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Sample records for repeated ultimatum game

  1. Persuasion in experimental ultimatum games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Hoppe, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates.......We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates....

  2. Persuasion in Experimental Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo; Hoppe, Tim;

    2008-01-01

     This paper experimentally studies persuasion effects in ultimatum games and finds that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before their acceptance decision. Higher payoffs are due to higher acceptance rates as well as more...

  3. Persuasion in Experimental Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo; Hoppe, Tim

    2008-01-01

     This paper experimentally studies persuasion effects in ultimatum games and finds that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before their acceptance decision. Higher payoffs are due to higher acceptance rates as well as more...

  4. Stakes Matter in Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Ertaç, Seda; Gneezy, Uri

    2011-01-01

    One of the most robust findings in experimental economics is that individuals in one-shot ultimatum games reject unfair offers. Puzzlingly, rejections have been found robust to substantial increases in stakes. By using a novel experimental design that elicits frequent low offers and uses much lar...

  5. Economic Rationality in the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fiala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous application of experimental methodology to the interdisciplinary research of economic decision making is the main purpose of our work. In this paper, we introduce the main decisionmaking theories and outline economic rationality. We explain why we find it useful to discriminate between the “irrational” and “non-rational” components of decision making. We offer an oriented interdisciplinary point of view on economic rationality. In the applied section, we describe the main features of the Ultimatum game and summarize the up-to-date theories explaining the non-rational course of the game. We discuss in detail the reported relations between the nominal value of the stakes and the distribution of the offers and responses. We introduce the blinded, randomized Ultimatum game experiment that we conducted in our laboratory. We stress the importance of anonymity of the study subjects and the difference in salience of a factual reward against a  hypothetical reward. We present the results of our study, showing that a  duly chosen non-monetary reward, directly inconvertible into money, leads to a different offer distribution in the Ultimatum game without the necessity to invest excessive sums of money in the rewards. We compare our results to research published by other authors. According to our theory, the rational, non-rational and irrational components contribute to the decision making in Ultimatum differently depending on the different reward stakes.

  6. The ultimatum game: Discrete vs. continuous offers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam; Berkovits, Richard

    2014-09-01

    In many experimental setups in social-sciences, psychology and economy the subjects are requested to accept or dispense monetary compensation which is usually given in discrete units. Using computer and mathematical modeling we show that in the framework of studying the dynamics of acceptance of proposals in the ultimatum game, the long time dynamics of acceptance of offers in the game are completely different for discrete vs. continuous offers. For discrete values the dynamics follow an exponential behavior. However, for continuous offers the dynamics are described by a power-law. This is shown using an agent based computer simulation as well as by utilizing an analytical solution of a mean-field equation describing the model. These findings have implications to the design and interpretation of socio-economical experiments beyond the ultimatum game.

  7. Social learning in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyu

    2013-01-01

    In the ultimatum game, two players divide a sum of money. The proposer suggests how to split and the responder can accept or reject. If the suggestion is rejected, both players get nothing. The rational solution is that the responder accepts even the smallest offer but humans prefer fair share. In this paper, we study the ultimatum game by a learning-mutation process based on quantal response equilibrium, where players are assumed boundedly rational and make mistakes when estimating the payoffs of strategies. Social learning is never stabilized at the fair outcome or the rational outcome, but leads to oscillations from offering 40 percent to 50 percent. To be precise, there is a clear tendency to increase the mean offer if it is lower than 40 percent, but will decrease when it reaches the fair offer. If mutations occur rarely, fair behavior is favored in the limit of local mutation. If mutation rate is sufficiently high, fairness can evolve for both local mutation and global mutation.

  8. Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game

    CERN Document Server

    Ichinose, Genki

    2014-01-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players decide how to split a certain amount of money. One player (proposer) makes only one offer to the other player (responder). If the responder accepts the offer, the money will be split between them accordingly, but if not, neither receives anything. Although making minimal offers and accepting any offers is the most rational choice in UG, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in experiments. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation or empathy is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if the game is probabilistic, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). In NQUG, players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.

  9. Randomness and Arbitrary Coordination in the Reactive Ultimatum Game

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Roberto; Lamb, Luis C

    2015-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution - as introduced in game theory by Maynard Smith - is not the only important evolutionary aspect in a evolutionary dynamics, since complex interdependencies, competition, and growth should be modeled by, for example, reactive aspects. In the ultimatum game the reciprocity and the fifty-fifty partition seems to be a deviation from rational behavior of the players under the light of the Nash equilibrium concept.Such equilibrium emerges, for example, from the punishment of the responder who generally tends to refuse unfair proposals. In the iterated version of the game, the proposers are able to improve their proposals by adding a value thus making fairer proposals. Such evolutionary aspects are not properly Darwinian-motivated, but they are endowed with a fundamental aspect: they reflect their actions according to value of the offers. Recently, a reactive version of the ultimatum game where acceptance occurs with fixed probability was proposed. In this paper, we aim at exploring this...

  10. Fair and unfair punishers coexist in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brañas-Garza, Pablo; Espín, Antonio M.; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    In the Ultimatum Game, a proposer suggests how to split a sum of money with a responder. If the responder rejects the proposal, both players get nothing. Rejection of unfair offers is regarded as a form of punishment implemented by fair-minded individuals, who are willing to impose the cooperation norm at a personal cost. However, recent research using other experimental frameworks has observed non-negligible levels of antisocial punishment by competitive, spiteful individuals, which can eventually undermine cooperation. Using two large-scale experiments, this note explores the nature of Ultimatum Game punishers by analyzing their behavior in a Dictator Game. In both studies, the coexistence of two entirely different sub-populations is confirmed: prosocial punishers on the one hand, who behave fairly as dictators, and spiteful (antisocial) punishers on the other, who are totally unfair. The finding has important implications regarding the evolution of cooperation and the behavioral underpinnings of stable social systems. PMID:25113502

  11. Defense mechanisms of empathetic players in the spatial ultimatum game

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabo, Gyorgy

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on the ultimatum game have revealed that humans are remarkably fond of fair play. When asked to share an amount of money, unfair offers are rare and their acceptance rate small. While empathy and spatiality may lead to the evolution of fairness, thus far considered continuous strategies have precluded the observation of solutions that would be driven by pattern formation. Here we introduce a spatial ultimatum game with discrete strategies, and we show that this simple alteration opens the gate to fascinatingly rich dynamical behavior. Besides mixed stationary states, we report the occurrence of traveling waves and cyclic dominance, where one strategy in the cycle can be an alliance of two strategies. The highly webbed phase diagram, entailing continuous and discontinuous phase transitions, reveals hidden complexity in the pursuit of human fair play.

  12. Randomness and arbitrary coordination in the reactive ultimatum game

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto; Valverde, Pablo; Lamb, Luis C.

    2016-07-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution - as introduced in game theory by Maynard Smith - is not the only important evolutionary aspect in an evolutionary dynamics, since complex interdependencies, competition, and growth should be modeled by, for example, reactive aspects. In the ultimatum game, the reciprocity and the fifty-fifty partition seems to be a deviation from rational behavior of the players under the light of Nash equilibrium. Such equilibrium emerges, for example, from the punishment of the responder who generally tends to refuse unfair proposals. In the iterated version of the game, the proposers are able to improve their proposals by adding a value thus making fairer proposals. Such evolutionary aspects are not properly Darwinian-motivated, but they are endowed with a fundamental aspect: they reflect their actions according to value of the offers. Recently, a reactive version of the ultimatum game where acceptance occurs with fixed probability was proposed. In this paper, we aim at exploring this reactive version of the ultimatum game where the acceptance by players depends on the offer. In order to do so, we analyze two situations: (i) mean field and (ii) we consider players inserted within the networks with arbitrary coordination. We then show that the reactive aspect, here studied, thus far not analyzed in the evolutionary game theory literature can unveil an essential feature for the convergence to fifty-fifty split. Moreover we also analyze populations under four different polices ranging from a highly conservative to a moderate one, with respect to the decision in changing the proposal based on acceptances. We show that the idea of gaining less more times added to the reciprocity of the players is highly relevant to the concept of "healthy" societies population bargaining.

  13. Evolution of Fairness in the Not Quite Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Sayama, Hiroki

    2014-05-01

    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is an economic game where two players (proposer and responder) decide how to split a certain amount of money. While traditional economic theories based on rational decision making predict that the proposer should make a minimal offer and the responder should accept it, human subjects tend to behave more fairly in UG. Previous studies suggested that extra information such as reputation, empathy, or spatial structure is needed for fairness to evolve in UG. Here we show that fairness can evolve without additional information if players make decisions probabilistically and may continue interactions when the offer is rejected, which we call the Not Quite Ultimatum Game (NQUG). Evolutionary simulations of NQUG showed that the probabilistic decision making contributes to the increase of proposers' offer amounts to avoid rejection, while the repetition of the game works to responders' advantage because they can wait until a good offer comes. These simple extensions greatly promote evolution of fairness in both proposers' offers and responders' acceptance thresholds.

  14. Neural mechanism of proposer's decision-making in the ultimatum and dictator games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongming Zheng; Liqi Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that reactions to unfair offers in the ultimatum game are correlated with negative emotion. However, little is known about the difference in neural activity between a proposer's decision-making in the ultimatum game compared with the dictator game. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed that proposing fair offers in the dictator game elicited greater activation in the right supramarginal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus and left anterior cingulate cortex compared with proposing fair offers in the ultimatum game in 23 Chinese undergraduate and graduate students from Beijing Normal University in China. However, greater activation was found in the right superior temporal gyrus and left cingulate gyrus for the reverse contrast. The results indicate that proposing fair offers in the dictator game is more strongly associated with cognitive control and conflicting information processing compared with proposing fair offers in the ultimatum game.

  15. Local competition sparks concerns for fairness in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Pat; Stoller, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Humans reject uneven divisions of resources, even at personal cost. This is observed in countless experiments using the ultimatum game, where a proposer offers to divide a resource with a responder who either accepts the division or rejects it (whereupon both earn zero). Researchers debate why humans evolved a psychology that is so averse to inequity within partnerships. We suggest that the scale of competition is crucial: under local competition with few competitors, individuals reject low offers, because they cannot afford to be disadvantaged relative to competitors. If one competes against the broader population (i.e. global competition), then it pays to accept low offers to increase one's absolute pay-off. We support this intuition with an illustrative game-theoretical model. We also conducted ultimatum games where participants received prizes based on pay-offs relative to immediate partners (local competition) versus a larger group (global competition). Participants demanded higher offers under local competition, suggesting that local competition increases people's demands for fairness and aversion to inequality.

  16. Power and fairness in a generalized ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Lozano, Sergi; Helbing, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Power is the ability to influence others towards the attainment of specific goals, and it is a fundamental force that shapes behavior at all levels of human existence. Several theories on the nature of power in social life exist, especially in the context of social influence. Yet, in bargaining situations, surprisingly little is known about its role in shaping social preferences. Such preferences are considered to be the main explanation for observed behavior in a wide range of experimental settings. In this work, we set out to understand the role of bargaining power in the stylized environment of a Generalized Ultimatum Game (GUG). We modify the payoff structure of the standard Ultimatum Game (UG) to investigate three situations: two in which the power balance is either against the proposer or against the responder, and a balanced situation. We find that other-regarding preferences, as measured by the amount of money donated by participants, do not change with the amount of power, but power changes the offers and acceptance rates systematically. Notably, unusually high acceptance rates for lower offers were observed. This finding suggests that social preferences may be invariant to the balance of power and confirms that the role of power on human behavior deserves more attention.

  17. [Reciprocity and identity protection: reasons for rejection in the ultimatum game].

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    Horita, Yutaka; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2007-10-01

    An ultimatum game and two impunity games, in which rejection by the Responder had no impact on the Proposer's earnings, were conducted with 228 participants. The impunity game was run in two conditions: with feedback information, where the Responder's choice was disclosed to the Proposer, and without feedback information, where the Responder's choice was not disclosed to the Proposer. These two conditions were used to determine whether the motivation for rejection in the impunity game was social punishment or identity protection. The three game conditions and the Responder or Proposer roles were manipulated between participants. The rejection rates in the two impunity games were about half the rate in the ultimatum game: there was no difference in the rejection rates between the two feedback conditions of the impunity game. These results indicate that rejection in the ultimatum game is largely based on identity protection. The adaptive role of maintaining self-image as a commitment device was discussed.

  18. Responder Feelings in a Three-Player Three-Option Ultimatum Game:Affective Determinants of Rejection Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Rüdiger Pfister; Gisela Böhm

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of affect and emotions in shaping the behavior ofresponders in the ultimatum game. A huge amount of research shows that players do not behave in an economically rational way in the ultimatum game, and emotional mechanisms have been proposed as a possible explanation. In particular, feelings of fairness, anger and envy are likely candidates as affective determinants. We introduce a three-player ultimatum game with three-options, which permits the responder to eith...

  19. Heterogenous allocation of chips promotes fairness in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wu, Naiqi; Wang, Long

    2015-03-01

    In an economic Ultimatum Game, two players interact to decide how to split a certain amount of money. The proposer formulates an allocation scheme to divide the sum, and the responder's decision is, either adoption, in which case both players are rewarded in accordance with the scheme, or rejection, in which case neither player is benefited. The economic theory and game theory predict that a rational proposer will offer his opponent a minimal but nonzero share and the responder will admit this scheme. However, this prediction is impractical in real situations and abundant experiments and theories are presented to resolve the discrepancy. Here, we concentrate on investigating the impact of heterogenous allocation of the chips on the evolution of fairness in the framework of the evolutionary game theory. The proposer has the privilege to offer the amount of the chips and make the allocation resolution to the responder. Interestingly, it is found that fairness prevails when the proposer is courageous enough to offer more chips to unsuccessful opponents. Moreover, we find that an amplifying group interaction enlarges the effects of heterogenous allocation of the chips on the evolution of fairness.

  20. Emotions and Strategic Behaviour: The Case of the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarit, Ignacio; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour in economic interactions has attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last decades. The economic assumption that people would behave focusing on their own material self-interest was proved incomplete, once the empirical evidence consistently showed that many other motives may influence such behaviour. Therefore, models that can incorporate rational decision process as well as other intervening factors are a key issue to both understand the observations from economic experiments and to apply the lessons learned from them. In this paper, we incorporate the influence of emotions to the utility function in an explicit manner, using the Ultimatum Game as a case study. Our model is amenable to analytical study, and is connected with the Circumplex model of emotions and with Kahneman's two-system theory. The simplicity of the model allows to obtain predictions for the offers and acceptance thresholds. We study two specific examples, when the model parameters are distributed uniformly or normally, and show that in the latter case the results are already qualitatively correct. Although this work can be considered as a first approach, it includes what we believe are the main stylized facts, is able to qualitatively reproduce experimental results in a very simple manner, and can be straightforwardly extended to other games.

  1. The Evolution of Generosity in the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Arend; Hertwig, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    When humans fail to make optimal decisions in strategic games and economic gambles, researchers typically try to explain why that behaviour is biased. To this end, they search for mechanisms that cause human behaviour to deviate from what seems to be the rational optimum. But perhaps human behaviour is not biased; perhaps research assumptions about the optimality of strategies are incomplete. In the one-shot anonymous symmetric ultimatum game (UG), humans fail to play optimally as defined by the Nash equilibrium. However, the distinction between kin and non-kin—with kin detection being a key evolutionary adaption—is often neglected when deriving the “optimal” strategy. We computationally evolved strategies in the UG that were equipped with an evolvable probability to discern kin from non-kin. When an opponent was not kin, agents evolved strategies that were similar to those used by humans. We therefore conclude that the strategy humans play is not irrational. The deviation between behaviour and the Nash equilibrium may rather be attributable to key evolutionary adaptations, such as kin detection. Our findings further suggest that social preference models are likely to capture mechanisms that permit people to play optimally in an evolutionary context. Once this context is taken into account, human behaviour no longer appears irrational. PMID:27677330

  2. Emotions and Strategic Behaviour: The Case of the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour in economic interactions has attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last decades. The economic assumption that people would behave focusing on their own material self-interest was proved incomplete, once the empirical evidence consistently showed that many other motives may influence such behaviour. Therefore, models that can incorporate rational decision process as well as other intervening factors are a key issue to both understand the observations from economic experiments and to apply the lessons learned from them. In this paper, we incorporate the influence of emotions to the utility function in an explicit manner, using the Ultimatum Game as a case study. Our model is amenable to analytical study, and is connected with the Circumplex model of emotions and with Kahneman’s two-system theory. The simplicity of the model allows to obtain predictions for the offers and acceptance thresholds. We study two specific examples, when the model parameters are distributed uniformly or normally, and show that in the latter case the results are already qualitatively correct. Although this work can be considered as a first approach, it includes what we believe are the main stylized facts, is able to qualitatively reproduce experimental results in a very simple manner, and can be straightforwardly extended to other games. PMID:27385254

  3. Neural mechanisms underlying social conformity in an ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu eWei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When individuals’ actions are incongruent with those of the group they belong to, they may change their initial behavior in order to conform to the group norm. This phenomenon is known as social conformity. In the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain activity in response to group opinion during an ultimatum game. Results showed that participants changed their choices when these choices conflicted with the normative opinion of the group they were members of, especially in conditions of unfair treatment. The fMRI data revealed that a conflict with group norms activated the brain regions involved in norm violations and behavioral adjustment. Furthermore, in the reject-unfair condition, we observed that a conflict with group norms activated the medial frontal gyrus. These findings contribute to recent research examining neural mechanisms involved in detecting violations of social norms, and provide information regarding the neural representation of conformity behavior in an economic game.

  4. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  5. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Zak

    Full Text Available How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72; 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30. This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT. Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially.

  6. Testosterone administration related differences in brain activation during the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eKopsida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A plethora of studies on the Ultimatum Game have shown that responders forfeit the rule of profit maximization and punish unfair proposers, by rejecting their offers. This behavior has been linked to increased amygdala, insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation. Studies have suggested a potential role of testosterone in the Ultimatum Game albeit with inconsistent findings. In the present study, we sought to further investigate the role of amygdala and testosterone in the Ultimatum Game, by conducting a double-blinded, single-administration study. 60mg of Tostrex was administered to male and female healthy volunteers, three hours prior to undergoing an fMRI session, during which they played a standard version of the Ultimatum Game. The behavioral analysis revealed a statistical trend, as participants in the testosterone group tended to accept a greater number of unfair offers than participants in the placebo group, irrespectively of gender. In terms of fMRI results, for the main contrast unfair>fair offers, the testosterone group displayed a greater activation in the right dlPFC compared to the placebo group. Increased testosterone levels were related to greater caudate activity. Our findings suggest a complex role of testosterone in social behavior and decision-making.

  7. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen QU; Wang, Yuru; Huang, Yunyun

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game (UG), participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fa...

  8. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen eQu; Yuru eWang; Yunyun eHuang

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game, participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/un...

  9. Social information and economic decision-making in the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia eGaertig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested how social information about the proposer biases responders’ choices of accepting or rejecting real monetary offers in a classic ultimatum game and whether this impact is heightened by the uncertainty of the context. Participants in our study conducted a one-shot ultimatum game in which their responses had direct consequences on how much money they earned. We used trait-valenced words to provide information about the proposers’ personal characteristics. The results show higher acceptance rates for offers preceded by positive words than for those preceded by negative words. In addition, the impact of this information was higher in the uncertain than in the certain context. This suggests that when deciding whether or not to take money from someone, people take into account what they know about the person they are interacting with. Such non-rational bias is stronger in an uncertain context.

  10. Effect of network topology on the evolutionary ultimatum game based on the net-profit decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shun-Qiang; Wang, Lu; Jones, Michael C.; Ye, Ye; Wang, Meng; Xie, Neng-Gang

    2016-04-01

    The ubiquity of altruist behavior amongst humans has long been a significant puzzle in the social sciences. Ultimatum game has proved to be a useful tool for explaining altruistic behavior among selfish individuals. In an ultimatum game where alternating roles exist, we suppose that players make their decisions based on the net profit of their own. In this paper, we specify a player's strategy with two parameters: offer level α ∈ [ 0,1) and net profit acceptance level β ∈ [ - 1,1). By Monte Carlo simulation, we analyze separately the effect of the size of the neighborhood, the small-world property and the heterogeneity of the degree distributions of the networks. Results show that compared with results observed for homogeneous networks, heterogeneous networks lead to more rational outcomes. Moreover, network structure has no effect on the evolution of kindness level, so moderate kindness is adaptable to any social groups and organizations.

  11. Accuracy in strategy imitations promotes the evolution of fairness in the spatial ultimatum game

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Szabo, Gyorgy; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/28005

    2012-01-01

    Spatial structure has a profound effect on the outcome of evolutionary games. In the ultimatum game, it leads to the dominance of much fairer players than those predicted to evolve in well-mixed settings. Here we show that spatiality leads to fair ultimatums only if the intervals from which the players are able to choose how much to offer and how little to accept are sufficiently fine-grained. Small sets of discrete strategies lead to the stable coexistence of the two most rational strategies in the set, while larger sets lead to the dominance of a single yet not necessarily the fairest strategy. The fairest outcome is obtained for the most accurate strategy imitation, that is in the limit of a continuous strategy set. Having a multitude of choices is thus crucial for the evolution of fairness, but not necessary for the evolution of empathy.

  12. Is it all about the self?The effect of self-control depletion on ultimatum game proposers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliran eHalali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the ultimatum-game, as in many real-life social exchange situations, the selfish motive to maximize own gains conflicts with fairness preferences. In the present study we manipulated the availability of cognitive-control resources for ultimatum-game proposers to test whether preference for fairness is a deliberative cognitive-controlled act or an automatic act. In two experiments we found that a shortage in cognitive control (ego depletion led proposers in the ultimatum game to propose significantly more equal split offers than non-depleted proposers. These results can be interpreted as resulting from an automatic concern for fairness, or from a greater fear of rejection, which would be in line with a purely self-interested response. To separate these competing explanations, in Experiment 2 we conducted a dictator-game in which the responder cannot reject the offer. In contrast to the increased fairness behavior demonstrated by depleted ultimatum-game proposers, we found that depleted dictator-game allocators chose the equal split significantly less often than non-depleted allocators. These results indicate that fairness preferences are automatically driven among ultimatum game proposers. The automatic fair behavior, however, at least partially reflects concern about self-interest gain. We discuss different explanations for these results.

  13. Largest Laplacian eigenvalue predicts the emergence of costly punishment in the evolutionary ultimatum game on networks

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    Li, Xiang; Cao, Lang

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studying the role of costly punishment in promoting altruistic behaviors among selfish individuals. Rejections in ultimatum bargaining as a metaphor exemplify costly punishment, where the division of a sum of resources proposed by one side may be rejected by the other side, and both sides get nothing. Under a setting of the network of contacts among players, we find that the largest Laplacian eigenvalue of the network determines the critical division of players’ proposals, below which pure punishers who never accept any offers will emerge as a phase transition in the system. The critical division of offers that predicts the emergence of costly punishment is termed as the selfishness tolerance of a network within evolutionary ultimatum game, and extensive numerical simulations on the data of the science collaboration network, and computer-generated small-world/scale-free networks support the analytical findings.

  14. Evolution of fairness and coalition formation in three-person ultimatum games.

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    Nishimura, Takeshi; Okada, Akira; Shirata, Yasuhiro

    2017-05-07

    We consider the evolution of fairness and coalition formation in a three-person ultimatum game in which the coalition value depends on its size. Traditional game theory, which assumes selfish and rational players, predicts the largest and efficient coalition with a proposer exploiting most of the total value. In a stochastic evolutionary model (the frequency-dependent Moran process with mutations) where players make errors in estimating the payoffs and strategies of others, evolutionary selection favors the formation of a two-person subcoalition under weak selection and in the low mutation limit if and only if its coalition value exceeds a high proportion (0.7) of that of the largest coalition. Proposers offer 30-35% of the subcoalition value to a coalition member, excluding a non-member. Multilateral bargaining is critically different from the bilateral one. Coalition-forming behavior may cause economic inefficiency and social exclusion. Stochastic evolutionary game theory thus provides theoretical support to explain the behavior of human subjects in economic experiments of a three-person ultimatum game. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolution of favoritism and group fairness in a co-evolving three-person ultimatum game

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    Takesue, Hirofumi; Ozawa, Akira; Morikawa, So

    2017-05-01

    The evolution of fairness in dyadic relationships has been studied using ultimatum games. However, human fairness is not limited to two-person situations and universal egalitarianism among group members is widely observed. In this study, we investigated the evolution of favoritism and group fairness in a three-person ultimatum game (TUG) under a co-evolutionary framework with both strategy updating and partner switching dynamics. In the TUG, one proposer makes an offer to two responders and the proposal is accepted at the group level if at least one individual responder accepts the offer. Investigating fairness beyond dyadic relationships allows the possibility of favoritism because the proposer can secure acceptance at the group level by discriminating in favor of one responder. Our simulation showed that the proposer favors one responder with a similar type when the frequency of partner switching is low. In contrast, group fairness is observed when the frequency of partner switching is high. The correlation between strategy and neighborhood size suggested that partner switching influences the strategy through the proposer's offer rather than through the responder's acceptance threshold. In addition, the average degree negatively impacts the emergence of fairness unless the frequency of partner switching is high. Furthermore, a higher frequency of partner switching can support the evolution of fairness when the maximum number of games in one time step is restricted to smaller values.

  16. Coevolution of Structure and Strategy Promoting Fairness in the Ultimatum Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Li-Li; TANG Wan-Sheng; ZHANG Jian-Xiong

    2011-01-01

    We try to figure out how the structure evolution and strategy evolution commonly affect the emergence of fair behaviors in the ultimatum game under a complex network framework.By allowing the players to change their neighbors in the network as well as their strategies,several experiments have been conducted.Results of the simulations show that the coevolution has substantial impacts on the resulting outcomes for the strategy adopted as well as the ultimate structure.With increasing structure updating rate,players offer more in the ultimatum game,but players will offer less with increasing strategy updating rate. In particular,the ratio of structure updating to strategy updating also affects the emergence of fairness substantially because the larger the ratio,the more the players offer.In addition,the mutation in strategies plays a promoting role in the emergence of fairness.Moreover,the initial random network is evolved into the structure with small-world effects.By comparison with the traditional models of static structures,we show that allowing the network structure and strategy to coevolve generally promotes the emergence of fairness.

  17. Interoception drives increased rational decision-making in meditators playing the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Downar, Jonathan; Montague, P Read

    2011-01-01

    Human decision-making is often conceptualized as a competition between cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Deviations from rational processes are believed to derive from inclusion of emotional factors in decision-making. Here, we investigate whether experienced Buddhist meditators are better equipped to regulate emotional processes compared with controls during economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. We show that meditators accept unfair offers on more than half of the trials, whereas controls only accept unfair offers on one-quarter of the trials. By applying fMRI we show that controls recruit the anterior insula during unfair offers. Such responses are powerful predictors of rejecting offers in social interaction. By contrast, meditators display attenuated activity in high-level emotional representations of the anterior insula and increased activity in the low-level interoceptive representations of the posterior insula. In addition we show that a subset of control participants who play rationally (i.e., accepts >85% unfair offers) recruits the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex presumably reflecting increased cognitive demands, whereas rational meditators by contrast display elevated activity in the somatosensory cortex and posterior superior temporal cortex. In summary, when assessing unfairness in the Ultimatum Game, meditators activate a different network of brain areas compared with controls enabling them to uncouple negative emotional reactions from their behavior. These findings highlight the clinically and socially important possibility that sustained training in mindfulness meditation may impact distinct domains of human decision-making.

  18. Are Irrational Reactions to Unfairness Truly Emotionally-Driven? Dissociated Behavioural and Emotional Responses in the Ultimatum Game Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civai, Claudia; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Gamer, Matthias; Rumiati, Raffaella I.

    2010-01-01

    The "irrational" rejections of unfair offers by people playing the Ultimatum Game (UG), a widely used laboratory model of economical decision-making, have traditionally been associated with negative emotions, such as frustration, elicited by unfairness ([Sanfey et al., 2003] and [van't Wout et al., 2006]). We recorded skin conductance responses as…

  19. Dissociation between medial frontal negativity and cardiac responses in the ultimatum game: Effects of offer size and fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van der Veen (Frederik); P.P. Sahibdin (Priya)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study, we examined the role of fairness and offer size on brain and cardiac responses in the ultimatum game (UG). Twenty healthy volunteers played the role of responder in a computerized version of the UG in which the fairness and size of the offers were systematically var

  20. The role of cognitive and emotional perspective taking in economic decision making in the ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruto Takagishi

    Full Text Available We conducted a simple resource allocation game known as the ultimatum game (UG with preschoolers to examine the role of cognitive and emotional perspective-taking ability on allocation and rejection behavior. A total of 146 preschoolers played the UG and completed a false belief task and an emotional perspective-taking test. Results showed that cognitive perspective taking ability had a significant positive effect on the proposer's offer and a negative effect on the responder's rejection behavior, whereas emotional perspective taking ability did not impact either the proposer's or responder's behavior. These results imply that the ability to anticipate the responder's beliefs, but not their emotional state, plays an important role in the proposer's choice of a fair allocation in an UG, and that children who have not acquired theory of mind still reject unfair offers.

  1. Role of information asymmetry and situational salience in reducing intergroup bias: the case of ultimatum games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Ana; Srivastava, Joydeep

    2012-12-01

    While majority of the literature documents the preponderance of social identity-related biases in favor of in-group members, this research investigates factors that may attenuate the bias. Examining intergroup bias within the realm of information availability and accessibility, this research highlights malleability of judgments and decisions as a function of social identity in both complete and incomplete information situations in the context of ultimatum games. Study 1 replicates the positive bias toward in-group members even in situations where individuals know that the counterpart is behaving unfairly. Study 2 shows that the intergroup bias is attenuated for relatively unfavorable offers in incomplete information situations. However, the intergroup bias is persistent for relatively favorable offers. Study 3 shows that making situational constraints salient also attenuates the intergroup bias for relatively favorable offers. Together, the findings identify conditions, based on information availability and accessibility, under which the intergroup bias can be corrected.

  2. Altered social decision making in borderline personality disorder: an Ultimatum Game study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Patricia; Fogd, Dóra; Unoka, Zsolt; Sirály, Enikő; Csukly, Gábor

    2014-12-01

    The authors examined social decision-making strategies in borderline personality disorder (BPD) using the Ultimatum Game (UG). They sought to extend previous findings by investigating altruistic punishment, a behavior that increases group cooperation in the long term. They tested the effect of the proposer's facial expression on responses. BPD patients (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 43) played the responder's role in a series of computerized UG interactions, with proposers expressing positive or negative emotions. BPD patients accepted unfair offers at a higher rate compared to controls. The effect of facial expression differed in the two groups, as positive expressions increased the acceptance likelihood in the control group at stakes from 20:80 to 50:50. In the BPD group, this effect was observed only at higher stakes (40:60 and 50:50). These results suggest that BPD patients exhibit altruistic punishment to a lesser extent and are less influenced by their partners' emotional expression in the UG.

  3. The price of racial bias: intergroup negotiations in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Li, Jian; Bar-David, Eyal; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-12-01

    Existing stereotypes about Black Americans may influence perceptions of intent during financial negotiations. In this study, we explored whether the influence of race on economic decisions extends to choices that are costly to the decision maker. We investigated whether racial group membership contributes to differential likelihood of rejection of objectively equal unfair monetary offers. In the Ultimatum Game, players accept or reject proposed splits of money. Players keep accepted splits, but if a player rejects an offer, both the player and the proposer receive nothing. We found that participants accepted more offers and lower offer amounts from White proposers than from Black proposers, and that this pattern was accentuated for participants with higher implicit race bias. These findings indicate that participants are willing to discriminate against Black proposers even at a cost to their own financial gain.

  4. The Golden Ratio as a proposed solution of the Ultimatum Game: An explanation by continued fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Ultimatum Game is a famous sequential, two-player game intensely studied in Game Theory. A proposer can offer a certain fraction of some amount of a valuable good, for example, money. A responder can either accept, in which case the money is shared accordingly, or reject the offer, in which case the two players receive nothing. While most authors suggest that the fairest split of 50 % vs. 50 % would be the equilibrium solution, recently R. Suleiman (An aspirations-homeostasis theory of interactive decisions (2014)) suggested the Golden Ratio, 0.618, to be the solution and argued that such a partitioning would be considered fair by both sides. He provided a justification in terms of an approach termed aspirations-homeostasis theory. The main idea is that responders tend to accept the minor fraction of the Golden Ratio because they feel that this fraction equals, in comparison to the larger fraction obtained by the proposer, the ratio of the larger fraction and the whole amount. Here we give an alternative ...

