Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Djorgovski, S G; Kulkarni, S R; Sari, R; Bloom, J S; Galama, T J; Harrison, F A; Price, P A; Fox, D; Reichart, D; Yost, S; Berger, E; Diercks, A H; Goodrich, R; Chaffee, F H

    2001-01-01

    Cosmic gamma-ray bursts are one of the great frontiers of astrophysics today. They are a playground of relativists and observers alike. They may teach us about the death of stars and the birth of black holes, the physics in extreme conditions, and help us probe star formation in the distant and obscured universe. In this review we summarise some of the remarkable progress in this field over the past few years. While the nature of the GRB progenitors is still unsettled, it now appears likely that at least some bursts originate in explosions of very massive stars, or at least occur in or near the regions of massive star formation. The physics of the burst afterglows is reasonably well understood, and has been tested and confirmed very well by the observations. Bursts are found to be beamed, but with a broad range of jet opening angles; the mean gamma-ray energies after the beaming corrections are ~ 10^51 erg. Bursts are associated with faint ~ 25 mag) galaxies at cosmological redshifts, with ~ 1. The host gal...

  13. Meteor burst in the post 2000 era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, C.; Oduol, V.; Ghosh, A.; Tailor, B.

    In recent years a renewed interest has been shown in the possibility of using meteor burst links in tactical communications, both for networking and covert operations. Some of the applications that recent performance improvements would permit are evaluated. In evaluating the feasibility of a meteor burst implementation, certain technical and physical limitations are addressed. For the success of these applications, interoperability with other communication systems is necessary. The level of interoperability with other media, and the standards necessary to assure this interoperability are examined. Methods of minimizing and combating jamming are proposed. Meteor burst systems can be used in a large number of applications within a tactical environment. The principal disadvantage of the meteor burst medium is the problem of interference to other spectrum users from the probe end, and the interference from other users at the receiver end. The low throughput characteristic of meteor burst compares with some of the channel capacities used in other systems. Interoperability with other networks or communications links is relatively easy if certain straightforward protocols and standards are established.

  14. GRB Catalog: Bursts from Vela to Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, L.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma ray burst (GRB) astronomy started when the first event was recorded on July 2, 1967 by Vela 4a and 4b. Since then many missions have flown experiments capable of detecting GRBs. The events collected by these older experiments are mostly available in paper copy, each containing a few ten to a few hundred bursts. No systematic effort in cataloging of these bursts has been available. In some cases the information is unpublished and in others difficult to retrieve. The first major GRB catalog was obtained by GRO with the BATSE experiment. It contains more than 2000 bursts and includes homogeneous information for each of the bursts. With the launch of Swift, the first Gamma-ray/X-ray mission dedicated to the study of GRBs and their afterglows, a wealth of information is collected by the Swift instrument as well as from ground-based telescopes. This talk will describe the efforts to create a comprehensive GRBCAT and its current status and future prospective.

  15. Functional and RNA-sequencing analysis revealed expression of a novel stay-green gene from Zoysia japonica (ZjSGR caused chlorophyll degradation and accelerated senescence in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Teng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Senescence is not only an important developmental process, but also a responsive regulation to abiotic and biotic stress for plants. Stay-green protein plays crucial roles in plant senescence and chlorophyll degradation. However, the underlying mechanisms were not well studied, particularly in non-model plants. In this study, a novel stay-green gene, ZjSGR, was isolated from Zoysia japonica. Subcellular localization result demonstrated that ZjSGR was localized in the chloroplasts. Quantitative real-time PCR results together with promoter activity determination using transgenic Arabidopsis confirmed that ZjSGR could be induced by darkness, ABA and MeJA. Its expression levels could also be up-regulated by natural senescence, but suppressed by SA treatments. Overexpression of ZjSGR in Arabidopsis resulted in a rapid yellowing phenotype; complementary experiments proved that ZjSGR was a functional homologue of AtNYE1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of ZjSGR accelerated chlorophyll degradation and impaired photosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that overexpression of ZjSGR decomposed the chloroplasts structure. RNA sequencing analysis showed that ZjSGR could play multiple roles in senescence and chlorophyll degradation by regulating hormone signal transduction and the expression of a large number of senescence and environmental stress related genes. Our study provides a better understanding of the roles of SGRs, and new insight into the senescence and chlorophyll degradation mechanisms in plants.

