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  1. Analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures using mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getchell Thomas V

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two or more factor mixed factorial experiments are becoming increasingly common in microarray data analysis. In this case study, the two factors are presence (Patients with Alzheimer's disease or absence (Control of the disease, and brain regions including olfactory bulb (OB or cerebellum (CER. In the design considered in this manuscript, OB and CER are repeated measurements from the same subject and, hence, are correlated. It is critical to identify sources of variability in the analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures and correlations among data points have to be considered. In addition, multiple testing problems are more complicated in experiments with multi-level treatments or treatment combinations. Results In this study we adopted a linear mixed model to analyze oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We first construct a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes. The Benjamini and Hochberg (BH procedure of controlling false discovery rate (FDR at 5% was applied to the P values of the generalized F test. For those genes with significant generalized F test, we then categorize them based on whether the interaction terms were significant or not at the α-level (αnew = 0.0033 determined by the FDR procedure. Since simple effects may be examined for the genes with significant interaction effect, we adopt the protected Fisher's least significant difference test (LSD procedure at the level of αnew to control the family-wise error rate (FWER for each gene examined. Conclusions A linear mixed model is appropriate for analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We constructed a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes, and then applied a specific sequence of tests to identify factorial effects. This sequence of tests applied was designed to control for gene based FWER.

  2. Analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures using mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wood, Constance L; Getchell, Thomas V; Getchell, Marilyn L; Stromberg, Arnold J

    2004-12-30

    Two or more factor mixed factorial experiments are becoming increasingly common in microarray data analysis. In this case study, the two factors are presence (Patients with Alzheimer's disease) or absence (Control) of the disease, and brain regions including olfactory bulb (OB) or cerebellum (CER). In the design considered in this manuscript, OB and CER are repeated measurements from the same subject and, hence, are correlated. It is critical to identify sources of variability in the analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures and correlations among data points have to be considered. In addition, multiple testing problems are more complicated in experiments with multi-level treatments or treatment combinations. In this study we adopted a linear mixed model to analyze oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We first construct a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes. The Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure of controlling false discovery rate (FDR) at 5% was applied to the P values of the generalized F test. For those genes with significant generalized F test, we then categorize them based on whether the interaction terms were significant or not at the alpha-level (alphanew = 0.0033) determined by the FDR procedure. Since simple effects may be examined for the genes with significant interaction effect, we adopt the protected Fisher's least significant difference test (LSD) procedure at the level of alphanew to control the family-wise error rate (FWER) for each gene examined. A linear mixed model is appropriate for analysis of oligonucleotide array experiments with repeated measures. We constructed a generalized F test to select differentially expressed genes, and then applied a specific sequence of tests to identify factorial effects. This sequence of tests applied was designed to control for gene based FWER.

  3. Comparison of Repeated Measurement Design and Mixed Models in Evaluation of the Entonox Effect on Labor Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In many medical studies, the response variable is measured repeatedly over time to evaluate the treatment effect that is known as longitudinal study. The analysis method for this type of data is repeated measures ANOVA that uses only one correlation structure and the results are not valid with inappropriate correlation structure. To avoid this problem, a convenient alternative is mixed models. So, the aim of this study was to compare of mixed and repeated measurement models for examination of the Entonox effect on the labor pain. Methods: This experimental study was designed to compare the effect of Entonox and oxygen inhalation on pain relief between two groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement and mixed models with different correlation structures. Selection and comparison of proper correlation structures performed using Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and restricted log-likelihood. Data were analyzed using SPSS-22. Results: Results of our study showed that all variables containing analgesia methods, labor duration of the first and second stages, and time were significant in these tests. In mixed model, heterogeneous first-order autoregressive, first-order autoregressive, heterogeneous Toeplitz and unstructured correlation structures were recognized as the best structures. Also, all variables were significant in these structures. Unstructured variance covariance matrix was recognized as the worst structure and labor duration of the first and second stages was not significant in this structure. Conclusions: This study showed that the Entonox inhalation has a significant effect on pain relief in primiparous and it is confirmed by all of the models.

  4. Selecting a linear mixed model for longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern model, and growth curve approaches.

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    Liu, Siwei; Rovine, Michael J; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2012-03-01

    With increasing popularity, growth curve modeling is more and more often considered as the 1st choice for analyzing longitudinal data. Although the growth curve approach is often a good choice, other modeling strategies may more directly answer questions of interest. It is common to see researchers fit growth curve models without considering alterative modeling strategies. In this article we compare 3 approaches for analyzing longitudinal data: repeated measures analysis of variance, covariance pattern models, and growth curve models. As all are members of the general linear mixed model family, they represent somewhat different assumptions about the way individuals change. These assumptions result in different patterns of covariation among the residuals around the fixed effects. In this article, we first indicate the kinds of data that are appropriately modeled by each and use real data examples to demonstrate possible problems associated with the blanket selection of the growth curve model. We then present a simulation that indicates the utility of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion in the selection of a proper residual covariance structure. The results cast doubt on the popular practice of automatically using growth curve modeling for longitudinal data without comparing the fit of different models. Finally, we provide some practical advice for assessing mean changes in the presence of correlated data.

  5. Power and sample size for the S:T repeated measures design combined with a linear mixed-effects model allowing for missing data.

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    Tango, Toshiro

    2017-02-13

    Tango (Biostatistics 2016) proposed a new repeated measures design called the S:T repeated measures design, combined with generalized linear mixed-effects models and sample size calculations for a test of the average treatment effect that depend not only on the number of subjects but on the number of repeated measures before and after randomization per subject used for analysis. The main advantages of the proposed design combined with the generalized linear mixed-effects models are (1) it can easily handle missing data by applying the likelihood-based ignorable analyses under the missing at random assumption and (2) it may lead to a reduction in sample size compared with the simple pre-post design. In this article, we present formulas for calculating power and sample sizes for a test of the average treatment effect allowing for missing data within the framework of the S:T repeated measures design with a continuous response variable combined with a linear mixed-effects model. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of these formulas.

  6. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  7. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  8. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  9. Modeling repeated measurement data for occupational exposure assessment and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peretz, Chava

    2004-01-01

    Repeated measurements designs, occur frequently in the assessment of exposure to toxic chemicals. This thesis deals with the possibilities of using mixed effects models for occupational exposure assessment and in the analysis of exposure response relationships. The model enables simultaneous estima

  10. [Analysis of binary classification repeated measurement data with GEE and GLMMs using SPSS software].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shengli; Zhang, Yanhong; Chen, Zheng

    2012-12-01

    To analyze binary classification repeated measurement data with generalized estimating equations (GEE) and generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) using SPSS19.0. GEE and GLMMs models were tested using binary classification repeated measurement data sample using SPSS19.0. Compared with SAS, SPSS19.0 allowed convenient analysis of categorical repeated measurement data using GEE and GLMMs.

  11. Repeatability and Minimal Detectable Change in Longitudinal Median Nerve Excursion Measures During Upper Limb Neurodynamic Techniques in a Mixed Population: A Pilot Study Using Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Philippe; Lamontagne, Martin; Higgins, Johanne; Gagnon, Dany H

    2015-07-01

    This study determined test-retest reliability and minimum detectable change in longitudinal median nerve excursion during upper limb neurodynamic tests (ULNTs). Seven participants with unilateral or bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 11 healthy participants were randomly tested with two ULNTs (i.e., tensioner and slider). Each ULNT was performed three times each at 45° and 90° of shoulder abduction on two separate visits. Video sequences of median nerve excursion, recorded by a physical therapist using ultrasound imaging, were quantified using computer software. The generalizability theory, encompassing a G-Study and a D-study, measured the dependability coefficient (Φ) along with standard error of measurement (SEM) accuracy and allowed various testing protocols to be proposed. The highest reliability (Φ = 0.84) and lowest minimal measurement error (SEM = 0.58 mm) of the longitudinal median nerve excursion were reached during the ULNT-slider performed with 45° of shoulder abduction and when measures obtained from three different image sequences recorded during a single visit were averaged. It is recommended that longitudinal median nerve excursion measures computed from three separate image sequences recorded during a single visit be averaged in clinical practice. Ideally, adding a second visit (six image sequences) is also suggested in research protocols.

  12. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  13. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

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    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  14. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  15. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Joris; Klugkist, I.G.; Schoot, Rens van de; Meeus, W.H.J.; Selfhout, Maarten; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between

  16. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823031; Klugkist, I.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/27330089X; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; van Zalk, M.H.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836214; Hoijtink, H.J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075184427

    2009-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between groups,

  17. The concordance correlation coefficient for repeated measures estimated by variance components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Josep L; King, Tonya S; Chinchilli, Vernon M

    2009-01-01

    The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is an index that is commonly used to assess the degree of agreement between observers on measuring a continuous characteristic. Here, a CCC for longitudinal repeated measurements is developed through the appropriate specification of the intraclass correlation coefficient from a variance components linear mixed model. A case example and the results of a simulation study are provided.

  18. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  19. Airborne Repeat Pass Interferometry for Deformation Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.; Otten, M.; Halsema, E. van

    2000-01-01

    In ground engineering the need for deformation measurements is urgent. SAR interferometry can be used to measure small (sub-wavelength) deformations. An experiment to investigate this for dike deformations was set up, using the C-band SAR system PHARUS (PHased ARray Universal SAR). This paper descri

  20. MIXED SELF-CONFORMAL MULTIFRACTAL MEASURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meifeng Dai

    2009-01-01

    Mixed multifractal analysis studies the simultaneous scaling behavior of finitely many measures. A self-conformal measure is a measure invariant under a set of conformal mappings. In this paper, we provide a description of the mixed multifractal theory of finitely many self-conformal measures.

  1. Stability of parameters in repeated TVA measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the limitations of human visual short-term memory or VSTM (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997; Wheeler & Treisman, 2002; Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2004). Usually researchers agree that VSTM is limited to a capacity of about 3 to 4 objects at any given moment (Cowan, 2001......). Capacity of short-term memory is measured in a range of studies often using the change detection paradigm (CD). However, the whole report paradigm (WR) may be a more reliable paradigm (Cusack, Lehmann, Veldsman, & Mitchell, 2009). Moreover, each individual WR trial yield more information compared to a CD...

  2. Correct use of repeated measures analysis of variance.

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    Park, Eunsik; Cho, Meehye; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2009-02-01

    In biomedical research, researchers frequently use statistical procedures such as the t-test, standard analysis of variance (ANOVA), or the repeated measures ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest. There are frequently some misuses in applying these procedures since the conditions of the experiments or statistical assumptions necessary to apply these procedures are not fully taken into consideration. In this paper, we demonstrate the correct use of repeated measures ANOVA to prevent or minimize ethical or scientific problems due to its misuse. We also describe the appropriate use of multiple comparison tests for follow-up analysis in repeated measures ANOVA. Finally, we demonstrate the use of repeated measures ANOVA by using real data and the statistical software package SPSS (SPSS Inc., USA).

  3. Repeated measurement sampling in genetic association analysis with genotyping errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Renzhen; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2007-02-01

    Genotype misclassification occurs frequently in human genetic association studies. When cases and controls are subject to the same misclassification model, Pearson's chi-square test has the correct type I error but may lose power. Most current methods adjusting for genotyping errors assume that the misclassification model is known a priori or can be assessed by a gold standard instrument. But in practical applications, the misclassification probabilities may not be completely known or the gold standard method can be too costly to be available. The repeated measurement design provides an alternative approach for identifying misclassification probabilities. With this design, a proportion of the subjects are measured repeatedly (five or more repeats) for the genotypes when the error model is completely unknown. We investigate the applications of the repeated measurement method in genetic association analysis. Cost-effectiveness study shows that if the phenotyping-to-genotyping cost ratio or the misclassification rates are relatively large, the repeat sampling can gain power over the regular case-control design. We also show that the power gain is not sensitive to the genetic model, genetic relative risk and the population high-risk allele frequency, all of which are typically important ingredients in association studies. An important implication of this result is that whatever the genetic factors are, the repeated measurement method can be applied if the genotyping errors must be accounted for or the phenotyping cost is high.

  4. Assessing agreement with repeated measures for random observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Cheng; Barnhart, Huiman X

    2011-12-30

    Agreement studies are often concerned with assessing whether different observers for measuring responses on the same subject or sample can produce similar results. The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a popular index for assessing the closeness among observers for quantitative measurements. Usually, the CCC is used for data without and with replications based on subject and observer effects only. However, we cannot use this methodology if repeated measurements rather than replications are collected. Although there exist some CCC-type indices for assessing agreement with repeated measurements, there is no CCC for random observers and random time points. In this paper, we propose a new CCC for repeated measures where both observers and time points are treated as random effects. A simulation study demonstrates our proposed methodology, and we use vertebral body data and image data for illustrations.