  5. A New Solution Concept for the Ultimatum Game leading to the Golden Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Stefan

    2017-07-17

    The Ultimatum Game is a paradigmatic two-player game. A proposer can offer a certain fraction of some valuable good. A responder can accept the offer or reject it, implying that the two players receive nothing. The only subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium is to only offer an infinitesimal amount and to accept this. However, this equilibrium is not in agreement with experimental observations, which show varying accepted offers around 40%. While some authors suggest that the fairest split of 50% vs. 50% would be explainable on theoretical grounds or by computer simulation, a few authors (including myself) have recently suggested that the Golden Ratio, about 0.618 vs. about 0.382, would be the solution, in striking agreement with observations. Here we propose a solution concept, based on an optimality approach and epistemic arguments, leading to that suggested solution. The optimality principle is explained both in an axiomatic way and by bargaining arguments, and the relation to Fibonacci numbers is outlined. Our presentation complements the Economic Harmony theory proposed by R. Suleiman and is based on infinite continued fractions. The results are likely to be important for the theory of fair salaries, justice theory and the predictive value of game theory.

  6. Responder Feelings in a Three-Player Three-Option Ultimatum Game: Affective Determinants of Rejection Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rüdiger Pfister

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of affect and emotions in shaping the behavior of responders in the ultimatum game. A huge amount of research shows that players do not behave in an economically rational way in the ultimatum game, and emotional mechanisms have been proposed as a possible explanation. In particular, feelings of fairness, anger and envy are likely candidates as affective determinants. We introduce a three-player ultimatum game with three-options, which permits the responder to either penalize the proposer or to penalize a third party by rejecting offers. This allows for partially distinguishing rejections due to a retaliation motive driven by anger towards the proposer from rejections due to inequity aversion driven by feelings of envy towards a third party. Results from two experiments suggest that responders experience feelings of dissatisfaction and unfairness if their share is small in comparison to the proposer���s share; anger, then, may trigger rejections towards the proposer. Responders also experience dissatisfaction and envy when third party shares exceed their own shares; however, in contrast to anger, envy does not trigger rejections and is dissociated from the decision to accept or reject an offer. We conclude that acting upon anger is socially acceptable, whereas envy is not acceptable as a reason for action. Furthermore, we find that responders generally feel better after rejections, suggesting that rejections serve to regulate one’s affective state.

  7. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

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    Chen eQu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game, participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/unfair offers from someone who previously excluded them, someone who previously included them, or a stranger. Results showed that feedback related negativity (FRN after onset of distribution outcome was more pronounced for unfair offers compared to fair offers. Moreover, the FRN was more negative-going in response to unfair offers from people who previously excluded them than from the includer and the stranger. Fair offers ¬¬¬elicited a larger P300 than unfair offers. In addition, P300 was more positive-going for unfair offers from the stranger than from the excluder and the includer. This study reveals a temporal process in which the effects of social exclusion on fair consideration are reflected in FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation. These data also suggest that the FRN is modulated by the subjective evaluation of outcome events in a social context.

  8. Empathy emerges spontaneously in the ultimatum game: small groups and networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Jaime; Floría, Luis M; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2012-01-01

    The Ultimatum game, in which one subject proposes how to share a pot and the other has veto power on the proposal, in which case both lose everything, is a paradigmatic scenario to probe the degree of cooperation and altruism in human subjects. It has been shown that if individuals are empathic, i.e., they play the game having in mind how their opponent will react by offering an amount that they themselves would accept, then non-rational large offers well above the smallest possible ones are evolutionarily selected. We here show that empathy itself may be selected and need not be exogenously imposed provided that interactions take place only with a fraction of the total population, and that the role of proposer or responder is randomly changed from round to round. These empathic agents, that displace agents with independent (uncorrelated) offers and proposals, behave far from what is expected rationally, offering and accepting sizable fractions of the amount to be shared. Specific values for the typical offer depend on the details of the interacion network and on the existence of hubs, but they are almost always significantly larger than zero, indicating that the mechanism at work here is quite general and could explain the emergence of empathy in very many different contexts.

  9. Empathy emerges spontaneously in the ultimatum game: small groups and networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Iranzo

    Full Text Available The Ultimatum game, in which one subject proposes how to share a pot and the other has veto power on the proposal, in which case both lose everything, is a paradigmatic scenario to probe the degree of cooperation and altruism in human subjects. It has been shown that if individuals are empathic, i.e., they play the game having in mind how their opponent will react by offering an amount that they themselves would accept, then non-rational large offers well above the smallest possible ones are evolutionarily selected. We here show that empathy itself may be selected and need not be exogenously imposed provided that interactions take place only with a fraction of the total population, and that the role of proposer or responder is randomly changed from round to round. These empathic agents, that displace agents with independent (uncorrelated offers and proposals, behave far from what is expected rationally, offering and accepting sizable fractions of the amount to be shared. Specific values for the typical offer depend on the details of the interacion network and on the existence of hubs, but they are almost always significantly larger than zero, indicating that the mechanism at work here is quite general and could explain the emergence of empathy in very many different contexts.

  10. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers playing the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Florianne Fabre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders. The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo. When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  11. The Responders' Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts' stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  12. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chen; Wang, Yuru; Huang, Yunyun

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people's fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants' social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game (UG), participants' brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/unfair offers from someone who previously excluded them, someone who previously included them, or a stranger. Results showed that feedback-related negativity (FRN) after onset of distribution outcome was more pronounced for unfair offers compared to fair offers. Moreover, the FRN was more negative-going in response to unfair offers from people who previously excluded them than from the includer and the stranger. Fair offers elicited a larger P300 than unfair offers. In addition, P300 was more positive-going for unfair offers from the stranger than from the excluder and the includer. This study reveals a temporal process in which the effects of social exclusion on fair consideration are reflected in FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation. These data also suggest that the FRN is modulated by the subjective evaluation of outcome events in a social context.

  13. Beliefs and social behavior in a multi-period ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Haim Azar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a multi-period ultimatum game in which we elicit players’ beliefs. Responders do not predict accurately the amount that will be offered to them, and do not get better in their predictions over time. At the individual level we see some effect of the mistake in expectations in the previous period on the responder’s expectation about the offer in the current period, but this effect is relatively small. The proposers’ beliefs about the minimum amount that responders will accept is significantly higher than the minimum amount responders believe will be accepted by other responders. The proposer’s belief about the minimal acceptable offer does not change following a rejection. Nevertheless, the proposer’s offer in the next period does increase following a rejection. The probability of rejection increases when the responder has higher expectations about the amount that will be offered to him or higher beliefs about the minimal amount that other responders will accept.

  14. Lateral OFC activity predicts decision bias due to first impressions during ultimatum games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hackjin; Choi, Min-Jo; Jang, In-Ji

    2012-02-01

    Despite the prevalence and potentially harmful consequences of first impression bias during social decision-making, its precise neural underpinnings remain unclear. Here, on the basis of the fMRI study using ultimatum games, the authors show that the responders' decisions to accept or reject offers were significantly affected by facial trustworthiness of proposers. Analysis using a model-based fMRI method revealed that activity in the right lateral OFC (lOFC) of responders increased as a function of negative decision bias, indicating a greater likelihood of rejecting otherwise fair offers, possibly because of the facial trustworthiness of proposers. In addition, lOFC showed changes in functional connectivity strength with amygdala and insula as a function of decision bias, and individual differences in the strengths of connectivities between lOFC and bilateral insula were also found to predict the likelihood of responders to reject offers from untrustworthy-looking proposers. The present findings emphasize that the lOFC plays a pivotal role in integrating signals related to facial impression and creating signal biasing decisions during social interactions.

  15. Agency matters! Social preferences in the three-person ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Johanna; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Göschl, Florian; Bauer, Herbert; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study EEG was recorded simultaneously while two participants were playing the three-person ultimatum game (UG). Both participants received different offers from changing proposers about how to split up a certain amount of money between the three players. One of the participants had no say, whereas the other, the responder, was able to harm the payoff of all other players. The aim of the study was to investigate how the outcomes of the respective other are evaluated by participants who were treated fairly or unfairly themselves and to what extent agency influences concerns for fairness. Analyses were focused on the medial frontal negativity (MFN) as an early index for subjective value assignment. Recipients with veto-power exhibited enhanced, more negative-going, MFN amplitudes following proposals that comprised a low share for both recipients, suggesting that responders favored offers with a fair amount to at least one of the two players. Though, the powerless players cared about the amount assigned to the responder, MFN amplitudes were larger following fair compared to unfair offers assigned to the responder. Similarly, concerns for fairness which determined the amplitude of the MFN, suggested that the powerless players exhibited negative and conversely the responders, positive social preferences.

  16. Agency matters! Social preferences in the three-person ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eAlexopoulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study EEG was recorded simultaneously while two participants were playing the three-person Ultimatum Game. Both participants received different offers from changing proposers about how to split up a certain amount of money between the three players. One of the participants had no say, whereas the other, the responder, was able to harm the payoff of all other players. The aim of the study was to investigate how the outcomes of the respective other are evaluated by participants who were treated fairly or unfairly themselves and to what extent agency influences concerns for fairness. Analyses were focused on the medial frontal negativity (MFN as an early index for subjective value assignment. Recipients with veto-power exhibited enhanced, more negative-going, MFN amplitudes following proposals that comprised a low share for both recipients, suggesting that responders favored offers with a fair amount to at least one of the two players. Though, the powerless players cared about the amount assigned to the responder, MFN amplitudes were larger following fair compared to unfair offers assigned to the responder. Similarly, concerns for fairness which determined the amplitude of the MFN, suggested that the powerless players exhibited negative and conversely the responders, positive social preferences.

  17. Music-induced Mood Biases Decision Strategies during the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwanjun; Lee, Eun Jung; Jung, You Jin; Kim, Sang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer's offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4) in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange.

  18. Music-induced mood biases decision strategies during the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanjun eChung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing attempt has been made to understand the influence of mood on socioeconomic decision-making. We tested in this study whether an unpleasant mood would lead to unfavorable decisions more frequently than a pleasant mood, and whether decisions under different moods can be explained in different ways. Healthy volunteers were assigned to either a pleasant or unpleasant mood group and listened to musical excerpts to induce pleasant or unpleasant mood. Both groups completed the ultimatum game as a responder with an unacquainted partner who was actually a confederate. The proposer’s offers were made in six different ratios of split (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 in a preprogramed manner unbeknownst to the participants. After the completion of the task as a responder, the participant rated subjectively perceived fairness and emotional feelings about each split of offer. The statistical results showed that the unpleasant mood group rejected unfair offers more often compared to the pleasant mood group. Self-reported ratings of perceived fairness and emotional feelings did not statistically differ between the two groups. Interestingly, however, only in the unpleasant mood group, rejection rates of unfair offers were negatively correlated with perceived fairness. Both the pleasant and unpleasant mood groups showed a negative correlation between rejection rates of unfair offers and self-reported happiness. These results suggest a possibility that different decision strategies operate under different mood during a socioeconomic exchange.

  19. Effect of self-esteem on social interactions during the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, V; Nicolaisen-Sobesky, E; Collado, E; Horta, S; Rey, C; Rivero, M; Berriolo, P; Díaz, M; Otón, M; Pérez, A; Fernández-Theoduloz, G; Cabana, Á; Gradin, V B

    2017-03-06

    Self-esteem is an attitude formed by self-evaluation based on positive and negative aspects of oneself. Low self-esteem is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders and is especially associated with social difficulties. Recently, behavioral economics has allowed the quantitative study of social interactions. We investigated the association between self-esteem and interpersonal problems and whether self-esteem modulates behavior and emotions during an economic task, the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this task participants accept or reject fair/unfair monetary offers from others. Low (LSE, n=40) and high (HSE, n=45) self-esteem participants were assessed in their interpersonal problems and psychiatric symptoms using self-reported questionnaires, and were compared on their decision making and emotional response during the UG. LSE was associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. In addition, LSE was associated with interpersonal problems, especially in the domains of socially inhibited, nonassertive, overly accommodating, self-sacrificing and cold/distant. During the UG, LSE women reported more anger towards unfair offers than HSE women. Our findings suggest that low self-esteem individuals experience high distress by interpersonal problems in several domains. Importantly, low self-esteem in women seems to be associated with an accentuated emotional response to unfair social exchanges. These results may contribute to treat social difficulties in this population.

  20. Processing of fair and unfair offers in the ultimatum game under social observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterburs, Jutta; Voegler, Rolf; Liepelt, Roman; Schulze, Anna; Wilhelm, Saskia; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Straube, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Social context influences social decisions and outcome processing, partially depending on inter-individual differences. The present study investigated social context-dependent modulation of behavior and feedback processing in the ultimatum game (UG) in relation to inter-individual differences in social anxiety. Thirty-two healthy adults completed the UG both under social observation and without observation. Offers were allegedly either randomly generated by the computer or drawn from a pool of offers from previous human players. Overall, fewer unfair than fair offers were accepted. Observation decreased acceptance rates for unfair offers. The feedback-locked feedback-related negativity (FRN) but not the P3 was modulated by observation and fairness, with stronger differential coding of unfair/fair under observation. This effect was strongly correlated with individual levels of social anxiety, with higher levels associated with stronger differential fairness coding in the FRN under observation. Behavioral findings support negative reciprocity in the UG, suggesting that (implicit) social norms overwrite explicit task instructions even in the absence of (alleged) social interaction. Observation enhances this effect. Fairness coding in the FRN was modulated by observation as a function of social anxiety, supporting the notion that altered sensitivity to equality in a social context may contribute to social avoidance in socially anxious individuals. PMID:28276510

  1. Interoception drives increased rational decision-making in meditators playing the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eKirk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human decision-making is often framed as a competition between cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Deviations from rational processes are believed to derive from inclusion of emotional factors in decision-making. Here, we investigate whether a group of experienced Buddhist meditators are better equipped to regulate emotional processes compared with controls during economic decision-making in the Ultimatum Game. We show that meditators accept unfair offers on more than half of the trials, whereas controls only accept unfair offers on one-quarter of the trials. By applying fMRI we show that controls recruit the anterior insula during unfair offers. Such responses are powerful predictors of rejecting offers in social interaction. By contrast, meditators display attenuated activity in high-level emotional representations of the anterior insula and increased activity in the lower-level interoceptive representations of the posterior insula. In addition we show that a subset of control participants who play rationally (i.e. accepts >85% unfair offers recruits the DLPFC reflecting increased cognitive demands to accept unfairness, whereas rational meditators by contrast activates the somatosensory cortex and posterior superior temporal cortex (pSTC. In summary, when assessing unfairness, meditators activate a different network of brain areas compared with controls enabling them to uncouple negative emotional reactions from their behavior. These findings highlight the clinically and socially important possibility that sustained training in mindfulness meditation may impact distinct domains of human decision-making.

  2. Beauty matters: social preferences in a three-person ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Preference for beauty is human nature, as previous behavior studies have supported the notion of "beauty premium" in which attractive people were more easily to get promoted and receive higher salaries. In the present study, 29 males were recruited to participate in a three-person ultimatum game (UG including a proposer, a responder and a powerless third player. Each subject, playing as the responder, had to decide whether to accept an offer from the allocator both for himself and a female third person. We aimed to elucidate how the facial attractiveness of the female subject affected the male subjects' fairness and decision-making in social exchanges. Frontal feedback-related negativity (FRN in response to four offers in an attractive-face condition revealed no significant differences between offers; however, when the companion was an unattractive female, an "unfair/fair" offer, which assigned a lower share to the responder and a fair share to the third player, elicited the largest FRN. Furthermore, when the third player was offered the smallest amount ("fair/unfair" offer, a larger FRN was generated in an attractive-face condition than unattractive-face condition. In the "unfair/fair" offer condition in which subjects received a smaller allocation than the third person, the beauty of their female counterparts attenuated subjects' aversion to inequality, resulting in a less negative FRN in the frontal region and an increased acceptance ratio. However, the influence of the third player's facial attractiveness only affected the early evaluation stage: late P300 was found to be immune to the "beauty premium". Under the two face conditions, P300 was smallest following an "unfair/fair" offer, whereas the amplitudes in the other three offer conditions exhibited no significant differences. In addition, the differentiated neural features of processing facial attractiveness were also determined and indexed by four event-related potentials (ERP

  3. Counterfactual comparison modulates fairness consideration in the mini-ultimatum game: an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiafeng; Lin, Huiyan; Xiang, Jing; Wu, Hao; Li, Xu; Liang, Hongyu; Zheng, Xue

    2015-04-01

    Existing literature on the mini-ultimatum game indicates that counterfactual comparison between chosen and unchosen alternatives is of great importance for individual's fairness consideration. However, it is still unclear how counterfactual comparison influences the electrophysiological responses to unfair chosen offers. In conjunction with event-related potentials' (ERPs) technique, the current study aimed to explore the issue by employing a modified version of the mini-ultimatum game where a fixed set of two alternatives (unfair offer vs. fair alternative, unfair vs. hyperfair alternative, unfair offer vs. hyperunfair alternative) was presented before the chosen offer. The behavioral results showed that participants were more likely to accept unfair chosen offers when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. The ERPs results showed that the feedback-related negativity (FRN) elicited by unfair chosen offers was insensitive to the type of unchosen alternative when correcting for possible overlap with other components. In contrast, unfair chosen offers elicited larger P300 amplitudes when the unchosen alternative was hyperunfair than when the unchosen alternative was fair or hyperfair. These findings suggest that counterfactual comparison may take effect at later stages of fairness consideration as reflected by the P300.

  4. Ethics and Economics in International Business Education: A Comparison of Kuwaiti and U.S. Students Using an Ultimatum Game Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Dennis; Al-Kazemi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years a body of research in behavioral and experimental economics has challenged classical economic theory. Yet, this body of research seems relatively unknown in business education. One behavioral test with implications for international business education has been the use of ultimatum games, which has more recently expanded to…

  5. Ethics and Economics in International Business Education: A Comparison of Kuwaiti and U.S. Students Using an Ultimatum Game Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Dennis; Al-Kazemi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years a body of research in behavioral and experimental economics has challenged classical economic theory. Yet, this body of research seems relatively unknown in business education. One behavioral test with implications for international business education has been the use of ultimatum games, which has more recently expanded to…

  6. Beauty Matters: Social Preferences in a Three-Person Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Preference for beauty is human nature, as previous behavior studies have supported the notion of “beauty premium” in which attractive people were more easily to get promoted and receive higher salaries. In the present study, 29 males were recruited to participate in a three-person ultimatum game (UG) including a proposer, a responder and a powerless third player. Each subject, playing as the responder, had to decide whether to accept an offer from the allocator both for himself and a female third person. We aimed to elucidate how the facial attractiveness of the female subject affected the male subjects’ fairness and decision-making in social exchanges. Frontal feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to four offers in an attractive-face condition revealed no significant differences between offers; however, when the companion was an unattractive female, an “unfair/fair” offer, which assigned a lower share to the responder and a fair share to the third player, elicited the largest FRN. Furthermore, when the third player was offered the smallest amount (“fair/unfair” offer), a larger FRN was generated in an attractive-face condition than unattractive-face condition. In the “unfair/fair” offer condition in which subjects received a smaller allocation than the third person, the beauty of their female counterparts attenuated subjects’ aversion to inequality, resulting in a less negative FRN in the frontal region and an increased acceptance ratio. However, the influence of the third player’s facial attractiveness only affected the early evaluation stage: late P300 was found to be immune to the “beauty premium”. Under the two face conditions, P300 was smallest following an “unfair/fair” offer, whereas the amplitudes in the other three offer conditions exhibited no significant differences. In addition, the differentiated neural features of processing facial attractiveness were also determined and indexed by four event-related potentials

  7. The influence of dopaminergic gene variants on decision making in the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eReuter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent paradigms in neuroeconomics is the Ultimatum Game (UG that provides a framework for the study of pro-social behavior in two players interacting anonymously with each other: Player 1 has to split an endowment with player 2. Player 2 can either accept or reject the offer from player 1. If player 2 accepts the offer then the money is split as proposed by player 1. In case of rejection both players get nothing. Until now only one twin study investigated the heritability of the behavior in the UG. Results indicated a strong heritability for the decision behavior of player 2 whereas no genetic influence on player 1 behavior could be detected. Further studies are mandatory to validate these heritability estimates. However, a first candidate polymorphism, the DRD4 exon III, constituting the biological basis of the heritability in the responder behavior has already been identified in a Chinese sample (Zhong et al., 2010. Until now genetic studies in Caucasians on the UG are lacking. The present study wants to fill this gap by investigating the UG in a healthy German sample. Moreover, we intend to find candidate genes that are associated with the first-mover-behavior. In a sample of N=130 healthy participants an online version of the UG was conducted and polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2 and the DRD4 exon III VNTR were genotyped. We could confirm the DRD4 exon III effect on the responder behavior and the absence of an effect on the proposer behavior reported before. In line with Zhong et al. (2010 carriers of the 4/4 genotype showed a significant higher minimal acceptable offer (p=0.023 than subjects with any other genotype. Furthermore, a DRD2-haplotype-block containing the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1800497 and rs2283265 was significantly associated with the amount player1 offered (p=.005 but not with the decision of player 2. Results support the importance of the dopaminergic system for pro

  8. The influence of dopaminergic gene variants on decision making in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Felten, Andrea; Penz, Sabrina; Mainzer, Anna; Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the most prominent paradigms in neuroeconomics is the ultimatum game (UG) that provides a framework for the study of pro-social behavior in two players interacting anonymously with each other: Player 1 has to split an endowment with player 2. Player 2 can either accept or reject the offer from player 1. If player 2 accepts the offer then the money is split as proposed by player 1. In case of rejection both players get nothing. Until now only one twin study investigated the heritability of the behavior in the UG. Results indicated a strong heritability for the decision behavior of player 2 whereas no genetic influence on player 1 behavior could be detected. Further studies are mandatory to validate these heritability estimates. However, a first candidate polymorphism, the DRD4 exon III, constituting the biological basis of the heritability in the responder behavior has already been identified in a Chinese sample (Zhong et al., 2010). Until now genetic studies in Caucasians on the UG are lacking. The present study wants to fill this gap by investigating the UG in a healthy German sample. Moreover, we intend to find candidate genes that are associated with the first-mover-behavior. In a sample of N = 130 healthy participants an online version of the UG was conducted and polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) and the DRD4 exon III VNTR were genotyped. We could confirm the DRD4 exon III effect on the responder behavior and the absence of an effect on the proposer behavior reported before. In line with Zhong et al. (2010) carriers of the 4/4 genotype showed a significant higher minimal acceptable offer (p = 0.023) than subjects with any other genotype. Furthermore, a DRD2-haplotype-block containing the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs1800497 and rs2283265 was significantly associated with the amount player1 offered (p = 0.005) but not with the decision of player 2. Results support the importance of the dopaminergic system for pro-social behavior.

  9. How much is our fairness worth? The effect of raising stakes on offers by Proposers and minimum acceptable offers in Dictator and Ultimatum Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Novakova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether people respond differently to low and high stakes in Dictator and Ultimatum Games. We assumed that if we raised the stakes high enough, we would observe more self-orientated behavior because fairness would become too costly, in spite of a possible risk of a higher punishment. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by a sample of 524 university students of biology. A mixed linear model was used to test the relation between the amount at stake (CZK 20, 200, 2,000, 20,000 and 200,000, i.e., approximately $1-$10,000 and the shares, as well as the subjects' gender and the design of the study (single vs. multiple games for different amounts. RESULTS: We have discovered a significant relationship between the amount at stake and the minimum acceptable offer in the Ultimatum Game and the proposed shares in both Ultimatum and Dictator Games (p = 0.001, p<0.001, p = 0.0034. The difference between playing a single game or more games with several amounts at stake did not influence the relation between the stakes and the offered and minimum acceptable shares. Women proved significantly more generous than men in their offers in the Dictator Game (p = 0.007. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that people's behavior in the Dictator and Ultimatum Games depends on the amount at stake. The players tended to lower their relative proposed shares, as well as their relative minimum acceptable offers. We propose that the Responders' sense of equity and fair play depends on the stakes because of the costs of maintaining fairness. However, our results also suggest that the price of fairness is very high and that it is very difficult, probably even impossible, to buy the transition of Homo sociologicus into Homo economicus.

  10. Is costly punishment altruistic? Exploring rejection of unfair offers in the Ultimatum Game in real-world altruists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethel-Haurwitz, Kristin M; Stoycos, Sarah A; Cardinale, Elise M; Huebner, Bryce; Marsh, Abigail A

    2016-01-07

    In the Ultimatum Game (UG), incurring a cost to punish inequity is commonly termed altruistic punishment. This behaviour is thought to benefit others if the defector becomes more equitable in future interactions. However, clear connections between punishment in the UG and altruistic behaviours outside the laboratory are lacking. We tested the altruistic punishment hypothesis in a sample of extraordinarily altruistic adults, predicting that if punishing inequity is predictive of altruism more broadly, extraordinary altruists should punish more frequently. Results showed that punishment was not more prevalent in extraordinary altruists than controls. However, a self-reported altruism measure previously linked to peer evaluations but not behaviour, and on which extraordinary altruists and controls did not differ, did predict punishment. These findings support suggestions that altruistic punishment in the UG is better termed costly punishment and may be motivated by social, but not necessarily prosocial, concerns. Results also support prior suggestions that self-reported altruism may not reliably predict altruistic behaviour.

  11. More Fair Play in an Ultimatum Game after Resettlement in Zimbabwe: A Field Experiment and a Structural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabwean villagers of distinct background have resettled in government-organized land reforms for more than three decades. Against this backdrop, I assess the level of social cohesion in some of the newly established communities by estimating the average preferences for fairness in a structural model of bounded rationality. The estimations are based on behavioral data from an ultimatum game field experiment played by 234 randomly selected households in 6 traditional and 14 resettled villages almost two decades after resettlement. Equal or higher degrees of fairness are estimated in all resettlement schemes. In one, or arguably two, out of three distinct resettlement schemes studied, the resettled villagers exhibit significantly higher degrees of fairness ( ) and rationality ( ) than those who live in traditional villages. Overall, villagers appear similarly rational, but the attitude toward fairness is significantly stronger in resettled communities ( ). These findings are consistent with the idea of an increased need for cooperation required in recommencement. PMID:23724095

  12. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Riepl

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on

  13. Neural signatures of fairness-related normative decision making in the ultimatum game: a coordinate-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The willingness to incur personal costs to enforce prosocial norms represents a hallmark of human civilization. Although recent neuroscience studies have used the ultimatum game to understand the neuropsychological mechanisms that underlie the enforcement of fairness norms; however, a precise characterization of the neural systems underlying fairness-related norm enforcement remains elusive. In this study, we used a coordinate-based meta-analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies using the ultimatum game with the goal to provide an additional level of evidence for the refinement of the underlying neural architecture of this human puzzling behavior. Our results demonstrated a convergence of reported activation foci in brain networks associated with psychological components of fairness-related normative decision making, presumably reflecting a reflexive and intuitive system (System 1) and a reflective and deliberate system (System 2). System 1 (anterior insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex [PFC]) may be associated with the reflexive and intuitive responses to norm violations, representing a motivation to punish norm violators. Those intuitive responses conflict with economic self-interest, encoded in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which may engage cognitive control from a reflective and deliberate System 2 to resolve the conflict by either suppressing (ventrolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, left dorsolateral PFC, and rostral ACC) the intuitive responses or over-riding self-interest (right dorsolateral PFC). Taken together, we suggest that fairness-related norm enforcement recruits an intuitive system for rapid evaluation of norm violations and a deliberate system for integrating both social norms and self-interest to regulate the intuitive system in favor of more flexible decision making. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and

  15. Fairness norms and theory of mind in an ultimatum game: judgments, offers, and decisions in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Bicchieri, Cristina; Chavez, Alex; Marchetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity to fairness undergoes relevant changes across development. Whether such changes depend on primary inequity aversion or on sensitivity to a social norm of fairness is still debated. Using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game that creates informational asymmetries between Proposer and Responder, a previous study showed that both perceptions of fairness and fair behavior depend upon normative expectations, i.e., beliefs about what others expect one should do in a specific situation. Individuals tend to comply with the norm when risking sanctions, but disregard the norm when violations are undetectable. Using the same methodology with children aged 8-10 years, the present study shows that children's beliefs and behaviors differ from what is observed in adults. Playing as Proposers, children show a self-serving bias only when there is a clear informational asymmetry. Playing as Responders, they show a remarkable discrepancy between their normative judgment about fair procedures (a coin toss to determine the offer) and their behavior (rejection of an unfair offer derived from the coin toss), supporting the existence of an outcome bias effect. Finally, our results reveal no influence of theory of mind on children's decision-making behavior.

  16. More fair play in an ultimatum game after resettlement in Zimbabwe: a field experiment and a structural model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kohler

    Full Text Available Zimbabwean villagers of distinct background have resettled in government-organized land reforms for more than three decades. Against this backdrop, I assess the level of social cohesion in some of the newly established communities by estimating the average preferences for fairness in a structural model of bounded rationality. The estimations are based on behavioral data from an ultimatum game field experiment played by 234 randomly selected households in 6 traditional and 14 resettled villages almost two decades after resettlement. Equal or higher degrees of fairness are estimated in all resettlement schemes. In one, or arguably two, out of three distinct resettlement schemes studied, the resettled villagers exhibit significantly higher degrees of fairness (p ≤ 0.11 and rationality (p ≤ 0.04 than those who live in traditional villages. Overall, villagers appear similarly rational, but the attitude toward fairness is significantly stronger in resettled communities (p ≤ 0.01. These findings are consistent with the idea of an increased need for cooperation required in recommencement.

  17. Fairness norms and theory of mind in an ultimatum game: judgments, offers, and decisions in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Castelli

    Full Text Available The sensitivity to fairness undergoes relevant changes across development. Whether such changes depend on primary inequity aversion or on sensitivity to a social norm of fairness is still debated. Using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game that creates informational asymmetries between Proposer and Responder, a previous study showed that both perceptions of fairness and fair behavior depend upon normative expectations, i.e., beliefs about what others expect one should do in a specific situation. Individuals tend to comply with the norm when risking sanctions, but disregard the norm when violations are undetectable. Using the same methodology with children aged 8-10 years, the present study shows that children's beliefs and behaviors differ from what is observed in adults. Playing as Proposers, children show a self-serving bias only when there is a clear informational asymmetry. Playing as Responders, they show a remarkable discrepancy between their normative judgment about fair procedures (a coin toss to determine the offer and their behavior (rejection of an unfair offer derived from the coin toss, supporting the existence of an outcome bias effect. Finally, our results reveal no influence of theory of mind on children's decision-making behavior.

  18. Emergent dynamics of fairness in the spatial coevolution of proposer and responder species in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Reiji; Okamoto, Tomoko; Arita, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    While spatially local interactions are ubiquitous between coevolving species sharing recourses (e.g., plant-insect interactions), their effects on such coevolution processes of strategies involving the share of a resource are still not clearly understood. We construct a two-dimensional spatial model of the coevolution of the proposer and responder species in the ultimatum game (UG), in which a pair of proposer and responder individuals at each site plays the UG. We investigate the effects of the locality of interactions and the intensity of selection on the emergence of fairness between these species. We show that the lower intensity of selection favors fair strategies in general, and there are no significant differences in the evolution of fairness between the cases with local and global interactions when the intensity of selection is low. However, as the intensity of selection becomes higher, the spatially local interactions contribute to the evolution of fairer strategies more than the global interactions, even though fair strategies become more difficult to evolve. This positive effect of spatial interactions is expected to be due to the mutual benefit of fairness for both proposer and responder species in future generations, which brings about a dynamic evolution process of fairness.

  19. Social Comparison Affects Brain Responses to Fairness in Asset Division: An ERP Study with the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin; Zhou, Yuqin; van Dijk, Eric; Leliveld, Marijke C; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipients in the ultimatum game, were informed not only of offers to themselves but also of the average amount of offers in other allocator-recipient dyads. Behavioral results showed that the participants were more likely to reject division schemes when they were offered less than the other recipients, especially when the offers were highly unequal. Event-related brain potentials recorded from the participants showed that highly unequal offers elicited more negative-going medial frontal negativity than moderately unequal offers in an early time window (270-360 ms) and this effect was not significantly modulated by social comparison. In a later time window (450-650 ms), however, the late positive potential (LPP) was more positive for moderately unequal offers than for highly unequal offers when the other recipients were offered less than the participants, whereas this distinction disappeared when the other recipients were offered the same as or more than the participants. These findings suggest that the brain activity in evaluating fairness in asset division entails both an earlier (semi-) automatic process in which the brain responds to fairness at an abstract level and a later appraisal process in which factors related to social comparison and fairness norms come into play.