  16. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  17. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  18. Spitzer/IRAC observations of the variability of Sgr A* and the object G2 at 4.5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, J. L.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Smith, H. A.; Willner, S. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Witzel, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Ghez, A.; Meyer, L.; Morris, M. R. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Carey, S.; Ingalls, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We present the first detection from the Spitzer Space Telescope of 4.5 μm variability from Sgr A*, the emitting source associated with the Milky Way's central black hole. The >23 hr continuous light curve was obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) instrument in 2013 December. The result characterizes the variability of Sgr A* prior to the closest approach of the tidally deformed G2 object, a putative infalling gas cloud that orbits close to Sgr A*. The high stellar density at the location of Sgr A* produces a background of ∼250 mJy at 4.5 μm in each pixel with a large pixel-to-pixel gradient, but the light curve for the highly variable Sgr A* source was successfully measured by modeling and removing the variations due to pointing wobble. The observed flux densities range from the noise level of ∼0.7 mJy rms in a 6.4 s measurement to ≳10 mJy. Emission was seen above the noise level ∼34% of the time. The light-curve characteristics, including the flux density distribution and structure function, are consistent with those previously derived at shorter infrared wavelengths. We see no evidence in the light curve for activity attributable to the G2 interaction at the observing epoch, ∼100 days before the expected G2 periapsis passage. The IRAC light curve is more than a factor of two longer than any previous infrared observation, improving constraints on the timescale of the break in the power spectral distribution of Sgr A* flux densities. The data favor the longer of the two previously published values for the timescale.

  19. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels;

    2006-01-01

    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  20. Arc burst pattern analysis fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B. Don (Inventor); Aucoin, B. Michael (Inventor); Benner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting an arcing fault on a power line carrying a load current. Parameters indicative of power flow and possible fault events on the line, such as voltage and load current, are monitored and analyzed for an arc burst pattern exhibited by arcing faults in a power system. These arcing faults are detected by identifying bursts of each half-cycle of the fundamental current. Bursts occurring at or near a voltage peak indicate arcing on that phase. Once a faulted phase line is identified, a comparison of the current and voltage reveals whether the fault is located in a downstream direction of power flow toward customers, or upstream toward a generation station. If the fault is located downstream, the line is de-energized, and if located upstream, the line may remain energized to prevent unnecessary power outages.

  1. A mechanism for fast radio bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E; Vieyro, Florencia L

    2015-01-01

    Fast radio bursts are mysterious transient sources likely located at cosmological distances. The derived brightness temperatures exceed by many orders of magnitude the self-absorption limit of incoherent synchrotron radiation, implying the operation of a coherent emission process. We propose a radiation mechanism for fast radio bursts where the emission arises from collisionless Bremsstrahlung in strong plasma turbulence excited by relativistic electron beams. We discuss possible astrophysical scenarios in which this process might operate. The emitting region is a turbulent plasma hit by a relativistic jet, where Langmuir plasma waves produce a concentration of intense electrostatic soliton-like regions (cavitons). The resulting radiation is coherent and, under some physical conditions, can be polarised and have a power-law distribution in energy. We obtain radio luminosities in agreement with the inferred values for fast radio bursts. The timescale of the radio flare in some cases can be extremely fast, of t...

  2. Study on fault induced rock bursts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-hua; DOU Lin-ming; LU Cai-ping; MU Zong-long; CAO An-ye

    2008-01-01

    In order to study the rules of rock bursts caused by faults by means of mechanical analysis of a roof rock-mass balanced structure and numerical simulation about fault slip destabilization, the effect of coal mining operation on fault plane stresses and slip displacement were studied. The results indicate that the slip displacement sharply increases due to the decrease of normal stress and the increase of shear stress at the fault plane when the working face advances from the footwall to the fault itself, which may induce a fault rock burst. However, this slip displacement will be very small due to the increase of normal stress and the decrease of shear stress when the working face advances from the hanging wall to the fault itself, which results in a very small risk of a fault rock burst.

  3. On the bursting of gene products

    CERN Document Server

    Yvinec, Romain

    2011-01-01

    In this article we demonstrate that the so-called bursting production of molecular species during gene expression may be an artifact caused by low time resolution in experimental data collection and not an actual burst in production. We reach this conclusion through an analysis of a two-stage and binary model for gene expression, and demonstrate that in the limit when mRNA degradation is much faster than protein degradation they are equivalent. The negative binomial distribution is shown to be a limiting case of the binary model for fast "on to off" state transitions and high values of the ratio between protein synthesis and degradation rates. The gene products population increases by unity but multiple times in a time interval orders of magnitude smaller than protein half-life or the precision of the experimental apparatus employed in its detection. This rare-and-fast one-by-one protein synthesis has been interpreted as bursting.

  4. Variable protostellar accretion with episodic bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobyov, Eduard I

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest development of the disk gravitational instability and fragmentation model, originally introduced by us to explain episodic accretion bursts in the early stages of star formation. Using our numerical hydrodynamics model with improved disk thermal balance and star-disk interaction, we computed the evolution of protostellar disks formed from the gravitational collapse of prestellar cores. In agreement with our previous studies, we find that cores of higher initial mass and angular momentum produce disks that are more favorable to gravitational instability and fragmentation, while a higher background irradiation and magnetic fields moderate the disk tendency to fragment. The protostellar accretion in our models is time-variable, thanks to the nonlinear interaction between different spiral modes in the gravitationally unstable disk, and can undergo episodic bursts when fragments migrate onto the star owing to the gravitational interaction with other fragments or spiral arms. Most bursts occur...

