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Sample records for repeated quadruple therapy

  1. Quadruple H therapy for vasospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple H therapy has been enthusiastically used to increase cerebral blood flow in cases of vasospasm. Nevertheless, the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is lowered with this treatment. This side effect can theoretically be partially corrected using hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO which appears to be the missing ring in the above therapeutic regimen. We conducted a review of of the available evidence regarding the beneficial effects of HBO in preventing postoperative ischemic complications due to vasospasm after surgery on ruptured cerebral aneurysms and the rationale for including HBO into the standards of care of these difficult patients.

  2. Standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) eradication in a randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial in China. METHODS: A total of 215 H. pylori -positive patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into three groups: group A (n = 72) received a 10-d bismuth pectin quadruple therapy (20 mg rabeprazole bid , 1000 mg amoxicillin bid , 100 mg bismuth pectin qid , and 500 mg levofloxaci...

  3. Rabeprazole can overcome the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on quadruple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Wang, Sophie S W; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Weng, Bi-Chuang; Li, Chia-Jung; Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, Angela; Hung, Wen-Chun; Yang, Yuan-Chieh; Wang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2010-08-01

    The prospective study was designed to clarify the impact of CYP2C19 on quadruple therapies and survey the efficacies of rabeprazole-based quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection after failure of standard triple therapies. From January 2007 to March 2009, 1055 H. pylori-infected patients received standard triple regimens (proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), clarithromycin, and amoxicillin). Helicobacter pylori eradication was achieved in 865 (81.9%) subjects. One hundred ninety eradication-failure patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive a 7-day eradication therapy. Ninety-six patients were treated with esomeprazole-based quadruple rescue therapies (EB), while 94 patients were treated with rabeprazole-based quadruple rescue therapies (RB). Follow-up endoscopy was done 16 weeks later to assess the treatment response. Patients' responses, CYP2C19 genotypes, and antibiotics resistances were also examined. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed that RB had better eradication rates than EB (EB: 72.9%; 95% CI: 64.9-80.9% and RB: 78.7%; 95% CI 72.5-84.9%) (p value = .543). Per-protocol results were EB = 75.3%; 95% CI: 70.3-80.3% and RB = 85.1%; 95% CI: 80.6-89.6% (p value = .0401). Both regimens had similar compliance (p value = 0.155) and adverse events (p value = 0.219). We also surveyed those patients without resistance of any antibiotics. RB still showed better outcome than EB. Our data showed that esomeprazole-based regimen and CYP2C19 Hom EM genotype were important predictors for eradication failure. In quadruple therapy, rabeprazole-based regimens had better efficacy than esomeprazole-based regimens. CYP2C19 polymorphism also played an important role in quadruple therapy. It seems advisable to change PPI to rabeprazole in second-line quadruple therapy.

  4. A randomized controlled comparison of three quadruple therapy regimens in a population with low Helicobacter pylori eradication rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotudehmanesh, Rasool; Malekzadeh, Reza; Fazel, Ali; Massarrat, Sadegh; Ziad-Alizadeh, Behrooz; Eshraghian, Mohammed Reza

    2001-01-01

    Background and Aim: We sought to compare the efficacy and tolerability of an omeprazole/clarithromycin/bismuth/tetracycline-based quadruple therapy to that of a ranitidine/metronidazole/bismuth/tetracycline-based quadruple therapy of 2 or 3 weeks duration in a population with a high prevalence of me

  5. Eradication of H pylori infection in a rural population:One-day quadruple therapy versus 7-day triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Zhang; Wei-Cheng You; Lin Shen; Jun-Ling Ma; Kai-Feng Pan; Wei-Dong Liu; Jie Li; Shu-Dong Xiao; San-Ren Lin; Meinhard Classen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the one-day quadruple therapy with a standard 7-d triple therapy for H pylori eradication in a rural population of China.METHODS: A total of 396 patients with 13C-urea breath test positive for H pylori were assigned into two groups:239 patients received one-day quadruple therapy (amoxicillin 2000 mg qid; metronidazole 500 mg qid; bismuth citrate 900 mg qid and lansoprazole 60 mg once daily)and 157 patients received 7-d standard triple therapy (amoxicillin 1000 mg bid; clarithromycin 500 mg bid and lansoprazole 30 mg bid). All the patients underwent a 13C-UBT to assess the eradication of H pylori infection six weeks after treatment.RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-nine patients completed the one-day therapy (95.8%) and 148patients completed the 7-d therapy (94.2%). The oneday therapy eradicated H pylori infection in 64 patients (27.95%). In contrast, 103 patients (69.59%) were H pylori negative after the 7-d therapy (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests there is no beneficial effect of the one-day therapy in treatment of H pylori infection compared with the 7-d standard therapy.

  6. Quadruple therapy with moxifloxacin and bismuth for first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio Francesco Ciccaglione; Luigina Cellini; Laurino Grossi; Leonardo Marzio

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To compare triple therapy vs quadruple therapy for 10 d as first-line treatment of Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) infection.METHODS:Consecutive H.pylori positive patients never treated in the past for this infection were randomly treated with triple therapy of pantoprazole (PAN) 20 mg bid,amoxicillin (AMO) 1 g bid and moxifloxacin (MOX) 400 mg bid for 10 d (PAM) or with quadruple therapy of PAN 20 mg bid,AMO 1 g bid,MOX 400 mg bid and bismuth subcitrate 240 mg bid for 10 d (PAMB).All patients were found positive at 13 C-Urea breath test (UBT) performed within ten days prior to the start of the study.A successful outcome was confirmed with an UBT performed 8 wk after the end of treatment.x2 analysis was used for statistical comparison.Per protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) values were also calculated.RESULTS:Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the PAM group and 50 in the PAMB group.One patient in each group did not return for further assessment.Eradication was higher in the PAMB group (negative:46 and positive:3) vs the PAN group (negative:44 and positive:12).The H.pylori eradication rate was statistically significantly higher in the PAMB group vs the PAM group,both with the PP and ITT analyses (PP:PAMB 93.8%,PAM 78.5%,P < 0.02; ITT:PAMB 92%,PAM 77.1%,P <0.03).CONCLUSION:The addition of bismuth subcitrate can be considered a valuable adjuvant to triple therapy in those areas where H.pylori shows a high resistance to fluoroquinolones.

  7. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection eradicated with a tailor-made quadruple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shigemi; Inoue, Hisayuki; Inoue, Tetsuya; Maruoka, Yuri

    2012-04-01

    In 2008, a 44-year-old woman with mild epigastralgia diagnosed as having Helicobacter pylori-positive chronic gastritis without peptic ulcer underwent eradication therapy with lansoprazole (LPZ), amoxicillin (AMPC) and clarithromycin (CAM) for 7 days, but it failed, so treatment with rabeprazole, AMPC, and metronidazole (MNZ) for another 7 days was given, but it also failed. She was then prescribed a modified, 14-day sequential therapy of LPZ and AMPC with an increased dose of CAM followed by MNZ supplement, but the infection was still not eradicated. The H. pylori was cultured and examined for antibiotic susceptibility with the agar dilution method and was found to be resistant to CAM, MNZ, and levofloxacin, and non-sensitive to AMPC, namely multiple-antibiotic-resistant, although sensitive to minocycline. The CYP2C19 genotype of the patient was an extensive metabolizer (G681A: G/A, G636A: G/G). In 2010, she gave informed consent for a 14-day, tailor-made, modified classical (or modified high-dose PPI + AMPC) quadruple therapy comprising 30 mg LPZ, 500 mg AMPC and 500 mg bismuth subnitrate, qid, and 100 mg minocycline, bid. Two months later, her urea breath test was negative. Histology and bacterial culture were still negative 1 year after the therapy. She did not have any adverse events during or after the novel therapy, nor did she feel any further epigastralgia.

  8. Levofloxacin/amoxicillin-based schemes vs quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in second-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Simona; Fini, Lucia; Daoud, Yayha; Grizzi, Fabio; Gasbarrini, Antonio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; McCartney, Sara; Bloom, Stuart

    2012-10-28

    Worldwide prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is approximately 50%, with the highest being in developing countries. We compared cure rates and tolerability (SE) of second-line anti-H. pylori levofloxacin/amoxicillin (LA)-based triple regimens vs standard quadruple therapy (QT). An English language literature search was performed up to October 2010. A meta-analysis was performed including randomized clinical trials comparing 7- or 10-d LA with 7-d QT. In total, 10 articles and four abstracts were identified. Overall eradication rate in LA was 76.5% (95% CI: 64.4%-97.6%). When only 7-d regimens were included, cure rate was 70.6% (95% CI: 40.2%-99.1%), whereas for 10-d combinations, cure rate was significantly higher (88.7%; 95% CI: 56.1%-109.9%; P therapy than QT (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.85; P = 0.02). A higher rate of side effects was reported in Asian patients who received QT. Our findings support the use of 10-d LA as a simple second-line treatment for H. pylori eradication with an excellent eradication rate and tolerability. The optimal second-line alternative scheme might differ among countries depending on quinolone resistance.

  9. Twice daily (mid-day and evening) quadruple therapy for H. pylori infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D Y; Belson, G; Abudayyeh, S; Osato, M S; Dore, M P; El-Zimaity, H M T

    2004-06-01

    Quadruple therapy provided inadequate eradication rate when given twice-a-day at breakfast and evening meals. To test twice daily (mid-day and evening) quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. This was a single-centre pilot study in which H. pylori-infected (positive histology and culture and RUT) patients were given 2 x 250 mg of metronidazole and 2 x 250 mg of tetracycline, two Pepto-Bismol tablets, plus one 20 mg rabeprazole tablet twice-a-day for 14 days. H. pylori status was confirmed 4 or more weeks after the end of therapy. Thirty-seven patients including 3 with peptic ulcer disease, 19 asymptomatic infected, 4 GERD, and 11 with NUD. Mid-day quadruple therapy was successful in 92.3% (95% CI: 79-98%) including 96.2% of those with metronidazole-susceptible strains, and in 83.3% (10/12) of those with metronidazole-resistant H. pylori. Compliance was 100% by pill count except in one individual who stopped medication after 12 days because of side-effects and who failed therapy. Moderate or greater side-effects were experienced by five patients. Twice-a-day, mid-day, quadruple therapy proved effective using the combination of bismuth subsalicylate and rabeprazole instead of bismuth subcitrate and omeprazole. Detailed studies of different formulations (e.g. 2 x 250 mg versus 1 x 500 mg of metronidazole or tetracycline) and timing of administration (breakfast and evening meal versus mid-day and evening meals) may result in significant improvements in H. pylori eradication regimens.

  10. Ten-day bismuth-containing quadruple therapy is effective as first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis: a prospective randomized study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Lin, Z; Chen, S; Li, J; Chen, C; Huang, Z; Ye, B; Ding, J; Li, W; Wu, L; Jiang, Y; Meng, L; Du, Q; Si, J

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 10-day bismuth-containing quadruple (B-quadruple) treatment as first-line therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from October 2011 to December 2013 in Zhejiang, China, including patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis who were randomly provided either 10-day omeprazole-based triple therapy (OM-triple; omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1 g twice daily) or 10-day B-quadruple therapy (OM-triple + bismuth subcitrate 120 mg four times daily). H. pylori status, pathologic findings and dyspeptic symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The primary outcome was H. pylori eradication rates by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. The secondary outcomes were the histologic and symptomatic benefits from H. pylori eradication. A total of 351 patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis were recruited. The eradication rates of the OM-triple and B-quadruple groups were 58.4% (108/185) and 86.1% (143/166) respectively according to ITT analysis (p pylori eradication were 63.2% (108/171) and 92.3% (143/155) respectively (p pylori-induced chronic gastritis in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Levofloxacin/amoxicillin-based schemes vs quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in second-line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simona Di Caro; Lucia Fini; Yayha Daoud; Fabio Grizzi; Antonio Gasbarrini; Antonino De Lorenzo; Laura Di Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori)infection is approximately 50%,with the highest being in developing countries.We compared cure rates and tolerability (SE) of second-line anti-H,pylori levofloxacin/amoxicillin (LA)-based triple regimens vs standard quadruple therapy (QT).An English language literature search was performed up to October 2010.A meta-analysis was performed including randomized clinical trials comparing 7-or 10-d LA with 7-d QT.In total,10 articles and four abstracts were identified.Overall eradication rate in LA was 76.5% (95%CI:64.4%-97.6%).When only 7-d regimens were included,cure rate was 70.6% (95% CI:40.2%-99.1%),whereas for 10-d combinations,cure rate was significantly higher (88.7%; 95% CI:56.1%-109.9%;P < 0.05).Main eradication rate for QT was 67.4% (95% CI:49.7%-67.9%).The 7-d LA and QT showed comparable efficacy [odds ratio (OR):1.09; 95% CI:0.63-1.87],whereas the 10-d LA regimen was significantly more effective than QT (OR:5.05; 95% CI:2.74-9.31; P < 0.001;I2 =75%).No differences were reported in QT eradication rates among Asian and European studies,whereas LA regimens were more effective in European populations (78.3% vs 67.7%; P =0.05).Incidence of SE was lower in LA therapy than QT (OR:0.39; 95% CI:0.18-0.85; P =0.02).A higher rate of side effects was reported in Asian patients who received QT.Our findings support the use of 10-d LA as a simple second-line treatment for H.pylori eradication with an excellent eradication rate and tolerability.The optimal second-line alternative scheme might differ among countries depending on quinolone resistance.

  12. Effects of killing Helicobacter pylori quadruple therapy on peptic ulcer: A randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ying Feng; Xi-Xian Yao; Shu-Lin Jiang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic efficacy of a Chinese and Western integrated regimen, killing Helicobacter pylori quadruple therapy on H pylori-associated peptic ulcers(PU).METHODS: With prospective and double-blind controlled method, seventy-five active PU patients with H pylori infection were randomized to receive one of the following three regimens: (1) new triple therapy (group A:lansoprazole 30 mg qd, plus clarithromycin 250 mg bid,plus amoxycillin 500 mg tid, each for 10 d); (2) killing Hp quadruple therapy(group B: the three above drugs plus killing H pylori capsule 6 capsules bid for 4 wk) and (3)placebo(group C: gastropine 3 tablets bid for 4 wk).H pylori eradication and ulcer healing quality were evaluated under an endoscope 4 wk after treatment. The patients were followed up for 5 years.RESULTS: Both the healing rate of PU and H pylori eradication rate in group B were significantly higher than those in group C (100% and 96.4% vs 20% and 0%,respectively, P<0.005), but there was no significant difference compared to those in group A (88% and92%, P>0.05). The healing quality of ulcer in group B was superior to that in groups C and A (P<0.05). The recurrence rate of PU in group B (4%) was lower than that in group A (10%) and group C (100%, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Killing Helicobacter pylori quadruple therapy can not only promote the eradication of H pylori and healing quality of ulcer but also reduce recurrence rate of ulcer.

  13. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  14. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori in surgical practice: A randomised trial of triple versus quadruple therapy in a rural district general hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siok Siong Ching; Sivakumaran Sabanathan; Uoyd R Jenldnson

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare a lansoprazole-based triple versus quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)eradication with emphasis on side effect profile,patient compliance and eradication rate at a rural district general hospital in Wales,United Kingdom.METHODS= One hundred one patients with H pylori infection were included in the study.Patients were randomised to receive triple therapy comprising of lansoprazole 30 mg,amoxycillin 1 g,clarithromycin 500 mg,all b.d.(LAC),or quadruple therapy comprising of lansoprazole 30 mg b.d.,metronidazole 500 mg t.d.s.,bismuth subcitrate 240 mg b.d.,and tetracycline chloride 500 mg q.d.s.(LMBT).Cure was defined as a negative 13C urea breath test 2 mo after treatment.RESULTS: Seven patients were withdrawn after randomisation.Fifty patients were assigned to LAC group and 44 to LMBT group.The intention-to-treat cure rates were 92% and 91%,whereas the perprotocol cure rates were 92% and 97%,respectively.Side effects were common,with 56% experiencing moderate to severe symptoms in the LAC group and 59% in the LHBT group.Symptoms of vomiting,diarrhoea and black stools were significantly more common in the LMBT group.Patient compliance was 100% for triple therapy and 86% for quadruple therapy (P<0.01).One-third of patients in both groups were still taking acid-reducing medications at six-month follow-up.CONCLUSION: One-week triple and quadruple therapies have similar intention-to-treat eradication rates.Certain side effects are more common with quadruple therapy,which can compromise patient compliance.Patient education or modifications to the regimen are alternative options to improve compliance of the quadruple regimen.

  15. One-week quadruple therapy is an effective salvage regimen for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients after failure of standard triple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiun-Ku; Hsu, Ping-I; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lo, Gin-Ho; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Lo, Ching-Chu; Peng, Nan-Jing; Chen, Hui-Chun; Jou, Huei-Shu; Huang, Wen-Keui; Chen, Jin-Liang; Hsu, Ping-Ning

    2002-01-01

    Standard triple therapy remains an important option for eradicating Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in developing countries because of its relatively low cost. However, salvage therapies after failure of this regimen remain undefined. The authors therefore investigate the efficacy of 1-week quadruple therapy as a second-line treatment of Hp infection after failure of standard triple therapy. Seventy-eight patients who failed Hp eradication using a 2-week bismuth-based triple therapy were enrolled and received a course of 1-week quadruple therapy (lansoprazole, 30 mg twice daily; bismuth subcitrate, 120 mg four times daily; clarithromycin, 500 mg twice daily; and amoxicillin, 1,000 mg twice daily) as a salvage regimen. The Hp status was reassessed 7 weeks after cessation of therapy. Among the 78 patients, Hp eradication was achieved in 65 (83%, 95% confidence interval = 75-91%) by intention-to-treat analysis. Only five (6%) patients had side effects, and all (100%) showed good drug compliance. Multivariate analysis disclosed that coffee drinking was an independent factor for treatment failure (odds ratio = 5.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-23.6, p = 0.028). The authors therefore conclude that their 1-week quadruple therapy is an effective salvage regimen for Hp infection after failure of standard triple therapy in the population examined. The benefits of this regimen include the high eradication rate, the short duration of treatment, fewer side effects, and good drug compliance. Coffee consumption possibly is an important factor in failure of the rescue regimen. The mechanisms underlying the association between coffee drinking and eradication failure require further research.

  16. Furazolidone versus metronidazole in quadruple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malekzadeh, R.; Ansari, R.; Vahedi, H.; Siavoshi, F.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Eshraghian, M.R.; Vakili, A.; Saghari, M.; Massarrat, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Furazolidone, an old but cheap antibiotic, was shown to be a good alternative to metronidazole in triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in areas where metronidazole resistant bacteria are common, but randomized studies are lacking. Aim: A randomized controlled trial to determ

  17. Second-line rescue triple therapy with levofloxacin after failure of non-bismuth quadruple "sequential" or "concomitant" treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Molina-Infante, Javier; Marin, Alicia C; Vinagre, Gemma; Barrio, Jesus; McNicholl, Adrian Gerald

    2013-06-01

    Non-bismuth quadruple "sequential" and "concomitant" regimens, including a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin, clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole, are increasingly used as first-line treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection. Eradication with rescue regimens may be challenging after failure of key antibiotics such as clarithromycin and nitroimidazoles. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a second-line levofloxacin-containing triple regimen (PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin) in the eradication of H. pylori after non-bismuth quadruple-containing treatment failure. prospective multicenter study. in whom a non-bismuth quadruple regimen, administered either sequentially (PPI + amoxicillin for 5 days followed by PPI + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 more days) or concomitantly (PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 10 days) had previously failed. levofloxacin (500 mg b.i.d.), amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) and PPI (standard dose b.i.d.) for 10 days. eradication was confirmed with (13)C-urea breath test 4-8 weeks after therapy. Compliance and tolerance: compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Incidence of adverse effects was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. 100 consecutive patients were included (mean age 50 years, 62% females, 12% peptic ulcer and 88% dyspepsia): 37 after "sequential", and 63 after "concomitant" treatment failure. All patients took all medications correctly. Overall, per-protocol and intention-to-treat H. pylori eradication rates were 75.5% (95% CI 66-85%) and 74% (65-83%). Respective intention-to-treat cure rates for "sequential" and "concomitant" failure regimens were 74.4% and 71.4%, respectively. Adverse effects were reported in six (6%) patients; all of them were mild. Ten-day levofloxacin-containing triple therapy constitutes an encouraging second-line strategy in patients with previous non-bismuth quadruple "sequential" or "concomitant" treatment failure.

  18. Quadruple therapy with furazolidone for retreatment in patients with peptic ulcer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guilherme Eduardo Goncalves Felga; Fernando Marcuz Silva; Ricardo Correa Barbuti; Tomás Navarro-Rodriguez; Schlioma Zaterka; Jaime Natan Eisig

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To establish the efficacy and safety of a 7-d therapeutic regimen using omeprazole, bismuth subcitrate, furazolidone and amoxicillin in patients with peptic ulcer disease who had been previously treated with other therapeutic regimens without success.METHODS: Open cohort study which included patients with peptic ulcer who had previously been treated unsuccessfully with one or more eradication regimens. The therapeutic regimen consisted of 20 mg omeprazole, 240 mg colloidal bismuth subcitrate, 1000 mg amoxicillin, and 200 mg furazolidone, taken twice a day for 7 d. Patients were considered as eradicated when samples taken from the gastric antrum and corpus 12 wk after the end of treatment were negative for Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) (rapidurease test and histology). Safety was determined by the presence of adverse effects. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were enrolled. The eradication rate was 68.8% (31145). Adverse effects were reported by 31.4% of the patients, and these were usually considered to be slight or moderate in the majority of the cases. Three patients had to withdraw from the treatment due to the presence of severe adverse effects. CONCLUSION: The association of bismuth, furazolidone, amoxicillin and a proton-pump inhibitor is a valuable alternative for patients who failed to respond to other eradication regimens. It is an effective, cheap and safe option for salvage therapy of positive patients.

  19. Efficacy of 1st-line bismuth-containing quadruple therapies with levofloxacin or clarithromycin for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Han; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Weifeng; Zhang, Guoxin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of the present open-label, randomized control trial was to determine the clinical efficacy and safety of two 1-week bismuth-containing quadruple regimens and 1 levofloxacin-based triple regimen for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in treatment-naive patients. The influence of susceptibility and host CYP2C19 polymorphisms on the efficacy was also evaluated. Methods: Eligible patients were randomly to receive esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with clarithromycin and amoxicillin (EBCA), esomeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin along with levofloxacin and amoxicillin (EBLA), or esomeprazole along levofloxacin and amoxicillin (ELA) for 1 week. The primary outcome was the eradication rate in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. Results: Overall, 270 patients were randomized. The eradication rates in the above 3 groups were 80.25%, 89.66%, and 81.93% in PP analysis and 72.22%, 86.66%, and 75.56% in ITT analysis, respectively. The eradication rate of EBLA was significantly higher than that of EBCA (P = 0.016) in ITT analysis. No significant differences were found among these groups in terms of adverse effects and compliance. The efficacy was significantly affected by levofloxacin resistance for EBLA (P = 0.01) and ELA (P = 0.04), but not by polymorphisms of CYP2C19 gene for any of the 3 groups. Conclusion: All 1-week bismuth-containing quadruple therapies and levofloxacin-based triple therapy can obtain an acceptable eradication rate, and levofloxacin-based quadruple regimen exhibits the highest eradication rate. The antibiotic resistant rate of levofloxacin was associated with the eradication rate. PMID:28207505

  20. 四联疗法治疗难治性消化溃疡的临床研究%QUADRUPLE THERAPY FOR TREATMENT OF REFRACTORY PEPTIC ULCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张嘉刚

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨四联用药治疗难治性消化性溃疡的临床疗效.[方法]将61例难治性消化性溃疡患者随机分为对照组(n=30)和观察组(n=31),对照组采用口服雷尼替丁(150 mg/次,bid)胶体果胶铋(39/次,tid)、克拉霉素(0.5g/次,bid,不与雷尼替丁同时服用)治疗4周;观察组采用口服埃索美拉唑肠溶片(40 mf/次,bid)、胶体果胶铋(3 粒/次、tid)、克拉霉素(0.5 g,bid)、羟氨苄青霉素(1.0 g,bid)四联疗法治疗,1周后口服埃索美拉唑(40 mg/次,qd)与胶体果胶铋(3粒/次,tid)持续治疗3周.观察两组临床疗效、胃镜下溃疡愈合情况及幽门螺旋杆菌(Hp)的清除率与根除率.[结果]观察组四联用药治疗难治性消化性溃疡的临床总体有效率和胃镜下溃疡愈合总体有效率均为100%,Hp清除率与根除率分别为96.8%和93.5%,均显著高于对照组,两组各项指标比较差异均有统计学意义(P < 0.05).观察物不良反应轻微.[结论]四联用药(埃索美拉唑镬肠溶片、胶体果胶铋、克拉霉素、羟氨青霉素)能有效根除Hp感染,促进溃疡的愈合,对难治性消化性溃疡疗效显著.%[Objective] To investigate the clinical efficacy of quadruple drug treatment in refractory peptic ulcer. [Methods] 61 patients with refractory peptic ulcer were randomly divided into the control group (n = 30) and the observation group (n = 31), the control group was treated with oral ranitidine (150mg/time, bid) , colloidal bismuth pectin (3 capsules/time, tid), clarithromycin (0.5g/time, bid, not with ranitidine while taking) for 4 weeks; observation group was treated with oral administration of esomeprazole enteric-coated tablets (40mg/time, bid) , colloidal bismuth pectin (3 capsules/time, tid) , clarithromycin (0.5g, bid) , amoxicillin ( l.Og, bid) quadruple therapy, after a week of oral esomeprazole (40mg/times, qd) and colloidal bismuth pectin (3/time, tid), continued treatment for 3 weeks. Then observed the clinical

  1. Multiple Genetic Analysis System-Based Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori and High Eradication Rate With Phenotypic Resistance-Guided Quadruple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangyuan; Ji, Danian; Huang, Renxiang; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yiqin; Xiang, Ping; Kong, Mimi; Nan, Li; Zeng, Xianping; Wu, Yong; Bao, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics resistance in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major factor for eradication failure. Molecular tests including fluorescence in situ hybridization, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and dual priming oligonucleotide-PCR (DPO-PCR) play critical roles in the detection of antibiotic susceptibility; however, limited knowledge is known about application of multiple genetic analysis system (MGAS) in the area of H. pylori identification and antibiotics resistance detection.The aim of this study is to determine the antibiotics resistance using different molecular tests and evaluate the treatment outcomes of E-test-based genotypic resistance.A total of 297 patients with dyspepsia complaint were recruited for gastroscopies. Ninety patients with H. pylori culture positive were randomly divided into 2 groups (test group and control group). E-test, general PCR, and MGAS assay were performed in test group. Patients in control group were treated with empirical therapy (rabeprazole + bismuth potassium citrate + amoxicillin [AMX] + clarithromycin [CLR]), whereas patients in test group received quadruple therapy based on E-test results twice daily for 14 consecutive days. The eradication effect of H. pylori was confirmed by C-urea breath test after at least 4 weeks when treatment was finished.Rapid urease test showed 46.5% (128/297) patients with H. pylori infection, whereas 30.3% (90/297) patients were H. pylori culture positive. E-test showed that H. pylori primary resistance rate to CLR, AMX, metronidazole, tetracycline, and levofloxacin (LVX) was 40.0% (18/45), 4.4% (2/45), 53.3% (24/45), 0% (0/45), and 55.6% (25/45), respectively. In addition, there are many multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes, and the MDR strains have higher minimum inhibitory concentration than their single-drug resistant counterparts. Considering E-test as the reference test, the sensitivities of general PCR and MGAS in detecting CLR resistance were 83.3% (15/18) and 94.4% (17

  2. Bismuth-Based Quadruple Therapy with Bismuth Subcitrate, Metronidazole, Tetracycline and Omeprazole in the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lahaie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A previous study showed that 14 days of qid bismuth-based triple therapy with tetracycline 500 mg, metronidazole 250 mg and colloidal bismuth subcitrate 120 mg resulted in excellent Helicobacter pylori eradication rates (89.5%. The present study looked at a shorter treatment period by adding omeprazole and by reducing the dose of tetracycline.

  3. Quarter-dose quadruple combination therapy for initial treatment of hypertension: placebo-controlled, crossover, randomised trial and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Thakkar, Jay; Bennett, Alex; Hillis, Graham; Burke, Michael; Usherwood, Tim; Vo, Kha; Rogers, Kris; Atkins, Emily; Webster, Ruth; Chou, Michael; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Salam, Abdul; Patel, Anushka; Neal, Bruce; Peiris, David; Krum, Henry; Chalmers, John; Nelson, Mark; Reid, Christopher M; Woodward, Mark; Hilmer, Sarah; Thom, Simon; Rodgers, Anthony

    2017-03-11

    Globally, most patients with hypertension are treated with monotherapy, and control rates are poor because monotherapy only reduces blood pressure by around 9/5 mm Hg on average. There is a pressing need for blood pressure-control strategies with improved efficacy and tolerability. We aimed to assess whether ultra-low-dose combination therapy could meet these needs. We did a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial of a quadpill-a single capsule containing four blood pressure-lowering drugs each at quarter-dose (irbesartan 37·5 mg, amlodipine 1·25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 6·25 mg, and atenolol 12·5 mg). Participants with untreated hypertension were enrolled from four centres in the community of western Sydney, NSW, Australia, mainly by general practitioners. Participants were randomly allocated by computer to either the quadpill or matching placebo for 4 weeks; this treatment was followed by a 2-week washout, then the other study treatment was administered for 4 weeks. Study staff and participants were unaware of treatment allocations, and masking was achieved by use of identical opaque capsules. The primary outcome was placebo-corrected 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure reduction after 4 weeks and analysis was by intention to treat. We also did a systematic review of trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of quarter-standard-dose blood pressure-lowering therapy against placebo. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12614001057673. The trial ended after 1 year and this report presents the final analysis. Between November, 2014, and December, 2015, 55 patients were screened for our randomised trial, of whom 21 underwent randomisation. Mean age of participants was 58 years (SD 11) and mean baseline office and 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were 154 (14)/90 (11) mm Hg and 140 (9)/87 (8) mm Hg, respectively. One individual declined participation after

  4. 四联方案和序贯方案根除幽门螺杆菌的临床疗效观察%Observation of Clinical Effect of Quadruple Therapy Versus Sequential Therapy for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊丽萍

    2015-01-01

    目的比较四联疗法和序贯疗法根除幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori)的疗效及安全性。方法102例幽门螺杆菌阳性的初治患者随机分为两组,四联疗法A组及序贯疗法B组,四联疗法组给予埃索美拉唑20mg+克拉霉素500mg+阿莫西林1000mg+枸橼酸铋钾220mg,均为2次/d,共10d。序贯疗法组前5d给予埃索美拉唑20 mg和阿莫西林1000mg,后5d给予埃索美拉唑20 mg、克拉霉素500 mg和甲硝唑400 mg,均为2次/d口服。根除治疗结束至少4w后复查13C-尿素呼气试验或胃镜,确定H.pylori感染是否根除成功。对H.pylori根除率进行意向治疗(ITT)分析和符合方案(PP)分析比较。结果意向性分析显示四联疗法组及序贯疗法组的Hp根除率分别是86.3%(44/51)、76.4%(39/51)。符合方案分析显示四联疗法组及序贯疗法组的Hp根除率分别是91.7%(44/48)及82.9%(39/47)。意向性分析及符合方案分析表明四联疗法组HP根除率高于序贯疗法组,差异有统计学意义(<0.05)。结论含铋剂四联方案为临床根治Hp的一线治疗方案,序贯方案并未得到更好的根除疗效。%Objective To compare the ef ect and safety of quadruple therapy and sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Methods 102 Helicobacter pylori infected patients were randomized divided into 2 groups. Patients in group A were treated with quadruple regimen, esomeprazole 20mg, clarithromycin 500mg, amoxicil in 1000mg and bismuth potassium citrate 220mg, for 10 days. Patients in group B received sequential regimen, esomeprazole 20mg plus amoxicil in 1000mg for the first 5 days, and fol owed by esomeprazole 20mg, clarithromycin 500mg and metronidazole 400mg for the last 5days.Al drugs were given twice daily. Helicobacter pylori was rechecked by 13C-Urea breath test or endoscopy at least 4 weeks after the eradicative treatment. H.pylori eradication rates were compared with the intention-to-treat(ITT)and per protocol

  5. Purely tetrahedral quadruple systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Lijun

    2006-01-01

    An oriented tetrahedron is a set of four vertices and four cyclic triples with the property that any ordered pair of vertices is contained in exactly one of the cyclic triples. A tetrahedral quadruple system of order n (briefly TQS(n)) is a pair (X,B), where X is an nelement set and B is a set of oriented tetrahedra such that every cyclic triple on X is contained in a unique member of B. A TQS(n) (X, B) is pure if there do not exist two oriented tetrahedra with the same vertex set. In this paper, we show that there is a pure TQS(n) if and only if n≡2,4(mod 6),n>4,or n≡1,5(mod 12). One corollary is that there is a simple two-fold quadruple system of order n if and only if n≡2,4 (mod 6) and n>4, or n≡1, 5 (mod 12).Another corollary is that there is an overlarge set of pure Mendelsohn triple systems of order n for n≡1,3(mod 6),n>3, or n≡0,4 (mod 12).

  6. Clinical observation on 167 cases with recurrent bacterial vaginosis treated with quadruple progression therapy%四联递进联合治疗复发性细菌性阴道病167例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of quadruple progression therapy in treatment of recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Methods: 383 patients (excluding pregnant women and the patients at lactation period) diagnosed as recurrent bacterial vaginosis in the hospital were divided into two groups randomly, the patients in study group were treated with quadruple progression therapy, and the patients in control group were treated with conventional drug therapy; the clinical efficacies, courses of treatment, adjustion of vaginal flora,adverse reactions and recurrence rates in the two groups were observed. Results: The effective rates in treatment group and control group were 98.20% and 82.87%, respectively; the average treatment times of treatment group and control group were 5.7 days and 16.8 days,respectively, the course of treatment in treatment group was significantly shorter than that in control group; lactobacillin tablets were used in treatment group, the therapy increased the amount of lactobacillin and improved the vaginal internal environment; after follow - up for 1 ~ 3 years, the recurrence rates of treatment group and control group were 7.18% and 65.74%, respectively, the recurrence rate of treatment group was significantly lower than that of control group. Conclusion: The clinical efficacy of quadruple progression therapy is good in treatment of recurrent bacterial vaginosis, the course of treatment is short, the therapy is simple with low recurrence rate, and it can maintain microflora balance.%目的:观察四联递进治疗复发性细菌性阴道病疗效.方法:将张掖医学高等专科学校附属医院诊断为复发性细菌性阴道病的患者(排除妊娠和哺乳期患者)383例,随机分为两组.试验组进行四联递进联合治疗,对照组常规药物治疗,观察两组疗效、疗程,阴道菌群调整、副作用、复发率情况.结果:治疗组有效率为98.20%,对照组为82.87%o治疗组平均治疗时间为5.7

  7. Automated Nuclear Quadruple Resonance Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANCHUK, M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of an autodyne Nuclear quadruple resonance spectrometer is offered. The change of frequency of oscillatory LC circuit of the spectrometer is carried out in two ways: by varicap and variable capacitor. A processor module for the capacitor and varicap control is developed. The unit allows to scan and measure the level and frequency of the NQR-signal. The unit is controlled by the personal computer.

  8. Automated Nuclear Quadruple Resonance Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Improvement of an autodyne Nuclear quadruple resonance spectrometer is offered. The change of frequency of oscillatory LC circuit of the spectrometer is carried out in two ways: by varicap and variable capacitor. A processor module for the capacitor and varicap control is developed. The unit allows to scan and measure the level and frequency of the NQR-signal. The unit is controlled by the personal computer.

  9. The efficacy of two-week quadruple first-line therapy with bismuth, lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori eradication: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, Bilal; Doğan, Zeynal; Sarikaya, Murat; Filik, Levent

    2013-12-01

    To document the efficacy and tolerability of 14-day bismuth-lansoprazole-amoxicillin-clarithromycin (BLAC) regimen for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication as a first-line therapy. Patients were considered eligible for the study if they underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and H. pylori infection was diagnosed through histologic examination of antral and body biopsy samples. Primary end point of this study was to evaluate the eradication rate of 14-day BLAC regimen therapies. H. pylori eradication was assessed using the 13C urea breath test performed 6 weeks after the completion of treatment. All patients were asked to fill in a validated questionnaire to report therapy-related side effects. Each symptom was graded from absent or present. Ninety-seven (21 men and 76 women) were enrolled. All the patients completed the study. The H. pylori eradication rate was 90.7% (88 of 97 patients). Side effects were observed in reasonable percentages, and none of the patients left the study because of drug side effect. Bismuth-lansoprazole-amoxicillin-clarithromycin regimen as a 2-week course achieved an acceptable eradication rate with relatively mild side effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A graphene based frequency quadrupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-04-01

    Benefit from exceptional electrical transport properties, graphene receives worldwide attentions, especially in the domain of high frequency electronics. Due to absence of effective bandgap causing off-state the device, graphene material is extraordinarily suitable for analog circuits rather than digital applications. With this unique ambipolar behavior, graphene can be exploited and utilized to achieve high performance for frequency multipliers. Here, dual-gated graphene field-effect transistors have been firstly used to achieve frequency quadrupling. Two Dirac points in the transfer curves of the designed GFETs can be observed by tuning top-gate voltages, which is essential to generate the fourth harmonic. By applying 200 kHz sinusoid input, arround 50% of the output signal radio frequency power is concentrated at the desired frequency of 800 kHz. Additionally, in suitable operation areas, our devices can work as high performance frequency doublers and frequency triplers. Considered both simple device structure and potential superhigh carrier mobility of graphene material, graphene-based frequency quadruplers may have lots of superiorities in regards to ultrahigh frequency electronic applications in near future. Moreover, versatility of carbon material system is far-reaching for realization of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible electrically active devices.

  11. HCCS1-armed, quadruple-regulated oncolytic adenovirus specific for liver cancer as a cancer targeting gene-viro-therapy strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hai-Neng

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In previously published studies, oncolytic adenovirus-mediated gene therapy has produced good results in targeting cancer cells. However, safety and efficacy, the two most important aspects in cancer therapy, remain serious challenges. The specific expression or deletion of replication related genes in an adenovirus has been frequently utilized to regulate the cancer cell specificity of a virus. Accordingly, in this study, we deleted 24 bp in E1A (bp924-bp947 and the entirety of E1B, including those genes encoding E1B 55kDa and E1B19kDa. We used the survivin promoter (SP to control E1A in order to construct a new adenovirus vector named Ad.SP.E1A(Δ24.ΔE1B (briefly Ad.SPDD. HCCS1 (hepatocellular carcinoma suppressor 1 is a novel tumor suppressor gene that is able to specifically induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The expression cassette AFP-HCCS1-WPRE-SV40 was inserted into Ad.SPDD to form Ad.SPDD-HCCS1, enabling us to improve the safety and efficacy of oncolytic-mediated gene therapy for liver cancer. Results Ad.SPDD showed a decreased viral yield and less toxicity in normal cells but enhanced toxicity in liver cancer cells, compared with the cancer-specific adenovirus ZD55 (E1B55K deletion. Ad.SPDD-HCCS1 exhibited a potent anti-liver-cancer ability and decreased toxicity in vitro. Ad.SPDD-HCCS1 also showed a measurable capacity to inhibit Huh-7 xenograft tumor growth on nude mice. The underlying mechanism of Ad.SPDD-HCCS1-induced liver cancer cell death was found to be via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Ad.SPDD-HCCS1 was able to elicit reduced toxicity and enhanced efficacy both in vitro and in vivo compared to a previously constructed oncolytic adenovirus. Ad.SPDD-HCCS1 could be a promising candidate for liver cancer therapy.

  12. Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for peptic ulcer complicated with helicobacter pylori infection%含铋剂四联疗法治疗消化性溃疡幽门螺杆菌感染的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛从俊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical curative effect of bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for peptic ulcer complicated with helicobacter pylori infection.Methods 208 patients with peptic ulcer complicated with helicobacter pylori infection admitted into our hospital from July,2013 to April,2015 were selected for prospective study and were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group,104 cases for each group.The experimental group was treated with quadruple therapy of amoxicillin,pantoprazole,furazolidone,and colloidal bismuth pectin and the control group with triple therapy of amoxicillin,pantoprazole,and clarithromycin.The treatment effectiveness evaluation of gastric ulcer,andduodenal ulcer,helicobacter pylori eradicated rate,conditions of drug adverse reactions,etc.of these two groups were compared.Results The significance of thetreatment effectiveness evaluation of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcerwas better in the experimental group (95.00% and 98.44%) than in the control group(75% and 83.33%),with statistical differences(P<0.01).The helicobacter pylori eradicated rates of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer were better in the experimental group (90.00% and 95.31%) than in the control group(68.18% and 71.67%),with statistical differences(P>0.01).There was no statistical difference in the incidence of drug adverse reactions bwtween these two groups(6.72% vs.3.84%,P>0.05).Conclusions Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer with helicobacter pylori infection has significant clinical curative effect and better safety.It is of reference.%目的 探讨含铋剂四联疗法治疗消化性溃疡幽门螺杆菌感染的临床疗效.方法 收集本院2013年7月至2015年4月收治的消化性溃疡幽门螺杆菌感染患者208例前瞻性研究且随机分为两组,每组104例,实验组患者给予阿莫西林+泮托拉唑+呋喃唑酮+胶体果胶铋四联疗法治疗,对照组患者则给

  13. Effect of quadruple therapy on peptic ulcer curative with Helicobacter pylori infection%四联疗法治疗幽门螺杆菌阳性消化性溃疡疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚松; 汪文渊; 蔡晓林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect and eradication rate of quadruple therapy in the healing of duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Altogether 247 patients of duodenal ulcer or gastric ulcer with Helicobacter pylori infection which were proven by gastroscope and rapid urease method were given rabeprazole( 20 mg,bid ),colloidal bismuth pectin( 0. 2 g,bid ), clarithromycin( 0. 5 g, bid )and metronidazole( 0. 4 g, bid ). After a week, only rabeprazole was given for 5 weeks( 20 mg, qd ). At the end of the treatment, the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori and the healing rate of ulcer were evaluated by the second endoscopey and rapid urease method. Results A total of 196 patients completed the trial. The eradication rates of H. Pylori in duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer were 86% and 67. 4% ,respectively. The total eradication rate was 81. 6%. The ulcer healing rates in duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer were 89. 3% and 84. 8% ,respectively. The total healing rates was 88. 3%. There was significant difference in the eradication rate and healing rate between the duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion The quadruple therapy which includes rabeprazole showed more effect and H. Pylori eradication rate in duodenal ulcer patients than gastric ulcer patients.%目的 观察四联疗法治疗HP阳性的十二指肠溃疡、胃溃疡HP根除率及疗效.方法 经胃镜和快速尿素酶方法确诊的HP阳性十二指肠溃疡和胃溃疡共247例.予雷贝拉唑20 mg,2次/日+胶体果胶铋0.2,2次/日+克拉霉素0.5,2次/日+甲硝唑0.4,2次/日,口服一周,继而连服雷贝拉唑20 mg,一次/日共5周.疗程结束四周后胃镜及快速尿素酶试验复查.结果 随访成功196例,HP总根除率81.6%,其中十二指肠溃疡根除率86%,胃溃疡根除率67.4%,溃疡病总有效率88.3%,其中十二指肠溃疡有效率89.3%,胃溃疡有效率84.8%,两组比较差异显著(P<0.01).结论 含雷贝拉唑的四

  14. A furazolidone-based quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori retreatment in patients with peptic ulcer disease Esquema quádruplo com furazolidona para retratamento do Helicobacter pylori, em pacientes ulcerosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Natan Eisig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Many of the currently used eradication regimens against Helicobacter pylori fail to cure the infection either due to antimicrobial resistance or to poor patient compliance. The infection leads to increased risk of developing potentially severe complications, such as gastric cancer. This study was aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety of a quadruple therapy with furazolidone for H. pylori retreatment. METHODS: Patients who had failed one or more eradication regimens against H. pylori infection underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Biopsy specimens were taken from the gastric antrum and corpus for histology and for a urease test and. Patients received omeprazole 20 mg, bismuth citrate 240 mg, tetracycline 500 mg, and furazolidone 200 mg, all twice daily for 7 days. Therapeutic success was evaluated by endoscopy and biopsies 8 weeks after the end of treatment. RESULTS: Sixty two patients were enrolled, and 58 completed the study. Under this protocol, H. pylori eradication was achieved in 39/58 patients (67%. Mild adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The short quadruple therapy course with furazolidone is well tolerated, inexpensive, and effective in retreatment for H. pylori infection. It is a good option for developing countries.OBJETIVO: Muitos dos esquemas atualmente usados na erradicação do Helicobacter pylori não conseguem curar a infecção, pela resistência bacteriana ou pela baixa adesão do paciente. Esta condição manterá os riscos de desenvolvimento das potenciais complicações graves da infecção. Este estudo procurou determinar a eficácia e segurança de um esquema quádruplo que associou a furazolidona para o retratamento da infecção pelo H. pylori. MÉTODOS: Pacientes que não alcançaram erradicação em um ou mais tratamentos foram submetidos à endoscopia digestiva alta e dois fragmentos do antro e do corpo foram retirados para exame histológico e de urease. Receberam então 20mg de omeprazol

  15. Suicide Risk Quadruples After Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165864.html Suicide Risk Quadruples After Lung Cancer Diagnosis Doctors, loved ... have a strikingly higher-than-normal risk of suicide, a new study finds. While a cancer diagnosis ...

  16. Shortening trinucleotide repeats using highly specific endonucleases: a possible approach to gene therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck

    2015-04-01

    Trinucleotide repeat expansions are involved in more than two dozen neurological and developmental disorders. Conventional therapeutic approaches aimed at regulating the expression level of affected genes, which rely on drugs, oligonucleotides, and/or transgenes, have met with only limited success so far. An alternative approach is to shorten repeats to non-pathological lengths using highly specific nucleases. Here, I review early experiments using meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), and transcription-activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) to contract trinucleotide repeats, and discuss the possibility of using CRISPR-Cas nucleases to the same end. Although this is a nascent field, I explore the possibility of designing nucleases and effectively delivering them in the context of gene therapy.