  20. Fairness Norms and Theory of Mind in an Ultimatum Game: Judgments, Offers, and Decisions in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Bicchieri, Cristina; Chavez, Alex; Marchetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity to fairness undergoes relevant changes across development. Whether such changes depend on primary inequity aversion or on sensitivity to a social norm of fairness is still debated. Using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game that creates informational asymmetries between Proposer and Responder, a previous study showed that both perceptions of fairness and fair behavior depend upon normative expectations, i.e., beliefs about what others expect one should do in a specific situation. Individuals tend to comply with the norm when risking sanctions, but disregard the norm when violations are undetectable. Using the same methodology with children aged 8–10 years, the present study shows that children's beliefs and behaviors differ from what is observed in adults. Playing as Proposers, children show a self-serving bias only when there is a clear informational asymmetry. Playing as Responders, they show a remarkable discrepancy between their normative judgment about fair procedures (a coin toss to determine the offer) and their behavior (rejection of an unfair offer derived from the coin toss), supporting the existence of an outcome bias effect. Finally, our results reveal no influence of theory of mind on children's decision-making behavior. PMID:25118863

  1. Suffering Makes You Egoist: Acute Pain Increases Acceptance Rates and Reduces Fairness during a Bilateral Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Alessandra; Betti, Viviana; Panasiti, Maria Serena; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2011-01-01

    Social preferences like interpersonal altruism, fairness, reciprocity and inequity aversion are inherently linked to departures from pure self-interest. During economic interactions, for example, defectors may be punished even if this implies a cost for the punishers. This violation of canonical assumptions in economics indicates that socially oriented decisions may predominate over self-centred stances. Here we explore whether the personal experience of pain changes the balance between self-gain and socially based choices. We used laser stimulation to induce pain or a warm sensation in subjects playing a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG) both in the role of responder and proposer. After each shot, responders evaluated the fairness of the offer. Moreover, responders and proposers rated the intensity and unpleasantness of the sensation evoked by the laser stimulation. Results show that suffering proposers decrease fair offers and suffering responders increase their acceptance rate irrespective of economic offer. Crucially, the intensity of painful stimulation has a predictive role on Moderately Unfair offers' acceptance rates. Thus the personal experience of pain may favour the emergence of a self-centered perspective aimed at maximizing self-gain. The results suggest that bodily states play a fundamental role in higher-order interpersonal negotiations and interactions. PMID:22022492

  2. Timing and Virtual Observability in Ultimatum Bargaining and "Weak Link" Coordination Games

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that simply knowing one player moves first can affect behavior in games, even when the first-mover's moves are known to be unobservable. This observation violates the game-theoretic principle that timing of unobserved moves is irrelevant, but is consistent with virtual observability, a theory of how timing can matter without the ability to observe actions. However, this previous research only shows that timing matters in games where knowledge that one player moved ...

  3. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  4. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  5. The undermining effect of facial attractiveness on brain responses to fairness in the Ultimatum Game: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Hu, Yue; Jiang, Shushu; Meng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the time course of the neural processing of facial attractiveness and its influence on fairness consideration during social interactions, event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded from 21 male subjects performing a two-person Ultimatum Game (UG). During this bargaining game, the male subjects played responders who decided whether to accept offers from female proposers, whose facial images (grouped as "attractive" and "unattractive") were presented prior to the offer presentation. The behavioral data demonstrated that the acceptance ratio increased with the fairness level of the offers and, more importantly, the subjects were more likely to accept unfair offers when presented with the attractive-face condition compared with the unattractive-face condition. The reaction times (RTs) for five offers (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, and 5:5) in the unattractive-face condition were not significantly different. In contrast, the subjects reacted slower to the attractive proposers' unfair offers and quicker to fair offers. The ERP analysis of the face presentation demonstrated a decreased early negativity (N2) and enhanced late positive potentials (LPPs) elicited by the attractive faces compared with the unattractive faces. In addition, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in response to an offer presentation was not significantly different for the unfair (1:9 and 2:8) and fair (4:6 and 5:5) offers in the attractive-face condition. However, the unfair offers generated larger FRNs compared with the fair offers in the unattractive-face condition (consistent with prior studies). A similar effect was identified for P300. The present study demonstrated an undermining effect of proposer facial attractiveness on responder consideration of offer fairness during the UG.

  6. The Undermining Effect of Facial Attractiveness on Brain Responses to Fairness in Ultimatum Game: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo eMa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the time course of the neural processing of facial attractiveness and its influence on fairness consideration during social interactions, event-related potentials (ERP were recorded from 21 male subjects performing a two-person Ultimatum Game (UG. During this bargaining game, the male subjects played responders who decided whether to accept offers from female proposers, whose facial images (grouped as attractive and unattractive were presented prior to the offer presentation. The behavioral data demonstrated that the acceptance ratio increased with the fairness level of the offers and, more importantly, the subjects were more likely to accept unfair offers when presented with the attractive-face condition compared with the unattractive-face condition. The reaction times (RTs for five offers (1:9, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6 and 5:5 in the unattractive-face condition were not significantly different. In contrast, the subjects reacted slower to the attractive proposers’ unfair offers and quicker to fair offers. The ERP analysis of the face presentation demonstrated a decreased early negativity (N2 and enhanced late positive potentials (LPPs elicited by the attractive faces compared with the unattractive faces. In addition, the feedback-related negativity (FRN in response to an offer presentation was not significantly different for the unfair (1:9 and 2:8 and fair (4:6 and 5:5 offers in the attractive-face condition. However, the unfair offers generated larger FRNs compared with the fair offers in the unattractive-face condition (consistent with prior studies. A similar effect was identified for P300. The present study demonstrated an undermining effect of proposer facial attractiveness on responder consideration of offer fairness during the UG.

  7. Fast to forgive, slow to retaliate: intuitive responses in the ultimatum game depend on the degree of unfairness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamonn Ferguson

    Full Text Available Evolutionary accounts have difficulty explaining why people cooperate with anonymous strangers they will never meet. Recently models, focusing on emotional processing, have been proposed as a potential explanation, with attention focusing on a dual systems approach based on system 1 (fast, intuitive, automatic, effortless, and emotional and system 2 (slow, reflective, effortful, proactive and unemotional. Evidence shows that when cooperation is salient, people are fast (system 1 to cooperate, but with longer delays (system 2 they show greed. This is interpreted within the framework of the social heuristic hypothesis (SHH, whereby people overgeneralize potentially advantageous intuitively learnt and internalization social norms to 'atypical' situations. We extend this to explore intuitive reactions to unfairness by integrating the SHH with the 'fast to forgive, slow to anger' (FFSA heuristic. This suggests that it is advantageous to be prosocial when facing uncertainty. We propose that whether or not someone intuitively shows prosociality (cooperation or retaliation is moderated by the degree (certainty of unfairness. People should intuitively cooperate when facing mild levels of unfairness (fast to forgive but when given longer to decide about another's mild level of unfairness should retaliate (slow to anger. However, when facing severe levels of unfairness, the intuitive response is always retaliation. We test this using a series of one-shot ultimatum games and manipulate level of offer unfairness (50:50 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, 90:10 and enforced time delays prior to responding (1s, 2s, 8s, 15s. We also measure decision times to make responses after the time delays. The results show that when facing mildly unfair offers (60:40 people are fast (intuitive to cooperate but with longer delays reject these mildly unfair offers: 'fast to forgive, and slow to retaliate'. However, for severely unfair offers (90:10 the intuitive and fast response is to

  8. Hello handsome! Male's facial attractiveness gives rise to female's fairness bias in Ultimatum Game scenarios-An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Qian, Da; Hu, Linfeng; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The current study delineated how male proposers' facial attractiveness affect female responders' fairness considerations and their subsequent decision outcome during the Ultimatum Game (UG). Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 17 female subjects, who played the role as responders and had to decide whether to accept offers from either attractive or unattractive male proposers. Behavioral data (Acceptance Ratio and Response time) revealed that, more offers were accepted from attractive-face conditions; subjects typically responded quicker to unfair offers from unattractive proposers as compared with slower to unfair offers from attractive proposers. The ERP data demonstrated similar N2 amplitudes elicited by both attractive and unattractive faces, and a larger early frontal LPP elicited by the attractive faces compared with unattractive ones, but no significant differences of both late posterior LPP and typical parietal LPP amplitudes were observed between these two face conditions, which was different from our previous study with similar paradigm but male participants. The results suggest that, in comparison to males, females might not experience the potential attention bias towards unattractive opposite-sex faces and are less likely to possess an enhanced processing and evaluation of those faces. This phenomenon might be explained by endogenous gender differences in mate preference. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 responses during an offer presentation were further measured in both attractive-face and unattractive-face conditions and the results demonstrated that the amplitudes elicited by fair and unfair offers were not statistically different in the former condition, but were different in the latter condition. More specifically, unfair offers generated larger FRN and smaller P300 than fair ones in the unattractive-face condition. Findings suggest that, although females tend to possess less salient evaluation of male's facial

  9. Abnormal brain responses to social fairness in depression: an fMRI study using the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradin, V B; Pérez, A; MacFarlane, J A; Cavin, I; Waiter, G; Engelmann, J; Dritschel, B; Pomi, A; Matthews, K; Steele, J D

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a prevalent disorder that significantly affects the social functioning and interpersonal relationships of individuals. This highlights the need for investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying these social difficulties. Investigation of social exchanges has traditionally been challenging as such interactions are difficult to quantify. Recently, however, neuroeconomic approaches that combine multiplayer behavioural economic paradigms and neuroimaging have provided a framework to operationalize and quantify the study of social interactions and the associated neural substrates. We investigated brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in unmedicated depressed participants (n = 25) and matched healthy controls (n = 25). During scanning, participants played a behavioural economic paradigm, the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this task, participants accept or reject monetary offers from other players. In comparison to controls, depressed participants reported decreased levels of happiness in response to 'fair' offers. With increasing fairness of offers, controls activated the nucleus accumbens and the dorsal caudate, regions that have been reported to process social information and responses to rewards. By contrast, participants with depression failed to activate these regions with increasing fairness, with the lack of nucleus accumbens activation correlating with increased anhedonia symptoms. Depressed participants also showed a diminished response to increasing unfairness of offers in the medial occipital lobe. Our findings suggest that depressed individuals differ from healthy controls in the neural substrates involved with processing social information. In depression, the nucleus accumbens and dorsal caudate may underlie abnormalities in processing information linked to the fairness and rewarding aspects of other people's decisions.

  10. Differences in Social Decision-Making between Proposers and Responders during the Ultimatum Game: An EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle K. Horat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ultimatum Game (UG is a typical paradigm to investigate social decision-making. Although the behavior of humans in this task is already well established, the underlying brain processes remain poorly understood. Previous investigations using event-related potentials (ERPs revealed three major components related to cognitive processes in participants engaged in the responder condition, the early ERP component P2, the feedback-related negativity (FRN and a late positive wave (late positive component, LPC. However, the comparison of the ERP waveforms between the responder and proposer conditions has never been studied. Therefore, to investigate condition-related electrophysiological changes, we applied the UG paradigm and compared parameters of the P2, LPC and FRN components in twenty healthy participants. For the responder condition, we found a significantly decreased amplitude and delayed latency for the P2 component, whereas the mean amplitudes of the LPC and FRN increased compared to the proposer condition. Additionally, the proposer condition elicited an early component consisting of a negative deflection around 190 ms, in the upward slope of the P2, probably as a result of early conflict-related processing. Using independent component analysis (ICA, we extracted one functional component time-locked to this deflection, and with source reconstruction (LAURA we found the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC as one of the underlying sources. Overall, our findings indicate that intensity and time-course of neuronal systems engaged in the decision-making processes diverge between both UG conditions, suggesting differential cognitive processes. Understanding the electrophysiological bases of decision-making and social interactions in controls could be useful to further detect which steps are impaired in psychiatric patients in their ability to attribute mental states (such as beliefs, intents, or desires to oneself and others. This ability is called

  11. Do we care about the powerless third? An ERP study of the three-person ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eAlexopoulos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have provided increasing insights into the factors affecting economic decision making. Little is known about how these factors influence decisions that also bear consequences for other people. We examined whether decisions that also affected a third, passive player modulate the behavioral and neural responses to monetary offers in a modified version of the three-person ultimatum game. We aimed to elucidate to what extent social preferences affect early neuronal processing when subjects were evaluating offers that were fair or unfair to themselves, to the third player, or to both. As an event-related potential index for early evaluation processes in economic decision making, we recorded the medial frontal negativity (MFN component in response to such offers. Unfair offers were rejected more often than equitable ones, in particular when negatively affecting the subject. While the MFN amplitude was higher following unfair as compared to fair offers to the subject, MFN amplitude was not modulated by the shares assigned to the third, passive player. Furthermore, rejection rates and MFN amplitudes following fair offers were positively correlated, as subjects showing lower MFN amplitudes following fair offers tended to reject unfair offers more often – but only if those offers negatively affected their own payoff. Altogether, the rejection behavior suggests that humans mainly care about a powerless third when they are confronted with inequality as well. The correlation between rejection rates and the MFN amplitude supports the notion that this ERP component is also modulated by positive events and highlights how our expectations concerning other humans’ behavior guide our own decisions. However, social preferences like inequality aversion and concern for the well-being of others are not reflected in this early neuronal response, but seem to result from later, deliberate and higher-order cognitive processes.

  12. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  13. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  14. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  15. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  16. Repeated Games With Intervention: Theory and Applications in Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yuanzhang; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    In communication systems where users share common resources, users' selfish behavior usually results in suboptimal resource utilization. There have been extensive works that model communication systems with selfish users as one-shot games and propose incentive schemes to achieve Pareto optimal action profiles as non-cooperative equilibria. However, in many communication systems, due to strong negative externalities among users, the sets of feasible payoffs in one-shot games are nonconvex. Thus, it is possible to expand the set of feasible payoffs by having users choose convex combinations of different payoffs. In this paper, we propose a repeated game model generalized by intervention. First, we use repeated games to convexify the set of feasible payoffs in one-shot games. Second, we combine conventional repeated games with intervention, originally proposed for one-shot games, to achieve a larger set of equilibrium payoffs and loosen requirements for users' patience to achieve it. We study the problem of maxi...

  17. Finite stage asymmetric repeated games: Both players' viewpoints

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lichun

    2017-01-05

    In asymmetric zero-sum games, one player has superior information about the game over the other. It is known that the informed players (maximizer) face the tradeoff of exploiting its superior information at the cost of revealing its superior information, but the basic point of the uninformed player (minimizer)\\'s decision making remains unknown. This paper studies the finite stage asymmetric repeated games from both players\\' viewpoints, and derives that not only security strategies but also the opponents\\' corresponding best responses depends only on the informed player\\'s history action sequences. Moreover, efficient LP formulations to compute both player\\'s security strategies are provided.

  18. Wages and employment in a repeated game with revenue fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Empirical investigations suggests that the real wage is surprisingly flat over the business cycle. This paper analyses a repeated game between a union and a firm which can contribute to explaining the flat wage. The parties cannot enter binding contracts, and revenue is fluctuating. The paper...

  19. Male rats play a repeated donation game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Grace; Wood, Ruth I

    2017-05-15

    While previous studies have demonstrated direct and generalized reciprocity in female Norway rats [26], the present study determined if unrelated male laboratory rats respond on behalf of a partner in an iterated sequential game. Pairs of rats worked for food reward in an operant chamber, where participants alternated as Donor and Responder in successive trials. In each trial, the Donor chose between variable and constant reward levers, where the constant reward lever delivered 1 pellet, and the variable reward lever triggered insertion of Responder lever(s); the Donor received 2 pellets when the Responder made any response. In forced-choice constant (FC) trials, the Responder also received 1 pellet for responding on the constant reward lever. In forced-choice variable (FV) trials, the Responder received no pellets for responding on the variable reward lever. In free-choice (FR) trials, the Responder chose between constant (1 pellet) and variable reward levers (0 pellets). With their cagemate, rats earned 61.4±2.0 pellets (64.0±2.1% of 96 possible pellets). As Donor in FC trials, rats preferred the variable reward lever, and the Responder responded frequently. In FV trials, Donor preference for the variable reward lever declined as Responder lever responses decreased. In FR trials, rats alternated responding on variable and constant reward levers as Donor and Responder, respectively. When paired with a new partner, there was no effect on Donor responses, but responses by the Responder decreased in the FV block. Similar effects were observed when paired with a maximally-cooperative stooge. Importantly, rats did not adjust their behavior as Donor to receive more pellets. Results suggest that unrelated male rats will work on behalf of a partner, and that their behavior is sensitive to familiarity, and to cooperative responses by their partner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Repeated games and direct reciprocity under active linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Jorge M; Traulsen, Arne; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A

    2008-02-21

    Direct reciprocity relies on repeated encounters between the same two individuals. Here we examine the evolution of cooperation under direct reciprocity in dynamically structured populations. Individuals occupy the vertices of a graph, undergoing repeated interactions with their partners via the edges of the graph. Unlike the traditional approach to evolutionary game theory, where individuals meet at random and have no control over the frequency or duration of interactions, we consider a model in which individuals differ in the rate at which they seek new interactions. Moreover, once a link between two individuals has formed, the productivity of this link is evaluated. Links can be broken off at different rates. Whenever the active dynamics of links is sufficiently fast, population structure leads to a simple transformation of the payoff matrix, effectively changing the game under consideration, and hence paving the way for reciprocators to dominate defectors. We derive analytical conditions for evolutionary stability.

  1. Computing security strategies in finite horizon repeated Bayesian games

    KAUST Repository

    Lichun Li

    2017-07-10

    This paper studies security strategies in two-player zero-sum repeated Bayesian games with finite horizon. In such games, each player has a private type which is independently chosen according to a publicly known a priori probability. Players\\' types are fixed all through the game. The game is played for finite stages. At every stage, players simultaneously choose their actions which are observed by the public. The one-stage payoff of player 1 (or penalty to player 2) depends on both players types and actions, and is not directly observed by any player. While player 1 aims to maximize the total payoff over the game, player 2 wants to minimize it. This paper provides each player two ways to compute the security strategy, i.e. the optimal strategy in the worst case. First, a security strategy that directly depends on both players\\' history actions is derived by refining the sequence form. Noticing that history action space grows exponentially with respect to the time horizon, this paper further presents a security strategy that depends on player\\'s fixed sized sufficient statistics. The sufficient statistics is shown to consist of the belief on one\\'s own type, the regret on the other player\\'s type, and the stage, and is independent of the other player\\'s strategy.

  2. Labor union members play an OLG repeated game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Michihiro; Obayashi, Shinya

    2014-07-22

    Humans are capable of cooperating with one another even when it is costly and a deviation provides an immediate gain. An important reason is that cooperation is reciprocated or rewarded and deviations are penalized in later stages. For cooperation to be sustainable, not only must rewards and penalties be strong enough but individuals should also have the right incentives to provide rewards and punishments. Codes of conduct with such properties have been studied extensively in game theory (as repeated game equilibria), and the literature on the evolution of cooperation shows how equilibrium behavior might emerge and proliferate in society. We found that community unions, a subclass of labor unions that admits individual affiliations, are ideal to corroborate these theories with reality, because (i) their activities are simple and (ii) they have a structure that closely resembles a theoretical model, the overlapping generations repeated game. A detailed case study of a community union revealed a possible equilibrium that can function under the very limited observability in the union. The equilibrium code of conduct appears to be a natural focal point based on simple heuristic reasoning. The union we studied was created out of necessity for cooperation, without knowing or anticipating how cooperation might be sustained. The union has successfully resolved about 3,000 labor disputes and created a number of offspring.

  3. 群体身份调节最后通牒博弈的公平关注%Group Membership Modulates The Recipient’s Fairness Consideration in Ultimatum Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益文; 张振; 张蔚; 黄亮; 郭丰波; 原胜

    2014-01-01

    Intergroup interaction is a primary type of social interaction, and plays an important role in human social development. Previous behavioral researches based on economic game tasks has demonstrated that the perception of partner’s group membership could modulate individuals’ mental processes and behavioral decision making when the participants play the game against an ingroup or outgroup member. However, it is still unclear how group membership influences the time course of recipient’s fairness considerations in the asset allocation task. In order to address this problem, we use the Minimal Group Paradigm to manipulate the ingroup-outgroup distinction between subjects and interactive partner, and integrate Ultimatum Game task and event-related potentials (ERPs) technique to explore how group membership affect the processing of fairness process and the time course of evaluation to allocation proposal. Brain potentials were recorded while 15 healthy adult subjects participated as recipients in the Ultimatum Game with alleged members of both an experimentally induced ingroup and outgroup, and subjects would receive either extremely unfair, moderately unfair, or fair offers from proposers. The behavioral data and ERP amplitudes (AN1 and MFN) associated with the three offers in both two interactions were analyzed. The behavioral data suggested that participants accepted more offers from ingroup partner than from outgroup partner, and the acceptance rates for extremely and moderately unfair offers were higher when interacting with ingroup partner than with outgroup partner whereas it did not show difference for fair offers irrespective of ingroup or outgroup partner making the offers. The ERP results indicated that AN1 and MFN were not only influenced by offers’ fairness but also modulated by the group membership. The AN1 was more negative for fair and moderately unfair offers compared to extremely unfair offers when playing against an outgroup member whereas it

  4. Repeated Play of Families of Games by Resource-Constrained Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Nikandrova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a repeated play of a family of games by resource-constrained players. To economize on reasoning resources, the family of games is partitioned into subsets of games which players do not distinguish. An example is constructed to show that when games are played a finite number of times, partitioning of the game set according to a coarse exogenously given partition might introduce new symmetric equilibrium payoffs which Pareto dominate best equilibrium outcomes with distinguished games. Moreover, these new equilibrium payoffs are also immune to evolutionary pressure at the partition selection stage.

  5. Personality and birth order in monozygotic twins adopted apart: a test of Sulloway's theory; Research Reviews: twin births and cancer risk in mothers, male sexual dysfunction, twin study of ultimatum game behavior; Human Interest: 'The Land of Twins', twin-like reunion-I, twin-like reunion-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2008-02-01

    A brief overview of Sulloway's (1996) theory of birth order and personality is presented. A reared apart twin approach for testing his personality findings regarding openness to experience and conscientiousness in first borns and later borns is described. This is followed by summaries of three recent twin studies. The topics include cancer risk in mother of twins, sexual dysfunction in males and responder behavior during ultimatum games. This article concludes with a discussion of twinning rates and rituals among the Yoruba of western Nigeria, and descriptions of two unusual reunions between siblings and twins.

  6. Neural substrates underlying the tendency to accept anger-infused ultimatum offers during dynamic social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilam, Gadi; Lin, Tamar; Raz, Gal; Azrielant, Shir; Fruchter, Eyal; Ariely, Dan; Hendler, Talma

    2015-10-15

    In managing our way through interpersonal conflict, anger might be crucial in determining whether the dispute escalates to aggressive behaviors or resolves cooperatively. The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a social decision-making paradigm that provides a framework for studying interpersonal conflict over division of monetary resources. Unfair monetary UG-offers elicit anger and while accepting them engages regulatory processes, rejecting them is regarded as an aggressive retribution. Ventro-medial prefrontal-cortex (vmPFC) activity has been shown to relate to idiosyncratic tendencies in accepting unfair offers possibly through its role in emotion regulation. Nevertheless, standard UG paradigms lack fundamental aspects of real-life social interactions in which one reacts to other people in a response contingent fashion. To uncover the neural substrates underlying the tendency to accept anger-infused ultimatum offers during dynamic social interactions, we incorporated on-line verbal negotiations with an obnoxious partner in a repeated-UG during fMRI scanning. We hypothesized that vmPFC activity will differentiate between individuals with high or low monetary gains accumulated throughout the game and reflect a divergence in the associated emotional experience. We found that as individuals gained more money, they reported less anger but also more positive feelings and had slower sympathetic response. In addition, high-gain individuals had increased vmPFC activity, but also decreased brainstem activity, which possibly reflected the locus coeruleus. During the more angering unfair offers, these individuals had increased dorsal-posterior Insula (dpI) activity which functionally coupled to the medial-thalamus (mT). Finally, both vmPFC activity and dpI-mT connectivity contributed to increased gain, possibly by modulating the ongoing subjective emotional experience. These ecologically valid findings point towards a neural mechanism that might nurture pro-social interactions by

  7. Repeated sprint ability in young soccer players at different game stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Yoav; Einy, Avner; Gottlieb, Roni; Eliakim, Alon

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeated sprint ability (RSA) of young (16.9 ± 0.5 years) soccer players at different game stages. Players performed repeated sprint test (RST) (12 × 20 m) after warm-up before a game, at half-time, and after a full soccer game, each on a different day, in a random order. The ideal (fastest) sprint time (IS) and total (accumulative) sprint time (TS) were significantly slower at the end of the game compared with those after the warm-up before the game (p < 0.01 for each). Differences between IS and TS after the warm-up before the game and at half-time, and between half-time and end of the game, were not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in the performance decrement during the RST after warm-up before the game, at half-time, or the end of the game. Significant negative correlation was found between predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and the difference between TS after the warm-up before the game and the end of the game (r = -0.52), but not between predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and the difference in any of the RST performance indices between warm-up before the game and half-time, or between half-time and the end of the game. The findings indicate a significant RSA reduction only at the end but not at the half-time of a soccer game. The results also suggest that the contribution of the aerobic system to soccer intensity maintenance is crucial, mainly during the final stages of the game.

  8. The Role of Induced emotion in the Ultimatum Game for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders%情绪诱导对孤独症儿童公平决策的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马天舒

    2014-01-01

    The study adapted an approach to examine how induced emotion affects Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children ’s Ultimatum Game (UG) decision. 26 ASD participants were assigned to watch either a sadness inducing or emotion controlling video (13 emotion induced children and 13 emotion controlled children). The results indicate that it is possible to adjust ASD children ’s emotion using videos. In concordance with previous researches, emotionally altered participants were more likely to reject unfair of-fers;the emotionally induced ASD participants reported higher level of negative emotion and had higher rejection rates when given uneven distributions (2:8, 3:7, 4:6) than the control ASD group. However, when participants were given extremely small offers (0:10, 1:9), no differences were found in both group’s emotion and rejection rates, both groups of ASD children reported high level of negative emotions and rejected offers.%研究通过视频诱导的方式,诱导出孤独症儿童悲伤的情绪,探讨被诱导的情绪对孤独症儿童在最后通牒任务中决策行为的影响。被试为13名情绪诱导组孤独症儿童及13名情绪控制组孤独症儿童参与实验。结果发现,孤独症儿童作为接受者时,诱导出悲伤情绪的孤独症儿童比控制组的孤独症儿童在面对2:8、3:7、4:6的不公平分配比例时,表现出更多的负性情绪,并倾向于做出拒绝的决策。但是面对极端的0:10、1:9不公平分配时,视频诱导的情绪对决策是没有作用的,两组被试之间不存在显著差异。通过呈现视频的方法诱导出与最后通牒任务无关的情绪也会影响孤独症儿童在最后通牒任务中的表现。

  9. Exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria in perfect-monitoring repeated games yield correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Dudebout, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    This paper proves that exogenous empirical-evidence equilibria (xEEEs) in perfect-monitoring repeated games induce correlated equilibria of the associated one-shot game. An empirical-evidence equilibrium (EEE) is a solution concept for stochastic games. At equilibrium, agents\\' strategies are optimal with respect to models of their opponents. These models satisfy a consistency condition with respect to the actual behavior of the opponents. As such, EEEs replace the full-rationality requirement of Nash equilibria by a consistency-based bounded-rationality one. In this paper, the framework of empirical evidence is summarized, with an emphasis on perfect-monitoring repeated games. A less constraining notion of consistency is introduced. The fact that an xEEE in a perfect-monitoring repeated game induces a correlated equilibrium on the underlying one-shot game is proven. This result and the new notion of consistency are illustrated on the hawk-dove game. Finally, a method to build specific correlated equilibria from xEEEs is derived.

  10. Repeating games and dynamical systems in oil market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Acuña Ortega

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We use the modern theory of repetitive games in a model that help understand a market with a cartel like OPEP. We also study a dynamical system Lotka-Volterra type, and we analyze the dynamic behavior of the model.

  11. Partner Selection and the Division of Surplus: Evidence from Ultimatum and Dictator Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyodorshi Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study ultimatum and dictator environments with one-way, unenforceable pre-play communication from the proposer to the recipient, semantically framed as a promise. After observing this promise regarding how much the proposer will offer if selected, in our treatment conditions, recipients choose whether or not to select a particular proposer. We find that offers can increase in the ultimatum game both with non-competitive selection with a single potential proposer, and more so with competition, where the recipient chooses one of two potential proposers, as compared to the no selection baseline. Furthermore, the offer is rejected with higher probability if the promisemade by the selected proposer is higher than the eventual offer. Our dictator environment does not give the power to reject offers, thus selection power carries no benefits in the dictator game. Finally, independent of the game institution or proposer selection mechanism, promises provide credible signals for offers.

  12. An Ultimatum Game Approach to Billet Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Economics, and Organization, 7: S24 – S52. Kagel, John H. and A.E. Roth , "The dynamics of reorganization in matching markets: A laboratory experiment...Parallelism: Some Policy Applications of Experimental Methods.” In Alvin E. Roth (ed.), Laboratory Experimentation in Economics: Six Points of View. New York...76(3): 701-715. 28 Roth , A.E. and X. Xing, 1994, “Jumping the Gun: Imperfections and Institutions Related to the Timing of Market Transactions

  13. Heat stress impairs repeated jump ability after competitive elite soccer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT:: The present study examined the effect of environmental heat stress on repeated jump performance after elite competitive soccer games. Male elite soccer players (n=19) from two Scandinavian teams participated (age; 26.7±1.0 yrs, height; 181.7±1.1 cm, body mass; 75.8±1.0 kg). The players...

  14. Jammer Type Estimation in LTE with a Smart Jammer Repeated Game

    KAUST Repository

    Aziz, Farhan

    2017-02-22

    LTE/LTE-Advanced networks are known to be vulnerable to denial-of-service (DOS) and loss-of-service attacks from smart jammers. The interaction between the network and the smart jammer has been modeled as an infinite-horizon general-sum (non-zero-sum) Bayesian game with asymmetric information, with the network being the uninformed player. Although significant work has been done on optimal strategy computation and control of information revelation of the informed player in repeated asymmetric information games, it has been limited to zero-sum games with perfect monitoring. Recent progress on the strategy computation of the uninformed player is also limited to zero-sum games with perfect monitoring and is focused on expected payoff formulations. Since the proposed formulation is a general-sum game with imperfect monitoring, existing formulations cannot be leveraged for estimating true state of nature (the jammer type). Hence, a threat-based mechanism is proposed for the uninformed player (the network) to estimate the informed player’s type (jammer type). The proposed mechanism helps the network resolve uncertainty about the state of nature (jammer type) so that it can compute a repeated-game strategy conditioned on its estimate. The proposed algorithm does not rely on the commonly assumed “full monitoring” premise, and uses a combination of threat-based mechanism and non-parametric estimation to estimate the jammer type. In addition, it does not require any explicit feedback from the network users nor does it rely on a specific distribution (e.g., Gaussian) of test statistic. It is shown that the proposed algorithm’s estimation performance is quite robust under realistic modeling and observational constraints despite all the aforementioned challenges.

  15. Nucleolus for repeated fuzzy cooperative games%重复模糊合作对策的核仁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩佼佼; 高作峰; 闫莉; 樊梦欣; 马栋

    2013-01-01

      针对重复模糊合作对策中的解。将重复对策的模型引入到模糊对策中,以模糊结盟为工具建立了重复模糊合作对策的模型,在此基础上推广了模糊超出值的定义,对重复模糊合作对策的核仁进行了定义,给出了重复模糊合作对策核仁的一些性质。该成果使重复模糊合作对策更加完善。%In terms of the solutions of repeated fuzzy cooperative games, this study introduces the model of repeated cooperative game into the fuzzy game. The model of repeated fuzzy cooperative games has been developed based on fuzzy coalition. On the basis of above work, the concept of excess was extended. In addition, the concept of the nucleolus for repeated fuzzy cooperative games is proposed. Also, the properties of the nucleolus for repeated cooperative games are obtained. The study results improve the repeated fuzzy cooperative games.

  16. Evolutionary fate of memory-one strategies in repeated prisoner's dilemma game in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-Sheng; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Chen, Michael Z. Q.; Guan, Jian-Yue

    2017-07-01

    We study evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game involving a one-step memory mechanism of the individuals whenever making strategy updating. In particular, during the process of strategy updating, each individual keeps in mind all the outcome of the action pairs adopted by himself and each of his neighbors in the last interaction, and according to which the individuals decide what actions they will take in the next round. Computer simulation results imply that win-stay-lose-shift like strategy win out of the memory-one strategy set in the stationary state. This result is robust in a large range of the payoff parameter, and does not depend on the initial state of the system. Furthermore, theoretical analysis with mean field and quasi-static approximation predict the same result. Thus, our studies suggest that win-stay-lose-shift like strategy is a stable dominant strategy in repeated prisoner's dilemma game in homogeneous structured populations.

  17. A Repeated Game Formulation of Energy-Efficient Decentralized Power Control

    CERN Document Server

    Treust, Mael Le

    2010-01-01

    Decentralized multiple access channels where each transmitter wants to selfishly maximize his transmission energy-efficiency are considered. Transmitters are assumed to choose freely their power control policy and interact (through multiuser interference) several times. It is shown that the corresponding conflict of interest can have a predictable outcome, namely a finitely or discounted repeated game equilibrium. Remarkably, it is shown that this equilibrium is Pareto-efficient under reasonable sufficient conditions and the corresponding decentralized power control policies can be implemented under realistic information assumptions: only individual channel state information and a public signal are required to implement the equilibrium strategies. Explicit equilibrium conditions are derived in terms of minimum number of game stages or maximum discount factor. Both analytical and simulation results are provided to compare the performance of the proposed power control policies with those already existing and ex...