  5. Mixed double-embryo transfer: A promising approach for patients with repeated implantation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenov, Georgi Stamenov; Parvanov, Dimitar Angelov; Chaushev, Todor Angelov

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of frozen mixed double-embryo transfer (MDET; the simultaneous transfer of day 3 and day 5 embryos) in comparison with frozen blastocyst double-embryo transfer (BDET; transfer of two day 5 blastocysts) in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF). A total of 104 women with RIF who underwent frozen MDET (n=48) or BDET (n=56) with excellent-quality embryos were included in this retrospective analysis. All frozen embryo transfers were performed in natural cycles. The main outcome measures were the implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and miscarriage rate. These measures were compared between the patients who underwent MDET or BDET using the chi-square test or the Fisher exact test, as appropriate. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in patients who underwent MDET than in those who underwent BDET (60.4% vs. 39.3%, p=0.03 and 52.1% vs. 30.4%, p=0.05, respectively). A significantly lower miscarriage rate was observed in the MDET group (6.9% vs. 10.7%, p=0.05). In addition, the multiple pregnancy rate was slightly, but not significantly, higher in the MDET group (27.1% vs. 25.0%). MDET was found to be significantly superior to double blastocyst transfer. It could be regarded as an appropriate approach to improve in vitro fertilization success rates in RIF patients.

  6. Conservative Sample Size Determination for Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Timothy M; Case, L Douglas

    2013-07-05

    In the design of a randomized clinical trial with one pre and multiple post randomized assessments of the outcome variable, one needs to account for the repeated measures in determining the appropriate sample size. Unfortunately, one seldom has a good estimate of the variance of the outcome measure, let alone the correlations among the measurements over time. We show how sample sizes can be calculated by making conservative assumptions regarding the correlations for a variety of covariance structures. The most conservative choice for the correlation depends on the covariance structure and the number of repeated measures. In the absence of good estimates of the correlations, the sample size is often based on a two-sample t-test, making the 'ultra' conservative and unrealistic assumption that there are zero correlations between the baseline and follow-up measures while at the same time assuming there are perfect correlations between the follow-up measures. Compared to the case of taking a single measurement, substantial savings in sample size can be realized by accounting for the repeated measures, even with very conservative assumptions regarding the parameters of the assumed correlation matrix. Assuming compound symmetry, the sample size from the two-sample t-test calculation can be reduced at least 44%, 56%, and 61% for repeated measures analysis of covariance by taking 2, 3, and 4 follow-up measures, respectively. The results offer a rational basis for determining a fairly conservative, yet efficient, sample size for clinical trials with repeated measures and a baseline value.

  7. Measurement and repeatability of interrupter resistance in unsedated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A M; Olden, C; Wertheim, D; Ives, A; Bridge, P D; Lenton, J; Seddon, P

    2009-12-01

    Interrupter resistance (R(int)) is a useful measure of airway caliber in young children, but has not been well characterized in infants-in whom there are concerns about the accurate measurement of driving pressure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and repeatability of measuring R(int) in unsedated newborn infants, and to explore alternative algorithms for calculating driving pressure. R(int) measurement was attempted in 28 healthy term newborn infants during natural sleep using the MicroRint device. Paired R(int) measurements were achieved in 24 infants, but after screening of waveforms only 15 infants had at least 5 technically acceptable waveforms on both measurements. R(int) values obtained were comparable with reported values for airflow resistance in newborns using other methods. However, the repeatability coefficient (CR) was much higher than reported values in preschool children using standard back-extrapolation algorithms, with CR 2.47 KPa L(-1) sec (unscreened) and 2.93 KPa L(-1) sec (screened). Other algorithms gave only marginally better repeatability, with all CR values over 50% of the mean R(int) value. Using current commercially available equipment, R(int) is too poorly repeatable to be a reliable measurement of airflow resistance in newborn infants. Lower deadspace equipment is needed, but anatomical and physiological factors in the infant are also important.

  8. Measurements of mixing and indirect CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Reichert, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    LHCb has collected the world's largest sample of charmed hadrons. This sample is used to measure the mixing parameters in the $D^0$-$\\bar{D}^0$ system and to search for indirect $CP$ violation. This contribution focuses on measurements of $A_{\\Gamma}$ with $D^*$ and semileptonic $B$ decays and on mixing measurements and a search for $CP$ violation in $D\\to K\\pi$ decays.

  9. Applying the General Linear Model to Repeated Measures Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, John T.; McShane, Michael G.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the general linear model (GLM) in problems with repeated measures on a dependent variable. Such problems include pretest-posttest designs, multitrial designs, and groups by trials designs. For each of these designs, a GLM analysis is demonstrated wherein full models are formed and restrictions…

  10. Global Patterns of Turbulence and Diapycnal Mixing from CTD-Chipods on the Global Repeat Hydrography Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; Nash, J. D.; Moum, J. N.; MacKinnon, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    With an aim to quantify global patterns of ocean mixing, we have developed the CTD-chipod, an instrument that measures the turbulent dissipation rate of temperature variance from standard shipboard CTD. First, turbulent diffusivities and turbulent dissipation rate inferred from the CTD-chipod are compared to that from traditional turbulence profilers with shear probes, suggesting the method does not suffer from significant bias. CTD-chipods have now been deployed on several of the global repeat hydrography program cruises, including the complete P16 line from 60S to 55N in the Pacific. Here we discuss broad patterns of mixing from these observations, as well as focusing on some specific interesting features. In particular, a section of higher resolution sampling across the equator from 5S to 5N in the Pacific suggests elevated abyssal mixing in that region. This and other patterns will be examined in relation to large-scale patterns of stratification, velocity, and shear. The observations will also be compared to other common parameterizations of mixing from shear and strain. These chipod measurements are a step towards constraining the spatial and temporal patterns of turbulent mixing across the world's oceans, in order to better understand dissipative mechanisms and their role in ocean dynamics.

  11. Positional Repeatability Measurements Of Stepper Motors At Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Hall, Michael S.; Bartko, Frank; Houck, James R.

    1983-08-01

    Stepper motors operating at liquid helium temperature have multiple applications in cryogenically-cooled telescopes such as the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). These SIRTF applications include driving cryogen flow valves, operating the Multiple Instrument Chamber (MIC) beam splitter mechanism, and operating filters and grating wheel mechanisms in the scientific instruments. The positional repeatability of the beam splitter drive mechanism is especially critical since it feeds the optical beam to the scien-tific instruments. Despite these important applications, no significant data on the positional repeatability of stepper motors at cryogenic temperatures has been available. Therefore, we conducted a series of measurements to determine the positional repeatability of a modified, off-the-shelf Berger/Lahr stepper motor (model RDM 253/25, step angle 3.6°) which had demonstrated excellent performance in previous endurance testing at LHe temperature. These test results indicated that the positional repeatability of the motor was excellent at all temperatures, with somewhat better performance at cryogenic temperatures. Another important result was that the motor could be repeatedly turned off and on while still accurately retaining its rotor position.

  12. On the repeated measures designs and sample sizes for randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Toshiro

    2016-04-01

    For the analysis of longitudinal or repeated measures data, generalized linear mixed-effects models provide a flexible and powerful tool to deal with heterogeneity among subject response profiles. However, the typical statistical design adopted in usual randomized controlled trials is an analysis of covariance type analysis using a pre-defined pair of "pre-post" data, in which pre-(baseline) data are used as a covariate for adjustment together with other covariates. Then, the major design issue is to calculate the sample size or the number of subjects allocated to each treatment group. In this paper, we propose a new repeated measures design and sample size calculations combined with generalized linear mixed-effects models that depend not only on the number of subjects but on the number of repeated measures before and after randomization per subject used for the analysis. The main advantages of the proposed design combined with the generalized linear mixed-effects models are (1) it can easily handle missing data by applying the likelihood-based ignorable analyses under the missing at random assumption and (2) it may lead to a reduction in sample size, compared with the simple pre-post design. The proposed designs and the sample size calculations are illustrated with real data arising from randomized controlled trials.

  13. Repeatability of OCT lens thickness measures with age and accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lesley; Little, Julie-Anne; Saunders, Kathryn J

    2013-12-01

    To investigate crystalline lens thickness (LT) across a range of ages and accommodative demands and to evaluate the repeatability of LT measurements using the Visante Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer (AS-OCT) (Zeiss Meditec, Germany) under non-cycloplegic conditions. Participants were 98 visually normal adults aged 18-75 years, stratified into age groups of 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-75 years of age. Images of the crystalline lens were taken using the Visante AS-OCT during stimulation of accommodation at demands of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 D with accommodative response measured in a subgroup of participants. Images were analyzed and LT measured assuming a refractive index of 1.42. Repeat measures were taken from 86 participants for each accommodative demand at a second visit. The mean unaccommodated LT for all participants was 4.07 ± 0.40 mm. An average increase in LT of 20 μm per year was calculated (linear regression, R² = 0.61, F(1,89) = 143.92, p report the repeatability of LT measures using the Visante AS-OCT in the non-cyclopleged eye. It has also demonstrated the ability of the Visante AS-OCT to detect small changes in lens thickness with accommodation.

  14. Measuring Repeatability of the Focus-variable Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Řezníček

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of photogrammetry, the optical system, usually represented by the glass lens, is used for metric purposes. Therefore, the aberration characteristics of such a lens, inducing deviations from projective imaging, has to be well known. However, the most important property of the metric lens is the stability of its glass and mechanical elements, ensuring long-term reliability of the measured parameters. In case of a focus-variable lens, the repeatability of the lens setup is important as well. Lenses with a fixed focal length are usually considered as “fixed” though, in fact, most of them contain one or more movable glass elements, providing the focusing function. In cases where the lens is not equipped with fixing screws, the repeatability of the calibration parameters should be known. This paper derives simple mathematical formulas that can be used for measuring the repeatability of the focus-variable lenses, and gives a demonstrative example of such measuring. The given procedure has the advantage that only demanded parameters are estimated, hence, no unwanted correlations with the additional parameters exist. The test arrangement enables us to measure each demanded magnification of the optical system, which is important in close-range photogrammetry.

  15. Capturing learning effects on eye movements in repeated measures experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Martin; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Fiedler, Susann

    We propose and illustrate that repeated exposure to stimuli sets increases the size of the saccade amplitudes. Saccadic amplitudes are closely related to the perceptual span and therefore used as a measure for the information intake in an experiment. Studies on expertise have shown that experts...... experiment in which 68 participants made choices between four alternatives with three different between subject conditions varying in presentation format (verbal matrix, a pictorial matrix, and a realistic product representation). The results consistently demonstrate an increase of the saccade amplitude over...... the course of the experiment independent of condition. We conclude by discussing our results in the light of the possible increase of the perceptual span and its implications for the research procedure in eye-tracking experiments with a repeated measurement design....

  16. Concordance correlation coefficients estimated by generalized estimating equations and variance components for longitudinal repeated measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Miao-Yu

    2017-04-15

    The concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a commonly accepted measure of agreement between two observers for continuous responses. This paper proposes a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach allowing dependency between repeated measurements over time to assess intra-agreement for each observer and inter- and total agreement among multiple observers simultaneously. Furthermore, the indices of intra-, inter-, and total agreement through variance components (VC) from an extended three-way linear mixed model (LMM) are also developed with consideration of the correlation structure of longitudinal repeated measurements. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the performance of the GEE and VC approaches for repeated measurements from longitudinal data. An application of optometric conformity study is used for illustration. In conclusion, the GEE approach allowing flexibility in model assumptions and correlation structures of repeated measurements gives satisfactory results with small mean square errors and nominal 95% coverage rates for large data sets, and when the assumption of the relationship between variances and covariances for the extended three-way LMM holds, the VC approach performs outstandingly well for all sample sizes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop J. Hox

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects.The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales.