  17. 推拿、针灸、复位、水针四联疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出症45例疗效分析%Efficacy Analysis of Quadruple Therapy with Massage, Acupuncture, Manipulative Reduction and Acupoint Injection on Lumbar Disc Herniation in 45 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云会; 朱丽华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the curative effects of acupuncture, massage, manipulative reduction and acupoint injection on lumbar disc hernia-tion. Methods:45 patients were treated with quadruple therapy of massage, acupuncture, manipulative reduction and acupoint injection. Results:32 cases were cured, 10 cases improved, 3 cases ineffective, the total efficiency was 93.33%. Conclusion:Efficacy of quadruple therapy with massage, acupuncture, manipulative reduction and acupoint injection on lumbar disc herniation is significant, meanwhile avoiding pains of operation and easi-ly accepted by patients.%目的:观察推拿、针灸、复位、水针四联疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出症的疗效。方法:45例患者均采用推拿、针灸、复位、水针四联疗法治疗。结果:痊愈32例,好转10例,无效3例,总有效率93.33%。结论:推拿、针灸、复位、水针四联疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出症疗效显著,同时避免了手术痛苦,患者容易接受。

  18. Repeat Whole Brain Radiation Therapy with a Simultaneous Infield Boost: A Novel Technique for Reirradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Hall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients who experience intracranial progression after whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT is a clinical challenge. Novel radiation therapy delivery technologies are being applied with the objective of improving tumor and symptom control in these patients. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical outcomes of the application of a novel technology to deliver repeat WBRT with volume modulated arc therapy (VMAT and a simultaneous infield boost (WB-SIB to gross disease. A total of 16 patients were initially treated with WBRT between 2000 and 2008 and then experienced intracranial progression, were treated using repeat WB-SIB, and were analyzed. The median dose for the first course of WBRT was 35 Gy (range: 30–50.4 Gy. Median time between the initial course of WBRT and repeat WB-SIB was 11.3 months. The median dose at reirradiation was 20 Gy to the whole brain with a median boost dose of 30 Gy to gross disease. A total of 2 patients demonstrated radiographic disease progression after treatment. The median overall survival (OS time from initial diagnosis of brain metastases was 18.9 months (range: 7.1–66.6 (95% CI: 0.8–36.9. The median OS time after initiation of reirradiation for all patients was 2.7 months (range: 0.46–14.46 (95% CI: 1.3–8.7. Only 3 patients experienced CTCAE grade 3 fatigue. No other patients experienced any ≥ CTCAE grade 3 toxicity. This analysis reports the result of a novel RT delivery technique for the treatment of patients with recurrent brain metastases. Side effects were manageable and comparable to other conventional repeat WBRT series. Repeat WB-SIB using the VMAT RT delivery technology is feasible and appears to have acceptable short-term acute toxicity. These results may provide a foundation for further exploration of the WB-SIB technique for repeat WBRT in future prospective clinical trials.

  19. Polymeric photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding metal stent for repeatable endoscopic photodynamic therapy of cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Byoung-chan; Yang, Su-Geun; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Na, Kun; Kim, Joon Mee; Costamagna, Guido; Kozarek, Richard A; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Deviere, Jacques; Seo, Dong Wan; Nageshwar Reddy, D

    2014-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic approach for the palliative treatment of malignant bile duct obstruction. In this study, we designed photosensitizer-embedded self-expanding nonvascular metal stent (PDT-stent) which allows repeatable photodynamic treatment of cholangiocarcinoma without systemic injection of photosensitizer. Polymeric photosensitizer (pullulan acetate-conjugated pheophorbide A; PPA) was incorporated in self-expanding nonvascular metal stent. Residence of PPA in the stent was estimated in buffer solution and subcutaneous implantation on mouse. Photodynamic activity of PDT-stent was evaluated through laserexposure on stent-layered tumor cell lines, HCT-116 tumor-xenograft mouse models and endoscopic intervention of PDT-stent on bile duct of mini pigs. Photo-fluorescence imaging of the PDT-stent demonstrated homogeneous embedding of polymeric Pheo-A (PPA) on stent membrane. PDT-stent sustained its photodynamic activities at least for 2 month. And which implies repeatable endoscopic PDT is possible after stent emplacement. The PDT-stent after light exposure successfully generated cytotoxic singlet oxygen in the surrounding tissues, inducing apoptotic degradation of tumor cells and regression of xenograft tumors on mouse models. Endoscopic biliary in-stent photodynamic treatments on minipigs also suggested the potential efficacy of PDT-stent on cholangiocarcinoma. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed our PDT-stent, allows repeatable endoscopic biliary PDT, has the potential for the combination therapy (stent plus PDT) of cholangiocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of repeat computerized tomography replans in the radiation therapy of head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical changes can occur during course of head-and-neck (H and N radiotherapy like tumor shrinkage, decreased edema and/or weight loss. This can lead to discrepancies in planned and delivered dose increasing the dose to organs at risk. A study was conducted to determine the volumetric and dosimetric changes with the help of repeat computed tomography (CT and replanning for selected H and N cancer patients treated with IMRT plans to see for these effects. In 15 patients with primary H and N cancer, a repeat CT scan after 3 rd week of radiotherapy was done when it was clinically indicated and then two plans were generated on repeat CT scan, actual plan (AP planned on repeat CT scan, and hybrid plan (HP, which was generated by applying the first intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT plan (including monitoring units to the images of second CT scan. Both plans (AP and HP on repeat CT scan were compared for volumetric and dosimetric parameter. The mean variation in volumes between CT and repeat CT were 44.32 cc, 82.2 cc, and 149.83 cc for gross tumor volume (GTV, clinical target volumes (CTV, and planning target volume (PTV, respectively. Mean conformity index and homogeneity index was 0.68 and 1.07, respectively for AP and 0.5 and 1.16, respectively for HP. Mean D 95 and D 99 of PTV was 97.92% (standard deviation, SD 2.32 and 93.4% (SD 3.75, respectively for AP and 92.8% (SD 3.83 and 82.8% (SD 8.0, respectively for HP. Increase in mean doses to right parotid, left parotid, spine, and brainstem were 5.56 Gy (D mean , 3.28 Gy (D mean , 1.25 Gy (D max , and 3.88 Gy (D max , respectively in HP compared to AP. Repeat CT and replanning reduces the chance of discrepancies in delivered dose due to volume changes and also improves coverage to target volume and further reduces dose to organ at risk.

  1. Group therapy for adolescents with repeated self harm: randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J M; Wood, A J; Kerfoot, M J; Trainor, G; Roberts, C; Rothwell, J; Woodham, A; Ayodeji, E; Barrett, B; Byford, S; Harrington, R

    2011-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group therapy for self harm in young people. Two arm, single (assessor) blinded parallel randomised allocation trial of a group therapy intervention in addition to routine care, compared with routine care alone. Randomisation was by minimisation controlling for baseline frequency of self harm, presence of conduct disorder, depressive disorder, and severity of psychosocial stress. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with at least two past episodes of self harm within the previous 12 months. Exclusion criteria were: not speaking English, low weight anorexia nervosa, acute psychosis, substantial learning difficulties (defined by need for specialist school), current containment in secure care. Setting Eight child and adolescent mental health services in the northwest UK. Manual based developmental group therapy programme specifically designed for adolescents who harm themselves, with an acute phase over six weekly sessions followed by a booster phase of weekly groups as long as needed. Details of routine care were gathered from participating centres. Primary outcome was frequency of subsequent repeated episodes of self harm. Secondary outcomes were severity of subsequent self harm, mood disorder, suicidal ideation, and global functioning. Total costs of health, social care, education, and criminal justice sector services, plus family related costs and productivity losses, were recorded. 183 adolescents were allocated to each arm (total n = 366). Loss to follow-up was low (self harm, proportional odds ratio of group therapy versus routine care adjusting for relevant baseline variables was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.44, P = 0.95) at 6 months and 0.88 (0.59 to 1.33, P = 0.52) at 1 year. For severity of subsequent self harm the equivalent odds ratios were 0.81 (0.54 to 1.20, P = 0.29) at 6 months and 0.94 (0.63 to 1.40, P = 0.75) at 1 year. Total 1 year costs were higher in the group therapy arm (£21,781) than

  2. Clinical observation of Weichang'an Pills combined with quadruple therapy in treatment of helicobacter pylori infection in children%胃肠安丸联合四联疗法治疗儿童幽门螺杆菌感染的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲

    2015-01-01

    目的观察胃肠安丸联合四联疗法治疗儿童幽门螺杆菌感染的临床疗效.方法 2013年1月—2014年8月沈阳市儿童医院收治的幽门螺杆菌感染患儿98例,随机分为对照组和治疗组,每组49例.对照组给予四联疗法治疗,治疗组在四联疗法的基础上口服胃肠安丸.两组均连续治疗14 d.比较两组患儿腹痛、食欲不振、恶心呕吐等临床表现的持续时间、幽门螺杆菌根除率、抗生素相关性腹泻发生率.结果 治疗后,治疗组腹痛、食欲不振、恶心呕吐持续时间显著短于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对照组和治疗组幽门螺杆菌根除率分别为 91.83%、95.91%,两组比较差异无统计学意义.对照组和治疗组抗生素相关性腹泻发病率分别为18.3%、8.1%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 胃肠安丸联合四联疗法治疗儿童幽门螺杆菌感染具有较好的临床疗效,可缓解临床症状,减少抗生素相关性腹泻的发生.%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of Weichang'an Pills combined with quadruple therapy in treatment of helicobacter pylori infection in children.Methods Patients (98 cases) with helicobacter pylori infection in Shenyang Children's Hospital from January 2013 to August 2014 were randomly divided into control and treatment groups, and each group had 49 cases. The patients in the control group were given quadruple therapy. The patients in the treatment group were po administered with Weichang'an Pills at the basis of quadruple therapy. Both groups were treated for 14 d. The duration of abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, eradication rates of helicobacter pylori, and incidence of antibiotic associated diarrhea in two groups were compared.Results After treatment, durations of abdominal pain, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting were shorter than those in the control group, and there were differences between two groups (P< 0.05). The

  3. Curative effect analysis of 10 days sequential therapy and quadruple therapy in treatment of helicobacter pylori infection%10日序贯疗法与四联疗法治疗幽门螺杆菌感染疗效对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏彦; 徐宝宏; 吴海波

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨10日序贯疗法与四联疗法治疗幽门螺杆菌感染疗效对比。方法随机选择对照组42例,采用四联疗法进行治疗:阿莫西林1000mg+克拉霉素500mg+奥美拉唑20mg+枸橼酸铋钾220mg,Bid,治疗10d;治疗组43例,应用10日序贯疗法治疗:前5d给予阿莫西林1000mg+奥美拉唑20mg,Bid;后5d给予甲硝唑400mg+克拉霉素500mg+奥美拉唑20mg,Bid。结果两组经10d治疗后,停PPI及抗生素满4周,经13C-UBT试验阴性者为幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori)根治成功。实验结果显示:对照组根治成功33例,根除率达78.6%(33/42);治疗组根治成功40例,根除率达93.0%(40/43)。应用统计学分析,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论本实验结果显示,两组治疗方法对治疗幽门螺杆菌感染均有效,同比治疗组疗效更佳,具有重要的临床意义。%Objective To investigate the curative effect comparison of 10 days sequential therapy and quadruple therapy in treatment of helicobacter pylori infection. Methods 42 cases of helicobacter pylori infection were randomly selected as control group,and were given quadruple therapy:1000mg amoxicillin + 500mg clarithromycin+ 20mg omeprazole + 220mg bismuth potassium citrate, Bid, for 10 days; 43 cases of helicobacter pylori infection were randomly selected as treatment group, and were given 10 days sequential therapy:1000mg amoxicillin+20mg omeprazole for the first 5 days,Bid,and 400mg metronidazole+500mg clarithromycin+omeprazole 20 mg for the next 5 days,Bid. Results After treatment for 10 days, stop PPI and antibiotics for 4 weeks, negative 13C-UBT test means helicobacter pylori (H.p ylori) was cured successfully. Experiment results showed that 33 cases of the control group were cured successfully, eradication rate was 78.6%(33/42);40 cases of the treatment group were cured successfully, eradication rate was 93.0% (40/43). Differences of two groups was

  4. Validation of a track repeating algorithm for intensity modulated proton therapy: clinical cases study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Pablo P.; Eley, John G.; Liu, Amy; Mirkovic, Dragan; Randeniya, Sharmalee; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe

    2016-04-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are acknowledged as the most accurate technique to calculate dose distributions. However, due its lengthy calculation times, they are difficult to utilize in the clinic or for large retrospective studies. Track-repeating algorithms, based on MC-generated particle track data in water, accelerate dose calculations substantially, while essentially preserving the accuracy of MC. In this study, we present the validation of an efficient dose calculation algorithm for intensity modulated proton therapy, the fast dose calculator (FDC), based on a track-repeating technique. We validated the FDC algorithm for 23 patients, which included 7 brain, 6 head-and-neck, 5 lung, 1 spine, 1 pelvis and 3 prostate cases. For validation, we compared FDC-generated dose distributions with those from a full-fledged Monte Carlo based on GEANT4 (G4). We compared dose-volume-histograms, 3D-gamma-indices and analyzed a series of dosimetric indices. More than 99% of the voxels in the voxelized phantoms describing the patients have a gamma-index smaller than unity for the 2%/2 mm criteria. In addition the difference relative to the prescribed dose between the dosimetric indices calculated with FDC and G4 is less than 1%. FDC reduces the calculation times from 5 ms per proton to around 5 μs.

  5. The effects of single and repeated psychiatric occupational therapy on psychiatric symptoms: assessment using a visual analogue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hitomi; Terao, Takeshi; Mizokami, Yoshinori

    2012-04-01

    The main aims of psychiatric occupational therapy are to improve daily activity, to enhance communication with others and to reinforce social adaptation. Also, substantial improvements in psychiatric symptoms have been reported, but the effects on psychiatric symptoms are yet to be established. In the present study, we investigated the effects of single and repeated administrations of psychiatric occupational therapy on psychiatric symptoms and determined whether the effects can be predicted. Our subjects were 215 inpatients or outpatients at our university hospital who participated in psychiatric occupational therapy. Five psychiatric symptoms (i.e. depressive mood, tension, irritability, anxiety and fatigue) were subjectively measured just before and just after each psychiatric occupational therapy by using a visual analogue scale (VAS). As a result, there was a significant short-term effect from single psychiatric occupational therapy, but there was no significant further improvement of any psychiatric symptom from repeated psychiatric occupational therapy. The VAS value at the beginning stage significantly predicted improvement of each psychiatric symptom. These findings suggest that single psychiatric occupational therapy can bring about a short-term effect, whereas repeated psychiatric occupational therapy cannot induce long-term effect (accumulated effect) on psychiatric symptoms, and that the improvement can be predicted by baseline psychiatric symptoms.

  6. 含益生菌四联疗法根治顽固性幽门螺杆菌感染的疗效观察%Radical curative efficacy of quadruple therapy containing probiotics on persistent Helicobacter pylori infection: an efficacy observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎莉; 杨卫文; 杨景林; 何天兰; 汪琪

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨含益生菌四联疗法根治顽固性幽门螺杆菌感染(H.pylori)的疗效.方法 经标准三联疗法根治失败的顽固性幽门螺杆菌感染患者180例,随机分为6组:A组(含双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片四联疗法):雷贝拉唑+阿莫西林+克拉霉素+双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片;B组(伴同疗法):雷贝拉唑+阿莫西林+克拉霉素+呋喃唑酮;C组(标准四联疗法):雷贝拉唑+阿莫西林+克拉霉素+胶体果胶铋.疗程均为7d.同样分组方案A1组、B1组、C1组,疗程14d.治疗前后查肝肾功及三大常规,观察药物不良反应.1个月后复查胃镜并作快速尿素酶实验及14C呼吸实验(14C-UBT),观察H.pylori根除情况.结果 含双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片四联疗法根除率7d为76.7%,与其他两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),无任何不良反应发生;14 d为90.0%,与其他两组比较差异也无统计学意义(P>0.05),各组均优于7天组(P <0.05);14天组不良反应发生率为6.67%,7天及14天组不良反应均低于其他相应各组.结论 含双歧杆菌乳杆菌三联活菌片四联疗法根治顽固性幽门螺杆菌感染的疗效与标准四联及伴同疗法相当,但不良反应较少,可以值得推广.%Objective To Discuss the radical curative efficacy of probiotic-containing quadruple therapy on persistent Helicobacter pylori infection.Methods 180 patients with intractable Helicobacter pylori infection after failure of triple therapy were randomly divided into 6 groups:Group A (Quadruple therapy of Live Combined Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus Tablets) was given Rabeprazole + Amoxicillin + Clarithromycin + Live Combined Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus Tablets; Group B (Concomitant therapy) was given Rabeprazole + Amoxicillin + Clarithromycin + Furazolidone ; Group C (Standard quadruple therapy) was given Rabeprazole + Amoxi-cillin + Clarithromycin + Colloidal Bismuth Pectin.The course of treatment was 7 days.The same

  7. Long-term survival in advanced melanoma patients using repeated therapies: successive immunomodulation improving the odds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coventry BJ

    2015-04-01

    had died. Published studies of melanoma therapies were tabled for comparison. Conclusion: The fact that 18 cases of exceptional survival in advanced melanoma were identified is remarkable in itself. Even with recent therapies, the factors for improved survival remain enigmatic; however, one apparent common denominator in most cases was the persistent use of repeated therapies to reduce tumor bulk, induce tumor necrosis, and/or cause immunostimulation. These cases are instructive, suggesting manipulation of an established, endogenous, existing immune response. These observations provide practical evidence that the course for any patient with advanced melanoma at the outset should be considered unpredictable, open to immunomanipulation, and thus not uniformly fatal. The findings were compared and interpreted with reported newer immunotherapeutic approaches. Keywords: advanced melanoma, clinical responses, immunotherapy, prolonged survival

  8. Influence of bifidobacterium quadruple preparations on immunity function and cytokine of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zhang; Xiao-Qin Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of bifidobacterium quadruple preparations on immunity function and cytokine of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.Methods:A total of 92 neonates with hyperbilirubinemia were randomly divided into observation group and control group with 46 cases of each group. The control group received conventional therapy, and the observation group was treated with bifidobacterium quadruple preparations on the basis of the control group. The influence of bifidobacterium quadruple preparations on immunity function and cytokine of the two groups were compared.Results:There was no significantly difference in Bilirubin before the treatment between the two groups (P>0.05), but the observation group was significantly lower than the control group 3, 5, 7 d after the treatment (P<0.01); CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8, IL-6, IL-8 of the observation group were higher than the control group after the treatment (P<0.01), but CD8 was lower than the control group (P<0.01).Conclusions:Bifidobacterium quadruple preparations can improve the immune function, and reduce serum bilirubin levels in neonates with hyperbilirubinemia.

  9. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-03-17

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  10. Variable universe adaptive fuzzy control on the quadruple inverted pendulum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪兴; 苗志宏; 王家银

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the control problem of the quadruple inverted pendulum by variable universe adaptive fuzzy control.First,the mathematical model on the quadruple inverted pendulum is described and its controllability is versified.Then,an efficient controller on the quadruple inverted pendulum is designed by using variable universe adaptive fuzzy control theory.Finally the simulation of the quadruple inverted pendulum is shown in detail.Besides,the experimental results on the hardware systems,i.e.real object systems,on a single inverted pendulum,a double inverted pendulum and a triple inverted pendulum are briefly introduced.``

  11. Asteroidal Quadruples in non Rooted Path Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Marisa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A directed path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a directed tree. A rooted path graph is the intersection graph of a family of directed subpaths of a rooted tree. Rooted path graphs are directed path graphs. Several characterizations are known for directed path graphs: one by forbidden induced subgraphs and one by forbidden asteroids. It is an open problem to find such characterizations for rooted path graphs. For this purpose, we are studying in this paper directed path graphs that are non rooted path graphs. We prove that such graphs always contain an asteroidal quadruple.

  12. 含微生态制剂的四联疗法治疗初治失败的幽门螺杆菌感染31例%Effect of Quadruple Therapy Containing Microecologics on Helicobacter Pylori Infection after First Treatment Failure in 31 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周刚; 李之印; 王仲略; 沈慧琳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects and adverse reactions of quadruple therapy with microecologics supplementation on Helicobacter pylori(HP) infection after first treatment failure.Methods Sixty- two cases of HP eradication failure were divided into two groups randomly, group A treated with rabeprazole + furazolidone + amoxillin + colloidal bismuth pectin and group B with rabeprazole + furazolidone + amoxicillin + microecologics, the treatment course was 7 d in both groups.The eradication of HP was redetermined by the 14C- urea breath test in 4 weeks after treatment.Results The eradication rate was 79.31% in group A and 83.33% in group B respectively(P>0.05).The gastrointestinal adverse reactions in group B were fewer than those in group A( P < 0.05).Conclusion The quadruple therapy containing microecologics is effective in HP infection eradication after first treatment failure, furthermore, which may obviously reduce the adverse reactions in the treatment course.%目的 观察含微生态制剂的四联疗法治疗初治失败的幽门螺杆菌感染的疗效和不良反应.方法 将62例幽门螺杆菌根除失败的患者随机均分为两组,A组予雷贝拉唑+呋喃唑酮十阿莫西林+胶体果胶铋,B组予雷贝拉唑+呋喃唑酮+阿莫西林+微生态制剂,疗程均为7d,治疗结束4周后复查14℃一尿素呼气试验,判断是否根除幽门螺杆菌.结果 A组和B组幽门螺杆菌根除率分别为79.31%和83.33% (P > 0.05) ;B组胃肠道不良反应少于A组(P< 0.05).结论 含微生态制剂的四联疗法能有效根除初治失败的幽门螺杆菌感染,且能够显著降低治疗过程中的胃肠道不良反应.

  13. Repeated applications of photodynamic therapy on Candida glabrata biofilms formed in acrylic resin polymerized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Freitas, Lírian Silva; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have been suggested that photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be used as an adjuvant treatment for denture stomatitis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of multiple sessions of PDT on Candida glabrata biofilms in specimens of polymerized acrylic resin formed after 5 days. Subsequently, four applications of PDT were performed on biofilms in 24-h intervals (days 6-9). Also, we evaluated two types of PDT, including application of laser and methylene blue or light-emitting diode (LED) and erythrosine. The control groups were treated with physiological solution. The effects of PDT on biofilm were evaluated after the first and fourth application of PDT. The biofilm analysis was performed by counting the colony-forming units. The results showed that between the days 6 and 9, the biofilms not treated by PDT had an increase of 5.53 to 6.05 log (p = 0.0271). Regarding the treatments, after one application of PDT, the biofilms decreased from 5.53 to 0.89 log. When it was done four applications, the microbial reduction ranged from 6.05 log to 0.11 log. We observed that one application of PDT with laser or LED caused a reduction of 3.36 and 4.64 compared to the control groups, respectively (p = 0.1708). When it was done four applications of PDT, the reductions achieved were 1.57 for laser and 5.94 for LED (p = 0.0001). It was concluded that repeated applications of PDT on C. glabrata biofilms showed higher antimicrobial activity compared to single application. PDT mediated by LED and erythrosine was more efficient than the PDT mediated by laser and methylene blue.

  14. Thermally tunable quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Robert; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A F

    2013-07-15

    The spectral responses of series-coupled racetrack resonators exhibiting the Vernier effect have many attractive features as compared to the spectral responses of identical series-coupled racetrack resonators, such as free spectral range (FSR) extension and enhanced wavelength tunability. Here we present experimental results of a thermally tunable quadruple series-coupled silicon racetrack resonator exhibiting the Vernier effect. We thermally tune two of the four racetrack resonators to enable discrete switching of the major peak by 15.54 nm. Also, our device has an interstitial peak suppression of 35.4 dB, a 3 dB bandwidth of 0.45 nm, and an extended FSR of 37.66 nm.

  15. Reconfigurable quadruple quantum dots in a silicon nanowire transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betz, A. C., E-mail: ab2106@cam.ac.uk; Broström, M.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F. [Hitachi Cambridge Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Tagliaferri, M. L. V. [Laboratorio MDM, CNR-IMM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universit di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Vinet, M. [CEA/LETI-MINATEC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Sanquer, M. [SPSMS, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ferguson, A. J. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-16

    We present a reconfigurable metal-oxide-semiconductor multi-gate transistor that can host a quadruple quantum dot in silicon. The device consists of an industrial quadruple-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Exploiting the corner effect, we study the versatility of the structure in the single quantum dot and the serial double quantum dot regimes and extract the relevant capacitance parameters. We address the fabrication variability of the quadruple-gate approach which, paired with improved silicon fabrication techniques, makes the corner state quantum dot approach a promising candidate for a scalable quantum information architecture.

  16. Relationships between repeated instruction on inhalation therapy, medication adherence, and health status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Takemura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Masaya Takemura1, Katsumi Mitsui2, Ryo Itotani1, Manabu Ishitoko1, Shinko Suzuki1, Masataka Matsumoto1, Kensaku Aihara1, Tsuyoshi Oguma1, Tetsuya Ueda1, Hitoshi Kagioka1, Motonari Fukui11Division of Respiratory Medicine, 2Division of Pharmacy, Tazuke Kofukai, Medical Research Institute, Kitano Hospital, Osaka, JapanPurpose: Adherence to inhalation therapy is a critical determinant of the success of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD management. However, in practice, nonadherence to inhalation therapy is very common in COPD patients. The effects of adherence to inhalation therapy in COPD have not been fully studied, and less is known about the relationship between medication adherence and quality of life in COPD. Our aim is to assess the factors that contribute to adherence to inhalation therapy and examine their correlation with quality of life.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 88 COPD patients was performed using a self-reported adherence questionnaire with responses on a 5-point Likert scale.Results: Of the 88 patients who were potential participants, 55 (63% responded with usable information. The only significant factor associated with the overall mean adherence score was receiving repeated instruction about inhalation techniques (P = 0.032. Of the 55 respondents, 22 (40.0% were given repeated verbal instruction and/or demonstrations of inhalation technique by a respiratory physician. Significant correlations were found between the overall mean adherence score and the health-related quality of life score (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire: total, r = −0.35, P = 0.023; symptoms, r = −0.43, P = 0.002; impacts, r = −0.35, P = 0.011. Furthermore, patients with repeated instruction showed better quality of life scores than those who did not receive instruction (total, P = 0.030; symptoms, P = 0.038; impacts, P = 0.019.Conclusions: Repeated instruction for inhalation techniques may contribute to adherence to

  17. Quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, N A; Cagnoli, G; Crooks, D R M; Elliffe, E; Grant, A; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Plissi, M V; Rowan, S; Sneddon, P H; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Faller, J E [JILA, NIST and University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fritschel, P [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany St, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Gossler, S [Universitat Hannover, Institut fuer Atom und Molekuelphysik, Abteilung Spektroskopie, D30167, Hannover (Germany); Lueck, H [Universitat Hannover, Institut fuer Atom und Molekuelphysik, Abteilung Spektroskopie, D30167, Hannover (Germany); Mittleman, R [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany St, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Shoemaker, D H [LIGO Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany St, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Willems, P [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 18-34, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2002-08-07

    In this paper, we describe the conceptual design for the suspension system for the test masses for Advanced LIGO, the planned upgrade to LIGO, the US laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory. The design is based on the triple pendulum design developed for GEO 600 - the German/UK interferometric gravitational wave detector. The GEO design incorporates fused silica fibres of circular cross-section attached to the fused silica mirror (test mass) in the lowest pendulum stage, in order to minimize the thermal noise from the pendulum modes. The damping of the low-frequency modes of the triple pendulum is achieved by using co-located sensors and actuators at the highest mass of the triple pendulum. Another feature of the design is that global control forces acting on the mirrors, used to maintain the output of the interferometer on a dark fringe, are applied via a triple reaction pendulum, so that these forces can be implemented via a seismically isolated platform. These techniques have been extended to meet the more stringent noise levels planned for in Advanced LIGO. In particular, the Advanced LIGO baseline design requires a quadruple pendulum with a final stage consisting of a 40 kg sapphire mirror, suspended on fused silica ribbons or fibres. The design is chosen to aim to reach a target noise contribution from the suspension corresponding to a displacement sensitivity of 10{sup -19} m Hz{sup -1/2} at 10 Hz at each of the test masses.

  18. Contact transcleral ciliary body photodynamic therapy with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits: effect of repeated treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charisis, Spyridon K; Naoumidi, Irene I; Ginis, Harilaos S; Detorakis, Efstathios T; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the ciliary body (CB) morphology after four consecutive contact transcleral photodynamic treatments of the ciliary body (CB-PDT) with verteporfin in pigmented rabbits. Twenty-two pigmented rabbits underwent CB-PDT (study group), performed once (six rabbits) or repeated for up to four times (16 rabbits). Six additional rabbits received only laser treatment without photosensitizer administration (control group). CB-PDT was performed in one eye in rabbits of the study group, with the fellow eye serving as internal control. Verteporfin dosage was 1 mg kg(-1) as bolus injection and laser settings were 40 mW (600 microm core optical fiber) for 1.5 min per spot, for 10 spots. In repeated CB-PDT, treatments were performed in 4-day intervals. Daily IOP measurements were recorded. Histological studies were performed at selected time points. An IOP reduction, more sustained following repeated treatments, was detected in all treated eyes but not in fellow eyes or in the control group. On the average, the IOP was restored to pretreatment levels 4 days after the last treatment. No serious adverse events were observed and the CB architecture was intact at the end of the experiment. Repeated CB-PDT is safe and results in a short-term reduction of IOP. Induced CB alterations are reversible.

  19. Effectiveness of repeated photodynamic therapy in the elimination of intracanal Enterococcus faecalis biofilm: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prażmo, Ewa Joanna; Godlewska, Renata Alicja; Mielczarek, Agnieszka Beata

    2017-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in the elimination of intracanal Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and to analyse how a repeated light irradiation, replenishment of oxygen and photosensitiser affect the results of the photodynamic disinfecting protocol. After chemomechanical preparation, 46 single-rooted human teeth were infected with a clinical strain of E. faecalis and incubated for a week in microaerobic conditions. The experimental procedures included groups of single application of photodynamic therapy, two cycles of PDT, irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl solution and negative and positive control. The number of residing bacterial colonies in the root canals was determined based on the CFU/ml method. In the group of preparations irrigated with NaOCl, bacterial colonies were not observed. A single PDT eliminated 45% of the initial CFU/ml. Repeated PDT eradicated 95% of the intracanal bacterial biofilm. Photodynamic therapy has a high potential for the elimination of E. faecalis biofilm. There is a safe therapeutic window where photoinduced disinfection can be used as an adjuvant to conventional endodontic treatment, which remains the most effective.

  20. Repeated Radionuclide therapy in metastatic paraganglioma leading to the highest reported cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezziddin Samer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 131I-MIBG therapy for neuroendocrine tumours may be dose limited. The common range of applied cumulative activities is 10-40 GBq. We report the uneventful cumulative administration of 111 GBq (= 3 Ci 131I-MIBG in a patient with metastatic paraganglioma. Ten courses of 131I-MIBG therapy were given within six years, accomplishing symptomatic, hormonal and tumour responses with no serious adverse effects. Chemotherapy with cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine was the final treatment modality with temporary control of disease, but eventually the patient died of progression. The observed cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG represents the highest value reported to our knowledge, and even though 12.6 GBq of 90Y-DOTATOC were added intermediately, no associated relevant bone marrow, hepatic or other toxicity were observed. In an individual attempt to palliate metastatic disease high cumulative activity alone should not preclude the patient from repeat treatment.

  1. SU-E-T-764: Track Repeating Algorithm for Proton Therapy Applied to Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Head-And-Neck Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yepes, P [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Mirkovic, D [U.T M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mohan, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the suitability of fast Monte Carlo techniques for dose calculation in particle therapy based on track-repeating algorithm for Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy, IMPT. The application of this technique will make possible detailed retrospective studies of large cohort of patients, which may lead to a better determination of Relative Biological Effects from the analysis of patient data. Methods: A cohort of six head-and-neck patients treated at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center with IMPT were utilized. The dose distributions were calculated with the standard Treatment Plan System, TPS, MCNPX, GEANT4 and FDC, a fast track-repeating algorithm for proton therapy for the verification and the patient plans. FDC is based on a GEANT4 database of trajectories of protons in a water. The obtained dose distributions were compared to each other utilizing the g-index criteria for 3mm-3% and 2mm-2%, for the maximum spatial and dose differences. The γ-index was calculated for voxels with a dose at least 10% of the maximum delivered dose. Dose Volume Histograms are also calculated for the various dose distributions. Results: Good agreement between GEANT4 and FDC is found with less than 1% of the voxels with a γ-index larger than 1 for 2 mm-2%. The agreement between MCNPX with FDC is within the requirements of clinical standards, even though it is slightly worse than the comparison with GEANT4.The comparison with TPS yielded larger differences, what is also to be expected because pencil beam algorithm do not always performed well in highly inhomogeneous areas like head-and-neck. Conclusion: The good agreement between a track-repeating algorithm and a full Monte Carlo for a large cohort of patients and a challenging, site like head-and-neck, opens the path to systematic and detailed studies of large cohorts, which may yield better understanding of biological effects.

  2. Oligonucleotide-Based Therapy for FTD/ALS Caused by the C9orf72 Repeat Expansion: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive and lethal disease of motor neuron degeneration, leading to paralysis of voluntary muscles and death by respiratory failure within five years of onset. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD is characterised by degeneration of frontal and temporal lobes, leading to changes in personality, behaviour, and language, culminating in death within 5–10 years. Both of these diseases form a clinical, pathological, and genetic continuum of diseases, and this link has become clearer recently with the discovery of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene that causes the FTD/ALS spectrum, that is, c9FTD/ALS. Two basic mechanisms have been proposed as being potentially responsible for c9FTD/ALS: loss-of-function of the protein encoded by this gene (associated with aberrant DNA methylation and gain of function through the formation of RNA foci or protein aggregates. These diseases currently lack any cure or effective treatment. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs are modified nucleic acids that are able to silence targeted mRNAs or perform splice modulation, and the fact that they have proved efficient in repeat expansion diseases including myotonic dystrophy type 1 makes them ideal candidates for c9FTD/ALS therapy. Here, we discuss potential mechanisms and challenges for developing oligonucleotide-based therapy for c9FTD/ALS.

  3. Oligonucleotide-Based Therapy for FTD/ALS Caused by the C9orf72 Repeat Expansion: A Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Stephanie A; Douglas, Andrew G L; Varela, Miguel A; Wood, Matthew J A; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and lethal disease of motor neuron degeneration, leading to paralysis of voluntary muscles and death by respiratory failure within five years of onset. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is characterised by degeneration of frontal and temporal lobes, leading to changes in personality, behaviour, and language, culminating in death within 5-10 years. Both of these diseases form a clinical, pathological, and genetic continuum of diseases, and this link has become clearer recently with the discovery of a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene that causes the FTD/ALS spectrum, that is, c9FTD/ALS. Two basic mechanisms have been proposed as being potentially responsible for c9FTD/ALS: loss-of-function of the protein encoded by this gene (associated with aberrant DNA methylation) and gain of function through the formation of RNA foci or protein aggregates. These diseases currently lack any cure or effective treatment. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are modified nucleic acids that are able to silence targeted mRNAs or perform splice modulation, and the fact that they have proved efficient in repeat expansion diseases including myotonic dystrophy type 1 makes them ideal candidates for c9FTD/ALS therapy. Here, we discuss potential mechanisms and challenges for developing oligonucleotide-based therapy for c9FTD/ALS.

  4. FPGA Based Quadruple Precision Floating Point Arithmetic for Scientific Computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamidi Nagaraju

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this project we explore the capability and flexibility of FPGA solutions in a sense to accelerate scientific computing applications which require very high precision arithmetic, based on IEEE 754 standard 128-bit floating-point number representations. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA is increasingly being used to design high end computationally intense microprocessors capable of handling floating point mathematical operations. Quadruple Precision Floating-Point Arithmetic is important in computational fluid dynamics and physical modelling, which require accurate numerical computations. However, modern computers perform binary arithmetic, which has flaws in representing and rounding the numbers. As the demand for quadruple precision floating point arithmetic is predicted to grow, the IEEE 754 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic includes specifications for quadruple precision floating point arithmetic. We implement quadruple precision floating point arithmetic unit for all the common operations, i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. While previous work has considered circuits for low precision floating-point formats, we consider the implementation of 128-bit quadruple precision circuits. The project will provide arithmetic operation, simulation result, hardware design, Input via PS/2 Keyboard interface and results displayed on LCD using Xilinx virtex5 (XC5VLX110TFF1136 FPGA device.

  5. Polynomial parametrization of Pythagorean quadruples, quintuples and sextuples

    CERN Document Server

    Frisch, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    A Pythagorean n-tuple is an integer solution of x_1^2+...+x_{n-1}^2=x_n^2. For n=4 and n=6, the Pythagorean n-tuples admit a parametrization by a single n-tuple of polynomials with integer coefficients (which is impossible for n=3). For n=5, there is an integer-valued polynomial Pythagorean 5-tuple which parametrizes Pythagorean quintuples (similar to the case n=3). Pythagorean quadruples are closely related to (integer) Descartes quadruples (solutions of 2(b_1^2+b_2^2+b_3^2+b_4^2) = (b_1+b_2+b_3+b_4)^2), which we also parametrize by a Descartes quadruple of polynomials with integer coefficients.

  6. Hardware implementation of the quadruple inverted pendulum with single motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongxing; WANG Jiayin; FENG Yanbin; GU Yundong

    2004-01-01

    Inverted pendulums are always used to verify some qualities and effect of certain control theory or method. Single or double inverted pendulum control system has been extensively studied for education and research purposes. However how to control a triple inverted pendulum is a difficult problem, which just a couple of control experts can solve including us. Undoubtedly, to implement controlling of a quadruple inverted pendulum is a very difficult problem, but we first successfully accomplished it using variable universe adaptive fuzzy control method in August, 2002. In this paper, a controller for a quadruple inverted pendulum is demonstrated using the variable universe adaptive fuzzy control theory.

  7. PHYSICAL THERAPY INTERVENTION FOR MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION AFTER REPEATED LATERAL PATELLAR SUBLUXATION/DISLOCATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Brianne; Vitale, Ashley; Apergis, Demitra; Wirth, Stephen; Grossman, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The incidence of patellar subluxation or dislocation has been documented up to 43/100,000 with females more prevalent then males. There are many contributing factors involving the hip, knee, and ankle that lead to patellar subluxation. A patellar position of lateral tilt with lateral glide may indicate weakness of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and adductors, increased tightness in the iliotibial band, and overpowering of the vastus lateralis. Patella alta can predispose an individual to lateral dislocation due to the patella placement outside of the femoral trochlear groove with a disadvantage of boney stability. Other factors that may cause the patella to laterally sublux or dislocate during a functional activity or sporting activity include a position of femoral external rotation, tibial internal rotation, and excessive contraction of the vastus lateralis. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) aids in the prevention of a lateral patellar subluxation or dislocation. In cases where there is recurrent subluxation/dislocation and Magnetic Resonance Imaging confirms a MPFL tear, a reconstruction may be the treatment of choice. Purpose The purpose of this case series is to describe the post-surgical physical therapy management of MPFL reconstructions, outcomes using the Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) and to propose staged physical therapy interventions for this pathology in the form of a treatment progression. Methods Post-operative management data and outcomes were retrospectively collected using a detailed chart review methodology from seven subjects who underwent MPFL reconstruction. Findings The Modified Cincinnati Knee Outcome Measure (MCKOM) was analyzed for each participant in four sections that were most important to the return and maintenance of participation in sport. At follow-up the mean scores for the seven subjects in Section 3 (instability) was 19.3/20, Section 4 (overall activity level) was 17.3/20, Section

  8. Long-term azithromycin therapy in patients with severe COPD and repeated exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomares X

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Xavier Pomares1, Concepción Montón1, Mateu Espasa2, Jordi Casabon1, Eduard Monsó1,3, Miguel Gallego1,31Pneumology Service, 2Laboratory Service, Corporació Parc Taulí, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Sabadell, Spain; 3Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias – CibeRes, Bunyola, SpainBackground: The aim of this study was to determine whether long-term intermittent azithromycin therapy reduces the frequency of exacerbation in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Methods: We retrospectively investigated the clinical benefits of long-term azithromycin (500 mg orally three times per week over 12 months in patients with severe COPD and a minimum of four acute exacerbations (AECOPD per year or chronic bronchial colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, comparing the number of AECOPD, hospitalizations due to respiratory disease, days of hospital stay, and bacterial infections during azithromycin treatment and in the year prior to this therapy.Results: Twenty patients who completed the 12-month treatment period were analyzed. No clinically significant adverse events were observed during azithromycin treatment. Compared with baseline data, azithromycin therapy significantly reduced the number of AECOPD (2.8 ± 2.5 versus 6.8 ± 2.8, P < 0.001, hospitalizations (1.4 ± 1.5 versus 3.6 ± 1.4, P < 0.001, and cumulative annual days of hospital stay (25 ± 32.2 versus 43.7 ± 21.4, P = 0.01. The improvement was particularly significant in patients with exacerbations caused by common potentially pathogenic microorganisms, who had 70% fewer AECOPD and hospitalizations. Patients colonized by P. aeruginosa had reductions of 43% in AECOPD and 47% in hospitalizations.Conclusion: Long-term azithromycin is well tolerated and associated with significant reductions in AECOPD, hospitalizations, and length of hospital stay in patients with severe COPD.Keywords: azithromycin, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbation, macrolides

  9. Repeated sauna therapy attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats by increasing coronary vascularity of noninfarcted myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobajima, Mitsuo; Nozawa, Takashi; Shida, Takuya; Ohori, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Matsuki, Akira; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Repeated sauna therapy (ST) increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and improves cardiac function in heart failure as well as peripheral blood flow in ischemic limbs. The present study investigates whether ST can increase coronary vascularity and thus attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We induced MI by ligating the left coronary artery of Wistar rats. The rats were placed in a far-infrared dry sauna at 41°C for 15 min and then at 34°C for 20 min once daily for 4 wk. Cardiac hemodynamic, histopathological, and gene analyses were performed. Despite the similar sizes of MI between the ST and non-ST groups (51.4 ± 0.3 vs. 51.1 ± 0.2%), ST reduced left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (9.7 ± 0.4 vs. 10.7 ± 0.5 mm, P myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA levels. Vascular density was reduced in the noninfarcted myocardium of non-ST rats, and the density of cells positive for CD31 and for α-smooth muscle actin was decreased. These decreases were attenuated in ST rats compared with non-ST rats and associated with increases in myocardial eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. In conclusion, ST attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI, at least in part, through improving coronary vascularity in the noninfarcted myocardium. Repeated ST might serve as a novel noninvasive therapy for patients with MI.

  10. Electronomicroscopic evaluation of the microlesional aspects in the pulp dentinal complex after repeated whitening therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodea, Rodica; Jianu, Rodica; Marchese, Cristian; Vasile, Liliana

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cellular and matriceal dynamics within pulp tissue of the teeth with repeated bleaching. Material and method - The study was made on 25 patients aged between 15 and 45, to whom bleaching method of the premolars with indication of extraction in orthodontic purposes was applied. None of the subjects smoked and throughout the investigation no antibiotics had been used. We initiated an intensive oral hygiene program, and we removed the supragingival and subgingival deposits. Oral hygiene and the gingival health were evaluated before every session of bleaching. During each visit the dentition was cleaned professionally and if needed the subjects were reinstucted in proper oral hygiene. After 3 and 5 successive bleachings of the teeth, we removed the dental pulps and we extracted the premolars. The pulpal biopsies were fixed in buffed formaldehyde 10% for 48 hours, then paraffinized, sectioned at 3-5 μ and stained with topographic, H&E and trichrome stained. For the electonomicroscopic study we used the Lehner technique to process the biopsies (n=3) after the reinclusion of the pieces from the paraffine blocks in Epon, postfixated in buffered glutaraldehyde, micro sectioned at 0,5 μ, contrastated with Pb citrate (stained) and examination in transmission electronic microscopy with Philips microscope. Results - At cellular and matriceal level we observed a marked collagen fibrillogenesis in the presence of active fibroblasts, with well developed cellular organites and fibroclastic aspects which suggest matriceal active repair. The microvascular network presents an activated endothelium with turgescent endothelial cells, with intracitoplasmatic resorbtion vacuols, well developed Golgi Complex. Conclusion - We interpreed the cell - matriceal lesions in the context of the acute inflammatory process in the first lesional phase and chronic scleroatrophic process after successive bleaching.

  11. 低剂量他克莫司为基础四联免疫抑制方案在肾移植中的应用:4年随访结果%Application of quadruple immunosuppressive therapies based on low-dosage Tacrolimus in kidney transplantation: 4-year follow-up results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄赤兵; 许晓婷; 范明齐; 张艮甫; 王平贤; 冯嘉瑜; 肖亚

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been no consensus about selection and application dosage of immunosuppressive drugs after kidney transplantation due to great individual difference of drugs caused by gradual development and application. OBJECTIVE: To explore the immunosuppressive efficacy, the protective effects on renal function and the application safety of the quadruple immunosuppressive therapy based on low dosage of Tacrolimus (Tac) in kidney transplantation. METHODS: In the control group (schedule 11, Tac, mycophenolate mofetii (MMF), and prednisone were used. In the experimental group 1, reduced dose of Tac and MMF (schedule 2) and sirolimus (SRI.) were used. In the experimental group 2, reduced dose of Tac and MMF (schedule 2) and mizoribine (MZR) were used. The recipient lymphocyte reaction in each group was detected at 1,4 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Urine transforming growth factor -β1 was tested once every 6 months. Liver and renal function, blood and urine routine, and blood glucose were examined every 13 months after kidney transplantation. All patients were followed up for 4 years.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in acute rejection and infection rate among the three groups. At 4 weeks after transplantation, the recipient lymphocyte reaction was significantly weaker in the experimental groups 1, 2 than in the control group (P < 0.05). At 1 year after transplantation, transforming growth factor β1 concentration was significantly lower in the experimental groups 1, 2 than in the control group (P < 0.05). At 2 years after transplantation, serum creatinine and ciealimne clearance rate were significantly lower, and adverse events including liver damage and high glucose, were fewer in the experimental groups 1, 2 than in the control group (P<0.05). These findings suggest that compared with the triple immunosuppressive therapy based on conventional dose of Tac, the Quadruple immunosuppressive therapy shares the same

  12. Transfer of genetic therapy across human populations: molecular targets for increasing patient coverage in repeat expansion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Miguel A; Curtis, Helen J; Douglas, Andrew G L; Hammond, Suzan M; O'Loughlin, Aisling J; Sobrido, Maria J; Scholefield, Janine; Wood, Matthew J A

    2016-02-01

    Allele-specific gene therapy aims to silence expression of mutant alleles through targeting of disease-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, SNP linkage to disease varies between populations, making such molecular therapies applicable only to a subset of patients. Moreover, not all SNPs have the molecular features necessary for potent gene silencing. Here we provide knowledge to allow the maximisation of patient coverage by building a comprehensive understanding of SNPs ranked according to their predicted suitability toward allele-specific silencing in 14 repeat expansion diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy 1, myotonic dystrophy 2, Huntington's disease and several spinocerebellar ataxias. Our systematic analysis of DNA sequence variation shows that most annotated SNPs are not suitable for potent allele-specific silencing across populations because of suboptimal sequence features and low variability (>97% in HD). We suggest maximising patient coverage by selecting SNPs with high heterozygosity across populations, and preferentially targeting SNPs that lead to purine:purine mismatches in wild-type alleles to obtain potent allele-specific silencing. We therefore provide fundamental knowledge on strategies for optimising patient coverage of therapeutics for microsatellite expansion disorders by linking analysis of population genetic variation to the selection of molecular targets.