  5. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Radio Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs are extremely energetic events at cosmological distances. They provide unique laboratory to investigate fundamental physical processes under extreme conditions. Due to extreme luminosities, GRBs are detectable at very high redshifts and potential tracers of cosmic star formation rate at early epoch. While the launch of Swift and Fermi has increased our understanding of GRBs tremendously, many new questions have opened up. Radio observations of GRBs uniquely probe the energetics and environments of the explosion. However, currently only 30% of the bursts are detected in radio bands. Radio observations with upcoming sensitive telescopes will potentially increase the sample size significantly and allow one to follow the individual bursts for a much longer duration and be able to answer some of the important issues related to true calorimetry, reverse shock emission, and environments around the massive stars exploding as GRBs in the early Universe.

  6. Bursting activity spreading through asymmetric interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Onaga, Tomokatsu

    2014-01-01

    People communicate with those who have the same background or share a common interest by using a social networking service (SNS). News or messages propagate through inhomogeneous connections in an SNS by sharing or facilitating additional comments. Such human activity is known to lead to endogenous bursting in the rate of message occurrences. We analyze a multi-dimensional self-exciting process to reveal dependence of the bursting activity on the topology of connections and the distribution of interaction strength on the connections. We determine the critical conditions for the cases where interaction strength is regulated at either the point of input or output for each person. In the input regulation condition, the network may exhibit bursting with infinitesimal interaction strength, if the dispersion of the degrees diverges as in the scale-free networks. In contrast, in the output regulation condition, the critical value of interaction strength, represented by the average number of events added by a single ...

  7. Complete 2mm Spectral Line Survey (130-170 GHz) of Sgr B2N, Sgr B2OH, IRC +10 216, Orion (KL), Orion-S, W51M, and W3(IRS5)

    CERN Document Server

    Remijan, Anthony J; Markwick-Kemper, A J; Turner, B E

    2008-01-01

    We report a complete 2mm spectral line survey (130-170 GHz) taken with the NRAO 12m Telescope between 1993 and 1995 toward the following sources: Sgr B2N, Sgr B2OH, IRC +10 216, Orion (KL), Orion-S, W51M, and W3(IRS5). Until very recently, this project was entirely the work of B. E. Turner. He wrote the original proposal, given below without changes or updates, and did all of the observing. B.E. Turner has fallen seriously ill and can no longer continue to work on the analysis of these data. The notes that follow the proposal give further information about the project and important information for users of these data. The data are distributed using the Spectral Line Search Engine (SLiSE) developed by A. J. Remijan and M. J. Remijan. SLiSE is a data display tool that will contain all the fully reduced and calibrated archived data taken as part of this 2mm survey. SLiSE is fast, easy to use, and contains the necessary functionality to display the data taken from spectral line searches. For example, SLiSE contai...

  8. Dependence of X-Ray Burst Models on Nuclear Reaction Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Cyburt, R H; Heger, A; Johnson, E; Keek, L; Meisel, Z; Schatz, H; Smith, K

    2016-01-01

    X-ray bursts are thermonuclear flashes on the surface of accreting neutron stars and reliable burst models are needed to interpret observations in terms of properties of the neutron star and the binary system. We investigate the dependence of X-ray burst models on uncertainties in (p,$\\gamma$), ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$), and ($\\alpha$,p) nuclear reaction rates using fully self-consistent burst models that account for the feedbacks between changes in nuclear energy generation and changes in astrophysical conditions. A two-step approach first identified sensitive nuclear reaction rates in a single-zone model with ignition conditions chosen to match calculations with a state-of-the-art 1D multi-zone model based on the {\\Kepler} stellar evolution code. All relevant reaction rates on neutron deficient isotopes up to mass 106 were individually varied by a factor of 100 up and down. Calculations of the 84 highest impact reaction rate changes were then repeated in the 1D multi-zone model. We find a number of uncertain reac...

  9. Fast radio bursts as giant pulses from young rapidly rotating pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Burzawa, Lukasz; Popov, Sergei B.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss possible association of fast radio bursts (FRBs) with supergiant pulses emitted by young pulsars (ages ˜ tens to hundreds of years) born with regular magnetic field but very short - few milliseconds - spin periods. We assume that FRBs are extra-Galactic events coming from distances d ≲ 100 Mpc and that most of the dispersion measure (DM) comes from the material in the freshly ejected SNR shell. We then predict that for a given burst the DM should decrease with time and that FRBs are not expected to be seen below ˜300 MHz due to free-free absorption in the expanding ejecta. A supernova might have been detected years before the burst; FRBs are mostly associated with star-forming galaxies. The model requires that some pulsars are born with very fast spins, of the order of few milliseconds. The observed distribution of spin-down powers dot{E} in young energetic pulsars is consistent with equal birth rate per decade of dot{E}. Accepting this injection distribution and scaling the intrinsic brightness of FRBs with dot{E}, we predict the following properties of a large sample of FRBs: (i) the brightest observed events come from a broad distribution in distances; (ii) for repeating bursts brightness either remains nearly constant (if the spin-down time is longer than the age of the pulsar) or decreases with time otherwise; in the latter case DM ∝ dot{E}.