  18. Modeling intraindividual variability with repeated measures data methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hershberger, Scott L

    2013-01-01

    This book examines how individuals behave across time and to what degree that behavior changes, fluctuates, or remains stable.It features the most current methods on modeling repeated measures data as reported by a distinguished group of experts in the field. The goal is to make the latest techniques used to assess intraindividual variability accessible to a wide range of researchers. Each chapter is written in a ""user-friendly"" style such that even the ""novice"" data analyst can easily apply the techniques.Each chapter features:a minimum discussion of mathematical detail;an empirical examp

  19. Unitarity, Feedback, Interactions -- Dynamics Emergent from Repeated Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B; Zych, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent efforts to describe the gravitational interaction as a classical channel arising from continuous quantum measurements, we study what types of dynamics can emerge from a model of repeated short interactions of a system with a set of ancillae. We show that contingent on the model parameters the resulting dynamics ranges from exact unitarity to arbitrary fast decoherence (quantum Zeno effect). For a series of measurements the effective dynamics includes feedback-control, which for a composite system yields effective interactions between the subsystems. We quantify the amount of decoherence accompanying such induced interactions, generalizing the lower bound of the gravitational example. However, by allowing multipartite measurements, the interactions can be induced with arbitrary low decoherence. Our results have implications for gravity-inspired decoherence models and the simple framework used in the present study can find applications in devising novel quantum control protocols, or quan...

  20. Repeated High-Precision Gravity and GPS Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, P.; Harris, R. N.; Allis, R.; Chapman, D. S.

    2003-12-01

    Repeated high-precision gravity and GPS measurements are becoming a common tool for tracking changes in subsurface reservoirs. Despite this, there is little literature which discusses measurement techniques and the expected errors. Our research has focused on improving measurement techniques to be applied to ground water and geothermal steam reservoirs, including quantifying the minimum error levels with modern equipment. We applied these methods in two studies: ground water monitoring of the southern Salt Lake valley, Utah, USA, and steam monitoring of The Geysers geothermal field, California, USA. Gravity measurements using modern relative high-precision meters, such as Scintrex CG-3Ms or L&R E series, can now be routinely made to an accuracy of 5 μ Gal. Such accuracy requires the use of time series analysis at each station, and non-linear instrument drift functions. Modern computerized meters are capable of internally storing a time series of measurements for each station; older meters can often be fitted to log such data to a field computer. This time series, typically of 10-15 minute duration in our work, can then be analyzed in several ways to produce stable estimates of the gravity reading. In particular, our research has emphasized using a weighted arithmetic average (for long occupations), or a Thiele extrapolation scheme (for shorter station occupations). Instrument drift is removed through a superposition of a linear long-term drift function, and an empirical staircase function formed from differences between repeated station occupations. To achieve high-accuracy GPS measurements while maximizing the number of field stations in a survey, rapid-static measurements are necessary. We have tested the effect of occupation time and processing schemes on the absolute accuracy of the resulting GPS position. Using a post-processing differential method with a fixed (but not necessarily continuous) base station within 15 km, positioning error of <4 cm vertical is

  1. Quasar Variability Measurements With SDSS Repeated Imaging and POSS Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ivezic, Z; Juric, M; Anderson, S; Hall, P B; Richards, G T; Rockosi, C M; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Turner, E L; Knapp, G R; Gunn, J E; Schlegel, D J; Strauss, M A; Schneider, D P

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the properties of quasar variability using repeated SDSS imaging data in five UV-to-far red photometric bands, accurate to 0.02 mag, for 13,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The observed time lags span the range from 3 hours to over 3 years, and constrain the quasar variability for rest-frame time lags of up to two years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 Ang. to 6000 Ang. We demonstrate that 66,000 SDSS measurements of magnitude differences can be described within the measurement noise by a simple function of only three free parameters. The addition of POSS data constrains the long-term behavior of quasar variability and provides evidence for a turn-over in the structure function. This turn-over indicates that the characteristic time scale for optical variability of quasars is of the order 1 year.

  2. Dispersion Measure Variation of Repeating Fast Radio Burst Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2017-09-01

    The repeating fast radio burst (FRB) 121102 was recently localized in a dwarf galaxy at a cosmological distance. The dispersion measure (DM) derived for each burst from FRB 121102 so far has not shown significant evolution, even though an apparent increase was recently seen with newly detected VLA bursts. It is expected that more repeating FRB sources may be detected in the future. In this work, we investigate a list of possible astrophysical processes that might cause DM variation of a particular FRB source. The processes include (1) cosmological scale effects such as Hubble expansion and large-scale structure fluctuations; (2) FRB local effects such as gas density fluctuation, expansion of a supernova remnant (SNR), a pulsar wind nebula, and an H ii region; and (3) the propagation effect due to plasma lensing. We find that the DM variations contributed by the large-scale structure are extremely small, and any observable DM variation is likely caused by the plasma local to the FRB source. In addition to mechanisms that decrease DM over time, we suggest that an FRB source in an expanding SNR around a nearly neutral ambient medium during the deceleration (Sedov–Taylor and snowplow) phases or in a growing H ii region can increase DM. Some effects (e.g., an FRB source moving in an H ii region or plasma lensing) can produce either positive or negative DM variations. Future observations of DM variations of FRB 121102 and other repeating FRB sources can provide important clues regarding the physical origin of these sources.

  3. Coseismic and postseismic velocity changes measured by repeating earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, David P.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2004-10-01

    Repeating earthquakes that rupture approximately the same fault patch and have nearly identical waveforms are a useful tool for measuring temporal changes in wave propagation in the Earth's crust. Since source and path effects are common to all earthquakes in a repeating earthquake sequence (multiplet), differences in their waveforms can be attributed to changes in the characteristics of the medium. We have identified over 20 multiplets containing between 5 and 40 repeating events in the aftershock zones of the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1984 Morgan Hill, California, earthquakes. Postmain shock events reveal delays of phases in the early S wave coda of as much as 0.2 s relative to premain shock events. The delay amounts to a path-averaged coseismic velocity decrease of about 1.5% for P waves and 3.5% for S waves. Since most of the multiplets are aftershocks and follow Omori's law, we have excellent temporal sampling in the immediate postmain shock period. We find that the amplitude of the velocity decrease decays logarithmically in time following the main shock. In some cases it returns to the premain shock values, while in others it does not. Similar results are obtained for the Morgan Hill main shock. Because the fractional change in S wave velocity is greater than the fractional change in P wave velocity, it suggests that the opening or connection of fluid-filled fractures is the underlying cause. The magnitude of the velocity change implies that low effective pressures are present in the source region of the velocity change. Our results suggest that the changes are predominantly near the stations and shallow, but we cannot exclude the possibility that changes occur at greater depth as well. If the variations are shallow, we may be detecting the lingering effects of nonlinearity during main shock strong ground motion. If the variations are deep, it suggests that pore pressures at seismogenic depths are high, which would likely play a key role in the earthquake process.

  4. Bayesian Concordance Correlation Coefficient with Application to Repeatedly Measured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu BHATTACHARJEE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In medical research, Lin's classical concordance correlation coefficient (CCC is frequently applied to evaluate the similarity of the measurements produced by different raters or methods on the same subjects. It is particularly useful for continuous data. The objective of this paper is to propose the Bayesian counterpart to compute CCC for continuous data. Material and Methods: A total of 33 patients of astrocytoma brain treated in the Department of Radiation Oncology at Malabar Cancer Centre is enrolled in this work. It is a continuous data of tumor volume and tumor size repeatedly measured during baseline pretreatment workup and post surgery follow-ups for all patients. The tumor volume and tumor size are measured separately by MRI and CT scan. The agreement of measurement between MRI and CT scan is calculated through CCC. The statistical inference is performed through Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC technique. Results: Bayesian CCC is found suitable to get prominent evidence for test statistics to explore the relation between concordance measurements. The posterior mean estimates and 95% credible interval of CCC on tumor size and tumor volume are observed with 0.96(0.87,0.99 and 0.98(0.95,0.99 respectively. Conclusion: The Bayesian inference is adopted for development of the computational algorithm. The approach illustrated in this work provides the researchers an opportunity to find out the most appropriate model for specific data and apply CCC to fulfill the desired hypothesis.

  5. A Simple and Transparent Alternative to Repeated Measures ANOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Grice

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation Oriented Modeling is a novel approach toward conceptualizing and analyzing data. Compared with traditional parametric statistics, Observation Oriented Modeling is more intuitive, relatively free of assumptions, and encourages researchers to stay close to their data. Rather than estimating abstract population parameters, the overarching goal of the analysis is to identify and explain distinct patterns within the observations. Selected data from a recent study by Craig et al. were analyzed using Observation Oriented Modeling; this analysis was contrasted with a traditional repeated measures ANOVA assessment. Various pitfalls in traditional parametric analyses were avoided when using Observation Oriented Modeling, including the presence of outliers and missing data. The differences between Observation Oriented Modeling and various parametric and nonparametric statistical methods were finally discussed.

  6. Matrix-based concordance correlation coefficient for repeated measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiriote, Sasiprapa; Chinchilli, Vernon M

    2011-09-01

    In many clinical studies, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) is a common tool to assess the agreement of a continuous response measured by two raters or methods. However, the need for measures of agreement may arise for more complex situations, such as when the responses are measured on more than one occasion by each rater or method. In this work, we propose a new CCC in the presence of repeated measurements, called the matrix-based concordance correlation coefficient (MCCC) based on a matrix norm that possesses the properties needed to characterize the level of agreement between two p× 1 vectors of random variables. It can be shown that the MCCC reduces to Lin's CCC when p= 1. For inference, we propose an estimator for the MCCC based on U-statistics. Furthermore, we derive the asymptotic distribution of the estimator of the MCCC, which is proven to be normal. The simulation studies confirm that overall in terms of accuracy, precision, and coverage probability, the estimator of the MCCC works very well in general cases especially when n is greater than 40. Finally, we use real data from an Asthma Clinical Research Network (ACRN) study and the Penn State Young Women's Health Study for demonstration.

  7. Rank-Based Analysis of Unbalanced Repeated Measures Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mushfiqur Rashid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} In this article, we have developed a rank (intra-subject based analysis of clinical trials with unbalanced repeated measures data. We assume that the errors within each patient are exchangeable and continuous random variables. This rank-based inference is valid when the unbalanced data are missing either completely at random or by design. A drop in dispersion test is developed for general linear hypotheses. A numerical example is given to illustrate the procedure.

  8. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  9. Repeat Effort Performance is Reduced 24 h following Acute Dehydration in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Iredale, Fiona; Chapman, Dale W; Hopper, Amanda; Abbiss, Chris

    2017-09-11

    This study sought to determine the influence of acute dehydration on physical performance and physiology in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). MMA athletes (n=14; age: 23±4 years), completed in a randomised counterbalanced order a dehydration protocol, (DHY: 3 h cycling at 60 W in 40°C to induce 5% dehydration) or thermoneutral control (25°C: CONT) exercise, followed by ad libitum fluid/food intake. Performance testing (a repeat sled push test, medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump) was completed 3 and 24 h following the intervention, while urine and blood samples were collected before, 20 min, 3 and 24 h following the intervention. Body mass was reduced (4.8±0.8%) following DHY (p<0.001) and remained lower than CONT at 3 and 24 h post (p=0.003 and p=0.024, respectively). Compared to CONT average sled push times were slower 3 and 24 h following DHY (19±15%; p=0.001; g=1.229 and 14±15%; p=0.012; g=0.671, respectively). When compared to the CONT hand grip was weaker 3 h following DHY (53±8 and 51±8 kg; p=0.044, g=0.243 respectively) and medicine ball chest throw distances were shorter 24 h following DHY (474±52 and 449±44 cm; p=0.016, g=0.253 respectively). No significant differences were observed in vertical jump (p=0.467). Urine specific gravity was higher than CONT 20 min (p=0.035) and 24 h (p=0.035) following DHY. Acute dehydration of 4.8% body mass results in reduced physical performance 3 and 24 h following. There is need for caution when athletes use dehydration for weight loss 24 h prior to competition.

  10. A Mixed Generalized Multifractal Formalism For Vector Valued Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Mabrouk, Anouar Ben

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a mixed generalized multifractal formalism which extends the mixed multifractal formalism introduced by L. Olsen based on generalizations of the Hausdorff and packing measures. The validity of such a formalism is proved in some special cases.

  11. [Analysis of variance of repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Jin, Guo-qin; Jin, Ru-feng; Zhao, Wei-kang

    2007-01-01

    To introduce the method of analyzing repeated data measured by water maze with SPSS 11.0, and offer a reference statistical method to clinical and basic medicine researchers who take the design of repeated measures. Using repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) process of the general linear model in SPSS and giving comparison among different groups and different measure time pairwise. Firstly, Mauchly's test of sphericity should be used to judge whether there were relations among the repeatedly measured data. If any (PSPSS statistical package is available to fulfil this process.