  13. 中医辨证四联疗法治疗急性胰腺炎的临床疗效及对血清炎性因子的影响%The clinical therapeutic effect of quadruple therapy of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation for treatment of patients with acute pancreatitis and its influence on serum inflammatory cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国红; 朱沛文; 王晓; 曾震军; 李春颖; 李合国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of quadruple therapy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome differentiation for treatment of patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) and its influence on serum inflammatory cytokines.Methods A prospective study was conducted, and 83 patients with AP in Department of Digestology of the First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of TCM from April 2014 to April 2015 were divided into combined TCM and western medicine treatment group (43 cases) and western medicine control group (40 cases) by random number table method. Conventional western medicine treatment was given to both groups, and the combined treatment group was additionally treated by the quadruple therapy of the TCM syndrome differentiation, including: ① Intra-gastric administration of TCM decoction: in cases with liver and gallbladder damp heat syndrome, the formula of radix bupleuri, radix et rhizoma rhei, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, scutellaria, pinellia, radix paeoniae alba, etc was used, and in cases with gastrointestinal repletion heat syndromes, Dachengqi decoction was applied (ingredients: rhubarb, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, magnolia bark, glauber's salt). After differentiation of syndromes, the TCM decoction 100 mL was prepared for corresponding patients. The decoction was injected through a stomach tube, once every 4 hours, after once injection the tube was closed by a clip for 1 hour and then opened. ② Enema: 200 mL Dachengqi decoction with addition of peach seed, radish seed, etc. was used for high retention enema (20 cm from the anus), once every 6 hours. ③ External application: the external applied agent was prepared by vaseline evenly mixed with powders of following ingredients: frankincense, myrrh, phellodendron bark, scutellaria, coptis, dandelion, and dressed on the body surface of pancreatic region, covered with lotus leaf once a day. ④ Intravenous drip (IV) of Breviscapine injection 40 mL/d; in cases with Qi and Yin deficiency

  14. Modeling and Simulation of a Modified Quadruple Tank System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd. Azam, Sazuan Nazrah; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    Quadruple tank process is a non-linear system, have multiple manipulated and controlled variables and have significant cross binding parameters. Furthermore, the modified system is affected by some unknown measurement noise and stochastic disturbance variables which make it more complicated...... to model and control. In this paper, a modified quadruple-tank system has been described, all the important variables has been outlined and a mathematical model has been presented. We developed deterministic and stochastic models using differential equations and simulate the models using Matlab....... Subsequently, steady state analysis is included to determine the operating window for the set points. The purpose to have an operating window for the system is to distinguish the range of feasible region to select the set points for optimum operations. Therefore, in this paper a virtual process plant...

  15. Subfactors of index less than 5, part 3: quadruple points

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Masaki; Morrison, Scott; Snyder, And Noah

    2011-01-01

    One major obstacle in extending the classification of small index subfactors beyond 3+\\sqrt{3} is the appearance of infinite families of candidate principal graphs with 4-valent vertices (in particular, the "weeds" Q and Q' from Part 1 (arXiv:1007.1730)). Thus instead of using triple point obstructions to eliminate candidate graphs, we need to develop new quadruple point obstructions. In this paper we prove two quadruple point obstructions. The first uses quadratic tangles techniques and eliminates the weed Q' immediately. The second uses connections, and when combined with an additional number theoretic argument it eliminates both weeds Q and Q'. Finally, we prove the uniqueness (up to taking duals) of the 3311 Goodman-de la Harpe-Jones subfactor using a combination of planar algebra techniques and connections.

  16. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible.

  17. Versatile Quadruple-Trap Optical Tweezers for Dual DNA Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Iddo; Laurens, Niels; Vorselen, Daan; Broekmans, Onno D; Biebricher, Andreas S; King, Graeme A; Brouwer, Ineke; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G

    2017-01-01

    Optical manipulation techniques provide researchers the powerful ability to directly move, probe and interrogate molecular complexes. Quadruple optical trapping is an emerging method for optical manipulation and force spectroscopy that has found its primary use in studying dual DNA interactions, but is certainly not limited to DNA investigations. The key benefit of quadruple optical trapping is that two molecular strands can be manipulated independently and simultaneously. The molecular geometries of the strands can thus be controlled and their interactions can be quantified by force measurements. Accurate control of molecular geometry is of critical importance for the analysis of, for example, protein-mediated DNA-bridging, which plays an important role in DNA compaction. Here, we describe the design of a dedicated and robust quadruple optical trapping-instrument. This instrument can be switched straightforwardly to a high-resolution dual trap and it is integrated with microfluidics and single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, making it a highly versatile tool for correlative single-molecule analysis of a wide range of biomolecular systems.

  18. Iodine kinetics and dosimetry in the salivary glands during repeated courses of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B.; Huang, R.; Kuang, A.; Zhao, Z.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, J.; Tian, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: The present study was conducted to investigate salivary iodine kinetics and dosimetry during repeated courses of radioiodine ({sup 131}I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Such data could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of {sup 131}I induced salivary toxicity and help to develop appropriate methods to reduce this injury. Methods: Seventy-eight consecutive DTC patients (mean age 45 {+-} 17 years, 60%, female) undergoing {sup 131}I therapy for remnant ablation or metastatic tumors were prospectively recruited. Planar quantitative scintigraphy of head-neck images was serially acquired after administration of 2.9-7.4 GBq of {sup 131}I to assess kinetics in the salivary glands of patients. Salivary absorbed doses were calculated based on the schema of Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry. Results: The maximum uptakes in percentage of administered {sup 131}I activity per kilogram of gland tissue (%/kg) were 12.9% {+-} 6.5%/kg (range, 0.4%-37.3%/kg) and 12.3% {+-} 6.2%/kg (range, 0.4%-35.1%/kg) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. Statistically significant correlations of maximum uptake versus cumulative activity (r = -0.74, P < 0.01, for the parotid glands; r = -0.71, P < 0.01, for the submandibular glands) and treatment cycle (P < 0.001, for both gland types) were found. The effective half-lives of {sup 131}I in the parotid and submandibular glands were 9.3 {+-} 3.5 h (range, 1.5-19.8 h) and 8.6 {+-} 3.2 h (range, 0.8-18.0 h), respectively. A statistically significant correlation was observed between effective half-life with cumulative activity (r = 0.37, P < 0.01) and treatment cycle (P = 0.03) only for the parotid glands. The calculated absorbed doses were 0.20 {+-} 0.10 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-0.92 mGy/MBq) and 0.25 {+-} 0.09 mGy/MBq (range, 0.01-1.52 mGy/MBq) for the parotid and submandibular glands, respectively. The photon contribution to the salivary absorbed dose was minimal in relation to the beta dose

  19. Effect of repeated Waon therapy on exercise tolerance and pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Kikuchi,1,2 Nobuyoshi Shiozawa,1 Shingo Takata,1 Kozo Ashida,1 Fumihiro Mitsunobu11Division of Medicine, Misasa Medical Center, Okayama University Hospital, Misasa, Tottori, Japan; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Takamatsu Hospital KKR, Takamatsu, JapanPurpose: Controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of repeated Waon therapy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have yet to be conducted. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated Waon therapy exhibits an adjuvant effect on conventional therapy for COPD patients.Patients and methods: This prospective trial comprised 20 consecutive COPD patients who satisfied the criteria of the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines, stages 1–4. They were assigned to either a Waon or control group. The patients in the Waon group received both repeated Waon therapy and conventional therapy, including medications, such as long-acting inhaled β2 agonists, long-acting anticholinergics and xanthine derivatives, and pulmonary rehabilitation. The Waon therapy consisted of sitting in a 60°C sauna room for 15 minutes, followed by 30 minutes of being warmed with blankets once a day, 5 days a week, for a total of 20 times. The patients in the control group received only conventional therapy. Pulmonary function and the 6-minute walk test were assessed before and at 4 weeks after the program.Results: The change in vital capacity (0.30 ± 0.4 L and in peak expiratory flow (0.48 ± 0.79 L/s in the Waon group was larger than the change in the vital capacity (0.02 ± 0.21 L (P=0.077 and peak expiratory flow (−0.11 ± 0.72 L/s (P=0.095 in the control group. The change in forced expiratory flow after 50% of expired forced vital capacity in the Waon group, 0.08 (0.01–0.212 L/s, was larger than that in the control group, −0.01 (−0.075–0.04 L/s (P=0.019. Significant differences were not observed in the change in any

  20. The extension of quadrupled xed point results in K-metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Soleimani Rad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Rahimi et al. [Comp. Appl. Math. 2013, In press] dened the conceptof quadrupled xed point in K-metric spaces and proved several quadrupled  xed point theorems for solid cones on K-metric spaces. In this paper some quadrupled xed point results for T-contraction on K-metric spaces without normality condition are proved. Obtained results extend and generalize well-known comparable results in the literature.

  1. Experimental performance of DWDM quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Robert; Flueckiger, Jonas; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A F

    2013-04-08

    We demonstrate that one can meet numerous commercial requirements for filters used in dense wavelength-division multiplexing applications using quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators in the silicon-on-insulator platform. Experimental performance shows a ripple of 0.2 dB, an interstitial peak suppression of 39.7 dB, an adjacent channel isolation of 37.2 dB, an express channel isolation of 10.2 dB, and a free spectral range of 37.52 nm.

  2. Characterization of inductively coupled plasma generated by a quadruple antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, G.; Zolotukhin, D.; Godyak, V.; Shlapakovski, A.; Gleizer, S.; Slutsker, Ya; Gad, R.; Bernshtam, V.; Ralchenko, Yu; Krasik, Ya E.

    2017-02-01

    The results of the characterization of large-scale RF plasma for studying nonlinear interaction with a high-power (˜400 MW) short duration (˜0.8 ns) microwave (˜10 GHz) beam are presented. The plasma was generated inside a Pyrex tube 80 cm in length and 25 cm in diameter filled by either Ar or He gas at a pressure in the range 1.3-13 Pa using a 2 MHz RF generator with a matching system and a quadruple antenna. Good matching was obtained between the plasma parameters, which were determined using different methods including a movable Langmuir probe, microwave cut-off, interferometry, and optical emission spectroscopy. It was shown that, depending on the gas pressure and RF power delivered to the antenna, the plasma density and electron temperature can be controlled in the range 1 × 1010-5 × 1012 cm-3 and 1-3.5 eV, respectively. The plasma density was found to be uniform in terms of axial (˜60 cm) and radial (˜10 cm) dimensions. Further, it was also shown that the application of the quadruple antenna, with resonating capacitors inserted in its arms, decreases the capacitive coupling of the antenna and the plasma as well as the RF power loss along the antenna. These features make this plasma source suitable for microwave plasma wake field experiments.

  3. The formation of a quadruple star system with wide separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jaime E; Offner, Stella S R; Parker, Richard J; Arce, Héctor G; Goodman, Alyssa A; Caselli, Paola; Fuller, Gary A; Bourke, Tyler L; Corder, Stuartt A

    2015-02-12

    The initial multiplicity of stellar systems is highly uncertain. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the origin of binary and multiple star systems, including core fragmentation, disk fragmentation and stellar capture. Observations show that protostellar and pre-main-sequence multiplicity is higher than the multiplicity found in field stars, which suggests that dynamical interactions occur early, splitting up multiple systems and modifying the initial stellar separations. Without direct, high-resolution observations of forming systems, however, it is difficult to determine the true initial multiplicity and the dominant binary formation mechanism. Here we report observations of a wide-separation (greater than 1,000 astronomical units) quadruple system composed of a young protostar and three gravitationally bound dense gas condensations. These condensations are the result of fragmentation of dense gas filaments, and each condensation is expected to form a star on a timescale of 40,000 years. We determine that the closest pair will form a bound binary, while the quadruple stellar system itself is bound but unstable on timescales of 500,000 years (comparable to the lifetime of the embedded protostellar phase). These observations suggest that filament fragmentation on length scales of about 5,000 astronomical units offers a viable pathway to the formation of multiple systems.

  4. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism independently influences recovery of male sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy in postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Delli Muti, Nicola; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Few and contradictory studies have evaluated the possible influence of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on male sexual function. In this study we evaluated the role of AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the recovery of sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition which is often associated with hypopituitarism and in which the sexual benefits of TRT must be distinguished from those of pituitary-function replacement therapies. Fifteen men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT. Main outcome measures included sexual parameters as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, levels of pituitary dependent hormones (total testosterone, free T3, free T4, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], prolactin), and results of genetic analysis (AR gene CAG repeat number). Plasma concentrations of free T3, free T4, cortisol, and prolactin did not vary significantly between the two phases, while testosterone and IGF-1 increased significantly after TRT. A significant improvement in all sexual parameters studied was found. The number of CAG triplets was negatively and significantly correlated with changes in all the sexual parameters, while opposite correlations were found between changes in sexual parameters and changes in testosterone levels; no correlation of change in IGF1 with change in sexual parameters was reported. On multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for changes in testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and changes in sexual parameters were confirmed. Shorter length AR gene CAG repeat number is associated with the recovery of sexual function after TRT in postsurgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-replacement therapies. © 2014 International Society

  5. Sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Qian, Kang; Wang, Kang; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Gao, Song

    2011-09-14

    Homoleptic tetrakis[2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octa(butyloxy)phthalocyaninato] dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker complex 1 was isolated in relatively good yield of 43% from a simple one-pot reaction. This compound represents the first sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) rare earth-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM that has been structurally characterized.

  6. Five-Year, Disease-Free Survival after Repeat Palliative Multimodality Therapy in a Patient with Recurrent Metastastic Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fetscher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In appropriately selected cases, palliative therapeutic strategies can be adapted to those special features of cancer biographies that indicate an atypical course of disease. Elucidating these features, and adapting multimodal treatment strategies to them, can lead to significantly superior effects when compared to the routine application of conventional treatment algorhythms. A case of regionally metastactic bladder cancer is presented that documents the value of repeat debulking-surgery and repeat radiotherapy leading to unexpected short-term and long-term treatment results.

  7. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Van Gaal, Betsie G. I.; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Goossens, Peter J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1) PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2) changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25) with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results enhance the

  8. Repeated PSMA-targeting radioligand therapy of metastatic prostate cancer with {sup 131}I-MIP-1095

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar-Oromieh, Ali; Haberkorn, Uwe [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Zechmann, Christian; Mier, Walter; Spohn, Fabian; Debus, Nils; Kratochwil, Clemens [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Armor, Thomas [Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Holland-Letz, Tim [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Babich, John [Weill Cornell Medicine, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medicine, Citigroup Biomedical Imaging Center, New York, NY (United States); Weill Cornell Medicine, Meyer Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting radioligand therapy (RLT) was introduced in 2011. The first report described the antitumor and side effects of a single dose. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate toxicity and antitumor activity after single and repetitive therapies. Thirty-four men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer received PSMA-RLT with {sup 131}I-MIP-1095. Twenty-three patients received a second, and three patients a third dose, timed at PSA progression after an initial response to the preceding therapy. The applied doses were separated in three groups: <3.5, 3.5-5.0 and >5.0 GBq. Antitumor and side-effects were analyzed by blood samples and other clinical data. Follow-up was conducted for up to 5 years. The best therapeutic effect was achieved by the first therapy. A PSA decline of ≥50% was achieved in 70.6% of the patients. The second and third therapies were significantly less effective. There was neither an association between the applied activity and PSA response or the time-to-progression. Hematologic toxicities were less prevalent but presented in a higher percentage of patients with increasing number of therapies. After hematologic toxicities, xerostomia was the second most frequent side effect and presented more often and with higher intensity after the second or third therapy. The first dose of RLT with {sup 131}I-MIP-1095 presented with low side effects and could significantly reduce the tumor burden in a majority of patients. The second and third therapies were less effective and presented with more frequent and more intense side effects, especially hematologic toxicities and xerostomia. (orig.)

  9. Complete clinical responses to cancer therapy caused by multiple divergent approaches: a repeating theme lost in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coventry BJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Brendon J Coventry, Martin L AshdownDiscipline of Surgery, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, AustraliaAbstract: Over 50 years of cancer therapy history reveals complete clinical responses (CRs from remarkably divergent forms of therapies (eg, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, vaccines, autologous cell transfers, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies for advanced solid malignancies occur with an approximately similar frequency of 5%–10%. This has remained frustratingly almost static. However, CRs usually underpin strong durable 5-year patient survival. How can this apparent paradox be explained?Over some 20 years, realization that (1 chronic inflammation is intricately associated with cancer, and (2 the immune system is delicately balanced between responsiveness and tolerance of cancer, provides a greatly significant insight into ways cancer might be more effectively treated. In this review, divergent aspects from the largely segmented literature and recent conferences are drawn together to provide observations revealing some emerging reasoning, in terms of "final common pathways" of cancer cell damage, immune stimulation, and auto-vaccination events, ultimately leading to cancer cell destruction. Created from this is a unifying overarching concept to explain why multiple approaches to cancer therapy can provide complete responses at almost equivalent rates. This "missing" aspect provides a reasoned explanation for what has, and is being, increasingly reported in the mainstream literature – that inflammatory and immune responses appear intricately associated with, if not causative of, complete responses induced by divergent forms of cancer therapy. Curiously, whether by chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, or other means, therapy-induced cell injury results, leaving inflammation and immune system stimulation as a final common denominator across all of these mechanisms of cancer

  10. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives: The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1 PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2 changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods: This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25 with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results

  11. A Lagrangian framework for deriving triples and quadruples corrections to the CCSD energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Janus Juul; Kristensen, Kasper; Kjærgaard, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Using the coupled cluster Lagrangian technique, we have determined perturbative corrections to the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy that converge towards the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) and coupled cluster singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDT...

  12. Optimal Design of a Center Support Quadruple Mass Gyroscope (CSQMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a more complete description of the design process of the Center Support Quadruple Mass Gyroscope (CSQMG, a gyro expected to provide breakthrough performance for flat structures. The operation of the CSQMG is based on four lumped masses in a circumferential symmetric distribution, oscillating in anti-phase motion, and providing differential signal extraction. With its 4-fold symmetrical axes pattern, the CSQMG achieves a similar operation mode to Hemispherical Resonant Gyroscopes (HRGs. Compared to the conventional flat design, four Y-shaped coupling beams are used in this new pattern in order to adjust mode distribution and enhance the synchronization mechanism of operation modes. For the purpose of obtaining the optimal design of the CSQMG, a kind of applicative optimization flow is developed with a comprehensive derivation of the operation mode coordination, the pseudo mode inhibition, and the lumped mass twisting motion elimination. The experimental characterization of the CSQMG was performed at room temperature, and the center operation frequency is 6.8 kHz after tuning. Experiments show an Allan variance stability 0.12°/h (@100 s and a white noise level about 0.72°/h/√Hz, which means that the CSQMG possesses great potential to achieve navigation grade performance.

  13. Photometric Study of the Possible Cool Quadruple System PY Virginis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Liu, N. P.; Liu, L.; Jiang, L. Q.

    2013-02-01

    Complete CCD photometric light curves in BV(RI)c bands obtained in 2012 for the short-period close binary system PY Virginis are presented. A new photometric analysis with the Wilson—Van Hamme code shows that PY Vir is an A-type marginal contact binary system. The absolute parameters of PY Vir are derived using spectroscopic and photometric solutions. Combining new determined times of minimum light with others published in the literature, the O - C diagram of the binary star is investigated. A periodic variation, with a period of 5.22(±0.05) years and an amplitude of 0.0075(±0.0004) days, was discovered. Since the spectrum of a third component has been detected by Rucinski et al., we consider this cyclic period oscillation to be the result of the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body. This third component may also be a binary itself. Therefore, PY Vir should be a quadruple system composed of two cool-type binary systems. This system is a good astrophysical laboratory to study the formation and evolution of close binaries and multiple systems.

  14. Ways of improving environmental quality while quadrupling output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    This article reports on a symposium held in China which proposed strategic thinking on improving environmental quality in keeping with economic development. The gross industrial and agricultural output value in China is expected to quadruple by the year 2000. Although the water quality of the big rivers in China is still good, the medium and small streams in the cities have become polluted by industrial waste and domestic sewage. China devotes only 0.3% of her gross industrial and agricultural output value to environmental protection, while the Western countries allocate about 1% or even as much as 2-2.5% of their GNP for the environment. The conferees at the symposium agreed that environmental protection should work for economic development and for raising social and economic results. It is proposed that environmental protection should be carried out by enforcing discharge and drainage limits, and by encouraging enterprises to reduce the discharge of pollutants. In a survey of more than 100 enterprises engaged in papermaking, tanning, the manufacture of synthetic fatty acids, synthetic detergents and sugar, the departments of light industry found that 70-90% of the discharged pollutants are resources which can still be used. The question of focusing on planned environmental management is examined. Includes a table.

  15. Optimal Design of a Center Support Quadruple Mass Gyroscope (CSQMG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian; Zhou, Bin; Yin, Peng; Chen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a more complete description of the design process of the Center Support Quadruple Mass Gyroscope (CSQMG), a gyro expected to provide breakthrough performance for flat structures. The operation of the CSQMG is based on four lumped masses in a circumferential symmetric distribution, oscillating in anti-phase motion, and providing differential signal extraction. With its 4-fold symmetrical axes pattern, the CSQMG achieves a similar operation mode to Hemispherical Resonant Gyroscopes (HRGs). Compared to the conventional flat design, four Y-shaped coupling beams are used in this new pattern in order to adjust mode distribution and enhance the synchronization mechanism of operation modes. For the purpose of obtaining the optimal design of the CSQMG, a kind of applicative optimization flow is developed with a comprehensive derivation of the operation mode coordination, the pseudo mode inhibition, and the lumped mass twisting motion elimination. The experimental characterization of the CSQMG was performed at room temperature, and the center operation frequency is 6.8 kHz after tuning. Experiments show an Allan variance stability 0.12°/h (@100 s) and a white noise level about 0.72°/h/√Hz, which means that the CSQMG possesses great potential to achieve navigation grade performance.

  16. Routine Repeat Head CT may not be Indicated in Patients on Anticoagulant/Antiplatelet Therapy Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCammack, Kevin C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation recommendations for patients on anticoagulant and antiplatelet (ACAP therapy that present after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI are controversial. At our institution, an initial noncontrast head computed tomography (HCT is performed, with a subsequent HCT performed six hours later to exclude delayed intracranial hemorrhage (ICH. This study was performed to evaluate the yield and advisability of this approach. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of subjects undergoing evaluation for ICH after mild TBI in patients on ACAP therapy between January of 2012 and April of 2013. We assessed for the frequency of ICH on both the initial noncontrast HCT and on the routine six-hour follow-up HCT. Additionally, chart review was performed to evaluate the clinical implications of ICH, when present, and to interrogate whether pertinent clinical and laboratory data may predict the presence of ICH prior to imaging. We used multivariate generalized linear models to assess whether presenting Glasgow Coma Score (GCS, loss of consciousness (LOC, neurological or physical examination findings, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count, or specific ACAP regimen predicted ICH. Results: 144 patients satisfied inclusion criteria. Ten patients demonstrated initial HCT positive for ICH, with only one demonstrating delayed ICH on the six-hour follow-up HCT. This patient was discharged without any intervention required or functional impairment. Presenting GCS deviation (p<0.001, LOC (p=0.04, neurological examination findings (p<0.001, clopidogrel (p=0.003, aspirin (p=0.03 or combination regimen (p=0.004 use were more commonly seen in patients with ICH. Conclusion: Routine six-hour follow-up HCT is likely not indicated in patients on ACAP therapy, as our study suggests clinically significant delayed ICH does not occur. Additionally, presenting GCS deviation, LOC, neurological examination

  17. The Relationship between Preeclampsia and Quadruple Screening Test in Nuliparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Zand Vakili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Early diagnosis and prediction of preeclampsia needs appropriate obstetric care. Preeclampsia predicting methods are important. This study was designed to determine the correlation between preeclampsia and quadruple screening test in the nulliparous. Materials and Methods:  This case - control study was conducted on 54 pregnant women with preeclampsia (case group and 108 healthy pregnant women (control group who referred to health centers in Sanandaj, Iran. Ultrasonography was performed to determine the gestational age by a radiologist. Maternal serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, unconjugated estriol (uE3, and inhibin-A were measured in the second trimester of pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and Chi-square test, T-test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values. Results: The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of preeclampsia in pregnant women for hCG were 35.2% and 79.6 respectively. These findings for estriol were 20.4% and 88.9%, for inhibin-A were 38.8% and 88% and for alpha fetoprotein were 38.8% and 74.1%. The positive predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were 46.3%, 47.8%, 61.8% and 42.9% respectively. The negative predictive value for hCG, estriol, inhibin-A and alpha fetoprotein were also 71%, 69.1%, 74.2% and 70.8% respectively. Conclusion: There was a relationship between preeclampsia and high levels of inhibin-A and hCG. Further studies on these markers and evaluating their usefulness in the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia are recommended.

  18. A new look at anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seng-Kee Chuah; Feng-Woei Tsay; Ping-I Hsu; Deng-Chyang Wu

    2011-01-01

    With the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the treatment success of standard triple therapy has recently declined to unacceptable levels (i.e., 80% or less) in most countries. Therefore, several treatment regimens have emerged to cure Helicobacter pylori (H .pylori)infection. Novel first-line anti-H. pylorii therapies in 2011 include sequential therapy, concomitant quadruple therapy, hybrid (dual-concomitant) therapy and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy. After the failure of standard triple therapy, a bismuth-containing quadruple therapy comprising a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole can be employed as rescue treatment. Recently, triple therapy combining a PPI, levofloxacin and amoxicillin has been proposed as an alternative to the standard rescue therapy. This salvage regimen can achieve a higher eradication rate than bismuth-containing quadruple therapy in some regions and has less adverse effects. The best second-line therapy for patients who fail to eradicate H. pylori with first-line therapies containing clarithromycin, amoxicillin and metronidazole is unclear. However, a levofloxacin-based triple therapy is an accepted rescue treatment. Most guidelines suggest that patients requiring third-line therapy should be referred to a medical center and treated according to the antibiotic susceptibility test. Nonetheless, an empirical therapy (such as levofloxacin-based or furazolidone-based therapies) can be employed to terminate H. pylorii infection if antimicrobial sensitivity data are unavailable.

  19. Minimal-invasive magnetic heating of tumors does not alter intra-tumoral nanoparticle accumulation, allowing for repeated therapy sessions: an in vivo study in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettering, Melanie; Richter, Heike; Wiekhorst, Frank; Bremer-Streck, Sibylle; Trahms, Lutz; Alois Kaiser, Werner; Hilger, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    Localized magnetic heating treatments (hyperthermia, thermal ablation) using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) continue to be an active area of cancer research. For generating the appropriate heat to sufficiently target cell destruction, adequate MNP concentrations need to be accumulated into tumors. Furthermore, the knowledge of MNP bio-distribution after application and additionally after heating is significant, firstly because of the possibility of repeated heating treatments if MNPs remain at the target region and secondly to study potential adverse effects dealing with MNP dilution from the target region over time. In this context, little is known about the behavior of MNPs after intra-tumoral application and magnetic heating. Therefore, the present in vivo study on the bio-distribution of intra-tumorally injected MNPs in mice focused on MNP long term monitoring of pre and post therapy over seven days using multi-channel magnetorelaxometry (MRX). Subsequently, single-channel MRX was adopted to study the bio-distribution of MNPs in internal organs and tumors of sacrificed animals. We found no distinct change of total MNP amounts in vivo during long term monitoring. Most of the MNP amounts remained in the tumors; only a few MNPs were detected in liver and spleen and less than 1% of totally injected MNPs were excreted. Apparently, the application of magnetic heating and the induction of apoptosis did not affect MNP accumulation. Our results indicate that MNP mainly remained within the injection side after magnetic heating over a seven-days-observation and therefore not affecting healthy tissue. As a consequence, localized magnetic heating therapy of tumors might be applied periodically for a better therapeutic outcome.

  20. Quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in medical records: evaluation of combined interventions in a teaching hospital by repeated point prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercheval, C; Gillet, M; Maes, N; Albert, A; Frippiat, F; Damas, P; Van Hees, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to improve the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the computerized medical records of inpatients. A prospective, uncontrolled, interrupted time series (ITS) study was conducted by repeated point prevalence survey (PPS) to audit the quality of documentation on antibiotic therapy in the medical records before and after a combined intervention strategy (implementation of guidelines, distribution of educational materials, educational outreach visits, group educational interactive sessions) from the antimicrobial stewardship team (AST) in the academic teaching hospital (CHU) of Liège, Belgium. The primary outcome measure was the documentation rate on three quality indicators in the computerized medical records: (1) indication for treatment, (2) antibiotics prescribed, and (3) duration or review date. Segmented regression analysis was used to analyze the ITS. The medical records of 2306 patients receiving antibiotics for an infection (1177 in the pre-intervention period and 1129 in the post-intervention period) were analyzed. A significant increase in mean percentages in the post-intervention period was observed as compared with the pre-intervention period for the three quality indicators (indication documented 83.4 ± 10.4 % vs. 90.3 ± 6.6 %, p = 0.0013; antibiotics documented 87.9 ± 9.0 % vs. 95.6 ± 5.1 %, p documented 31.9 ± 15.4 % vs. 67.7 ± 15.2 %, p documentation rate in the computerized medical records for the three quality indicators.

  1. Ex vivo response to histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR derived from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao K Lu

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR. However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+ isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi.

  2. Dynamic viscoelasticity measurement under alternative torque using electromagnetically spinning method with quadruple electromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Hirano, Taichi; Sakai, Keiji

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we developed a novel type of rheological measurement system. Here, a spherical probe is driven to rotate periodically by applying torques using quadruple electromagnets in a noncontact manner. Moreover, this system is an enhancement of our electromagnetically spinning (EMS) viscometer, which is widely used for measuring rheological flow curves in various industrial fields. The quadruple EMS method provides the frequency spectrum of viscoelasticity, in addition to shear viscosity, in a steady flow by switching the operation modes of the driving torque. We show the results obtained for Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials and demonstrate the validity of the system.

  3. Cavity design and linear analysis of 225 GHz frequency-quadrupling gyroklystron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Di-Wei; Yuan Xue-Song; Yan Yang; Liu Sheng-Gang

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the frequency-quadrupling three-cavity gyroklystrons with successive frequency-doubling in each cavity. The cavities of 225 GHz frequency-quadrupling gyroklystron are designed with the scattering matrices method and the possible operating mode are discussed. With the point-gap theory, the starting currents of the possible operating modes and the potential parasitic modes in the output cavity are calculated. The optimal operating mode is proposed under consideration of the mode competition and the power capacity of the cavity.

  4. Quality assessment of layer-structured semiconductor single crystals by nuclear quadruple resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samila, Andriy; Khandozhko, Alexander; Lastivka, Galina; Politansky, Leonid; Khandozhko, Victor

    2015-11-01

    A method for quality assessment of layer-structured semiconductor single crystals (InSe, GaSe, GaS) grown in evacuated ampoules by the Bridgman technique is proposed. For this purpose, nuclear quadruple resonance method with a consecutive scanning of the entire sample volume and evaluation of crystal perfection by the resulting spectra is used. Effective interaction between high-frequency field and crystal and, accordingly, restriction of scanning area of sample under study is provided with the use of a two-way saddle-shaped coil for a nuclear quadruple resonance spectrometer.

  5. Transgenic Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat/Cas9-Mediated Viral Gene Targeting for Antiviral Therapy of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuqing; Hou, Chengxiang; Bi, Honglun; Wang, Yueqiang; Xu, Jun; Li, Muwang; James, Anthony A; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang

    2017-04-15

    We developed a novel antiviral strategy by combining transposon-based transgenesis and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system for the direct cleavage of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) genome DNA to promote virus clearance in silkworms. We demonstrate that transgenic silkworms constitutively expressing Cas9 and guide RNAs targeting the BmNPV immediate early-1 (ie-1) and me53 genes effectively induce target-specific cleavage and subsequent mutagenesis, especially large (∼7-kbp) segment deletions in BmNPV genomes, and thus exhibit robust suppression of BmNPV proliferation. Transgenic animals exhibited higher and inheritable resistance to BmNPV infection than wild-type animals. Our approach will not only contribute to modern sericulture but also shed light on future antiviral therapy.IMPORTANCE Pathogen genome targeting has shown its potential in antiviral research. However, transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated viral genome targeting has not been reported as an antiviral strategy in a natural animal host of a virus. Our data provide an effective approach against BmNPV infection in a real-world biological system and demonstrate the potential of transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 systems in antiviral research in other species. Copyright © 2017 Chen et al.

  6. Sensitivity analysis of silicon-on-insulator quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Robert; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A. F.

    2015-11-01

    We present a theoretical sensitivity analysis of silicon-on-insulator quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators based on varying, one at a time, various fabrication-dependent parameters. These parameters include the waveguide widths, heights, and propagation losses. We show that it should be possible to design a device that meets typical commercial specifications while being tolerant to changes in these parameters.

  7. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  8. Optimizing clarithromycin-containing therapy for Helicobacter pylori in the era of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Gisbert, Javier P

    2014-08-14

    The efficacy of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection has dramatically declined over the last decade, largely related to increasing clarithromycin resistance rates. From a microbiological standpoint, bismuth quadruple therapy is the ideal replacement since it combines drugs for which resistance does not impair its efficacy. Nonetheless, several obstacles such as availability, complexity or tolerance prevent a general implementation of bismuth quadruple therapy, so non-bismuth quadruple regimens remain the best first-line treatment in clinical practice in many geographical areas. We review the rationale and efficacy of several optimization tools (increasing the length of duration, high-dose acid suppression, probiotics), which have been largely evaluated over the last 5 years to increase the effectiveness of standard triple therapy. Then, we update available evidence on the effectiveness of several non-bismuth quadruple therapies (sequential, concomitant, hybrid, miscellaneous therapy), which have gained interest lately. We also revise evidence on the efficacy of the aforementioned optimization tools for non-bismuth quadruples schemes and, finally we provide a novel regionalized therapeutic algorithm, based on novel formulas recently developed for predicting the outcome of non-bismuth quadruple regimens, upon local antibiotic resistance rates.

  9. Repeat stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with pulmonary malignancies who had previously received SBRT to the same or an adjacent tumor site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Valakh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Repeat image-guided SBRT for patients with small peripheral recurrences was feasible and severe toxicity was not observed. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of lung reirradiation using 2 nd SBRT.

  10. Photonic generation of frequency-quadrupling millimeter-wave signals using polarization property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Tang, Xianfeng; Xi, Lixia; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2016-03-01

    We propose and analyze a photonic method of generating frequency-quadrupling millimeter-wave signal. This scheme is realized by using a single LiNbO3 intensity modulator (IM) and a Faraday mirror based transverse-electrical and transverse-magnetic mode converter in a Sagnac loop without using an optical filter or an electrical microwave phase shifter. Making use of the intrinsic polarization dependence and the velocity phenomenon of the IM, a special double sideband modulation is implemented, which ensures that the optical carrier can be effectively cancelled employing polarization manipulation. A linear polarizer is used as the polarization selection element to choose the second-order sidebands from the modulated light. After beating at the photodiode, a frequency-quadrupled millimeter-wave signal with >30 dB radio frequency spurious suppression ratio is generated. The imperfection of the devices is considered when estimating the system performance.

  11. Novel hot-melting hyperbranched poly(ester-amine) bearing self-complementary quadruple hydrogen bonding units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Peng Qiu; Li Ming Tang; Yu Wang; Shi You Guan

    2008-01-01

    Hyperbranched poly(amine-ester)s bearing serf-complementary quadruple hydrogen bonding units display excellent mechanical and temperature-dependent melt rheological properties,which make them suitable as novel hot-melting materials.

  12. Demonstration of OCDM Coder and Variable Bandwidth Filter Using Parallel Topology of Quadruple Series Coupled Microring Resonators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tanaka, K; Kokubun, Y

    2011-01-01

    ...) coding circuit using two wavelength selective switches (WSSs) consisting of quadruple series coupled MRRs laid out in parallel topology and a phase shifter incorporated in the one arm between them...

  13. Multiplatform Instantaneous GNSS Ambiguity Resolution for Triple- and Quadruple-Antenna Configurations with Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Buist

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally the relative positioning and attitude determination problem are treated as independent. In this contribution we will investigate the possibilities of using multiantenna (i.e., triple and quadruple data, not only for attitude determination but also for relative positioning. The methods developed are rigorous and have the additional advantage that they improve ambiguity resolution on the unconstrained baseline(s and the overall success rate of ambiguity resolution between a number of antennas.

  14. Massive particles' tunnelling radiation from the black hole with a mass-quadruple moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yi-Wen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we extend Zhang and Zhao's recent work to the black hole with a mass-quadruple moment. The behaviour of the tunnelling massive particles is investigated, and the emission rate at which massive particles tunnel across the event horizon of the black hole is calculated. The result is consistent with an underlying unitary theory, and takes the same functional form as that of a massless particle.

  15. Application of the RPN methodology for quantification of the operability of the quadruple-tank process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Trierweiler

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The RPN indicates how potentially difficult it is for a given system to achieve the desired performance robustly. It reflects both the attainable performance of a system and its degree of directionality. Two new indices, RPN ratio and RPN difference are introduced to quantify how realizable a given desired performance can be. The predictions made by RPN are verified by closed-loop simulations. These indices are applied to quantify the IO-controllability of the quadruple-tank process.

  16. A Lagrangian framework for deriving triples and quadruples corrections to the CCSD energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Janus Juul; Kristensen, Kasper; Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Using the coupled cluster Lagrangian technique, we have determined perturbative corrections to the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy that converge towards the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) and coupled cluster singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDT...... some deficiencies of the latter related to the target energy of the series and its lack of size extensivity. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4862501]...

  17. Vodafone case study : loyalty and satisfaction in Vodafone : the quadruple play case

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Mónica de Melo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is to study in detail customer loyalty and satisfaction within Vodafone, more precisely regarding Vodafone’s quadruple play strategy, with focus on the new Vodafone tariff plan – Vodafone Red (including TV, internet and fixed voice). Vodafone is a British telecommunications company founded in 1982, with a significant presence in Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia-Pacific and United States. In Portugal, the Group is inserted in what can be considered as one of the most ...

  18. Planarization using chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) on a 16-megabit SRAM with quadruple polysilicon stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kathleen A.; Radhakrishna, Sandya; Lage, Craig; Nkansah, Franklin; Pol, Victor; Kobayashi, Thom; West, Jeff P.; Crabtree, Phil

    1994-09-01

    Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) has been used to fabricate a 0.35 micrometers 16 Meg SRAM with quadruple polysilicon stacks. The use of CMP results in complete planarization of over one micron of topography. CMP planarization results in improved photolithography depth of field when compared to standard resist etchback planarization (REB). Data from a lot processed using CMP at contact dielectric and interlayer dielectric is compared to a lot that was processed using standard REB for planarization.

  19. EPIC 220204960: A Quadruple Star System Containing Two Strongly Interacting Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, S.; Vanderburg, A.; Borkovits, T.; Kalomeni, B.; Halpern, J. P.; Ngo, H.; Mace, G. N.; Fulton, B. J.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Petigura, E. A.; Mawet, D.; Kristiansen, M. H.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Bieryla, A.; Forgács-Dajka, E.; Nelson, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a strongly interacting quadruple system associated with the K2 target EPIC 220204960. The K2 target itself is a Kp = 12.7 magnitude star at Teff ≃ 6100 K which we designate as "B-N" (blue northerly image). The host of the quadruple system, however, is a Kp ≃ 17 magnitude star with a composite M-star spectrum, which we designate as "R-S" (red southerly image). With a 3.2″ separation and similar radial velocities and photometric distances, `B-N' is likely physically associated with `R-S', making this a quintuple system, but that is incidental to our main claim of a strongly interacting quadruple system in `R-S'. The two binaries in `R-S' have orbital periods of 13.27 d and 14.41 d, respectively, and each has an inclination angle of ≳ 89°. From our analysis of radial velocity measurements, and of the photometric lightcurve, we conclude that all four stars are very similar with masses close to 0.4 M⊙. Both of the binaries exhibit significant ETVs where those of the primary and secondary eclipses `diverge' by 0.05 days over the course of the 80-day observations. Via a systematic set of numerical simulations of quadruple systems consisting of two interacting binaries, we conclude that the outer orbital period is very likely to be between 300 and 500 days. If sufficient time is devoted to RV studies of this faint target, the outer orbit should be measurable within a year.

  20. Triple- and Quadruple-Gluon Azimuthal Correlations from Glasma and Higher-Dimensional Ridges

    CERN Document Server

    Ozonder, Sener

    2014-01-01

    We calculate the triple- and quadruple-gluon inclusive distributions with arbitrary rapidity and azimuthal angle dependences in the gluon saturation regime by using glasma diagrams. Also, we predict higher-dimensional ridges in triple- and quadruple-hadron correlations for p-p and p-Pb collisions at LHC, which have yet to be measured. In p-p and p-Pb collisions at the top LHC energies, gluon saturation is expected to occur since smaller Bjorken-$x$ values are being probed. Glasma diagrams, which are enhanced at small-$x$, include the gluon saturation effects, and they are used for calculating the long-range rapidity correlations ("ridges") and $v_n$ moments of the azimuthal distribution of detected hadrons. The glasma description reproduces the systematics of the data on both p-p and p-Pb ridges. As an alternative, relativistic hydrodynamics has also been applied to these small systems quite successfully. With the triple- and quadruple-gluon azimuthal correlations, this work aims to set the stage by going bey...

  1. Probing DNA-DNA Interactions with a Combination of Quadruple-Trap Optical Tweezers and Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Ineke; King, Graeme A; Heller, Iddo; Biebricher, Andreas S; Peterman, Erwin J G; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2017-01-01

    DNA metabolism and DNA compaction in vivo involve frequent interactions of remote DNA segments, mediated by proteins. In order to gain insight into such interactions, quadruple-trap optical tweezers have been developed. This technique provides an unprecedented degree of control through the ability to independently manipulate two DNA molecules in three dimensions. In this way, discrete regions of different DNA molecules can be brought into contact with one another, with a well-defined spatial configuration. At the same time, the tension and extension of the DNA molecules can be monitored. Furthermore, combining quadruple-trap optical tweezers with microfluidics makes fast buffer exchange possible, which is important for in situ generation of the dual DNA-protein constructs needed for these kinds of experiments. In this way, processes such as protein-mediated inter-DNA bridging can be studied with unprecedented control. This chapter provides a step-by-step description of how to perform a dual DNA manipulation experiment using combined quadruple-trap optical tweezers and microfluidics.

  2. Recovery from Repeated Sudden Hearing Loss in a Patient with Takayasu’s Arteritis Treated with Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: The First Report in the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ralli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss has been rarely reported in Takayasu’s arteritis, may present as Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, and usually responds well to corticosteroid therapy. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy is commonly used as a supplementary treatment to corticosteroids for Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss. We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with Takayasu’s arteritis who had two episodes of sudden hearing loss involving one ear at a time with an 11-month delay between each episode. During the first episode, the patient was treated with high-dose intramuscular corticosteroids with a temporary improvement of auditory threshold that deteriorated 14 days after cessation of therapy. In the second episode, Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy was associated with corticosteroids, with improvements in both ears, including the one that was unresponsive in the long term to previous pharmacologic therapy. In this case, Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy could have acted synergically with corticosteroids playing a role in hearing restoration.

  3. A multicenter, open-label study of repeat courses of intramuscular alefacept in combination with other psoriasis therapies in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krueger, G.G.; Gottlieb, A.B.; Sterry, W.; Korman, N.; Kerkhof, P Van De

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of multiple courses of alefacept in combination with traditional psoriasis therapy for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis (CPP). METHODS: Patients with CPP requiring systemic therapy were eligible for this study. Patients received up to three cou

  4. Roughness and uniformity improvements on self-aligned quadruple patterning technique for 10nm node and beyond by wafer stress engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eric; Ko, Akiteru; O'Meara, David; Mohanty, Nihar; Franke, Elliott; Pillai, Karthik; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Dimension shrinkage has been a major driving force in the development of integrated circuit processing over a number of decades. The Self-Aligned Quadruple Patterning (SAQP) technique is widely adapted for sub-10nm node in order to achieve the desired feature dimensions. This technique provides theoretical feasibility of multiple pitch-halving from 193nm immersion lithography by using various pattern transferring steps. The major concept of this approach is to a create spacer defined self-aligned pattern by using single lithography print. By repeating the process steps, double, quadruple, or octuple are possible to be achieved theoretically. In these small architectures, line roughness control becomes extremely important since it may contribute to a significant portion of process and device performance variations. In addition, the complexity of SAQP in terms of processing flow makes the roughness improvement indirective and ineffective. It is necessary to discover a new approach in order to improve the roughness in the current SAQP technique. In this presentation, we demonstrate a novel method to improve line roughness performances on 30nm pitch SAQP flow. We discover that the line roughness performance is strongly related to stress management. By selecting different stress level of film to be deposited onto the substrate, we can manipulate the roughness performance in line and space patterns. In addition, the impact of curvature change by applied film stress to SAQP line roughness performance is also studied. No significant correlation is found between wafer curvature and line roughness performance. We will discuss in details the step-by-step physical performances for each processing step in terms of critical dimension (CD)/ critical dimension uniformity (CDU)/line width roughness (LWR)/line edge roughness (LER). Finally, we summarize the process needed to reach the full wafer performance targets of LWR/LER in 1.07nm/1.13nm on 30nm pitch line and space pattern.