  18. A repeater type biotelemetry system for use on wild big game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupal, J J; Ward, A L; Weeks, R W

    1975-01-01

    A repeater type telemetry system was developed and field tested on a wild elk near laramie, Wyoming, in the summer of 1973. The telemetry system consisted of the following: (a) a heat flow rate sensing implanted transmitter, (b) a repeater type neck collar and (c) a portable receiving station consisting of a receiver, decoding circuitry and analog chart recorder. The transmitter in (a) produced relatively low frequency rf pulses whose repetition rate was directly proportional to heat flow rate through the hide of the animal. In (b), the pulses from the implant are sensed and retransmitted using a relatively high power, high frequency transmitter. A second rf pulse was generated whose pulse spacing was related to animal activity. Details of circuit design and performance are given. Field experience has shown that this method is extremely useful for the monitoring of biological data from secretive big game animals such as elk.

  19. Group size effects in two repeated game models of a global climate agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helland, Leif

    2002-07-01

    What levels of total abatement can one hope for in a global climate agreement. Some potential answers to this question are provided by game theory. This working paper contains a critical discussion of two (prominent) game ,models that answer the question quite pessimistically. Both models take the n-person, infinitely repeated prisoner's dilemma game as their point of departure. The first model is a full information model and utilises the motion of a weakly re negotiation proof equilibrium. This results in the (maybe counterintuitive) prediction that an agreement that can provide high utility to the group will attract less total abatement than an agreement that can only provide low utility to the group. The second model assumes imperfect public information and utilises the notion of a trigger level equilibrium. This results in the (more intuitive) prediction that the level of total abatements will increase with improved verification techniques for a given player set. Still the level of total abatements decrease with an increasing player set for a given verification technique. Empirical implications of the two models are identified and it is argued that one should confront these with experimentally generated data in order to discriminate between the models. One reason for this is that historical data on abatement efforts in a global climate agreement do not exist since no such agreement has entered into force yet. (Author)

  20. Comparing Students to Workers : The Effects of Social Framing on Behavior in Distribution Games

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Burks, Stephen V.; Verhoogen, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the external validity of Ultimatum and Dictator game behavior we conduct experiments in field settings with naturally occurring variation in 'social framing.' Our participants are students at Middlebury College, non-traditional students at Kansas City Kansas Community College (KCKCC), and employees at a Kansas City distribution center. Ultimatum game offers are ordered: KCKCC > employee > Middlebury. In the Dictator game employees are more generous than students in either locat...

  1. Repeated high-speed activities during youth soccer games in relation to changes in maximal sprinting and aerobic speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, M; Simpson, B M; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine in highly-trained young soccer players whether substantial changes in either maximal sprinting speed (MSS) or maximal aerobic speed (as inferred from peak incremental test speed, V(Vam-Eval)) can affect repeated high-intensity running during games. Data from 33 players (14.5±1.3 years), who presented substantial changes in either MSS or V(Vam-Eval) throughout 2 consecutive testing periods (~3 months) were included in the final analysis. For each player, time-motion analyses were performed using a global positioning system (1-Hz) during 2-10 international club games played within 1-2 months from/to each testing period of interest (n for game analyzed=109, player-games=393, games per player per period=4±2). Sprint activities were defined as at least a 1-s run at intensities higher than 61% of individual MSS. Repeated-sprint sequences (RSS) were defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive sprints interspersed with a maximum of 60 s of recovery. Improvements in both MSS and V(Vam-Eval) were likely associated with a decreased RSS occurrence, but in some positions only (e. g., - 24% vs. - 3% for improvements in MSS in strikers vs. midfielders, respectively). The changes in the number of sprints per RSS were less clear but also position-dependent, e. g., +7 to +12% for full-backs and wingers, - 5 to - 7% for centre-backs and midfielders. In developing soccer players, changes in repeated-sprint activity during games do not necessarily match those in physical fitness. Game tactical and strategic requirements are likely to modulate on-field players' activity patterns independently (at least partially) of players' physical capacities.

  2. Cognitive control and individual differences in economic ultimatum decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim De Neys

    Full Text Available Much publicity has been given to the fact that people's economic decisions often deviate from the rational predictions of standard economic models. In the classic ultimatum game, for example, most people turn down financial gains by rejecting unequal monetary splits. The present study points to neglected individual differences in this debate. After participants played the ultimatum game we tested for individual differences in cognitive control capacity of the most and least economic responders. The key finding was that people who were higher in cognitive control, as measured by behavioral (Go/No-Go performance and neural (No-Go N2 amplitude markers, did tend to behave more in line with the standard models and showed increased acceptance of unequal splits. Hence, the cognitively highest scoring decision-makers were more likely to maximize their monetary payoffs and adhere to the standard economic predictions. Findings question popular claims with respect to the rejection of standard economic models and the irrationality of human economic decision-making.

  3. Short- and long-run goals in ultimatum bargaining: impatience predicts spite-based behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Espín

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The ultimatum game (UG is widely used to study human bargaining behavior and fairness norms. In this game, two players have to agree on how to split a sum of money. The proposer makes an offer, which the responder can accept or reject. If the responder rejects, neither player gets anything. The prevailing view is that, beyond self-interest, the desire to equalize both players’ payoffs (i.e., fairness is the crucial motivation in the UG. Based on this view, previous research suggests that fairness is a short-run oriented motive that conflicts with the long-run goal of self-interest. However, competitive spite, which reflects an antisocial (not norm-based desire to minimize others’ payoffs, can also account for the behavior observed in the UG, and has been linked to short-run, present-oriented aspirations as well. In this paper, we explore the relationship between individuals’ intertemporal preferences and their behavior in a citywide dual-role UG experiment (N=713. We find that impatience (short-run orientation predicts the rejection of low, unfair offers as responder and the proposal of low, unfair offers as proposer, which is consistent with spitefulness but inconsistent with fairness motivations. This behavior systematically reduces the payoffs of those who interact with impatient individuals. Thus, impatient individuals appear to be keen to minimize their partners’ share of the pie, even at the risk of destroying it. These findings indicate that competitively reducing other’s payoffs, rather than fairness (or self-interest, is the short-run goal in ultimatum bargaining.

  4. Repeated games for eikonal equations, integral curvature flows and non-linear parabolic integro-differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Imbert, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to approximate several non-local evolution equations by zero-sum repeated games in the spirit of the previous works of Kohn and the second author (2006 and 2009): general fully non-linear parabolic integro-differential equations on the one hand, and the integral curvature flow of an interface (Imbert, 2008) on the other hand. In order to do so, we start by constructing such a game for eikonal equations whose speed has a non-constant sign. This provides a (discrete) deterministic control interpretation of these evolution equations. In all our games, two players choose positions successively, and their final payoff is determined by their positions and additional parameters of choice. Because of the non-locality of the problems approximated, by contrast with local problems, their choices have to "collect" information far from their current position. For integral curvature flows, players choose hypersurfaces in the whole space and positions on these hypersurfaces. For parabolic i...

  5. Incidental sadness biases social economic decisions in the ultimatum game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlé, K.M.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent dual-process models of decision making have suggested that emotion plays an important role in decision making: however, the impact of incidental moods (i.e., emotions unrelated to the immediate situation) on decisions remains poorly explored. This question was investigated by inducing 2 basic

  6. Behavior in Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma Games with Shifted Outcomes Analyzed with a Statistical Learning Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Assen, Marcel; Snijders, Chris; Weesie, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    We address whether cooperative behavior in a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) is more easily achieved under ‘‘good circumstances’’ (all payoffs in the constituent PD are positive), ‘‘bad circumstances’’ (payoffs are negative), or ‘‘mixed circumstances.’’ To analyze the behavior in these repeated PDs

  7. τ-Core of repeated fuzzy cooperative game%重复模糊合作对策的τ-核心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董立伟; 高作峰; 王伟

    2009-01-01

    在重复模糊合作对策的基础上,定义了τ-模糊优超的概念,并通过τ-模糊优超的概念,给出了τ-模糊核心.最后给出了重复模糊合作对策的τ-核心与核心的关系,并研究了τ-核心所满足的性质和特征.%On the foundation of repeated fuzzy cooperative games, the conception of τ-dominance is defined in this paper, and the con-ception of τ-core is given via the conception of the τ-dominance. Finally, the relation between τ-core and core of repeated fuzzy cooper-ative games is defined and the character of τ-core of fuzzy repeated cooperative game is given.

  8. 基于重复博弈的P2P网络节点行为策略模型%A Game Model of Behavior Strategies for Nodes in P2P Networks Based on the Repeated Game Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春枝; 陈莉; 陈宏伟; 周可

    2011-01-01

    目前提出的P2P网络节点的博弈模型大多没有考虑节点的类型,没有考虑重复博弈所产生的和一次博弈不同的结果.针对这些问题,根据节点的推荐信任值来对节点进行分类,并分析节点类型的行为特征和重复博弈的特征,提出了一种基于重复博弈的P2P网络节点行为策略模型.在此基础上,利用重复博弈的贴现率来分析博弈双方采取何种策略才能获得最大收益以及节点行为策略调整的约束性条件.使用博弈论仿真工具Gambit验证了该模型的有效性.%The existing game model of P2P nodes always do not consider types of nodes, and also the different between repeated game and one-time game. To solve these problems, this paper classify nodes with the recommendation trust of nodes, after deeply study on the behavioral characteristics of nodes and the character of repeated game theory, this paper presents a game model of behavior strategies for nodes in P2P networks based on the repeated game theory. In this model, it discuss about how the peer can achieve the most profit by using discount rate of repeated game theory, even the constraint condition of behavior strategies for nodes. Furthermore, this model is proved to be availability with game theory simulation tools named Gambit.

  9. 基于无限重复博弈的管理决策建模分析%Modeling Analysis of Management Decision Based on Infinite Repeated Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖水香

    2012-01-01

    In a single game, patients are prone to fall in prisoner dilemma of Nash equilibrium. In a repeated game, however, patients can choose the best strategy according to their opponent's actions and previous game results, and have more opportunities to avoid prisoner dilemma. In this paper, the limit conditions of successfully applying infinite repeated game theory are analyzed and obtained. Based on this, income matrix parameters are confirmed and a game model is established. A rational explanation is given for applying this game model in practice. The game result of this model is a win-win balance.%分析了无限重复博弈成功应用的条件,并以此结论建立博弈模型,确定收益矩阵参数,该模型在实际应用中能得到合理的解释,其博弈结果是双赢的博弈平衡.

  10. Are "classical" tests of repeated-sprint ability in football externally valid? A new approach to determine in-game sprinting behaviour in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpchen, Jan; Skorski, Sabrina; Nopp, Stephan; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of repeated sprinting bouts in elite football. Furthermore, the construct validity of current tests assessing repeated-sprint ability (RSA) was analysed using information of sprinting sequences as they actually occurred during match-play. Sprinting behaviour in official competition was analysed for 19 games of the German national team between August 2012 and June 2014. A sprinting threshold was individually calculated based on the peak velocity reached during in-game sprinting. Players performed 17.2 ± 3.9 sprints per game and during the entire 19 games a total of 35 bouts of repeated sprinting (a minimum of three consecutive sprints with a recovery duration repeated sprinting per player every 463 min. No general decrement in maximal sprinting speed was observed during bouts with up to five consecutive sprints. Results of the present study question the importance of RSA as it is classically defined. They indicate that shorter accelerations are more important in game-specific situations which do not reach speeds necessary to qualify them as sprints. The construct validity of classic tests of RSA in football is not supported by these observations.

  11. Repeated sprints, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

  12. Effect of Small-Sided Games and Repeated Shuffle Sprint Training on Physical Performance in Elite Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Antonio; Ardigò, Luca P; Meckel, Yoav; Padulo, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) and repeated shuffle sprint (RSS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests performances of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (24.8 ± 4.4 years) were assigned to either SSG or RSS group training protocols twice a week for 8 weeks. The SSG training consisted of 5 small-sided handball games with 3-a-side teams excluding goalkeepers. The RSS consisted of 2 sets of 14-17 of 20-m shuttle sprints and 9-m jump shots interspersed by 20-second recoveries. Before and after training, the following performance variables were assessed: speed on 10-m and 20-m sprint time, agility and RSA time, CMJ height, standing throw, and jump shot speed. Significant pre-to-post treatment improvements were found in all the assessed variables following both training protocols (multivariate analysis of variance, p ≤ 0.05). There was a significantly greater improvement on 10-m sprint, CMJ, and jump shooting, after the RSS in comparison with SSG training (+4.4% vs. +2.4%, +8.6% vs. +5.6%, and +5.5% vs. +2.7%, respectively). Conversely, agility and standing throwing showed lower improvements after RSS in comparison with SSG (+1.0% vs. +7.8% and +1.6% vs. +9.0%, respectively). These results indicate that these training methods are effective for fitness development among elite adult handball players during the last period of the competitive season. Specifically, SSG seems to be more effective in improving agility and standing throw, whereas RSS seems preferable in improving 10-m sprint, CMJ, and jump shot.

  13. Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Duke, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Als Richard Duke sein Buch ""Gaming: The Future's Language"" 1974 veröffentlichte, war er ein Pionier für die Entwicklung und Anwendung von Planspielen in Politik, Strategieentwicklung und Management. Das Buch wurde zu einem viel zitierten Standardwerk. 2014 feiert die von Richard D. Duke gegründete International Simulation and Gaming Association (ISAGA) ihr 45-jähriges Bestehen. Gleichzeitig legt Richard D. Duke eine überarbeitete Auflage seines Klassikers vor.   Inhaltsverzeichnis TABLE OF CONTENTSAcknowledgments Preface SECTION I1. The ProblemSECTION II2. Modes of Human Communication3. Mode

  14. A distance for probability spaces, and long-term values in Markov Decision Processes and Repeated Games

    CERN Document Server

    Renault, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Given a finite set $K$, we denote by $X=\\Delta(K)$ the set of probabilities on $K$ and by $Z=\\Delta_f(X)$ the set of Borel probabilities on $X$ with finite support. Studying a Markov Decision Process with partial information on $K$ naturally leads to a Markov Decision Process with full information on $X$. We introduce a new metric $d_*$ on $Z$ such that the transitions become 1-Lipschitz from $(X, \\|.\\|_1)$ to $(Z,d_*)$. In the first part of the article, we define and prove several properties of the metric $d_*$. Especially, $d_*$ satisfies a Kantorovich-Rubinstein type duality formula and can be characterized by using disintegrations. In the second part, we characterize the limit values in several classes of "compact non expansive" Markov Decision Processes. In particular we use the metric $d_*$ to characterize the limit value in Partial Observation MDP with finitely many states and in Repeated Games with an informed controller with finite sets of states and actions. Moreover in each case we can prove the ex...

  15. Optimal Decision Rules in Repeated Games Where Players Infer an Opponent’s Mind via Simplified Belief Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Nakamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In strategic situations, humans infer the state of mind of others, e.g., emotions or intentions, adapting their behavior appropriately. Nonetheless, evolutionary studies of cooperation typically focus only on reaction norms, e.g., tit for tat, whereby individuals make their next decisions by only considering the observed outcome rather than focusing on their opponent’s state of mind. In this paper, we analyze repeated two-player games in which players explicitly infer their opponent’s unobservable state of mind. Using Markov decision processes, we investigate optimal decision rules and their performance in cooperation. The state-of-mind inference requires Bayesian belief calculations, which is computationally intensive. We therefore study two models in which players simplify these belief calculations. In Model 1, players adopt a heuristic to approximately infer their opponent’s state of mind, whereas in Model 2, players use information regarding their opponent’s previous state of mind, obtained from external evidence, e.g., emotional signals. We show that players in both models reach almost optimal behavior through commitment-like decision rules by which players are committed to selecting the same action regardless of their opponent’s behavior. These commitment-like decision rules can enhance or reduce cooperation depending on the opponent’s strategy.

  16. Zero-determinant strategies in iterated multi-strategy games

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Li Guo

    2014-01-01

    Self-serving, rational agents sometimes cooperate to their mutual benefit. The two-player iterated prisoner's dilemma game is a model for including the emergence of cooperation. It is generally believed that there is no simple ultimatum strategy which a player can control the return of the other participants. The recent discovery of the powerful class of zero-determinant strategies in the iterated prisoner's dilemma dramatically expands our understanding of the classic game by uncovering stra...

  17. Grand Theft Auto IV comes to Singapore: effects of repeated exposure to violent video games on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Scott Kie Zin; Chong, Gabriel Yew Mun; Siew, Amy Sok Cheng; Skoric, Marko M

    2011-10-01

    Given the increasingly dominant role of video games in the mainstream entertainment industry, it is no surprise that the scholarly debate about their impact has been lively and well attended. Although >100 studies have been conducted to examine the impact of violent video games on aggression, no clear consensus has been reached, particularly in terms of their long-term impact on violent behavior and aggressive cognitions. This study employs a first-ever longitudinal laboratory-based experiment to examine longer-term effects of playing a violent video game. One hundred thirty-five participants were assigned either to the treatment condition where they played a violent video game in a controlled laboratory setting for a total of 12 hours or to the control group where they did not play a game. Participants in the treatment group played Grand Theft Auto IV over a period of 3 weeks and were compared with a control group on the posttest measures of trait aggression, attitudes toward violence, and empathy. The findings do not support the assertion that playing a violent video game for a period of 3 weeks increases aggression or reduces empathy, but they suggest a small increase in proviolence attitudes. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Generosity pays in the presence of direct reciprocity: a comprehensive study of 2 × 2 repeated games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Martinez-Vaquero

    Full Text Available By applying a technique previously developed to study ecosystem assembly [Capitán et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 168101 (2009] we study the evolutionary stable strategies of iterated 2 × 2 games. We focus on memory-one strategies, whose probability to play a given action depends on the actions of both players in the previous time step. We find the asymptotically stable populations resulting from all possible invasions of any known stable population. The results of this invasion process are interpreted as transitions between different populations that occur with a certain probability. Thus the whole process can be described as a Markov chain whose states are the different stable populations. With this approach we are able to study the whole space of symmetric 2 × 2 games, characterizing the most probable results of evolution for the different classes of games. Our analysis includes quasi-stationary mixed equilibria that are relevant as very long-lived metastable states and is compared to the predictions of a fixation probability analysis. We confirm earlier results on the success of the Pavlov strategy in a wide range of parameters for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma, but find that as the temptation to defect grows there are many other possible successful strategies. Other regions of the diagram reflect the equilibria structure of the underlying one-shot game, albeit often some non-expected strategies arise as well. We thus provide a thorough analysis of iterated 2 × 2 games from which we are able to extract some general conclusions. Our most relevant finding is that a great deal of the payoff parameter range can still be understood by focusing on win-stay, lose-shift strategies, and that very ambitious ones, aspiring to obtaining always a high payoff, are never evolutionary stable.

  19. Fatigue In U12 Soccer-7 Players During Repeated One-Day Tournament Games - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sanchez, Javier; Sanchez, Mario; Hernandez, Daniel; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martínez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2017-07-12

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the distances and displacement speeds of U12 Soccer-7 athletes during four tournament Soccer-7 games (TG) played in less than 24-h (experimental condition) with those recorded during two league Soccer-7 games (LG) with 24-h of rest prior to the match (control condition). Ten participants (age = 10.3 ± 0.5 years) were recruited for the study. Main data analyzed during games included distance completed relative to match duration (Drel), maximal velocity and distance completed at different running speeds (including acceleration, deceleration, standing, walking, jogging, medium-intensity running, high-intensity running and sprinting). For data collection during games, athletes wore a GPS unit. Different (p0.05) and during the two LG between 84.2 ± 10.9 m/min and 87.5 ± 9.9 m/min (P>0.05). Moreover, similar Drel was recorded during TG and LG (86.8 m/min and 85.9 m/min, respectively). Compared to LG, during TG maximal velocity was lower (23.0 km/h and 21.3 km/h, respectively; Pgame of the tournament, in the preceding games the distance covered at low speeds (3.1-8.0 km/h) was lower (37.7% and 32.4%, respectively; Pgames with less than 24-h of inter-day rest negatively affects displacement speeds distribution (but not overall relative distances) in U12 Soccer-7 athletes. These results may help to better plan training and competition schedules to youth players.

  20. Individual differences in decision making: Drive and reward responsiveness affect strategic bargaining in economic games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanfey Alan G

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the growing body of literature on economic decision making, the main focus has typically been on explaining aggregate behavior, with little interest in individual differences despite considerable between-subject variability in decision responses. In this study, we were interested in asking to what degree individual differences in fundamental psychological processes can mediate economic decision-making behavior. Methods Specifically, we studied a personality dimension that may influence economic decision-making, the Behavioral Activation System, (BAS which is composed of three components: Reward Responsiveness, Drive, and Fun Seeking. In order to assess economic decision making, we utilized two commonly-used tasks, the Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game. Individual differences in BAS were measured by completion of the BIS/BAS Scales, and correlations between the BAS scales and monetary offers made in the two tasks were computed. Results We found that higher scores on BAS Drive and on BAS Reward Responsiveness were associated with a pattern of higher offers on the Ultimatum Game, lower offers on the Dictator Game, and a correspondingly larger discrepancy between Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game offers. Conclusion These findings are consistent with an interpretation that high scores on Drive and Reward Responsiveness are associated with a strategy that first seeks to maximize the likelihood of reward, and then to maximize the amount of reward. More generally, these results suggest that there are additional factors other than empathy, fairness and selfishness that contribute to strategic decision-making.

  1. Stand for the Network Repeated Game Task Scheduling Algorithm%容忍网络中基于重复博弈的任务调度算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馨

    2013-01-01

    延迟容忍网络环境具有动态性、异构性等特点,导致传统网格任务调度算法收敛速度慢、局部最优等缺陷,使网格任务调度效率低。为了提高网格任务调度效率,提出一种基于重复博弈的任务调度算法。算法根据任务调度原理和博弈论的特点,建立了网格任务调度模型和性能指标的数学模型,然后采用重复博弈算法对该模型进行优化,提高资源利用率和任务执行效率。仿真实验结果表明,该算法的任务调度策略是可行有效的,提高了任务调度的速度和效率,很好地解决网络任务调度中存在的难题。%Delay tolerance network environment has the dynamic, heterogeneous characteristics, leading to the traditional grid task scheduling algorithm convergence speed is slow, the local superior defect, make the grid task scheduling effi-ciency low. In order to improve the grid task scheduling efficiency, this paper puts forward a repeated game based on the task scheduling algorithm. Task scheduling algorithm according to the principle and the characteristics of game theory, the establishment of a grid task scheduling model and mathematical model of the performance, then the repeated game algorithm to optimize the model, raise the utilization ratio of resource and task performance. The simulation results show that the algorithm of task scheduling strategy is feasible and effective, and improve the speed and efficiency of task scheduling, a very good solution to solve the network scheduling problem existing in.

  2. Logical Choice of Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma Game and Its Application%论重复囚徒困境博弈中的逻辑选择及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺寿南

    2014-01-01

    在重复囚徒困境博弈中,同样结构的博弈被反复地进行,参与者的最佳策略选择主要依赖于对手可能采取的策略和他们对抵赖和坦白如何作出选择。有限次重复博弈在决策行动时一般使用逆向归纳法,即从重复博弈的最后一个回合开始往前推理从而决定每一步的选择。在无限次重复博弈中,对于任何一个参与者的欺骗和违约行为,其他参与者总会有机会给予报复。%Since the game with same structure is carried out repeatedly in the repeated prisoner's dilem-ma game, the best strategy of participants mainly depends on the strategy that the opponent may adopt and their choice to denial and frank. Finite repeated game use generally backward induction in the decision-making ac-tion, namely from the last round of repeated game started forward reasoning to determine every step of the se-lection. In the repeated infinitely game, the other participants will have opportunity to give revenge for any one participant fraud and breach.

  3. On the Interpretation of Bribery in a Laboratory Corruption Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik

    in corruption in the bribery frame than in the alternative and the average bribe amount is lesser in the former than in the latter. These suggest that moral costs are indeed at work. A third treatment, which relabels the bribery game in neutral language, indicates that the observed treatment effect arises......Past studies on laboratory corruption games have not been able to find consistent evidence that subjects make “immoral” decisions. A possible reason, and also a critique of laboratory corruption games, is that the experiment may fail to trigger the intended immorality frame in the minds...... of the participants, leading many to question the very raison d’être of laboratory corruption games. To test this idea, we compare behavior in a harassment bribery game with a strategically identical but neutrally framed ultimatum game. The results show that fewer people, both as briber and bribee, engage...

  4. Effects of a small-sided game-based training programme on repeated sprint and change of direction abilities in recreationally-trained football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalance-Moreno, Pascual; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-02-21

    To examine the effects of 6-week periodized small-sided game (SSG) training intervention on change of direction [COD], sprint and repeated sprint ability [RSA] in recreational male football players. Twenty-three young football players (age: 20.86 years) were randomized in a control group (n = 11) and an experimental group (n = 12). The SSG programme was included in the experimental group's training sessions. The players completed two variations of a SSG (i.e. 2 vs. 2 and 4 vs. 4 players) during intervention. To examine the changes in physical performance after the 6-week periodized SSG training intervention, all players were tested 6 weeks apart (i.e. pre-test and post-test) in sprint, COD ability test, and RSA shuttle test. A 2x2 ANOVA showed that 6-week SSG training intervention induced significant improvements (P0.7) in COD ability test, and variables related to both sprint test and RSA in the experimental group, whereas the control group remained unchanged (P≥0.05, ESsprint in recreationally trained football players.

  5. Mathematical games, abstract games

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Joao Pedro

    2013-01-01

    User-friendly, visually appealing collection offers both new and classic strategic board games. Includes abstract games for two and three players and mathematical games such as Nim and games on graphs.

  6. Advances in understanding strategic behaviour game theory, experiments and bounded rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Huck, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    The first ultimatum game, conducted by Werner Güth in the late 1970s, marks a crucial point in the history of modern economics-suddenly game theory lost its innocence and there was a chasm-between the beauty and elegance of the theory on one hand and the dour facts of behaviour on the other. Since then, the economics literature has slowly started filling this gap. Evolutionary game theory, preference evolution, learning models, models of bounded rationality with and without optimization, and, of course, more and more systematic experimental evidence-all these approaches flourished, competing w

  7. Repeated-game model of node cooperation in opportunistic networks%一种机会网络节点重复博弈模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蔓蔓; 张振宇; 杨文忠; 张珍

    2014-01-01

    在资源受限的机会网络中,节点在转发过程中所表现出的自私行为将严重影响网络性能。针对这一问题,建立基于认错机制的“礼尚往来”策略的节点重复博弈模型。节点考虑到将来的利益,迫于对惩罚的恐惧而参与转发。通过该策略,节点协作可以使网络性能达到最优。仿真结果表明,节点间的相互协作增强,在自私节点较多时也能保证较好的网络性能。%In opportunistic networks with limited resources, the performance of network is seriously affected by selfish behavior of the nodes during the packet forwarding. To solve this problem, the paper establishes a repeated-game model of node cooperation based on a admit mechanism of“Tit-For-Tat”strategy. The nodes consider the long-term interests and participate in forwarding forced by the fear of punishment. By using the strategy, cooperation of nodes in the network can make the network performance to achieve optimal. The simulation results show that the mutual cooperation of nodes is enhanced and the performance of the network can be guaranteed when more selfish nodes exist in network.

  8. Expressing Emotion and Fairness Crowding-out in an Ultimatum Game with Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Josie I; Kamei, Kenju

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental research has shown that when rating systems are available, buyers are more generous in accepting unfair offers made by sellers. It has also shown that sellers make fairer decisions when they are rated, while some studies show that they are little affected by the rating systems. These studies are conducted under complete information settings. However, asymmetric information about the values of traded commodities between sellers and buyers may change their perception of fair...

  9. Expectations and outcome: The role of Proposer features in the Ultimatum Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, A.; Castelli, I.; Harlé, K.M.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    In social decision-making individuals make choices in an interactive context and their decisions may therefore be influenced by information they receive about features of the other player. These features may 'frame' the other player in particular ways and generate expectations about the outcome. Thi

  10. Using the Ultimatum Game to Teach Economic Theories of Relationship Maintenance to A-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Simon

    2011-01-01

    When teaching at A-level, educators often present a model of psychology that does not extend beyond the confines of the specification. However, sometimes not only is it possible to provide insight into other areas of psychology, it provides a novel way of understanding a concept included in the specification itself. By extending student's…

  11. DiffGame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Kock; Svenningsen, Anette; Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2016-01-01

    in the higher levels of education. In order to obtain this intuition repeated practice is required. This paper presents the development of DiffGame, which consists of a series of exercises that introduce the basic principles of differentiation for high-school students through game-like elements. DiffGame have...... been tested with 117 first-year students from a single Danish high school, who did not have any prior training in differentiation. The students’ learning was assessed by the data obtained directly from DiffGame. The test demonstrated the efficacy of DiffGame, since students at all levels demonstrate...

  12. Supermodular games and potential games.

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and two-person Cournot games.

  13. A dynamic spectrum allocation algorithm based on repeated games in cognitive radio%基于多次博弈的认知无线电频谱动态分配算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕志军; 杨旭; 韩雪

    2012-01-01

    As cognitive radio network complexity and dynamic, by a single game is hard to find the best balance. This article proposed a dynamic spectrum allocation algorithm based on repeated games in cognitive radio networks. The uniqueness and existence of the Nash equilibrium was proved for the scheme. Simulation results show that the novel spectrum allocation algorithm based on game theory will be obtained better convergence compared with traditional algorithm, after about 4~6 iterations algorithm will converge to an NE and can satisfy the real-time requirement, the novel algorithm can regulate their transmitter powers to meet the different signal to interference ratio (SIR) requirements and the performance of CR system is thereby improved obviously.%针对认知无线电网络的复杂性以及动态性,通过单次博弈很难找到最佳平衡点的问题,提出了一种基于多次博弈的动态频谱分配算法,并通过博弈论的相关原理对该算法中纳什均衡的存在性和唯一性进行了验证.仿真结果表明,该算法收敛性优于传统算法,经过4~6次迭代即可收敛于稳定状态,不仅提高了收敛速度,满足了通信系统对实时性的要求,同时也能够在系统中所有认知用户都满足信于比阈值要求的基础上进一步降低发射功率,达到了降低系统总干扰水平的目标,系统性能明显提高.

  14. Impact of Roles Assignation on Heterogeneous Populations in Evolutionary Dictator Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Liu, Qi; Sadiq, Rehan; Deng, Yong

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of cooperation is a hot and challenging topic in the field of evolutionary game theory. Altruistic behavior, as a particular form of cooperation, has been widely studied by the ultimatum game but not by the dictator game, which provides a more elegant way to identify the altruistic component of behaviors. In this paper, the evolutionary dictator game is applied to model the real motivations of altruism. A degree-based regime is utilized to assess the impact of the assignation of roles on evolutionary outcome in populations of heterogeneous structure with two kinds of strategic updating mechanisms, which are based on Darwin's theory of evolution and punctuated equilibrium, respectively. The results show that the evolutionary outcome is affected by the role assignation and that this impact also depends on the strategic updating mechanisms, the function used to evaluate players' success, and the structure of populations.