  12. Detecting tropical forest biomass dynamics from repeated airborne lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Meyer

    2013-08-01

    census data, differences of approximately one year between the ground census and lidar measurements, and differences in sensor characteristics. Our results indicate that the 50 ha BCI plot lost a significant amount of biomass (−0.8 Mg ha−1 yr−1 ± 2.2(SD over the past decade (2000–2010. Over the entire island and during the same period, mean AGB change was 0.2 ± 2.4 Mg ha−1 yr−1 with old growth forests losing −0.7 Mg ha−1 yr−1 ± 2.2 (SD, and secondary forests gaining +1.8 Mg ha yr−1 ± 3.4 (SD biomass. Our analysis suggests that repeated lidar surveys, despite taking measurement with different sensors, can estimate biomass changes in old-growth tropical forests at landscape scales (>10 ha.

  13. On the Analysis of a Repeated Measure Design in Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal data enables detecting the effect of aging/time, and as a repeated measures design is statistically more efficient compared to cross-sectional data if the correlations between repeated measurements are not large. In particular, when genotyping cost is more expensive than phenotyping cost, the collection of longitudinal data can be an efficient strategy for genetic association analysis. However, in spite of these advantages, genome-wide association studies (GWAS with longitudinal data have rarely been analyzed taking this into account. In this report, we calculate the required sample size to achieve 80% power at the genome-wide significance level for both longitudinal and cross-sectional data, and compare their statistical efficiency. Furthermore, we analyzed the GWAS of eight phenotypes with three observations on each individual in the Korean Association Resource (KARE. A linear mixed model allowing for the correlations between observations for each individual was applied to analyze the longitudinal data, and linear regression was used to analyze the first observation on each individual as cross-sectional data. We found 12 novel genome-wide significant disease susceptibility loci that were then confirmed in the Health Examination cohort, as well as some significant interactions between age/sex and SNPs.

  14. Estimation of the concordance correlation coefficient for repeated measures using SAS and R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Josep L; Phillips, Brenda R; Puig-Martinez, Josep; King, Tonya S; Chinchilli, Vernon M

    2013-03-01

    The concordance correlation coefficient is one of the most common approaches used to assess agreement among different observers or instruments when the outcome of interest is a continuous variable. A SAS macro and R package are provided here to estimate the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) where the design of the data involves repeated measurements by subject and observer. The CCC is estimated using U-statistics (UST) and variance components (VC) approaches. Confidence intervals and standard errors are reported along with the point estimate of the CCC. In the case of the VC approach, the linear mixed model output and variance components estimates are also provided. The performance of each function is shown by means of some examples with real data sets.

  15. In Vitro Expansion of CAG, CAA, and Mixed CAG/CAA Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Figura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyglutamine diseases, including Huntington’s disease and a number of spinocerebellar ataxias, are caused by expanded CAG repeats that are located in translated sequences of individual, functionally-unrelated genes. Only mutant proteins containing polyglutamine expansions have long been thought to be pathogenic, but recent evidence has implicated mutant transcripts containing long CAG repeats in pathogenic processes. The presence of two pathogenic factors prompted us to attempt to distinguish the effects triggered by mutant protein from those caused by mutant RNA in cellular models of polyglutamine diseases. We used the SLIP (Synthesis of Long Iterative Polynucleotide method to generate plasmids expressing long CAG repeats (forming a hairpin structure, CAA-interrupted CAG repeats (forming multiple unstable hairpins or pure CAA repeats (not forming any secondary structure. We successfully modified the original SLIP protocol to generate repeats of desired length starting from constructs containing short repeat tracts. We demonstrated that the SLIP method is a time- and cost-effective approach to manipulate the lengths of expanded repeat sequences.

  16. Measured 3D turbulent mixing in a small-scale circuit breaker model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basse, Nils T; Bini, Riccardo [ABB Switzerland Ltd., Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil, CH-5405 (Switzerland); Kissing, Christopher, E-mail: nils.basse@npb.dk [Rheinische Fachhochschule Koeln, DE-50676 (Germany)

    2011-06-22

    Turbulence plays a key role in several physical processes related to the interruption of current in a gas circuit breaker (GCB). In this paper we study one aspect, namely turbulent gas mixing in the heating volume of a small-scale 3D GCB model. Mixing is observed using a shadowgraphy setup; postprocessing extracts information on the time-varying velocity field. Discharges with two different current amplitudes were studied and their repeatability investigated. A measure of mixing completeness, the largest vortex area, was investigated. The experiments reported upon in this paper were done in air at atmospheric pressure.

  17. Repeated Load Permanent Deformation Behavior of Mixes With and Wihtout Modified Bituments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature rutting in flexible pavement structure is being observed on most of the road network of Pakistan. It initiates primarily due to uncontrolled axle loading and high ambient temperatures. NHA (National Highway Authority, Pakistan has continuously been modifying aggregate gradations and penetration grade of bitumen, without any prior investigation of the mix behaviour under the prevailing axle load and environmental conditions of the country. A comprehensive laboratory investigation was carried out on six mixes ranging from finer to coarser. Specimens were subjected to cyclic loading on UTM-5P (Universal Testing Machine to study the resistance against permanent deformation of the mixes at 25, 40 and 550C. At low temperatures and stress levels, both coarse and fine graded mixes showed less accumulated strain, whereas at higher temperatures and stress levels, coarse graded mix with PMB (Polymer Modified Bitumen showed good resistance to permanent deformation.

  18. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, Joop; de Leeuw, Edith; Zijlmans, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measu

  19. Using repeated measures of sleep disturbances to predict future diagnosis-specific work disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Vahtera, Jussi; Hall, Martica

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability.......It is unknown whether or not measuring sleep disturbances repeatedly, rather than at only one point in time, improves prediction of work disability....

  20. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  1. Intelligence Is in the Eye of the Beholder: Investigating Repeated IQ Measurements in Forensic Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Petra; Jeandarme, Inge; Uzieblo, Kasia; Oei, Karel; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: A stable assessment of cognition is of paramount importance for forensic psychiatric patients (FPP). The purpose of this study was to compare repeated measures of IQ scores in FPPs with and without intellectual disability. Methods: Repeated measurements of IQ scores in FPPs (n = 176) were collected. Differences between tests were…

  2. Assessment of bone loss with repeated bone mineral measurements: Application to measurements on the individual patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, H.W.

    1987-02-01

    Longitudinal measurements on lumbar spine and mid-radius were made by bone absorptiometry techniques in 139 normal women. Bone mineral was measured every 6 months over an median interval of 2.1 years. The results revealed that bone loss at different skeletal sites is non-uniform with equal bone loss patterns in all patients and relatively small variations in bone loss rate between normal women. For achieving these results there is strong demand on high precision and properly spaced measuring intervals for long-term rate of loss measurements. For exclusion of progressive degenerative disease a radiographic evaluation of the spine in the beginning and at the end of the study is mandatory as compression fractures or trauma reveal bone mineral changes independent from the agerelated bone loss. These repeated bone mineral measurements are useful for monitoring and follow-up studies during different therapeutic regimens.

  3. Measurements of Molecular Mixing in a High Schmidt Number Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueschke, N J; Schilling, O; Youngs, D L; Andrews, M

    2007-12-03

    Molecular mixing measurements are performed for a high Schmidt number (Sc {approx} 10{sup 3}), small Atwood number (A {approx} 7.5 x 10{sup -4}) buoyancy-driven turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer in a water channel facility. Salt was added to the top stream to create the desired density difference. The degree of molecular mixing was measured as a function of time by monitoring a diffusion-limited chemical reaction between the two fluid streams. The pH of each stream was modified by the addition of acid or alkali such that a local neutralization reaction occurred as the two fluids molecularly mixed. The progress of this neutralization reaction was tracked by the addition of phenolphthalein - a pH-sensitive chemical indicator - to the acidic stream. Accurately calibrated backlit optical techniques were used to measure the average concentration of the colored chemical indicator. Comparisons of chemical product formation for pre-transitional buoyancy- and shear-driven mixing layers are given. It is also shown that experiments performed at different equivalence ratios (acid/alkali concentration) can be combined to obtain a mathematical relationship between the colored product formed and the density variance. This relationship was used to obtain high-fidelity, quantitative measures of the degree of molecular mixing which are independent of probe resolution constraints. The dependence of such mixing parameters on the Schmidt and Reynolds numbers is examined by comparing the current Sc {approx} 10{sup 3} measurements with Sc = 0.7 gas-phase and Pr = 7 liquid-phase measurements. This comparison indicates that the Schmidt number has a large effect on the bulk quantity of mixed fluid at small Reynolds numbers Re{sub h} < 10{sup 3}. At late times, all mixing parameters indicated a greater degree of molecular mixing and a decreased Schmidt number dependence. Implications for the development and quantitative assessment of turbulent transport and mixing models appropriate for

  4. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria W. Mauritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives: The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1 PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2 changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods: This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25 with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results

  5. Determinants and Experiences of Repeat Pregnancy among HIV-Positive Kenyan Women--A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Akelo

    Full Text Available To identify factors associated with repeat pregnancy subsequent to an index pregnancy among women living with HIV (WLWH in western Kenya who were enrolled in a 24-month phase-II clinical trial of triple-ART prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and to contextualize social and cultural influences on WLWH's reproductive decision making.A mixed-methods approach was used to examine repeat pregnancy within a 24 month period after birth. Counselor-administered questionnaires were collected from 500 WLWH. Forty women (22 with a repeat pregnancy; 18 with no repeat pregnancy were purposively selected for a qualitative interview (QI. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed for quantitative data. Thematic coding and saliency analysis were undertaken for qualitative data.Eighty-eight (17.6% women had a repeat pregnancy. Median maternal age was 23 years (range 15-43 years and median gestational age at enrollment was 34 weeks. In multiple logistic regression analyses, living in the same compound with a husband (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.33; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.14, 4.75 was associated with increased odds of repeat pregnancy (p ≤ 0.05. Being in the 30-43 age group (AOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.87, having talked to a partner about family planning (FP use (AOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.98, and prior usage of FP (AOR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.82 were associated with a decrease in odds of repeat pregnancy. QI findings centered on concerns about modern contraception methods (side effects and views that they 'ruined the womb' and a desire to have the right number of children. Religious leaders, family, and the broader community were viewed as reinforcing cultural expectations for married women to have children. Repeat pregnancy was commonly attributed to contraception failure or to lack of knowledge about post-delivery fertility.In addition to cultural context, reproductive health programs for WLWH may need to

  6. Narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder associated with repeated interpersonal trauma in patients with severe mental illness: a mixed methods design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritz, Maria W.; Van Gaal, Betsie G. I.; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Goossens, Peter J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Netherlands, most patients with severe mental illness (SMI) receive flexible assertive community treatment (FACT) provided by multidisciplinary community mental health teams. SMI patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are sometimes offered evidence-based trauma-focused treatment like eye movement desensitization reprocessing or prolonged exposure. There is a large amount of evidence for the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy (NET) within various vulnerable patient groups with repeated interpersonal trauma. Some FACT-teams provide NET for patients with comorbid PTSD, which is promising, but has not been specifically studied in SMI patients. Objectives The primary aim is to evaluate NET in SMI patients with comorbid PTSD associated with repeated interpersonal trauma to get insight into whether (1) PTSD and dissociative symptoms changes and (2) changes occur in the present SMI symptoms, care needs, quality of life, global functioning, and care consumption. The second aim is to gain insight into patients’ experiences with NET and to identify influencing factors on treatment results. Methods This study will have a mixed methods convergent design consisting of quantitative repeated measures and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews based on Grounded Theory. The study population will include adult SMI outpatients (n=25) with comorbid PTSD and receiving NET. The quantitative study parameters will be existence and severity of PTSD, dissociative, and SMI symptoms; care needs; quality of life; global functioning; and care consumption. In a longitudinal analysis, outcomes will be analyzed using mixed models to estimate the difference in means between baseline and repeated measurements. The qualitative study parameters will be experiences with NET and perceived factors for success or failure. Integration of quantitative and qualitative results will be focused on interpreting how qualitative results enhance the

  7. Induced measures in the space of mixed quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyczkowski, Karol [Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej, Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw, Poland and Instytut Fizyki, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Crakow (Poland)). E-mail: karol@cft.edu.pl; Sommers, Hans-Juergen [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Essen, Essen (Germany)). E-mail: sommers@next30.theo-phys.uni-essen.de

    2001-09-07

    We analyse several product measures in the space of mixed quantum states. In particular, we study measures induced by the operation of partial tracing. The natural, rotationally invariant measure on the set of all pure states of a NxK composite system, induces a unique measure in the space of NxN mixed states (or in the space of KxK mixed states, if the reduction takes place with respect to the first subsystem). For K=N the induced measure is equal to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, which is shown to coincide with the measure induced by singular values of non-Hermitian random Gaussian matrices pertaining to the Ginibre ensemble. We compute several averages with respect to this measure and show that the mean entanglement of NxN pure states behaves as lnN-1/2. (author)

  8. Induced measures in the space of mixed quantum states

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Sommers, Hans-Juergen

    2001-01-01

    We analyze several product measures in the space of mixed quantum states. In particular we study measures induced by the operation of partial tracing. The natural, rotationally invariant measure on the set of all pure states of a N x K composite system, induces a unique measure in the space of N x N mixed states (or in the space of K x K mixed states, if the reduction takes place with respect to the first subsystem). For K=N the induced measure is equal to the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, which is shown to coincide with the measure induced by singular values of non-Hermitian random Gaussian matrices pertaining to the Ginibre ensemble. We compute several averages with respect to this measure and show that the mean entanglement of $N \\times N$ pure states behaves as lnN-1/2.