  5. DICER/AGO-dependent epigenetic silencing of D4Z4 repeats enhanced by exogenous siRNA suggests mechanisms and therapies for FSHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong-Won; Snider, Lauren; Yao, Zizhen; Tawil, Rabi; Van Der Maarel, Silvère M; Rigo, Frank; Bennett, C Frank; Filippova, Galina N; Tapscott, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by the aberrant expression of the DUX4 transcription factor in skeletal muscle. The DUX4 retrogene is encoded in the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array, and smaller array size or a mutation in the SMCHD1 gene results in inefficient epigenetic repression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle, causing FSHD1 and FSHD2, respectively. Previously we showed that the entire D4Z4 repeat is bi-directionally transcribed with the generation of small si- or miRNA-like fragments and suggested that these might suppress DUX4 expression through the endogenous RNAi pathway. Here we show that exogenous siRNA targeting the region upstream of the DUX4 transcription start site suppressed DUX4 mRNA expression and increased both H3K9 methylation and AGO2 recruitment. In contrast, similarly targeted MOE-gapmer antisense oligonucleotides that degrade RNA but do not engage the RNAi pathway did not repress DUX4 expression. In addition, knockdown of DICER or AGO2 using either siRNA or MOE-gapmer chemistries resulted in the induction of DUX4 expression in control muscle cells that normally do not express DUX4, indicating that the endogenous RNAi pathway is necessary to maintain repression of DUX4 in control muscle cells. Together these data demonstrate a role of the endogenous RNAi pathway in repeat-mediated epigenetic repression of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat, and show that enhancing the activity of this pathway by supplying exogenous siRNA oligonucleotides represents a potential therapeutic approach to silencing DUX4 in FSHD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Arthroscopic single-bundle reconstruction of posterior cruciate ligament with quadrupled hamstring tendon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lei; NING Zhi-jie; ZHANG Hui; TIAN Min; NING Ting-min

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the technique and outcome of arthroscopic single-bundle reconstruction of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) with quadrupled hamstring tendon. Methods:From April 2001 to October 2004,49 knees with PCL tears in 49 patients were verified with arthroscope in this department. Of them, 13 were combined with anterior cruciate ligament tears,14 with disruptions of the posterolateral corner,6 with ruptures of the posteromedial corner and medial collateral ligament,9 with lateral meniscus tears,5 with medial meniscus tears and 2 with popliteal vascular tears.All the damaged PCLs were reconstructed with single-bundle of autogenous quadrupled hamstring tendons under arthroscope.Biodegradable interference screws or blunt titanium interference screws were used for direct anatomic fixation of the reconstructed ligament. Results:After operation,no severe complications occurred at early stage in the 49 patients.All of them were followed up for 10-52 months with an average of 22.0 months±10.7 months.Lysholm score was remarkably improved from 30-60 ( mean:47.96 ± 8.16) preoperatively to 70-95 ( mean:89.08 ± 6.10) at the last postoperative follow-up (P < 0.01 ).Furthermore,there was a significant improvement in International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score from abnormal ( Grade C) in 10 knees and severely abnormal ( Grade D ) in 39 preoperatively to normal ( Grade A) in 20,nearly normal ( Grade B) in 24 and abnormal in 5 at the last follow-up.Of the 49 patients,40 returned to the same activity level as before and 9 were under the level. Conclusions:Single-bundle reconstruction of PCL with quadrupled hamstring tendons has the advantage of minimal trauma in surgery and satisfactory outcome.

  7. Analysis of Second Trimester Maternal Quadruple Screening Test for Trisomy 21 and Trisomy 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Bricelj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The second trimester quadruple screening test for foetal chromosomal abnormalities has been carried out in Slovenia since 2006. Our objective was to analyse the quadruple test results, define sensibility and specificity, the positive and negative predictive value of the screening test for trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 and the influence of some maternal clinical parameters on risk calculation. Methods: Retrospectively collected results of 3,719 maternal blood samples were analysed in the period from February 1st, 2006 to December 31st, 2009 at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. We obtained information on maternal age, body weight and smoking (habits?, karyotyping of foetuses and clinical data on newborns.Results: The sensitivity of the test for trisomy 21 was 50%, specificity 95%, positive predictive value 2.3% and negative predictive value 99.8%.  Specificity for trisomy 18 was 98%, sensitivity 100% and the positive and negative predictive value 1.4% and 100% respectively.. False positive results in trisomy 21 were influenced by maternal weight (OR=1.034; p=0.00 and age (OR=0.832; p=0.00. It was influenced by maternal age (OR=0.924; p=0.17 and smoking (OR=0.396; p=0.006 in the case of trisomy 18.Conclusions: A quadruple test has an appropriate specificity for detecting foetuses with trisomy 21; however, it displays a low sensibility as well as a low positive predictive value. The test reveals high specificity and sensibility for the detection of foetal trisomy 18, and has a high negative predictive value, yet its positive predictive value remains low. Therefore, the test is primarily intended for pregnant women who, for various reasons, missed out on screening opportunities in the first trimester of their pregnancy.

  8. Prospective study of the feasibility and effectiveness of a second-trimester quadruple test for Down syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsuksai, Peeranan; Jitsurong, Siroj

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a quadruple test for Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy in clinical settings in Thailand. From October 2015 to September 2016, a prospective study was undertaken in 19 hospitals in Songkhla province, Thailand. Women with a singleton pregnancy of 14-18 weeks were enrolled and underwent the quadruple test. The risk cutoff value was set at 1:250. All women with a positive test (risk ≥1:250) were offered amniocentesis. Women were followed up until delivery. Among 2375 women, 206 (8.7%) had a positive quadruple test; 98 (47.6%) of these women voluntarily underwent amniocentesis. Overall, seven pregnancies were complicated with chromosomal abnormalities (2.9 cases in 1000), including four cases of Down syndrome (1.7 in 1000) and three of other abnormalities. The detection, false-positive, and accuracy rates of the quadruple test for Down syndrome were 75.0%, 8.6%, and 91.4%, respectively. The quadruple test was found to be a feasible and efficient method for screening for Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy in a Thai clinical setting. The test should be performed for pregnant women before an invasive test for Down syndrome. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  9. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. II. Quadruples expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksen, Janus J; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell species to the description of quadruple excitations. In doing so, we compare the prominent CCSDT(Q) and lambda-CCSDT(Q) (a-CCSDT(Q)) models, in which the CC singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) energy is augmented by similar corrections for quadruple excitations, to the second- through sixth-order models of the CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series, which is based on a CCSDT rather than an HF zeroth-order state. By comparing the models in terms of the size-intensive recovery of as well as the total deviation from the quadruples contribution to CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find (i) that the accuracy offered by the CCSDT(Q) and a-CCSDT(Q) models is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state - like for the CCSD(T) model in the first part of the present series [arXiv:1512.02846] - and (ii) that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is practically...

  10. An Asymmetric Organocatalytic Quadruple Cascade to Tetraaryl-Substituted 2-Azabicyclo[3.3.0]octadienones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joie, Céline; Deckers, Kristina; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    A new asymmetric organocatalytic three-component quadruple cascade of α-ketoamides with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes is described. The reaction is catalyzed by the (S)-diphenylprolinol TMS ether catalyst and proceeds via an aza-Michael/aldol condensation/vinylogous Michael/aldol condensation sequence to yield tetraaryl-substituted 2-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octadienone derivatives. The cascade products are obtained with good to very good yields (34–71%), virtually complete diastereoselectivities (>20:1), and very good enantioselectivities (84–97%). PMID:25278633

  11. Carrier suppression in quadruple frequency modulation by cascaded optical external modulators for millimeter-wave generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Feng; Wei Zhang; Xiaoming Liu

    2009-01-01

    The optical carrier suppression in optical quadruple frequency modulation by cascaded external modulators is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the optical carrier suppression ratio is related with not only the initial phase difference of electrical signals applied on the two modulators, but also the optical phase shift between the two modulators. The maximum suppression ratio can be achieved when the total phase difference is equal to nπ+π/2(n=1,2…),which is verified by experiments. By properly controlling the total phase shift, 40-GHz millimeter-wave is generated by using a 10-GHz radio frequency (RF) source and the modulators.

  12. Digital Diversity Combiner (DIDICOM) - An Applique for Obtaining Quadruple Diversity with Dual Diversity Drama Radio Terminals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    AD-ARO 985 ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER BRIFFISS AF9 NY F/S 17/2.1 DIGITAL DIVERSITY COMBINER (DIDICOM3 - AN APPLIQUE FOR OBTAININ-ETC(U) JAN 80 F 0...In-Houw Report Jenuuuy 19 GO DIGITAL DIVERSITY COMBINER 0 (DIDICOM) - AN APPLIQUE FOR OBTAINING QUADRUPLE DIVERSITY WITH DUAL DIVERSITY DRAMA RADIO...APPROVED: g e14F.r{ FRED I. DIAOND Technical Director Comunications and Control Division FOR THE COHNDR Acting Chief, Plans Office If your address has

  13. VW LMi: tightest quadruple system known. Light-time effect and possible secular changes of orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Pribulla, T; Dubovsky, P; Kudzej, I; Parimucha, S; Siwak, M; Vanko, M

    2008-01-01

    Tightest known quadruple systems VW LMi consists of contact eclipsing binary with P_12 = 0.477551 days and detached binary with P_34 = 7.93063 days revolving in rather tight, 355.0-days orbit. This paper presents new photometric and spectroscopic observations yielding 69 times of minima and 36 disentangled radial velocities for the component stars. All available radial velocities and minima times are combined to better characterize the orbits and to derive absolute parameters of components. The total mass of the quadruple system was estimated at 4.56 M_sun. The detached, non-eclipsing binary with orbital period P = 7.93 days is found to show apsidal motion with U approximately 80 years. Precession period in this binary, caused by the gravitational perturbation of the contact binary, is estimated to be about 120 years. The wide mutual orbit and orbit of the non-eclipsing pair are found to be close to coplanarity, preventing any changes of the inclination angle of the non-eclipsing orbit and excluding occurrenc...

  14. Stratospheric ozone response to a solar irradiance reduction in a quadrupled CO2 environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Fleming, Eric L.

    2014-07-01

    We used the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) global two-dimensional (2D) atmospheric model to investigate the stratospheric ozone response to a proposed geoengineering activity wherein a reduced top-of-atmosphere (TOA) solar irradiance is imposed to help counteract a quadrupled CO2 atmosphere. This study is similar to the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) Experiment G1. Three primary simulations were completed with the GSFC 2D model to examine this possibility: (A) a pre-industrial atmosphere with a boundary condition of 285 ppmv CO2 (piControl); (B) a base future atmosphere with 1140 ppmv CO2 (abrupt4xCO2); and (C) a perturbed future atmosphere with 1140 ppmv CO2 and a 4% reduction in the TOA total solar irradiance (G1). We found huge ozone enhancements throughout most of the stratosphere (up to 40%) as a result of a large computed temperature decrease (up to 18 K) when CO2 was quadrupled (compare simulation abrupt4xCO2 to piControl). Further, we found that ozone will additionally increase (up to 5%) throughout most of the stratosphere with total ozone increases of 1-2.5% as a result of a reduction in TOA total solar irradiance (compare simulation G1 to abrupt4xCO2). Decreases of atomic oxygen and temperature are the main drivers of this computed ozone enhancement from a reduction in TOA total solar irradiance.

  15. Design of Passive Components in Quadruple Sub-harmonic Image Rejection Mixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Kong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of passive components in quadruple Sub-harmonic image rejection mixer is presented in this study. The passive components include double-balun and Lange coupler. With the help of ADS, a Balun with magnitude imbalance degree less than 0.2 dB and phase imbalance degree less than 1° is achieved in the range of 7.9 9.5 GHz. The insertion loss is about 7.3 dB at the center frequency of 8.7 GHz. A Lange coupler with magnitude imbalance degree in the range less than 0.3 dB and phase imbalance degree less than 1° is realized over the 30~40 GHz measurement band. The insertion loss is about 3.25 dB at the center frequency of 35 GHz. Satisfactory results have been reached in the simulation of double-balun and Lange coupler, which makes a significant foundation to the realization of the monolithic quadruple Sub-harmonic image rejection mixer.

  16. Frequency quadrupling optoelectronic oscillator using a single polarization modulator in a Sagnac loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen Ting; Li, Wei; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel and cost efficient method to generating a frequency quadrupling optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) using a single polarization modulator (PolM) in a Sagnac loop. The OEO loop and the Sagnac loop share the same PolM. In the OEO loop, the PolM is used to generate the fundamental microwave signal. In the Sagnac loop, the joint use of the PolM, a polarization controller (PC), and a polarization beam splitter (PBS) is equivalent to an intensity modulator. The odd order sidebands of the modulated signal are suppressed by biasing the equivalent intensity modulator at the maximum transmission point. Moreover, the undesired optical carrier is also eliminated by bidirectional use of the PolM. As a result, only the two second order sidebands are left. The beating between the two second order sidebands in a photodetector (PD) generates a microwave signal at the frequency corresponding to four times of the fundamental tone. A frequency quadrupling microwave signal at the frequency of 39.74 GHz with a phase noise of -100.14 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz frequency offset was experimentally generated.

  17. Electrochemical characteristics of ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitrides as anode material for lithium ion batteries: the influence of precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Zhongsheng; TIAN Feng; SUN Juncai; JI Shijun; XIE Jingying

    2008-01-01

    Ternary and quadruple lithium silicon nitride anode materials for lithium ion batteries with different precursors were prepared by the simple process of high-energy ball milling.High capacity and excellent cyclability were obtained.The influence of precursor introduction on the electrochemical performance of products was investigated.This research reveals that the electrochemical performance of lithium silicon hiaide can be enhanced significantly by doping O.The cyclability of quadruple lithium silicon nitride can be optimized remarkably by controlling the introduction quantity of the precursors.It is possible for the composite to be used as a capacity compensator within a wide voltage cut-off window.

  18. Photodynamic therapy with low-strength ALA, repeated applications and short contact periods (40-60 minutes) in acne, photoaging and vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Gabriel; Lorente, Matilde; Reyes, Madga; Millán, Fernando; Lloret, Adrián; Melendez, Joaquín; Navarro, Maria; Navarro, Miguel

    2009-06-01

    Topical aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is currently being used for the treatment of actinic keratosis of the face and scalp. This study reports the results obtained after three to four treatments with ALA-PDT in patients with acne (n=12), photoaging (n=8) and vitiligo (n=6). ALA was applied on large areas (e.g., full face) and at very low strengths (1-2%). Side effects were minimal and self-limited.

  19. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  20. Repeated nebulisation of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Eric W F W; Armstrong, David K; Ashby, Deborah; Bayfield, Katie J; Bilton, Diana; Bloomfield, Emily V; Boyd, A Christopher; Brand, June; Buchan, Ruaridh; Calcedo, Roberto; Carvelli, Paula; Chan, Mario; Cheng, Seng H; Collie, D David S; Cunningham, Steve; Davidson, Heather E; Davies, Gwyneth; Davies, Jane C; Davies, Lee A; Dewar, Maria H; Doherty, Ann; Donovan, Jackie; Dwyer, Natalie S; Elgmati, Hala I; Featherstone, Rosanna F; Gavino, Jemyr; Gea-Sorli, Sabrina; Geddes, Duncan M; Gibson, James S R; Gill, Deborah R; Greening, Andrew P; Griesenbach, Uta; Hansell, David M; Harman, Katharine; Higgins, Tracy E; Hodges, Samantha L; Hyde, Stephen C; Hyndman, Laura; Innes, J Alastair; Jacob, Joseph; Jones, Nancy; Keogh, Brian F; Limberis, Maria P; Lloyd-Evans, Paul; Maclean, Alan W; Manvell, Michelle C; McCormick, Dominique; McGovern, Michael; McLachlan, Gerry; Meng, Cuixiang; Montero, M Angeles; Milligan, Hazel; Moyce, Laura J; Murray, Gordon D; Nicholson, Andrew G; Osadolor, Tina; Parra-Leiton, Javier; Porteous, David J; Pringle, Ian A; Punch, Emma K; Pytel, Kamila M; Quittner, Alexandra L; Rivellini, Gina; Saunders, Clare J; Scheule, Ronald K; Sheard, Sarah; Simmonds, Nicholas J; Smith, Keith; Smith, Stephen N; Soussi, Najwa; Soussi, Samia; Spearing, Emma J; Stevenson, Barbara J; Sumner-Jones, Stephanie G; Turkkila, Minna; Ureta, Rosa P; Waller, Michael D; Wasowicz, Marguerite Y; Wilson, James M; Wolstenholme-Hogg, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Lung delivery of plasmid DNA encoding the CFTR gene complexed with a cationic liposome is a potential treatment option for patients with cystic fibrosis. We aimed to assess the efficacy of non-viral CFTR gene therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis. Methods We did this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial in two cystic fibrosis centres with patients recruited from 18 sites in the UK. Patients (aged ≥12 years) with a forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 50–90% predicted and any combination of CFTR mutations, were randomly assigned, via a computer-based randomisation system, to receive 5 mL of either nebulised pGM169/GL67A gene–liposome complex or 0·9% saline (placebo) every 28 days (plus or minus 5 days) for 1 year. Randomisation was stratified by % predicted FEV1 (<70 vs ≥70%), age (<18 vs ≥18 years), inclusion in the mechanistic substudy, and dosing site (London or Edinburgh). Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was the relative change in % predicted FEV1. The primary analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01621867. Findings Between June 12, 2012, and June 24, 2013, we randomly assigned 140 patients to receive placebo (n=62) or pGM169/GL67A (n=78), of whom 116 (83%) patients comprised the per-protocol population. We noted a significant, albeit modest, treatment effect in the pGM169/GL67A group versus placebo at 12 months' follow-up (3·7%, 95% CI 0·1–7·3; p=0·046). This outcome was associated with a stabilisation of lung function in the pGM169/GL67A group compared with a decline in the placebo group. We recorded no significant difference in treatment-attributable adverse events between groups. Interpretation Monthly application of the pGM169/GL67A gene therapy formulation was associated with a significant, albeit modest, benefit in FEV1 compared with placebo at 1 year, indicating a stabilisation of

  1. 8-mJ TEM(00) diode-end-pumped frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feugnet, G; Pocholle, J P

    1998-01-01

    A frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser pumped by a commercially available high-brightness stack is described. A master oscillator power amplifier configuration was implanted, and the laser delivered energy of 8 mJ at 0.266microm . The laser was air cooled for easy use.

  2. Full control of quadruple quantum dot circuit charge states in the single electron regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, M. R., E-mail: matthieu.delbecq@riken.jp; Nakajima, T.; Otsuka, T.; Amaha, S. [RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Watson, J. D. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Manfra, M. J. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Tarucha, S. [RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-05-05

    We report the realization of an array of four tunnel coupled quantum dots in the single electron regime, which is the first required step toward a scalable solid state spin qubit architecture. We achieve an efficient tunability of the system but also find out that the conditions to realize spin blockade readout are not as straightforwardly obtained as for double and triple quantum dot circuits. We use a simple capacitive model of the series quadruple quantum dots circuit to investigate its complex charge state diagrams and are able to find the most suitable configurations for future Pauli spin blockade measurements. We then experimentally realize the corresponding charge states with a good agreement to our model.

  3. Combining time delays and image positions for quadruple lenses: a moment approach

    CERN Document Server

    Witt, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Time delays in gravitational lenses can be used to determine the Hubble constant and the lens potential. In future surveys, many gravitational lenses can be discovered, and their time delays and image positions can in principle be measured. Using an elliptical power-law potential, we show that combinations of image positions and time delays for quadruple lenses yield simple analytical expressions that are connected with observable quantities. These relations can be used to obtain the approximate axis ratio q, the Einstein radius and the slope. We apply this method to RX J1131-1231, and show that our analytical results match the full numerical determinations approximately. Our approach can quickly determine rough values of lens parameters, which can then be used as initial guesses for further refinement through numerical modelling and may be useful for automated lens search in large surveys.

  4. Quasi-3D modeling of surface potential and threshold voltage of Triple Metal Quadruple Gate MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Santosh Kumar; Shah, Mihir Kumar P.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present electrostatic model of 3D Triple Metal Quadruple Gate (TMQG) MOSFET of rectangular cross-section based on quasi-3D method. The analytical equations for channel potential and characteristic length have been derived by decomposing TMQG into two 2D perpendicular cross-sections (triple metal double gate, TMDG) and the effective characteristic length of TMQG is found using equivalent number of gates (ENG) method. For each of the TMDG, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by parabolic approximation and proper boundary conditions to calculate channel potential. The threshold voltage expression is developed using inversion carrier charge sheet density method. The developed models for channel potential and threshold voltage are validated using numerical simulations of TMQG. The developed model provides the design guidelines for TMQG with improved HCEs and SCEs.

  5. Reduced Southern Hemispheric circulation response to quadrupled CO2 due to stratospheric ozone feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Gabriel; Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    2017-01-01

    Due to computational constraints, interactive stratospheric ozone chemistry is commonly neglected in most climate models participating in intercomparison projects. The impact of this simplification on the modeled response to external forcings remains unexplored. In this work, we examine the importance of including interactive stratospheric ozone chemistry on the Southern Hemispheric circulation response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2. We find that including interactive ozone significantly reduces (by 20%) the response of the midlatitude jet to CO2, even though it does not alter the surface temperature response. The reduction of the tropospheric circulation response is due to CO2 induced ozone changes and their effects on the meridional temperature gradient near the tropopause. Our findings suggest that neglecting this stratospheric ozone feedback results in an overestimate of the circulation response to increased CO2. This has important implications for climate projections of the Southern Hemispheric circulation response to CO2.

  6. A New Quadruple Gravitational Lens System CLASS B0128+437

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, P M; Koopmans, L V E; Browne, I W A; Jackson, N J; Wilkinson, P N; Biggs, A D; Blandford, R D; De Bruyn, A G; Fassnacht, C D; Helbig, P; Mao, S; Marlow, D R; Myers, S T; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S; Rusin, D; Xanthopoulos, E

    2000-01-01

    High resolution MERLIN observations of a newly-discovered four-image gravitational lens system, B0128+437, are presented. The system was found after a careful re-analysis of the entire CLASS dataset. The MERLIN observations resolve four components in a characteristic quadruple-image configuration; the maximum image separation is 542 mas and the total flux density is 48 mJy at 5 GHz. A best-fit lens model with a singular isothermal ellipsoid results in large errors in the image positions. A significantly improved fit is obtained after the addition of a shear component, suggesting that the lensing system is more complex and may consist of multiple deflectors. The integrated radio spectrum of the background source indicates that it is a GigaHertz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) source. It may therefore be possible to resolve structure within the radio images with deep VLBI observations and thus better constrain the lensing mass distribution.

  7. Nanosecond-timescale spin transfer using individual electrons in a quadruple-quantum-dot device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baart, T. A.; Jovanovic, N.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech and Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-25

    The ability to coherently transport electron-spin states between different sites of gate-defined semiconductor quantum dots is an essential ingredient for a quantum-dot-based quantum computer. Previous shuttles using electrostatic gating were too slow to move an electron within the spin dephasing time across an array. Here, we report a nanosecond-timescale spin transfer of individual electrons across a quadruple-quantum-dot device. Utilizing enhanced relaxation rates at a so-called hot spot, we can upper bound the shuttle time to at most 150 ns. While actual shuttle times are likely shorter, 150 ns is already fast enough to preserve spin coherence in, e.g., silicon based quantum dots. This work therefore realizes an important prerequisite for coherent spin transfer in quantum dot arrays.

  8. Olefin metathesis and quadruple hydrogen bonding: A powerful combination in multistep supramolecular synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherman, Oren A.; Ligthart, G. B. W. L.; Ohkawa, Haruki; Sijbesma, Rint P.; Meijer, E. W.

    2006-08-01

    We show that combining concepts generally used in covalent organic synthesis such as retrosynthetic analysis and the use of protecting groups, and applying them to the self-assembly of polymeric building blocks in multiple steps, results in a powerful strategy for the self-assembly of dynamic materials with a high level of architectural control. We present a highly efficient synthesis of bifunctional telechelic polymers by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) with complementary quadruple hydrogen-bonding motifs. Because the degree of functionality for the polymers is 2.0, the formation of alternating, blocky copolymers was demonstrated in both solution and the bulk leading to stable, microphase-separated copolymer morphologies. ring-opening metathesis polymerization | self-assembly | block copolymer | retrosynthesis

  9. Olefin metathesis and quadruple hydrogen bonding: A powerful combination in multistep supramolecular synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherman, Oren A.; Ligthart, G. B. W. L.; Ohkawa, Haruki; Sijbesma, Rint P.; Meijer, E. W.

    2006-01-01

    We show that combining concepts generally used in covalent organic synthesis such as retrosynthetic analysis and the use of protecting groups, and applying them to the self-assembly of polymeric building blocks in multiple steps, results in a powerful strategy for the self-assembly of dynamic materials with a high level of architectural control. We present a highly efficient synthesis of bifunctional telechelic polymers by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) with complementary quadruple hydrogen-bonding motifs. Because the degree of functionality for the polymers is 2.0, the formation of alternating, blocky copolymers was demonstrated in both solution and the bulk leading to stable, microphase-separated copolymer morphologies. PMID:16877543

  10. Improved stability and stabilization design for networked control systems using new quadruple-integral functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhichen; Bai, Yan; Li, Tianqi

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates stability analysis and stabilization for networked control systems. By a refined delay decomposition approach, slightly different Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (LKFs) with quadruple-integral terms and augmented vectors containing triple-integral forms of state are constructed. New integral inequalities are proposed to estimate the cross terms from derivatives of the LKFs, which can be proved to offer tighter bounds than what the Jensen one produces theoretically. Moreover, the non-strictly proper rational functions in deriving process are fully handled via reciprocally convex approach. A state feedback controller design approach is also developed. Numerical examples and applications to practical power and oscillator systems demonstrate the superiority of the proposed criteria in conservatism reduction compared to some existing ones.

  11. A Quadruple or Triple Origin For Tycho B and SN 1572

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Todd A

    2012-01-01

    Kerzendorf et al. (2012) recently reported the startling discovery of a metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-1 +/- 0.4) A-type star near the center of the Tycho supernova remnant. We propose two possible explanations. In the first, Tycho B is a blue straggler, formed from the merger of a close K- or G-type binary system, which was previously in a quadruple system with the binary that produced SN 1572. Both binaries were likely brought to tidal contact by Kozai-Lidov oscillations acting in concert with tidal friction. Analogous progenitor systems may include CzeV343, VW LMi, and KIC 4247791. In the second, Tycho B is the surviving tertiary component of a triple system, which was also likely affected by Kozai-Lidov oscillations. Rates are briefly discussed. Problems with each evolutionary scenario are presented. Finally, a chance alignment between Tycho B and the supernova remnant is not excluded.

  12. Wideband Diagonal Quadruple-Ridge Orthomode Transducer for Circular Polarization Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Gordon M.

    2011-06-01

    A novel diagonal quadruple-ridge OMT with a compact geometry is proposed for detecting circularly polarized signals when used in conjunction with a 90 degree phase shifter. X-Band OMT prototypes, covering 8 GHz-12 GHz, have been fabricated and tested, and exceed specifications by a wide margin, with no evidence of trapped-mode resonances in the operating bandwidth. In addition to having good reflection and transmission performance, measured results show that the fabricated OMT performs well in separating orthogonal circularly polarized signal components. The OMT design is discussed in detail, focusing on impedance matching as well as the methods used to avoid in-band trapped-mode resonances. Since the OMT design focuses on performance, manufacturability and ease of tuning, the new design would be well suited to array applications. Furthermore, the new OMT design is amenable to multiple-pixel feeds as a result of its narrow geometry.

  13. On the origin of the flux ratio anomaly in quadruple lens systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2016-09-01

    We explore the origin of the flux ratio anomaly in quadruple lens systems. Using a semi-analytic method based on N-body simulations, we estimate the effect of a possible magnification perturbation caused by subhaloes with a mass scale of ≲109 h-1 M⊙ in lensing galaxy haloes. Taking into account astrometric shifts and assuming that the primary lens is described by a singular isothermal ellipsoid, the expected change to the flux ratios for a multiply lensed image is just a few per cent and the mean of the expected convergence perturbation at the effective Einstein radius of the lensing galaxy halo is = 0.003, corresponding to the mean of the ratio of a projected dark matter mass fraction in subhaloes at the effective Einstein radius = 0.006. In contrast, the expected change to the flux ratio caused by line-of-sight structures is typically ˜10 per cent and the mean of the convergence perturbation is = 0.008, corresponding to = 0.017. The contribution of the magnification perturbation caused by subhaloes is ˜40 per cent of the total at a source redshift zS = 0.7 and decreases monotonically in zS to ˜20 per cent at zS = 3.6. Assuming statistical isotropy, the convergence perturbation estimated from 11 observed quadruple lens systems has a positive correlation with the source redshift zS, which is much stronger than that with the lens redshift zL. This feature also supports that the flux ratio anomaly is caused mainly by line-of-sight structures rather than subhaloes. We also discuss a possible imprint of line-of-sight structures in the demagnification of minimum images due to locally underdense structures in the line of sight.

  14. THE QUADRUPLE PRE-MAIN-SEQUENCE SYSTEM LkCa 3: IMPLICATIONS FOR STELLAR EVOLUTION MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ruiz-Rodriguez, Dary; Prato, L.; Wasserman, Lawrence H. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Badenas, Mariona [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Schaefer, G. H. [CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Mathieu, Robert D., E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    We report the discovery that the pre-main-sequence (PMS) object LkCa 3 in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region is a hierarchical quadruple system of M stars. It was previously known to be a close ({approx}0.''5) visual pair, with one component being a moderately eccentric 12.94 day single-lined spectroscopic binary. A re-analysis of archival optical spectra complemented by new near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy shows both visual components to be double lined; the second one has a period of 4.06 days and a circular orbit. In addition to the orbital elements, we determine optical and NIR flux ratios, effective temperatures, and projected rotational velocities for all four stars. Using existing photometric monitoring observations of the system that had previously revealed the rotational period of the primary in the longer-period binary, we also detect the rotational signal of the primary in the 4.06 day binary, which is synchronized with the orbital motion. With only the assumption of coevality, a comparison of all of these constraints with current stellar evolution models from the Dartmouth series points to an age of 1.4 Myr and a distance of 133 pc, consistent with previous estimates for the region and suggesting that the system is on the near side of the Taurus complex. Similar comparisons of the properties of LkCa 3 and the well-known quadruple PMS system GG Tau with the widely used models from the Lyon series for a mixing length parameter of {alpha}{sub ML} = 1.0 strongly favor the Dartmouth models.

  15. Rescue Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier P. Gisbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. After 30 years of experience in H. pylori treatment, however, the ideal regimen to treat this infection has still to be found. Nowadays, apart from having to know well first-line eradication regimens, we must also be prepared to face treatment failures. In designing a treatment strategy, we should not only focus on the results of primary therapy alone but also on the final—overall—eradication rate. The choice of a “rescue” treatment depends on which treatment is used initially. If a first-line clarithromycin-based regimen was used, a second-line metronidazole-based treatment (quadruple therapy may be used afterwards, and then a levofloxacin-based combination would be a third-line “rescue” option. Alternatively, it has recently been suggested that levofloxacin-based “rescue” therapy constitutes an encouraging 2nd-line strategy, representing an alternative to quadruple therapy in patients with previous PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin failure, with the advantage of efficacy, simplicity and safety. In this case, quadruple regimen may be reserved as a 3rd-line “rescue” option. Even after two consecutive failures, several studies have demonstrated that H. pylori eradication can finally be achieved in almost all patients if several “rescue” therapies are consecutively given.

  16. The Fate of Sulfur in Late-Stage Magmatic Processes: Insights From Quadruple Sulfur Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, N. S.; Ono, S.; Shaw, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    Multiple sulfur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) have recently been shown to be useful tracers of fluid-rock interaction in seafloor hydrothermal systems [1]. Here we present the application of multiple sulfur isotopes to subaerial volcanoes with the aim of unraveling the various processes fractionating sulfur in the upper volcanic system. We take advantage of the fact that the ascent of volcanic gases through a hydrothermal system causes complex isotopic fractionation between the quaduple sulfur isotopes. δ34S is thought to trace the source of sulfur as well as magma degassing; at equilibrium, δ33S follows a mass-dependent fractionation relationship such that two phases in equilibrium with each other have equal Δ33S values (Δ33S ≡ ln(δ33S+1) - 0.515×ln(δ34S+1)). Disequilibrium Δ33S values can indicate isotope mixing and other fluid-rock interactions. The ultimate aim of this study is to assess the use of quadruple sulfur isotopes to obtain quantitative information on the sulfur cycle at convergent plate margins. The sulfur mass balance at convergent margins is poorly constrained, partly because late-stage processes are challenging to quantify and lead to large uncertainties in the global output fluxes. Quadruple sulfur isotopes provide a powerful tool to untangle the convoluted history of volcanic systems. Here we report the first quadruple sulfur isotopic values for H2S, SO2 and native sulfur from arc volcanoes. Fumarolic gases (˜100°C) and sulfur sublimates were collected from Poas and Turrialba, two actively degassing volcanoes in Costa Rica. The gases were bubbled in situ through chemical traps to separate H2S from SO2: H2S was reacted to form ZnS, and SO2 to form BaSO4. Sulfur was chemically extracted from the solid phases and precipitated as Ag2S, which was fluorinated to SF6 and analysed by IRMS. Poas and Turrialba have H2S/SO2 ˜1 and 0.01, respectively. δ34SH2S and δ34SSO2 are similar to gases measured at other arcs [2], - 7.9‰ and 0.6

  17. Democracy and environment as references for quadruple and quintuple helix innovation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayannis, Elias G.; Campbell, David F. J.; Orr, Barron J.

    2015-04-01

    The perspective of democracy and the ecological context define key references for knowledge production and innovation in innovation systems. Particularly under conditions of environmental change where enhancing the potential for adaptation is critical, this requires a closer look at ecological responsibility and sensitivity in the different innovation models and governance regimes. The "Quintuple Helix" innovation model is an approach that stresses the necessary socio-ecological transition of society and economy by adding an environment helix to an innovation system already made up of three (university-industry-government) or four (civil society relations) helices in a way that supports adaptation by incorporating global warming as both a challenge to and a driver of innovation. There is the proposition that knowledge production and innovation co-evolve with democracy (Carayannis and Campbell, 2014). In the Triple Helix model (Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 2000) the existence of a democracy does not appear to be necessary for knowledge production and innovation. However, the Quadruple Helix (Carayannis and Campbell, 2009, 2010 and 2014) is defined and represented by additional key attributes and components: "media-based and culture-based public", "civil society" and "arts, artistic research and arts-based innovation" (Bast, Carayannis and Campbell, 2015). Implications of this are that the fourth helix in the Quadruple Helix innovation systems brings in and represents the perspective of "dimension of democracy" or the "context of democracy" for knowledge in general and knowledge production and innovation in more particular. Within theories of democracy there is a competition between narrow and broader concepts of democracy (Campbell, 2013). This is particularly true when democracy is to be understood to transcend more substantially the narrow understanding of being primarily based on or being primarily rooted in government institutions (within a Triple Helix

  18. Magnetic field and quadruple Langmuir probe measurements in the plume of the plasmoid thruster experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelfgen, Syri Jo

    The development of high specific impulse rocket engines is essential for fast and efficient space travel. The plasmoid thruster, a novel propulsion concept with the potential for producing a high specific impulse, was investigated in light of this need. This pulsed inductive rocket utilizes the Lorentz force to accelerate plasmoids and produce thrust. The Plasmoid Thruster Experiment (PTX) was designed to experimentally evaluate the thruster concept. PTX operates by producing plasmoids in a conical theta-pinch coil and ejecting them at high velocity. Measurements of the plasmoid magnetic fields, electron temperature (Te), electron number density (n e) and Mach number (M) were taken in the PTX plume with a B˙ probe array and a quadruple Langmuir probe. The measurements were used for calculating exit velocity and Isp. High-speed photographs were also obtained for capturing images of the plasmoids and estimating their velocity. The magnetic field data showed behavior characteristic of plasmoids, such as the occurrence of the maximum axial magnetic field on axis and magnetic field reversal. The quadruple Langmuir probe data revealed several factors that influence thruster operation, including propellant choice, supply pressure and propellant injection timing (tpuff). For Ar propellant at supply pressures of 14--34 psig and tpuff = 2200 mus, Te ranged from 2--7 eV, ne ranged from 1.5 x 1020 m-3 to 3.5 x 1020 m-3, and M ranged from 3.3--3.8 in PTX. For H2 propellant, T e ranged from 15--27 eV, ne ranged from 0.8 x 1020 m-3 to 1.5 x 1020 m-3, and M ranged from 1.4--2.6, for supply pressures of 9--38 psig and tpuff = 1200--2400 mus. Analysis of the plume measurements yielded high thruster exit velocities, indicating that the plasmoid thruster can produce a high Isp. Velocities of 24 km/s, 35 km/s and 46 km/s were calculated for supply pressures of 38 psig, 24 psig and 9 psig of H2 propellant, respectively. These exit velocities deliver Isp values of 2,400 s, 3,500 s and 4

  19. Generation of CMAHKO/GTKO/shTNFRI-Fc/HO-1 quadruple gene modified pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Lee, Eun Mi; Jin, Jun-Xue; Lee, Sanghoon; Taweechaipaisankul, Anukul; Hwang, Jong Ik; Alam, Zahid; Ahn, Curie; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2017-08-01

    As an alternative source of organs for transplantation into humans, attention has been directed to pigs due to their similarities in biological features and organ size. However, severe immune rejection has prevented successful xenotransplantation using pig organs and tissues. To overcome immune rejection, recently developed genetic engineering systems such as TALEN coupled with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to make embryos could be used to produce pigs compatible with xenotransplantation. We used the TALEN system to target the non-Gal antigen cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) gene in pigs that is naturally deleted in humans. Gal-deleted cells expressing both soluble human tumor necrosis factor receptor I IgG1-Fc (shTNFRI-Fc) and human hemagglutinin -tagged-human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) were transfected with a TALEN target for CMAH. Cells lacking CMAH were negatively selected using N-glyconeuraminic acid (Neu5Gc)/magnetic beads and the level of Neu5Gc expression of isolated cells were analyzed by FACS and DNA sequencing. Cloned embryos using 3 different genetically modified cell clones were respectively transferred into 3 recipients, with 55.6% (5/9) becoming pregnant and three cloned pigs were produced. Successful genetic disruption of the CMAH gene was confirmed by sequencing, showing lack of expression of CMAH in tail-derived fibroblasts of the cloned piglets. Besides decreased expression of Neu5Gc in piglets produced by SCNT, antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assays and natural antibody binding for examining immuno-reactivity of the quadruple gene modified pigs derived from endothelial cells and fibroblasts were reduced significantly compared to those of wild type animals. We conclude that by combining the TALEN system and transgenic cells, targeting of multiple genes could be useful for generating organs for xenotransplantation. We produced miniature pigs with quadruple modified genes CMAHKO

  20. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. II. Quadruples expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Matthews, Devin A.; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell atoms and organic radicals to the description of quadruple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the prominent CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models. From a comparison of the models in terms of their recovery of total CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is independent of the reference used (unrestricted or restricted (open-shell) Hartree-Fock), in contrast to the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models, for which the accuracy is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state. By further comparing the ability of the models to recover relative CCSDTQ total atomization energies, the discrepancy between them is found to be even more pronounced, stressing how a balanced description of both closed- and open-shell species—as found in the CCSDT(Q-n) models—is indeed of paramount importance if any perturbative CC model is to be of chemical relevance for high-accuracy applications. In particular, the third-order CCSDT(Q-3) model is found to offer an encouraging alternative to the existing choices of quadruples models used in modern computational thermochemistry, since the model is still only of moderate cost, albeit markedly more costly than, e.g., the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models.

  1. Assessment of the accuracy of coupled cluster perturbation theory for open-shell systems. II. Quadruples expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Janus J; Matthews, Devin A; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2016-05-21

    We extend our assessment of the potential of perturbative coupled cluster (CC) expansions for a test set of open-shell atoms and organic radicals to the description of quadruple excitations. Namely, the second- through sixth-order models of the recently proposed CCSDT(Q-n) quadruples series [J. J. Eriksen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064108 (2014)] are compared to the prominent CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models. From a comparison of the models in terms of their recovery of total CC singles, doubles, triples, and quadruples (CCSDTQ) energies, we find that the performance of the CCSDT(Q-n) models is independent of the reference used (unrestricted or restricted (open-shell) Hartree-Fock), in contrast to the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models, for which the accuracy is strongly dependent on the spin of the molecular ground state. By further comparing the ability of the models to recover relative CCSDTQ total atomization energies, the discrepancy between them is found to be even more pronounced, stressing how a balanced description of both closed- and open-shell species-as found in the CCSDT(Q-n) models-is indeed of paramount importance if any perturbative CC model is to be of chemical relevance for high-accuracy applications. In particular, the third-order CCSDT(Q-3) model is found to offer an encouraging alternative to the existing choices of quadruples models used in modern computational thermochemistry, since the model is still only of moderate cost, albeit markedly more costly than, e.g., the CCSDT(Q) and ΛCCSDT(Q) models.

  2. Quadruple-first line drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Vietnam: What can we learn from genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Quang; Nguyen, Nhung Viet; Contamin, Lucie; Tran, Thanh Hoa Thi; Vu, Thuong Thi; Nguyen, Hung Van; Nguyen, Ngoc Lan Thi; Nguyen, Son Thai; Dang, Anh Duc; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Nguyen, Van Anh Thi

    2017-02-21

    In Vietnam, a country with high tuberculosis (137/100.000 population) and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB burdens (7.8/100.000 population), little is known about the molecular signatures of drug resistance in general and more particularly of second line drug (SLD) resistance. This study is specifically focused on Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to four first-line drugs (FLDs) that make TB much more difficult to treat. The aim is to determine the proportion of SLD resistance in these quadruple drug resistant isolates and the genetic determinants linked to drug resistance to better understand the genetic processes leading to quadruple and extremely drug resistance (XDR). 91 quadruple (rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin) FLD resistant and 55 susceptible isolates were included. Spoligotyping and 24-locus MIRU-VNTR techniques were performed and 9 genes and promoters linked to FLD and SLD resistance were sequenced. SLD susceptibility testing was carried out on a subsample of isolates. High proportion of quadruple-FLD resistant isolates was resistant to fluoroquinolones (27%) and second-line injectable drugs (30.2%) by drug susceptibility testing. The sequencing revealed high mutation diversity with prevailing mutations at positions katG315, inhA-15, rpoB531, embB306, rrs1401, rpsL43 and gyrA94. The sensitivity and specificity were high for most drug resistances (>86%), but the sensitivity was lower for injectable drug resistances (<69%). The mutation patterns revealed 23.1% of pre-XDR and 7.7% of XDR isolates, mostly belonging to Beijing family. The genotypic diversity and the variety of mutations reflect the existence of various evolutionary paths leading to FLD and SLD resistance. Nevertheless, particular mutation patterns linked to high-level resistance and low fitness costs seem to be favored.

  3. Theoretical sensitivity analysis of quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators designed for fabrication on the silicon-on-insulator platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Robert; Chrostowski, Lukas; Jaeger, Nicolas A. F.

    2014-09-01

    Vernier racetrack resonators offer advantages over single racetrack resonators such as extending the free spectral range (FSR).1-3 Here, we have presented a theoretical sensitivity analysis on quadruple Vernier racetrack resonators based on varying, one at a time, various fabrication dependent parameters. These parameters include the waveguide widths, heights, and propagation losses. We have shown that it should be possible to design a device that meets typical commercial specifications while being tolerant to changes in these parameters.

  4. THE UNUSUAL QUADRUPLE SYSTEM HD 91962 WITH A “PLANETARY” ARCHITECTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Latham, David W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: atokovinin@ctio.noao.edu, E-mail: dlatham@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mil [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The young nearby solar-type star HD 91962 is a rare quadruple system where three companions revolve around the main component with periods of 170.3 days, 8.85 years, and 205 years. The two outer orbits are nearly co-planar, and all orbits have small eccentricities. We refine the visual orbit of the outer pair and determine the combined spectro-interferometric orbit of the middle 8.8 year pair and the spectroscopic orbit of the inner binary. The middle and inner orbits are likely locked in a 1:19 resonance, and the ratio of the outer and middle periods is ∼23. The masses of all components are estimated (inside-out: 1.14, 0.32, 0.64, 0.64 solar mass).  The dynamical parallax is 27.4 ± 0.6 mas. We speculate that this multiple system originated from collapse of an isolated core and that the companions migrated in a dissipative disk. Other multiple systems with similar features (co-planarity, small eccentricity, and period ratio around 20) are known.

  5. Quadruple-layered perovskite (CuCl)Ca2NaNb4O13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, A.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Narumi, Y.; Kindo, K.; Aczel, A. A.; Luke, G. M.; Uemura, Y. J.; Kiuchi, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; Ajiro, Y.; Kageyama, H.

    2012-01-01

    We will present the synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of a new quadruple-layered perovskite (CuCl)Ca2NaNb4O13. Through a topotactic ion-exchange reaction with CuCl2, the precursor RbCa2NaNb4O13 presumably having an incoherent octahederal tliting changes into (CuCl)Ca2NaNb4O13 with a 2ap×2ap×2cp superstructure (tetragonal; a=7.73232(5) Å, c=39.2156(4) Å). The well-defined superstructure for the ion-exchanged product should be stabilized by the inserted CuCl4O2 octahedral layers that firmly connect with neighboring perovskite layers. Magnetic studies show the absence of long-range magnetic ordering down to 2 K despite strong in-plane interactions. Aleksandrov‧s group theory and Rietveld refinement of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data suggest the structure to be of I4/mmm space group with in-phase tilting along the a and b axes, a two-tilt system (++0).