  15. The Decision-making and Outcome Evaluation during a Repeated Trust Game%重复信任博弈的决策过程与结果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益文; 张振; 原胜; 郭丰波; 何少颖; 敬一鸣

    2015-01-01

    “信任他人或者不信任他人?”是社会互动中经常面临一种行为决择,直接影响着个体的社会生活。作为一种重要的社会信号机制,信任是建立良好社会关系的基石,它能够降低社会交易成本,易化合作行为。为了探究个体在信任互动情境下大脑活动变化的时间动态特征,采用事件相关电位技术记录了20名健康被试(充当信任者)完成重复性信任博弈任务(repeated Trust Game, rTG)时的脑电成分。行为结果发现个体选择信任的比例显著高于几率水平。电生理学结果表明,决策阶段中不信任选择比信任选择诱发了更正的P2成分(150~250 ms),差异波溯源分析定位于额中回(middle frontal gyrus, BA 46)和额下回(inferior frontal gyrus, BA 46)。反馈阶段中损失反馈比获益反馈诱发了更负的FRN成分(200~300 ms),而获益反馈比损失反馈诱发了更短的P300潜伏期。本研究为理解人类信任博弈过程的动态加工时程提供了初步的神经电生理学证据。%To trust or not to trust is a social dilemma which impacts our way of life. As an important social signaling mechanism, trust is critical to the development of long-term social relationships, which could reduce transaction costs, facilitate cooperative behavior, and promote the prosperity of human society. Previous fMRI research based on the Trust Game has revealed some brain regions recruited for the decision to trust, including medial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction. However, the temporal characteristics of the trustor’s decision-making and outcome evaluation during the Trust Game are still unclear. We aim to address this limitation and understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying decisions to trust. In the current study, we employed the event-related potentials (ERPs) technology to record 20 healthy participants’ electrical brain activity while they played

  16. “最后通牒博弈”实验中的风险评估及其应用%Risk Assessment on "Ultimatum Game" Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万里

    2011-01-01

    The ultimatum game experiment is the classic theory of western experimental economics,mainly about the interest game between two individuals.Experimental results show that the interest far from equilibrium is risk,and there is positive correlation between risk and benefit.When the gamer is in pursuit of self-interest maximization,he must control risk and benefit others.According to the principles of fairness,haring interest as well as risk is perfect state.The research result is of great theoretical and practical significance to China's risk control and prevention in the process of social transition.%"最后通牒博弈"实验是西方实验经济学中的经典理论,它主要探讨两人之间的利益博弈。实验结果表明:远离均衡的利益有风险,且风险与利益呈正相关;博弈者在追求自身利益最大化时必须控制风险,并有利他思想;按公平原则做到利益共享、风险均摊是理想状态。这些结论对我国社会转型过程中的风险防控具有重大的理论和现实意义。

  17. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and

  18. Supermodular Games and Potential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Potential games and supermodular games are attractive games, especially because under certain conditions they possess pure Nash equilibria. Subclasses of games with a potential are considered which are also strategically equivalent to supermodular games. The focus is on two-person zero-sum games and

  19. Differential games

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2006-01-01

    This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest

  20. Game Theory with Costly Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Joseph Y

    2008-01-01

    We develop a general game-theoretic framework for reasoning about strategic agents performing possibly costly computation. In this framework, many traditional game-theoretic results (such as the existence of a Nash equilibrium) no longer hold. Nevertheless, we can use the framework to provide psychologically appealing explanations to observed behavior in well-studied games (such as finitely repeated prisoner's dilemma and rock-paper-scissors). Furthermore, we provide natural conditions on games sufficient to guarantee that equilibria exist. As an application of this framework, we consider a notion of game-theoretic implementation of mediators in computational games. We show that a special case of this notion is equivalent to a variant of the traditional cryptographic definition of protocol security; this result shows that, when taking computation into account, the two approaches used for dealing with "deviating" players in two different communities -- Nash equilibrium in game theory and zero-knowledge "simula...

  1. Playful Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  2. Action being character: a promising perspective on the solution concept of game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang

    2011-05-09

    The inconsistency of predictions from solution concepts of conventional game theory with experimental observations is an enduring question. These solution concepts are based on the canonical rationality assumption that people are exclusively self-regarding utility maximizers. In this article, we think this assumption is problematic and, instead, assume that rational economic agents act as if they were maximizing their implicit utilities, which turns out to be a natural extension of the canonical rationality assumption. Implicit utility is defined by a player's character to reflect his personal weighting between cooperative, individualistic, and competitive social value orientations. The player who actually faces an implicit game chooses his strategy based on the common belief about the character distribution for a general player and the self-estimation of his own character, and he is not concerned about which strategies other players will choose and will never feel regret about his decision. It is shown by solving five paradigmatic games, the Dictator game, the Ultimatum game, the Prisoner's Dilemma game, the Public Goods game, and the Battle of the Sexes game, that the framework of implicit game and its corresponding solution concept, implicit equilibrium, based on this alternative assumption have potential for better explaining people's actual behaviors in social decision making situations.

  3. Convex Games versus Clan Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Tijs, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games.We show that a "dualize and restrict" procedure transforms total clan games with zero worth for the clan into monotonic convex games.Furthermore, each monotonic

  4. Altered Brain Reactivity to Game Cues After Gaming Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon Min; Chung, Hwan Jun; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-08-01

    Individuals who play Internet games excessively show elevated brain reactivity to game-related cues. This study attempted to test whether this elevated cue reactivity observed in game players is a result of repeated exposure to Internet games. Healthy young adults without a history of excessively playing Internet games were recruited, and they were instructed to play an online Internet game for 2 hours/day for five consecutive weekdays. Two control groups were used: the drama group, which viewed a fantasy TV drama, and the no-exposure group, which received no systematic exposure. All participants performed a cue reactivity task with game, drama, and neutral cues in the brain scanner, both before and after the exposure sessions. The game group showed an increased reactivity to game cues in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). The degree of VLPFC activation increase was positively correlated with the self-reported increase in desire for the game. The drama group showed an increased cue reactivity in response to the presentation of drama cues in the caudate, posterior cingulate, and precuneus. The results indicate that exposure to either Internet games or TV dramas elevates the reactivity to visual cues associated with the particular exposure. The exact elevation patterns, however, appear to differ depending on the type of media experienced. How changes in each of the regions contribute to the progression to pathological craving warrants a future longitudinal study.

  5. The Stag Hunt Game: An Example of an Excel-Based Probabilistic Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Dave

    2016-01-01

    With so many role-playing simulations already in the political science education literature, the recent repeated calls for new games is both timely and appropriate. This article answers and extends those calls by advocating the creation of probabilistic games using Microsoft Excel. I introduce the example of the Stag Hunt Game--a short, effective,…

  6. Personalised gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkes, S.; Tan, C.T.; Pisan, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on personalised games, which we define as games that utilise player models for the purpose of tailoring the game experience to the individual player. The main contribution of the article is a motivation for personalised gaming, supported by an extensive overview of scientific li

  7. Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  8. Game Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Drachen, Anders; Canossa, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Game Analytics has gained a tremendous amount of attention in game development and game research in recent years. The widespread adoption of data-driven business intelligence practices at operational, tactical and strategic levels in the game industry, combined with the integration of quantitative...

  9. Social comparison affects brain responses to fairness in asset division : an ERP study with the ultimatum game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; van Dijk, E.; Leliveld, M.C.; Zhou, X.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that social comparison influences individual's fairness consideration and other-regarding behavior. However, it is not clear how social comparison affects the brain activity in evaluating fairness during asset distribution. In this study, participants, acting as recipient

  10. Online Gaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Curran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer gaming is a medium by which we can entertain ourselves, a medium that has expanded to the online worldwide market as part as globalization. The growth of online gaming has close ties with the use of broadband, as a good online gaming experience requires a broadband connection. Through online gaming, people can play and communicate with each other freely in almost any country, at any given time. This paper examines the phenomenon of online gaming.

  11. Research on trust model based on infinitely repeated games theory in P2P networks%基于无限重复博弈的P2P网络信任模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保玉; 高承实; 戴青; 陈景林; 刘洋

    2013-01-01

    为解决P2P电子商务环境中存在的安全问题,针对现有一些信任模型的局限性,提出一种基于无限重复博弈理论的信任模型.通过建立奖惩策略,对节点的不合作行为,依据博弈策略对节点进行惩罚,同时对选择合作策略的节点进行奖励,并根据欺诈行为次数设定不同的惩罚周期.理论分析和仿真实验表明,合作策略会成为节点博弈的帕累托最优策略,该策略模型能有效遏制和惩罚恶意行为,提高节点诚实交易的积极性,从而有效提高网络环境的安全性和稳定性.%To resolve the security problems in P2P networks,this paper proposed a trust model based on infinitely repeated game theory.Reward and punishment strategy in this paper not only punished the malicious behavior,but also incentivized the cooperation nodes,and the duration of penalty was determined in the times of fraudulent conduct.Mathematic analysis and simulation experiments show that the strategy of cooperation will be Pareto optimal strategy,which can punish and stifle availably malicious behavior,and improve incentives of the nodes trading honestly,then the security and stability of the P2P network environment will be enhanced efficiently.

  12. Analysis on Libor’ s misrepresentations and relative policy recommendations under repeated game approach%Libor虚报操纵的重复博弈分析及政策建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玉姝

    2014-01-01

    To further analyze the reason of Libor ’ s frequent misrepresentations , for the first time in this paper a repeated game model on Libor ’ s bidding process is constructed , which find out the critical value of the punishment for dishonest quotations by means of reasonably simplifying the makers ’ complex relationship and quantizing their profit and loss under different strategy choices.And on the basis of the analysis of the threshold combining motivation for manipulation and the parameters ’ less optimistic availability , it is conclu-ded that the institutional defects in existing price forming system inevitably lead to Libor ’ s quite frequent bi-ding crimes.Finally, several policy recommendations for the upcoming new system are proposed.%为深入分析Libor被屡次虚报操纵的原因,引入重复博弈模型,在对价格形成机制中的关联行为进行合理简化、对各报价行不同策略选择下的得益与损失进行量化的基础上,分析了Libor的报价过程,找出使得如实报价的“惩罚”力度的临界值。并在分析该临界值的基础上结合操纵动因和各影响因子的测算难度,得出现有价格形成体系的制度性缺陷必然引发Libor被虚报的不诚信行为的结论。最后针对2014年即将推行的新体系提出相关政策建议。

  13. Writerly Gaming: Political Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    software for private entertainment (looking/feeling real) or they can be pragmatic software used for training of professionals (affecting soldiers’, pilots’, etc. perception of the real). A third, and less debated game-reality relationship, based on public awareness and typically a socio-political agenda...

  14. First Cycle Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Aminof

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available First cycle games (FCG are played on a finite graph by two players who push a token along the edges until a vertex is repeated, and a simple cycle is formed. The winner is determined by some fixed property Y of the sequence of labels of the edges (or nodes forming this cycle. These games are traditionally of interest because of their connection with infinite-duration games such as parity and mean-payoff games. We study the memory requirements for winning strategies of FCGs and certain associated infinite duration games. We exhibit a simple FCG that is not memoryless determined (this corrects a mistake in \\it Memoryless determinacy of parity and mean payoff games: a simple proof by Björklund, Sandberg, Vorobyov (2004 that claims that FCGs for which Y is closed under cyclic permutations are memoryless determined. We show that Θ(n! memory (where n is the number of nodes in the graph, which is always sufficient, may be necessary to win some FCGs. On the other hand, we identify easy to check conditions on Y (i.e., Y is closed under cyclic permutations, and both Y and its complement are closed under concatenation that are sufficient to ensure that the corresponding FCGs and their associated infinite duration games are memoryless determined. We demonstrate that many games considered in the literature, such as mean-payoff, parity, energy, etc., satisfy these conditions. On the complexity side, we show (for efficiently computable Y that while solving FCGs is in PSPACE, solving some families of FCGs is PSPACE-hard.

  15. [Game addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  16. (ludo) game

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    game. This development is analogous to that of games of strategy, in which each player is assigned a set of possible ... based system, communication protocols, performance ..... driven and a shorter coding-debugging life cycle. The methods ...

  17. Casual Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Ertløv

    2015-01-01

    Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....

  18. Casual Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Ertløv

    2015-01-01

    Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states....

  19. Autocratic strategies for alternating games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Alex; Hauert, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Repeated games have a long tradition in the behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce linear constraints on payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of "zero-determinant" (or, more generally, "autocratic") strategies to alternating games, which are often biologically more relevant than traditional synchronous games. Alternating games naturally result in asymmetries between players because the first move matters or because players might not move with equal probabilities. In a strictly-alternating game with two players, X and Y, we give conditions for the existence of autocratic strategies for player X when (i) X moves first and (ii) Y moves first. Furthermore, we show that autocratic strategies exist even for (iii) games with randomly-alternating moves. Particularly important categories of autocratic strategies are extortionate and generous strategies, which enforce unfavorable and favorable outcomes for the opponent, respectively. We illustrate these strategies using the continuous Donation Game, in which a player pays a cost to provide a benefit to the opponent according to a continuous cooperative investment level. Asymmetries due to alternating moves could easily arise from dominance hierarchies, and we show that they can endow subordinate players with more autocratic strategies than dominant players.

  20. 商业银行-中小企业有限次重复博弈仿真%Commercial Banks-SMES Finite Repeated Game Simulation under Complete Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊熊; 武栋才; 张永杰; 张今

    2009-01-01

    利用在社会经济中得到广泛应用的Multi-Agent仿真方法对银企贷款的博弈过程进行模拟,并利用从银企贷款中抽象出的模型,动态地仿真这一经济过程,对于分析银企贷款行为和解决小企业融资问题有直接意义.本文通过建立有限次重复博弈模型,采用仿真的方法对银行和企业在效益最大化目标下的策略选择进行研究.通过研究袁明,不论贷款抵押比率和抵押品变现率如何变动,银行的最大化收益出现在银行和企业的互信行为同时出现的时候,同时整个社会的福利也达到最大化.因此不论对银行还是对整个社会来说,银企合作才是解决企业贷款难问题的最好措施.%Based on finite repeated game model under complete information,we do some research into strategy choice of commercial banks and SMES' maximum benefit using simulation method.Through the research,we know that no matter what changes happen to loan mortgage rate and collateral realization rate,the banks' maximum benefit will appear when banks and SMES both take cooperation strategy,the welfare of the whole society reaches its maximum at the same time.Therefore,the cooperation between banks and SMES is the best measure to resolve the loan's difficulty in SMES on both sides of banks or the whole society.

  1. Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

  2. Game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  3. Casual Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Ertløv

    2015-01-01

    Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put f...... forward by recent research. The theoretical approach is based on media psychology, phenomenology and reversal theory. Finally it is argued that playing casual games is fundamental pleasurable to both paratelic as well as telic metamotivational states.......Casual games have become a widespread activity that fills our leisure time. This article introduces to the phenomenon casual games – their definition and the history. Furthermore the article presents and discusses the experience of and engagement or immersion in playing these games as it is put...

  4. Convex games, clan games, and their marginal games

    OpenAIRE

    Branzei , Rodica; Dimitrov, Dinko; Tijs, Stef

    2005-01-01

    We provide characterizations of convex games and total clan games by using properties of their corresponding marginal games. As it turns out, a cooperative game is convex if and only if all its marginal games are superadditive, and a monotonic game satisfying the veto player property with respect to the members of a coalition C is a total clan game (with clan C) if and only if all its C-based marginal games are subadditive.

  5. Individuals in the criminal justice system show differences in cooperative behaviour: Implications from cooperative games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brendan C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hendricks, Peter S; Sharp, Carla; Clark, Shane K; Cropsey, Karen L

    2015-07-01

    The high rate of incarceration in the USA warrants continued exploration into understanding and ameliorating criminal behaviour. The growing use of cooperative games to measure developing prosocial behaviours has never been explored in a US criminal justice population. The aim of this study is to examine cooperative game play among offenders under supervision in the community. We hypothesised that the offenders would use more guarded and self-preserving strategies and be more likely to excel in short-lived interactions than law-abiding community citizens. Community supervised offenders (83) and general population comparison participants (41) were recruited by town centre adverts placed in popular shops. Using the supervision centres as venues, all participants were asked to complete four cooperative games (prisoner's dilemma, public goods game, ultimatum game and trust game), not knowing the identity of the other player who was always, in fact, the experimenter. The offender and general population groups were similar in age (early 30s), sex (2/3 men), race (45% white) and IQ distribution (low average range). Offenders made lower offers in the ultimatum game, had lower scores in the prisoner's dilemma, made lower investments and offered lower returns in the trust game and contributed less in the public goods game. Even community-based offenders thus seem to have deficits in the kinds of gameplay, which are informed by theories of social cooperation, but the direction of relationship with offending remains unclear. The apparent deficits may reflect adaptation to a hostile environment where trust and reciprocity are not rewarded. It is also important to recognise that these community-based offenders did develop play indicative of trust and reciprocity, they just did so more slowly than the comparison group. This may have implications for allowing time for rapport to develop in supervisory relationships. Finally, offenders may benefit from learning that although more

  6. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness......” in his classic work “Homo Ludens” (Huizinga 1938, translated into English 1971). This has since been developed into the concept of the “magic circle” by Salen and Zimmerman (2003), as an understanding of playing games as a kind of alternate reality. When a person cross the magic circle of a game, he...

  7. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  8. Distributed Games

    OpenAIRE

    Dov Monderer; Moshe Tennenholtz

    1997-01-01

    The Internet exhibits forms of interactions which are not captured by existing models in economics, artificial intelligence and game theory. New models are needed to deal with these multi-agent interactions. In this paper we present a new model--distributed games. In such a model each players controls a number of agents which participate in asynchronous parallel multi-agent interactions (games). The agents jointly and strategically control the level of information monitoring by broadcasting m...

  9. Simulation games

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines the conventions and pleasures of simulation games as a category, and explores the complicated and contested term simulation. This concept goes to the heart of what computer games and video games are, and the ways in which they articulate ideas, processes, and phenomena between their virtual worlds and the actual world. It has been argued that simulations generate and communicate knowledge and events quite differently from the long-­dominant cultural mode of narrative. Th...

  10. Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    T hese days one of the buzzwords in computer game industry and research is ‘Serious Games’ – games where the actions of the player are not limited to the virtual world but are somehow related to the real world. Computer games can be strong environments for learning and training skills in the real...... world. Computer games can also be persuasive – they can be used for advertising (‘adver-gaming’) and induce the players to buy a particular product in the real world or they can propagate a particular political viewpoint or a critique of the real world. The area of ‘serious gaming’ is vast and varied....

  11. Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin Wetterstrand

    2007-01-01

    . Experiments can be set up to explore possible futures and design games has the qualities of elegantly focus the work at the same time as it lessens the burden for the process facilitator. The present paper goes into detail about how design games can be set up to facilitate collaboration and how the design......In this paper design games are discussed as an approach to managing design sessions. The focus is on the collaborative design session and more particular on how to set up the collaboration and reinsure progress. Design games have the advantage of framing the collaborative assignment at hand...

  12. Game physics

    CERN Document Server

    Eberly, David H

    2010-01-01

    ""Game Physics, 2nd Edition"" provides clear descriptions of the mathematics and algorithms needed to create a powerful physics engine - while providing a solid reference for all of the math you will encounter anywhere in game development: quaternions, linear algebra, and calculus. Implementing physical simulations for real-time games is a complex task that requires a solid understanding of a wide range of concepts from the fields of mathematics and physics. Previously, the relevant information could only be gleaned through obscure research papers. Thanks to ""Game Physics"", all this informa

  13. Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin Wetterstrand

    2007-01-01

    In this paper design games are discussed as an approach to managing design sessions. The focus is on the collaborative design session and more particular on how to set up the collaboration and reinsure progress. Design games have the advantage of framing the collaborative assignment at hand....... Experiments can be set up to explore possible futures and design games has the qualities of elegantly focus the work at the same time as it lessens the burden for the process facilitator. The present paper goes into detail about how design games can be set up to facilitate collaboration and how the design...

  14. Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    T hese days one of the buzzwords in computer game industry and research is ‘Serious Games’ – games where the actions of the player are not limited to the virtual world but are somehow related to the real world. Computer games can be strong environments for learning and training skills in the real...... world. Computer games can also be persuasive – they can be used for advertising (‘adver-gaming’) and induce the players to buy a particular product in the real world or they can propagate a particular political viewpoint or a critique of the real world. The area of ‘serious gaming’ is vast and varied....

  15. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... or she suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply. This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. Even so, the concept of the magic circle has never been analysed with respect to the spatial configuration...

  16. 具有长期性特征的恐怖袭击与政府反恐多阶段重复博弈模型%Multi-phase Repeated Game Model between Terrorists and Government Anti-terrorism with Long-term Characteristic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德海; 邹华伟; 鲍雪言

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Terrorism represented by the “three forces” has become one of the long-term challenges for Chinese society, especially for Xinjiang region. Chinese anti-terrorism combat has the long-term characteristics. Considering the long-term characteristics of anti-terrorism, the paper builds a multi-phase repeated game model between government and terrorists, where Hausken and Zhuang’s dynamic game model has been taken as the stage game model. Using numerical experiments, we discussed the influence of the attention for future long-term income, the terrorists’ attacking cost, and the government’s valuation of the targeted asset on terrorists’ expected utility and the number of attacking time.%我国反恐问题具有长期性特征,以Hausken和Zhuang的动态博弈模型作为阶段博弈,在此基础上构建了政府防御方与恐怖分子的多阶段重复博弈模型。通过数值分析方法,分别讨论了双方对于未来长远收益重视程度、恐怖分子培训与实施袭击成本、政府防御目标估值等因素对于恐怖分子的期望收益和恐怖袭击次数的影响。

  17. MiBoard: Multiplayer Interactive Board Game

    CERN Document Server

    Dempsey, Kyle B; Jackson, G Tanner; Boonthum, Chutima; Levinstein, Irwin B; McNamara, Danielle S

    2010-01-01

    Serious games have recently emerged as an avenue for curriculum delivery. Serious games incorporate motivation and entertainment while providing pointed curriculum for the user. This paper presents a serious game, called MiBoard, currently being developed from the iSTART Intelligent Tutoring System. MiBoard incorporates a multiplayer interaction that iSTART was previously unable to provide. This multiplayer interaction produces a wide variation across game trials, while also increasing the repeat playability for users. This paper presents a demonstration of the MiBoard system and the expectations for its application.

  18. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  19. Imitation Games

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Junji

    1993-01-01

    Mutual imitation games among artificial birds are studied. By employing a variety of mappings and game rules, the evolution to the edge between chaos and windows is universally confirmed. Some other general features are observed, including punctuated equilibria, and successive alternations of dominant species with temporal complexity. Diversity of species aided by the symbolization of artificial birds' song are also shown.

  20. Research Advancement of Metabolic Mechanisms about Repeated Sprint Ability for Team Ball Games Players%集体球类项目运动员反复冲刺能力的能量代谢机制的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小平; 程丽平

    2012-01-01

    对于集体球类项目(篮球、足球、橄榄球、手球等)来讲,运动员为了有效地完成比赛的技战术要求,取得竞争优势,必须在场上进行反复的高强度冲刺活动,所以反复冲刺的能力(Repeated-sprint ability:RSA)对运动员的竞技表现是至关重要的。本文旨在通过对国内外集体球类项目运动员反复冲刺能力的研究成果进行梳理分析,总结归纳出反复冲刺能力的能量代谢基础、测试方法及影响因素,以期能对我国竞技水平普遍不高的集体球类运动项目的科学化训练提供理论指导。%For the team ball games(basketball,football,rugby,etc.),the athlete must run high intensity sprint repeatedly in the field or court to effectively complete the game's technical and tactical requirements and get competitive advantage,therefore,repeated sprint ability(repeated-sprint ability: RSA) of the athletes is essential.This paper makes comprehensive review on research results about repeated sprint ability at home and abroad.The main purpose of this paper is to summarize physiological basis,test methods and impact factors of repeated sprint ability and provide theoretical guidance for team ball games scientific training.

  1. Game Theory Study on Distributors' Alliance to Gain Competitive Advantage in Marketing Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shi-ying; CHEN Jie; WANG Fang-hua

    2005-01-01

    Using the Cournot Game Model, this paper has analyzed the motivation of the distributors' alliance to gain competitive advantage in marketing channel. At first, this paper separately analyzed the advantage of alliance in the situation of oneshort game and infinitely repeated game, then, based on the analysis of distributors' betrayal of the alliance under infinitely repeated game, the conditions to maintain the distributors alliance are put forward and discussed.

  2. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Guillermo

    1992-01-01

    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  3. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Guillermo

    1992-01-01

    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  4. Are digital games perceived as fun or danger? Supporting and suppressing different game-related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneer, Julia; Glock, Sabine; Beskes, Sara; Bente, Gary

    2012-11-01

    Violent digital game play has repeatedly been discussed to be strongly related to aggression and emotional instability. Thus, digital game players have to defend against these prejudices through emphasizing positive game-related concepts such as achievement, social interaction, and immersion. We experimentally investigated which positive- and negative-concept players and nonplayers activate when being primed with digital games. Participants were either exposed to violent or nonviolent game content and were required to work on a lexical decision task. Results showed that response latencies for the concept aggression and emotional instability were faster than for neutral concepts (not associated with digital games), but slower than for the positive concepts sociality and competition. Both players and nonplayers felt the need to defend against prejudices and emphasized positive concepts. Neither their own gaming experience nor the game content influenced the results. Being a part of the net generation is sufficient to suppress negative game-related concepts and to support positive game-related concepts to protect digital games as common leisure activity among peers.

  5. Game development tool essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Berinstein, Paula; Ardolino, Alessandro; Franco, Simon; Herubel, Adrien; McCutchan, John; Nedelcu, Nicusor; Nitschke, Benjamin; Olmstead, Don; Robinet, Fabrice; Ronchi, Christian; Turkowski, Rita; Walter, Robert; Samour, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Offers game developers new techniques for streamlining the critical game tools pipeline. Inspires game developers to share their secrets and improve the productivity of the entire industry. Helps game industry practitioners compete in a hyper-competitive environment.

  6. Donor Tag Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Donor Tag Game Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... of Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Make a ...

  7. Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    Serious Games er et nyt it-forretningsområde, der siden årtusindskiftet er vokset frem, først i USA og dernæst i Vesteuropa og and i-lande. Til forskel fra computerspil er serious games ikke underholdning, men tænkt som et værktøj til støtte for statens og erhvervslivets forskellige funktioner. D...

  8. Golden Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI XIAO

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is not expected to sweep the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games the way it dominated the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics.However,it has made Chinese Olympic history after winning three gold medals when the Games passed the halfway point of scheduled competition on February 20.On that day,18-year-old Zhou Yang overcame three South Korean rivals to win the women's short-track speed skating 1,500-meter final.

  9. Playing Games with Timed Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus on property-preserving preorders between timed game automata and their application to control of partially observable systems. Following the example of timed simulation between timed automata, we define timed alternating simulation as a preorder between timed game automata......, which preserves controllability. We define a method to reduce the timed alternating simulation problem to a safety game. We show how timed alternating simulation can be used to control efficiently a partially observable system. This method is illustrated by a generic case study....

  10. Playing Games with Timed Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Chatain, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus on property-preserving preorders between timed game automata and their application to control of partially observable systems. Following the example of timed simulation between timed automata, we define timed alternating simulation as a preorder between timed game automata......, which preserves controllability. We define a method to reduce the timed alternating simulation problem to a safety game. We show how timed alternating simulation can be used to control efficiently a partially observable system. This method is illustrated by a generic case study....

  11. Framing the Game: Examining Frame Choice in Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount; Larrick

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces the study of frame choice in negotiation. Here, the selection of a procedural frame is treated as a dependent variable-a choice that bargainers make in addition to determining their offers. The empirical focus of the article is on whether, when given a choice between two alternative versions of the ultimatum bargaining game, negotiators choose the description that maximizes their expected payoffs. For example, in one frame-choice task, negotiators assigned to the Player 1 role were asked to select between framing the game as "Player 1 proposes a division and Player 2 accepts or rejects it" or "Player 1 makes a claim from a common pool and Player 2 makes a counterclaim." Past research has shown that the second frame leads to higher expected payoffs for Player 1 than does the first. Across four studies and three established framing effects, it is found that participants consistently fail to select the procedural frames that optimize monetary outcomes. Subsequent analyses suggest that this tendency is due to two factors: (a) nonmonetary motivations, such as fairness and respect, that influence frame-choice preferences and (b) cognitive limitations that inhibit the ability to accurately predict the effect of alternative procedural frames on opponents' responses Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. 认知无线电中基于多次博弈的功率控制算法%A Power Control Algorithm Based on Repeated Games in Cognitive Radio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕志军; 韩雪; 杨旭

    2011-01-01

    基于博弈论对认知无线电网络中的功率控制问题进行了建模分析,提出了一种基于多次博弈的功率控制算法,证明了该算法中纳什均衡的存在性和惟一性.仿真结果表明,基于该博弈模型的功率控制算法收敛性比传统算法好,经过7次左右迭代即可收敛,满足系统实时性要求,同时又能够以较低的功率水平满足不同用户对信干比的要求,实现了对不同用户发射功率的有效控制,系统性能明显提高.%This article proposes a game theoretic solution for power control policy in cognitive radio networks. A power control game algorithm is proposed based on cost function. Hie uniqueness and existence of the Nash equilibrium is proved for the scheme. Simulation results show that the novel power control algorithm based on game theory will be obtained better convergence compared with traditional algorithm, after about 7 iterations algorithm will converge to an NE and can satisfy the real-time requirement, the novel algorithm can regulate their transmitter powers to meet the different signal to interference ratio (SIR) requirements and the performance of CR system is thereby improved obviously.

  13. Gamers on Games and Gaming: Implications for Educational Game Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staalduinen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a steadily increasing interest in the use of games for educational purposes. This has led to an increased design, use and study of educational games; games where the players learn through playing. However, experiments with the educational use of games have not

  14. Gamers on Games and Gaming: Implications for Educational Game Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staalduinen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a steadily increasing interest in the use of games for educational purposes. This has led to an increased design, use and study of educational games; games where the players learn through playing. However, experiments with the educational use of games have not

  15. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  16. Learning Dynamics in Economic Games

    CERN Document Server

    Spanknebel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    When playing games human decision behaviour is often found to be diverse. For instance, in repeated prisoner dilemma games humans exhibit broad distributions of cooperativity and on average do not optimize their mean payoff. Deviations from optimal behaviour have been attributed to auxiliary causes including randomness of decisions, mis-estimations of probabilities, accessory objectives, or emotional biases. Here we show that also the dynamics resulting from of a general tendency to shift preferences towards previously rewarding choices in interaction with the strategy of the opponent can contribute substantially to observed lacks of 'rationality'. As a representative example we investigate the dynamics of choice preferences in prisoner dilemma games with opponents exhibiting different degrees of extortion and generosity. We find that already a very simple model for human learning can account for a surprisingly wide range of human decision behaviours. In particular, the theory can reproduce reduced cooperatio...

  17. Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    There has recently been considerable attention paid to the gamification of digital journalism. Where the current technological and social affordances of web 2.0 storytelling have proved less attractive to younger users, the persuasive features of game logics have added new dimensions to interactive......, participatory journalism. This notion refers to realitybased news games that can act both as an independent medium for news content and as a supplement to traditional forms of coverage. Simultaneously, persuasive logics of gamification offer new ways to engage actuality through media space’s augmented reality....... This paper1 explores the new spatio-epistemological realities of two journalistic games, asking how the spatial, operational, and procedural realities of storytelling change through ‘gamification’. It reflects on the spatial dimension of digital journalism in order to challenge the traditional, generic...

  18. Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    Serious Games er et nyt it-forretningsområde, der siden årtusindskiftet er vokset frem, først i USA og dernæst i Vesteuropa og and i-lande. Til forskel fra computerspil er serious games ikke underholdning, men tænkt som et værktøj til støtte for statens og erhvervslivets forskellige funktioner. Det...... amerikanske militær har været fødselshjælper for den nye teknologi. Herfra har serious games bredt sig til andre sektorer og og i-lande, inkl. Danmark. Bogen skildrer, hvordan det nye forretningsområde er i færd med at blive udkrystalliseret af en række beslægtede industrigrene, og hvordan udviklingen er...

  19. Natural games

    CERN Document Server

    Anttila, Jani

    2011-01-01

    Behavior in the context of game theory is described as a natural process that follows the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The rate of entropy increase as the payoff function is derived from statistical physics of open systems. The thermodynamic formalism relates everything in terms of energy and describes various ways to consume free energy. This allows us to associate game theoretical models of behavior to physical reality. Ultimately behavior is viewed as a physical process where flows of energy naturally select ways to consume free energy as soon as possible. This natural process is, according to the profound thermodynamic principle, equivalent to entropy increase in the least time. However, the physical portrayal of behavior does not imply determinism. On the contrary, evolutionary equation for open systems reveals that when there are three or more degrees of freedom for behavior, the course of a game is inherently unpredictable in detail because each move affects motives of moves in the future. Eventually, wh...

  20. DiffGame: Game-based mathematics learning for physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedersen, Mads Kock; Dohn, Niels Bonderup; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation is a mathematical skill applied throughout science in order to describe the change of a function with respect to a dependent variable. Thus, an intuitive understanding of differentiation is necessary to work with the mathematical frameworks used to describe physical systems in the higher levels of education. In order to obtain this intuition repeated practice is required. In this paper we present the development of DiffGame, which consists of a series of exercises that introduce the basic principles of differentiation for high-school students through game-like elements. DiffGame have been tested with 117 first-year students from a single Danish high school, who did not have any prior training in differentiation. The students' learning was assessed by the data obtained directly from DiffGame. The test demonstrated the efficacy of DiffGame, since students at all levels demonstrate a learning gain. In contrast to previous studies demonstrating most learning in the lower tier of students, we find ...

  1. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Zebis, Mette; Jensen, Jack Majgaard

    2010-01-01

    Krustrup, P, Zebis, M, Jensen, JM, and Mohr, M. Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer. J Strength Cond Res 24(2): 437-441, 2010-The purpose was to examine the fatigue pattern of elite female soccer players after competitive games. Soccer players (n = 23) from the Danish women Premier...... at rest (r = -0.76, p soccer game does cause marked impairment in intense intermittent exercise and repeated sprint performance but does not affect vertical jump performance...

  2. "Game" in history, historical in "game"

    OpenAIRE

    Fostikov, Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper is considered with relation between game and the History, in three various aspects: first part is dedicated to the meaning of noun "game" from its early stages till today, the second part relates to influences of game on human development and the third part deals with objectivity of historical facts in computer games.