  9. Repeatability of gait pattern variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units in nonlame horses during trotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Antonio M; Maninchedda, Ugo E; Burger, Dominik; Wanda, Sabine; Vidondo, Beatriz

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine repeatability of gait variables measured by use of extremity-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) in nonlame horses during trotting under controlled conditions of treadmill exercise. ANIMALS 10 horses. PROCEDURES Six IMUs were strapped to the metacarpal, metatarsal, and distal tibial regions of each horse. Data were collected in a standardized manner (3 measurements/d on 3 d/wk over a 3-week period) while each horse was trotted on a treadmill. Every measurement consisted of a minimum of 20 strides from which a minimum of 10 strides was selected for analysis. Spatial and temporal variables were derived from the IMUs. Repeatability coefficients based on the within-subject SD were computed for each gait analysis variable at each week. RESULTS Most of the temporal and spatial variables had high repeatability (repeatability coefficients variables, specifically the symmetry variables (which were calculated from other variables), had somewhat higher repeatability coefficients (ie, lower repeatability) only in the last week. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE With the exceptions of some symmetry variables, which may reflect individual variations during movement, the extremity-mounted IMUs provided data with high repeatability for nonlame horses trotting under controlled conditions of treadmill exercise. Repeatability was achieved for each instrumented limb segment with regard to the spatial relationship between 2 adjacent segments (joint angles) and the temporal relationship among all segments (limb phasing). Extremity-mounted IMUs could have the potential to become a method for gait analysis in horses.

  10. Analysis of repeated measurements from medical research when observations are missing

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, K.

    2007-01-01

    Subject dropout is a common problem in repeated measurements health stud ies. Where dropout is related to the response, the results obtained can be substantially biased. The research in this thesis is motivated by a repeated measurements asthma clinical trial with substantial patient dropout. In practice the extent to which missing observations affect parameter esti mates and their efficiency is not clear. Through extensive simulation studies under various scenarios and missing data mechanism...

  11. Measurement of isospin mixing in 80Zr* at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, A.; Wieland, O.; Barlini, S.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Crespi, F. C. L.; Giaz, A.; Leoni, S.; Nicolini, R.; Vandone, V.; Benzoni, G.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Million, B.; Montanari, D.; Bardelli, L.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Nannini, A.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Baiocco, G.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Morelli, L.; Vannini, G.; Ciemala, M.; Kmiecik, M.; Maj, A.; Mazurek, K.; Meczynski, W.; Myalski, S.; Ordine, A.

    2011-10-01

    Isospin mixing induced by Coulomb interaction has been measured in the compound nucleus Z = N = 40 80Zr at T˜2 MeV produced in a fusion-evaporation reaction. The observable sensitive to the isospin purity of the compound nucleus is the Giant Dipole Resonance γ decay. The degree of mixing of the compound nucleus has been obtained via Statistical Model analysis of the measured γ spectrum.

  12. Repeatability of Ocular Measurements with a Dual-Scheimpflug Analyzer in Healthy Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lopez de la Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability of the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer (GDSA in anterior segment examination. Methods. Fifty-two eyes from 52 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Anatomic, axial, refractive, and instantaneous parameters were measured with GDSA to provide a complete characterization of the anterior segment. Repeatability was assessed calculating intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and coefficient of variation (COV. Results. Correlation among repeated measurements showed almost perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81 for all parameters except thinnest central corneal thickness (CCT (0.78, corneal thickness average out (0.79, and posterior axial curvature average out (0.60. Repeatability was excellent (COV < 10% for all parameters except anterior chamber volume and, superior iridocorneal angle and eccentricities. In these last three parameters, repeatability limits were excessively high compared to the mean. Conclusions. GDSA in healthy young persons had an almost perfect correlation in measuring anatomic, axial, instantaneous, and refractive parameters with greater variability for peripheral terms. Repeatability of anatomical parameters like pachymetry, anterior chamber, or iridocorneal angle and eccentricity were limited. In healthy young persons, the other evaluated parameters had very good repeatability and their limits of agreement showed excellent clinical results for this device.

  13. A Novel Signal Processing Measure to Identify Exact and Inexact Tandem Repeat Patterns in DNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification and analysis of repetitive patterns are active areas of biological and computational research. Tandem repeats in telomeres play a role in cancer and hypervariable trinucleotide tandem repeats are linked to over a dozen major neurodegenerative genetic disorders. In this paper, we present an algorithm to identify the exact and inexact repeat patterns in DNA sequences based on orthogonal exactly periodic subspace decomposition technique. Using the new measure our algorithm resolves the problems like whether the repeat pattern is of period P or its multiple (i.e., 2P, 3P, etc., and several other problems that were present in previous signal-processing-based algorithms. We present an efficient algorithm of O(NLw logLw, where N is the length of DNA sequence and Lw is the window length, for identifying repeats. The algorithm operates in two stages. In the first stage, each nucleotide is analyzed separately for periodicity, and in the second stage, the periodic information of each nucleotide is combined together to identify the tandem repeats. Datasets having exact and inexact repeats were taken up for the experimental purpose. The experimental result shows the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, J.E.; Jensen, B.R.; Kirpensteijn, J.; Svalastoga, E.L.; Eriksen, T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind li

  15. Globular Glial Mixed Four Repeat Tau and TDP-43 Proteinopathy with Motor Neuron Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryoko; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Tada, Mari; Tanaka, Hidetomo; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shiga, Atsushi; Miura, Takeshi; Aoki, Kenju; Aikawa, Akane; Ishizawa, Shin; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may be accompanied by frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We report a case of glial mixed tau and TDP-43 proteinopathies in a Japanese patient diagnosed clinically as having ALS-D. Autopsy revealed loss of lower motor neurons and degeneration of the pyramidal tracts in the spinal cord and brain stem. The brain showed frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), the most severe neuronal loss and gliosis being evident in the precentral gyrus. Although less severe, such changes were also observed in other brain regions, including the basal ganglia and substantia nigra. AT8 immunostaining revealed that predominant occurrence of astrocytic tau lesions termed globular astrocytic inclusions (GAIs) was a feature of the affected regions. These GAIs were Gallyas-Braak negative. Neuronal and oligodendrocytic tau lesions were comparatively scarce. pS409/410 immunostaining also revealed similar neuronal and glial TDP-43 lesions. Interestingly, occasional co-localization of tau and TDP-43 was evident in the GAIs. Immunoblot analyses revealed band patterns characteristic of a 4-repeat (4R) tauopathy, corticobasal degeneration and a TDP-43 proteinopathy, ALS/FTLD-TDP Type B. No mutations were found in the MAPT or TDP-43 genes. We consider that this patient harbored a distinct, sporadic globular glial mixed 4R tau and TDP-43 proteinopathy associated with motor neuron disease and FTD.

  16. Hierarchical linear model: thinking outside the traditional repeated-measures analysis-of-variance box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Monica; Spybrook, Jessaca; Cheatham, Christopher C

    2015-04-01

    Longitudinal designs are common in the field of athletic training. For example, in the Journal of Athletic Training from 2005 through 2010, authors of 52 of the 218 original research articles used longitudinal designs. In 50 of the 52 studies, a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. A possible alternative to this approach is the hierarchical linear model, which has been readily accepted in other medical fields. In this short report, we demonstrate the use of the hierarchical linear model for analyzing data from a longitudinal study in athletic training. We discuss the relevant hypotheses, model assumptions, analysis procedures, and output from the HLM 7.0 software. We also examine the advantages and disadvantages of using the hierarchical linear model with repeated measures and repeated-measures analysis of variance for longitudinal data.

  17. Hierarchical Linear Model: Thinking Outside the Traditional Repeated-Measures Analysis-of-Variance Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Monica; Spybrook, Jessaca; Cheatham, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal designs are common in the field of athletic training. For example, in the Journal of Athletic Training from 2005 through 2010, authors of 52 of the 218 original research articles used longitudinal designs. In 50 of the 52 studies, a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. A possible alternative to this approach is the hierarchical linear model, which has been readily accepted in other medical fields. In this short report, we demonstrate the use of the hierarchical linear model for analyzing data from a longitudinal study in athletic training. We discuss the relevant hypotheses, model assumptions, analysis procedures, and output from the HLM 7.0 software. We also examine the advantages and disadvantages of using the hierarchical linear model with repeated measures and repeated-measures analysis of variance for longitudinal data. PMID:25875072

  18. Accuracy and repeatability of a new method for measuring facet loads in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Derek C; Niosi, Christina A; Zhu, Qingan A; Oxland, Thomas R; Wilson, David R

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the repeatability and accuracy of a relatively new, resistance-based sensor (Tekscan 6900) for measuring lumbar spine facet loads, pressures, and contact areas in cadaver specimens. Repeatability of measurements in the natural facet joint was determined for five trials of four specimens loaded in pure moment (+/- 7.5 N m) flexibility tests in axial rotation and flexion-extension. Accuracy of load measurements in four joints was assessed by applying known compressive loads of 25, 50, and 100 N to the natural facet joint in a materials testing machine and comparing the known applied load to the measured load. Measurements of load were obtained using two different calibration approaches: linear and two-point calibrations. Repeatability for force, pressure, and area (average of standard deviation as a percentage of the mean for all trials over all specimens) was 4-6% for axial rotation and 7-10% for extension. Peak resultant force in axial rotation was 30% smaller when calculated using the linear calibration method. The Tekscan sensor overestimated the applied force by 18 +/- 9% (mean+/-standard deviation), 35 +/- 7% and 50 +/- 9% for compressive loads of 100, 50, and 25 N, respectively. The two-point method overestimated the loads by 35 +/- 16%, 45 +/- 7%, and 56 +/- 10% for the same three loads. Our results show that the Tekscan sensor is repeatable. However, the sensor measurement range is not optimal for the small loads transmitted by the facets and measurement accuracy is highly dependent on calibration protocol.

  19. Measurement of Workability of Fresh Concrete Using a Mixing Truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amziane, Sofiane; Ferraris, Chiara F; Koehler, Eric P

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the workability of fresh portland cement concrete while it is still in the mixing truck by determining fundamental rheological parameters (plastic viscosity and yield stress). Nine concrete mixtures with different values of yield stress and plastic viscosity were tested in a concrete truck. The measurements made with the truck were based on the typical method of determining the flow behavior in a traditional fluid rheometer; that is, the shear rate in the mixing truck was swept from high to low by varying the rotation speed of the drum. The results of these experiments are discussed and compared with data provided by the ICAR rheometer, a portable rheometer designed for measuring concrete rheology. The test results indicate that the mixing truck equipment is sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in yield stress, slump, and plastic viscosity. However, the plastic viscosity determined by the truck measurement did not correlate with plastic viscosity as measured by the ICAR rheometer, while the yield stress determined by the truck measurement did correlate well with the measured slump and the ICAR rheometer results Suggestions are given on how to improve the mixing truck for better use as a rheometer.

  20. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measures designs: a flexible approach using the SPSS MANOVA procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, E J; Neilands, T B; Zambarano, R

    2001-11-01

    Although power analysis is an important component in the planning and implementation of research designs, it is often ignored. Computer programs for performing power analysis are available, but most have limitations, particularly for complex multivariate designs. An SPSS procedure is presented that can be used for calculating power for univariate, multivariate, and repeated measures models with and without time-varying and time-constant covariates. Three examples provide a framework for calculating power via this method: an ANCOVA, a MANOVA, and a repeated measures ANOVA with two or more groups. The benefits and limitations of this procedure are discussed.