  6. Quadruple labelled dual oxygen and pH-sensitive ratiometric nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeren M. Chauhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanosensors capable of simultaneously measuring dissolved oxygen concentrations from 0 to 100% saturation and pH over the full physiological range, from pH 3.5 to 7.5, that advance the methods towards understanding of key biological gradients, were synthesised. A library of water soluble oxygen-sensitive porphyrins, with three substituted charged functional groups and a chemically flexible carboxylate functional group were spectroscopically analysed to assess their sensitivity to changes in dissolved oxygen concentrations as free species in solution and in suspension as nanoparticle conjugates. A platinum cationic porphyrin was taken forward to fabricate ratiometric oxygen-sensitive nanosensors, using 5-(and-6-carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA as internal standard. In addition, quadruple labelled dual oxygen and pH-sensitive nanosensors were synthesised using the cationic Pt porphyrin, pH-sensitive fluorescein dyes, carboxyfluorescein (FAM and Oregon Green (OG, in a 1:1 ratio, and TAMRA. We envisage the dual oxygen and pH nanosensors will find broad utility in the characterisation of diverse microenvironments, where there are complex interactions between molecular oxygen and pH.

  7. The quadruple pre-main sequence system LkCa3: Implications for stellar evolution models

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Guillermo; Badenas, Mariona; Prato, L; Schaefer, G H; Wasserman, Lawrence H; Mathieu, Robert D; Latham, David W

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery that the pre-main sequence object LkCa3 in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region is a hierarchical quadruple system of M stars. It was previously known to be a close (~0.5 arc sec) visual pair, with one component being a moderately eccentric 12.94-day single-lined spectroscopic binary. A re-analysis of archival optical spectra complemented with new near-infrared spectroscopy shows both visual components to be double-lined, the second one having a period of 4.06 days and a circular orbit. In addition to the orbital elements, we determine optical and near-infrared flux ratios, effective temperatures, and projected rotational velocities for all four stars. Using existing photometric monitoring observations of the system that had previously revealed the rotational period of the primary in the longer-period binary, we detect also the rotational signal of the primary in the 4.06-day binary, which is synchronized with the orbital motion. With only the assumption of coevality, a comparison of ...

  8. Ultraviolet images of the gravitationally lensed quadruple quasar Q2237+0305 with the HST

    CERN Document Server

    Blanton, M R; Wambsganss, J

    1998-01-01

    We analyze observations of the quadruple lensed quasar Q2237+0305, taken with the WFPC2 camera in the F336W and F300W bands. 25 exposures were performed within 15 hours real time on 3 November 1995. On a timescale of 3--4 hours, we observe no variation in component A of greater than 0.02 mag. The other components are constant over a period of 10 hours to within about 0.05 mag. In the final 5 hours there is some evidence (not conclusive) for variation of component D by about 0.1 mag. Component A was brighter than component B by about 0.3 mag. Components C and D were fainter than component A by about 1.3 and 1.4 mag. Any fifth (central) component was at least 6.5 mag fainter than component A. Using the PC chip, we measure the relative distances of the four components with high accuracy. Our values are systematically larger than other investigators' (by 0.1% to 2.0%). The F336W filter had been chosen for the observations because it could have allowed us to see extended Ly-alpha emission from the Broad-Line Regio...

  9. A quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope for electrical property measurements of microscopic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kubo, Osamu; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Aono, Masakazu; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2011-07-15

    Four-terminal electrical measurement is realized on a microscopic structure in air, without a lithographic process, using a home-built quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope (QSPFM). The QSPFM has four probes whose positions are individually controlled by obtaining images of a sample in the manner of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and uses the probes as contacting electrodes for electrical measurements. A specially arranged tuning fork probe (TFP) is used as a self-detection force sensor to operate each probe in a frequency modulation AFM mode, resulting in simultaneous imaging of the same microscopic feature on an insulator using the four TFPs. Four-terminal electrical measurement is then demonstrated in air by placing each probe electrode in contact with a graphene flake exfoliated on a silicon dioxide film, and the sheet resistance of the flake is measured by the van der Pauw method. The present work shows that the QSPFM has the potential to measure the intrinsic electrical properties of a wide range of microscopic materials in situ without electrode fabrication.

  10. A quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope for electrical property measurements of microscopic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Seiji; Kubo, Osamu; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Aono, Masakazu; Nakayama, Tomonobu, E-mail: higuchi.seiji@nims.go.jp, E-mail: nakayama.tomonobu@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Four-terminal electrical measurement is realized on a microscopic structure in air, without a lithographic process, using a home-built quadruple-scanning-probe force microscope (QSPFM). The QSPFM has four probes whose positions are individually controlled by obtaining images of a sample in the manner of atomic force microscopy (AFM), and uses the probes as contacting electrodes for electrical measurements. A specially arranged tuning fork probe (TFP) is used as a self-detection force sensor to operate each probe in a frequency modulation AFM mode, resulting in simultaneous imaging of the same microscopic feature on an insulator using the four TFPs. Four-terminal electrical measurement is then demonstrated in air by placing each probe electrode in contact with a graphene flake exfoliated on a silicon dioxide film, and the sheet resistance of the flake is measured by the van der Pauw method. The present work shows that the QSPFM has the potential to measure the intrinsic electrical properties of a wide range of microscopic materials in situ without electrode fabrication.

  11. Effects of anisotropy and Coulomb interactions on quantum transport in a quadruple quantum-dot structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, M. Yu.; Val'kov, V. V.; Aksenov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analytical and numerical investigation of the spectral and transport properties of a quadruple quantum-dot (QQD) structure which is one of the popular low-dimensional systems in the context of fundamental quantum physics study, future electronic applications, and quantum calculations. The density of states, occupation numbers, and conductance of the structure were analyzed using the nonequilibrium Green's functions in the tight-binding approach and the equation-of-motion method. In particular the anisotropy of hopping integrals and on-site electron energies as well as the effects of the finite intra- and interdot Coulomb interactions were investigated. It was found out that the anisotropy of the kinetic processes in the system leads to the Fano-Feshbach asymmetrical peak. We demonstrated that the conductance of the QQD device has a wide insulating band with steep edges separating triple-peak structures if the intradot Coulomb interactions are taken into account. The interdot Coulomb correlations between the central QDs result in the broadening of this band and the occurrence of an additional band with low conductance due to the Fano antiresonances. It was shown that in this case the conductance of the anisotropic QQD device can be dramatically changed by tuning the anisotropy of on-site electron energies.

  12. The quadruple bottom line: the advantages of incorporating Green Chemistry into the undergraduate chemistry major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    2017-08-01

    When the author first became involved with the Green Chemistry movement, he noted that his colleagues in industry who were involved in one of the ACS Green Chemistry Institute® industrial roundtables emphasized the take-home message they described as the "triple bottom line." They noted that introducing Green Chemistry in industrial settings had economic, social, and environmental benefits. As someone who first went to school at age 5, and has been "going to school" most days for 65 years, it was easy for the author to see why introducing Green Chemistry into academics had similar beneficial effects within the context of economic, social and environmental domains at the college/university level. He was prepared to understand why faculty who had taught traditional courses often saw the advantage of incorporating Green Chemistry into the courses they teach. What was not as obvious is why students who were encountering chemistry for the first time were often equally passionate about the Green Chemistry movement. Recent attention has been paid, however, to a model that brings clarity to the hitherto vague term of "relevance" that might explain why integrating Green Chemistry into the undergraduate chemistry classroom can achieve a "quadruple bottom-line" for students because of potentially positive effects of adding a domain of "relevance" to the existing economic, social, and environmental domains.

  13. Process control on modified III Quadruple Tank using LabVIEW aplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, Zahrotul; Arlita, Amalia Dyah; Rahayu, Santi Puteri; Arifin, Imam; Hisyam, Anwaruddin; Renanto, Juwari

    2017-05-01

    Generally, chemical industry processes have the characteristics of a multi-variable process, and influenced by the disturbances which may be detrimental to the process. Quadruple tank process is a simple prototype which represents the complicated multivariable dynamic process. However, this system originally doesn't have time delay that always occure in industrial process. Thus, this study modify the system by adding heater in tank I and tank 2. In addition, interaction between tank I and tank 2 also tank 3 and tank 4 was modified [2]. Two controllers are implemented to maintain level and temperature of tank I and tank 2 i.e. PI-PID and 2DoF IMC. The PI-PID controller parameters are determined by Ziegler-Nichols tuning method which detuned by Mc Avoy method and BLT method, while the 2DoF IMC controller parameter is determined by MP-GM method. In the minimum phase, based on the value of IAE, the PI controller with detuning Mc Avoy better than the 2DoF-IMC in controlling levels and 2DoF-IMC better than control of temperature compared with PI-PID controllers. In the non-minimum phase, based on the value of IAE, the PI-PID controller is better than the control 2DoF-IMC.

  14. The Quadruple Gravitational Lens PG1115+080 Time Delays and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Schechter, P L; Barr, R; Barvainis, R; Becker, C M; Bernstein, G M; Blakeslee, J P; Bus, S J; Dressler, A; Falco, E E; Fesen, R A; Fischer, P; Gebhardt, K; Harmer, D L; Hewitt, J N; Hjorth, J; Hurt, T; Jaunsen, A O; Mateo, M; Mehlert, D; Richstone, D O; Sparke, L S; Thorstensen, J R; Tonry, J L; Wegner, G; Willmarth, D W; Worthey, G

    1996-01-01

    Optical photometry is presented for the quadruple gravitational lens PG1115+080. A preliminary reduction of data taken from November 1995 to June 1996 gives component ``C'' leading component ``B'' by 23.7+/-3.4 days and components ``A1'' and ``A2'' by 9.4 days. A range of models has been fit to the image positions, none of which gives an adequate fit. The best fitting and most physically plausible of these, taking the lensing galaxy and the associated group of galaxies to be singular isothermal spheres, gives a Hubble constant of 42 km/s/Mpc for Omega=1, with an observational uncertainty of 14%, as computed from the B-C time delay measurement. Taking the lensing galaxy to have an approximately E5 isothermal mass distribution yields H0=64 km/sec/Mpc while taking the galaxy to be a point mass gives H0=84 km/sec/Mpc. The former gives a particularly bad fit to the position of the lensing galaxy, while the latter is inconsistent with measurements of nearby galaxy rotation curves. Constraints on these and other pos...

  15. Design and reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety analysis of a high availability quadruple vital computer system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping TAN; Wei-ting HE; Jia LIN; Hong-ming ZHAO; Jian CHU

    2011-01-01

    With the development of high-speed railways in China,more than 2000 high-speed trains will be put into use.Safety and efficiency of railway transportation is increasingly important.We have designed a high availability quadruple vital computer (HAQVC) system based on the analysis of the architecture of the traditional double 2-out-of-2 system and 2-out-of-3 system.The HAQVC system is a system with high availability and safety,with prominent characteristics such as fire-new internal architecture,high efficiency,reliable data interaction mechanism,and operation state change mechanism.The hardware of the vital CPU is based on ARM7 with the real-time embedded safe operation system (ES-OS).The Markov modeling method is designed to evaluate the reliability,availability,maintainability,and safety (RAMS) of the system.In this paper,we demonstrate that the HAQVC system is more reliable than the all voting triple modular redundancy (AVTMR) system and double 2-out-of-2 system.Thus,the design can be used for a specific application system,such as an airplane or high-speed railway system.

  16. Temperature and baric dependence of nuclear quadruple resonance spectra in indium and gallium monoselenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandozhko, Victor; Raranskii, Nikolai; Balazjuk, Vitaly; Samila, Andriy; Kovalyuk, Zahar

    2013-12-01

    Pulsed radiospectroscopy method has been used to study nuclear quadruple resonance (NQR) spectra of 69Ga and 115In isotopes in the layered semiconductors GaSe and InSe. It has been found that in GaSe and InSe there is a considerable temperature dependence of NQR frequency which in the temperature range of 250 to 390 K is practically linear with conversion slope 1.54 kHz/degree for 69Ga and 2.35 kHz/degree for 115In. In the same crystals the effect of uniaxial pressure on NQR spectra applied along the optical axis с up to the values of 500 kg/сm2 has been studied. A strong attenuation of NQR spectra intensity with increase in pressure on layered crystal package has been established. The unvaried multiplicity of resonance spectra indicates the absence of structural transformations in these layered crystals over the investigated range of temperatures and pressures.

  17. Triple/quadruple patterning layout decomposition via linear programming and iterative rounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yibo; Xu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Bei; Baldick, Ross; Pan, David Z.

    2017-04-01

    As the feature size of the semiconductor technology scales down to 10 nm and beyond, multiple patterning lithography (MPL) has become one of the most practical candidates for lithography, along with other emerging technologies, such as extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), e-beam lithography (EBL), and directed self-assembly. Due to the delay of EUVL and EBL, triple and even quadruple patterning is considered to be used for lower metal and contact layers with tight pitches. In the process of MPL, layout decomposition is the key design stage, where a layout is split into various parts and each part is manufactured through a separate mask. For metal layers, stitching may be allowed to resolve conflicts, whereas it is forbidden for contact and via layers. We focus on the application of layout decomposition where stitching is not allowed, such as for contact and via layers. We propose a linear programming (LP) and iterative rounding solving technique to reduce the number of nonintegers in the LP relaxation problem. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithms can provide high quality decomposition solutions efficiently while introducing as few conflicts as possible.

  18. Neuraminidase subtyping of avian influenza viruses with PrimerHunter-designed primers and quadruplicate primer pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Khan, Mazhar I; Khan, Mazhar; Măndoiu, Ion; Măndoiu, Ion I

    2013-01-01

    We have previously developed a software package called PrimerHunter to design primers for PCR-based virus subtyping. In this study, 9 pairs of primers were designed with PrimerHunter and successfully used to differentiate the 9 neuraminidase (NA) genes of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in multiple PCR-based assays. Furthermore, primer pools were designed and successfully used to decrease the number of reactions needed for NA subtyping from 9 to 4. The quadruplicate primer-pool method is cost-saving, and was shown to be suitable for the NA subtyping of both cultured AIVs and uncultured AIV swab samples. The primers selected for this study showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in NA subtyping by RT-PCR, SYBR green-based Real-time PCR and Real-time RT-PCR methods. AIV RNA of 2 to 200 copies (varied by NA subtypes) could be detected by these reactions. No unspecific amplification was displayed when detecting RNAs of other avian infectious viruses such as Infectious bronchitis virus, Infectious bursal disease virus and Newcastle disease virus. In summary, this study introduced several sensitive and specific PCR-based assays for NA subtyping of AIVs and also validated again the effectiveness of the PrimerHunter tool for the design of subtyping primers.

  19. Triple/quadruple patterning layout decomposition via novel linear programming and iterative rounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yibo; Xu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Bei; Baldick, Ross; Pan, David Z.

    2016-03-01

    As feature size of the semiconductor technology scales down to 10nm and beyond, multiple patterning lithography (MPL) has become one of the most practical candidates for lithography, along with other emerging technologies such as extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), e-beam lithography (EBL) and directed self assembly (DSA). Due to the delay of EUVL and EBL, triple and even quadruple patterning are considered to be used for lower metal and contact layers with tight pitches. In the process of MPL, layout decomposition is the key design stage, where a layout is split into various parts and each part is manufactured through a separate mask. For metal layers, stitching may be allowed to resolve conflicts, while it is forbidden for contact and via layers. In this paper, we focus on the application of layout decomposition where stitching is not allowed such as for contact and via layers. We propose a linear programming and iterative rounding (LPIR) solving technique to reduce the number of non-integers in the LP relaxation problem. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithms can provide high quality decomposition solutions efficiently while introducing as few conflicts as possible.

  20. Shape memory effect of thermoplastic segmented polyurethanes with self-complementary quadruple hydrogen bonding in soft segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Hu, Jinlian; Liu, Yijun

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the fact that a kind of thermoplastic shape memory polyurethane with self-complementary quadruple hydrogen bonding units in soft segments can present a significant shape memory effect under the usually used thermodynamic programming condition. Compared with the control sample, it was observed that the introduction of self-complementary quadruple hydrogen bonding into soft segments increases the glass transition temperature from 28.3 ° C to 73.3 ° C. Therefore, the temporary deformation can be fixed well after cooling at room temperature; subsequently thermal responsive shape memory recovery can be triggered by heating up to 86 ° C. The immediate shape recovery ratio and shape fixity ratio can be 95.8% and 95.9%. Even after 24 hours relaxation for the stretched films, the corresponding Rr and Rf can be 94% and 60%. In contrast, the sample without quadruple hydrogen bonding shows that the elasticity and the deformation cannot be fixed after 24 hours relaxation. Supplementary material in the form of a doc file available from the journal web page at 10.1140/epje/i2008-10395-2 and are accessible for authorised users.

  1. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  2. Planet Hunters: A Transiting Circumbinary Planet in a Quadruple Star System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamb, Megan E.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Carter, Joshua A.; Welsh, William F.; Fischer, Debra A.; Torres, Guillermo; Howard, Andrew W.; Crepp, Justin R.; Keel, William C.; Lintott, Chris J.; Kaib, Nathan A.; Terrell, Dirk; Gagliano, Robert; Jek, Kian J.; Parrish, Michael; Smith, Arfon M.; Lynn, Stuart; Simpson, Robert J.; Giguere, Matthew J.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    We report the discovery and confirmation of a transiting circumbinary planet (PH1b) around KIC 4862625, an eclipsing binary in the Kepler field. The planet was discovered by volunteers searching the first six Quarters of publicly available Kepler data as part of the Planet Hunters citizen science project. Transits of the planet across the larger and brighter of the eclipsing stars are detectable by visual inspection every ~137 days, with seven transits identified in Quarters 1-11. The physical and orbital parameters of both the host stars and planet were obtained via a photometric-dynamical model, simultaneously fitting both the measured radial velocities and the Kepler light curve of KIC 4862625. The 6.18 ± 0.17 R ⊕ planet orbits outside the 20 day orbit of an eclipsing binary consisting of an F dwarf (1.734 ± 0.044 R ⊙, 1.528 ± 0.087 M ⊙) and M dwarf (0.378 ± 0.023 R ⊙, 0.408 ± 0.024 M ⊙). For the planet, we find an upper mass limit of 169 M ⊕ (0.531 Jupiter masses) at the 99.7% confidence level. With a radius and mass less than that of Jupiter, PH1b is well within the planetary regime. Outside the planet's orbit, at ~1000 AU, a previously unknown visual binary has been identified that is likely bound to the planetary system, making this the first known case of a quadruple star system with a transiting planet.

  3. Significance of Quadruple assessment of breast lump–A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Shrestha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 10% of breast masses are breast cancer. It is important for women with a breast lump to receive appropriate evaluation. Mammography has been the “gold standard” in breast cancer detection for >40 years. Ultrasonography is non-invasive easily available, cheaper and accurate tool while Fine needle aspiration cytology has a high diagnostic accuracy rate in hands of experienced cytopathologist. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective and prospective study of 173 women attending radiology department in Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara for mammography during a period of 18 months from January 2011 to June 2012.The age ranged from 20yrs to 75yrs. BIRADS score was given for both mammography and sonomammography. All malignant and suspicious cases had undergone fine needle aspiration cytology. Cytology reports were correlated with imaging study. Results: The most common age group for the breast lump was 40-49 years showing 65(37.57% cases. Most lumps were seen on the left side 54.3% (94/ 173 cases and were seen in upper outer quadrant of the breast (74 cases. 11 cases each were given the BIRADS score of 4 in both mammography and sonomammography. Sensitivity and specificity of mammography and sonomammography were compared to cytologyreports. The sensitivity for mammogram was 73.7% while specificity was 96.3%. The sensitivity and specificity for sonomammogram was 78.9% and 95% respectively. Conclusion: Quadruple assessment i.e. clinical assessment, mammography, sonomammography and cytological study are the new “gold standard” in the investigation of breast disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11499 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No. 8 (2014 630-634

  4. Quadruple Quorum-Sensing Inputs Control Vibrio cholerae Virulence and Maintain System Robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sarah A.; Chapman, Christine A.; Ng, Wai-Leung

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) for cell-cell communication to carry out group behaviors. This intercellular signaling process relies on cell density-dependent production and detection of chemical signals called autoinducers (AIs). Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, detects two AIs, CAI-1 and AI-2, with two histidine kinases, CqsS and LuxQ, respectively, to control biofilm formation and virulence factor production. At low cell density, these two signal receptors function in parallel to activate the key regulator LuxO, which is essential for virulence of this pathogen. At high cell density, binding of AIs to their respective receptors leads to deactivation of LuxO and repression of virulence factor production. However, mutants lacking CqsS and LuxQ maintain a normal LuxO activation level and remain virulent, suggesting that LuxO is activated by additional, unidentified signaling pathways. Here we show that two other histidine kinases, CqsR (formerly known as VC1831) and VpsS, act upstream in the central QS circuit of V. cholerae to activate LuxO. V. cholerae strains expressing any one of these four receptors are QS proficient and capable of colonizing animal hosts. In contrast, mutants lacking all four receptors are phenotypically identical to LuxO-defective mutants. Importantly, these four functionally redundant receptors act together to prevent premature induction of a QS response caused by signal perturbations. We suggest that the V. cholerae QS circuit is composed of quadruple sensory inputs and has evolved to be refractory to sporadic AI level perturbations. PMID:25874462

  5. THE PROPOSED QUADRUPLE SYSTEM SZ HERCULIS: REVISED LITE MODEL AND ORBITAL STABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinse, Tobias Cornelius; Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Chung-Uk [Advanced Astronomy and Space Science Division, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Gozdziewski, Krzysztof [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun Centre for Astronomy, PL-87-100 Torun (Poland); Haghighipour, Nader, E-mail: tchinse@gmail.com [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, 96822 HI (United States)

    2012-08-15

    In a recent study, Lee et al. presented new photometric follow-up timing observations of the semidetached binary system SZ Herculis and proposed the existence of two hierarchical cirumbinary companions. Based on the light-travel time effect, the two low-mass M-dwarf companions are found to orbit the binary pair on moderate to high eccentric orbits. The derived periods of these two companions are close to a 2:1 mean-motion orbital resonance. We have studied the stability of the system using the osculating orbital elements as presented by Lee et al. Results indicate an orbit-crossing architecture exhibiting short-term dynamical instabilities leading to the escape of one of the proposed companions. We have examined the system's underlying model parameter space by following a Monte Carlo approach and found an improved fit to the timing data. A study of the stability of our best-fitting orbits also indicates that the proposed system is generally unstable. If the observed anomalous timing variations of the binary period is due to additional circumbinary companions, then the resulting system should exhibit a long-term stable orbital configuration much different from the orbits suggested by Lee et al. We, therefore, suggest that based on Newtonian-dynamical considerations, the proposed quadruple system cannot exist. To uncover the true nature of the observed period variations of this system, we recommend future photometric follow-up observations that could further constrain eclipse-timing variations and/or refine light-travel time models.

  6. AN EXCEPTIONAL CASE OF QUADRUPLE RENAL ARTERIES & T WIN RENAL VEINS WITH CROWDED HILAR ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The renal vasculature was always a subject of varia tions both in the number and pattern of portal of entry into kidney and Perihilar placement of the artery, vein and pelvis. Good anatomical insight is an essential prerequisite besides the surgical expertise. The cadaveric dissection revealed a Right Kidney supplied by Quadruple renal arteries & Drained by two renal veins. The main renal artery (MRA was arising from antero lateral aspect and the accessory renal artery was arising from anterior as pect of aorta 1cm distal to the former vessel. Only the MRA showed Fork Pattern Branching with fou r anterior segmental arteries and one posterior segmental artery in the pre hilar region. T he first and fourth segmental arteries showed a small subsidiary branch and a large tortuo us subsidiary branch respectively. The later along with the branch running downwards and lateral from lower renal artery formed a common trunk and pierced the capsule and entered int o the substance of the kidney anteriorly about 2cm lateral to the hilum, thus forming an abe rrant artery. The upper polar artery was seen arising from the lower supra renal artery. The main renal vein (MRV, was formed by two formative tributaries of which one is larger and ot her being smaller. The later was seen just anterior to the third anterior segmental branch of MRA. Accessory renal vein was formed by only one tributary encircled by the fourth anterior segmental artery and posterior segmental artery. There was crowding of structures seen with altered hilar anatomy in both vertical and horizontal disposition. Such a rare combination of extra renal multiple arterio-venous variation is of worth concern to the urologists harvesting ki dneys from the live donors for performing transplantation procedures. Partial nephrectomies for the hilar tumors and for Radiologists during interpretation of the angiograms.

  7. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  8. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  9. Influence of Quadruple Intervention Treatment on Development Process of Children with Brain Damage Syndrome%四联干预疗法对脑损伤综合征患儿神经运动发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 兰瑞; 谢巧玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察四联干预疗法治疗脑损伤综合征患儿的临床疗效.方法:纳入符合诊断标准的脑损伤综合征患儿145例,运用四联干预疗法进行干预治疗,60天1个疗程,每干预治疗20天休息20天,干预前后分别进行Gesell神经运动发育评估(DQ)、粗大运动功能(GMFM)评估,观察患儿干预后智力测试、GMFM得分改善情况;以患儿干预介入时机分组进行协方差分析,探讨干预介入时机及患儿治疗前各项分值水平对患儿预后的影响.结果:干预治疗后Gesell智力测试5个能区、GMFM粗大运动功能A、B、C3个能区得分在α=0.05水准上与治疗前相比均有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗后较治疗前各项得分均有提高;介入时机及治疗前Gesell发育量表DQ的社会适应、大运动、精细运动、语言各项得分对患儿预后均有影响.结论:四联干预疗法对脑损伤综合征患儿的神经运动发育有较好的促进作用,早期介入四联干预对预防患儿神经伤残有一定的临床价值.%Objective:To observe the clinical curative effect of quadruple intervention therapy in the treatment of cerebral damage syndrome patients.Methods:145 children conformed to the criteria of the diagnosis of brain damage syndrome were selected,using quadruple intervention therapy intervention,60 days was a course,between each 20 days treatment course there was a rest for 20 days.After a period of treatment all the children had Gesell intelligence test and GMFM gross motor evaluation,observing the improvement of the situation after treatment and making covariance analysis according to the intervention of children age group,to discuss the effects of intervention time and the score before treatment on the prognosis of children.Results:After the intervention,the scores of five area in the Gesell intelligence test and three scores of GMFM compared with before treatment were statistically significant(P < 0.05)at the level of α =0.05,the

  10. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  11. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J.; Schoevers, Robert A.; Klein, Hans C.

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental animals is electroconvulsive seizure (ECS). Rodent studies have provided valuable insights into potential mechanisms underlying the antidepressant and side effects of ECT. However, relatively few studies have investigated the effects of ECS in animal models with a depression-relevant manipulation such as chronic stress. In the present study, mice were first exposed to chronic social stress (CSS) or a control procedure for 15 days followed by ECS or a sham procedure for 10 days. Behavioral effects were investigated using an auditory fear conditioning (learning) and expression (memory) test and a treadmill-running fatigue test. Thereafter, immunohistochemistry was conducted on brain material using the microglial marker Iba-1 and the cholinergic fibre marker ChAT. CSS did not increase fear learning and memory in the present experimental design; in both the control and CSS mice ECS reduced fear learning and fear memory expression. CSS induced the expected fatigue-like effect in the treadmill-running test; ECS induced increased fatigue in CSS and control mice. In CSS and control mice ECS induced inflammation in hippocampus in terms of increased expression of Iba-1 in radiatum of CA1 and CA3. CSS and ECS both reduced acetylcholine function in hippocampus as indicated by decreased expression of ChAT in several hippocampal sub-regions. Therefore, CSS increased fatigue and reduced hippocampal ChAT activity and, rather than reversing these effects, a repeated ECS regimen resulted in impaired fear learning-memory, increased fatigue, increased hippocampal Iba-1 expression, and decreased hippocampal ChAT expression. As such, the current model does not provide insights into the

  12. Epi-detected quadruple-modal nonlinear optical microscopy for label-free imaging of the tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei, E-mail: biehzw@nus.edu.sg [Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Stephen Hsu, Chin-Ying [Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore 119083 (Singapore)

    2015-01-19

    We present an epi-detected quadruple-modal nonlinear optical microscopic imaging technique (i.e., coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), second-harmonic generation (SHG), third-harmonic generation (THG), and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF)) based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of the tooth. We demonstrate that high contrast ps-CARS images covering both the fingerprint (500–1800 cm{sup −1}) and high-wavenumber (2500–3800 cm{sup −1}) regions can be acquired to uncover the distributions of mineral and organic biomaterials in the tooth, while high quality TPEF, SHG, and THG images of the tooth can also be acquired under ps laser excitation without damaging the samples. The quadruple-modal nonlinear microscopic images (CARS/SHG/THG/TPEF) acquired provide better understanding of morphological structures and biochemical/biomolecular distributions in the dentin, enamel, and the dentin-enamel junction of the tooth without labeling, facilitating optical diagnosis and characterization of the tooth in dentistry.

  13. Secular chaotic dynamics in hierarchical quadruple systems, with applications to hot Jupiters in stellar binaries and triples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Adrian S.; Lai, Dong

    2017-09-01

    Hierarchical quadruple systems arise naturally in stellar binaries and triples that harbour planets. Examples are hot Jupiters (HJs) in stellar triple systems, and planetary companions to HJs in stellar binaries. The secular dynamical evolution of these systems is generally complex, with secular chaotic motion possible in certain parameter regimes. The latter can lead to extremely high eccentricities and, therefore, strong interactions such as efficient tidal evolution. These interactions are believed to play an important role in the formation of HJs through high-eccentricity migration. Nevertheless, a deeper understanding of the secular dynamics of these systems is still lacking. Here, we study in detail the secular dynamics of a special case of hierarchical quadruple systems in either the '2+2' or '3+1' configurations. We show how the equations of motion can be cast in a form representing a perturbed hierarchical three-body system, in which the outer orbital angular-momentum vector is precessing steadily around a fixed axis. In this case, we show that eccentricity excitation can be significantly enhanced when the precession period is comparable to the Lidov-Kozai oscillation time-scale of the inner orbit. This arises from an induced large mutual inclination between the inner and outer orbits driven by the precession of the outer orbit, even if the initial mutual inclination is small. We present a simplified semi-analytic model that describes the latter phenomenon.

  14. Light and Electrically Induced Phase Segregation and Its Impact on the Stability of Quadruple Cation High Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, The; Mulmudi, Hemant Kumar; Wu, YiLiang; Fu, Xiao; Shen, Heping; Peng, Jun; Wu, Nandi; Nguyen, Hieu T; Macdonald, Daniel; Lockrey, Mark; White, Thomas P; Weber, Klaus; Catchpole, Kylie

    2017-08-16

    Perovskite material with a bandgap of 1.7-1.8 eV is highly desirable for the top cell in a tandem configuration with a lower bandgap bottom cell, such as a silicon cell. This can be achieved by alloying iodide and bromide anions, but light-induced phase-segregation phenomena are often observed in perovskite films of this kind, with implications for solar cell efficiency. Here, we investigate light-induced phase segregation inside quadruple-cation perovskite material in a complete cell structure and find that the magnitude of this phenomenon is dependent on the operating condition of the solar cell. Under short-circuit and even maximum power point conditions, phase segregation is found to be negligible compared to the magnitude of segregation under open-circuit conditions. In accordance with the finding, perovskite cells based on quadruple-cation perovskite with 1.73 eV bandgap retain 94% of the original efficiency after 12 h operation at the maximum power point, while the cell only retains 82% of the original efficiency after 12 h operation at the open-circuit condition. This result highlights the need to have standard methods including light/dark and bias condition for testing the stability of perovskite solar cells. Additionally, phase segregation is observed when the cell was forward biased at 1.2 V in the dark, which indicates that photoexcitation is not required to induce phase segregation.

  15. Repeated fecal microbiota transplantation in a child with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Arai, Katsuhiro; Abe, Jun; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshioka, Takako; Hosoi, Kenji; Kuroda, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy, who was subsequently treated successfully with repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The patient was steroid dependent despite several infliximab treatments, and colectomy was proposed to improve quality of life. After repeated FMT, she was able to maintain remission with on minimal dose of steroid. Although her fecal microbiota was dysbiotic before FMT, it was restored to a similar pattern as the donor after repeated FMT.

  16. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  17. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  18. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  19. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  20. Effect of furazolidone quadruple regimen plus dental plaque removal procedures as rescue treatment of refractory Helicobacter pylori infection%含呋喃唑酮的四联疗法联合口腔洁治对幽门螺杆菌根除多次失败的补救治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文; 胡伏莲; 王晓敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of furazolidone quadruple regimen plus dental plaque removal procedures as rescue treatment of refractory H.pylori infection.Methods A total of 104 patients with H.pylori positive [13 C-urea breath test (UBT) or rapid urease test positive] failing in previous treatment two or more were enrolled and divided into 2 groups.One group (n = 64) were given quadruple regimen [proton pump inhibitor (PPI) + bismuth + amoxicillin + furazolidone,10 days] treatment and dental plaque removal treatment.And the others (n =40) received only quadruple regimen treatment.The status of H.pylori was detected by 13 C-UBT at 4 weeks post-therapy and the eradication rates of two groups were compared.Results The eradication rate of quadruple regimen + dental treatment group was 85.9%(55/64) while that of the other group 72.5% (29/40) (P = 0.091 ).Conclusion The PPI + bismuth quadruple regimen plus dental plaque removal procedures as rescue treatment may boost the eradication rate of refractory H.pylori infection patients.And the furazolidone quadruple therapy can be chosen for the treatment of refractory H.pylori infection.Oral H.pylori infection may play a role in the failure of H.pylori infection treatment.%目的 观察含呋哺唑酮的四联疗法联合口腔洁治进行补救治疗对幽门螺杆菌根除多次失败患者的治疗效果及根除率.方法 入选者为幽门螺杆菌根除治疗失败至少2次或以上,经13C-UBT或RUT检测确诊幽门螺杆菌感染的患者104例,随机分为2组,一组64例给予四联方案(雷贝拉唑+铋剂+阿莫西林+呋喃唑酮)10 d,同时进行口腔洁治;另一组40例仅给予四联方案(雷贝拉唑+铋剂+阿莫四林+呋喃唑酮)10 d,不进行口腔洁治.两组治疗结束后,停药1个月后复查13C-UBT.比较两组患者的幽门螺杆菌根除率.结果 口腔洁治组64例,成功根除55例,根除率85.9%(55/64).未进行口腔洁治组40例,成功根除29例,根除率72.5%(29/40).两组根

  1. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  2. Linear discrete-time state space realization of a modified quadruple tank system with state estimation using Kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd. Azam, Sazuan Nazrah

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we used the modified quadruple tank system that represents a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system as an example to present the realization of a linear discrete-time state space model and to obtain the state estimation using Kalman filter in a methodical mannered. First, an existing...... dynamics of the system of stochastic differential equations is linearized to produce the deterministic-stochastic linear transfer function. Then the linear transfer function is discretized to produce a linear discrete-time state space model that has a deterministic and a stochastic component. The filtered...... part of the Kalman filter is used to estimates the current state, based on the model and the measurements. The static and dynamic Kalman filter is compared and all results is demonstrated through simulations....

  3. Linear Discrete-time State Space Realization of a Modified Quadruple Tank System with State Estimation using Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Sazuan N. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we used the modified quadruple tank system that represents a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system as an example to present the realization of a linear discrete-time state space model and to obtain the state estimation using Kalman filter in a methodical mannered. First, an existing dynamics of the system of stochastic differential equations is linearized to produce the deterministic-stochastic linear transfer function. Then the linear transfer function is discretized to produce a linear discrete-time state space model that has a deterministic and a stochastic component. The filtered part of the Kalman filter is used to estimates the current state, based on the model and the measurements. The static and dynamic Kalman filter is compared and all results is demonstrated through simulations.

  4. Narrow-band 1 W source at 257 nm using frequency quadrupled passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lew; Cole, Brian; McIntosh, Chris; King, Vernon; Hays, A D; Chinn, Stephen R

    2016-07-25

    We describe generation of 1.1 W of 257 nm emission by frequency quadrupling the 1030 nm emission from a compact passively Q-switched Yb:YAG laser. The laser utilized a volume Bragg grating to achieve a 0.1 nm linewidth required for UV-Raman spectroscopic applications, generated 100 kW peak power, 250 μJ pulses and 3.6 W of average power at 1030 nm. Fourth harmonic generation (FHG) was carried out using a 10 mm lithium triborate (LBO) crystal to generate 515 nm second harmonic with 70% conversion efficiency, followed by a 7 mm beta-barium borate (BBO) crystal to generate 257 nm fourth harmonic with 45% efficiency, resulting in an overall nonlinear conversion efficiency of 31%. Far-field and near-field of the FHG emission were characterized.

  5. Quadruple-frequency millimeter-wave generation using second-order rational harmonic mode-locking technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Huang; Xue Feng; Xiaoming Liu

    2008-01-01

    A novel method for generating quadruple-frequency millimeter-wave (MMW) by using an actively mode- locked fiber ring laser is proposed and demonstrated. In this approach, the optical Mach-Zehnder intensity modulator (MZM) is biased to suppress the odd-order optical sidebands, the fiber laser operates in the second-order rational harmonic mode, and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) notch filter is used to block the optical carrier. When the MZM is driven by a fixed radio-frequency (RF) source of 10 GHz, a stable MMW signal of 40 GHz with the phase noise better than -76 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset is generated.

  6. Dual mode adaptive fractional order PI controller with feedforward controller based on variable parameter model for quadruple tank process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Prasanta; Roy, Binoy Krishna

    2016-07-01

    The Quadruple Tank Process (QTP) is a well-known benchmark of a nonlinear coupled complex MIMO process having both minimum and nonminimum phase characteristics. This paper presents a novel self tuning type Dual Mode Adaptive Fractional Order PI controller along with an Adaptive Feedforward controller for the QTP. The controllers are designed based on a novel Variable Parameter Transfer Function model. The effectiveness of the proposed model and controllers is tested through numerical simulation and experimentation. Results reveal that the proposed controllers work successfully to track the reference signals in all ranges of output. A brief comparison with some of the earlier reported similar works is presented to show that the proposed control scheme has some advantages and better performances than several other similar works.

  7. Non-orthogonal spin-adaptation of coupled cluster methods: A new implementation of methods including quadruple excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Devin A.; Stanton, John F.

    2015-02-01

    The theory of non-orthogonal spin-adaptation for closed-shell molecular systems is applied to coupled cluster methods with quadruple excitations (CCSDTQ). Calculations at this level of detail are of critical importance in describing the properties of molecular systems to an accuracy which can meet or exceed modern experimental techniques. Such calculations are of significant (and growing) importance in such fields as thermodynamics, kinetics, and atomic and molecular spectroscopies. With respect to the implementation of CCSDTQ and related methods, we show that there are significant advantages to non-orthogonal spin-adaption with respect to simplification and factorization of the working equations and to creating an efficient implementation. The resulting algorithm is implemented in the CFOUR program suite for CCSDT, CCSDTQ, and various approximate methods (CCSD(T), CC3, CCSDT-n, and CCSDT(Q)).

  8. Partial Side Chew“Quadruple Factors”Preliminary Explored%偏侧咀嚼“四联因素”的初步探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周培锋; 柳海; 李忠进; 张挺; 刁鹏飞; 巩晓亮

    2014-01-01

    framework of the preliminary investigation and statistical analysis .Methods:(1) Combined with previous studies and caries disease causes four factors theory ,partial lateral chewing“quadruple factors” ;(2) through the study of the partial of wuhu 300 medical college students in the south of anhui side chewing screening ,standard oral cavity ,oral re-lated questionnaire ,then the partial lateral chewing in the framework of“quadruple factors”in a preliminary investiga-tion and statistical analysis .Results:(1) In this paper ,effects of partial lateral chewing onset and progression of “quad-ruple factors”are:① food differences ;② individual differences;③ side teeth;④ chewing time suffering from partial side .(2) According to the results of statistical analysis ,partial side chew eat soft food (23 .0% ) than to eat hard food more (9 .0% );with partial side chew men (68 .0% ) than women (29 .0% ) ,multiple;with partial lateral chewing knowledge is less (14 .0% ) with partial lateral chewing knowledge is (67 .0% ) with partial lateral chewing is less;sub-ject to partial side chew lateral teeth usually have all sorts of dental diseases such as caries disease (72 .0% );with par-tial side chewing is suffering from partial side chewing time (78 .0% ) had generally within a year or more self-conscious symptom and partial lateral chewing the various influence .Conclusion:(1) The proposed theoretical framework“quad-ruple factors”research has certain significance for partial side chew :increased from previous single factor analysis to the overall analysis of multiple factors ,the factors of integration framework covers the basic partial lateral chewing the on-set and course of development of the entire process ,provides timely clinical intervention therapy of directional signifi-cance .(2) To continue to explore partial lateral chewing the onset of the intrinsic logical relation between the factors and the disease development provides a train of thought ,is

  9. Synthesis, Structure, Optical, and Electrochemical Properties of Triple- and Quadruple-Decker Co-facial Tetrathiafulvalene Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masashi; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Tokunaga, Saki; Baba, Yumi; Shiba, Ryota; Shirahata, Takashi; Mazaki, Yasuhiro; Misaki, Yohji

    2016-07-11

    Understanding the details of the electronic structure in face-to-face arranged tetrathiafulvalenes (TTFs) is very important for the design of supramolecular functional materials and superior conductive organic materials. This article is a comprehensive study of the interactions among columnar stacked TTFs using trimeric (trimer) and tetrameric (tetramer) TTFs linked by alkylenedithio groups (-S(CH2 )n S-, n=1-4) as models of triple- and quadruple-decker TTF arrays. Single-crystal X-ray analyses of neutral trimeric TTFs revealed that the three TTF moieties are oriented in a zigzag arrangement. Cyclic voltammetry measurements (CV) reveal that the trimer and tetramer exhibited diverse reversible redox processes with multi-electron transfers, depending on the length of the -S(CH2 )n S- units and substituents. The electronic spectra of the radical cations, prepared by electrochemical oxidation, showed charge resonance (CR) bands in the NIR/IR region (1630-1850 nm), attributed to a mixed valence (MV) state of the triple- and quadruple-decker TTF arrays. In the trimeric systems, the dicationic state (+2; 0.66 cation per TTF unit) was found to be a stable state, whereas the monocationic state (+1) was not observed in the electronic spectra. In the tetrameric system, substituent-dependent redox processes were observed. Moreover, π-trimers and π-tetramers, which show a significant Davydov blueshift in the spectra, are formed in the tricationic (trimer) and tetracationic (tetramer) state. In addition, these attractive interactions are strongly dependent on the length of the linkage unit.

  10. Quadruple deep brain stimulation in Huntington's disease, targeting pallidum and subthalamic nucleus: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, D; Kuhn, A A; Schoenecker, T; Kopp, U A; Kivi, A; Huebl, J; Lobsien, E; Mueller, B; Schneider, G-H; Kupsch, A

    2014-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents an established treatment option in a growing number of movement disorders. Recent case reports suggest beneficial effect of globus pallidus internus (GPi)-DBS in selected patients suffering from Huntington's disease with marked disabling chorea. We present a 41-year-old man with genetically confirmed HD following quadruple GPi- and subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS. Motor function was assessed by Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and by Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) presurgery and postsurgery for up to 4 years. Furthermore, cognitive, neuropsychiatric state and quality of life (QoL) including life satisfaction (QLS) were annually evaluated. Chorea assessed by AIMS and UHDRS subscores improved by 52 and 55 %, 45 and 60 %, 35 and 45 % and 55-66 % at 1-4 years, respectively, compared to presurgical state following GPi-STN-DBS. During these time periods bradykinesia did not increase following separate STN- and combined GPi-STN-DBS compared to presurgical state. Mood, QoL and QLS were ameliorated. However, dysexecutive symptoms increased at 4 years postsurgery. The present case report suggests that bilateral GPi- and STN-DBS may represent a new treatment avenue in selected HD patients. Clinically, GPi-DBS attenuated chorea and was associated with a larger effect-adverse effect window compared to STN-DBS. However, GPi-DBS-induced bradykinesia may emerge as one main limitation of GPi-DBS in HD. Thus, quadruple GPi-STN-DBS may be indicated, if separate GPi-DBS does not result in sufficient control of motor symptoms. Future controlled studies need to confirm if the present anecdotal observation of additive beneficial effects of GPi- and STN-DBS in a HD patient with severe generalized chorea and relatively intact cognitive and affective functions indeed represents a new therapeutic option.

  11. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  12. Editorial Commentary: Renaissance of Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair: Is History Repeating Itself?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Erik

    2016-12-01

    In a comparative Level III study, Achtnich et al. compared suture anchor repair of acute proximal anterior cruciate ligament avulsion tears with single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the quadrupled semitendinosus tendon. Short-term follow-up at a mean of 28 months showed that the between-group differences were not different. These results are encouraging but not different from other published series 25+ years ago. Only time will tell whether the long-term outcomes are identical and whether these techniques will also die a slow death. Hopefully history is not repeating itself. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buel, Erin M; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J; Schoevers, Robert A; Klein, Hans C; Pryce, Christopher R; Eisel, Ulrich Lm

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental

  14. Generation of UV radiation at 335.5 nm based on frequency-quadrupling of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuwei Fan; Haitao Huang; Jijian Jiang; Jingliang He

    2008-01-01

    The generation of ultraviolet(UV)light at 335.5 nm based on frequency quadrupling of a diode-endpumped Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser at 1342 nm was demonstrated.KTP crystal was used for generation of wavelength of 671 nm by intracavity doubling and LBO (BBO) crystal Was exploited for the subsequent external fourth harmonic generation(FHG).With 6.3-W absorbed pump power and 10-kHz frequency repetition rate,the UV output power of 35 and 63 mW were obtained by using LBO and BBO as frequency quadrupling nonlinear crystals, respectively. The experimenta results show that the conversion efficiency (red-UV)of 6.4% for BBO crystal is higher than that of 3.5% for LB0 crystal, but the UV beam quality obtained by LBO crystal is better than by BBO crystal.

  15. Effective generation of optical quadruple frequency millimeter-wave based on fiber laser using injection rational harmonic mode-locked technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Xue Feng; Fei Huang; Xiaoming Liu

    2009-01-01

    A method to generate the optical quadruple frequency millimeter-wave with high power efficiency is pro-posed and demonstrated based on the combination of the injection 2nd-order rational harmonic mode-locked fiber ring laser technique and the fiber grating notch filter. In this approach, the fiber Bragg grating notch filter is inserted into the laser cavity to prevent the undesired optical carrier, so that the pump power can be converted to 2nd-order harmonic wave more efficiently. In our experiment, the power efficiency of optical quadruple frequency millimeter-wave (40 GHz) generation is ten folds of that of our previous method based only on the rational harmonic mode-locked technique.