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Early Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B

    2005-01-01

    The successful launch and operation of NASA's Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer open a new era for the multi-wavelength study of the very early afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRB early afterglow information is essential to explore the unknown physical composition of GRB jets, the link between the prompt gamma-ray emission and the afterglow emission, the GRB central engine activity, as well as the immediate GRB environment. Here I review some of the recent theoretical efforts to address these problems and describe how the latest Swift data give answers to these outstanding questions.

  11. Distribution of whistler mode bursts at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Jordan, K. F.; Russell, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    Several thousand impulsive whistler mode noise bursts were detected by the Pioneer Venus wave instrument during the first 10 seasons with nightside traversals at low altitudes. The altitude distribution for these events shows that essentially all of the bursts were detected when the orbiter was less than 2000 km above the planet, suggesting that the varying plasma conditions could not maintain coherent whistler mode field-aligned guidance over greater distances. Within the 2000-km range, the distribution of the number of events versus altitude shows that there are two distinct subregions. These results are interpreted in terms of two types of whistler mode propagation from sources below the ionosphere.

  12. A Burst Chasing X-ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale, design, and importance of an X-Ray Polarimeter. There is a brief discussion of Gamma Ray Bursts, followed by a review of the theories of Gamma-Ray Bursts Polarization. This leads to the question of "How do we measure the polarization?" and a discussion of the GRB x-ray emission, the photoelectric effect and photoelectric polarimetry. The requirements for the work, can only be approached using a gas detector. This leads to a discussion of a Micropattern Gas Polarimeter, and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) X-ray Polarimeter.

  13. The Integral Burst Alert System (IBAS)

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, S; Borkowski, J J; Walter, R; Pedersen, H

    2003-01-01

    We describe the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System (IBAS): the automatic software for the rapid distribution of the coordinates of the Gamma-Ray Bursts detected by INTEGRAL. IBAS is implemented as a ground based system, working on the near-real time telemetry stream. During the first six months of operations, six GRB have been detected in the field of view of the INTEGRAL instruments and localized by IBAS. Positions with an accuracy of a few arcminutes are currently distributed by IBAS to the community for follow-up observations within a few tens of seconds of the event.

  14. Phantom bursting is highly sensitive to noise and unlikely to account for slow bursting in beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic beta-cells show bursting electrical activity with a wide range of burst periods ranging from a few seconds, often seen in isolated cells, over tens of seconds (medium bursting), usually observed in intact islets, to several minutes. The phantom burster model [Bertram, R., Previte, J...... and lowers the burst period dramatically in phantom bursters. It is therefore unlikely that slow bursting in single cells is driven by the slow phantom bursting mechanism, but could instead be driven by oscillations in glycolysis, which we show are stable to random ion channel fluctuations. Moreover, so...

  15. NSV 11749, an elder sibling of the born again stars V605 Aql and V4334 Sgr?

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, M M Miller; Granada, A; Althaus, L G

    2011-01-01

    We argue that NSV 11749, an eruption observed in the early twentieth century, was a rare event known as "very late thermal pulse" (VLTP). To support our argument we compare the lightcurve of NSV 11749 with those of the two bonafide VLTP objects known to date, V4334 Sgr and V605 Aql, and with those predicted by state of the art stellar evolution models. Next, we explore the IPHAS and 2MASS catalogues for possible counterparts of the eruption. Our analysis shows that the VLTP scenario outperforms all other proposed scenarios as an explanation of NSV 11749. We identify an IPHAS/2MASS source at the eruption location of NSV 11749. The derived colors suggest that the object is not enshrouded in a thick dust shell as V605 Aql and V4334 Sgr. Also the absence of an apparent planetary nebula (PN) at the eruption location suggests differences with known VLTP objects which might be linked to the intensity of the eruption and the mass of the object. Further exploration of this source and scenario seems desirable. If NSV 1...

  16. A QUANTITATIVE TEST OF THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH Sgr A* USING STARS, PULSARS, AND THE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Psaltis, Dimitrios [Astronomy Department, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wex, Norbert; Kramer, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-02-20

    The black hole in the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*, has the largest mass-to-distance ratio among all known black holes in the universe. This property makes Sgr A* the optimal target for testing the gravitational no-hair theorem. In the near future, major developments in instrumentation will provide the tools for high-precision studies of its spacetime via observations of relativistic effects in stellar orbits, in the timing of pulsars, and in horizon-scale images of its accretion flow. We explore here the prospect of measuring the properties of the black hole spacetime using all of these three types of observations. We show that the correlated uncertainties in the measurements of the black hole spin and quadrupole moment using the orbits of stars and pulsars are nearly orthogonal to those obtained from measuring the shape and size of the shadow the black hole casts on the surrounding emission. Combining these three types of observations will therefore allow us to assess and quantify systematic biases and uncertainties in each measurement and lead to a highly accurate, quantitative test of the gravitational no-hair theorem.