  1. Repeated quantitative perfusion and contrast permeability measurement in the MRI examination of a CNS tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonken, E.P.A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Willems, P.W.A.; Zwan, A. van der; Bakker, C.J.G.; Viergever, M.A.; Mali, W.P.T.M. [University Hospital Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2000-09-01

    This study reports on the results of quantitative MRI perfusion and contrast permeability measurement on two occasions in one patient. The measurements were separated 81 days in time. The tumor grew considerably in this period, but no change was found with respect to perfusion and contrast permeability. Non-involved white matter values were reproduced to demonstrate repeatability. The presented approach to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI allows fast and repeatable quantitative assessment of perfusion and is easily integrated in a conventional brain tumor protocol. (orig.)

  2. Intraexaminer repeatability and agreement in stereoacuity measurements made in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Antona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the repeatability and agreement of stereoacuity measurements made using some of the most widely used clinical tests: Frisby, TNO, Randot and Titmus. METHODS: Stereoacuity was measured in two different sessions separated by a time interval of at least 24h but no longer than 1wk in 74 subjects of mean age 20.6y using the four methods. The study participants were divided into two groups: subjects with normal binocular vision and subjects with abnormal binocular vision. RESULTS: Best repeatability was shown by the Frisby and Titmus [coefficient of repeatability (COR: ±13 and ±12s arc respectively] in the subjects with normal binocular vision though a clear ceiling effect was noted. In the subjects with abnormal binocular vision, best repeatability was shown by the Frisby (COR: ±69s arc and Randot (COR: ±72s arc. In both groups, the TNO test showed poorest agreement with the other tests. CONCLUSION: The repeatability of stereoacuity measures was low in subjects with poor binocular vision yet fairly good in subjects with normal binocular vision with the exception of the TNO test. The reduced agreement detected between the tests indicates they cannot be used interchangeably.

  3. Repeatability of the modified Thorington card used to measure far heterophoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian, Jose Luis; Antona, Beatriz; Barrio, Ana; Gonzalez, Enrique; Gutierrez, Angel; Sanchez, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    To determine the interexaminer and intraexaminer repeatability of the modified Thorington test (TH) for distance vision in young adults and to compare these results with those observed for the heterophoria tests most commonly used in clinical practice. Agreement among tests was also assessed. Distance heterophoria was quantified on two separate occasions by two examiners in 110 subjects aged 18 to 32 years (mean, 19.74 years; SD, 2.5 years) using four different tests: cover test (CT) Von Graefe, Maddox rod, and modified TH. The repeatability of the tests and agreement between them was estimated by the Bland and Altman method whereby the mean difference and the 95% limits of agreement were determined as the coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement. The Thorington test showed best interexaminer repeatability (COR = ±1.43Δ), followed closely by CT (COR = ±1.65Δ), whereas best intraexaminer repeatability was observed for CT (COR = ±1.28Δ) followed by TH (COR = ±1.51Δ). Among the different combinations of tests, TH and CT showed best agreement indicated by the lowest coefficient of agreement (±2.23Δ) and a low mean difference (-0.63Δ) between measurements. Good interexaminer and intraexaminer repeatability was observed for both TH and CT, and agreement between the two tests was also good. Given the simple administration of the TH, we recommend its clinical use to quantify distance horizontal heterophoria.

  4. Models and measures of mixing and effective diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zhi; Doering, Charles R

    2010-01-01

    Mixing a passive scalar field by stirring can be measured in a variety of ways including tracer particle dispersion, via the flux-gradient relationship, or by suppression of scalar concentration variations in the presence of inhomogeneous sources and sinks. The mixing efficiency or efficacy of a particular flow is often expressed in terms of enhanced diffusivity and quantified as an effective diffusion coefficient. In this work we compare and contrast several notions of effective diffusivity. We thoroughly examine the fundamental case of a steady sinusoidal shear flow mixing a scalar sustained by a steady sinusoidal source-sink distribution to explore apparent quantitative inconsistencies among the measures. Ultimately the conflicts are attributed to the noncommutative asymptotic limits of large P$\\acute{\\text{e}}$clet number and large length-scale separation. We then propose another approach, a generalization of Batchelor's 1949 theory of diffusion in homogeneous turbulence, that helps unify the particle dis...

  5. Australian House Prices: A Comparison of Hedonic and Repeat-sales Measures

    OpenAIRE

    James Hansen

    2006-01-01

    House prices are intrinsically difficult to measure due to changes in the composition of properties sold through time and changes in the quality of housing. I provide an overview of the theoretical nature of these issues and consider how regression-based measures of house prices – hedonic and repeat-sales measures – can control for compositional and quality change. I then explore whether these regression-based alternatives can provide accurate estimates of pure house price changes in the Aust...

  6. Repeatability of cardiac-MRI-measured right ventricular size and function in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Rowan; Salem, Yishay [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Shah, Amee; Lai, Wyman W. [Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital of New York Presbyterian, New York, NY (United States); Nielsen, James C. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai Children' s Heart Center, Box 1201, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The measurement error for right ventricular (RV) size and function assessed by cardiac MRI (CMRI) in congenital heart disease has not been fully characterized. As CMRI parameters are being increasingly utilized to make clinical decisions, defining error in the clinical setting is critical. This investigation examines the repeatability of CMRI for RV size and function. Forty consecutive people with congenital heart disease involving the RV were retrospectively identified. Contouring of RV volumes was performed by two expert CMRI clinicians. The coefficient of variability and repeatability coefficients were calculated. Repeatability coefficients were multiplied by the mean value for each group studied to define a threshold beyond which measurement error was unlikely to be responsible. The variability for indexed RV end-diastolic volume = 3.2% and 3.3% for intra- and interobserver comparisons, respectively. The repeatability coefficients were 13.2% and 14.9% for intra- and interobserver comparisons, which yielded threshold values of 15.1 ml/m{sup 2} and 20.2 ml/m{sup 2}, respectively. For RV ejection fraction (EF), the repeatability coefficients for intra- and interobserver comparisons were 5.0% and 6.0%, which resulted in threshold values of 2.6 EF% and 3.0 EF%. The threshold values generated can be used during serial assessment of RV size and function. (orig.)

  7. Accuracy and repeatability of an optical motion analysis system for measuring small deformations of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Helen; Holt, Cathy; Evans, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Optical motion analysis techniques have been widely used in biomechanics for measuring large-scale motions such as gait, but have not yet been significantly explored for measuring smaller movements such as the tooth displacements under load. In principle, very accurate measurements could be possible and this could provide a valuable tool in many engineering applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy and repeatability of the Qualisys ProReflex-MCU120 system when measuring small displacements, as a step towards measuring tooth displacements to characterise the properties of the periodontal ligament. Accuracy and repeatability of the system was evaluated using a wedge comparator with a resolution of 0.25 microm to provide measured marker displacements in three orthogonal directions. The marker was moved in ten steps in each direction, for each of seven step sizes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, and 20 microm), repeated five times. Spherical and diamond markers were tested. The system accuracy (i.e. percentage of maximum absolute error in range/measurement range), in the 20-200 microm ranges, was +/-1.17%, +/-1.67% and +/-1.31% for the diamond marker in x, y and z directions, while the system accuracy for the spherical marker was +/-1.81%, +/-2.37% and +/-1.39%. The system repeatability (i.e. maximum standard deviation in the measurement range) measured under the different days, light intensity and temperatures for five times, carried out step up and then step down measurements for the same step size, was +/-1.7, +/-2.3 and +/-1.9 microm for the diamond marker, and +/-2.6, +/-3.9 and +/-1.9 microm for the spherical marker in x, y and z directions, respectively. These results demonstrate that the system suffices accuracy for measuring tooth displacements and could potentially be useful in many other applications.

  8. Repeatability of central corneal thickness measurement with the Pentacam HR system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Simonato Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the repeatability of central corneal thickness measurement at the geometrical center (Central Corneal Thickness - CCT given by the Pentacam High Resolution (HR Comprehensive Eye Scanner (Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany over time. METHODS: Prospective, single center, observational study. Two separate CCT measurements were taken by the Pentacam corneal tomography exam (CTm 3 to 12 months apart, and compared. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen eyes (n=116 of 62 health patients were included in this study. Average CCT in first and last visits was 541.6±37 µm and 543.6±36.9 µm respectively. Mean difference between both measurements was 9.2±6.4 µm, and there was no statistically significant difference in CCT measurement between visits, with good correlation between them (P = 0.057, r² = 0,9209. CONCLUSION: Pentacam (HR CTm gives repeatable CCT measurements over time.

  9. Determination of Al in cake mix: Method validation and estimation of measurement uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, G.; Rocha, O.; Junqueira, R.

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method for the determination of Al in cake mix was developed. Acceptable values were obtained for the following parameters: linearity, detection limit - LOD (5.00 mg-kg-1) quantification limit - LOQ (12.5 mg-kg-1), the recovery assays values (between 91 and 102%), the relative standard deviation under repeatability and within-reproducibility conditions (<20.0%) and measurement uncertainty tests (<10.0%) The results of the validation process showed that the proposed method is fitness for purpose.

  10. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Nicholas; Baucom, Katherine; Bourne, Stacia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor–partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal...

  11. Accuracy and repeatability of anthropometric facial measurements using cone beam computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Peter O.; Ren, Yijin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and repeatability of linear anthropometric measurements on the soft tissue surface model generated from cone beam computed tomography scans. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of seven cadaver heads. The accuracy and r

  12. Cross-trimester repeated measures testing for Down's syndrome screening: an assessment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wright, D

    2010-07-01

    To provide estimates and confidence intervals for the performance (detection and false-positive rates) of screening for Down\\'s syndrome using repeated measures of biochemical markers from first and second trimester maternal serum samples taken from the same woman.

  13. REPEATABILITY OF THE SUGAR ABSORPTION TEST, USING LACTULOSE AND MANNITOL, FOR MEASURING INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY FOR SUGARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; KOKKE, FTM; MULDER, AM; VANDEBROEK, WGM; MULDER, CJJ; HEYMANS, HSA

    1995-01-01

    Differential sugar-absorption tests for measuring intestinal permeability for sugars have been studied in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. Their use in general practice has been hampered by a lack of data on reference values and repeatability of the test and the laboratory assay. In this stud

  14. The Multilevel Approach to Repeated Measures for Complete and Incomplete Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, CJM; Snijders, TAB

    2003-01-01

    Repeated measurements often are analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). An alternative approach is provided by multilevel analysis, also called the hierarchical linear model (HLM), which makes use of random coefficient models. This paper is a tutorial which indicates that the HLM can

  15. Absolute distance measurement based on multiple self-mixing interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiwei; Yu, Yangyang; Gao, Bingkun; Jiang, Chunlei

    2017-04-01

    To improve the precision of distance measurement using laser Self-Mixing Interferometry (SMI) and compute short distance, we propose a method of Multiple Self-Mixing Interferometry (MSMI) that is modulated with a triangular wave. The principle of this method has been described in this paper. Experiments at different distances and amplitudes of modulation current are based on the proposed method. Low-priced and easily operated experimental devices are built. Experimental results show that a resolution of 2.7 mm can be achieved for absolute distance ranging from 2.2 to 23 cm.

  16. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Meridith T; Lu, Julie; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61) exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations.

  17. Unique Behavioral and Neurochemical Effects Induced by Repeated Adolescent Consumption of Caffeine-Mixed Alcohol in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meridith T Robins

    Full Text Available The number of highly caffeinated products has increased dramatically in the past few years. Among these products, highly caffeinated energy drinks are the most heavily advertised and purchased, which has resulted in increased incidences of co-consumption of energy drinks with alcohol. Despite the growing number of adolescents and young adults reporting caffeine-mixed alcohol use, knowledge of the potential consequences associated with co-consumption has been limited to survey-based results and in-laboratory human behavioral testing. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated adolescent (post-natal days P35-61 exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol in C57BL/6 mice on common drug-related behaviors such as locomotor sensitivity, drug reward and cross-sensitivity, and natural reward. To determine changes in neurological activity resulting from adolescent exposure, we monitored changes in expression of the transcription factor ΔFosB in the dopaminergic reward pathway as a sign of long-term increases in neuronal activity. Repeated adolescent exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure induced significant locomotor sensitization, desensitized cocaine conditioned place preference, decreased cocaine locomotor cross-sensitivity, and increased natural reward consumption. We also observed increased accumulation of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens following repeated adolescent caffeine-mixed alcohol exposure compared to alcohol or caffeine alone. Using our exposure model, we found that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence causes unique behavioral and neurochemical effects not observed in mice exposed to caffeine or alcohol alone. Based on similar findings for different substances of abuse, it is possible that repeated exposure to caffeine-mixed alcohol during adolescence could potentially alter or escalate future substance abuse as means to compensate for these behavioral and neurochemical alterations.