  16. Linking SNPs to CAG repeat length in Huntington's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanzhao; Kennington, Lori A; Rosas, H Diana; Hersch, Steven; Cha, Jang-Ho; Zamore, Phillip D; Aronin, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Allele-specific silencing using small interfering RNAs targeting heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a promising therapy for human trinucleotide repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease. Linking SNP identities to the two HTT alleles, normal and disease-causing, is a prerequisite for allele-specific RNA interference. Here we describe a method, SNP linkage by circularization (SLiC), to identify linkage between CAG repeat length and nucleotide identity of heterozygous SNPs using Huntington's disease patient peripheral blood samples.

  17. Tandem quadruplication of HMA4 in the zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Lochlainn, Seosamh; Bowen, Helen C; Fray, Rupert G; Hammond, John P; King, Graham J; White, Philip J; Graham, Neil S; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-03-10

    Zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation may have evolved twice in the Brassicaceae, in Arabidopsis halleri and in the Noccaea genus. Tandem gene duplication and deregulated expression of the Zn transporter, HMA4, has previously been linked to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tandem duplication and deregulation of HMA4 expression also occurs in Noccaea.A Noccaea caerulescens genomic library was generated, containing 36,864 fosmid pCC1FOS™ clones with insert sizes ∼20-40 kbp, and screened with a PCR-generated HMA4 genomic probe. Gene copy number within the genome was estimated through DNA fingerprinting and pooled fosmid pyrosequencing. Gene copy numbers within individual clones was determined by PCR analyses with novel locus specific primers. Entire fosmids were then sequenced individually and reads equivalent to 20-fold coverage were assembled to generate complete whole contigs.Four tandem HMA4 repeats were identified in a contiguous sequence of 101,480 bp based on sequence overlap identities. These were flanked by regions syntenous with up and downstream regions of AtHMA4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Promoter-reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion analysis of a NcHMA4 in A. thaliana revealed deregulated expression in roots and shoots, analogous to AhHMA4 promoters, but distinct from AtHMA4 expression which localised to the root vascular tissue.This remarkable consistency in tandem duplication and deregulated expression of metal transport genes between N. caerulescens and A. halleri, which last shared a common ancestor >40 mya, provides intriguing evidence that parallel evolutionary pathways may underlie Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in Brassicaceae.

  18. Tandem quadruplication of HMA4 in the zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seosamh Ó Lochlainn

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn and cadmium (Cd hyperaccumulation may have evolved twice in the Brassicaceae, in Arabidopsis halleri and in the Noccaea genus. Tandem gene duplication and deregulated expression of the Zn transporter, HMA4, has previously been linked to Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tandem duplication and deregulation of HMA4 expression also occurs in Noccaea.A Noccaea caerulescens genomic library was generated, containing 36,864 fosmid pCC1FOS™ clones with insert sizes ∼20-40 kbp, and screened with a PCR-generated HMA4 genomic probe. Gene copy number within the genome was estimated through DNA fingerprinting and pooled fosmid pyrosequencing. Gene copy numbers within individual clones was determined by PCR analyses with novel locus specific primers. Entire fosmids were then sequenced individually and reads equivalent to 20-fold coverage were assembled to generate complete whole contigs.Four tandem HMA4 repeats were identified in a contiguous sequence of 101,480 bp based on sequence overlap identities. These were flanked by regions syntenous with up and downstream regions of AtHMA4 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Promoter-reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS fusion analysis of a NcHMA4 in A. thaliana revealed deregulated expression in roots and shoots, analogous to AhHMA4 promoters, but distinct from AtHMA4 expression which localised to the root vascular tissue.This remarkable consistency in tandem duplication and deregulated expression of metal transport genes between N. caerulescens and A. halleri, which last shared a common ancestor >40 mya, provides intriguing evidence that parallel evolutionary pathways may underlie Zn/Cd hyperaccumulation in Brassicaceae.

  19. Combining Organocatalysis and Lanthanide Catalysis: A Sequential One-Pot Quadruple Reaction Sequence/Hetero-Diels-Alder Asymmetric Synthesis of Functionalized Tricycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochain, Simon; Vetica, Fabrizio; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter

    2016-12-23

    A stereoselective one-pot synthesis of functionalized complex tricyclic polyethers has been achieved using the combination of secondary amine and lanthanide catalysis. This one-pot quadruple reaction/Hetero-Diels-Alder sequence gave good yields (per step) as well as excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Furthermore, the particular combination of lanthanide complexes with organocatalysis is one of the first examples described for sequential catalysis. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Clinical Efficacy of Bifidobacterium Quadruple Living Bacterium on Children With Infectious Diarrhea%双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗非感染性腹泻患儿疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冒宇峰

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗非感染性腹泻患儿的临床疗效。方法将2013年5月~2016年5月于我院确诊为非感染性腹泻的81例患儿纳入研究并随机分组,对照组40例患儿均依据指南采用常规补液、纠正电解质等基础治疗,观察组41例联合四联双歧杆菌活菌片治疗。比较两组患儿症状体征恢复正常时间及临床疗效情况。结果观察组患儿大便恢复正常时间、腹泻停止时间、体温恢复正常时间、住院时间均更短,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05;观察组总有效率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义,P<0.05。结论双歧杆菌四联活菌片可作为非感染性腹泻重要的辅助治疗手段,能更好地改善临床症状,缩短病程,优于常规治疗。%Objective To study the effcacy of biifdobacterium quadruple living bacterium on children with infectious diarrhea.Methods 81 cases of non infectious diarrhea were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into control group from May 2013 to May 2016 in our hospital, 40 cases were based on the guidelines by conventional rehydration and correction of electrolyte and other basic treatment, the observation group of 41 cases combined with quadruple Biifdobacterium tablets in the treatment of. Comparison of two groups of children with symptoms and signs to return to normal time and clinical effcacy.Results The observation group with stool normal time, diarrhea stopping time, temperature recovery time and hospitalization time were shorter, the difference was statistically signiifcant, P<0.05, the total efficiency of the observation group than the control group, the difference was statistically signiifcant,P<0.05.Conclusion The treatment of biifdobacterium quadruple living bacterium piece can be as an important means of adjuvant therapy, which can better improve the clinical symptoms, shorten the course of the disease, superior to the conventional treatment.

  1. Cost-effective description of strong correlation: efficient implementations of the perfect quadruples and perfect hextuples models

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtola, Susi; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Novel implementations based on dense tensor storage are presented for the singlet-reference perfect quadruples (PQ) [Parkhill, Lawler, and Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084101 (2009)] and perfect hextuples (PH) [Parkhill and Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 024103 (2010)] models. The methods are obtained as block decompositions of conventional coupled-cluster theory that are exact for four electrons in four orbitals (PQ) and six electrons in six orbitals (PH), but that can also be applied to much larger systems. PQ and PH have storage requirements that scale as the square, and as the cube of the number of active electrons, respectively, and exhibit quartic scaling of the computational effort for large systems. Applications of the new implementations are presented for full-valence calculations on linear polyenes (C n H n+2 ), which highlight the excellent computational scaling of the present implementations that can routinely handle active spaces of hundreds of electrons. The accuracy of the models is studi...

  2. All optical up-converted signal generation with high dispersion tolerance using frequency quadrupling technique for radio over fiber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yiying; Zhao, Jiayi; Hu, Jingjing; Kang, Zijian; Zhu, Wenwu; Fan, Feng; Han, Xiuyou; Zhao, Mingshan

    2016-05-01

    A novel all optical up-converted signal generation scheme with optical single-sideband (OSSB) technique for radio over fiber (RoF) application is presented and experimentally demonstrated using low-bandwidth devices. The OSSB signal is generated by one low-bandwidth intensity LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator (LN-MZM) under frequency quadrupling modulation scheme and one low-bandwidth LN-MZM under double sideband carrier suppressed modulation (DSB-CS) scheme. The proposed all OSSB generation scheme is capable of high tolerance of fiber chromatic dispersion induced power fading (DIPF) effect. Benefiting from this novel OSSB generation scheme, a 26 GHz radio frequency (RF) signal up-conversion is realized successfully when one sideband of the optical LO signal is reused as the optical carrier for intermediate frequency (IF) signal modulation. The received vector signal transmission over long distance single-mode fiber (SMF) shows negligible DIPF effect with the error vector magnitude (EVM) of 15.7% rms. In addition, a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of the OSSB up-converting system is measured up to 81 dB Hz2/3. The experiment results indicate that the proposed system may find potential applications in future wireless communication networks, especially in microcellular personal communication system (MPCS).

  3. On the rms errors and dynamic ranges of triple- and quadruple-pulse particle tracking velocimetry (PTV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liuyang; Adrian, Ronald; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2016-11-01

    Multi-pulse PTV extends conventional dual-pulse PTV by fitting a polynomial to particle locations measured from three or four pulses in a burst, aiming at more accurately resolving a particle short-period trajectory. Particle velocity and acceleration are then evaluated at an optimal time minimizing rms errors. Numerical simulations were performed to completely study the behaviors of position, velocity, and acceleration rms errors of triple- and quadruple-pulse PTV in a 4-D space spanned by four dimensionless variables - normalized time, normalized displacement, normalized particle locating noise, and acceleration factor. We compared three analysis methods - 3-pulse with quadratic fitting, 4-pulse with cubic fitting and 4-pulse with quadratic least-square fitting. In addition, generalized definitions of dynamic spatial range (DSR) and dynamic velocity range (DVR) are proposed for multi-pulse analyses. We calculated DSR ratios and DVR ratios between the multi-pulse and 2-pulse under various flow conditions and noise levels. It is found that the DSR and DVR could be improved by up to 100 times and 10 times, respectively, when the particle trajectory is strongly curved, deceleration is pronounced, and particle locations are accurately determined. This work is supported by ONR N00014-14-C-0095.

  4. Implementasi Metode Optimasi Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO untuk Tuning Pengendali Model Predictive Control (MPC pada Quadruple Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Fu'ad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini telah dibangun mode kontrol Model Predictive Control (MPC dengan metode optimasi Particle Swarm Optimization untuk mencari nilai terbaik pada parameter beban sinyal kontrol Wu dan sinyal control error W∆u yang kemudian diimplementasikan secara online pada rancang bangun system Quadruple Tank. Metode IMOPSO untuk MPC dengan nilai sinyal control Wu =0.0076 dan sinyal control error Wdu = 0.1221 menghasilkan respon system terbaik dengan maximum overshoot = 4% error steady state 1% settling time 55 detik dibandingkan MOPSO dengan nilai sinyal control Wu 0.0397 dan sinyal control error Wdu 0.1780 menghasilkan respon sistem dengan maksimum overshoot = 5% Error Steady State = 3 % settling time 65 detik. Selain itu, dibangun juga control PSO – PID yang digunakan sebagai pembanding dimana mode MOPSO menghasilkan nilai Kp = 3.0828 Ki = 0.4219 memiliki respon sistem dengan maksimum overshoot = 3 % Error Steady State = 2% dan settling time 250 detik. Sedangkan pada mode IMOPS nilai Kp = 2.9388 Ki = 0.2166 memiliki respon system dengan maksimum overshoot = 3 % Error Steady State 1.5% dan settling time 150 detik.

  5. Cost-effective description of strong correlation: Efficient implementations of the perfect quadruples and perfect hextuples models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, Susi; Parkhill, John; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2016-10-01

    Novel implementations based on dense tensor storage are presented for the singlet-reference perfect quadruples (PQ) [J. A. Parkhill et al., J. Chem. Phys. 130, 084101 (2009)] and perfect hextuples (PH) [J. A. Parkhill and M. Head-Gordon, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 024103 (2010)] models. The methods are obtained as block decompositions of conventional coupled-cluster theory that are exact for four electrons in four orbitals (PQ) and six electrons in six orbitals (PH), but that can also be applied to much larger systems. PQ and PH have storage requirements that scale as the square, and as the cube of the number of active electrons, respectively, and exhibit quartic scaling of the computational effort for large systems. Applications of the new implementations are presented for full-valence calculations on linear polyenes (CnHn+2), which highlight the excellent computational scaling of the present implementations that can routinely handle active spaces of hundreds of electrons. The accuracy of the models is studied in the π space of the polyenes, in hydrogen chains (H50), and in the π space of polyacene molecules. In all cases, the results compare favorably to density matrix renormalization group values. With the novel implementation of PQ, active spaces of 140 electrons in 140 orbitals can be solved in a matter of minutes on a single core workstation, and the relatively low polynomial scaling means that very large systems are also accessible using parallel computing.

  6. Solvent-mediated pseudo-quadruple hydrogen-bond motifs in three lamotrigine-carboxylic acid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Ravikumar, Krishnan

    2013-10-01

    Lamotrigine, an antiepileptic drug, has been complexed with three aromatic carboxylic acids. All three compounds crystallize with the inclusion of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent, viz. lamotriginium [3,5-diamino-6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-2-ium] 4-iodobenzoate N,N-dimethylformamide monosolvate, C9H8Cl2N5(+)·C7H4IO2(-)·C3H7NO, (I), lamotriginium 4-methylbenzoate N,N-dimethylformamide monosolvate, C9H7Cl2N5(+)·C8H8O2(-)·C3H7NO, (II), and lamotriginium 3,5-dinitro-2-hydroxybenzoate N,N-dimethylformamide monosolvate, C9H8Cl2N5(+)·C7H3N2O7(-)·C3H7NO, (III). In all three structures, proton transfer takes place from the acid to the lamotrigine molecule. However, in (I) and (II), the acidic H atom is disordered over two sites and there is only partial transfer of the H atom from O to N. In (III), the corresponding H atom is ordered and complete proton transfer has occurred. Lamotrigine-lamotrigine, lamotrigine-acid and lamotrigine-solvent interactions are observed in all three structures and they thereby exhibit isostructurality. The DMF solvent extends the lamotrigine-lamotrigine dimers into a pseudo-quadruple hydrogen-bonding motif.

  7. The effect of high hydraulic loading rate on the removal efficiency of a quadruple media filter for tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Philani; Pidou, Marc; Stephenson, Tom; Jefferson, Bruce; Jarvis, Peter

    2016-12-15

    It is well known that filtration removal efficiency falls with an increase in flow rate; however, there is limited supporting experimental data on how removal efficiency changes for filters with multiple layers of media and for wastewater filtration, a practice that is becoming more common. Furthermore, information is not available on the characteristics of particles that are removed at different flow rates. Here, a quadruple media filter was operated at hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) between 5 and 60 mh(-1) with subsequent measurement of total suspended solids, turbidity and particle size distribution (PSD). Samples were collected from the filter influent, effluent and also from between media layers. Pressure changes across the filter layers were also measured. The solids removal efficiency of the filter varied inversely with the increase in filtration rate. However, the multiple media layers reduced the negative impact of increased HLR in comparison to a single media filter. High filtration rates were shown to transport solids, such that particle retention and headloss development was distributed across the entire depth of the multi-media filter. There was also a progressive decrease in the suspension particle size leaving each of the filter layers. The particle hydrodynamic force simulation was consistent with the changes in measured PSD through the filter layers.

  8. Neutron diffraction study of quadruple perovskite SrCu{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Ikuya, E-mail: i-yamada@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Murakami, Makoto; Mori, Shigeo [Department of Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Irifune, Tetsuo [Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-08-26

    The magnetic structure of the quadruple perovskite SrCu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 12} is studied by means of neutron powder diffraction. The magnetic diffraction peaks are observed at low temperatures below 200 K. The Rietveld refinement result suggests an antiferromagnetic alignment of Fe spin magnetic moments for SrCu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 12} at low temperature. The refined magnetic moment at 4 K is ∼3.5 µ{sub B}, which is larger than that of that of CeCu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 12} (2.3 µ{sub B}). The increase in the magnetic moment is attributed to the larger Fe{sup 3+}:Fe{sup 5+} ratio for SrCu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 12} (∼4:1) compared with that of CeCu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 12} (∼3:1).

  9. Magnetic Properties of the Quadruple Perovskite Oxide CaCu3Fe2Re2O12: Monte Carlo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arejdal, M.; Jabar, A.; Bahmad, L.; Benyoussef, A.

    2017-01-01

    The compound "Quadruple Perovskite Oxide CaCu3Fe2Re2O12", composed of the mixed atoms with the magnetic moments Cu(σ = 1/2), Fe(S = 5/2) and Re(q = 1.0), is studied as the aim of this research paper, using Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS). The investigation of this system's magnetic proprieties is made through determining the ground state phase diagrams. The stable phases are determined and discussed, elaborating numerically the partial-total magnetizations. The partial-total magnetic susceptibilities are illustrated as a function of the reduced temperature for determining the critical temperature, and studying the impact of the crystal field on the total magnetization. Then, the analysis of the magnetic hysteresis loops are discussed for different values of the crystal field. The influence of the reduced temperature has been made when investigating the study of our system. Finally, the size system effect is analyzed and discussed for different reduced temperatures. To complete this study, the coercive field has also been elaborated and discussed.

  10. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  11. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  12. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  13. Repeated nondiagnostic result of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiańska, Klaudia; Kopczyński, Janusz; Kowalska, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most accurate and cost-effective method to evaluate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules, but approximately 1-24% of FNABs generate a nondiagnostic result (ND-FNAB). The aim of this study was to determine the predictive factors of a repeated nondiagnostic result of FNAB. A total of 4018 FNABs performed in a territorial referral centre were analysed, of which 288 (7.17%) were nondiagnostic. Medical records were available for 245 biopsies performed in 228 patients. The retrospective analysis of factors that may influence a repeat ND-FNAB, including demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics, was performed. A repeat FNAB was performed in 159 nodules giving a diagnostic result in 79.2% of cases. The time between the biopsies ranged from 1 to 611 days (mean 154.4, median 119). The timing of a repeat FNAB did not significantly alter the diagnostic output (p = 0.29). In the univariate analysis, significant predictors of a repeat ND-FNAB were older patient age (p = 0.02), L-thyroxine supplementation (p = 0.05), and a history of (131)I therapy (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, only a history of (131)I therapy was a statistically significant risk factor for a repeat ND-FNAB (p = 0.002). Patients with a history of (131)I therapy and ND-FNAB should undergo periodic ultrasonographic assessment rather than a repeat biopsy. The interval between repeated FNABs recommended by guidelines does not affect the diagnostic output.

  14. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  15. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  16. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  17. StaRProtein, A Web Server for Prediction of the Stability of Repeat Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongtao; Zhou, Xu; Huang, Meilan

    2015-01-01

    Repeat proteins have become increasingly important due to their capability to bind to almost any proteins and the potential as alternative therapy to monoclonal antibodies. In the past decade repeat proteins have been designed to mediate specific protein-protein interactions. The tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins are two classes of helical repeat proteins that form different binding pockets to accommodate various partners. It is important to understand the factors that define folding and stability of repeat proteins in order to prioritize the most stable designed repeat proteins to further explore their potential binding affinities. Here we developed distance-dependant statistical potentials using two classes of alpha-helical repeat proteins, tetratricopeptide and ankyrin repeat proteins respectively, and evaluated their efficiency in predicting the stability of repeat proteins. We demonstrated that the repeat-specific statistical potentials based on these two classes of repeat proteins showed paramount accuracy compared with non-specific statistical potentials in: 1) discriminate correct vs. incorrect models 2) rank the stability of designed repeat proteins. In particular, the statistical scores correlate closely with the equilibrium unfolding free energies of repeat proteins and therefore would serve as a novel tool in quickly prioritizing the designed repeat proteins with high stability. StaRProtein web server was developed for predicting the stability of repeat proteins. PMID:25807112

  18. Structural and electronic transformations in quadruple iron perovskite Ca1−xSrxCu3Fe4O12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuya Yamada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystal structures and electronic transformations of quadruple iron perovskite solid solution Ca1−xSrxCu3Fe4O12 (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 have been investigated by synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. For x = 0.2, a charge disproportionation transition (2Fe4+ → Fe3+ + Fe5+ occur simultaneously with electron charge transfers from Fe to Cu below ∼200 K, as well as CaCu3Fe4O12. In contrast, negative thermal expansions derived from continuous electron charge transfers from Cu and Fe are observed for x = 0.6 and 0.8 at low temperatures below room temperature, as in SrCu3Fe4O12, followed by charge disproportionation transitions. A two-phase coexistence is observed at low temperature below ∼200 K for x = 0.4, indicating that the phase boundary locates in the vicinity of this composition. We have discovered that the FeO bond lengths are closely related to their covalency which were estimated from Mössbauer isomer shift parameters. The FeO bond covalency plays a crucial role in the types of electronic phase transitions for the Ca1−xSrxCu3Fe4O12 and R3+Cu3Fe4O12 (R: trivalent rare earth metal ions, Y, La–Lu systems, where the two different low-temperature electronic phases are separated by a common isomer shift value of ∼0.17 mm s−1.

  19. The efficacy of moxifloxacin-based triple therapy in treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence shows that moxifloxacin could exert an antimicrobial effect against Helicobacter pylori in both in vitro and in vivo models. To systematically evaluate whether moxifloxacin-containing triple therapy could improve eradication rates and reduce side effects in first-line or second-line anti-H. pylori treatment, eligible articles were identified by searches of electronic databases. We included all randomized trials comparing moxifloxacin-based triple therapy with standard triple or quadruple therapy during H. pylori eradication treatment. Statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager 5.0.10. Subanalysis/sensitivity analysis was also performed. We identified seven randomized trials (n=1263. Pooled H. pylori eradication rates were 79.03% (95%CI: 75.73-82.07 and 68.33% (95%CI: 64.44-72.04 for patients with moxifloxacin-based triple therapy or with standard triple or quadruple therapy, respectively (intention-to-treat analysis. The odds ratio (OR was 1.82 (95%CI: 1.17-2.81, the occurrence of total side effects was 15.23% (95%CI: 12.58-18.20 and 27.17% (95%CI: 23.64-30.92 for groups with or without moxifloxacin, and the summary OR was 0.45 (95%CI: 0.26-0.77. In subgroup analyses, we noted that the second-line eradication rate in the moxifloxacin group was significantly higher than that in the quadruple therapy group (73.33 vs 60.17%, OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.16-2.73, P<0.001. However, there was no difference in first-line eradication treatment. Findings from this meta-analysis suggest that moxifloxacin-based triple therapy is more effective and better tolerated than standard triple or quadruple therapy. Therefore, a moxifloxacin-based triple regimen should be used in the second-line treatment of H. pylori infection.

  20. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  1. Anatomical study of the anterolateral and posteromedial bundles of the posterior cruciate ligament for double-bundle reconstruction using the quadruple bone-tunnel technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hao; AO Ying-fang; ZHANG Wei-guang; LIU Sheng-yong; ZHANG Ji-ying; YU Jia-kuo

    2012-01-01

    Background Several techniques have been described for posterior cruciate ligament(PCL)reconstruction.However,double-bundle PCL reconstruction using the quadruple bone-tunnel technique has been seldom reported.The current study investigated this technique,focusing on the anatomy of the femoral and tibial insertions of the anterolateral(AL)and posteromedial(PM)bundles of the PCL.Methods Twenty-two fresh,healthy adult cadaveric knees were dissected and measured.The PCL was divided into the AL bundle and PM bundle at the insertion footprint.The insertion footprints of the AL and PM bundles,their location,size,and the clock positions were measured and described.Results On the femur,the clock position of the footprint of the AL bundle was 11:21±0:23(left)or 0:39±0:23(right),and the PM bundle was 9:50±0:18(left)or 2:10±0:18(right),with the knee flexed at 90 degrees.The distances from the center of the femoral insertions of the AL and PM bundles to the anterior cartilage margins of the medial femoral condyle were(7.79±1.22)mm and(8.36±1.63)mm,respectively.On the tibia,the vertical distances from the center of the tibial insertions of the AL and PM bundles to the tibial articular surface were(3.25±1.20)mm and(6.91±1.57)mm,respectively.Conclusions These results have led to a better definition of the anatomy of the AL and PM bundle footprint of the PCL.The technique of double-bundle PCL reconstruction using quadruple bone-tunnel is feasible.Application of these data during PCL reconstruction using the quadruple bone-tunnel technique may help optimize knee stability.

  2. Relationship between tunnel widening and different rehabilitation procedures after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadrupled hamstring tendons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jia-kuo; Hans H.Paessler

    2005-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that bone tunnel widening could appear after knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, especially for those patients whose ruptured ACL were reconstructed with semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. Many factors can influence the extent of tunnel widening. Few studies have investigated the relationship between bone tunnel widening and rehabilitation procedures. This research was carried out to find the rehabilitation procedures' influence on the tibial bone tunnel widening after ACL reconstruction. Methods Sixty-five cases, whose ACL reconstructions were done using quadrupled semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, were divided into two groups. Group A had 33 cases, 19 men, 14 women, averaged (31.2±12.4) years old, only ACL reconstruction was done using Paessler's technique, and aggressive rehabilitation procedure was used for function recovery post operation. Group B had 32 cases, 20 men, 12 women, averaged (30.3±10.3) years old. Except for ACL reconstruction, every patient in group B accepted meniscus repair using re-fixation methods or cartilage repair using microfracture technique, conservative rehabilitation procedure was used post operation. Six months post operation, standard posterior-anterior radiographic plates were taken for each case, CorelDRAW 8.0 software was used to digitize all X-ray plates and measure the upper, middle and lower parts of the tibial tunnel. Magnification effect of X-ray plates was taken out after measurement. Results Six months after ACL reconstruction the tibial tunnel widening of the upper, middle and lower parts on both the posterior-anterior and lateral X-ray plates in Group A with aggressive rehabilitation procedure was much more serious than in Group B with conservative rehabilitation. KT-1000 knee stability measurement and clinical manifestation showed no difference between the two groups. Conclusions Rehabilitation procedure after ACL reconstruction is one of the reasons for

  3. Adaptive optics imaging of the MBM 12 association. Seven binaries and an edge-on disk in a quadruple system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, G.; Ménard, F.; Fusco, T.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Mouillet, D.; Augereau, J.-C.

    2002-11-01

    We report adaptive optics (AO) observations of the young and nearby association MBM 12 obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Our main observational result is the discovery of six new binary systems, LkHα 264, E 0255+2018, RX J0255.4+2005, S18, MBM 12-10, RX J0255.3+1915, and the confirmation of HD 17332, already known as a binary. We also detected a possible quadruple system. It is composed of the close binary LkHα 263 AB (separation of ~ 0.41''), of LkHα 262 located ~ 15.25'' from LkHα 263 A, and of LkHα 263 C, located ~ 4.1'' from LkHα 263 A. A preliminary study of the binary fraction suggests a binary excess in the MBM 12 association as compared to the field and IC 348. Because of the high binarity rate, previous estimations of spectral types and measurements of IR excesses for several candidate members of MBM 12 have to be revised. LkHα 263 C is a nebulous object that we interpret as a disk oriented almost perfectly edge-on and seen in scattered light. This object has already been reported by Jayawardhana et al. (\\cite{Jayawardhana2002}). Scattered light models allow us to estimate some of the structural parameters (i.e. inclination, diameter and to a lesser extent dust mass) of the circumstellar disk. We find an inclination of 89o and a outer radius for the disk, ~ 165 AU if the distance to MBM 12 is 275 pc. With the present data set, we do not attempt to re-assess the distance to MBM 12. We estimate however that the distance to the candidate member RX J0255.3+1915 is d > 175 pc. Based on data collected at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The CFHT corporation is funded by the Governments of Canada and France, and by the University of Hawaii.

  4. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  5. Solar irradiance reduction to counteract radiative forcing from a quadrupling of CO2: climate responses simulated by four earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lawrence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we compare the response of four state-of-the-art Earth system models to climate engineering under scenario G1 of two model intercomparison projects: GeoMIP (Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project and IMPLICC (EU project "Implications and risks of engineering solar radiation to limit climate change". In G1, the radiative forcing from an instantaneous quadrupling of the CO2 concentration, starting from the preindustrial level, is balanced by a reduction of the solar constant. Model responses to the two counteracting forcings in G1 are compared to the preindustrial climate in terms of global means and regional patterns and their robustness. While the global mean surface air temperature in G1 remains almost unchanged compared to the control simulation, the meridional temperature gradient is reduced in all models. Another robust response is the global reduction of precipitation with strong effects in particular over North and South America and northern Eurasia. In comparison to the climate response to a quadrupling of CO2 alone, the temperature responses are small in experiment G1. Precipitation responses are, however, in many regions of comparable magnitude but globally of opposite sign.

  6. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  7. Detection of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila by quadruple PCR%四重PCR检测致病性嗜水气单胞菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦信贤; 杨先乐; 童桂香; 吴祥庆; 谢宗升; 黄国秋; 廖永志; 叶欣宇; 黎小正

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila can infect an array of animals , including fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals , and lead to hemorrhagic septicaemia . To develop a rapid and specific quadruple PCR method for the detection of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila, four pairs of primers were designed based on the conservative sequences of 16S rRNA gene, ser-ine-protease (ahpA ) gene, aerolysin(aerA ) gene and hemolysin(hlyA ) gene of Aeromonas hydrophila. After optimalizing the reaction conditions , specificity , sensitivity and detection rate of the quadruple PCR method were studied . Results indicated that this method has a high specificity in detecting pathogenic strains of Aeromonas hydrophila but not other irrelative bacteria , and can detect as less as 100 fg DNA of Aeromonas hydrophila. Nine Aeromonas hydrophila strains and fifty-six clinical samples were tested by this quadruple PCR and conventional microbiology methods , and both of the methods could identify these nine Aeromonas hydrophila strains ; the detection rate of the fifty-six clinical samples by quadruple PCR was 21 .4% , which was higher than that by conventional microbiology methods (16 .1% ), and their coherence was 94 .6% . It could be concluded that the quadruple PCR method which can simultaneously detect 16S rRNA gene and three virulent genes of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila was well established , and this method is a reliable and convenient method to detect Aeromonas hydrophila and i-dentify specific type of pathogenic or nonpathogenic strains .%目的 建立一种能够快速准确地检测致病性嗜水气单胞菌的四重PCR方法.方法 根据致病性嗜水气单胞菌的丝氨酸蛋白酶(ahpA)基因、气溶素(aerA)基因和溶血素(hlyA)基因的保守序列以及嗜水气单胞菌的16S rRNA基因种属特异性序列分别设计4对特异性引物,通过优化各引物浓度、退火温度和Mg2+浓度,确定了四重PCR的最佳反应条件;然后进行特异性和敏感性试

  8. 3+ and [Sb13Se16Br2] 5+ - Double and quadruple spiro cubanes from ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ejaz

    2014-01-08

    The reaction of antimony and selenium in the bromine-rich Lewis acidic ionic liquid [BMIm]Br·4.7AlBr3 (BMIm: 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium) in the presence of a small amount of NbCl5 at 160 °C yielded dark-red crystals of [Sb7Se8Br 2][AlX4]3. For X = Cl0.15(1)Br 0.85(1), the compound is isostructural to [Sb7S 8Br2][AlCl4]3 [P212 121, a = 12.5132(5) Å, b = 17.7394(6) Å, c = 18.3013(6) Å]. For a higher chlorine content, X = Cl 0.58(1)Br0.42(1), a slightly disordered variant with a bisected unit cell is found [P21212, a = 12.3757(3) Å, b = 17.4116(5) Å, c = 9.0420(2) Å]. The [Sb 7Se8Br2]3+ heteropolycation (C 2 symmetry) is a spiro double-cubane with an antimony atom on the shared corner. From this distorted octahedrally coordinated central atom, tricoordinate selenium and antimony atoms alternate in the bonding sequence. The terminal antimony atoms each bind to a bromine atom. Quantum chemical calculations confirm polar covalent Sb-Se bonding within the cubes and indicate three-center, four-electron bonds for the six-coordinate spiro atoms. The calculated charge distribution reflects the electron-donor role of the antimony atoms. The use of a chlorine-rich ionic liquid resulted in the formation of triclinic [Sb13Se16Br2][AlX4] 5 with X = Cl0.80(1)Br0.20(1) [P$\\\\bar {1}$, a = 9.0842(5) Å, b = 19.607(1) Å, c = 21.511(1) Å, α = 64.116(6), β = 79.768(7), γ = 88.499(7)]. The cationic cluster [Sb13Se16Br2]5+ is a bromine-terminated spiro quadruple-cubane. This 31 atom concatenation of four cubes is assumed to be the largest known discrete main group polycation. A similar reaction in a chloride-free system yielded [Sb7Se 8Br2][Sb13Se16Br2] [AlBr4]8. In its monoclinic structure [P2/c, a = 27.214(5) Å, b = 9.383(2) Å, c = 22.917(4) Å, β = 101.68(1)], the two types of polycations alternate in layers along the a axis. In the series [Sb4+3nSe4+4nBr2](2+n)+, these cations are the members with n = 1 and 3. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  9. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  10. Near-infrared Spectroscopy of 2M0441+2301 AabBab: A Quadruple System Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Mass Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2015-10-01

    We present Keck/NIRC2 and OSIRIS near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of 2M0441+2301 AabBab, a young (1-3 Myr) hierarchical quadruple system comprising a low-mass star, two brown dwarfs, and a planetary-mass companion in Taurus. All four components show spectroscopic signs of low surface gravity, and both 2M0441+2301 Aa and Ab possess Paβ emission indicating they each harbor accretion subdisks. Astrometry spanning 2008-2014 reveals orbital motion in both the Aab (0.″23 separation) and Bab (0.″095 separation) pairs, although the implied orbital periods of >300 years mean dynamical masses will not be possible in the near future. The faintest component (2M0441+2301 Bb) has an angular H-band shape, strong molecular absorption (VO, CO, H2O, and FeH), and shallow alkali lines, confirming its young age, late spectral type (L1 ± 1), and low temperature (≈1800 K). With individual masses of {200}-50+100 MJup, 35 ± 5 MJup, 19 ± 3 MJup, and 9.8 ± 1.8 MJup, 2M0441+2301 AabBab is the lowest-mass quadruple system known. Its hierarchical orbital architecture and mass ratios imply that it formed from the collapse and fragmentation of a molecular cloud core, demonstrating that planetary-mass companions can originate from a stellar-like pathway analogous to higher-mass quadruple star systems as first speculated by Todorov et al. More generally, cloud fragmentation may be an important formation pathway for the massive exoplanets that are now regularly being imaged on wide orbits. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  11. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  12. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  13. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  14. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  15. REPEATED LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: EXPERIENCE OF RUSSIAN SCIENTIFIC CENTER OF RADIOLOGY AND SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY (RSCRST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Granov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the report about the experience in repeated liver transplantation (LT. Totally 99 LT including 6 repeated operation at five patients performed between june 1999 and june 2011. In 3 of 6 cases bile ducts necroses was the indication to repeated LT. Retransplantations were connected with difficulties, enlargement of duration and replacement therapy volume, also explained high number of complication after operation. It is demonstrated that chronic biliary infection and bad condition of patients are the main reasons of complication and poor prognosis after repeated liver transplantation. 

  16. High-resolution quadruple sulfur isotope analyses of 3.2 Ga pyrite from the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa reveal distinct environmental controls on sulfide isotopic arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, D.L.; Mason, P.R.D.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Reimer, T.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sulfur isotopes in Paleoarchean pyrite record valuable information on atmospheric processes and emerging microbial activity in the early sulfur cycle. Here, we report quadruple sulfur isotope data (32S, 33S, 34S, 36S) analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry from pyrite in a 3.26–3.23 Ga

  17. Demonstration of long-term reliability of a 266-nm, continuous-wave, frequency-quadrupled solid-state laser using beta-BaB(2)O(4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Oka, M; Wada, H; Fukui, T; Umezu, N; Tatsuki, K; Kubota, S

    1998-02-01

    We report what we believe to be the first operation of more than 1000 h of a 266-nm (cw) frequency-quadrupled solid-state laser with a 100-mW output. We used beta-BaB(2)O(4)(BBO) crystal grown by the Czochralski method to double the green-light (532-nm) wavelength, using an external resonant cavity. The green light was generated with an intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:YVO(4)laser pumped by a 4-W laser diode. When the incident 532-nm power on the external resonant doubler was 500 mW, we generated 100 mW of cw 266-nm radiation with the BBO crystal. The degradation rate seems to be proportional to the strength of the UV optical electric field. We also obtained a relative intensity noise of -130dB/Hz at frequencies of 2 to 10 MHz for 266-nm laser light.

  18. Quadruple Vessel Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a 14-Year-Old Child With Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 4G/4G Gene Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Draginja; Lafaro, Rocco; Giamelli, Joseph; Suvro, Sett; Erb, Markus; Yaghoubian, Saman

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial ischemia due to coronary artery disease is an extremely rare condition in childhood and adolescence. Absence of obvious serious risk factors remains a challenge to modern cardiology. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy who underwent quadruple-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting with bilateral pedicled internal mammary artery and bilateral radial artery grafting. We try to highlight a rare but important 4G variant PAI-1 (SERPINE 1) gene mutation as the etiology of severe coronary artery disease in our patient. To the best of our knowledge, he is one of the youngest patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery with 4 arterial grafts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Relativistic Prolapse-Free Gaussian Basis Sets of Quadruple-ζ Quality: (aug-)RPF-4Z. III. The f-Block Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Tiago Quevedo; Visscher, Lucas; da Silva, Albérico Borges Ferreira; Haiduke, Roberto Luiz Andrade

    2017-01-06

    The f-block elements are addressed in this third part of a series of prolapse-free basis sets of quadruple-ζ quality (RPF-4Z). Relativistic adapted Gaussian basis sets (RAGBSs) are used as primitive sets of functions while correlating/polarization (C/P) functions are chosen by analyzing energy lowerings upon basis set increments in Dirac-Coulomb multireference configuration interaction calculations with single and double excitations of the valence spinors. These function exponents are obtained by applying the RAGBS parameters in a polynomial expression. Moreover, through the choice of C/P characteristic exponents from functions of lower angular momentum spaces, a reduction in the computational demand is attained in relativistic calculations based on the kinetic balance condition. The present study thus complements the RPF-4Z sets for the whole periodic table (Z ≤ 118). The sets are available as Supporting Information and can also be found at http://basis-sets.iqsc.usp.br .

  20. Clarithromycin vs. furazolidone in quadruple therapy regimens for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori in a population with a high metronidazole resistance rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakheri, H; Malekzadeh, R; Merat, S; Khatibian, M; Fazel, A; Alizadeh, BZ; Massarrat, S

    2001-01-01

    Background: The eradication of Helicobacter pylori plays a pivotal role in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Metronidazole resistance, common in Iran, is claimed to be a major reason for the failure of metronidazole-containing regimens. Both clarithromycin and furazolidone are potential alterna

  1. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  2. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  4. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  5. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  7. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  8. 双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药对小儿非感染性腹泻的疗效及血清中IL-6、IL-17表达影响研究%Effect of viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use in treating children non-infectious diarrhea and its influence on serum IL-6,IL-17 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立新; 张声生

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药对小儿非感染性腹泻的疗效及血清中白细胞介素(IL)-6、IL-17表达的影响.方法 选择重庆市开县人民医院儿科收治的非感染性腹泻患儿100例,采用双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药治疗50例为观察组;采用常规治疗50例为对照组.比较两组患儿的疗效及血清中IL-6、IL-17表达水平.结果 观察组总有效率与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药治疗小儿非感染性腹泻疗效显著,且血清中IL-6、IL-17表达水平恢复正常相对更快,而且服用方便,无明显不良反应,适宜应用于临床.%Objective To investigate the effect of viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use in treating children non-infectious diarrhea and its influence on serum IL-6,IL-17 expression. Methods 100 children with non-infectious diarrhea in this hospital were selected .The observation group (50 cases) was treated by viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use and the con -trol group (50 cases) by the conventional therapy .The effects and serum expression levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were compared between the two groups .Results The total effective rates had statistical differences between the two groups (P0 .05) .Conclusion Viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use has significant effect in treating children non-infectious diarrhea ,serum IL-6 ,IL-17 expression returning to normal rapidly ,which is easy to take without significant adverse reactions and suitable for clinical application .

  9. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  10. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  11. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  12. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  13. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  14. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  15. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  16. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  17. Synthesis and properties of a new quadruple perovskite: A-site ordered PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locherer, T.; Dinnebier, R.; Kremer, R.K. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Greenblatt, M., E-mail: martha@rutchem.rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Jansen, M. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12} a quadruple perovskite was prepared by high pressure and high temperature synthesis. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) and differential scanning calorimetry reveal a structural phase transition at {approx}380 K. Rietveld refinement of the synchrotron room temperature data indicate rhombohedral symmetry (R-3) with a=6.43675(4) A and {alpha}=109.556(2) Degree-Sign . Similar 423 K PXD data refined in a body centered cubic cell (Im-3) with a=7.4283(9) A. The temperature variation of magnetization, shows a magnetic field dependent antiferromagnetic-like transition at 68 K, and dynamic fluctuations indicative of magnetic frustration. The semiconducting electrical behavior indicates a large decrease in the conductivity near 68 K. The temperature dependence of the real part of the dielectric constant, {epsilon}{sub real} increases dramatically at {approx}68 K, and shows relaxor-type ferroelectric behavior as a function of frequency. The intimate coupling of magnetic, electrical and dielectric properties at 68 K in PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12} suggests possible multiferroic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Resistance vs. temperature plot showing drastically increasing resistances at temperatures below 68 K (a). Formation of a frequency dependency of the dielectric constant between 68 K and ambient temperature (b). Sharp cusp in the magnetic susceptibility observed at 68 K which is suppressed with increasing magnetic field (c) indicates coupling of magnetic, electric and dielectric effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12} a quadruple perovskite was prepared at high pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural transition is seen at 380 K from space group R-3-to-Im-3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic transition is observed at 68 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is semiconducting with a large decrease in the conductivity near 68 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature dependence

  18. The Quest for Metal-Metal Quadruple and Quintuple Bonds in Metal Carbonyl Derivatives: Nb2(CO)9 and Nb2(CO)8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lihong; Luo, Qiong; Li, Qian-Shu; Xie, Yaoming; King, R Bruce; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-03-13

    The synthesis by Power and co-workers of the first metal-metal quintuple bond (Science2005, 310, 844) is a landmark in inorganic chemistry. The 18-electron rule suggests that Nb2(CO)9 and Nb2(CO)8 are candidates for binary metal carbonyls containing metal-metal quadruple and quintuple bonds, respectively. Density functional theory (MPW1PW91 and BP86) indeed predicts structures having very short Nb-Nb distances of ∼2.5 Å for Nb2(CO)9 and ∼2.4 Å for Nb2(CO)8 as well as relatively large Nb-Nb Wiberg bond indices supporting these high formal Nb-Nb bond orders. However, analysis of the frontier molecular orbitals of these unbridged structures suggests formal Nb≡Nb triple bonds and 16-electron metal configurations. This contrasts with an analysis of the frontier orbitals in a model chromium(I) alkyl linear CH3CrCrCH3, which confirms the generally accepted presence of chromium-chromium quintuple bonds in such molecules. The presence of Nb≡Nb triple bonds rather than quadruple or quintuple bonds in the Nb2(CO)n (n = 9, 8) structures frees up d(xy) and d(x(2)-y(2)) orbitals for dπ→pπ* back-bonding to the carbonyl groups. The lowest energy Nb2(CO)n structures (n = 9, 8) are not these unbridged structures but structures having bridging carbonyl groups of various types and formal Nb-Nb orders no higher than three. Thus, the two lowest energy Nb2(CO)9 structures have Nb≡Nb triple bond distances of ∼2.8 Å and three semibridging carbonyl groups, leading to a 16-electron configuration rather than an 18-electron configuration for one of the niobium atoms. The lowest energy structure of the highly unsaturated Nb2(CO)8 is unusual since it has a formal single Nb-Nb bond of length ∼3.1 Å and two four-electron donor η(2)-μ-CO groups, thereby giving each niobium atom only a 16-electron configuration.

  19. [Simulation of repeated local hemorrhagic stroke in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, A N; Morozov, S G; Savosko, S I; Vasil'eva, I G

    2013-01-01

    The processes of developed in CNS the complicated stroke and developments of fittings for their pharmaceutical therapy were developed and offering by standardized method of the experimental secondary stroke in rats, suitable for the use in sharp and chronic researches. Variant of repeated hemorrhagic stroke consist of autohemorrhagic right hemisphere stroke by the mechanical damage of brain tissue after 10-daily occlusion of right common carotid artery was studied. A model is comfortable for reproducing of the repeated standardized local damage of brain, is more adequate form of design of transient and chronic cerebrovascular pathology, than the independent use of local hemorrhage of autoblood in the brain of animals. The morphological description of model approaches the clinical variants of development and flow of sharp hemorrhagic stroke after a previous chronic cerebral insufficiency on an ischemic type.

  20. Therapy of Helicobacter pylori: Present Medley and Future Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance has warned clinicians to adopt new strategies for dealing with the H. pylori infection. The success of various therapeutic regimens has recently declined to unacceptable levels. To date, first line therapies (including concomitant therapy and hybrid therapy, second line therapies (including bismuth-containing quadruple therapy and levofloxacin-containing therapy, and third line therapy (culture-guided therapy had been introduced. In the near future, treatment of H. pylori is entering into a completely new resistance era. In this setting, despite the recent progress, we may only be targeting the patients with problematic H. pylori. Local preference for antibiotic selection should be an inevitable article in each therapeutic regimen worldwide. Meanwhile, improving the patients’ compliance protocols and observed side effects in suggested therapeutic regimens should be considered cautiously. The new strategies in treatment should be adopted based upon local resistance patterns, which requires physician’s resistance about the recommended guidelines. Designing new therapeutic regimen, which contains most effective available antibiotics with less possible side effects and high patient compliance, represents a challenging task in treatment of H. pylori infections.

  1. Simulation study on control of spill structure of slow extracted beam from a medical synchrotron with feed-forward and feedback using a fast quadruple magnet and RF-knockout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Ryo; Nakanishi, Tetsuya

    2017-02-01

    A feedback control of the spill structure for the slow beam extraction from the medical synchrotron using a fast quadruple and radio frequency (RF)-knockout (QAR method) is studied to obtain the designed spill structure. In addition the feed-forward control is used so that the feedback control is performed effectively. In this extraction method, the spill of several ms are extracted continuously with an interval time of less than 1 ms. Beam simulation showed that a flat spill structure was effectively obtained with feed-forward and feedback control system as well as a step-wise structure which is useful for the shortening of an irradiation time in a spot scanning operation. The effect of current ripples from main quadruple magnet's power supplies could be also reduced with the feedback control application.