  17. Probing the Magnetic Field Structure in {Sgr}\\,{\\rm{A}}* on Black Hole Horizon Scales with Polarized Radiative Transfer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Roman; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic fields are believed to drive accretion and relativistic jets in black hole accretion systems, but the magnetic field structure that controls these phenomena remains uncertain. We perform general relativistic (GR) polarized radiative transfer of time-dependent three-dimensional GR magnetohydrodynamical simulations to model thermal synchrotron emission from the Galactic Center source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We compare our results to new polarimetry measurements by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and show how polarization in the visibility (Fourier) domain distinguishes and constrains accretion flow models with different magnetic field structures. These include models with small-scale fields in disks driven by the magnetorotational instability as well as models with large-scale ordered fields in magnetically arrested disks. We also consider different electron temperature and jet mass-loading prescriptions that control the brightness of the disk, funnel-wall jet, and Blandford–Znajek-driven funnel jet. Our comparisons between the simulations and observations favor models with ordered magnetic fields near the black hole event horizon in Sgr A*, though both disk- and jet-dominated emission can satisfactorily explain most of the current EHT data. We also discuss how the black hole shadow can be filled-in by jet emission or mimicked by the absence of funnel jet emission. We show that stronger model constraints should be possible with upcoming circular polarization and higher frequency (349 GHz) measurements.

  18. High-amplitude supergiant V5112 Sgr: enrichment of the envelope with heavy s-process metals

    CERN Document Server

    Klochkova., V G

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution (R=60000) echelle spectroscopy of the post-AGB supergiant V5112 Sgr performed in 1996-2012 with the 6-m telescope BTA has revealed peculiarities of the star optical spectrum and has allowed the variability of the velocity field in the stellar atmosphere and envelope to be studied in detail. An asymmetry and splitting of strong absorption lines with a low lower-level excitation potential have been detected for the first time. The effect is maximal in BaII lines whose profile is split into three components. The profile shape and positions of the split lines change with time. The blue components of the split absorption lines are shown to be formed in a structured circumstellar envelope, suggesting an efficient dredge-up of the heavy metals produced during the preceding evolution of this star into the envelope. The envelope expansion velocities have been estimated to be 20 and 30 km/s. The mean radial velocity from diffuse bands in the spectrum of V5112 Sgr coincides with that from the short-wavel...

  19. X-ray Diagnostics of Giant Molecular Clouds in the Galactic Center Region and Past Activity of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Shin; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Khangulyan, Dmitry; Takahashi, Tadayuki; 10.1088/0004-637X/740/2/103

    2011-01-01

    Strong iron fluorescence at 6.4 keV and hard-X-ray emissions from giant molecular clouds in the Galactic center region have been interpreted as reflections of a past outburst of the Sgr A* supermassive black hole. Careful treatment of multiple interactions of photons in a complicated geometry is essential to modeling the reprocessed emissions from the dense clouds. We develop a new calculation framework of X-ray reflection from molecular clouds based on Monte Carlo simulations for accurate interpretation of high-quality observational data. By utilizing this simulation framework, we present the first calculations of morphologies and spectra of the reflected X-ray emission for several realistic models of Sgr B2, which is the most massive molecular cloud in our Galaxy. The morphology of scattered hard X-rays above 20 keV is significantly different from that of iron fluorescence due to their large penetrating power into dense regions of the cloud, probing the structure of the cloud. High-resolution spectra provid...

  20. A Chandra Study of Sgr A East A Supernova Remnant Regulating The Activity Of Our Galactic Center?

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, Y; Feigelson, E D; Morris, M; Bautz, M W; Brandt, W N; Burrows, D N; Doty, J P; Garmire, G P; Pravdo, S H; Ricker, G R; Townsley, L K

    2001-01-01

    We report on the X-ray emission from the shell-like, non-thermal radio source Sgr A East located in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy based on observations made with the ACIS detector on board Chandra. This is the first time Sgr A East has been clearly resolved from other complex structures in the region. The X-ray emitting region is concentrated within the central $\\simeq 2$ pc of the larger radio shell. The spectrum shows strong K$\\alpha$ lines from highly ionized ions of S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. A simple isothermal plasma model gives electron temperature $\\sim 2$ keV, absorption column $\\sim 1 \\times 10^{23}$ H/cm^2, luminosity $\\sim 8 \\times 10^{34}$ ergs/s in the 2--10 keV band, and gas mass $\\sim 2\\eta^{1/2}$ M$_{\\odot}$ with a filling factor $\\eta$. The plasma appears to be rich in heavy elements, over-abundant by roughly a factor of four with respect to solar abundances, and shows a spatial gradient of elemental abundance: the spatial distribution of iron is more compact than that of the lighter elements....