  18. Comparison of mixing height parameterizations with profiles measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquier, A.; Stuebi, R.; Tercier, P. [Swiss Meteorological Inst., SMI - MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    Different meteorological pre-processors for dispersion studies are available to derive the atmospheric boundary layer mixing height (MH). The analysis of their performances has been reviewed in the framework of the European COST Action 710. In this project, the computed mixing height values have been compared with data derived mostly from aero-logical sounding analysis and Sodar measurements. Since then, a new analysis of a low-tropospheric wind profiler (WP) data has been performed taking advantage of its high data sampling ({delta}t {approx} 30 sec.). The comparison between these recent results and aero-logical sounding, Sodar data, as well as to meteorological pre-processors calculations are reported for three periods of several days corresponding to different meteorological situations. In convective conditions, the pre-processors give reasonable level, the mixing height growing rate is in fair agreement with the measured one. In stable cloudy daytime conditions, the modeled mixing height does not correspond to any measured height. (LN)

  19. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  20. Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony, P L; Arroyo, C; Bega, K; Biesiada, J; Bosted, P E; Bower, G; Cahoon, J; Carr, R; Cates, G D; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Cooke, M; Decowski, P; Deur, A; Emam, W; Erickson, R; Fieguth, T; Field, C; Gao, J; Gary, M; Gustafsson, K; Hicks, R S; Holmes, R; Hughes, E W; Humensky, T B; Jones, G M; Kaufman, L J; Keller, L; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kumar, K S; La Violette, P; Lhuillier, D; Lombard-Nelsen, R M; Marshall, Z; Mastromarino, P; McKeown, R D; Michaels, R; Niedziela, J; Olson, M; Paschke, K D; Peterson, G A; Pitthan, R; Relyea, D; Rock, S E; Saxton, O; Singh, J; Souder, P A; Szalata, Z M; Turner, J; Tweedie, B; Vacheret, A; Walz, D; Weber, T; Weisend, J; Woods, M; Younus, I

    2005-01-01

    We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Moller) scattering: A_PV = -131 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 10 (syst.) parts per billion, leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff = 0.2397 +/- 0.0010 (stat.) +/- 0.0008 (syst.), evaluated at Q^2 = 0.026 GeV^2. Combining this result with the measurements of \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff at the Z^0 pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6 sigma significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale.

  1. Continuous measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stowasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new, field-deployable technique for continuous, high-resolution measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores. The technique is based on a continuous flow analysis system, where ice core samples cut along the long axis of an ice core are melted continuously. The past atmospheric air contained in the ice is separated from the melt water stream via a system for continuous gas extraction. The extracted gas is dehumidified and then analyzed by a Wavelength Scanned-Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer for methane mixing ratios. We assess the performance of the new measurement technique in terms of precision (±0.8 ppbv, 1σ, accuracy (±8 ppbv, temporal (ca. 100 s, and spatial resolution (ca. 5 cm. Using a firn air transport model, we compare the resolution of the measurement technique to the resolution of the atmospheric methane signal as preserved in ice cores in Greenland. We conclude that our measurement technique can resolve all climatically relevant variations as preserved in the ice down to an ice depth of at least 1980 m (66 000 yr before present in the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ice core. Furthermore, we describe the modifications, which are necessary to make a commercially available spectrometer suitable for continuous methane mixing ratio measurements from ice cores.

  2. Continuous measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stowasser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new, field-deployable technique for continuous, high-resolution measurements of methane mixing ratios from ice cores. The technique is based on a continuous flow analysis system, where ice core samples cut along the long axis of an ice core are melted continuously. The past atmospheric air contained in the ice is separated from the melt water stream via a system for continuous gas extraction. The extracted gas is dehumidified and then analyzed by a Wavelength Scanned-Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer for methane mixing ratios. We assess the performance of the new measurement technique in terms of precision (±0.8 ppbv, 1 σ, accuracy (±8 ppbv, temporal (ca. 100 s and spatial resolution (ca. 6 cm. Using a firn air transport model, we compare the resolution of the measurement technique to the resolution of the atmospheric methane signal as preserved in ice cores in Greenland. We conclude that our measurement technique can resolve all climatically relevant variations as preserved in the ice down to an ice depth of at least 1980 m (66 000 yr before present in the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ice core. Furthermore, we describe the modifications which are necessary to make a commercially available spectrometer suitable for continuous methane mixing ratio measurements from ice cores.

  3. A Bayesian model for repeated measures zero-inflated count data with application to outpatient psychiatric service use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Brian H.; O’Malley, A. James; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.

    2009-01-01

    In applications involving count data, it is common to encounter an excess number of zeros. In the study of outpatient service utilization, for example, the number of utilization days will take on integer values, with many subjects having no utilization (zero values). Mixed-distribution models, such as the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB), are often used to fit such data. A more general class of mixture models, called hurdle models, can be used to model zero-deflation as well as zero-inflation. Several authors have proposed frequentist approaches to fitting zero-inflated models for repeated measures. We describe a practical Bayesian approach which incorporates prior information, has optimal small-sample properties, and allows for tractable inference. The approach can be easily implemented using standard Bayesian software. A study of psychiatric outpatient service use illustrates the methods. PMID:21339863

  4. Optimal selection of individuals for repeated covariate measurements in follow-up studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, Jaakko; Karvanen, Juha; Tolonen, Hanna

    2016-12-01

    Repeated covariate measurements bring important information on the time-varying risk factors in long epidemiological follow-up studies. However, due to budget limitations, it may be possible to carry out the repeated measurements only for a subset of the cohort. We study cost-efficient alternatives for the simple random sampling in the selection of the individuals to be remeasured. The proposed selection criteria are based on forms of the D-optimality. The selection methods are compared with the simulation studies and illustrated with the data from the East-West study carried out in Finland from 1959 to 1999. The results indicate that cost savings can be achieved if the selection is focused on the individuals with high expected risk of the event and, on the other hand, on those with extreme covariate values in the previous measurements. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Intraexaminer repeatability and agreement in stereoacuity measurements made in young adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatriz; Antona; Ana; Barrio; Isabel; Sanchez; Enrique; Gonzalez; Guadalupe; Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the repeatability and agreement of stereoacuity measurements made using some of the most widely used clinical tests: Frisby, TNO, Randot and Titmus.METHODS: Stereoacuity was measured in two different sessions separated by a time interval of at least 24 h but no longer than 1wk in 74 subjects of mean age 20.6y using the four methods. The study participants were divided into two groups: subjects with normal binocular vision and subjects with abnormal binocular vision.RESULTS: Best repeatability was shown by the Frisby and Titmus [coefficient of repeatability(COR): ±13 and±12s arc respectively] in the subjects with normal binocular vision though a clear ceiling effect was noted.In the subjects with abnormal binocular vision, best repeatability was shown by the Frisby(COR: ±69s arc)and Randot(COR: ±72s arc). In both groups, the TNO test showed poorest agreement with the other tests.CONCLUSION:Therepeatabilityofstereoacuitymeasures was low in subjects with poor binocular vision yet fairly good in subjects with normal binocular vision with the exception of the TNO test. The reduced agreement detected between the tests indicates they cannot be used interchangeably.

  6. Repeatability and reproducibility of optic nerve head perfusion measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Bojikian, Karine D.; Xin, Chen; Wen, Joanne C.; Gupta, Divakar; Zhang, Qinqin; Mudumbai, Raghu C.; Johnstone, Murray A.; Chen, Philip P.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has increasingly become a clinically useful technique in ophthalmic imaging. We evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of blood perfusion in the optic nerve head (ONH) measured using optical microangiography (OMAG)-based OCTA. Ten eyes from 10 healthy volunteers are recruited and scanned three times with a 68-kHz Cirrus HD-OCT 5000-based OMAG prototype system (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, California) centered at the ONH involving two separate visits within six weeks. Vascular images are generated with OMAG processing by detecting the differences in OCT signals between consecutive B-scans acquired at the same retina location. ONH perfusion is quantified as flux, vessel area density, and normalized flux within the ONH for the prelaminar, lamina cribrosa, and the full ONH. Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) are used to evaluate intravisit and intervisit repeatability, and interobserver reproducibility. ONH perfusion measurements show high repeatability [CV≤3.7% (intravisit) and ≤5.2% (intervisit)] and interobserver reproducibility (ICC≤0.966) in all three layers by three metrics. OCTA provides a noninvasive method to visualize and quantify ONH perfusion in human eyes with excellent repeatability and reproducibility, which may add additional insight into ONH perfusion in clinical practice.

  7. Repeatability, variability and reference values of pulsed wave Doppler echocardiographic measurements in healthy Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroux Aurélia A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulsed wave (PW Doppler echocardiography has become a routine non invasive cardiac diagnostic tool in most species. However, evaluation of intracardiac blood flow requires reference values, which are poorly documented in goats. The aim of this study was to test the repeatability, the variability, and to establish the reference values of PW measurements in healthy adult Saanen goats. Using a standardised PW Doppler echocardiographic protocol, 10 healthy adult unsedated female Saanen goats were investigated three times at one day intervals by the same observer. Mitral, tricuspid, aortic and pulmonary flows were measured from a right parasternal view, and mitral and aortic flows were also measured from a left parasternal view. The difference between left and right side measurements and the intra-observer inter-day repeatability were tested and then the reference values of PW Doppler echocardiographic parameters in healthy adult female Saanen goats were established. Results As documented in other species, all caprine PW Doppler parameters demonstrated a poor inter-day repeatability and a moderate variability. Tricuspid and pulmonary flows were best evaluated on the right side whereas mitral and aortic flows were best obtained on the left side, and reference values are reported for healthy adult Saanen goats. Conclusions PW Doppler echocardiography allows the measurement of intracardiac blood flow indices in goats. The reference values establishment will help interpreting these indices of cardiac function in clinical cardiac cases and developing animal models for human cardiology research.

  8. Collective vs local measurements in qubit mixed state estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Bagán, E; Muñoz-Tàpia, R; Rodríguez, A

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the problem of estimating a general (mixed) qubit state. We give the optimal guess that can be inferred from any given set of measurements. For collective measurements and for a large number $N$ of copies, we show that the error in the estimation goes as 1/N. For local measurements we focus on the simpler case of states lying on the equatorial plane of the Bloch sphere. We show that standard tomographic techniques lead to an error proportional to $1/N^{1/4}$, while with our optimal data processing it is proportional to $1/N^{3/4}$.

  9. Using the Monte Carlo Simulation Methods in Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility of Measurement System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Ming Yeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements are required to maintain the consistent quality of all finished and semi-finished products in a production line. Many firms in the automobile and general precision industries apply the TS 16949:2009 Technical Specifications and Measurement System Analysis (MSA manual to establish measurement systems. This work is undertaken to evaluate gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R to verify the measuring ability and quality of the measurement frame, as well as to continuously improve and maintain the verification process. Nevertheless, the implementation of GR&R requires considerable time and manpower, and is likely to affect production adversely. In addition, the evaluation value for GR&R is always different owing to the sum of man-made and machine-made variations. Using a Monte Carlo simulation and the prediction of the repeatability and reproducibility of the measurement system analysis, this study aims to determine the distribution of %GR&R and the related number of distinct categories (ndc. This study uses two case studies of an automobile parts manufacturer and the combination of a Monte Carlo simulation, statistical bases, and the prediction of the repeatability and reproducibility of the measurement system analysis to determine the probability density function, the distribution of %GR&R, and the related number of distinct categories (ndc. The method used in this study could evaluate effectively the possible range of the GR&R of the measurement capability, in order to establish a prediction model for the evaluation of the measurement capacity of a measurement system.

  10. Antarctic Ice Sheet Slope and Aspect Based on Icesat's Repeat Orbit Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, L.; Li, F.; Zhang, S.; Xie, S.; Xiao, F.; Zhu, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate information of ice sheet surface slope is essential for estimating elevation change by satellite altimetry measurement. A study is carried out to recover surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet from Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) elevation measurements based on repeat orbits. ICESat provides repeat ground tracks within 200 meters in cross-track direction and 170 meters in along-track direction for most areas of Antarctic ice sheet. Both cross-track and along-track surface slopes could be obtained by adjacent repeat ground tracks. Combining those measurements yields a surface slope model with resolution of approximately 200 meters. An algorithm considering elevation change is developed to estimate the surface slope of Antarctic ice sheet. Three Antarctic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were used to calculate surface slopes. The surface slopes from DEMs are compared with estimates by using in situ GPS data in Dome A, the summit of Antarctic ice sheet. Our results reveal an average surface slope difference of 0.02 degree in Dome A. High resolution remote sensing images are also used in comparing the results derived from other DEMs and this paper. The comparison implies that our results have a slightly better coherence with GPS observation than results from DEMs, but our results provide more details and perform higher accuracy in coastal areas because of the higher resolution for ICESat measurements. Ice divides are estimated based on the aspect, and are weakly consistent with ice divides from other method in coastal regions.