  2. On a clean power generation system with the co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Linbo; He, Boshu

    2017-07-01

    A clean power generation system was built based on the steam co-gasification of biomass and coal in a quadruple fluidized bed gasifier. The chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling technology was used to supply oxygen for the calciner. The solid oxide fuel cell and the steam turbine were combined to generate power. The calcium looping and mineral carbonation were used for CO2 capture and sequestration. The aim of this work was to study the characteristics of this system. The effects of key operation parameters on the system total energy efficiency (ŋten), total exergy efficiency (ŋtex) and carbon sequestration rate (Rcs) were detected. The energy and exergy balance calculations were implemented and the corresponding Sankey and Grassmann diagrams were drawn. It was found that the maximum energy and exergy losses occurred in the steam turbine. The system ŋten and ŋtex could be ∼50% and ∼47%, and Rcs could be over unit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Fully it ab initio Potential Curve of Near-Spectroscopic Quality for the $OH^{-}$ Anion Importance of Connected Quadruple Excitations and Scalar Relativistic Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, J M L

    2001-01-01

    A benchmark study has been carried out on the ground-state potential curve of the hydroxyl anion, OH^{-}, including detailed calibration of both the 1-particle and n-particle basis sets. The CCSD(T) basis set limit overestimates $\\omega_e$ by about 10 cm^{-1}, which is only remedied by inclusion of connected quadruple excitations in the coupled cluster expansion --- or, equivalently, the inclusion of the $2\\pi$ orbitals in the active space of a multireference calculation. Upon inclusion of scalar relativistic effects (-3 cm^{-1} on $\\omega_e$), a potential curve of spectroscopic quality (sub-cm^{-1} accuracy) is obtained. Our best computed EA(OH), 1.828 eV, agrees to three decimal places with the best available experimental value. Our best computed dissociation energies, D_0(OH^-)=4.7796 eV and D_0(OH)=4.4124 eV, suggest that the experimental D_0(OH)=4.392 eV may possibly be about 0.02 eV too low.

  4. [Determination of twenty free amino acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves using ultra performance liquid chromatography-single quadruple mass spectrometry and pre-column derivatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoli; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhang, Junjie; Fu, Jiajun; Wang, Ying; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2013-12-01

    Free amino acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves were investigated using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-single quadruple mass spectrometry detection and pre-column derivatization method. The validation results showed that the method could meet the analytical requirements. A total of 138 tobacco leaf samples were collected from 14 provinces in China in 2011 in which the free amino acids were determined. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the contents of free amino acids in different growing regions ranged from 28.50%-94.20%, and those of asparagine and glutamine were over 80%. The RSDs of the contents of free amino acids in full aroma tobacco leaves were larger than those in fresh aroma and medium aroma tobacco leaves. The principal component analysis (PCA) and non-parameter Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. The free amino acids of the same aroma type grown in different regions or different aroma types in the same province showed great variation. The contents of free amino acids of full aroma tobacco grown in Southeast region were much lower than those in Huanghuai region. The contents of free amino acids in Hunan province were much lower than the average contents. The results showed that free amino acids in flue-cured tobacco leaves were affected by the growing region.

  5. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of 2M0441+2301 AabBab: A Quadruple System Spanning the Stellar to Planetary Mass Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    We present Keck/NIRC2 and OSIRIS near-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of 2M0441+2301 AabBab, a young (1--3 Myr) hierarchical quadruple system comprising a low-mass star, two brown dwarfs, and a planetary-mass companion in Taurus. All four components show spectroscopic signs of low surface gravity, and both 2M0441+2301 Aa and Ab possess Pa$\\beta$ emission indicating they each harbor accretion subdisks. Astrometry spanning 2008--2014 reveals orbital motion in both the Aab (0.23" separation) and Bab (0.095" separation) pairs, although the implied orbital periods of $>$300 years means dynamical masses will not be possible in the near future. The faintest component (2M0441+2301 Bb) has an angular $H$-band shape, strong molecular absorption (VO, CO, H$_2$O, and FeH), and shallow alkali lines, confirming its young age, late spectral type (L1 $\\pm$ 1), and low temperature ($\\approx$1800~K). With individual masses of 200$^{+100}_{-50}$ Mjup, 35 $\\pm$ 5 Mjup, 19 $\\pm$ 3 Mjup, and 9.8 $\\pm$ 1.8 Mjup, 2M0441+2301 AabBa...

  6. Quantification of 3-n-butylphthalide in beagle plasma samples by supercritical fluid chromatography with triple quadruple mass spectrometry and its application to an oral bioavailability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Xiaoting; Guo, Bei; Zhao, Juanhang; Wang, Xianglin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2015-02-01

    A high-throughput, rapid, sensitive, environmentally friendly, and economical supercritical fluid chromatography with triple quadruple mass spectrometry method was established and validated for the first time to determine a cerebral stroke treatment drug named 3-n-butylphthalide in dog plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation with methanol and the analytes were eluted on an ACQUITY UPC(2TM) HSS-C(18) SB column (3 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) maintained at 50°C. The mobile phase comprised supercritical carbon dioxide/methanol (90:10, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min, the compensation solvent was methanol at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min and the total run time was 1.5 min per sample. The detection was carried out on a tandem mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1.02-1021.00 ng/mL (r(2) ≥ 0.993) with the lower limit of quantification of 1.02 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision values were below 15% and the accuracy was from 97.90 to 103.70% at all quality control levels. The method was suitable for a pharmacokinetic study of 3-n-butylphthalide in beagle dogs.

  7. Printing-based assembly of quadruple-junction four-terminal microscale solar cells and their use in high-efficiency modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xing; Bower, Christopher A.; Bonafede, Salvatore; Wilson, John W.; Fisher, Brent; Meitl, Matthew; Yuen, Homan; Wang, Shuodao; Shen, Ling; Banks, Anthony R.; Corcoran, Christopher J.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Burroughs, Scott; Rogers, John A.

    2014-06-01

    Expenses associated with shipping, installation, land, regulatory compliance and on-going maintenance and operations of utility-scale photovoltaics can be significantly reduced by increasing the power conversion efficiency of solar modules through improved materials, device designs and strategies for light management. Single-junction cells have performance constraints defined by their Shockley-Queisser limits. Multi-junction cells can achieve higher efficiencies, but epitaxial and current matching requirements between the single junctions in the devices hinder progress. Mechanical stacking of independent multi-junction cells circumvents these disadvantages. Here we present a fabrication approach for the realization of mechanically assembled multi-junction cells using materials and techniques compatible with large-scale manufacturing. The strategy involves printing-based stacking of microscale solar cells, sol-gel processes for interlayers with advanced optical, electrical and thermal properties, together with unusual packaging techniques, electrical matching networks, and compact ultrahigh-concentration optics. We demonstrate quadruple-junction, four-terminal solar cells with measured efficiencies of 43.9% at concentrations exceeding 1,000 suns, and modules with efficiencies of 36.5%.

  8. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  9. Repeat Lumbar Puncture: CSF Lactic Acid Levels are Predictive of Cure with Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A. Cunha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A common clinical problem concerns the utility of repeat lumbar puncture (LP in adults with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM, e.g., pneumococcal meningitis [1]. An LP is initially done for diagnostic purposes in patients with suspected ABM, i.e., diagnostic lumbar puncture (DLP. A repeat LP (RLP may be done 1–3 days after the initial DLP, if the patient shows no improvement. If a patient with ABM is not doing well after three days, adequacy of antimicrobial therapy is the main concern. Other reasons for RLP is to detect possible intracranial complications of ABM unrelated to adequacy of therapy [1–2].

  10. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  11. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  12. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  13. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Ruchira P; Sampat, Bhavin K; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Kulkarni, Satish

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of 58 year old female diagnosed with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) with recurrence of PAP after 5 repeated whole lung lavage, responding to subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor therapy (GM-CSF). Thus indicating that GM-CSF therapy is a promising alternative in those requiring repeated whole lung lavage

  14. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  15. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  16. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  17. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  18. Quadruple-component superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap: A chimeric SCIP flap for complex ankle reconstruction of an exposed artificial joint after total ankle arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Saito, Takafumi; Ishiura, Ryohei; Iida, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is becoming popular in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ankle joint degeneration. However, ankle wound complications can occur after TAA, which sometimes requires challenging reconstruction due to anatomical complexity of the ankle. Superficial circumflex iliac artery (SCIA) perforator (SCIP) flap has been reported to be useful for various reconstructions, but no case has been reported regarding a chimeric SCIP flap for complex ankle reconstruction. We report a case of complex ankle defect successfully reconstructed with a free quadruple-component chimeric SCIP flap. A 73-year-old female patient with RA underwent TAA, and suffered from an extensive ankle soft tissue defect (13 × 5 cm) with exposure of the implanted artificial joint and the extensor tendons. A chimeric SCIP flap was raised based on the deep branch and the superficial branch of the SCIA, which included chimeric portions of the sartorius muscle, the deep fascia, the inguinal lymph node (ILN), and the skin/fat. The flap was transferred to the recipient ankle. The sartorius muscle was used to cover the artificial joint, the deep fascia to reconstruct the extensor retinaculum, the ILN to prevent postoperative lymphedema, and the adiposal tissue to put around the extensor tendons for prevention of postoperative adhesion. Postoperatively, the patient could walk by herself without persistent leg edema or bowstringing of the extensor tendons, and was satisfied with the concealable donor scar. Although further studies are required to confirm efficacy, multicomponent chimeric SCIP has a potential to be a useful option for complex defects of the ankle.

  19. Strong interactions, narrow bands, and dominant spin-orbit coupling in Mott insulating quadruple perovskite CaCo3V4O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, H. B.; Pickett, W. E.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the electronic and magnetic structures and the character and direction of spin and orbital moments of the recently synthesized quadruple perovskite compound CaCo3V4O12 using a selection of methods from density functional theory. Implementing the generalized gradient approximation and the Hubbard U correction (GGA+U ), ferromagnetic spin alignment leads to half-metallicity rather than the observed narrow gap insulating behavior. Including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) leaves a Mott insulating spectrum but with a negligible gap. SOC is crucial for the Mott insulating character of the V d1 ion, breaking the dm =±1 degeneracy and also giving a substantial orbital moment. Evidence is obtained of the large orbital moments on Co that have been inferred from the measured susceptibility. Switching to the orbital polarization (OP) functional, GGA+OP+SOC also displays clear tendencies toward very large orbital moments but in its own distinctive manner. In both approaches, application of SOC, which requires specification of the direction of the spin, introduces large differences in the orbital moments of the three Co ions in the primitive cell. We study a fictitious but simpler cousin compound Ca3CoV4O12 (Ca replacing two of the Co atoms) to probe in a more transparent fashion the interplay of spin and orbital degrees of freedom with the local environment of the planar CoO4 units. The observation is made that the underlying mechanisms seem to be local to a CoO4 plaquette, and that there is very strong coupling of the size of the orbital moment to the spin direction. These facts strongly suggest noncollinear spins, not only on Co but on the V sublattice as well.

  20. Quantification of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Commercial Cows’ Milk from California by Gas Chromatography–Triple Quadruple Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    We determined 12 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in eight different brands of commercial whole milk (WM) and fat free milk (FFM) produced and distributed in California. Congeners were extracted using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method, purified by gel permeation chromatography, and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry. PBDEs and PCBs were detected in all FFM and WM samples. The most prevalent PBDE congeners in WM were BDE-47 (geometric mean: 18.0 pg/mL, 0.51 ng/g lipid), BDE-99 (geometric mean: 9.9 pg/mL, 0.28 ng/g lipid), and BDE-49 (geometric mean: 6.0 pg/mL, 0.17 ng/g lipid). The dominant PCB congeners in WM were PCB-101(geometric mean: 23.6 pg/mL, 0.67 ng/g lipid), PCB-118 (geometric mean: 25.2 pg/mL, 0.72 ng/g lipid), and PCB-138 (geometric mean: 25.3 pg/mL, 0.72 ng/g lipid). The sum of all 19 PCB congeners in FFM and WM were several orders of magnitude below the U.S. FDA tolerance. The sum of PBDEs in milk samples suggest close proximity to industrial emissions, and confirm previous findings of elevated PBDE levels in California compared to other regions in the United States. PMID:28085917

  1. Ablation of porcine ligamentum flavum with Ho:YAG, q-switched Ho:YAG, and quadrupled Nd:YAG lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matt R; Codd, Patrick J; Hill, Westin M; Boettcher, Tara

    2015-12-01

    Ligamentum flavum (LF) is a tough, rubbery connective tissue providing a portion of the ligamentous stability to the spinal column, and in its hypertrophied state forms a significant compressive pathology in degenerative spinal stenosis. The interaction of lasers and this biological tissue have not been thoroughly studied. Technological advances improving endoscopic surgical access to the spinal canal makes selective removal of LF using small, flexible tools such as laser-coupled fiber optics increasingly attractive for treatment of debilitating spinal stenosis. Testing was performed to assess the effect of Ho:YAG, Q-switched Ho:YAG, and frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG lasers on samples of porcine LF. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of these lasers for surgical removal of LF. LF was resected from porcine spine within 2 hours of sacrifice and stored in saline until immediately prior to laser irradiation, which occurred within an additional 2 hours. The optical absorbance of a sample was measured over the spectral band from 190 to 2,360 nm both before and after dehydration. For the experiments using the Ho:YAG (λ = 2,080 nm, tp  = 140 µs, FWHM) and Q-Switched Ho:YAG (λ = 2,080 nm, tp  = 260 ns, FWHM) lasers, energy was delivered to the LF through a laser-fiber optic with 600 µm core and NA = 0.39. For the experiment using the frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (λ = 266 nm, tp  = 5 ns FWHM), rather than applying the laser energy through a laser-fiber, the energy was focused through an aperture and lens directly onto the LF. Five experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of the given lasers on LF. First, using the Ho:YAG laser, the single-pulse laser-hole depth versus laser fluence was measured with the laser-fiber in direct contact with the LF (1 g force) and with a standoff distance of 1 mm between the laser-fiber face and the LF. Second, with the LF remaining in situ and the spine bisected

  2. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olokoba, A B; Obateru, O A; Bojuwoye, M O

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  3. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: A review of current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B Olokoba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the formation of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. Eradication of H. Pylori has been recommended as treatment and prevention for these complications. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include H. Pylori, current treatment and emerging therapy. Only articles in English were included. There has been a substantial decline in the H. pylori eradication rates over the years, despite the use of proton pump inhibitor and bismuth salts for triple and quadruple therapies respectively. The reasons for eradication failure are diverse, among them, antibiotic resistance is an important factor in the treatment failure. Primary resistance to clarithromycin or metronidazole significantly affects the efficacy of eradication therapy. This has led to the introduction of second line, third line "rescue," and sequential therapies for resistant cases. Subsequently, new antibiotic combinations with proton-pump inhibitors and bismuth salts are being studied in the last decade, to find out the antibiotics that are capable of increasing the eradication rates. Some of these antibiotics include Levofloxacin, Doxycycline, Rifaximin, Rifampicin, Furazolidone based therapies. Studies are ongoing to determine the efficacy of Lactoferrin based therapy.

  4. Helicobacter  pylori Eradication Therapies in the Era of Increasing Antibiotic Resistance: A Paradigm Shift to Improved Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios D. Georgopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori with standard treatments are decreasing to unacceptable levels (i.e., ≤80% in most countries. After these disappointing results, several authorities have proposed that infection with H. pylori should be approached and treated as any other bacterial infectious disease. This implicates that clinicians should prescribe empirical treatments yielding a per protocol eradication of at least 90%. In recent years several treatments producing ≥90% cure rates have been proposed including sequential therapy, concomitant quadruple therapy, hybrid (dual-concomitant therapy, and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy. These treatments are likely to represent the recommended first-line treatments in the near future. In the present paper, we are considering a series of critical issues regarding currently available means and approaches for the management of H. pylori infection. Clinical needs and realistic endpoints are taken into account. Furthermore, emerging strategies for the eradication of H. pylori and the existing evidence of their clinical validation and widespread applicability are discussed.

  5. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding.

  6. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  7. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  8. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  9. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  10. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  11. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  13. Third-line rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rossella Cianci; Massimo Montalto; Franco Pandolfi; Giovan Battista Gasbarrini; Giovanni Cammarota

    2006-01-01

    H pylori gastric infection is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide. The discovery that most upper gastrointestinal diseases are related to H pylori infection and therefore can be treated with antibiotics is an important medical advance. Currently, a first-line triple therapy based on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) plus two antibiotics (darithromycin and amoxicillin or nitroimidazole) is recommended by all consensus conferences and guidelines. Even with the correct use of this drug combination, infection can not be eradicated in up to 23% of patients. Therefore, several second line therapies have been recommended. A 7 d quadruple therapy based on PPI, bismuth, tetracycline and metronidazole is the more frequently accepted. However, with second-line therapy, bacterial eradication may fail in up to 40% of cases. When H pylori eradication is strictly indicated the choice of further treatment is controversial. Currently, a standard third-line therapy is lacking and various protocols have been proposed. Even after two consecutive failures, the most recent literature data have demonstrated that H pylori eradication can be achieved in almost all patients, even when antibiotic susceptibility is not tested. Different possibilities of empirical treatment exist and the available third-line strategies are herein reviewed.

  14. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  15. A quadruple dose of disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2001-01-01

    These four textbooks are designed specifically for those studying undergraduate abnormal psychology at North American universities, but they would serve as useful resources on undergraduate psychology courses on this side of the Atlantic. Supplementary reading would, however, be essential to add a European or British dimension.

  16. Repeated Renal Biopsy - A Predictive Tool to Assess the Probability of Renal Flare in Lupus Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Gastón J; Arrizabalaga, Pilar; Solé, Manel; Abellana, Rosa M; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    How one responds to treatment of lupus nephritis (LN) is based on clinical features, but the activity in renal biopsy (RB) is uncertain. We have described the therapeutic decisions after performing a repeated RB on the assessment of response to intravenous cyclophosphamide (IC) and the possible prognostic role of this repeated RB. Clinical, laboratory and histological features at the initial RB and repeated RB were analyzed in 35 patients. Data in the initial versus the repeated RB were serum creatinine 1.23 ± 1.08 and 0.96 ± 0.45 mg/dl (p < 0.05), glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min in 12 and 5% patients and proteinuria 4.1 ± 2.8 vs. 0.6 1.1 g/day (p < 0.05). Significant differences were detected in hematuria, nephrotic syndrome and serological immune features. Complete renal remission was reached in 60% (n = 21) at the time of the repeated RB, partial remission in 31.4% (n = 11), and no response IC in 8.6% (n = 3). Nine patients showed proliferative forms in the repeated RB, 3 of them had proteinuria <1 g/day. Just after the repeated RB, 34.3% increased or started a new immunosuppressive therapy, 17.1% remained with the same complementary IST, and 14.3% decreased or stopped it. In the follow-up post repeated RB, 34.5% without active lesions showed a renal flare versus 77.8% with active lesions (p = 0.04). The mean time was 120 and 45 months, respectively. A repeated biopsy in LN distinguishes patients in true remission from those in apparent remission. By doing this, we can identify patients who could benefit from intensified treatment and for whom unnecessary treatment methods can be modified or eliminated. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Repeated trauma exposure does not impair distress reduction during imaginal exposure for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerud, Alissa B; Farach, Frank J; Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Smith, Hillary; Zoellner, Lori A; Feeny, Norah C

    2017-08-01

    Based on experimental research on threat extinction, individuals exposed to repeated traumatic events may have impaired outcome in exposure therapy compared to those who have experienced a single trauma (Lang & McTeague, ). This study examined whether repeated trauma exposure predicts smaller changes in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure and worse outcomes for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adults (N = 116) with chronic PTSD received up to 10 sessions of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy. Trauma exposure was assessed via interview and number of traumatic events were summed for each participant. To examine reductions in distress during treatment, mean and peak values of distress during imaginal exposure were calculated for the first imaginal session (initial distress activation) and subsequent sessions (between-session change in distress). Change in PTSD symptoms from pre- to posttreatment and follow-up provided an additional index of outcome. In-session distress during imaginal exposure decreased over the course of treatment. PTSD symptoms also decreased over treatment, with gains being maintained through follow-up. Repeated trauma exposure was not significantly correlated with initial distress activation. Additionally, linear mixed-model analyses showed no significant association between repeated trauma exposure and between-session change in distress or PTSD symptoms. Contrary to recent speculation, repeated trauma exposure did not predict less change in self-reported distress during imaginal exposure or worse PTSD outcomes. The bench-to-bedside linkage of threat extinction to exposure therapy is discussed, noting strengths and weaknesses. Patients with repeated trauma exposure show reductions in distress with exposure treatment and benefit from PE as much as patients with single-exposure trauma histories. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  19. Radiotherapy for a repeatedly recurrent ameloblastoma with malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Chen, Jin-Yi; Chen, Chung-Ho; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The role of radiation therapy (RT) for ameloblastoma remains controversial and undetermined due to the rarity of the disease. A case of repeatedly recurrent ameloblastoma with malignant transformation is presented. The clinical course and managements are described. The 63-year-old man had a recurrent ameloblastoma in the left mandible. Five years after the first surgical resection, he underwent 8 more rounds of surgical excision of the recurrent tumors. The malignant transformation occurred and the unresectable tumor invaded the masticator space, parapharyngeal space, and skull base. He received 3-dimensional conformal RT, at the dose of 66 Gray (Gy) in 33 fractions. The ulcerative exophytic mass had regressed gradually. After follow-up of 28 months, the tumor was well controlled. RT seems to be a feasible treatment option for recurrent ameloblastoma with malignant transformation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  1. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  2. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  3. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  4. 高职“四双”专业教学团队的构建%The Construction of Professional Teaching Team of "Quadruple--Double" in Higher Vocational Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锦祝

    2012-01-01

    专业教学团队是专业建设、教学改革的最基层单位,专业教学团队建设的水平,直接影响教学质量的提高,本文分析了高职院校专业教学团队的基本结构,提出构建“四双”专业教学团队的基本方法,分析当前构建“四双’’专业教学团队存在的困难,并提出相应的对策。%Professional teaching teams are the most basic units in the construction of profession and the reform of teaching. The level of the construction of professional teaching teams will have direct effects on the improvement of teaching quality. In this paper,the author analyzes the basic structure of the professional teaching team and proposes the basic method to build "Quadruple- Double" teaching team in higher vocational schools, the current difficulties in building the "Quadruple--Double" teaching teams, and the corresponding countermeasures are also analyzed in this paper.

  5. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  6. Efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapies: a single centre observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beales Ian LP

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens have been described. There are little data reporting their efficacy or integration in routine clinical practice. The overall results of eradication therapy in a cohort of patients are described and an algorithm for management outlined. Methods 469 patients receiving eradication therapy in routine clinical practice were evaluated. The successes of individual regimes as first, second and third line therapy were determined. Results Overall success after one, two and three courses of therapy were 73% (95% confidence intervals 69–77%, 94% (91–96% and 98% (97–99% respectively. 10 different regimens, including many non-recommended ones were used as primary therapy. Ranitidine bismuth citrate-amoxicillin-clarithromycin triple therapy (94.8%, 90–99% was significantly more effective than any other combination as primary therapy, including all proton pump inhibitor based triple therapies. Quadruple therapy with bismuth chelate-proton pump inhibitor-tetracycline and a nitroimidazole (70%, 52–88% and ranitidine bismuth citrate-based triple therapy (73%, 56–90% where more effective second line combinations than proton pump inhibitor-triple therapies (37.5%, 12–58%. Third line therapy directed by the results of sensitivity testing improved eradication compared to further empirical antibiotics. The use of a proton pump inhibitor with clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole as initial therapy was associated with a significantly worse overall eradication rate than other combinations. Conclusions Helicobacter pylori eradication rates can be maximised by using ranitidine bismuth citrate-clarithromycin-amoxicillin containing triple therapy, followed by bismuth and nitroimidazle containing second-line therapy, with third line combinations directed by sensitivity testing. Proton pump inhibitor-clarithromycin-metronidazole combinations should be avoided.

  7. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  8. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  9. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  10. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, prepeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  11. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  12. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  13. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  14. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  15. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  16. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  17. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  18. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  19. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiji eNageshwaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasised following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA in 1991. In this review we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  20. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  1. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species

  2. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  3. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  4. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  5. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  6. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...

  7. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  8. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  9. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  10. A novel GAA-repeat-expansion-based mouse model of Friedreich’s ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Anjomani Virmouni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a GAA repeat expansion mutation within intron 1 of the FXN gene, resulting in reduced levels of frataxin protein. We have previously reported the generation of human FXN yeast artificial chromosome (YAC transgenic FRDA mouse models containing 90–190 GAA repeats, but the presence of multiple GAA repeats within these mice is considered suboptimal. We now describe the cellular, molecular and behavioural characterisation of a newly developed YAC transgenic FRDA mouse model, designated YG8sR, which we have shown by DNA sequencing to contain a single pure GAA repeat expansion. The founder YG8sR mouse contained 120 GAA repeats but, due to intergenerational expansion, we have now established a colony of YG8sR mice that contain ~200 GAA repeats. We show that YG8sR mice have a single copy of the FXN transgene, which is integrated at a single site as confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH analysis of metaphase and interphase chromosomes. We have identified significant behavioural deficits, together with a degree of glucose intolerance and insulin hypersensitivity, in YG8sR FRDA mice compared with control Y47R and wild-type (WT mice. We have also detected increased somatic GAA repeat instability in the brain and cerebellum of YG8sR mice, together with significantly reduced expression of FXN, FAST-1 and frataxin, and reduced aconitase activity, compared with Y47R mice. Furthermore, we have confirmed the presence of pathological vacuoles within neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG of YG8sR mice. These novel GAA-repeat-expansion-based YAC transgenic FRDA mice, which exhibit progressive FRDA-like pathology, represent an excellent model for the investigation of FRDA disease mechanisms and therapy.

  11. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  12. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  13. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be credentialed by the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Family therapy is often short term. ... challenging situations in a more effective way. References Marriage and family therapists: The friendly mental health professionals. American Association ...

  14. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of estrogen therapy relieve vaginal dryness. • Systemic estrogen protects against the bone loss that occurs early in menopause and helps prevent hip and spine fractures. • Combined estrogen and progestin therapy may reduce the risk of ...

  15. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the area is stitched shut. Another treatment, called proton-beam radiation therapy , focuses the radiation on the ... after radiation treatment ends. Sore mouth and tooth decay. If you received radiation therapy to the head ...

  16. Electroconvulsive therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007474.htm Electroconvulsive therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) uses an electric current to treat depression ...

  17. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IMRT) Brain Tumor Treatment Brain Tumors Prostate Cancer Lung Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Head and Neck Cancer Images related to Proton Therapy Videos related to Proton Therapy Sponsored by Please ...

  18. Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S Gokhale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conventional therapy.

  19. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  20. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  1. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  2. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  3. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  4. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  5. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  6. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  7. Feminist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Toni; Malmo, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Traces roots of feminist therapy and its independence from traditional and prevalent theories and therapy practices. Asserts that Freudian theory and humanistic assumptions are sexist and contribute to powerlessness of women. In contrast, feminist therapy is seen as dealing directly with client-counselor relationships, trust, advocacy, and…

  8. Brexpiprazole Alters Monoaminergic Systems following Repeated Administration: an in Vivo Electrophysiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterhof, Chris A.; Mansari, Mostafa El; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Blier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brexpiprazole was recently approved as adjunctive therapy for depression and treatment of schizophrenia in adults. To complement results from a previous study in which its acute effects were characterized, the present study assessed the effect of repeated brexpiprazole administration on monoaminergic systems. Methods: Brexpiprazole (1mg/kg, subcutaneous) or vehicle was administered once daily for 2 and 14 days. Single-unit electrophysiological recordings from noradrenaline neurons...

  9. Repeated Exposure to Sublethal Doses of the Organophosphorus Compound VX Activates BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    cresyl/-4 H-1: 3: 2-benzodioxa- phosphorin-2-oxide (CBDP) on organophosphate poisoning and its therapy. Arch. Toxicol. 42, 207–216. French, S. J... organophosphates or other environmental insults, have a greater FIG. 4. Mice that received repeated exposure to low levels of VX (0.2 LD50 and 0.4 LD50...to neuro- behavioral deficits and neuropathology. Although exposure to organophosphates such as pesticides has been shown to affect the expression of

  10. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  11. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  12. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  13. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  14. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  15. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  16. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  17. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  18. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  19. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions f...

  20. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiji eNageshwaran; Richard eFestenstein

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions fr...

  1. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  2. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  3. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  4. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  5. Within-session effect of repeated stress exposure on extinction circuitry function in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åhs, Fredrik; Gingnell, Malin; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats

    2017-03-30

    Anxiety reduction following repeated exposure to stressful experiences is generally held to depend on neural processes involved in extinction of conditioned fear. We predicted that repeated exposure to stressful experiences would change activity throughout the circuitry serving extinction, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), the hippocampus and the amygdala. To test this prediction, 36 participants diagnosed with SAD performed two successive speeches in front of an observing audience while regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was recorded using positron emission tomography. To control for non-anxiolytic effects of repeated exposure, rCBF was also measured during repeated presentations of neutral and angry facial expressions. Results showed that anxiety ratings and heart rate decreased from the first to the second speech, indicating an anxiolytic effect of repeated exposure. Exposure attenuated rCBF in the amygdala whereas no change in rCBF was observed in the vmPFC or hippocampus. The rCBF-reductions in the amygdala were greater following repetition of the speech task than repetition of face exposure indicating that they were specific to anxiety attenuation and not due to a reduced novelty. Our findings suggest that amygdala-related attenuation processes are key to understanding the working mechanisms of exposure therapy.

  6. Relationship between CAG repeat length and brain volume in premanifest and early Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Susie M D; Wild, Edward J; Hobbs, Nicola Z; Scahill, Rachael I; Ridgway, Gerard R; Macmanus, David G; Barker, Roger A; Fox, Nick C; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2009-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expanded CAG repeat on the gene encoding for the protein huntingtin. There are conflicting findings about the extent to which repeat length predicts signs of the disease or severity of disease progression in adults. This study examined the relationship between CAG repeat length and brain volume in a large cohort of pre- and post-motor onset HD gene carriers, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), an approach which allowed us to investigate the whole brain without defining a priori regions of interest. We also used VBM to examine group differences between 20 controls, 21 premanifest, and 40 early HD subjects. In the 61 mutation-positive subjects higher CAG repeat length was significantly associated with reduced volume of the body of the caudate nucleus bilaterally, left putamen, right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and right occipital lobe, after correcting for age. The group contrasts showed significant reduction in grey matter volume in the early HD group relative to controls in widespread cortical as well as subcortical areas but there was no evidence of difference between controls and premanifest subjects. Overall we have demonstrated that increased CAG repeat length is associated with atrophy in extra-striatal as well as striatal regions, which has implications for the monitoring of disease-modifying therapies in the condition.

  7. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  8. RISK OF REPEATED THROMBOTIC EVENTS IN PATIENTS SURVIVED ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME AND HAVING LABORATORY PROVEN RESISTANCE TO ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Puchinyan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate risk of repeated atherothrombotic events in patients survived acute coronary syndrome (ACS and having poorly reduced platelet aggregation (proven by optical aggregometry in response to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA therapy.Material and methods. 200 patients with ACS (aged 56,6±9,2 y.o. were included in the study. Platelet functional activity during ASA therapy was evaluated with laser aggregometer. ASA resistance was defined if the summarizing index of platelet aggregation (induced with ADP, 5 mμml/l was 50% or higher during ASA therapy. Observation period was 18±6 months. Atherothrombotic events (unstable angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death were considered.Results. Lack ASA response rate was about 12%. Totally 22 repeated atherothrombotic events were registered: 5,6% among ASA sensitive patients and 50% - among ASA resistant patients. Repeated atherothrombotic events were registered in ASA resistance patients during first 14 days. ASA sensitive patients showed repeated atherothrombotic events in some months after ACS. The relative risk of cardiovascular event in ASA resistance patients was 8,92 (CI 95% 4,39; 17,84 р=0,05.Conclusion. The high level of the induced platelet aggregation (proven by laser aggregometry points to high risk of repeated atherothrombotic events in patients with ACS.

  9. "Quadruple whammy"- a preventable newly described syndrome of post-operative AKI in CKD II and CKD III patients on combination "Triple whammy" medications: a Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, Wisconsin experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuigbo, M A; Agbasi, N

    2014-01-01

    The potential combination of diuretics- angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diuretics-ACEIs-NSAIDs), the so-called 'triple whammy', to produce clinically significant nephrotoxicity in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often unrecognized. In 2013, in the British Medical Journal, we described accelerated post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) in CKD patients concurrently on 'triple whammy' medications, a new syndrome that we aptly named 'quadruple whammy'. Two case reports. I. A 59-year-old Caucasian male, hypertensive CKD III, serum creatinine (SCr) 1.42 mg/dL, developed accelerated oliguric AKI after elective right nephrectomy. Outpatient medications included Lisinopril-Hydrochlorothiazide and Nabumetone (NSAID). SCr rapidly more than doubled with metabolic acidosis and hyperkalemia within 24 hours, peaking at 4.02 mg/dL. 'Triple whammy' medications were promptly stopped and the hypotension was corrected. SCr was 1.64 mg/dL and stable, after three months. II. A 46-year-old Caucasian male, hypertensive CKD II, SCr 1.21 mg/dL, developed accelerated AKI after elective right hip arthroplasty. Outpatient medications included Lisinopril and Hydrochlorothiazide. Celecoxib (200 mg) was given pre-operatively. Within 36 hours, SCr rapidly more than doubled to 2.58 mg/dL, with metabolic acidosis. 'Triple whammy' medications were promptly stopped and the hypotension was corrected. SCr was 0.99 mg/dL, and stable, after one month. We have described two cases of preventable accelerated AKI following post-operative hypotension in CKD patients concurrently on 'triple whammy' medications. We dubbed this new syndrome "Quadruple Whammy". It is not uncommon. 'Renoprevention', the pre-emptive withholding of (potentially nephrotoxic) medications, including 'triple whammy' medications, pre-operatively, in CKD patients, together with the simultaneous avoidance of peri-operative hypotension would help reduce, if not eliminate such AKI - a call

  10. Repeat prescribing: scale, problems and quality management in ambulatory care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Peter A G M; Dautzenberg, Maaike

    2004-01-01

    The reported scale of repeat prescriptions ranges from 29% to 75% of all items prescribed, depending on the definition of repeat prescribing and other variables. It is likely that a substantial part of repeat prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) occurs without direct doctor-patient contact. While this reduces the workload for the GP and is convenient for the patient, it does not provide the adequate control that is needed to ensure that every repeat prescription is still appropriate, effective and well tolerated, and that it is still being viewed upon and taken by the patient as intended. Infrequent therapy reviews may lead to failure to prevent, identify and solve drug-related problems and drug wastage, and may, thereby, have a negative impact on the effectiveness, safety or cost of the medications prescribed. Studies evaluating the repeat prescribing process have shown that GPs and medical practices vary widely in their degree of administrative and clinical control of repeat prescriptions. Contrary to the opinion that GPs cannot change prescribing behaviour when the prescription is initiated by a medical specialist, GPs have their own responsibility for controlling the repeats of such prescriptions. Intervention studies suggest that a medication review by a pharmacist can help to reduce drug-related problems with repeat prescriptions, and the effectiveness of the intervention may be increased by combining the medication review with a consultation of the patient's medical records and a patient interview. In several studies, such an intervention was relatively inexpensive and, therefore, feasible. However, these conclusions should be viewed with appropriate caution because a number of caveats pertain. There is still no evidence that these types of intervention improve health-related quality of life or reduce healthcare cost, and so far only a few trials have produced any evidence of clinical improvement. As implicit and explicit screening criteria have their

  11. Successful therapy of progressive rhino-orbital mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus arrhizus with combined and sequential antifungal therapy, surgery and hyperbaric therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Imbernón

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of rhino-orbitary mucormycosis which progressed despite liposomal amphotericin and early surgical debridement. Combined echinocandin and high dose liposomal amphotericin, repeated debridement, prolonged therapy with hyperbaric oxygen and continued therapy with posaconazole, along with strict diabetic control, allowed cure without disfigurement.

  12. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  13. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (psprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  15. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  16. REPEAT facility. Report for May, June, July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, C. B.

    1981-08-01

    The construction of the REPEAT facility, a test facility for passive and hybrid solar heating systems is reported. The development of a simulation program for envelope type passive solar systems, constructing an envelope test cell, collecting data to validate the program, and application of the program to determine the best envelope type design are discussed. A low cost monitoring system using a dedicated microprocessor system, an inexpensive, high accuracy A/D converter, and minimum system hardware is developed. A method to determine the average temperature and the average daily temperature variation inside a passively heated solar building is presented.

  17. Cataractogenesis after Repeat Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been the unsubstantiated clinical impression that laser refractive surgery accelerates cataract development along with solid experimental data about the cataractogenic effects of excimer laser treatment. We present the first documented case of significant cataract formation in a young myope after repeat excimer laser ablation necessitating phacoemulsification with a posterior chamber implant. Proposed explanations include focusing of the ablation wave on the posterior capsule (acoustic wave lens epithelial damage, photooxidative stress of the lens (ultraviolet and inflammatory oxidative stress, and corticosteroid-induced cataract (lens toxicity.

  18. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  19. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Delhomel, Gregory; Brughelli, Matt; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effects of explosive strength (ExpS) vs. repeated shuttle sprint (RS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in young elite soccer players, 15 elite male adolescents (14.5 ± 0.5 years) performed, in addition to their soccer training program, RS (n = 7) or ExpS (n = 8) training once a week for a total of 10 weeks. RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 × 15- to 20-m repeated shuttle sprints interspersed with 14 seconds of passive or 23 seconds of active recovery (≈2 m·s⁻¹); ExpS training consisted of 4-6 series of 4-6 exercises (e.g., maximal unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs), calf and squat plyometric jumps, and short sprints). Before and after training, performance was assessed by 10 and 30 m (10 and 30 m) sprint times, best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test, a CMJ, and a hopping (Hop) test. After training, except for 10 m (p = 0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all p's repeated shuttle sprint test were only observed after RS training, whereas CMJ height was only increased after ExpS. Because RS and ExpS were equally efficient at enhancing maximal sprinting speed, RS training-induced improvements in RSA were likely more related to progresses in the ability to change direction.

  20. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  1. Comparative genomics and molecular dynamics of DNA repeats in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck; Kerrest, Alix; Dujon, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Repeated elements can be widely abundant in eukaryotic genomes, composing more than 50% of the human genome, for example. It is possible to classify repeated sequences into two large families, "tandem repeats" and "dispersed repeats." Each of these two families can be itself divided into subfamilies. Dispersed repeats contain transposons, tRNA genes, and gene paralogues, whereas tandem repeats contain gene tandems, ribosomal DNA repeat arrays, and satellite DNA, itself subdivided into satellites, minisatellites, and microsatellites. Remarkably, the molecular mechanisms that create and propagate dispersed and tandem repeats are specific to each class and usually do not overlap. In the present review, we have chosen in the first section to describe the nature and distribution of dispersed and tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes in the light of complete (or nearly complete) available genome sequences. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the fast evolution of two specific classes of tandem repeats: minisatellites and microsatellites. Given that a growing number of human neurological disorders involve the expansion of a particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, a large part of the recent experimental work on microsatellites has focused on these particular repeats, and thus we also review the current knowledge in this area. Finally, we propose a unified definition for mini- and microsatellites that takes into account their biological properties and try to point out new directions that should be explored in a near future on our road to understanding the genetics of repeated sequences.

  2. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  3. The Perpetual Repeater: an Educative Musical Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Skriagina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Music Undergraduate Program of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (National Pedagogic University, two musical events were planned: an original work written for choir, soloists and symphonic band, and an opera for children. As a result, the cantata ‘The Perpetual Repeater” has been created as an adaptation of a work named “50 Milions de Segons” (50 Millions of Seconds, staged by the CATANIA project of the Barcelona Servei Educatiu de L’Auditori. This work tells the story of those school teachers who, paradoxically enough repeat the same course year after year. After visiting L’Auditori of Barcelona to participate in the pedagogic musical work carried out with school children, we considered the possibility of developing an analogous project, in a similar sociocultural and educational environment, within our Music Undergraduate Program. So, this article deals with two fundamental moments which are essential to understand the educational work implemented with the ISPA students of sixth degree, as well as with a group of the program’s students: The Purpose, which describes in detail the planning of the musical work for children, and The Experience, in which the way the process of The Perpetual Repeater Cantatawas carried out is described.

  4. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  5. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  6. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  7. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  8. Repeat-induced gene silencing in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, D; Fiering, S; Martin, D I; Whitelaw, E

    1998-01-01

    In both plants and Drosophila melanogaster, expression from a transgenic locus may be silenced when repeated transgene copies are arranged as a concatameric array. This repeat-induced gene silencing is frequently manifested as a decrease in the proportion of cells that express the transgene, resulting in a variegated pattern of expression. There is also some indication that, in transgenic mammals, the number of transgene copies within an array can exert a repressive influence on expression, with several mouse studies reporting a decrease in the level of expression per copy as copy number increases. However, because these studies compare different sites of transgene integration as well as arrays with different numbers of copies, the expression levels observed may be subject to varying position effects as well as the influence of the multicopy array. Here we describe use of the lox/Cre system of site-specific recombination to generate transgenic mouse lines in which different numbers of a transgene are present at the same chromosomal location, thereby eliminating the contribution of position effects and allowing analysis of the effect of copy number alone on transgene silencing. Reduction in copy number results in a marked increase in expression of the transgene and is accompanied by decreased chromatin compaction and decreased methylation at the transgene locus. These findings establish that the presence of multiple homologous copies of a transgene within a concatameric array can have a repressive effect upon gene expression in mammalian systems.

  9. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  10. 47 CFR 90.247 - Mobile repeater stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile repeater stations. 90.247 Section 90.247... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.247 Mobile repeater stations. A... repeater to extend the communications range of hand-carried units subject to the following: (a)...

  11. Polymorphic GGC repeat differentially regulates human reelin gene expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, A M; Levitt, P; Pimenta, A F

    2006-10-01

    The human gene encoding Reelin (RELN), a pivotal protein in neurodevelopment, includes a polymorphic GGC repeat in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). CHO cells transfected with constructs encompassing the RELN 5'UTR with 4-to-13 GGC repeats upstream of the luciferase reporter gene show declining luciferase activity with increasing GGC repeat number (P autism.

  12. CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene: Size matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Willemsen (Ralph); G.J. Levenga (Josien); B.A. Oostra (Ben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe FMR1 gene contains a CGG repeat present in the 5'-untranslated region which can be unstable upon transmission to the next generation. The repeat is up to 55 CGGs long in the normal population. In patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a repeat length exceeding 200 CGGs (full

  13. Developing genetic therapies for polyglutamine disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Melvin Maurice

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis various genetic therapies to reduce polyglutamine-induced toxicity are discussed. Although polyglutamine disorders are caused by CAG triplet repeat expansions in different genes, they all result in gain of toxic polyglutamine protein function and subsequently neurodegeneration. The po

  14. Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oncol . 2004;5:497-508. Hopper C. Photodynamic therapy: a clinical reality in the treatment of cancer. Lancet Oncol . 2000;1:212-219. Huang Z. A review of progress in clinical photodynamic therapy. Technol Cancer Res Treat . 2005;4:283-293. ...

  15. Sweat Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Patients Who Test Positive for Clostridium difficile by Repeat PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, Brie; Jackman, Dana; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    The high sensitivity of PCR assays for diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has greatly reduced the need for repeat testing after a negative result. Nevertheless, a small subset of patients do test positive within 7 days of a negative test. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of these patients to determine when repeat testing may be appropriate. The results of all Xpert C. difficile PCR (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA) tests performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center (NYPH/CUMC) from 1 May 2011 through 6 September 2013, were reviewed. A retrospective case-control study was performed, comparing patients who tested positive within 7 days of a negative test result to a random selection of 50 controls who tested negative within 7 days of a negative test result. During the study period, a total of 14,875 tests were performed, of which 1,066 were repeat tests (7.2%). Eleven of these repeat tests results were positive (1.0%). The only risk factor independently associated with repeat testing positive was history of a prior CDI (odds ratio [OR], 19.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.0 to 19.5], P < 0.001). We found that patients who test positive for C. difficile by PCR within 7 days of a negative test are more likely to have a history of CDI than are patients who test negative with repeat PCR. This finding may be due to the high rate of disease relapse or the increased likelihood of empirical therapy leading to false-negative results in these patients. PMID:25122866

  17. Clinical characteristics of patients who test positive for Clostridium difficile by repeat PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel A; Stotler, Brie; Jackman, Dana; Whittier, Susan; Della-Latta, Phyllis

    2014-11-01

    The high sensitivity of PCR assays for diagnosing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has greatly reduced the need for repeat testing after a negative result. Nevertheless, a small subset of patients do test positive within 7 days of a negative test. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of these patients to determine when repeat testing may be appropriate. The results of all Xpert C. difficile PCR (Cepheid, Sunnyvale CA) tests performed in the clinical microbiology laboratory at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center (NYPH/CUMC) from 1 May 2011 through 6 September 2013, were reviewed. A retrospective case-control study was performed, comparing patients who tested positive within 7 days of a negative test result to a random selection of 50 controls who tested negative within 7 days of a negative test result. During the study period, a total of 14,875 tests were performed, of which 1,066 were repeat tests (7.2%). Eleven of these repeat tests results were positive (1.0%). The only risk factor independently associated with repeat testing positive was history of a prior CDI (odds ratio [OR], 19.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.0 to 19.5], P PCR within 7 days of a negative test are more likely to have a history of CDI than are patients who test negative with repeat PCR. This finding may be due to the high rate of disease relapse or the increased likelihood of empirical therapy leading to false-negative results in these patients.