  1. Simulations of the formation of a gaseous disc and young stars near Sgr A* via cloud-cloud collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Young massive stars in the central parsec of our Galaxy are best explained by star formation within at least one, and possibly two, massive self-gravitating gaseous discs. With help of numerical simulations, we here consider whether the observed population of young stars could have originated from a large angle collision of two massive gaseous clouds at R ~ 1 pc from Sgr A*. In all the simulations performed, the post-collision gas flow forms an inner nearly circular gaseous disc and one or two eccentric outer filaments, consistent with the observations. Furthermore, the radial stellar mass distribution is always very steep, sigma proportional to R^-2, again consistent with the data. The 3D velocity structure of the stellar distribution is however sensitive to initial conditions (e.g., the impact parameter of the clouds) and gas cooling details. In all the cases the amount of gas accreted by our inner boundary condition is large, enough to allow Sgr A* to radiate near its Eddington limit during ~ 10^5 years. T...

  2. The born again (VLTP) scenario revisited: The mass of the remnants and implications for V4334 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, M M Miller

    2007-01-01

    We present 1-D numerical simulations of the very late thermal pulse (VLTP) scenario for a wide range of remnant masses. We show that by taking into account the different possible remnant masses, the observed evolution of V4334 Sgr (a.k.a. Sakurai's Object) can be reproduced within the standard 1D-MLT stellar evolutionary models without the inclusion of any $ad-hoc$ reduced mixing efficiency. Our simulations hint at a consistent picture with present observations of V4334 Sgr. From energetics, and within the standard MLT approach, we show that low mass remnants \\hbox{($M\\lesssim0.6$\\msun)} are expected to behave markedly different than higher mass remnants \\hbox{($M\\gtrsim0.6$\\msun)} in the sense that the latter are not expected to expand significantly as a result of the violent H-burning that takes place during the VLTP. We also assess the discrepancy in the born again times obtained by different authors by comparing the energy that can be liberated by H-burning during the VLTP event.

  3. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  4. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Astronomers studying archival data from an Australian radio telescope have discovered a powerful, short-lived burst of radio waves that they say indicates an entirely new type of astronomical phenomenon. Region of Strong Radio Burst Visible-light (negative greyscale) and radio (contours) image of Small Magellanic Cloud and area where burst originated. CREDIT: Lorimer et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for high-resolution file ( 114 KB) "This burst appears to have originated from the distant Universe and may have been produced by an exotic event such as the collision of two neutron stars or the death throes of an evaporating black hole," said Duncan Lorimer, Assistant Professor of Physics at West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The research team led by Lorimer consists of Matthew Bailes of Swinburne University in Australia, Maura McLaughlin of WVU and NRAO, David Narkevic of WVU, and Fronefield Crawford of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The astronomers announced their findings in the September 27 issue of the online journal Science Express. The startling discovery came as WVU undergraduate student David Narkevic re-analyzed data from observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud made by the 210-foot Parkes radio telescope in Australia. The data came from a survey of the Magellanic Clouds that included 480 hours of observations. "This survey had sought to discover new pulsars, and the data already had been searched for the type of pulsating signals they produce," Lorimer said. "We re-examined the data, looking for bursts that, unlike the usual ones from pulsars, are not periodic," he added. The survey had covered the Magellanic Clouds, a pair of small galaxies in orbit around our own Milky Way Galaxy. Some 200,000 light-years from Earth, the Magellanic Clouds are prominent features in the Southern sky. Ironically, the new discovery is not part of these galaxies, but rather is much more distant

  5. Exploring molecular complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Simulations of branched carbon-chain chemistry in Sgr B2(N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrod, R. T.; Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Using millimeter wavelength data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the EMoCA spectral line survey recently revealed the presence of both the straight-chain (normal) and branched (iso) forms of propyl cyanide (C3H7CN) toward the Galactic Center star-forming source Sgr B2(N2). This was the first interstellar detection of a branched aliphatic molecule. Aims: Through computational methods, we seek to explain the observed i:n ratio for propyl cyanide, and to predict the abundances of the four different forms of the homologous nitrile, butyl cyanide (C4H9CN). We also investigate whether other molecules will show a similar degree of branching, by modeling the chemistry of alkanes up to pentane (C5H12). Methods: We use the coupled three-phase chemical kinetics model, MAGICKAL, to simulate the chemistry of the hot-core source Sgr B2(N2), using an updated chemical network that includes grain-surface/ice-mantle formation routes for branched nitriles and alkanes. The network explicitly considers radical species with an unpaired electron on either the primary or secondary carbon in a chain. We also include mechanisms for the addition of the cyanide radical, CN, to hydrocarbons with multiple bonds between carbon atoms, using activation energy barriers from the literature. We use the EMoCA survey data to search for the straight-chain form of butyl cyanide toward Sgr B2(N2). Results: The observed i:n ratio for propyl cyanide is reproduced by the models, with intermediate to fast warm-up timescales providing the most accurate result. Butyl cyanide is predicted to show similar abundances to propyl cyanide, and to exhibit strong branching, with the sec form clearly dominant over all others. Normal and iso-butyl cyanide are expected to have similar abundances to each other, while the tert form is significantly less abundant. The addition of CN to acetylene and ethene is found to be important to the production of vinyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl

  6. Power Enhancement Cavity for Burst-Mode Laser Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel optical cavity scheme and locking method that can realize the power enhancement of picosecond UV laser pulses operating at a burst mode with arbitrary burst (macropulse) lengths and repetition rates.