  3. Serious Games: Video Games for Good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…

  4. Serious Games: Video Games for Good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…

  5. Game Theory and Educational Policy: Private Education Legislation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a game theory analysis of legislating private education in China, based on set of primary and secondary documents related to this issue. The article argues that shaping educational legislation is a dynamic, repeated game of negotiation, cooperation, and/or competition on multiple occasions among various interested actors,…

  6. Urban Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune; Løssing, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    Games, er ikke produktudvikling i traditionel forstand, men derimod en reflekteret designproces, der forsøger at optage spilteoretiske og HCI-relaterede problemstillinger. I denne artikel vil vi koncentrere os om udvalgte principielle overvejelser i udviklingen af især forhandlings- og debatspil, som...

  7. Game Review

    OpenAIRE

    Oliva, Constantino; Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    WHAT IS THE STORY behind our smart phones? Phone Story retraces the production stages of our favorite products, showing us the dramatic working conditions behind their assembly. It seems like Apple didn’t like it: the game is now banned from the App Store.

  8. Got Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…

  9. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  10. Game Changers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    at forsøge at beskrive nogle af de mekanismer, som gør, at nogle af disse kreative industrier bliver netop kreative og innovative, at de ikke alene kan klare sig, men også ændre og udvikle både indhold, form og organisering – at de bliver det der på managementsprog hedder game changers....

  11. Global Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    Why is soccer the sport of choice in South America, while baseball has soared to popularity in the Carribean? How did cricket become India's national sport, while China is a stronghold of table tennis? In Global Games, Maarten van Bottenburg asserts that it is the 'hidden competition' of social and

  12. Football Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢连香

    2000-01-01

    Do you know there are two kinds of football games? One is American football, the other is soccer. In China, many young people like playing soccer. It is very popular in China. But Chinese don't call it soccer, They call it football. There are eleven players in a team. And the ball is round.

  13. Gaming conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of digital (video and computer) games in the rise of what Büscher (2014) calls "nature 2.0": new web-related media that allow users to move beyond passive voyeurism to actively "co-create" or "prosume" the images and processes promoted by organizations committed to

  14. Understanding Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon

    From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...

  15. Teaching Using Computer Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee Dee; Shell, Duane; Khandaker, Nobel; Soh, Leen-Kiat

    2011-01-01

    Computer games have long been used for teaching. Current reviews lack categorization and analysis using learning models which would help instructors assess the usefulness of computer games. We divide the use of games into two classes: game playing and game development. We discuss the Input-Process-Outcome (IPO) model for the learning process when…

  16. Ontology of Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayaga, Lakshmi; Rasmussen, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    Computer games are no longer just for entertainment; they have also become a useful instructional strategy for acquiring knowledge. When games are used for purposes other than strict entertainment they become serious games. The goal of serious games is to enable the player to learn a task, master a strategy or develop a skill. Serious games can be…

  17. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  18. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  19. Heterogeneous Motives in the Trust Game: A Tale of Two Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín, Antonio M.; Exadaktylos, Filippos; Neyse, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Trustful and trustworthy behaviors have important externalities for the society. But what exactly drives people to behave in a trustful and trustworthy manner? Building on research suggesting that individuals’ social preferences might be a common factor informing both behaviors, we study the impact of a set of different motives on individuals’ choices in a dual-role Trust Game (TG). We employ data from a large-scale representative experiment (N = 774), where all subjects played both roles of a binary TG with real monetary incentives. Subjects’ social motives were inferred using their decisions in a Dictator Game and a dual-role Ultimatum Game. Next to self-interest and strategic motives we consider preferences for altruism, spitefulness, egalitarianism, and efficiency. We demonstrate that there exists considerable heterogeneity in motives in the TG. Most importantly, among individuals who choose to trust as trustors, social motives can differ dramatically as there is a non-negligible proportion of them who seem to act out of (strategic) self-interest whereas others are driven more by efficiency considerations. Subjects’ elicited trustworthiness, however, can be used to infer such motivations: while the former are not trustworthy as trustees, the latter are. We discuss that research on trust can benefit from adding the second player’s choice in TG designs. PMID:27242633

  20. Authoring of digital games via card games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Literature and previous studies show that creative play is easy to emerge when children interact with tangible, low-tech toys and games than with digital games. This paradoxical situation is linked to the long-standing problem of end-users (or players) authoring of digital contents and systems. We...... propose a new scenario in which trading card games help making sense and re-design computer games, to support players express themselves aesthetically and in a highly creative way. Our aim is to look for a middle ground between players becoming programmers and simply editing levels. The main contributions...... are to show how card games can represent digital games, how playful play can emerge in card games and digital games, and to begin defining a new way to express game behavior without the use of universal programming languages....

  1. Blood Type Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood > Blood Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  2. Play the MRI Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teachers' Questionnaire MRI Play MRI the Magnetic Miracle Game About the game In the MRI imaging technique, strong magnets and ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  3. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Electrocardiogram Play the ECG Game About the game ECG is used for diagnosing heart conditions by ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  4. Verified Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    ---falls every year and any mention of mathematics in the classroom seems to frighten students away. So the question is: How do we attract new students in computing to the area of dependable software systems? Over the past several years at three universities we have experimented with the use of computer games...... as a target domain for software engineering project courses that focus on reliable systems engineering. This position paper summarizes our experiences in incorporating rigorous software engineering into courses whose projects include computer games.......In recent years, several Grand Challenges (GCs) of computing have been identified and expounded upon by various professional organizations in the U.S. and England. These GCs are typically very difficult problems that will take many hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of man-years to solve. Researchers...

  5. A game magically circling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2011-01-01

    This chapter analyses the relationship between players, the game world, and the ordinary world in alternative reality games (ARGs) and location-based games (LBGs). These games use technology to create a game world in the everyday scene. The topic of this chapter is the concept of the 'magic circle......', which defines the relationship between play and the ordinary world, and how this concept relates to a new kind of game....

  6. A game magically circling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2011-01-01

    This chapter analyses the relationship between players, the game world, and the ordinary world in alternative reality games (ARGs) and location-based games (LBGs). These games use technology to create a game world in the everyday scene. The topic of this chapter is the concept of the 'magic circle......', which defines the relationship between play and the ordinary world, and how this concept relates to a new kind of game....

  7. Sovereignty Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft-Hansen, Thomas

    This book offers an in-depth examination of the strategic use of State sovereignty in contemporary European and international affairs and the consequences of this for authority relations in Europe and beyond. It suggests a new approach to the study of State sovereignty, proposing to understand th...... the use of sovereignty as games where States are becoming more instrumental in their claims to sovereignty and skilled in adapting it to the challenges that they face....

  8. Possibility of Strategic Alliance from Competition:A Game Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树义; 陈彦茹

    2004-01-01

    The possibility for two competitive firms to form a strategic alliance was quantitatively analyzed with the game theory. The strategic alliance could be formed in an infinitely repeated game with complete information or a finitely repeated game with incomplete information. In the former situation, the discount ratio is important. If the discount ratio is large enough, alliance would be a possible solution. In the latter situation, the bigger the possibility of the rationality is, the more possible is for both firms to make strategic alliance.

  9. Games, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, L C

    2011-01-01

    Anyone with a knowledge of basic mathematics will find this an accessible and informative introduction to game theory. It opens with the theory of two-person zero-sum games, two-person non-zero sum games, and n-person games, at a level between nonmathematical introductory books and technical mathematical game theory books. Succeeding sections focus on a variety of applications - including introductory explanations of gaming and meta games - that offer nonspecialists information about new areas of game theory at a comprehensible level. Numerous exercises appear with full solutions, in addition

  10. Game engines: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Andrade

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to hardware limitations at the origin of the video game industry, each new game was generally coded from the ground up. Years later, from the evolution of hardware and the need for quick game development cycles, spawned the concept of game engine. A game engine is a reusable software layer allowing the separation of common game concepts from the game assets (levels, graphics, etc.. This paper surveys fourteen different game engines relevant today, ranging from the industry-level to the newcomer-friendlier ones.

  11. The mathematics of games

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, John D

    2006-01-01

    ""Mind-exercising and thought-provoking.""-New ScientistIf playing games is natural for humans, analyzing games is equally natural for mathematicians. Even the simplest of games involves the fundamentals of mathematics, such as figuring out the best move or the odds of a certain chance event. This entertaining and wide-ranging guide demonstrates how simple mathematical analysis can throw unexpected light on games of every type-games of chance, games of skill, games of chance and skill, and automatic games.Just how random is a card shuffle or a throw of the dice? Is bluffing a valid poker strat

  12. Games for Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva; Brown, David

    This anthology on games for rehabilitation contains a serious chapters on game methods and apps or research that compares game systems or modified games or interface devices (Wii, Eyetoy, Kinect, DDR) applied across all areas of clinical care and clinically focused research.......This anthology on games for rehabilitation contains a serious chapters on game methods and apps or research that compares game systems or modified games or interface devices (Wii, Eyetoy, Kinect, DDR) applied across all areas of clinical care and clinically focused research....

  13. Sparky's Firehouse (Games)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parents Educators MENU Home Videos Games & Apps Activities Sparky Firetrucks Parents Educators Firetrucks Videos Games Sparky Apps Activities The name and image of Sparky are registered trademarks ...

  14. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  15. Applying an Experiential Learning Model to the Teaching of Gateway Strategy Board Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Sato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The board game hobby has rapidly grown and evolved in recent years, but most of the non-digital games lack tips and tutorials and remain difficult to learn and teach effectively. In this project, we integrated a popular hobbyist approach to teaching modern strategy games with classical experiential learning elements (i.e., demonstration, observation, reflection, discussion and repeated experiences. We tested our model by teaching two modern board games to Japanese high school and university students. Questionnaires, gameplay data, self-ratings and discussions showed improved understanding and enjoyment, more strategic play and more interest in modern board games over the course of the instructional sequence. The model's repetition (the participants played each game three times was rated the most useful in terms of learning the games. Overall, the integrated model was largely successful in teaching strategy board games to new players, and we offer several recommendations for teachers, designers and researchers of board games.

  16. Smart Grid Charging of Electric Vehicles: EV-Owner Response to Scheduling and Pricing under Myopic Loss Aversion in an Ultimatum Two-Player Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Sebald, Alexander Christopher;

    2015-01-01

    Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks at the neglec......Upward expectations of future electric vehicle (EV) growth pose the question about the future load on the electricity grid. While the literature on demand side management of EV charging has focused on technical aspects and considered EV-owners as utility maximizers, this study looks...

  17. The standard set game of a cooperative game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumb, A.F.; Hoede, C.

    2003-01-01

    We show that for every cooperative game a corresponding set game can be defined, called the standard set game. Values for set games can be applied to this standard game and determine allocations for the cooperative game. On the other hand, notions for cooperative games, like the Shapley value, the

  18. 基于名声机制的重复囚徒困境合作博弈分析%Analysis of Cooperative Game in Repeated Prisoners' Dilemma Based on Reputation Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李栋; 蒋军利; 唐晓嘉

    2013-01-01

    The players under the repeated Prisoners' Dilemma have the possibility of mutual cooperation. On this basis, We examined a class of two-state reputation mechanisms,and found that only three reputation mechanisms are efficient robust perfect Nash equilibrium in Markov strategies. The research shows that the strategy to cooperate with good opponents and defect against bad opponents is a global attractor, and hence cooperation is successfully achieved and sustained in the long run.%处于重复囚徒困境下的博弈者存在相互合作的可能性.在此基础之上,探讨了一类具有两种状态的名声机制,并发现其中只有3个马尔可夫策略是高效的强健完美纳什均衡.研究表明,跟好名声者合作和背叛坏名声者的策略是最具吸引力的一个策略,此合作可最终成功实现并且持续下去.

  19. Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…

  20. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.;

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  1. Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2013-01-01

    Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

  2. Learning with Calculator Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

  3. Game Theory: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  4. Play the Mosquito Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Malaria Play the Mosquito Game Play the Parasite Game About the games Malaria is one of the world's most common ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  5. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  6. Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2013-01-01

    Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

  7. Games for Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Eva; Brown, David

    This anthology on games for rehabilitation contains a serious chapters on game methods and apps or research that compares game systems or modified games or interface devices (Wii, Eyetoy, Kinect, DDR) applied across all areas of clinical care and clinically focused research....

  8. Learning with Calculator Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahm, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

  9. Environmental Games and Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Tom, Comp.

    This publication consists of a lengthy list of environmental games (35) on the market today, their source and purchase price. Included is a description of the major changes the types of games have undergone. The first group of games resembled closely ordinary board games with success dependent on skill and/or chance rather than understanding of…

  10. Game design secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Au, Wagner James

    2012-01-01

    Wagner James Au is an author, consultant, and game designer, and was lead writer/mission designer for City of Eternals, a Facebook-based MMO acquired by Electronic Arts. He's written on the subject of gaming for Inside Social Games, Kotaku, and Wired. His blog New World Notes (nwn.blogs.com) covers gaming, 3D technology, and virtual culture.

  11. Design of Game Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hi...... to introduce a spatial model of the game performance comprising a primary and secondary game space. I will show how new game genres can profit from using this model when designing new games.......Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide...... into the concept of the “magic circle” by Salen and Zimmerman (2003), as an understanding of playing games as a kind of alternate reality. When a person enters the magic circle of a game, the player suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply...

  12. Game Theory: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  13. Game Birds of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)

  14. Communication Games in Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)

  15. Game-Based Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    This chapter outlines theoretical and empirical perspectives on how Game-Based Teaching can be integrated within the context of formal schooling. Initially, this is done by describing game scenarios as models for possible actions that need to be translated into curricular knowledge practices...... approaches to game-based teaching, which may or may not correspond with the pedagogical models of particular games....

  16. Computer Games and Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sukhov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article devoted to the search of relevant sources (primary and secondary and characteristics of computer games that allow to include them in the field of art (such as the creation of artistic games, computer graphics, active interaction with other forms of art, signs of spiritual aesthetic act, own temporality of computer games, “aesthetic illusion”, interactivity. In general, modern computer games can be attributed to commercial art and popular culture (blockbuster games and to elite forms of contemporary media art (author’s games, visionary games.

  17. Game Development in Unity : Game Production, Game Mechanics and the Effects of Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Dansie, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to examine how video games are designed and to see how differ-ent game mechanics work and how to use them in the development of a game, as well as examine what are both the positive and negative effects games have on adults and children. This thesis looks at how games in general are developed in Unity, a 3D game engine which has become not only popular but a standard in the gaming industry. The thesis describes how the interface in Unity is used to quickly gene...

  18. The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubik, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)

  19. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the deterministic graphical games of Washburn. A deterministic graphical game can be described as a simple stochastic game (a notion due to Anne Condon), except that we allow arbitrary real payoffs but disallow moves of chance. We study the complexity of solving deterministic graphical...... games and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm for computing an equilibrium of such a game. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  20. Bayesian Games with Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bjorndahl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We show that standard Bayesian games cannot represent the full spectrum of belief-dependent preferences. However, by introducing a fundamental distinction between intended and actual strategies, we remove this limitation. We define Bayesian games with intentions, generalizing both Bayesian games and psychological games, and prove that Nash equilibria in psychological games correspond to a special class of equilibria as defined in our setting.

  1. Relationship between cooperation in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game and the discounting of hypothetical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W; Bickel, Warren K

    2005-08-01

    A number of authors have proposed that preference for a larger, delayed reward in delay discounting is similar to cooperation in a repeated prisoner's dilemma game versus tit-for-tat. This proposal was examined by correlating delay-discounting (Experiment 1) and probability-discounting (Experiment 2) rates for hypothetical monetary gains and losses with performance in a repeated prisoner's dilemma game. Correlations between rate of delay discounting (discounting parameters and area under the curve) and proportion of cooperation in the repeated prisoner's dilemma game versus tit-for-tat were significant across three magnitudes, and correlations were generally higher with discounting for losses than with that for gains. As was expected, correlations between rate of delay discounting and performance versus a random strategy in the prisoner's dilemma game were not significant. Correlations between rate of probability-discounting and cooperation rate in a repeated prisoner's dilemma game versus neither a tit-for-tat nor a random strategy were significant.

  2. Game Factors and Game-Based Learning Design Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yen-Ru Shi; Ju-Ling Shih

    2015-01-01

    How to design useful digital game-based learning is a topic worthy of discussion. Past research focused on specific game genres design, but it is difficult to use when the target game genre differs from the default genres used in the research. This study presents macrodesign concepts that elucidates 11 crucial game-design factors, including game goals, game mechanism, game fantasy, game value, interaction, freedom, narrative, sensation, challenges, sociality, and mystery. We clearly define ea...

  3. Verified Gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Zimmerman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, several Grand Challenges (GCs) of computing have been identified and expounded upon by various professional organizations in the U.S. and England. These GCs are typically very difficult problems that will take many hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of man-years to solve. Researchers...... involved in identifying these problems are not going to solve them. That task will fall to our students, and our students' students. Unfortunately for GC6, the Grand Challenge focusing on Dependable Systems Evolution, interest in formal methods---both by students and within computer science faculties......---falls every year and any mention of mathematics in the classroom seems to frighten students away. So the question is: How do we attract new students in computing to the area of dependable software systems? Over the past several years at three universities we have experimented with the use of computer games...

  4. Teaching the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with a Computerized Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Carsten; Baylor, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a constructivist approach for teaching game theory, on the basis, in part, of Axelrod's research approach. Using the Axelrod tournament multi-user system (ATMUS) software, students create strategies for a repeated prisoner's dilemma (RPD). Later, these strategies are matched with those of their classmates' in a classroom…

  5. Alternate Reality Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    What. Urban Games are games that take place in the real-world of the players, and which make use of the properties of the city. Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are urban games that pretend to be conspiracy theories that really are happening in the life of the players. The games are experienced...... through events, challenges and collaborative puzzle solving and may evolve through the engagement of the players. This new design method, Aulaia, addresses the design of urban games in the form of ARGs. Along with the design method several examples from real world ARGs are given. Why. ARGs and other urban...... games are usually large and complicated undertakings, which require many coordinated activities in order to make successful games. This design method secures a structured approach, not only for the design of the game, but also for the launch and running. ARGs develop along with the players and require...

  6. Introduction to game theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic ideas of game theory were originated from the problems of maximum and minimum given by J.Yon Neumann in 1928. Later, wars accelerated the study of game theory, there are many developments that contributed to the advancement of game theory, many problems of optimum appeared in economic development process. Scientists applied mathematic methods to studying game theory to make the theory more profound and perfect. The axiomatic structure of game theory was nearly complete in 1944. The path of the development of game theory started from finite to infinite, from two players to many players, from expressing gains with quantity to showing the ending of game theory with abstract result, and from certainty problems to random problems. Thus development of game theory is closely related to the economic development. In recent years, the research on the non-differentiability of Shapley value posed by Belgian Mertens is one of the advanced studies in game theory.

  7. A mathematical model for a gaming community

    CERN Document Server

    Breban, Romulus

    2016-01-01

    We consider a large community of individuals who mix strongly and meet in pairs to bet on a coin toss. We investigate the asset distribution of the players involved in this zero-sum repeated game. Our main result is that the asset distribution converges to the exponential distribution, irrespective of the size of the bet, as long as players can never go bankrupt. Analytical results suggests that the exponential distribution is a stable fixed point for this zero-sum repreated game. This is confirmed in numerical experiments.

  8. Violent Video Games Exposed: A Blow by Blow Account of Senseless Violence in Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Andrew; Shukla, Vipul; Knox, Michele; Schrouder, Karyssa

    2017-01-02

    Violent video game (VVG) use has repeatedly been found to be associated with hostile expectations about others, desensitization to violence, decreased empathy and prosocial behavior, and aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Although these research findings have been widely publicized, VVGs remain the most extensively played games and represent a multi-billion dollar industry. Although VVGs are typically rated "mature," indicating they are not suitable for youths, they are often purchased for youths. This may be in part because there is currently no system available to consumers that thoroughly describes the content of video games, and much of the public is unaware of the types of violence that characterize game play. The purpose of this paper is to describe the violent content of some of the top VVGs, based on sales. For the purposes of this issue, acts of senseless, unprovoked violence will be described in detail.

  9. Designing an Educational Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Hansen, Charina Benedikte Søgaard

    2010-01-01

    When designing games with learning purposes used in a classroom, there often occur problems about the lack of learning content or the lack of game contents. Other disadvantages of existing educational games are the difficulty to provide a continual balance between the challenge and the pupils...... games, and to integrate teachers, pupils and game designers needs and requirements. To set up these design principles for educational games we have used a holistic perspective. This means that the design principles must be seen in coherence within the social and physical environment. The design...

  10. Ageing and digital games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Sara Mosberg

    2016-01-01

    Digital games are still to a great degree considered a medium mainly for young boys. However, available statistics on Western media use show that this is far from the case. Increasingly, people of all ages and genders play digital games, also older adults in their early 60s and beyond. The aim...... of the book is to examine, analyse and discuss: 1) What older adults do with digital games and what meanings the use of digital games take on in the everyday life of older adults; 2) How older adults are perceived by society in relation to digital games; 3) How play and games can be used both...

  11. Implementing Game Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cinematographic games are a rising genre in the computer games industry and an increasing number of titles published include some aspects of cinematography in the gameplay or the storytelling. At present state, camera handling in computer games is managed primarily through custom scripts and anim......Cinematographic games are a rising genre in the computer games industry and an increasing number of titles published include some aspects of cinematography in the gameplay or the storytelling. At present state, camera handling in computer games is managed primarily through custom scripts...

  12. Archetypal Game Recommender Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary users (players, consumers) of digital games have thousands of products to choose from, which makes nding games that t their interests challenging. Towards addressing this challenge, in this paper two dierent formulations of Archetypal Analysis for Top-L recommender tasks using implicit...... feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games...

  13. Pro Android Games

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Do you remember landmark games like Wolfenstein 3D, Doom, and Asteroids? Well, here's an exciting opportunity to build and/or port these games to one of the hottest mobile and netbooks platforms today: Google's Android. Pro Android Games teaches you how to build cool games like Space Blaster and the classic Asteroids from scratch on the latest Android platform. This book also shows you how to port other classic freeware/shareware games like Doom and Wolfenstein 3D from C using the Java Native Interface (JNI) for Android. This book is all about a unique perspective in Android game development:

  14. Design Games to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    top games). Therefore, we propose here a middle ground between digital and traditional table top games, so to grant children more freedom to express themselves, articulate their understanding and difficulties individually or socially; this approach is an alternative to the current trend of associating...... programming with digital creativity. In our preliminary study we transposed a digital game into a card game and observed students while shifting between playing and design thinking. Results from this study suggest that the notion of altering a digital game through a card-based transposition of the same game...

  15. Games on Games. Game Design as Critical Reflexive Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Caruso

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Can video game design be compared to more formalized practices of scientific research or speculation within game studies? And, by virtue of an intellectual leap that in itself calls for discussion, can video games be considered as an efficient vehicle for the presentation of certain kinds of knowledge, in the same way in which papers, conference presentations, and books are? What Ratto defines as critical making (2011, the practice of producing artifacts of different sorts in order to supplement and extend critical reflection, may apply to video games as well. Forms of research through design (Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson, 2007, of carpentry (Bogost, 2012, and speculative design (Dunne and Raby, 2013 have been analyzed, discussed, and maybe most importantly, put into practice in different fields of cultural and scientific production. To address this gap and to map the current (and future state of self-reflexive games, we asked both researchers and designers to imagine an application of these concepts to video games. Paraphrasing Zimmerman, Forlizzi and Evenson, what does research through game design might mean? What epistemological insights can we derive from the act of designing, making and playing video games?

  16. Dynamics in atomic signaling games

    KAUST Repository

    Fox, Michael J.

    2015-04-08

    We study an atomic signaling game under stochastic evolutionary dynamics. There are a finite number of players who repeatedly update from a finite number of available languages/signaling strategies. Players imitate the most fit agents with high probability or mutate with low probability. We analyze the long-run distribution of states and show that, for sufficiently small mutation probability, its support is limited to efficient communication systems. We find that this behavior is insensitive to the particular choice of evolutionary dynamic, a property that is due to the game having a potential structure with a potential function corresponding to average fitness. Consequently, the model supports conclusions similar to those found in the literature on language competition. That is, we show that efficient languages eventually predominate the society while reproducing the empirical phenomenon of linguistic drift. The emergence of efficiency in the atomic case can be contrasted with results for non-atomic signaling games that establish the non-negligible possibility of convergence, under replicator dynamics, to states of unbounded efficiency loss.

  17. Exact Algorithms for Solving Stochastic Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucky, Michal; Lauritzen, Niels;

    2012-01-01

    Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games.......Shapley's discounted stochastic games, Everett's recursive games and Gillette's undiscounted stochastic games are classical models of game theory describing two-player zero-sum games of potentially infinite duration. We describe algorithms for exactly solving these games....

  18. Design Games to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there is a need for digital games that could be easy to alter by young learners. Unfortunately it was found that digital games do not enable children to express their creativity at full, in contrast with low-fidelity prototypes and non-digital toys (such as card or table...... top games). Therefore, we propose here a middle ground between digital and traditional table top games, so to grant children more freedom to express themselves, articulate their understanding and difficulties individually or socially; this approach is an alternative to the current trend of associating...... programming with digital creativity. In our preliminary study we transposed a digital game into a card game and observed students while shifting between playing and design thinking. Results from this study suggest that the notion of altering a digital game through a card-based transposition of the same game...

  19. Game development with Swift

    CERN Document Server

    Haney, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    If you wish to create and publish fun iOS games using Swift, then this book is for you. You should be familiar with basic programming concepts. However, no prior game development or Apple ecosystem experience is required.

  20. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  1. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire Tuberculosis Play Tuberculosis Experiments & Discoveries About the game Discover and experience some of the classic methods ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  2. Works of Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, John

    Games and art have intersected at least since the early twentieth century, as can be seen in the Surrealists’ use of Exquisite Corpse and other games, Duchamp’s obsession with Chess, and Fluxus event scores and boxes—to name just a few examples. Over the past fifteen years, the synthesis of art...... and games has clouded for both artists and gamemakers. Contemporary art has drawn on the tool set of videogames, but has not considered them a cultural form with its own conceptual, formal, and experiential affordances. For their part, game developers and players focus on the innate properties of games...... and the experiences they provide, giving little attention to what it means to create and evaluate fine art. In Works of Game, John Sharp bridges this gap, offering a formal aesthetics of games that encompasses the commonalities and the differences between games and art. Sharp describes three communities of practice...

  3. Design Games to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we argue that there is a need for digital games that could be easy to alter by young learners. Unfortunately it was found that digital games do not enable children to express their creativity at full, in contrast with low-fidelity prototypes and non-digital toys (such as card or table...... top games). Therefore, we propose here a middle ground between digital and traditional table top games, so to grant children more freedom to express themselves, articulate their understanding and difficulties individually or socially; this approach is an alternative to the current trend of associating...... programming with digital creativity. In our preliminary study we transposed a digital game into a card game and observed students while shifting between playing and design thinking. Results from this study suggest that the notion of altering a digital game through a card-based transposition of the same game...

  4. Game Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits; Kingdom, United; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2310

    2010-01-01

    In this Information system age many organizations consider information system as their weapon to compete or gain competitive advantage or give the best services for non profit organizations. Game Information System as combining Information System and game is breakthrough to achieve organizations’ performance. The Game Information System will run the Information System with game and how game can be implemented to run the Information System. Game is not only for fun and entertainment, but will be a challenge to combine fun and entertainment with Information System. The Challenge to run the information system with entertainment, deliver the entertainment with information system all at once. Game information system can be implemented in many sectors as like the information system itself but in difference’s view. A view of game which people can joy and happy and do their transaction as a fun things.

  5. Gaias Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Schrape

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available James Lovelock’s vision of Earth as a living cybernetic system is popular again. The surprising new preacher of Gaia is Bruno Latour. He uses the concept to refer to a holistic understanding of Earth, in which mankind is situated as integral part. Gaia becomes the catalyst and fundament for his philosophical attempt to design a new believe-system in the time of ecological crisis. But the concept of Gaia is characterised by a tension between the idea of a powerful but indifferent nature and a grandiose vision of total control over it. This tension reveals itself to be deeply rooted in cybernetic thought. It is not only apparent in Lovelock’s own writing, but also in simulation programs based on the Gaia hypothesis such as the Daisyworld model and the computer game “SimEarth: The Living Planet” (1991. The article will distinguish Lovelock’s from Latour’s concept of Gaia and relate them to first- and second order cybernetics as well as to two different approaches to computer simulation: system dynamics and cellular automata.

  6. Educational Computer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Oman, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes educational games and two different technologies used to develop games. It describes the development process and use of educational games in general, also it describes what kind of educational games we know. It Presents HTML5 and Flash technologies, and some programming languages and programs that this two technologies are using. It desribes differences in the way of the development process and display of the final product in both technologies and it describes the adv...

  7. Graphical Potential Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Luis E.

    2015-01-01

    Potential games, originally introduced in the early 1990's by Lloyd Shapley, the 2012 Nobel Laureate in Economics, and his colleague Dov Monderer, are a very important class of models in game theory. They have special properties such as the existence of Nash equilibria in pure strategies. This note introduces graphical versions of potential games. Special cases of graphical potential games have already found applicability in many areas of science and engineering beyond economics, including ar...

  8. Evolutionary game design

    CERN Document Server

    Browne, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    The book describes the world's first successful experiment in fully automated board game design. Evolutionary methods were used to derive new rule sets within a custom game description language, and self-play trials used to estimate each derived game's potential to interest human players. The end result is a number of new and interesting games, one of which has proved popular and gone on to be commercially published.

  9. Educational Computer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Oman, Marko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes educational games and two different technologies used to develop games. It describes the development process and use of educational games in general, also it describes what kind of educational games we know. It Presents HTML5 and Flash technologies, and some programming languages and programs that this two technologies are using. It desribes differences in the way of the development process and display of the final product in both technologies and it describes the adv...

  10. On Market Games,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-12-01

    n-Person Games, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, June 1953. 5. Gillies, D. B., "Solutions to general non-zero-sum games," Annals of Mathematics Study...Economic Review). 22. Shubik, M., "Edgeworth market games, Annals of Mathematics Study 40 (1959), 267-278. 23. von Neumann, J., and 0. Morgenstern, Theory... of . Mathematics Study 40 (1959), 145-162; also The RAND Corporation, P-1392, June 1958. 16. , Values of Large Games - VII: A General Exchange Economv

  11. Dominant Strategies of Quantum Games on Quantum Periodic Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Giannakis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Game theory and its quantum extension apply in numerous fields that affect people’s social, political, and economical life. Physical limits imposed by the current technology used in computing architectures (e.g., circuit size give rise to the need for novel mechanisms, such as quantum inspired computation. Elements from quantum computation and mechanics combined with game-theoretic aspects of computing could open new pathways towards the future technological era. This paper associates dominant strategies of repeated quantum games with quantum automata that recognize infinite periodic inputs. As a reference, we used the PQ-PENNY quantum game where the quantum strategy outplays the choice of pure or mixed strategy with probability 1 and therefore the associated quantum automaton accepts with probability 1. We also propose a novel game played on the evolution of an automaton, where players’ actions and strategies are also associated with periodic quantum automata.

  12. Using Role-Playing Games to Teach Astronomy: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Paul

    Since 1998, I've been experimenting with the use of role-playing games to teach astronomy. Students play the role of competing teams of researchers, racing to solve some astrophysical mystery. In this article, I review what has been learned from using these games around the world over the last eight years. The most common problem encountered is a tendency for students to become overly political. An unexpected benefit of these games is the boost that they give to student self- confidence. Overall, they seem to work well with a wide range of students, ranging from ninth grade to graduate school, and students exposed to this game comment repeatedly on how the games changed their attitudes toward the scientific process.

  13. Science games and the development of scientific possible selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Margaret; Miller, Leslie; Wang, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Serious scientific games, especially those that include a virtual apprenticeship component, provide players with realistic experiences in science. This article discusses how science games can influence learning about science and the development of science-oriented possible selves through repeated practice in professional play and through social influences (e.g., peer groups). We first review the theory of possible selves (Markus and Nurius 1986) and discuss the potential of serious scientific games for influencing the development of scientific possible selves. As part of our review, we present a forensic game that inspired our work. Next we present a measure of scientific possible selves and assess its reliability and validity with a sample of middle-school students (N=374). We conclude by discussing the promise of science games and the development of scientific possible selves on both the individual and group levels as a means of inspiring STEM careers among adolescents.

  14. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  15. Video Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer;

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...

  16. Big Boss Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper big boss interval games are introduced and various characterizations are given. The structure of the core of a big boss interval game is explicitly described and plays an important role relative to interval-type bi-monotonic allocation schemes for such games. Specifically, each element

  17. Protective Behavior in Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Borm, P.E.M.; van Megen, F.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of protective equilibrium in the context of fin ite games in strategic form.It shows that for matrix games the set of protective equilibria equals the set of proper equilibria.Moreover, in the context of bima trix games, the notion of protective behaviour is used as

  18. What games do

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return of the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games achieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative st...