  18. Repeat Testing Effects on Credentialing Exams: Are Repeaters Misinformed or Uninformed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Raymond, Mark R.; Haist, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate security concerns and unfair score gains, credentialing programs routinely administer new test material to examinees retesting after an initial failing attempt. Counterintuitively, a small but growing body of recent research suggests that repeating the identical form does not create an unfair advantage. This study builds upon and…

  19. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  20. Safety of multiple repeated cycles of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate in patients with recurrent neuroendocrine tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanova, Anna; Essler, Markus; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Mayer, Karin; Brossart, Peter [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Internal Medicine 3, Bonn (Germany); Gonzalez-Carmona, Maria A.; Strassburg, Christian P. [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Internal Medicine 1, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an effective therapy in patients with a somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumour (NET). Still unclear is how many cycles of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate can be repeated while maintaining an acceptable toxicity profile. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of repeated PRRT in patients with recurrent NET. We retrospectively evaluated data from 15 patients treated with repeated PRRT between 2004 and 2015. The median administered activity was 63.8 GBq (range 52-96.6 GBq) in a median of 9 cycles (range 8-13 cycles). Nonhaematological and haematological toxicities were assessed from clinical reports and laboratory data. The rates of adverse events in three therapy groups were compared: during cycles 1 to 4, cycles 5 to 8, and cycles 9 to 13. Baseline laboratory assessments were also compared with data obtained at the end of treatment. The overall survival in the study patients was compared with survival data in patients who received only a baseline PRRT of three or four cycles. We observed no life-threatening adverse events (CTC-4) during {sup 177}Lu-octreotate treatment. Reversible haematological toxicity (CTC-3) occurred in two patients (13%). No CTC-3/4 nephrotoxicity was recorded. More CTC-3 adverse events were recorded in the first therapy group than in the other two groups. Furthermore, there were no significant changes in the mean values of thrombocytes, leucocytes and serum creatinine before and after therapy. However, the mean haemoglobin levels fell from 14 g/dL to 11 g/dL. Finally, compared with those patients who received three or four cycles, there was a survival benefit in patients treated with repeated PRRT (censored overall survival 85.6 vs. 69.7 months, p < 0.001). Therapy with eight or more cycles of {sup 177}Lu-octreotate was well tolerated and led to a survival benefit in patients with recurrent NET. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  2. Potential of repeated polymer well treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Munkacsi, I.; Troemboeczki, S.

    1993-11-01

    This paper analyzes field results obtained by routine application of a polymer/silicate well treatment technique at the Algyo-2 field in Hungary. First, the reservoir is described briefly; then, the basic concept of the method is outlined. Reference is made to the multifunctioning chemical mechanism of gelation and the favorable rheological properties of the treating fluids that jointly result in a highly selective placement and an efficient permeability reduction in the target reservoir space. Application of the method 17 times in 16 producing wells yielded more than 90,000 Mg of incremental oil production. Typical well behaviors also are illustrated. Finally, the potential of repeated treatments is discussed, taking laboratory and field results into account.

  3. Quantum repeaters using continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Josephine; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum optical states are fragile and can become corrupted when passed through a lossy communication channel. Unlike for classical signals, optical amplifiers cannot be used to recover quantum signals. Quantum repeaters have been proposed as a way of reducing errors and hence increasing the range of quantum communications. Current protocols target specific discrete encodings, for example quantum bits encoded on the polarization of single photons. We introduce a more general approach that can reduce the effect of loss on any quantum optical encoding, including those based on continuous variables such as the field amplitudes. We show that in principle the protocol incurs a resource cost that scales polynomially with distance. We analyze the simplest implementation and find that while its range is limited it can still achieve useful improvements in the distance over which quantum entanglement of field amplitudes can be distributed.

  4. Statistical Properties of repeating FRB 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals possibly occurring at cosmological distances. However the physical model of FRBs is mystery, many models have been proposed. Here we study the frequency distributions of peak flux, fluence, duration and waiting time for repeating FRB 121102. The cumulative distributions of peak flux, fluence and duration show power-law forms. The waiting time distribution also shows power-law distribution, and is consistent with a non-stationary Poisson process. We also use the statistical results to test the proposed models for FRBs. Comparing with the model predications, we find that the theoretical models proposed by Dai et al. (2016) and Katz (2016) are favored. These distributions are consistent with the predications from avalanche models of driven systems.

  5. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vattipally B Sreenu; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are the repetitive nucleotide sequences of motifs of length 1–6 bp. They are scattered throughout the genomes of all the known organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. Microsatellites undergo mutations in the form of insertions and deletions (INDELS) of their repeat units with some bias towards insertions that lead to microsatellite tract expansion. Although prokaryotic genomes derive some plasticity due to microsatellite mutations they have in-built mechanisms to arrest undue expansions of microsatellites and one such mechanism is constituted by post-replicative DNA repair enzymes MutL, MutH and MutS. The mycobacterial genomes lack these enzymes and as a null hypothesis one could expect these genomes to harbour many long tracts. It is therefore interesting to analyse the mycobacterial genomes for distribution and abundance of microsatellites tracts and to look for potentially polymorphic microsatellites. Available mycobacterial genomes, Mycobacterium avium, M. leprae, M. bovis and the two strains of M. tuberculosis (CDC1551 and H37Rv) were analysed for frequencies and abundance of SSRs. Our analysis revealed that the SSRs are distributed throughout the mycobacterial genomes at an average of 220–230 SSR tracts per kb. All the mycobacterial genomes contain few regions that are conspicuously denser or poorer in microsatellites compared to their expected genome averages. The genomes distinctly show scarcity of long microsatellites despite the absence of a post-replicative DNA repair system. Such severe scarcity of long microsatellites could arise as a result of strong selection pressures operating against long and unstable sequences although influence of GC-content and role of point mutations in arresting microsatellite expansions can not be ruled out. Nonetheless, the long tracts occasionally found in coding as well as non-coding regions may account for limited genome plasticity in these genomes.

  6. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  7. Efficacy of rifabutin-based triple therapy as second-line treatment to eradicate helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Isabel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rifabutin has been found to be effective in multi-resistant patients after various treatment cycles for Helicobacter pylori (HP infection, but it has not been analysed as a second-line treatment. Therefore, we seek to compare the effectiveness of a treatment regimen including rifabutin versus conventional quadruple therapy (QT. Methods Open clinical trial, randomised and multi-centre, of two treatment protocols: A Conventional regime -QT- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, bismuth citrate 120 mg qid, tetracycline 500 mg qid and metronidazole 500 mg tid; B Experimental one -OAR- (omeprazole 20 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 gr bid, and rifabutin 150 mg bid, both taken orally for 7 days, in patients with HP infection for whom first-line treatment had failed. Eradication was determined by Urea Breath Test (UBT. Safety was determined by the adverse events. Results 99 patients were randomised, QT, n = 54; OAR, n = 45. The two groups were homogeneous. In 8 cases, treatment was suspended (6 in QT and 2 in OAR. The eradication achieved, analysed by ITT, was for QT, 38 cases (70.4%, and for OAR, 20 cases (44.4%; p = 0.009, OR = 1.58. Of the cases analysed PP, QT were 77.1%; OAR, 46.5%; p = 0.002. Adverse effects were described in 64% of the QT patients and in 44% of the OAR patients (p = 0.04. Conclusion A 7-day rifabutin-based triple therapy associated to amoxicillin and omeprazole at standard dose was not found to be effective as a second-line rescue therapy. The problem with quadruple therapy lies in the adverse side effects it provokes. We believe the search should continue for alternatives that are more comfortably administered and that are at least as effective, but with fewer adverse side effects. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81058036

  8. The excess of small inverted repeats in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses have shown that there is a large excess of perfect inverted repeats in many prokaryotic genomes but not in eukaryotic ones. This difference could be due to a genuine difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes or to differences in the methods and types of data analyzed--full genome versus protein coding sequences. We used simulations to show that the method used previously tends to underestimate the expected number of inverted repeats. However, this bias is not large and cannot explain the excess of inverted repeats observed in real data. In contrast, our method is unbiased. When both methods are applied to bacterial protein coding sequences they both detect an excess of inverted repeats, which is much lower than previously reported in whole prokaryotic genomes. This suggests that the reported large excess of inverted repeats is due to repeats found in intergenic regions. These repeats could be due to transcription factor binding sites, or other types of repetitive DNA, on opposite strands of the DNA sequence. In contrast, the smaller, but significant, excess of inverted repeats that we report in protein coding sequences may be due to sequence-directed mutagenesis (SDM). SDM is a process where one copy of a small, imperfect, inverted repeat corrects the other copy via strand misalignment, resulting in a perfect repeat and a series of mutations. We show by simulation that even very low levels of SDM, relative to the rate of point mutation, can generate a substantial excess of inverted repeats.

  9. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  10. Role of DNA Polymerases in Repeat-Mediated Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik A. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of simple DNA repeats cause numerous hereditary diseases in humans. We analyzed the role of DNA polymerases in the instability of Friedreich’s ataxia (GAAn repeats in a yeast experimental system. The elementary step of expansion corresponded to ∼160 bp in the wild-type strain, matching the size of Okazaki fragments in yeast. This step increased when DNA polymerase α was mutated, suggesting a link between the scale of expansions and Okazaki fragment size. Expandable repeats strongly elevated the rate of mutations at substantial distances around them, a phenomenon we call repeat-induced mutagenesis (RIM. Notably, defects in the replicative DNA polymerases δ and ∊ strongly increased rates for both repeat expansions and RIM. The increases in repeat-mediated instability observed in DNA polymerase δ mutants depended on translesion DNA polymerases. We conclude that repeat expansions and RIM are two sides of the same replicative mechanism.

  11. Improved Quality Control Method for Prescriptions of Polygonum capitatum through Simultaneous Determination of Nine Major Constituents by HPLC Coupled with Triple Quadruple Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a traditional Miao-nationality medicinal plant, Polygonum capitatum has been used in clinical practice for several thousand years. Its prescriptions, including three dosage forms: granules, capsule and tablet are known by the brand name Relinqing® and have played an indispensable role in the treatment of urinary system infection, pyelonephritis and kidney stones. However, no study about the comprehensive quality evaluation of Relinqing® has been reported. In the present paper, a method for the simultaneous determination of nine major compounds in three dosage forms of Relinqing® using HPLC coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QQQ MS was established to comprehensively evaluate their quality. The nine compounds, including four phenolic acids, four flavonoids and a lignin, were analyzed with acceptable linear regression relationship (r2, 0.9923–0.9992, precision (RSD, 1.25%–2.78%, repeatability (RSD, 2.05%%–3.47%, stability (RSD, 1.84%–3.72% and recovery (93.60%–108.54%, RSD ≤ 3.67%. The present study fills the gap in the multivariate quality control of Relinqing® and provides a valuable reference for quality standards and dosage reforming of this traditional Chinese medicine.

  12. Alphaviruses in Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses are enveloped single stranded RNA viruses, which as gene therapy vectors provide high-level transient gene expression. Semliki Forest virus (SFV, Sindbis virus (SIN and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE virus have been engineered as efficient replication-deficient and -competent expression vectors. Alphavirus vectors have frequently been used as vehicles for tumor vaccine generation. Moreover, SFV and SIN vectors have been applied for intratumoral injections in animals implanted with tumor xenografts. SIN vectors have demonstrated natural tumor targeting, which might permit systemic vector administration. Another approach for systemic delivery of SFV has been to encapsulate replication-deficient viral particles in liposomes, which can provide passive targeting to tumors and allow repeated administration without host immune responses. This approach has demonstrated safe delivery of encapsulated SFV particles to melanoma and kidney carcinoma patients in a phase I trial. Finally, the prominent neurotropism of alphaviruses make them attractive for the treatment of CNS-related diseases.

  13. Factitious panniculitis induced by cupping therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suk-Ho; Han, Hyun-Ho; Rhie, Jong-Won

    2011-11-01

    Cupping therapy is an alternative medical procedure that has been widely performed in Asian countries to relieve pain. It is known that there is no complication to this therapy, so many non-health care professionals have performed this procedure. However, there have been few reports on complications, such as iron deficiency anemia, hemorrhagic bullae, kelloids, vasovagal syncope, and foreign body reactions. Masses associated with panniculitis induced by cupping are extremely rare, and they require a unique approach.A 56-year-old woman presented with a 10-month history of multiple masses in the posterior neck and right shoulder areas. The patient repeatedly attempted cupping therapy by herself, and multiple palpable masses developed in the posterior neck and right shoulder area where cupping therapy had been performed. The masses were enlarged by repeated cupping, and they decreased in size when cupping was stopped. Among all lesions, the 2 masses with tenderness were surgically excised. The remaining masses resolved after cupping therapy was ceased. When a patient with subcutaneous mass has a history of cupping or trace of cupping marks, panniculitis induced by cupping should be suspected. The lesion seems to spontaneously resolve unless they are repeatedly stimulated. However, surgical resection is considered in patients with infections or severe tenderness as a complication.

  14. 一种高性能四倍精度浮点乘加器的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of a High Performance Quadruple Precision Floating-point Multiplier Accumulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何军; 黄永勤; 朱英

    2014-01-01

    高精度、高性能浮点运算部件是高性能微处理器设计的重要部分。通过对传统双精度浮点乘加运算算法的研究,结合四倍精度浮点数据格式特点,设计并实现一种高性能的四倍精度浮点乘加器(QPFMA),该乘加器支持多种浮点运算,运算延迟为7拍,全流水结构。采用双路加法器改进算法结构,优化头零预测和规格化移位逻辑,减小运算延迟和硬件开销。通过参数化设计验证方法,实现高效的正确性验证。逻辑综合结果表明,基于65 nm 工艺,该 QPFMA 频率可达1.2 GHz,比现有的 QPFMA 设计运算延迟减少3拍,频率提高约11.63%。%High precision and high performance floating-point unit is an important research object of high performance microprocessor design. According to the characteristic of Quadruple Precision(QP) floating-point data format and research on double precision floating-point multiplier accumulator algorithms, a high performance Quadruple Precision Floating-point Multiplier Accumulator(QPFMA) is designed and realized, which supports multiple floating-point arithmetic with a 7 cycles pipeline. By adopting dual path adder and improving on algorithm architecture, optimizing leading-zero-anticipation and normalization shifter logic, the latency and hardware area is decreased. And by making use of parameterized design and verification methodology, the correction of the QPFMA is verified efficiently. Based on 65 nm technology, as the synthesis results show that the QPFMA can work at 1.2 GHz, with the latency decreased by 3 cycles and the frequency increased by about 11.63% compared with current QPFMA design.

  15. A quadruple mutant of Arabidopsis reveals a β-carotene hydroxylation activity for LUT1/CYP97C1 and a regulatory role of xanthophylls on determination of the PSI/PSII ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiore Alessia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids playing an essential role as structural components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Xanthophylls contribute to the assembly and stability of light-harvesting complex, to light absorbance and to photoprotection. The first step in xanthophyll biosynthesis from α- and β-carotene is the hydroxylation of ε- and β-rings, performed by both non-heme iron oxygenases (CHY1, CHY2 and P450 cytochromes (LUT1/CYP97C1, LUT5/CYP97A3. The Arabidopsis triple chy1chy2lut5 mutant is almost completely depleted in β-xanthophylls. Results Here we report on the quadruple chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant, additionally carrying the lut2 mutation (affecting lycopene ε-cyclase. This genotype lacks lutein and yet it shows a compensatory increase in β-xanthophylls with respect to chy1chy2lut5 mutant. Mutant plants show an even stronger photosensitivity than chy1chy2lut5, a complete lack of qE, the rapidly reversible component of non-photochemical quenching, and a peculiar organization of the pigment binding complexes into thylakoids. Biochemical analysis reveals that the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant is depleted in Lhcb subunits and is specifically affected in Photosystem I function, showing a deficiency in PSI-LHCI supercomplexes. Moreover, by analyzing a series of single, double, triple and quadruple Arabidopsis mutants in xanthophyll biosynthesis, we show a hitherto undescribed correlation between xanthophyll levels and the PSI-PSII ratio. The decrease in the xanthophyll/carotenoid ratio causes a proportional decrease in the LHCII and PSI core levels with respect to PSII. Conclusions The physiological and biochemical phenotype of the chy1chy2lut2lut5 mutant shows that (i LUT1/CYP97C1 protein reveals a major β-carotene hydroxylase activity in vivo when depleted in its preferred substrate α-carotene; (ii xanthophylls are needed for normal level of Photosystem I and LHCII accumulation.

  16. Attitudes towards fibromyalgia: A survey of Canadian chiropractic, naturopathic, physical therapy and occupational therapy students

    OpenAIRE

    Badwall Parminder; Kulkarni Abhaya V; Busse Jason W; Guyatt Gordon H

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The frequent use of chiropractic, naturopathic, and physical and occupational therapy by patients with fibromyalgia has been emphasized repeatedly, but little is known about the attitudes of these therapists towards this challenging condition. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to 385 senior Canadian chiropractic, naturopathic, physical and occupational therapy students in their final year of studies, that inquired about attitudes towards the diagnosis and ma...

  17. High efficacy of gemifloxacin-containing therapy in Helicobacter Pylori eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Laleh; Farshad, Shohreh; Seddigh, Mehrdad; Mahmoudi, Paria; Ejtehadi, Fardad; Niknam, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common gastric pathogen which is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. It has worldwide distribution with higher incidence in developing countries. Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with documented in vitro activity against H pylori. Considering that there is no clinical data to verify gemifloxacin efficacy in H pylori eradication, this pilot clinical trial was designed. Methods: This prospective pilot study was performed during February 2014 to February 2015. A regimen of gemifloxacin (320 mg single dose) plus twice daily doses of amoxicillin1g, bismuth 240 mg, and omeprazole 20 mg for 14 days were prescribed for H pylori infected patients in whom a first-line standard quadruple therapy (clarithromycin–amoxicillin–bismuth–omeprazole) had failed. To confirm H pylori eradication a 13C-urea breath test was performed 4 weeks after treatment. Compliance and incidence of adverse effects were evaluated by questionnaires. Results: A total of 120 patients were enrolled consecutively; out of which 106 patients achieved H pylori eradication; per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 91.4% (95% CI: 85.5–97.6) and 88.3% (95% CI: 75.4–92.4) respectively. Three patients (2.5%) failed to take at least 80% of the drugs and excluded from the final analysis. Adverse effects were reported in 42% of patients, most commonly including nausea (15%) and diarrhea (13.3%), which was intense in 1 patient and led to the discontinuation of treatment. In total, 96.7% (116/120) of the patients took the medications correctly. Conclusion: This study revealed that gemifloxacin-containing quadruple therapy provides high H pylori eradication rate (≥90% PP cure rate), and this agent can be included in the list of second-line H pylori therapeutic regimens. PMID:27759625

  18. How repeated 15-minute assertiveness training sessions reduce wrist cutting in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine a possible treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder who have wrist-cutting syndrome, a condition characterized by repeated, superficial wrist cutting in a non-suicidal fashion. Within the current healthcare system in Japan, the average amount of time a doctor can spend with a psychiatric outpatient is about 8 to 15 minutes. We, therefore, examined whether repeated 15-minute psychotherapy sessions to improve patient assertiveness would be effective for reducing wrist cutting and possibly other forms of self-mutilation. We treated 13 patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and wrist-cutting syndrome with assertiveness training during 15-minute, biweekly therapy sessions over a course of one to four years. At the conclusion of psychotherapeutic treatment, 69% of outpatients showed a statistically significant reduction in wrist-cutting behavior.

  19. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  20. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or improve your body's ability to fight disease. Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. Researchers are still studying how and ...

  1. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TF. Charged particle radiotherapy. In: Gunderson LL, Tepper JE, eds. Gunderson and Tepper: Clinical Radiation Oncology . 4th ... March 22, 2017. Zeman EM, Schreiber EC, Tepper JE. Basics of radiation therapy. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage ...

  2. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  3. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  4. REPdenovo: Inferring De Novo Repeat Motifs from Short Sequence Reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chu

    Full Text Available Repeat elements are important components of eukaryotic genomes. One limitation in our understanding of repeat elements is that most analyses rely on reference genomes that are incomplete and often contain missing data in highly repetitive regions that are difficult to assemble. To overcome this problem we develop a new method, REPdenovo, which assembles repeat sequences directly from raw shotgun sequencing data. REPdenovo can construct various types of repeats that are highly repetitive and have low sequence divergence within copies. We show that REPdenovo is substantially better than existing methods both in terms of the number and the completeness of the repeat sequences that it recovers. The key advantage of REPdenovo is that it can reconstruct long repeats from sequence reads. We apply the method to human data and discover a number of potentially new repeats sequences that have been missed by previous repeat annotations. Many of these sequences are incorporated into various parasite genomes, possibly because the filtering process for host DNA involved in the sequencing of the parasite genomes failed to exclude the host derived repeat sequences. REPdenovo is a new powerful computational tool for annotating genomes and for addressing questions regarding the evolution of repeat families. The software tool, REPdenovo, is available for download at https://github.com/Reedwarbler/REPdenovo.

  5. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  6. Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki eMatsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.

  7. Modelling repeatedly flaring delta-sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Active regions (AR) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into $\\alpha$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the $\\delta$-sunspots are known to be super-active and produce the most X-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin sub-photospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux-tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic $\\delta$-sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  8. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  9. Clinical observation of quadruple therapy containing bismuth in the treatment of gastric ulcer%含铋剂四联疗法治疗胃溃疡的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费必秒; 王从俭

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨含铋剂四联疗法治疗胃溃疡的临床疗效.方法 选取2014-01 ~ 2015-07因胃溃疡收治的患者63例,随机分为两组.治疗组32例给予以质子抑制剂(PPI)为基础联合二种抗生素加铋剂的四联疗法,对照组31例给予以PPI为基础联合二种抗生素的三联疗法,疗程均为10 d.停药4周后复查14C尿素呼气试验及电子胃镜,观察Hp根除率、胃溃疡愈合情况、临床症状及不良反应情况.结果 治疗组治愈9例,有效20例,无效3例;对照组治愈5例,有效16例,无效10例.治疗组疗效优于对照组(Z=2.83,P<0.05).治疗组Hp根除率为93.8%,高于对照组的74.2% (P <0.05).结论 以PPI为基础联合二种抗生素加铋剂的四联疗法对胃溃疡有良好疗效,不良反应发生率低,值得临床借鉴和推广.

  10. Reversion of FMR1 Methylation and Silencing by Editing the Triplet Repeats in Fragile X iPSC-Derived Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Yong Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, resulting from a CGG repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene. Here, we report a strategy for CGG repeat correction using CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted deletion in both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells derived from FXS patients. Following gene correction in FXS induced pluripotent stem cells, FMR1 expression was restored and sustained in neural precursor cells and mature neurons. Strikingly, after removal of the CGG repeats, the upstream CpG island of the FMR1 promoter showed extensive demethylation, an open chromatin state, and transcription initiation. These results suggest a silencing maintenance mechanism for the FMR1 promoter that is dependent on the existence of the CGG repeat expansion. Our strategy for deletion of trinucleotide repeats provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms of FXS and future therapies of trinucleotide repeat disorders.

  11. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Olsen, Peter D; Marshall, Helen C; Lizamore, Catherine A; Elliot, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using "top-up" sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1-3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second "top-up" intervention (Post 4-5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: -1.8 ± 1.6%, -1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: -2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: -2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: -1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: -1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3-5 (-2.0 ± 2.4%, -2.2 ± 2.4%, -1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13-37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of "top-up" training after intervention 1, had little effect on either group. Repeat-sprint training in

  12. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Olsen, Peter D.; Marshall, Helen C.; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Elliot, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using “top-up” sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1–3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second “top-up” intervention (Post 4–5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: −1.8 ± 1.6%, −1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: −2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: −2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: −1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: −1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3–5 (−2.0 ± 2.4%, −2.2 ± 2.4%, −1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13–37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of “top-up” training after intervention 1, had little effect on either

  13. Multiresidue analysis of 36 pesticides in soil using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-09-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides, including 15 organophosphorus, six carbamate, and some other pesticides in soil was developed by liquid chromatography with tandem quadruple linear ion trap mass spectrometry. The extraction and clean-up steps were optimized based on the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe method. The data were acquired in multiple reaction monitoring mode combined with enhanced product ion to increase confidence of the analytical results. Validation experiments were performed in soil samples. The average recoveries of pesticides at four spiking levels (1, 5, 50, and 100 μg/kg) ranged from 63 to 126% with relative standard deviation below 20%. The limits of detection of pesticides were 0.04-0.8 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were 0.1-2.6 μg/kg. The correlation coefficients (r(2) ) were higher than 0.990 in the linearity range of 0.5-200 μg/L for most of the pesticides. The method allowed for the analysis of the target pesticides in the lower μg/kg concentration range. The optimized method was then applied to the test of real soil samples obtained from several areas in China, confirming the feasibility of the method.

  14. On the energy scale involved in the metal to insulator transition of quadruple perovskite EuCu3Fe4O12: infrared spectroscopy and ab-initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brière, B; Kalinko, A; Yamada, I; Roy, P; Brubach, J B; Sopracase, R; Zaghrioui, M; Phuoc, V Ta

    2016-06-27

    Optical measurements were carried out by infrared spectroscopy on AA'3B4O12 A-site ordered quadruple perovskite EuCu3Fe4O12 (microscopic sample) as function of temperature. At 240 K (=TMI), EuCu3Fe4O12 undergoes a very abrupt metal to insulator transition, a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition and an isostructural transformation with an abrupt large volume expansion. Above TMI, optical conductivity reveals a bad metal behavior and below TMI, an insulating phase with an optical gap of 125 meV is observed. As temperature is decreased, a large and abrupt spectral weight transfer toward an energy scale larger than 1 eV is detected. Concurrently, electronic structure calculations for both high and low temperature phases were compared to the optical conductivity results giving a precise pattern of the transition. Density of states and computed optical conductivity analysis identified Cu3dxy, Fe3d and O2p orbitals as principal actors of the spectral weight transfer. The present work constitutes a first step to shed light on EuCu3Fe4O12 electronic properties with optical measurements and ab-initio calculations.

  15. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Ultra-trace determination of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu by triple quadruple collision/reaction cell-ICP-MS/MS: Establishing a baseline for global fallout in Qatar soil and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mohamed A; Helal, Abdul-Fattah I; Al-Kinani, Athab T; Balakrishnan, Perumal

    2016-03-01

    The development of practical, fast, and reliable methods for the ultra-trace determination of anthropogenic radionuclides (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu by triple quadruple collision/reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS/MS) were investigated in term of its accuracy and precision for producing reliable results. The radionuclides were extracted from 1 kg of the environmental soil samples by concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids. The leachate solutions were measured directly by triple quadrupole CRC-ICP-MS/MS. For quality assurance, a chemical separation of the concerned radionuclides was conducted and then measured by single quadrupole-ICP-MS. The developed methods were next applied to measure the anthropogenic radionuclides (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu in soil samples collected throughout the State of Qatar. The average concentrations of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu were 0.606 fg/g (3.364 Bq/kg), 0.619 fg/g (2.038 Bq/kg), 0.034 fg/g (0.0195 Bq/kg), 65.59 fg/g (0.150 Bq/kg), and 12.06 fg/g (0.103 Bq/kg), respectively.

  17. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-08-26

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the -1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded repeats with more than 35 consecutive CAG codons. An atypical +1 shift site, UUC C at the 5' end of CAG repeats, which has some resemblance to the influenza A virus shift site, triggers the +1 frameshifting and is enhanced by the increased propensity of the expanded CAG repeats to form a stem-loop structure. The +1 trans-frame-encoded product can directly influence the aggregation of the parental Htt exon 1.

  18. Repeats in transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Seema

    2013-06-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins (TACC1, 2, and 3) are essential proteins associated with the assembly of spindle microtubules and maintenance of bipolarity. Dysregulation of TACCs is associated with tumorigenesis, but studies of microsatellite instability in TACC genes have not been extensive. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat instability is known to cause many types of cancer. The present in silico analysis of SSRs in human TACC gene sequences shows the presence of mono- to hexa-nucleotide repeats, with the highest densities found for mono- and di-nucleotide repeats. Density of repeats is higher in introns than in exons. Some of the repeats are present in regulatory regions and retained introns. Human TACC genes show conservation of many repeat classes. Microsatellites in TACC genes could be valuable markers for monitoring numerical chromosomal aberrations and or cancer.

  19. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  20. Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats for High-Level Microsatellite Instability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Buhard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability.

  1. Zinc-finger directed double-strand breaks within CAG repeat tracts promote repeat instability in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, David; Moye, Christopher; Morton, Jason; Sykoudis, Kristen; Lin, Yunfu; Carroll, Dana; Wilson, John H

    2009-06-16

    Expanded triplet repeats have been identified as the genetic basis for a growing number of neurological and skeletal disorders. To examine the contribution of double-strand break repair to CAG x CTG repeat instability in mammalian systems, we developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that recognize and cleave CAG repeat sequences. Engineered ZFNs use a tandem array of zinc fingers, fused to the FokI DNA cleavage domain, to direct double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a site-specific manner. We first determined that the ZFNs cleave CAG repeats in vitro. Then, using our previously described tissue culture assay for identifying modifiers of CAG repeat instability, we found that transfection of ZFN-expression vectors induced up to a 15-fold increase in changes to the CAG repeat in human and rodent cell lines, and that longer repeats were much more sensitive to cleavage than shorter ones. Analysis of individual colonies arising after treatment revealed a spectrum of events consistent with ZFN-induced DSBs and dominated by repeat contractions. We also found that expressing a dominant-negative form of RAD51 in combination with a ZFN, dramatically reduced the effect of the nuclease, suggesting that DSB-induced repeat instability is mediated, in part, through homology directed repair. These studies identify a ZFN as a useful reagent for characterizing the effects of DSBs on CAG repeats in cells.

  2. Changes in pathological pattern and treatment regimens based on repeat renal biopsy in lupus nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-bao; XU Zheng-jin; LIU Hong-fa; ZHOU Qiu-gen; ZHOU Zhan-mei; JIA Nan

    2012-01-01

    Background Relapses occur frequently in patients with lupus nephritis.Renal biopsy is the gold standard for assessing renal activity and hence guiding the treatment.Whether repeat renal biopsy is helpful during flares of lupus nephritis remains inconclusive.In the present study,we retrospectively reviewed the patients with lupus nephritis who had more than one renal biopsy with the hope to find the clinical value of repeat biopsy.Methods Patients who had a diagnosis of lupus nephritis and two or more renal biopsies were selected from the database of the patient pathology registration at this renal division.Renal biopsy was evaluated according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) classification of lupus nephritis.The pathological patterns and treatment regimens were analyzed after a repeat biopsy.Results We identified 44 systemic lupus erythematosus patients with serial renal biopsies.In total,there were 94 renal biopsies.Overall,the pathological transition occurred in 64% instances according to the ISN/RPS class.When the transition was analyzed according to proliferative,membranous or mix lesions,it showed different profile:35% in patients with proliferative lesion,23.5% patients with mix lesions,100% in patients with pure membranous lesion.The pathological transition could not be predicted by any clinical characteristics.After the repeat renal biopsy,34% of patients had a change in their treatment regimens.Conclusions The pathological conversion was very prevalent in patients with lupus nephritis.However,the transitions became less prevalent when they were analyzed according to pure membranous,proliferative,and mix lesion.Repeat biopsy might be helpful to avoid unnecessary increased immunosuppression therapy.

  3. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  4. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  5. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  6. Neuropathological diagnosis and CAG repeat expansion in Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Xuereb, J H; MacMillan, J C; Snell, R; Davies, P.; Harper, P S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To correlate the degree of CAG repeat expansion with neuropathological findings in Huntington's disease. METHODS--The CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a large series of brain samples from 268 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease in which full neuropathological data was available. RESULTS--Analysis by polymerase chain reaction was successful in 63% of samples (169 of 268). Repeat expansions were detected in 152 of 153 (99%) samples with a neuropathologic...

  7. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of rep...

  8. Artificial leucine rich repeats as new scaffolds for protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baabur-Cohen, Hemda; Dayalan, Subashini; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2011-04-15

    The leucine rich repeat (LRR) motif that participates in many biomolecular recognition events in cells was suggested as a general scaffold for producing artificial receptors. We describe here the design and first total chemical synthesis of small LRR proteins, and their structural analysis. When evaluating the tertiary structure as a function of different number of repeating units (1-3), we were able to find that the 3-repeats sequence, containing 90 amino acids, folds into the expected structure.

  9. Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Barb; Takeya, Ryan; Vitelli, Francesca; Swanson, Xin

    2017-03-14

    Gene therapy refers to a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat or prevent diseases. Although a variety of methods can be used to deliver the genetic materials into the target cells and tissues, modified viral vectors represent one of the more common delivery routes because of its transduction efficiency for therapeutic genes. Since the introduction of gene therapy concept in the 1970s, the field has advanced considerably with notable clinical successes being demonstrated in many clinical indications in which no standard treatment options are currently available. It is anticipated that the clinical success the field observed in recent years can drive requirements for more scalable, robust, cost effective, and regulatory-compliant manufacturing processes. This review provides a brief overview of the current manufacturing technologies for viral vectors production, drawing attention to the common upstream and downstream production process platform that is applicable across various classes of viral vectors and their unique manufacturing challenges as compared to other biologics. In addition, a case study of an industry-scale cGMP production of an AAV-based gene therapy product performed at 2,000 L-scale is presented. The experience and lessons learned from this largest viral gene therapy vector production run conducted to date as discussed and highlighted in this review should contribute to future development of commercial viable scalable processes for vial gene therapies.

  10. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  11. Mononucleotide repeats are asymmetrically distributed in fungal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaff Leo H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic analyses of sequence features have resulted in a better characterisation of the organisation of the genome. A previous study in prokaryotes on the distribution of sequence repeats, which are notoriously variable and can disrupt the reading frame in genes, showed that these motifs are skewed towards gene termini, specifically the 5' end of genes. For eukaryotes no such intragenic analysis has been performed, though this could indicate the pervasiveness of this distribution bias, thereby helping to expose the selective pressures causing it. Results In fungal gene repertoires we find a similar 5' bias of intragenic mononucleotide repeats, most notably for Candida spp., whereas e.g. Coccidioides spp. display no such bias. With increasing repeat length, ever larger discrepancies are observed in genome repertoire fractions containing such repeats, with up to an 80-fold difference in gene fractions at repeat lengths of 10 bp and longer. This species-specific difference in gene fractions containing large repeats could be attributed to variations in intragenic repeat tolerance. Furthermore, long transcripts experience an even more prominent bias towards the gene termini, with possibly a more adaptive role for repeat-containing short transcripts. Conclusion Mononucleotide repeats are intragenically biased in numerous fungal genomes, similar to earlier studies on prokaryotes, indicative of a similar selective pressure in gene organization.

  12. Huntington's disease as caused by 34 CAG repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, Jürgen; Arning, Larissa; Wieczorek, Stefan; Kraus, Peter H; Gold, Ralf; Saft, Carsten

    2008-04-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polymorphic stretch of CAG repeats in the coding 5' part of the HD gene on chromosome 4p. Expansions of CAG blocks beyond 35 repeats are associated with the clinical presentation of HD. There is an intermediate range of rare alleles between 27 and 35 CAG repeats with a higher risk for further expansion in subsequent generations. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with clinical features of HD and 34 CAG repeat units.

  13. Intragenic tandem repeat variation between Legionella pneumophila strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarraud Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genomes harbour a large number of tandem repeats, yet the possible phenotypic effects of those found within the coding region of genes are only beginning to be examined. Evidence exists from other organisms that these repeats can be involved in the evolution of new genes, gene regulation, adaptation, resistance to environmental stresses, and avoidance of the immune system. Results In this study, we have investigated the presence and variability in copy number of intragenic tandemly repeated sequences in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Within the genome of the Philadelphia strain, we have identified 26 intragenic tandem repeat sequences using conservative selection criteria. Of these, seven were "polymorphic" in terms of repeat copy number between a large number of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. These strains were collected from a wide variety of environments and patients in several geographical regions. Within this panel of strains, all but one of these seven genes exhibited statistically different patterns in repeat copy number between samples from different origins (environmental, clinical, and hot springs. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that intragenic tandem repeats could play a role in virulence and adaptation to different environments. While tandem repeats are an increasingly popular focus of molecular typing studies in prokaryotes, including in L. pneumophila, this study is the first examining the difference in tandem repeat distribution as a function of clinical or environmental origin.

  14. [Testosterone therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, T; Hauptmann, A; Wagenlehner, F M E

    2016-04-01

    Hormone replacement therapy with testosterone has become well-established over the course of time. The initial substantial concerns with respect to complications and potential adverse events, particularly in older patients, were proven to be unfounded over time. Testosterone therapy has therefore gradually become a regular treatment modality in urological practice. It has also been shown to represent a valuable tool as supportive treatment for patients with erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism. A variety of testosterone preparations are available for treatment. Recent pharmaceutical developments have greatly improved the practicability and ease of administration for patients. Several guidelines have been developed that provide clearly formulated standards and instructions for indications, contraindications, application, risk factors and monitoring of testosterone therapy. Adverse events affecting the cardiovascular system and especially diseases of the prostate gland are of great importance, thus making the urologist the primary partner in the treatment of patients with testosterone deficiency.

  15. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  16. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols...... model of Art Therapy with this population. This article focuses on the psychological aspect of creativity related to mild depression with an emphasis on the interaction between the conscious and the unconscious part of the psyche....

  17. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  18. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  19. Genus-specific protein binding to the large clusters of DNA repeats (short regularly spaced repeats) present in Sulfolobus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Shen, Biao

    2003-01-01

    Short regularly spaced repeats (SRSRs) occur in multiple large clusters in archaeal chromosomes and as smaller clusters in some archaeal conjugative plasmids and bacterial chromosomes. The sequence, size, and spacing of the repeats are generally constant within a cluster but vary between clusters...... that are identical in sequence to one of the repeat variants in the S. solfataricus chromosome. Repeats from the pNOB8 cluster were amplified and tested for protein binding with cell extracts from S. solfataricus. A 17.5-kDa SRSR-binding protein was purified from the cell extracts and sequenced. The protein is N...... terminally modified and corresponds to SSO454, an open reading frame of previously unassigned function. It binds specifically to DNA fragments carrying double and single repeat sequences, binding on one side of the repeat structure, and producing an opening of the opposite side of the DNA structure. It also...

  20. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  1. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia

    2017-01-01

    Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in

  2. Truth therapy/lie therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langs, R

    In this paper an attempt is made to conceptualize a basic dimension of various psychotherapeutic treatment modalities, especially psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy. The central variable under consideration is the extent to which each endeavors to approach the truth within both patient and therapist as it exists dynamically in terms of their spiraling unconscious communicative interaction. That treatment modality which takes into account every possible dimension of such truths is termed truth therapy. Treatment modalities that make no attempt to arrive at these truths or that deliberately or inadvertently falsify their nature are termed lie or barrier therapies. Extensive consideration is given to truth therapy and the truth system on which it is based. The basis for the need for lie therapies is explored, and lie systems, which may arise from either patient or therapist, or both, are identified. A classification of common types of lie patients and lie therapists (and their main techniques) is offered. The implications of this delineation for our understanding of the dynamic therapies are discussed, and a number of new clinical issues arising from this perspective are addressed.

  3. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  4. Pet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  5. Repeatability, Reproducibility and Standardisation of a Laser Doppler Imaging Technique for the Evaluation of Normal Mouse Hindlimb Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Brunetti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine hindlimb ischemia. We assessed the reproducibility and the accuracy of LDPI acquisitions and identified several critical factors that could affect LDPI measurements in mice. Methods. Twenty mice were analysed. Statistical standardisation and a repeatability and reproducibility analysis were performed on mouse perfusion signals with respect to differences in body temperature, the presence or absence of hair, the type of anaesthesia used for LDPI measurements and the position of the mouse body. Results. We found excellent correlations among measurements made by the same operator (i.e., repeatability under the same experimental conditions and by two different operators (i.e., reproducibility. A Bland-Altman analysis showed the absence of bias in repeatability (p = 0.29 or reproducibility (p = 0.89. The limits of agreement for repeatability were –0.357 and –0.033, and for reproducibility, they were –0.270 and 0.238. Significant differences in perfusion values were observed in different experimental groups. Conclusions. Different experimental conditions must be considered as a starting point for the evaluation of new drugs and strategic therapies.

  6. Autologous adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells are involved in rat liver regeneration following repeat partial hepatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao; MU, HONG; Shen, Zhongyang; SONG, ZHUOLUN; Chen, Xiaobo; Wang, Yuliang

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have been considered to be attractive and readily available adult mesenchymal stem cells, and they are becoming increasingly popular for use in regenerative cell therapy, as they are readily accessible through minimally invasive techniques. The present study investigated whether autologous ADSC transplantation promoted liver regeneration following a repeat partial hepatectomy in rats. The rats were divided into three groups as follows: 70%...

  7. Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vural, B; Poda, M; Atlioglu, E;

    1998-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals.......Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals....

  8. PILER-CR: Fast and accurate identification of CRISPR repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of prokaryotic genomes has recently revealed the presence of CRISPR elements: short, highly conserved repeats separated by unique sequences of similar length. The distinctive sequence signature of CRISPR repeats can be found using general-purpose repeat- or pattern-finding software tools. However, the output of such tools is not always ideal for studying these repeats, and significant effort is sometimes needed to build additional tools and perform manual analysis of the output. Results We present PILER-CR, a program specifically designed for the identification and analysis of CRISPR repeats. The program executes rapidly, completing a 5 Mb genome in around 5 seconds on a current desktop computer. We validate the algorithm by manual curation and by comparison with published surveys of these repeats, finding that PILER-CR has both high sensitivity and high specificity. We also present a catalogue of putative CRISPR repeats identified in a comprehensive analysis of 346 prokaryotic genomes. Conclusion PILER-CR is a useful tool for rapid identification and classification of CRISPR repeats. The software is donated to the public domain. Source code and a Linux binary are freely available at http://www.drive5.com/pilercr.

  9. Repeatable mechanochemical activation of dynamic covalent bonds in thermoplastic elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imato, Keiichi; Kanehara, Takeshi; Nojima, Shiki; Ohishi, Tomoyuki; Higaki, Yuji; Takahara, Atsushi; Otsuka, Hideyuki

    2016-08-18

    Repeated mechanical scission and recombination of dynamic covalent bonds incorporated in segmented polyurethane elastomers are demonstrated by utilizing a diarylbibenzofuranone-based mechanophore and by the design of the segmented polymer structures. The repeated mechanochemical reactions can accompany clear colouration and simultaneous fading.

  10. PCR-free digital minisatellite tandem repeat genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuchao; Seo, Tae Seok

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated a proof-of-concept for novel minisatellite tandem repeat typing, called PCR-free digital VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) typing, which is composed of three steps: a ligation reaction instead of PCR thermal cycling, magnetic bead-based solid-phase capture for purification, and an elongated sample stacking microcapillary electrophoresis (μCE) for sensitive digital coding of repeat number. We designed a 16-bp fluorescently labeled ligation probe which is complementary to a repeat unit of a biotinylated synthetic template mimicking the human D1S80 VNTR locus and is randomly hybridized with the minisatellite tandem repeats. A quick isothermal ligation reaction was followed to link the adjacent ligation probes on the DNA templates, and then the ligated products were purified by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. After a denaturing step, a large amount of ligated products whose size difference was equivalent to the repeat unit were released and recovered. Through the elongated sample stacking μCE separation on a microdevice, the fluorescence signal of the ligated products was generated in the electropherogram and the peak number was directly counted which was exactly matched with the repeat number of VNTR locus. We could successfully identify the minisatellite tandem repeat number with only 5 fmol of DNA template in 30 min.

  11. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  12. Vocabulary Learning through Assisted and Unassisted Repeated Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effects of unassisted and assisted repeated reading has primarily focused on how each approach may contribute to improvement in reading comprehension and fluency. Incidental learning of the form and meaning of unknown or partially known words encountered through assisted and unassisted repeated reading has yet…

  13. Impact of Inclusion or Exclusion of Repeaters on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including or excluding repeaters on the equating process and results. New forms of two tests were equated to their respective old forms using either all examinees or only the first timer examinees in the new form sample. Results showed that for both tests used in this study, including or excluding repeaters in the…

  14. Effect of Repeated Simulations by Standardized Patients on Intercase Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study using five Southern Illinois University senior medical school classes (n=350 students) investigated whether having a standardized patient simulate a case repeatedly in postclerkship medical student evaluation affects the measure's reliability. Results suggest that repeated simulation had little or no effect on intercase reliability of…

  15. Analysis of CR1 Repeats in the Zebra Finch Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bird species have smaller genomes and fewer repeats than mammals. Chicken Repeat 1 (CR1 repeat is one of the most abundant families of repeats, ranging from ~133,000 to ~187,000 copies accounting for ~50 to ~80% of the interspersed repeats in the zebra finch and chicken genomes, respectively. CR1 repeats are believed to have arisen from the retrotransposition of a small number of master elements, which gave rise to multiple CR1 subfamilies in the chicken. In this study, we performed a global assessment of the divergence distributions, phylogenies, and consensus sequences of CR1 repeats in the zebra finch genome. We identified and validated 34 CR1 subfamilies and further analyzed the correlation between these subfamilies. We also discovered 4 novel lineage-specific CR1 subfamilies in the zebra finch when compared to the chicken genome. We built various evolutionary trees of these subfamilies and concluded that CR1 repeats may play an important role in reshaping the structure of bird genomes.

  16. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain : Effects on Emotional Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrillo, Maria; Migliorati, Filippo; Bruls, Rune; Han, Yingying; Heinemans, Mirjam; Pruis, Ilanah; Gazzola, V.; Keysers, C.

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar

  17. Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2014-03-01

    We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.

  18. CTG trinucleotide repeat "big jumps": large expansions, small mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions are the genetic cause of numerous human diseases, including fragile X mental retardation, Huntington disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Disease severity and age of onset are critically linked to expansion size. Previous mouse models of repeat instability have not recreated large intergenerational expansions ("big jumps", observed when the repeat is transmitted from one generation to the next, and have never attained the very large tract lengths possible in humans. Here, we describe dramatic intergenerational CTG*CAG repeat expansions of several hundred repeats in a transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1, resulting in increasingly severe phenotypic and molecular abnormalities. Homozygous mice carrying over 700 trinucleotide repeats on both alleles display severely reduced body size and splicing abnormalities, notably in the central nervous system. Our findings demonstrate that large intergenerational trinucleotide repeat expansions can be recreated in mice, and endorse the use of transgenic mouse models to refine our understanding of triplet repeat expansion and the resulting pathogenesis.

  19. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  20. Monotone missing data and repeated controls of fallible authors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Chapters 2 and 3 focus on repeated audit controls with categorical variables. Chapter 4 and 5 introduce and analyse a very general multivariate regression model for (monotone) missing data. In the final Chapter 6 the previous chapters are combined into a more realistic model for repeated audit contr