  7. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.M.J. Wijers

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive stars

  8. Ceruloplasmin decreases respiratory burst reaction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeeva, Elena Y; Semenova, Elena V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Aplin, Kirill D; Timofeeva, Kseniya E; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Filatov, Michael V

    2016-08-01

    Testing of pregnant women reveals weakening of neutrophil-mediated effector functions, such as reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides data confirming the phenomenon, gained through application of the flow cytometry technique. Key factors influencing neutrophil functional activity in blood plasma of pregnant women have not been detected so far. At the same time, concentration of ceruloplasmin - a copper-containing glycoprotein - is known to increase in blood significantly during pregnancy. We observed the negative correlation between ceruloplasmin concentration in blood plasma of pregnant women and the intensity of respiratory burst of neutrophils. Fractionation of plasma using gel-filtration revealed that ceruloplasmin-containing fraction demonstrated suppression of the respiratory burst reaction. Partial elimination of ceruloplasmin from the blood of pregnant women, performed with the help of specific antibodies and followed by immunoprecipitation, leads to an increased respiratory burst reaction. On the contrary, addition of ceruloplasmin to blood samples of healthy donors noticeably decreases the respiratory burst reaction. The results presented prove that change in ceruloplasmin level in plasma is necessary and sufficient for modulating the ability of neutrophils to produce reactive oxygen species during pregnancy.

  9. Fast Radio Bursts: Searches, Sensitivities & Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, E F

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration transient signals discovered over the past decade. Here we describe the scientific usefulness of FRBs, consider ongoing work at the Parkes telescope, and examine some relevant search sensitivity and completeness considerations. We also look ahead to the results from ongoing and future planned studies in the field.

  10. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive stars

  11. IPN localizations of Konus short gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Pal'shin, V D; Svinkin, D S; Aptekar, R L; Golenetskii, S V; Frederiks, D D; Mazets, E P; Oleynik, P P; Ulanov, M V; Cline, T; Mitrofanov, I G; Golovin, D V; Kozyrev, A S; Litvak, M L; Sanin, A B; Boynton, W; Fellows, C; Harshman, K; Trombka, J; McClanahan, T; Starr, R; Goldsten, J; Gold, R; Rau, A; von Kienlin, A; Savchenko, V; Smith, D M; Hajdas, W; Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J; Gehrels, N; Krimm, H; Palmer, D; Yamaoka, K; Ohno, M; Fukazawa, Y; Hanabata, Y; Takahashi, T; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Murakami, T; Makishima, K; Briggs, M S; Kippen, R M; Kouveliotou, C; Meegan, C; Fishman, G; Connaughton, V; Boer, M; Guidorzi, C; Frontera, F; Montanari, E; Rossi, F; Feroci, M; Amati, L; Nicastro, L; Orlandini, M; Monte, Del; Costa, E; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Pacciani, L; Rapisarda, M; Soffitta, P; Di Cocco, G; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Labanti, C; Marisaldi, M; Atteia, J -L; Vanderspek, R; Ricker, G

    2013-01-01

    Between the launch of the GGS Wind spacecraft in 1994 November and the end of 2010, the Konus-Wind experiment detected 314 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (including 24 bursts which can be classified as short bursts with extended emission). During this period, the IPN consisted of up to eleven spacecraft, and using triangulation, the localizations of 276 bursts were obtained. We present the IPN localization data on these events.

  12. Dual Stimuli-Responsive Poly(β-amino ester) Nanoparticles for On-Demand Burst Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Seok; Deng, Xiaojian; Han, Patrick; Cheng, Jianjun

    2015-09-01

    We designed poly(β-amino esters) (PBAEs) bearing both UV light- and pH-sensitive groups and used PBAEs to prepare nanoparticles (NPs) that can be utilized for on-demand burst release of guest molecules in response to multiple triggers. Due to the presence of the photo-cleavable group in each repeating unit of PBAE, rapid release of encapsulated model drug could be achieved even with exposures to low intensity UV (10 mW · cm(-2) ). Especially, the burst release was further accelerated by additional UV treatments in the acidic condition showing the combinatory effect of dual stimuli. We believe these PBAE-based NPs can potentially be used to design intelligent controlled release device and nanomedicines.