  19. Educational Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noemí, Peña-Miguel; Máximo, Sedano Hoyuelos

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies in society has created a need for interactive contents that can make the most of the potential that technological advances offer. Serious games as educational games are such content: they can be defined as video games or interactive applications whose main purpose is to provide not only entertainment but also…

  20. Games for Health, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    for Families of Returning Veterans Using Emotionally Responsive Avatars Ron Goldman, Kognito, Inc. Games for Shoppers : Brainstorming Play at...Nutrition Education with Online Game Experiences Sally Schmidt & Jori Clarke, Circle1Network Camp Eatapita: A Nutrition Game for Young Kids Steve

  1. Gaming Gains Respect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Will

    2012-01-01

    The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…

  2. Learning via Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    game into a trading card game, to investigate the potential of the approach: as expected, students participating to the study shifted between playing and design thinking. The card-based model introduced in this paper works full circle: it enables learners to go from digital games to cards and back...

  3. Energy parity games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent

    2012-11-02

    Energy parity games are infinite two-player turn-based games played on weighted graphs. The objective of the game combines a (qualitative) parity condition with the (quantitative) requirement that the sum of the weights (i.e., the level of energy in the game) must remain positive. Beside their own interest in the design and synthesis of resource-constrained omega-regular specifications, energy parity games provide one of the simplest model of games with combined qualitative and quantitative objectives. Our main results are as follows: (a) exponential memory is sufficient and may be necessary for winning strategies in energy parity games; (b) the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games can be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP; and (c) we give an algorithm to solve energy parity by reduction to energy games. We also show that the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games is logspace-equivalent to the problem of deciding the winner in mean-payoff parity games, which can thus be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP. As a consequence we also obtain a conceptually simple algorithm to solve mean-payoff parity games.

  4. Games, Logic and Giftedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Paul A.; Penner, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Gaming (the use of formal games for specific academic purposes) is a method for teaching formal thinking processes that is particularly suited to the gifted student. Various games can be used to develop deductive reasoning, the concept of subsets, inductive reasoning, and attention to detail. (Author/SW)

  5. GameSalad essentials

    CERN Document Server

    DeQuadros, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    If you want to create your own game, but don't know where to start, this is the book for you. Whether you've used GameSalad before, or have prior game development experience or not you are sure to learn! Imaging software experience, such as Photoshop, is good to have, but art and assets are provided in the book's resources.

  6. Learning via Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of making design of digital games accessible to primary school children and their teachers, and we argue for the need of digital games that are easy to alter by young learners. We know from previous research projects that digital games do not enable children ...

  7. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  8. Playing against the Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    The paper first outlines a differentiation of play/game-motivations that include "negative" attitudes against the play/game itself like cheating or spoilsporting. This problem is of particular importance in concern of learning games because they are not "played" for themselves--at least in the first place--but due to an…

  9. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    is the application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  10. Stay Teen: Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by You are here Home » Games and Quizzes Games and Quizzes Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 56 quiz ... Year’s Relationship Resolution Be? Shares · 6 Comments · 0 game Block Party Shares · 36 Comments · 0 quiz Should ...

  11. Video Design Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...

  12. Assessing Game Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Matthew; Harris, Shannon; Squire, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Player responses to a brief survey gauging their understanding of content after playing an educational game, "Virulent," are presented. Response accuracy was higher for picture-based questions than text-based questions, despite the presentation of both within the game. Given that games may present educational content in multiple ways…

  13. Game theory in philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals

  14. Educational Game Development Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Korkusuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on the subject shows that students spend more time on computer games than other activities such as reading book or watching TV. It is possible that this time-consuming activity can become much more effective by educator-game sector cooperation. Which type of game students prefer mostly; how the educational content can be articulated the games without diminishing the playability and enjoyableness of it; and the impact of the competition in the games on process and students are just several titles examined in the studies. This scope presents the types of computer game, qualities of educational games, and educational games designs which are recommended for developing educational games. It also presents a set of knowledge about the importance of educational games in mathematics and physic education, and some studies on this field. In the scope, some strategies, about educational game development process, are recommended educators and software developers in the sector who intend to develop educational games based on the literature.

  15. Sender-Receiver Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the

  16. The Acid Rain Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  17. Resource Allocation Games: A Priming Game for a Series of Instructional Games (The POE Game).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Layman E.

    This paper describes in detail the paper-and-pencil POE (Pelham Odd 'R Even) game, in which units of space are the allocated resources. The game is designed to provide an introduction to the rule structure common to the games of EQUATIONS, WFF 'N PROOF, and ON-SENTS & NON-SENTS. Techniques of playing POE, including goals, solutions, moves, scoring…

  18. Authoring of digital games via card games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    propose a new scenario in which trading card games help making sense and re-design computer games, to support players express themselves aesthetically and in a highly creative way. Our aim is to look for a middle ground between players becoming programmers and simply editing levels. The main contributions...

  19. Analyzing claims by game theory and claim cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cong-wei; TANG Yao-gang; LIU Zhan-hong

    2006-01-01

    In managing an international project, claims are very important. In this paper, a complete information dynamic game model is designed; with the Nash equilibrium values, the huge influence of claim cost on claim strategy is testified and the importance of claims to both sides of a contract especially the contractor is elucidated. Claim chances are also discussed with game theory. At last, from the angle of a repeated game and by comparison with Pareto optimization and Nash equilibrium values, it is concluded that the best payoff can be obtained with a honest attitude and through cooperation between companies.

  20. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  1. Shapley's value for fuzzy games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Alvarado Sibaja

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the continuation of a previous article titled "Fuzzy Games", where I defined a new type of games based on the Multilinear extensions f, of characteristic functions and most of standard theorems for cooperative games also hold for this new type of games: The fuzzy games. Now we give some other properties and the extension of the definition of Shapley¨s Value for Fuzzy Games Keywords: game theory, fuzzy sets, multiattribute decisions.

  2. Aero Fighter - 2D Gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    Designing and developing quality based computer game is always a challenging task for developers. In this paper I briefly discuss aero fighting war game based on simple 2D gaming concepts and developed in C & C++ programming languages, using old bitmapping concepts. Going into the details of the game development, I discuss the designed strategies, flow of game and implemented prototype version of game, especially for beginners of game programming.

  3. From board games to teambuilding

    OpenAIRE

    Mikoláš, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    The Outline of the development and history of a board game. The Mapping of the contemporary situation in the field of board games. Cultural, social and psychological aspects of playing board games. Defence of the stand that board games are not marginal subject beside modern sorts of amusement e.g. computer games. The Classification of modern board games with regard to their dominant cultural background and origin. The sociological survey on board games and motivation to their playing in the s...

  4. Communication in Games

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis answers the question of how, and what, people communicate to each other while playing games. The presented conclusions offer guidance to computer game developers on what means of communication they should support in games in order to provide better possibilities for interaction between people that play games together. The data for this study was collected from two sources: the first was during LinCon, an annual game convention in Linköping, and consists of four players playing a g...

  5. Clockwork game design

    CERN Document Server

    Burgun, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Only by finding and focusing on a core mechanism can you further your pursuit of elegance in strategy game design.Clockwork Game Design is the most functional and directly applicable theory for game design. It details the clockwork game design pattern, which focuses on building around fundamental functionality. You can then use this understanding to prescribe a system for building and refining your rulesets. A game can achieve clarity of purpose by starting with a strong core, then removing elements that conflict with that core while adding elements that support it.Filled with examples and exe

  6. Learn Grammar in Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟静

    2007-01-01

    Grammar learning has often been regarded as a structure based activity .Grammar games which are worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom can help learner to learn and recall a grammar material in a pleasant, entertaining way and motivate learners,promote the communicative competence and generate the fluency. In this essay, the author compares the use of games in learning grammar with some traditional techniques for grammar presentation and revision, in order to find the advantages of using games. Also the author discusses how to choose appropriate games and when to use games.

  7. The pharmacology game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batscha, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    This article gives instructions for designing a visually attractive, entertaining, faculty-led computer game for pharmacology review in a nursing education program. The game uses Microsoft PowerPoint, a presentation program that is inexpensive, easy to master, and widely available. Instructions for using Visual Basic for Applications to customize the game are included to allow tracking questions asked and the score of groups playing the game. The game can be easily adapted to material by specific nursing programs with access to PowerPoint.

  8. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...... a complexity results overview for the problem of deciding the winner in the game....

  9. The Role of Framing, Inequity and History in a Corruption Game: Some Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ananish Chaudhuri; Tirnud Paichayontvijit; Erwann Sbai

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the role of framing, inequity in initial endowments and history in shaping behavior in a corrupt transaction by extending the one-shot bribery game introduced by Cameron et al. (2009) to a repeated game setting. We find that the use of loaded language significantly reduces the incidence of bribery and increases the level of punishment. Punishment of bribery leads to reduced bribery in future. The evidence suggests that this game captures essential features of a corrupt transact...

  10. Altruism in Congestion Games

    CERN Document Server

    Hoefer, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing altruistic agents into atomic congestion games. Altruistic behavior is modeled by a trade-off between selfish and social objectives. In particular, we assume agents optimize a linear combination of personal delay of a strategy and the resulting increase in social cost. Our model can be embedded in the framework of congestion games with player-specific latency functions. Stable states are the Nash equilibria of these games, and we examine their existence and the convergence of sequential best-response dynamics. Previous work shows that for symmetric singleton games with convex delays Nash equilibria are guaranteed to exist. For concave delay functions we observe that there are games without Nash equilibria and provide a polynomial time algorithm to decide existence for symmetric singleton games with arbitrary delay functions. Our algorithm can be extended to compute best and worst Nash equilibria if they exist. For more general congestion games existence becomes NP...

  11. Another frame, another game? : Explaining framing effects in economic games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, Philipp; Jaeger, B.; Hopfensitz, A.; Lori, E.

    2016-01-01

    Small changes in the framing of games (i.e., the way in which the game situation is described to participants) can have large effects on players' choices. For example, referring to a prisoner's dilemma game as the "Community Game" as opposed to the "Wall Street Game" can double the cooperation rate

  12. A Framework for the Creation of Mobile Educational Games for Dyslexic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladjian, Juan; Richter, Daniel; Muntean, Paul; Ismailovic, Damir; Brügge, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Dyslexia is a reading disability that can, in some cases, be cured. The most frequent treatment for dyslexia consists on repeatedly performing certain word exercises. Because most dyslexic patients are young children, most applications for word training are games. The development of such games is costly and it involves different parts (developers,…

  13. Brief Report: Does Exposure to Violent Video Games Increase Moral Disengagement among Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have repeatedly shown that violent/action video games increase aggressive tendencies. The present study provides preliminary evidence that exposure to these games also affects the process of moral disengagement. High school students (N = 385) were recruited, and the impact of both recency and frequency of their exposure to the…

  14. A methodology to assess the effectiveness of serious games and infer player learning outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano-Laguna, Angel; Manero, Borja; Freire, Manuel; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2017-01-01

    Although serious games are proven educational tools in many educational domains, they lack reliable, automated and repeatable methodologies to measure their effectiveness: what do players know after playing a serious game? Did they learn with it? Literature research shows that the vast majority

  15. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space......, providing a clear game design assignment that involves the formulation of intended player experience and a description of game mechanics. The second layer focuses on game design thinking from six different aspects of game design chosen in relation to the framing of the game design assignment. The third....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  16. Quantifying Engagement of Various Games

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Shuo; ZUO, Long; Chiewvanichakorn, Rachaya; Iida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Game refinement idea is a unique theory that has been proposed based on the uncertainty of game outcome. A game refinement measure was derived from the game information progress model and has been applied in the traditional board games. The present challenge is to apply the game refinement theory in the domain of various games such as RTS(StarCraft II), MOBA(DotA), crane game and score limited sports. In conclusion, this paper makes contribution to apply game refinement theory in these new ar...

  17. Iron status markers are only transiently affected by a football game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Deli, Chariklia K; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Mohr, Magni; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, Jose C; Margonis, Konstantinos; Mavropalias, Georgios; Stampoulis, Theodoros; Giannakidou, Dimitra; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal variation of iron's status markers during a 60 h period following a football game. Thirty-four male football players were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, N = 14, participated only in measurements and training) or an experimental group (EG, N = 20, took part in a football game one week after the completion of the competitive season). All participants trained regularly for two consecutive days after the game. Training and game load was monitored with high time-resolution global positioning system (GPS) devices. Blood samples were collected and muscle damage markers and repeated sprint ability (RSA) were assessed pre-game and at 2 h, 12 h 36 h and 60 h post-game. No changes were noted in CG. Iron concentration decreased (P RSA declined (P football game.

  18. Chaos and Control of Game Model Based on Heterogeneous Expectations in Electric Power Triopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhuo Ji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic repeated game model has been established based on heterogeneous expectations in electric power triopoly. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show the complexity of this model; suppose that the producers make decisions with naive expectation and bounded rationality. The straight-line stabilization chaos control method was successfully applied to the dynamic repeated game model. The results have important practical value for the producers in the electric power oligopoly.

  19. Gaming in Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Cecil R.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels

    This article discusses how developmental and behaviorist learning theories can be used to create educational games. The Piagetian rationale for the use of games is examined and three benefits of gaming are identified: (1) games are related to intellectual, socio-emotional, and motor learning in young children, (2) gaming requires aspects of…

  20. Sex, Lies and Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

    2007-01-01

    Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

  1. Sex, Lies and Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

    2007-01-01

    Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

  2. Mathematically gifted adolescents have deficiencies in social valuation and mentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyongsik; Chung, Dongil; Jang, Bosun; Kim, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2011-04-04

    Many mathematically gifted adolescents are characterized as being indolent, underachieving and unsuccessful despite their high cognitive ability. This is often due to difficulties with social and emotional development. However, research on social and emotional interactions in gifted adolescents has been limited. The purpose of this study was to observe differences in complex social strategic behaviors between gifted and average adolescents of the same age using the repeated Ultimatum Game. Twenty-two gifted adolescents and 24 average adolescents participated in the Ultimatum Game. Two adolescents participate in the game, one as a proposer and the other as a responder. Because of its simplicity, the Ultimatum Game is an apt tool for investigating complex human emotional and cognitive decision-making in an empirical setting. We observed strategic but socially impaired offers from gifted proposers and lower acceptance rates from gifted responders, resulting in lower total earnings in the Ultimatum Game. Thus, our results indicate that mathematically gifted adolescents have deficiencies in social valuation and mentalization.

  3. Mathematically gifted adolescents have deficiencies in social valuation and mentalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyongsik Yun

    Full Text Available Many mathematically gifted adolescents are characterized as being indolent, underachieving and unsuccessful despite their high cognitive ability. This is often due to difficulties with social and emotional development. However, research on social and emotional interactions in gifted adolescents has been limited. The purpose of this study was to observe differences in complex social strategic behaviors between gifted and average adolescents of the same age using the repeated Ultimatum Game. Twenty-two gifted adolescents and 24 average adolescents participated in the Ultimatum Game. Two adolescents participate in the game, one as a proposer and the other as a responder. Because of its simplicity, the Ultimatum Game is an apt tool for investigating complex human emotional and cognitive decision-making in an empirical setting. We observed strategic but socially impaired offers from gifted proposers and lower acceptance rates from gifted responders, resulting in lower total earnings in the Ultimatum Game. Thus, our results indicate that mathematically gifted adolescents have deficiencies in social valuation and mentalization.

  4. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  5. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  6. Using Commercial Games to Design Teacher-Made Games for the Mathematics Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John W.; Lamb, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    The use of commercial games to design and construct games to drill specific mathematics skills is discussed. Game types discussed include card games and board games. Two game boards adapted from "Chutes and Ladders" and "Battleship" are provided. (CW)

  7. Game Analytics for Game User Research, Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Desurvire, Heather; Aghabeigi, Bardia;

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design......The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design...

  8. Game Analytics for Game User Research, Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy; Desurvire, Heather; Aghabeigi, Bardia

    2013-01-01

    The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design......The emerging field of game user research (GUR) investigates interaction between players and games and the surrounding context of play. Game user researchers have explored methods from, for example, human-computer interaction, psychology, interaction design...

  9. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  10. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood ... learn about human blood types! Play the Blood Typing Game About this game Embed the Blood Typing ...

  11. Play the Blood Typing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire The Blood Typing Game What happens if you get a blood transfusion ... of the game 2012 Winner of the Best Game Category by Swedish Learning Awards " The winner has ...

  12. Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined effects of a three-game, 1-week microcycle (G1, G2, G3) on recovery of performance and inflammatory responses in professional male footballers. METHODS: Players were randomized into an experimental (EXP; N = 20) and a control group (CON; N = 20). Blood was drawn and repeated...... the greatest increase. Leukocyte count, testosterone, IL-1β and IL6 responses, although altered 24 h post each game, were comparable among games. Plasma TBARS and protein carbonyls rose by ~50 % post-games with G2 eliciting the greatest increase 48 h of recovery. Reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio declined...... for 24 h post all games with G2 displaying the slowest recovery. Total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase activity increased (9-56 %) for 48 h in response to game play. CONCLUSION: In summary, post-game performance recovery and inflammatory adaptations in response to a three-game weekly...

  13. Context effects in games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Vlaev

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment exploring sequential context effects on strategy choices in one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma (PD game. Rapoport and Chammah (1965 have shown that some PDs are cooperative and lead to high cooperation rate, whereas others are uncooperative. Participants played very cooperative and very uncooperative games, against anonymous partners. The order in which these games were played affected their cooperation rate by producing perceptual contrast, which appeared only between the trials, but not between two separate sequences of games. These findings suggest that people may not have stable perceptions of absolute cooperativeness. Instead, they judge the cooperativeness of each fresh game only in relation to the previous game. The observed effects suggest that the principles underlying judgments about highly abstract magnitudes such as cooperativeness may be similar to principles governing the perception of sensory magnitudes.

  14. Robot Games for Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg

    2011-01-01

    in a number of countries is under pressure. Development of new types of technology which can secure self-sustainability and life quality for elderly has been suggested as way to diminish some of the problems caused by an ageing society. It has been shown that even a small amount of physical activity can...... spatio-temporal information about player behaviour - more specifically, I investigate three types of games each using a different control strategy. The first game is based on basic robot control which allows the robot to detect and follow a person. A field study in a rehabilitation centre and a nursing....... The robot facilitates interaction, and the study suggests that robot based games potentially can be used for training balance and orientation. The second game consists in an adaptive game algorithm which gradually adjusts the game challenge to the mobility skills of the player based on spatio...

  15. Clustering Game Behavior Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders; Sifa, Rafet

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a deluge of behavioral data from players hitting the game industry. Reasons for this data surge are many and include the introduction of new business models, technical innovations, the popularity of online games, and the increasing persistence of games. Irrespective...... of the causes, the proliferation of behavioral data poses the problem of how to derive insights therefrom. Behavioral data sets can be large, time-dependent and high-dimensional. Clustering offers a way to explore such data and to discover patterns that can reduce the overall complexity of the data. Clustering...... and other techniques for player profiling and play style analysis have, therefore, become popular in the nascent field of game analytics. However, the proper use of clustering techniques requires expertise and an understanding of games is essential to evaluate results. With this paper, we address game data...

  16. Learning via Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of making design of digital games accessible to primary school children and their teachers, and we argue for the need of digital games that are easy to alter by young learners. We know from previous research projects that digital games do not enable children...... to express their creativity at full, in contrast with low-fidelity prototypes and non-digital toys (such as card or table top games). Therefore, we propose here a novel approach that serves as a middle ground between digital and traditional table top games, and grants children more freedom to express...... themselves, articulate their understanding and difficulties both individually and socially. This approach, called card-based model for digital game design, is an alternative to the current trend of associating programming with digital creativity. A preliminary study was conducted by transposing a digital...

  17. Game theory, alive

    CERN Document Server

    Karlin, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a rigorous introduction to the mathematics of game theory without losing sight of the joy of the subject. This is done by focusing on theoretical highlights (e.g., at least six Nobel Prize winning results are developed from scratch) and by presenting exciting connections of game theory to other fields, such as computer science, economics, social choice, biology, and learning theory. Both classical topics, such as zero-sum games, and modern topics, such as sponsored search auctions, are covered. Along the way, beautiful mathematical tools used in game theory are introduced, including convexity, fixed-point theorems, and probabilistic arguments. The book is appropriate for a first course in game theory at either the undergraduate or graduate level, whether in mathematics, economics, computer science, or statistics. Game theory's influence is felt in a wide range of disciplines, and the authors deliver masterfully on the challenge of presenting both the breadth and coherence of its underlying ...

  18. Games and Creativity Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2006-01-01

    Learning games are facing a new challenge if it is to meet the educational demand for creativity training. In the article, it is argued that reflection is the key to teach creativity, and that we have to reconsider our current approach to creating educational role-playing games in order to meet...... this demand. The article presents a number of challenges to accomplishing this, as well as a number of tools for designing and using creativity facilitating games....

  19. Language, games, and minds

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Language has often been compared to the game of Chess. In this article, I claim that a productive analogy for linguistic interaction would be the Asian board game GO. I further explore common aspects of language use and creative play that we find in improvised ensemble music-making.  What is said about language and games, and language and improvised music-making is then related to a discussion of linguistic interaction as constitutive of thought and mind.

  20. Games and Creativity Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus

    2006-01-01

    Learning games are facing a new challenge if it is to meet the educational demand for creativity training. In the article, it is argued that reflection is the key to teach creativity, and that we have to reconsider our current approach to creating educational role-playing games in order to meet...... this demand. The article presents a number of challenges to accomplishing this, as well as a number of tools for designing and using creativity facilitating games....

  1. Predictive Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

  2. Impartial coloring games

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, Gabriel; Duchêne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Coloring games are combinatorial games where the players alternate painting uncolored vertices of a graph one of $k > 0$ colors. Each different ruleset specifies that game's coloring constraints. This paper investigates six impartial rulesets (five new), derived from previously-studied graph coloring schemes, including proper map coloring, oriented coloring, 2-distance coloring, weak coloring, and sequential coloring. For each, we study the outcome classes for special cases and general computational complexity. In some cases we pay special attention to the Grundy function.

  3. On productivity and game fandom

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Wirman

    2009-01-01

    As a result of its unique characteristics as a technology and a medium, a computer game engages its players with several novel forms of coproductivity, such as modding, the making of machinima videos, and the writing of game play walkthroughs. Depending on the game, genre, and playing style, the player is either expected or encouraged to create game content and game-related texts of her own. This essay discusses the productive practices surrounding computer games, proposing five dimensions of...

  4. A Narrative Theory of Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarseth, Espen

    2012-01-01

    In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?......In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?...

  5. A Narrative Theory of Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarseth, Espen

    2012-01-01

    In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?......In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?...

  6. Minority Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2005-02-25

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the

  7. Healthy Gaming - Video Game Design to promote Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox, E; Fernandez-Luque, L; Tøllefsen, T

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion.

  8. Healthy Gaming – Video Game Design to promote Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865

  9. Game, Player, Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Miguel Angel Sicart

    2005-01-01

    turn their users into blood thirsty zombies with a computer game learnt ability of aiming with deadly precision. The goal of this paper is to pay attention to the ethical nature of computer games, in order to understand better the ways we can evaluate their morality in western cultures providing...... a framework to understand some of these concerns. This paper poses questions about the ontology of games and their ethical meaning, in an attempt to give ethical theory a word in the analysis of computer games....

  10. Digital Experience: Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hese days one of the buzzwords in computer game industry and research is ‘Serious Games’ – games where the actions of the player are not limited to the virtual world but are somehow related to the real world. Computer games can be strong environments for learning and training skills in the real...... world. Computer games can also be persuasive – they can be used for advertising (‘adver-gaming’) and induce the players to buy a particular product in the real world or they can propagate a particular political viewpoint or a critique of the real world. The area of ‘serious gaming’ is vast and varied....

  11. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  12. Validation of Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka van der Kooij

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of games for behavioral change has seen a surge in popularity but evidence on the efficacy of these games is contradictory. Anecdotal findings seem to confirm their motivational value whereas most quantitative findings from randomized controlled trials (RCT are negative or difficult to interpret. One cause for the contradictory evidence could be that the standard RCT validation methods are not sensitive to serious games’ effects. To be able to adapt validation methods to the properties of serious games we need a framework that can connect properties of serious game design to the factors that influence the quality of quantitative research outcomes. The Persuasive Game Design model [1] is particularly suitable for this aim as it encompasses the full circle from game design to behavioral change effects on the user. We therefore use this model to connect game design features, such as the gamification method and the intended transfer effect, to factors that determine the conclusion validity of an RCT. In this paper we will apply this model to develop guidelines for setting up validation methods for serious games. This way, we offer game designers and researchers handles on how to develop tailor-made validation methods.

  13. Handbook of game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Petyon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to understand and predict behavior in strategic situations, in which an individual's success in making choices depends on the choices of others, has been the domain of game theory since the 1950s. Developing the theories at the heart of game theory has resulted in 8 Nobel Prizes and insights that researchers in many fields continue to develop. In Volume 4, top scholars synthesize and analyze mainstream scholarship on games and economic behavior, providing an updated account of developments in game theory since the 2002 publication of Volume 3, which only covers work through the mi

  14. Game user experience evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhaupt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating interactive systems for their user experience (UX) is a standard approach in industry and research today. This book explores the areas of game design and development and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as ways to understand the various contributing aspects of the overall gaming experience. Fully updated, extended and revised this book is based upon the original publication Evaluating User Experience in Games, and provides updated methods and approaches ranging from user- orientated methods to game specific approaches. New and emerging methods and areas explored include physiologi

  15. Pro Android games

    CERN Document Server

    Nardone, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Combining actionable, real-world source code with graphics, Pro Android Games, Third Edition shows you how to build more sophisticated and addictive Android game apps with minimum effort. Harness the power of the latest Android 5.0 SDK to bring countless legendary, action-packed PC games to the Android platform. With actionable real-world source code, this one of a kind book shows you how to build more sophisticated and addictive Android game apps, by leveraging the power of the recent advancements found in the new Android 5.0 software development kit as well as those you've counted on in e

  16. Anger, fear and games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Torill

    2016-01-01

    The event known as #GamerGate (GG) emphasized the need to take the study of game culture seriously and pursue it across several platforms. It demonstrated how seemingly ephemeral media created echo chambers of anger, and how the outbursts of hypermasculine aggression exemplified by hooligans also...... can connect to games and play. Starting from how GG gained popular attention, this article outlines and discusses the nature of GG, the relation to the victims, the sense of victimization among the participants, and how it may have been provoked by the long-standing, general disregard of games...... the image of game culture as mainly a culture of isolated consumption...

  17. Digital Experience: Serious Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hese days one of the buzzwords in computer game industry and research is ‘Serious Games’ – games where the actions of the player are not limited to the virtual world but are somehow related to the real world. Computer games can be strong environments for learning and training skills in the real...... world. Computer games can also be persuasive – they can be used for advertising (‘adver-gaming’) and induce the players to buy a particular product in the real world or they can propagate a particular political viewpoint or a critique of the real world. The area of ‘serious gaming’ is vast and varied....

  18. Design of Game Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide......-and-seek, even though this game is still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seems to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness” in his classic work “Homo Ludens” (Huizinga 1938, translated into English 1955). This has since been developed...... into the concept of the “magic circle” by Salen and Zimmerman (2003), as an understanding of playing games as a kind of alternate reality. When a person enters the magic circle of a game, the player suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply...

  19. Challenges of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fernández-Manjón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although educational games have revealed to be a very effective focus in diverse situations, their use in education is still very limited. In this paper we analyse the main challenges concerning educational games that, from our perspective, have to be approached so that the use of this kind of games can be widespread. These challenges are classified in three main dimensions: socio-cultural, educational and technological. Once the challenges are identified, some possible measures are suggested to address or reduce these problems so that the use of educational games may be widespread.

  20. Archetypal Game Recommender Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, C.; Drachen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    feedback are presented: factor- and neighborhood-oriented models. These form the rst application of rec- ommender systems to digital games. Both models are tested on a dataset of 500,000 users of the game distribution platform Steam, covering game ownership and playtime data across more than 3000 games....... Compared to four other recommender models (nearest neighbor, two popularity mod- els, random baseline), the archetype based models provide the highest recall rates showing that Archetypal Analysis can be successfully applied for Top-L recommendation purposes...

  1. Games, puzzles, and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Hearn, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    The authors show that there are underlying mathematical reasons for why games and puzzles are challenging (and perhaps why they are so much fun). They also show that games and puzzles can serve as powerful models of computation-quite different from the usual models of automata and circuits-offering a new way of thinking about computation. The appendices provide a substantial survey of all known results in the field of game complexity, serving as a reference guide for readers interested in the computational complexity of particular games, or interested in open problems about such complexities.

  2. Gaming practices in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates digital game play (gaming) as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72), in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007) functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming. This mult......This article investigates digital game play (gaming) as a specific media field (Bourdieu, 1984, p. 72), in which especially gaming capital (Consalvo, 2007) functions as a theoretical lens. We aim to analyse the specific practices that constitute and are constituted in and around gaming...

  3. Combinatorial Game Theory, Well-Tempered Scoring Games, and a Knot Game

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Will

    2011-01-01

    We begin by reviewing and proving the basic facts of combinatorial game theory. We then consider scoring games (also known as Milnor games or positional games), focusing on the "fixed-length" games for which all sequences of play terminate after the same number of moves. The theory of fixed-length scoring games is shown to have properties similar to the theory of loopy combinatorial games, with operations similar to onsides and offsides. We give a complete description of the structure of fixed-length scoring games in terms of the class of short partizan games. We also consider fixed-length scoring games taking values in the two-element boolean algebra, and classify these games up to indistinguishability. We then apply these results to analyze some positions in the knotting-unknotting game of Pechenik, Townsend, Henrich, MacNaughton, and Silversmith.

  4. Game Factors and Game-Based Learning Design Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ru Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to design useful digital game-based learning is a topic worthy of discussion. Past research focused on specific game genres design, but it is difficult to use when the target game genre differs from the default genres used in the research. This study presents macrodesign concepts that elucidates 11 crucial game-design factors, including game goals, game mechanism, game fantasy, game value, interaction, freedom, narrative, sensation, challenges, sociality, and mystery. We clearly define each factor and analyze the relationships among the 11 factors to construct a game-based learning design model. Two application examples are analyzed to verify the usability of the model and the performance of these factors. It can assist educational game designers in developing interesting games.

  5. In-class Simulations of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Developed a simple computer program for the in-class simulation of the repeated prisoner's dilemma game with student-designed strategies. Describes the basic features of the software. Presents two examples using the program to teach the problems of cooperation among profit-maximizing agents. (JEH)

  6. Coordination in a 3-player network formation game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Dogan

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the coordination behaviour in a finitely repeated network formation game between one seller and two buyers. If a competitive network is formed the seller gets the entire surplus. Buyers can prevent the competitive network from being formed by anti-coordinating their lin

  7. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  8. Foundations of game theory noncooperative games

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob’ev, Nicolai N

    1994-01-01

    The English edition differs only slightly from the Russian original. The main struc­ tural difference is that all the material on the theory of finite noncooperative games has been collected in Chapter 2, with renumbering of the material of the remain­ ing chapters. New sections have been added in this chapter: devoted to general questions of equilibrium theory in nondegenerate games, subsections 3.9-3.17, by N.N. Vorob'ev, Jr.; and § 4, by A.G. Chernyakov; and § 5, by N.N. Vorob'ev, Jr., on the computational complexity of the process of finding equilibrium points in finite games. It should also be mentioned that subsections 3.12-3.14 in Chapter 1 were written by E.B. Yanovskaya especially for the Russian edition. The author regrets that the present edition does not reflect the important game-theoretical achievements presented in the splendid monographs by E. van Damme (on the refinement of equilibrium principles for finite games), as well as those by J.e. Harsanyi and R. Selten, and by W. Giith and B. Ka...

  9. Categorizing Video Game Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how they ...

  10. Waisda?: video labeling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, M. van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the sa

  11. Games and childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  12. Supermodular NTU-games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talman, Dolf; Koshevoy, G.A.; Suzuki, Takamasa

    2016-01-01

    An NTU-game consists of payoff sets for every coalition of players. We introduce the concept of supermodularity of a game to guarantee that all its marginal vectors are in the core. As solution we propose a set of payoff vectors that is determined by the average of all marginal vectors, the Shapley

  13. Game hoarding in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos; Sørensen, Maja Stoholm

    2013-01-01

    controlling for differences in origin of law, investor rights, corruption and Euro adoption, neither a game-hoarding effect nor an only-game-in-town effect is strongly supported in the European case. The results are important in understanding the concept of local bias in a cross-country framework....

  14. Gaming and Gamification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…

  15. Games Uniforms Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda

    2008-01-01

    The uniforms for Beijing Olympics’ workers, technical staff and volunteers have been unveiled to mark the 200-day countdown to the Games. The uniforms feature the key element of the clouds of promise and will be in three colors:red for Beijing Olympic Games Committee staff, blue

  16. Law-Abiding Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  17. Transfer of gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is provided of the activities and results op GATE WP 4.4 entiteld Transfer of Gaming (ToG). This work package has produced the principles and methodologies concerning optimalization and measurement of transfer of training in serious gaming. In addition, true transfer of job-specific comp

  18. Gaming in Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…

  19. Gaming and Gamification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…

  20. Gaming and "Functional Democracy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, F. L.

    An example of the way gaming can be used to bring attention to, and improve skills in, making democracy function better is presented. The game is played by seven people seated around two triangular playing boards; it involves making choices among least, intermediate, and most preferred alternatives, keeping the preferences of the majority in…

  1. Games People Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    VerBruggen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Today's video games aren't even a little bit like the ones that came out a few decades ago. Not only has the underlying technology dramatically improved, but the medium has matured remarkably in the years since "Pong" and "Space Invaders." ruled the arcades. The artistic promise of video games has yet to be fulfilled. The current state of the…

  2. Mixed Reality Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Jean-Charles; Carron, Thibault; Pernelle, Philippe; Talbot, Stéphane; Houzet, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The authors' research work deals with the development of new game-based learning (gbl) environments. They think that the way of acquiring knowledge during a learning session is similar to following an adventure in a role-playing game and they apply the metaphor of exploring a virtual world, where each student embarks on a quest in order to collect…

  3. Mean field games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2014-01-06

    In this talk we will report on new results concerning the existence of smooth solutions for time dependent mean-field games. This new result is established through a combination of various tools including several a-priori estimates for time-dependent mean-field games combined with new techniques for the regularity of Hamilton-Jacobi equations.

  4. Games for science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.; Keulemans, M.

    2006-01-01

    Higher education is cautiously exploring a new educational tool: computer games. Educational computer games were recently the focus of a symposium held in Delft. Will we soon be giving and following courses, lectures and trainings in a virtual 3D world, instead of in lecture halls?

  5. Unity multiplayer games

    CERN Document Server

    Stagner, Alan

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow, tutorial manner that uses the learning-by-example approach.If you are a developer who wants to start making multiplayer games with the Unity game engine, this book is for you. This book assumes you have some basic experience with programming. No prior knowledge of the Unity IDE is required.

  6. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  7. Games and Quantity implicatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we seek to account for scalar implicatures and Horn's division of pragmatic labor in game-theoretical terms by making use mainly of refinements of the standard solution concept of signaling games. Scalar implicatures are accounted for in terms of Farrell's (1993) notion of a 'neologism

  8. Game programming gems

    CERN Document Server

    DeLoura, Mark

    2000-01-01

    For the countless tasks involved in creating a game engine there are an equal number of possible solutions. But instead of spending hours and hours trying to develop your own answers, now you can find out how the pros do it! Game Programming Gems is a hands-on, comprehensive resource packed with a variety of game programming algorithms written by experts from the game industry and edited by Mark DeLoura, former software engineering lead for Nintendo of America, Inc. and now the newly appointed editor-in-chief of Game Developer magazine. From animation and artificial intelligence to Z-buffering, lighting calculations, weather effects, curved surfaces, mutliple layer Internet gaming, to music and sound effects, all of the major techniques needed to develop a competitive game engine are covered. Game Programming Gems is written in a style accessible to individuals with a range of expertise levels. All of the source code for each algorithm is included and can be used by advanced programmers immediately. For aspir...

  9. The Work Ethic Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kate

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development of "The Work Ethic Game" that focuses on integrity in the workplace. Explains that the game is divided into three categories: legal, judgment, and policy issues. Discusses different personality types in the typical employee population. Includes possibilities for use at different education levels. (DK)

  10. Mixed Reality Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Jean-Charles; Carron, Thibault; Pernelle, Philippe; Talbot, Stéphane; Houzet, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The authors' research work deals with the development of new game-based learning (gbl) environments. They think that the way of acquiring knowledge during a learning session is similar to following an adventure in a role-playing game and they apply the metaphor of exploring a virtual world, where each student embarks on a quest in order to collect…

  11. Social Interactions and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular due to great technological improvements in recent years. They have been increasingly transformed from co-located experiences into multi-played, socially oriented platforms (Herodotou, 2009). Multi-User Online Games provide the opportunity to create a social environment for friendships and strengthen the…

  12. The Guppy Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…

  13. Game Learning Analytics: Learning Analytics for Serious Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freire, Manuel; Serrano-Laguna, Angel; Manero, Borja; Martinez-Ortiz, Ivan; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2016-01-01

    Video games have become one of the largest entertainment industries, and their power to capture the attention of players worldwide soon prompted the idea of using games to improve education. However, these educational games, commonly referred to as serious games, face different challenges when

  14. Transfer of Gaming : Transfer of training in serious gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.; Helsdingen, A.S.; Sluimer, R.R.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Kappé, B.

    2011-01-01

    Serious gaming for learning purposes exploits characteristics of play to help people learn by using computer games. The combination of play, learning and simulation may explain the popularity of the concept of serious gaming. Furthermore, PC based games may have great learning value because they off

  15. Games Graffiti: Language Arts Games to Make for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenberry, Mary Anne; And Others

    This document contains materials for games which are intended to give teachers and parents of young children ideas for making learning games which will provide experiences appropriate to their interests and abilities. While the games may be used by children in small groups, they were designed primarily for the child to explore alone. The games are…

  16. Transfer of Gaming : Transfer of training in serious gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.; Helsdingen, A.S.; Sluimer, R.R.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Kappé, B.

    2011-01-01

    Serious gaming for learning purposes exploits characteristics of play to help people learn by using computer games. The combination of play, learning and simulation may explain the popularity of the concept of serious gaming. Furthermore, PC based games may have great learning value because they

  17. Game Learning Analytics: Learning Analytics for Serious Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freire, Manuel; Serrano-Laguna, Angel; Manero, Borja; Martinez-Ortiz, Ivan; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2016-01-01

    Video games have become one of the largest entertainment industries, and their power to capture the attention of players worldwide soon prompted the idea of using games to improve education. However, these educational games, commonly referred to as serious games, face different challenges when broug

  18. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  19. Emergence of cooperation in public goods games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun; Ihara, Yasuo

    2009-04-07

    Evolution of cooperation has been a major issue in evolutionary biology. Cooperation is observed not only in dyadic interactions, but also in social interactions involving more than two individuals. It has been argued that direct reciprocity cannot explain the emergence of cooperation in large groups because the basin of attraction for the 'cooperative' equilibrium state shrinks rapidly as the group size increases. However, this argument is based on the analysis of models that consider the deterministic process. More recently, stochastic models of two-player games have been developed and the conditions for natural selection to favour the emergence of cooperation in finite populations have been specified. These conditions have been given as a mathematically simple expression, which is called the one-third law. In this paper, we investigate a stochastic model of n-player games and show that natural selection can favour a reciprocator replacing a population of defectors in the n-player repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We also derive a generalized version of the one-third law (the {2/[n(n+1)]}1/(n-1) law). Additionally, contrary to previous studies, the model suggests that the evolution of cooperation in public goods game can be facilitated by larger group size under certain conditions.

  20. Game theory and experimental games the study of strategic interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Colman, Andrew M

    1982-01-01

    Game Theory and Experimental Games: The Study of Strategic Interaction is a critical survey of the essential ideas of game theory and the findings of empirical research on strategic interaction. Some experiments using lifelike simulations of familiar kinds of strategic interactions are presented, and applications of game theory to the study of voting, the theory of evolution, and moral philosophy are discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins with an informal definition of game theory and an outline of the types of social situations to which it applies. Games of skill, games of cha

  1. Taking Design Games Seriously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Agger; Brandt, Eva; Mattelmäki, Tuuli;

    2014-01-01

    Using design games at Participatory Design (PD) events is well acknowledged as a fruitful way of staging participation. As PD researchers, we have many such experiences, and we have argued that design games connect participants and promote equalizing power relations. However, in this paper, we...... will (self) critically re-connect and reflect on how people (humans) and materials (non-humans) continually participate and intertwine in various power relations in design game situations. The analysis is of detailed situated actions with one of our recent games, UrbanTransition. Core concepts mainly from...... Bruno Latour’s work on Actor-Network-Theory are applied. The aim is to take design games seriously by e.g. exploring how assemblages of humans and non-humans are intertwined in tacitly-but-tactically staging participation, and opening up for or hindering negotiations and decision-making, thus starting...

  2. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...... for finding optimal strategies in such games. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  3. Digital gaming expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    , to have access to the dynamic power systems in and around digital games theorized as ‘gaming capital’ (Consalvo, 2007) and who cannot? I argue, in other words, for an understanding of digital gaming competence as a reflection, negotiation, and production of gendered power relations, performed in ways......In a digitally saturated environment digital media users of all kinds, engaged in different areas of activity, are increasingly categorized in terms of their ability to appropriate and use digital media – they are regarded as non-users, experts, natives, or literates for instance. Within...... communication and game studies there are multiple understandings of how digital expertise is expressed and performed, and subsequently how these expressions and performances can be valued, understood and theorized within the research community. Among other things expertise with and within digital games has...

  4. Games in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a categorisation of science game formats in relation to the educational possibilities or limitations they offer in science education. This includes discussion of new types of science game formats and gamification of science. Teaching with the use of games and simulations...... or representations of knowledge in digital and physical science environments, Use and design of new types of models or tools for scientific inquiry and innovation education....... in science education dates back to the 1970s and early 80s were the potentials of games and simulations was discussed extensively as the new teaching tool ( Ellington et al. , 1981). In the early 90s the first ITC -based games for exploration of science and technical subjects was developed (Egenfeldt...

  5. An Adaptive Robot Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal...... is to improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...... to the behavior of the interacting person. This paper presents a simple ball game between a single player and a mobile robot platform. The algorithm has been validated using simulation and real world experiments....

  6. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...... for finding optimal strategies in such games. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  7. Inviting Grief into Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrer, Sabine; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how designers might initiate a dialogue with underrepresented groups, infusing design with individuals’ personal stories and imaginations. It does so alongside the example of Jocoi, a game aiming at mediating the experience of loss and grief over a dead baby. Apart from...... of four informants then served as an initial orientation point marking out the direction of our ensuing game design process. Working out central themes, needs and concerns conveyed by the group, the aim was to addresses some of their emotional challenges appropriately through a game. The paper first...... presents a rationale for the chosen method of collaboration. Most importantly, we embrace a paradigmatic shift from game design as the production of meaning and emotion towards game design as facilitation or mediation. The second section will zoom in to the concrete tools and stages we used in our our...

  8. Avatars in Analytical Gaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

    2009-08-29

    This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.

  9. Defining and Leveraging Game Qualities for Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael W.; Shen, Yuzhong

    2011-01-01

    Serious games can and should leverage the unique qualities of video games to effectively deliver educational experiences for the learners. However, leveraging these qualities is incumbent upon understanding what these unique 'game' qualities are , and how they can facilitate the learning process. This paper presents an examination of the meaning of the term 'game' . as it applies to both serious games and digital entertainment games. Through the examination of counter examples, we derive three game characteristics; games are self contained, provide a variety of meaningful choices, and are intrinsically compelling. We also discuss the theoretical educational foundations which support the application of these 'game qualities' to educational endeavors. This paper concludes with a presentation of results achieved through the application of these qualities and the applicable educational theories to teach learners about the periodic table of elements via a serious game developed by the authors.

  10. The effect of traditional games and ordinary games on manipulative skills development in educable mental retarded boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid reza Gheiji

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : Manipulative skills are one of the fundamental skills subtitles which is used in most of daily and sports activities. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of traditional games and ordinary games on manipulative skills development in 8-10 years old Gorgan boys with educable mental retardation. Materials and Methods: Personal information was evaluated by the researcher made questionnaire and children's intelligence by the Wechsler test. Also, manipulative skills were assessed by the Test of Gross Motor Development- edition 2 (TGMD-2 in pre-test. Then, participants were distributed into two groups traditional games (n=15 and ordinary games (n=15 randomly. Post-test of TGMD-2 were done from two groups after 8 weeks training (3 sessions per week and 45 min for each session. Data analyzes was done by independent t-test, paired t-test and variance analysis with repeated measurement in a significant rate (α= 0.05. Results: The two groups showed significant improvements in manipulation skills, but the improvement of traditional games group was significantly more than ordinary games group in all of measured manipulating skills (throwing, catching, kicking, striking, dribbling , rolling a ball (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be said, selected traditional games could be an appropriate program for the manipulative skills development of children.

  11. Pengembangan Software Game Menggunakan RPG Maker VX

    OpenAIRE

    Beny

    2010-01-01

    Dalam Tugas Akhir ini dibahas mengenai perancangan game Role Playing Game (RPG) menggunakan RPG Maker VX. Software RPG Maker VX ini digunakan untuk mempermudah dalam pembuatan perangkat lunak game atau software game. Objektif utama adalah mengembangkan permainan atau game menggunakan RPG Maker VX sehingga menghasilkan perangkat lunak game atau software game yang berbasis RPG. 072406137

  12. Pengembangan Software Game Menggunakan RPG Maker VX

    OpenAIRE

    Beny

    2010-01-01

    Dalam Tugas Akhir ini dibahas mengenai perancangan game Role Playing Game (RPG) menggunakan RPG Maker VX. Software RPG Maker VX ini digunakan untuk mempermudah dalam pembuatan perangkat lunak game atau software game. Objektif utama adalah mengembangkan permainan atau game menggunakan RPG Maker VX sehingga menghasilkan perangkat lunak game atau software game yang berbasis RPG. 072406137

  13. Girls Creating Games: Challenging Existing Assumptions about Game Content

    OpenAIRE

    Denner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In a reinforcing cycle, few females create games, and fewer girls than boys play games. According to the Interactive Digital Software Association’s 2003 survey, 72% of all video game players are male. This is unfortunate, as early game playing not only fosters specific cognitive and motor skills (Subrahmanyam, Kraut, Greenfield, & Gross, 2000), it is also a gateway to shaping the future of technology. How can we better attract, engage, and sustain the interests of girls in gaming? One str...

  14. Comparison between Famous Game Engines and Eminent Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerna Mishra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays game engines are imperative for building 3D applications and games. This is for the reason that the engines appreciably reduce resources for employing obligatory but intricate utilities. This paper elucidates about a game engine, popular games developed by these engines and its foremost elements. It portrays a number of special kinds of contemporary game developed by engines in the way of their aspects, procedure and deliberates their stipulations with comparison.

  15. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  16. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  17. Non-Serious Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Serious games have been shown to promote behavioural change and impart skills to players, and non-serious games have proven to have numerous benefits. This paper argues that non-serious digital games played in a "clan" or online community setting can lead to similar real world benefits to serious games. This paper reports the outcomes…

  18. Teaching Game Sense in Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane

    2012-01-01

    "Game sense" is a sport-specific iteration of the teaching games for understanding model, designed to balance physical development of motor skill and fitness with the development of game understanding. Game sense can foster a shared vision for sport learning that bridges school physical education and community sport. This article explains how to…

  19. Situating Ethics in Games Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…

  20. Stages for Children Inventing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers practical advice for teachers interested in using Inventing Games (IG) as a way to facilitate learning about game structures, rules, and the principles of fair play that they can apply not only to game play, but to everyday life as members of a democratically organized society. Inventing Games gives students the opportunity to…

  1. Mathematical game theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazalov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    An authoritative and quantitative approach to modern game theory with applications from diverse areas including economics, political science, military science, and finance. Explores areas which are not covered in current game theory texts, including a thorough examination of zero-sum game.Provides introductory material to game theory, including bargaining, parlour games, sport, networking games and dynamic games.Explores Bargaining models, discussing new result such as resource distributions, buyer-seller instructions and reputation in bargaining models.Theoretical results are presented along

  2. Names for Games: Locating 2 × 2 Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Randolph Bruns

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prisoner’s Dilemma, Chicken, Stag Hunts, and other two-person two-move (2 × 2 models of strategic situations have played a central role in the development of game theory. The Robinson–Goforth topology of payoff swaps reveals a natural order in the payoff space of 2 × 2 games, visualized in their four-layer “periodic table” format that elegantly organizes the diversity of 2 × 2 games, showing relationships and potential transformations between neighboring games. This article presents additional visualizations of the topology, and a naming system for locating all 2 × 2 games as combinations of game payoff patterns from the symmetric ordinal 2 × 2 games. The symmetric ordinal games act as coordinates locating games in maps of the payoff space of 2 × 2 games, including not only asymmetric ordinal games and the complete set of games with ties, but also ordinal and normalized equivalents of all games with ratio or real-value payoffs. An efficient nomenclature can contribute to a systematic understanding of the diversity of elementary social situations; clarify relationships between social dilemmas and other joint preference structures; identify interesting games; show potential solutions available through transforming incentives; catalog the variety of models of 2 × 2 strategic situations available for experimentation, simulation, and analysis; and facilitate cumulative and comparative research in game theory.

  3. Stuttering Equivalence for Parity Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cranen, Sjoerd; Willemse, Tim A C

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering equivalence. While, at the outset, it might not be clear that this strategy should pay off, our experiments using typical verification problems illustrate that stuttering equivalence speeds up solving parity games in many cases.

  4. Formal description of board games

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of thesis was to design a mathematical formalism that allows describing and exploring the properties of board games. The work benefits from the findings of automata theory and logic programming. First part of thesis deals with finite automata and their possible applications for the needs of board games. The result is an extension of finite-state automaton covering the specifics of board games called game automaton. Board games are a complex domain hight level tools should be used. Suc...

  5. Leadership development through online gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Nuangjumnonga, Tinnawat; Mitomo, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between leadership development and multiplayer online battle arena games (MOBA) are examined using two popular games of this genre: Defense of The Ancients (DOTA) and Heroes of Newerth (HON). Similar existing research notably includes IBM's Leadership in Games and at Work: Implication for the Enterprise of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games published in 2007, positively concluding the contribution online games have towards leadership development. Close-ended surv...

  6. Mobile marketing for mobile games

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Giang

    2016-01-01

    Highly developed mobile technology and devices enable the rise of mobile game industry and mobile marketing. Hence mobile marketing for mobile game is an essential key for a mobile game success. Even though there are many articles on marketing for mobile games, there is a need of highly understanding mobile marketing strategies, how to launch a mobile campaign for a mobile game. Besides that, it is essential to understand the relationship between mobile advertising and users behaviours. There...

  7. Exploring Game Experiences and Game Leadership in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, YeiBeech; Ryu, SeoungHo

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the in-game experiences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) players focusing on game leadership and offline leadership. MMORPGs have enormous potential to provide gameplayers with rich social experiences through various interactions along with social activities such as joining a game community, team play…

  8. Games and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazem, Shaimaa; Webster, Mary; Holmes, Wayne; Wolf, Motje

    2015-01-01

    Here we review 18 articles that describe the design and evaluation of 1 or more games for diabetes from technical, methodological, and theoretical perspectives. We undertook searches covering the period 2010 to May 2015 in the ACM, IEEE, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, and Google Scholar online databases using the keywords “children,” “computer games,” “diabetes,” “games,” “type 1,” and “type 2” in various Boolean combinations. The review sets out to establish, for future research, an understanding of the current landscape of digital games designed for children with diabetes. We briefly explored the use and impact of well-established learning theories in such games. The most frequently mentioned theoretical frameworks were social cognitive theory and social constructivism. Due to the limitations of the reported evaluation methodologies, little evidence was found to support the strong promise of games for diabetes. Furthermore, we could not establish a relation between design features and the game outcomes. We argue that an in-depth discussion about the extent to which learning theories could and should be manifested in the design decisions is required. PMID:26337753

  9. Asymmetric Evolutionary Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex McAvoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory is a powerful framework for studying evolution in populations of interacting individuals. A common assumption in evolutionary game theory is that interactions are symmetric, which means that the players are distinguished by only their strategies. In nature, however, the microscopic interactions between players are nearly always asymmetric due to environmental effects, differing baseline characteristics, and other possible sources of heterogeneity. To model these phenomena, we introduce into evolutionary game theory two broad classes of asymmetric interactions: ecological and genotypic. Ecological asymmetry results from variation in the environments of the players, while genotypic asymmetry is a consequence of the players having differing baseline genotypes. We develop a theory of these forms of asymmetry for games in structured populations and use the classical social dilemmas, the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game, for illustrations. Interestingly, asymmetric games reveal essential differences between models of genetic evolution based on reproduction and models of cultural evolution based on imitation that are not apparent in symmetric games.

  10. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS GAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.Q. Carvalho

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical explanation of biological concepts, associated with the use of teaching games andmodels, intensify the comprehension and increase students interest, stimulating them to participateactively on the teaching-learning process. The sta of dissemination from Centro de BiotecnologiaMolecular Estrutural (CBME, in partnership with the Centro de Divulgac~ao Cientca e Cultural(CDCC, presents, in this work, a new educational resource denoted: Protein Synthesis Game. Theapproach of the game involves the cytological aspects of protein synthesis, directed to high schoolstudents. Students are presented to day-by-day facts related to the function of a given protein in thehuman body. Such task leads players to the goal of solving out a problem through synthesizing aspecied protein. The game comprises: (1 a board illustrated with the transversal section of animalcell, with its main structures and organelles and sequences of hypothetical genes; (2 cards with thedescription of steps and other structures required for protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells; (3 piecesrepresenting nucleotides, polynucleotides, ribosome, amino acids, and polypeptide chains. In order toplay the game, students take cards that sequentially permit them to acquire the necessary pieces forproduction of the protein described in each objective. Players must move the pieces on the board andsimulate the steps of protein synthesis. The dynamic of the game allows students to easily comprehendprocesses of transcription and translation. This game was presented to dierent groups of high schoolteachers and students. Their judgments have been heard and indicated points to be improved, whichhelped us with the game development. Furthermore, the opinions colleted were always favorable forthe application of this game as a teaching resource in classrooms.

  11. Treasure Hunt - a serious game to support psychotherapeutic treatment of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    Computer and video games for children have gained negative publicity due to reported associations between intensive gaming and aggressive behaviour, school failure, and overweight. While most studies centre upon negative consequences of video games, their innovative potentials tend to be overlooked. One field for the innovative use of computer games is child psychotherapy. By including therapeutic concepts into a video game, children can be offered attractive electronic homework assignments that enable them to rehearse and repeat basic psychoeducational concepts they have learned during therapy sessions. Moreover, therapeutic games can help therapists to structure therapy sessions. Psychotherapeutic computer games translated into foreign languages could form a useful tool in the treatment of migrant children. 'Treasure Hunt' is the first serious game based on principles of cognitive behaviour modification. It is developed for eight to twelve year old children who are in cognitive-behavioural treatment for various disorders. Reactions of children and therapists to experimental versions of the game are positive. Serious games might prove a useful tool to support psychotherapeutic treatment of children.

  12. The Game Bag: Instructional Games Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    Provided in the manual are instructions for the adaptation, utilization, and creation of multi-purpose gameboards for use with handicapped children. Games are seen to facilitate learning through the structuring of experience and the opportunity to learn the consequences of actions without actually suffering these consequences. Explained are the…

  13. Lean Games Approaches – Simulation Games and Digital Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vaz de Carvalho

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive and globalized world, companies need effective training methodologies and tools for their employees. However, selecting the most suitable is not an easy task. It depends on the requirements of the target group (namely time restrictions, on the specificities of the contents, etc. This is typically the case for training in Lean, the waste elimination manufacturing philosophy. This paper presents and compares two different approaches to lean training methodologies and tools: a simulation game based on a single realistic manufacturing platform, involving production and assembly operations that promotes learning by playing; and a digital game that helps understand lean tools. This paper shows that both tools have advantages in terms of trainee motivation and knowledge acquisition. Furthermore, they can be used in a complementary way, reinforcing the acquired knowledge.

  14. Game engine architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Jason

    2014-01-01

    ""… this book is the best of its kind, and you're lucky to have found it. It covers the huge field of game engine architecture in a succinct, clear way, and expertly balances the breadth and depth of its coverage, offering enough detail that even a beginner can easily understand the concepts it presents. The author, Jason Gregory, is not only a world expert in his field; he's a working programmer with production-quality knowledge and many shipped game projects under his belt. … Jason is also an experienced educator who has taught in the top-ranked university game program in North America. …

  15. Game Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, E N

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental introduction to modern game theory from a mathematical viewpoint. Game theory arises in almost every fact of human and inhuman interaction since oftentimes during these communications objectives are opposed or cooperation is viewed as an option. From economics and finance to biology and computer science, researchers and practitioners are often put in complex decision-making scenarios, whether they are interacting with each other or working with evolving technology and artificial intelligence. Acknowledging the role of mathematics in making logical and advantageous decisions, Game

  16. Video game epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflex epilepsy is the commonest form of epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by specific external stimulus. Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is provoked by environmental flicker stimuli. Video game epilepsy is considered to be its variant or a pattern sensitive epilepsy. The mean age of onset is around puberty and boys suffer more commonly as they are more inclined to play video games. Television set or computer screen is the commonest precipitants. The treatment remains the removal of the offending stimulus along with drug therapy. Long term prognosis in these patients is better as photosensitivity gradually declines with increasing age. We present two such case of epilepsy induced by video game.

  17. Problem Based Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various...... projects and how they learn to analyse, design, and develop for innovation by using it. We will present various cases to exemplify the approach and focus on how the method engages students and aspires for innovation in digital entertainment and games....

  18. Game Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of game coloured Petri nets. This allows the modeler to explicitly model what parts of the model comprise the modeled system and what parts are the environment of the modeled system. We give the formal definition of game coloured Petri nets, a means of reachability...... analysis of this net class, and an application of game coloured Petri nets to automatically generate easy-to-understand visualizations of the model by exploiting the knowledge that some parts of the model are not interesting from a visualization perspective (i.e. they are part of the environment...

  19. Game theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, E N

    2013-01-01

    An exciting new edition of the popular introduction to game theory and its applications The thoroughly expanded Second Edition presents a unique, hands-on approach to game theory. While most books on the subject are too abstract or too basic for mathematicians, Game Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition offers a blend of theory and applications, allowing readers to use theory and software to create and analyze real-world decision-making models. With a rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of mathematics, the book focuses on results that can be used to

  20. Problem Based Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    At Aalborg University’s department of Medialogy, we are utilizing the Problem Based Learning method to encourage students to solve game design problems by pushing the boundaries and designing innovative games. This paper is concerned with describing this method, how students employ it in various...... projects and how they learn to analyse, design, and develop for innovation by using it. We will present various cases to exemplify the approach and focus on how the method engages students and aspires for innovation in digital entertainment and games....

  1. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions—namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning. We found that the majority of studies focused on teaching coding and academic content through game making, and that few studies explicitly examined the roles of collaboration and identity in the game making process. We argue that future discussions of serious gaming ought to be more inclusive of constructionist approaches to realize the full potential of serious gaming. Making games, we contend, not only more genuinely introduces children to a range of technical skills but also better connects them to each other, addressing the persistent issues of access and diversity present in traditional digital gaming cultures. PMID:27019536

  2. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  3. The Motivational Power of Game Communities - Engaged through Game Jamming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    to develop games and to meet new people. We believe that the community building as well as the motivation and engagement due to social aspects and the desire to learn more about game development among participants at such events might have beneficial ripple effects, which are valuable to investigate more......Game jams have become a rapid growing phenomenon. Every year brings new and larger game jams. In this study, we closely followed the world’s largest single location game jam in order to explore the engagement among participants. The authors joined the organizing group of the Nordic Game Jam 2013...

  4. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  5. Brains on video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A

    2011-11-18

    The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.

  6. Raspberry Pi gaming

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Shea

    2015-01-01

    If you are someone who loves to play games and are interested in learning more about the capabilities of your Raspberry Pi, this book is for you. Basic knowledge of Raspberry Pi programming is expected.

  7. Playing and gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karoff, Helle Skovbjerg; Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hanghøj, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The paper develops an approach of playing and gaming activities through the perspective of both activities as mood activities . The point of departure is that a game - is a tool with which we, through our practices, achieve different moods. This based on an empirical study of children's everyday...... lives, where the differences emerge through actual practices, i.e. through the creation of meaning in the specific situations. The overall argument is that it is not that important whether it is a playing or a gaming activity - it is however crucial to be aware of how moods occur and what their optimal...... dimensions: practices and moods. Practice is the concept of all the doing in the activities. Moods are the particular concept of sense and feeling of being, which is what we are drawn to when we are playing or gaming....

  8. Business Game Learning Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Valcke, Martin; Van Vilsteren, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Valcke, M., & Van Vilsteren, P. (1997) Business Game Learning Environment. Design and development of a competency-based distance education business curriculum at the Open University of the Netherlands.

  9. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  10. Inviting Grief into Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrer, Sabine; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how designers might initiate a dialogue with underrepresented groups, infusing design with individuals’ personal stories and imaginations. It does so alongside the example of Jocoi, a game aiming at mediating the experience of loss and grief over a dead baby. Apart from...... being a taboo subject in general, there is no explanation for the absence of this fairly common experience in games. Drawing on the emotional worlds and tastes of individuals identifying as bereft parents, Jocoi involved a collaboration with an Austrian self-help group for affected parents. The stories...... of four informants then served as an initial orientation point marking out the direction of our ensuing game design process. Working out central themes, needs and concerns conveyed by the group, the aim was to addresses some of their emotional challenges appropriately through a game. The paper first...

  11. Preparing for the Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In terms of time, Beijing is drawing ever closer to the 2008 Olympic Games, with just two years to go. In terms of space, a new "Olympic City" has initially taken shape as the Olympic blueprint materializes in Beijing.

  12. English for The Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article is part of a series produced by the British Council to help you learn English and enjoy the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Do you know which language 'hockey' comes from? Find out here,

  13. From Cards To Digital Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    This study is based on an iterative, participatory design investigation that we are conducting in order to create digital games that could be flexibly re-designed by players, without requiring programming knowledge. In particular we focus on digital game development, both design and implementation......, for primary school pupils and their teachers. We propose a scenario where digital game development is mediated by tinkering with paper prototypes similar to board games. We address the problems of making sense and expressing rules of a digital game without programming. Analysis of our latest participatory...... workshop offers evidence that a board game can work as a tangible model of the computation happening in a digital game. Children understand the practice of designing games mainly as manipulation of features and behaviors of the visual elements of a game. We attempt at looking beyond visual programming...

  14. Teacher roles in Learning Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    the roles as forensic experts who solve a series of murder cases. When teachers use this type of games, they have to adapt to new teaching situations and roles. This includes the fictional role in a game, but also the role as a supervisor for a group of students that play the role as professional experts. I...... present examples of teachers who adopt different roles in the game, and discuss how understanding the background for these roles can help us define the game-based learning situation. Finally I discuss what consequences the problems presented here may have for the design of future learning games.......Using learning games in education gives rise to a learning situation where game culture meets school culture and the result can be successful or corrupting for both. In this paper I present a case study of school classes and their teachers playing the game ‘Homicide', a game where children play...

  15. Modeling and Generating Strategy Games Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahlmann, Tobias

    of the game is, how players may manipulate the game world, etc. We present the Strategy Games Description Language (SGDL), a tree-based approach to model the game mechanics of strategy games. SGDL allows game designers to rapid prototype their game ideas with the help of our customisable game engine. We...... present several example games to demonstrate the capabilities of the language and how to model common strategy game elements. Furthermore, we present methods to procedurally generate and evaluate game mechanics modelled in SGDL in terms of enjoyability. We argue that an evolutionary process can be used......Strategy games are a popular genre of games with a long history, originating from games like Chess or Go. The first strategy games were published as “Kriegspiele” (engl. wargames) in the late 18th century, intended for the education of young cadets. Since then strategy games were refined...

  16. Learn Unity for 2D game development

    CERN Document Server

    Thorn, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The only Unity book specifically covering 2D game development Written by Alan Thorn, experience game developer and author of seven books on game programming Hands-on examples of all major aspects of 2D game development using Unity

  17. Serious games for Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  18. Dazzling Sixth Ethnic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    WITH its first round in Lhasa, Tibet, the Beijing leg of the Sixth National Games for Traditional Sports of Minority Nationalities was China's largest sports ceremony at the end of this century. The reason for holding the games in two places for the first time is that the 50th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China and the 40th anniversary of democratic reform in the

  19. Decentralized Network Interdiction Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    11 2.3 Bridging Game Theory and Large-Scale Optimization under Uncertainty... utilitarian ; that is, θc(x1, . . . , xF ) := ∑ f∈F θf (xf , x−f ). A commonly used measure of Nash equilibria’s inefficiency is the price of anarchy...it would represent a major step forward in the field of computational game theory . 2.2 Cost Sharing and Network Fortification As a side project

  20. Stochastic Games. I. Foundations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    stimulate discussion and critical coment. Requests for single copies of a Paper will be filled by the Cowles Foundation within the limits of the supply...underpinning for the theory of stochastic games. Section 2 is a reworking of the Bevley- Kohlberg result integrated with Shapley’s; the "black magic" of... Kohlberg : The values of the r-discount game, and the stationary optimal strategies, have Puiseaux expansions. L.. 11" 6 3. More generally, consider an