  13. BurstMem: A High-Performance Burst Buffer System for Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Teng [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Wang, Yandong [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL; Atchley, Scott [ORNL; Yu, Weikuan [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama

    2014-01-01

    The growth of computing power on large-scale sys- tems requires commensurate high-bandwidth I/O system. Many parallel file systems are designed to provide fast sustainable I/O in response to applications soaring requirements. To meet this need, a novel system is imperative to temporarily buffer the bursty I/O and gradually flush datasets to long-term parallel file systems. In this paper, we introduce the design of BurstMem, a high- performance burst buffer system. BurstMem provides a storage framework with efficient storage and communication manage- ment strategies. Our experiments demonstrate that BurstMem is able to speed up the I/O performance of scientific applications by up to 8.5 on leadership computer systems.

  14. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D.; Vreeburg, J.; Van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rierveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst detecti

  15. IGR J17254-3257, a new bursting neutron star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Falanga, M.; Kuulkers, E.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The study of the observational properties of uncommonly long bursts from low luminosity sources is important when investigating the transition from a hydrogen - rich bursting regime to a pure helium regime and from helium burning to carbon burning as predicted by current burst theories. On ...

  16. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure of...

  17. Thalamic Bursts Down-regulate Cortical Theta and Nociceptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Brian W; Cross, Brent; Smith, Kelsey A; Roach, Catherine; Xia, Jimmy; Chao, Yu-Chieh; Levitt, Joshua; Koyama, Suguru; Moore, Christopher I; Saab, Carl Y

    2017-05-30

    We tested the relation between pain behavior, theta (4-8 Hz) oscillations in somatosensory cortex and burst firing in thalamic neurons in vivo. Optically-induced thalamic bursts attenuated cortical theta and mechanical allodynia. It is proposed that thalamic bursts are an adaptive response to pain that de-synchronizes cortical theta and decreases sensory salience.

  18. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  19. Investigation of Primordial Black Hole Bursts using Interplanetary Network Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ukwatta, T N; MacGibbon, J H; Svinkin, D S; Aptekar, R L; Golenetskii, S V; Frederiks, D D; Pal'shin, V D; Goldsten, J; Boynton, W; Fellows, C; Harshman, K; Mitrofanov, I G; Golovin, D V; Kozyrev, A S; Litvak, M L; Sanin, A B; Rau, A; Kienlin, A; Zhang, X; Briggs, M S; Connaughton, V; Meegan, C; Yamaoka, K; Fukazawa, Y; Ohno, M; Ohmori, N; Takahashi, T; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Murakami, T; Makishima, K; Feroci, M; Frontera, F; Guidorzi, C; Barthelmy, S; Cline, T; Gehrels, N; Cummings, J; Krimm, H A; Smith, D M; McTiernan, J

    2015-01-01

    The detection of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) in the solar neighborhood would have very important implications for GRB phenomenology. The leading theories for cosmological GRBs would not be able to explain such events. The final bursts of evaporating Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), however, would be a natural explanation for local GRBs. We present a novel technique that can constrain the minimum distance to gamma-ray bursts using detections from widely separated spacecraft. We applied this method to constrain distances to a sample of 36 short duration GRBs detected by the Interplanetary Network (IPN) that show observational properties that are expected from PBH evaporations. These bursts have minimum possible distances in the 10^13-10^18 cm (7-10^5 AU) range, consistent with the expected PBH energetics and with a possible origin in the solar neighborhood, although none of the bursts can be unambiguously demonstrated to be local. Assuming these bursts are real PBH events, we estimate for the first time lower limits ...

  20. Suzaku Spectroscopy of an X-Ray Reflection Nebula and a New Supernova Remnant Candidate in the Sgr B1 Region

    CERN Document Server

    Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Takikawa, Yojiro; Hyodo, Yoshiaki; Inui, Tatsuya; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Hironori; Koyama, Katsuji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Shigeo

    2007-01-01

    We made a 100 ks observation of the Sagittarius (Sgr) B1 region at (l, b) = (0.5, -0.1) near to the Galactic center (GC) with the Suzaku/XIS. Emission lines of S XV, Fe I, Fe XXV, and Fe XXVI were clearly detected in the spectrum. We found that the Fe XXV and Fe XXVI line emissions smoothly distribute over the Sgr B1 and B2 regions connecting from the GC. This result suggests that the GC hot plasma extends at least up to the Sgr B region with a constant temperature. There are two diffuse X-ray sources in the observed region. One of the two (G0.42-0.04) is newly discovered, and exhibits a strong S XV Ka emission line, suggesting a candidate for a supernova remnant located in the GC region. The other one (M0.51-0.10), having a prominent Fe I Ka emission line and a strongly absorbed continuum, is likely to be an X-ray reflection nebula. There is no near source bright enough to irradiate M0.51-0.10. However, the Fe I Ka emission can be explained if Sgr A* was ~ 10^6 times brighter 300 years ago, the light travel ...