  11. Validity and repeatability of three in-shoe pressure measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Carina; Parker, Daniel; Nester, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    In-shoe pressure measurement devices are used in research and clinic to quantify plantar foot pressures. Various devices are available, differing in size, sensor number and type; therefore accuracy and repeatability. Three devices (Medilogic, Tekscan and Pedar) were examined in a 2 day×3 trial design, quantifying insole response to regional and whole insole loading. The whole insole protocol applied an even pressure (50-600kPa) to the insole surface for 0-30s in the Novel TruBlue™ device. The regional protocol utilised cylinders with contact surfaces of 3.14 and 15.9cm(2) to apply pressures of 50 and 200kPa. The validity (% difference and Root Mean Square Error: RMSE) and repeatability (Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient: ICC) of the applied pressures (whole insole) and contact area (regional) were outcome variables. Validity of the Pedar system was highest (RMSE 2.6kPa; difference 3.9%), with the Medilogic (RMSE 27.0kPa; difference 13.4%) and Tekscan (RMSE 27.0kPa; difference 5.9%) systems displaying reduced validity. The average and peak pressures demonstrated high between-day repeatability for all three systems and each insole size (ICC≥0.859). The regional contact area % difference ranged from -97 to +249%, but the ICC demonstrated medium to high between-day repeatability (ICC≥0.797). Due to the varying responses of the systems, the choice of an appropriate pressure measurement device must be based on the loading characteristics and the outcome variables sought. Medilogic and Tekscan were most effective between 200 and 300kPa; Pedar performed well across all pressures. Contact area was less precise, but relatively repeatable for all systems.

  12. Predicting seed yield in perennial ryegrass using repeated canopy reflectance measurements and PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Repeated canopy reflectance measurements together with partial least-squares regression (PLSR) were used to predict seed yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The measurements were performed during the spring and summer growing seasons of 2001 to 2003 in three field experiments...... reflectance measurements was from approximately 600 cumulative growing degree-days (CGDD) to approximately 900 CGDD. This is the period just before and at heading of the seed crop. Furthermore, regression coefficients showed that information about N and water is important. The results support the development...

  13. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  14. Status of a UAV SAR Designed for Repeat Pass Interferometry for Deformation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Hoffman, Jim; Miller, Tim; Lou, Yunling; Muellerschoen, Ron; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Rosen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Under the NASA ESTO sponsored Instrument Incubator Program we have designed a lightweight, reconfigurable polarimetric L-band SAR designed for repeat pass deformation measurements of rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes. This radar will be installed on an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) or a lightweight, high-altitude, and long endurance platform such as the Proteus. After a study of suitable available platforms we selected the Proteus for initial development and testing of the system. We want to control the repeat track capability of the aircraft to be within a 10 m tube to support the repeat deformation capability. We conducted tests with the Proteus using real-time GPS with sub-meter accuracy to see if pilots could fly the aircraft within the desired tube. Our results show that pilots are unable to fly the aircraft with the desired accuracy and therefore an augmented autopilot will be required to meet these objectives. Based on the Proteus flying altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft), we are designing a fully polarimetric L-band radar with 80 MHz bandwidth and 16 km range swath. This radar will have an active electronic beam steering antenna to achieve Doppler centroid stability that is necessary for repeat-pass interferometry (RPI). This paper will present are design criteria, current design and expected science applications.

  15. A Network-Based Algorithm for Clustering Multivariate Repeated Measures Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslovsky, Matthew; Arellano, John; Schaefer, Caroline; Feiveson, Alan; Young, Millennia; Lee, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astronaut Corps is a unique occupational cohort for which vast amounts of measures data have been collected repeatedly in research or operational studies pre-, in-, and post-flight, as well as during multiple clinical care visits. In exploratory analyses aimed at generating hypotheses regarding physiological changes associated with spaceflight exposure, such as impaired vision, it is of interest to identify anomalies and trends across these expansive datasets. Multivariate clustering algorithms for repeated measures data may help parse the data to identify homogeneous groups of astronauts that have higher risks for a particular physiological change. However, available clustering methods may not be able to accommodate the complex data structures found in NASA data, since the methods often rely on strict model assumptions, require equally-spaced and balanced assessment times, cannot accommodate missing data or differing time scales across variables, and cannot process continuous and discrete data simultaneously. To fill this gap, we propose a network-based, multivariate clustering algorithm for repeated measures data that can be tailored to fit various research settings. Using simulated data, we demonstrate how our method can be used to identify patterns in complex data structures found in practice.

  16. High-Dimensional Multivariate Repeated Measures Analysis with Unequal Covariance Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrar, Solomon W.; Kong, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, test statistics for repeated measures design are introduced when the dimension is large. By large dimension is meant the number of repeated measures and the total sample size grow together but either one could be larger than the other. Asymptotic distribution of the statistics are derived for the equal as well as unequal covariance cases in the balanced as well as unbalanced cases. The asymptotic framework considered requires proportional growth of the sample sizes and the dimension of the repeated measures in the unequal covariance case. In the equal covariance case, one can grow at much faster rate than the other. The derivations of the asymptotic distributions mimic that of Central Limit Theorem with some important peculiarities addressed with sufficient rigor. Consistent and unbiased estimators of the asymptotic variances, which make efficient use of all the observations, are also derived. Simulation study provides favorable evidence for the accuracy of the asymptotic approximation under the null hypothesis. Power simulations have shown that the new methods have comparable power with a popular method known to work well in low-dimensional situation but the new methods have shown enormous advantage when the dimension is large. Data from Electroencephalograph (EEG) experiment is analyzed to illustrate the application of the results. PMID:26778861

  17. Repeatability and Comparison of Keratometry Values Measured with Potec PRK-6000 Autorefractometer, IOLMaster, and Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Türk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To research the repeatability and intercompatibility of keratometry values measured with Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, IOL Master, and Pentacam. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, consecutive measurements were performed in two different sessions with the mentioned three devices on 110 eyes of 55 subjects who had no additional ocular pathology except for refraction error. The consistency of flat and steep keratometry, average keratometry, and corneal astigmatism values obtained in both sessions was compared by using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. The measurement differences between the devices were statistically compared as well. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was 23.05±3.01 (18-30 years. ICC values of average keratometry measurements obtained in the sessions were 0.996 for Potec PRK-6000 autorefractometer, 0.997 for IOL Master, and 0.999 for Pentacam. There was high compatibility between the three devices in terms of average keratometry values in Bland-Altman analysis. However, there were statistically significant differences between the devices in terms of parameters other than corneal astigmatism. Conclusion: The repeatability of the three devices was found considerably high in keratometry measurements. However, it is not appropriate for these devices to be substituted for each other in keratometry measurements. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 179-83

  18. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Compression Strength Measurements Conducted According to ASTM E9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, William E.; Ma, Li; Graham, Stephen M.; Adler, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    Ten commercial laboratories participated in an interlaboratory study to establish the repeatability and reproducibility of compression strength tests conducted according to ASTM International Standard Test Method E9. The test employed a cylindrical aluminum AA2024-T351 test specimen. Participants measured elastic modulus and 0.2 % offset yield strength, YS(0.2 % offset), using an extensometer attached to the specimen. The repeatability and reproducibility of the yield strength measurement, expressed as coefficient of variations were cv(sub r)= 0.011 and cv(sub R)= 0.020 The reproducibility of the test across the laboratories was among the best that has been reported for uniaxial tests. The reported data indicated that using diametrically opposed extensometers, instead of a single extensometer doubled the precision of the test method. Laboratories that did not lubricate the ends of the specimen measured yield stresses and elastic moduli that were smaller than those measured in laboratories that lubricated the specimen ends. A finite element analysis of the test specimen deformation for frictionless and perfect friction could not explain the discrepancy, however. The modulus measured from stress-strain data were reanalyzed using a technique that finds the optimal fit range, and applies several quality checks to the data. The error in modulus measurements from stress-strain curves generally increased as the fit range decreased to less than 40 % of the stress range.

  19. The effect of repeated measurements and working memory on the most comfortable level in the ANL test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Holm, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    interleaved methodology during one session using a non-semantic version. Phonological (PWM) and visuospatial working memory (VSWM) was measured. STUDY SAMPLE: Thirty-two normal-hearing adults. RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA, intraclass correlations, and the coefficient of repeatability (CR) were used...

  20. Effect of repeated contact on adhesion measurements involving polydimethylsiloxane structural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, E.; Maboudian, R.; Arzt, E.

    2009-09-01

    During the last few years several research groups have focused on the fabrication of artificial gecko inspired adhesives. For mimicking these structures, different polymers are used as structure material, such as polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), polyurethanes (PU), and polypropylene (PP). While these polymers can be structured easily and used for artificial adhesion systems, the effects of repeated adhesion testing have never been investigated closely. In this paper we report on the effect of repeated adhesion measurements on the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer kit Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning). We show that the adhesion force decreases as a function of contact cycles. The rate of change and the final value of adhesion are found to depend on the details of the PDMS synthesis and structuring.

  1. Effect of repeated contact on adhesion measurements involving polydimethylsiloxane structural material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroner, E; Arzt, E [INM-Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66125 Saarbruecken (Germany); Maboudian, R, E-mail: elmar.kroner@inm-gmbh.de [Department of Chem. Eng., 201 Gilman Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1462 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    During the last few years several research groups have focused on the fabrication of artificial gecko inspired adhesives. For mimicking these structures, different polymers are used as structure material, such as polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), polyurethanes (PU), and polypropylene (PP). While these polymers can be structured easily and used for artificial adhesion systems, the effects of repeated adhesion testing have never been investigated closely. In this paper we report on the effect of repeated adhesion measurements on the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer kit Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning). We show that the adhesion force decreases as a function of contact cycles. The rate of change and the final value of adhesion are found to depend on the details of the PDMS synthesis and structuring.

  2. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  3. [Repeated measurement of memory with valenced test items: verbal memory, working memory and autobiographic memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffel, A; Terfehr, K; Uhlmann, C; Schreiner, J; Löwe, B; Spitzer, C; Wingenfeld, K

    2013-07-01

    A large number of questions in clinical and/or experimental neuropsychology require the multiple repetition of memory tests at relatively short intervals. Studies on the impact of the associated exercise and interference effects on the validity of the test results are rare. Moreover, hardly any neuropsychological instruments exist to date to record the memory performance with several parallel versions in which the emotional valence of the test material is also taken into consideration. The aim of the present study was to test whether a working memory test (WST, a digit-span task with neutral or negative distraction stimuli) devised by our workgroup can be used with repeated measurements. This question was also examined in parallel versions of a wordlist learning paradigm and an autobiographical memory test (AMT). Both tests contained stimuli with neutral, positive and negative valence. Twenty-four participants completed the memory testing including the working memory test and three versions of a wordlist and the AMT at intervals of a week apiece (measuring points 1. - 3.). The results reveal consistent performances across the three measuring points in the working and autobiographical memory test. The valence of the stimulus material did not influence the memory performance. In the delayed recall of the wordlist an improvement in memory performance over time was seen. The tests on working memory presented and the parallel versions for the declarative and autobiographical memory constitute informal economic instruments within the scope of the measurement repeatability designs. While the WST and AMT are appropriate for study designs with repeated measurements at relatively short intervals, longer intervals might seem more favourable for the use of wordlist learning paradigms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Validity and repeatability of a depth camera-based surface imaging system for thigh volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullas, Alice M; Choppin, Simon; Heller, Ben; Wheat, Jon

    2016-10-01

    Complex anthropometrics such as area and volume, can identify changes in body size and shape that are not detectable with traditional anthropometrics of lengths, breadths, skinfolds and girths. However, taking these complex with manual techniques (tape measurement and water displacement) is often unsuitable. Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging systems are quick and accurate alternatives to manual techniques but their use is restricted by cost, complexity and limited access. We have developed a novel low-cost, accessible and portable 3D surface imaging system based on consumer depth cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and repeatability of the system in the measurement of thigh volume. The thigh volumes of 36 participants were measured with the depth camera system and a high precision commercially available 3D surface imaging system (3dMD). The depth camera system used within this study is highly repeatable (technical error of measurement (TEM) of <1.0% intra-calibration and ~2.0% inter-calibration) but systematically overestimates (~6%) thigh volume when compared to the 3dMD system. This suggests poor agreement yet a close relationship, which once corrected can yield a usable thigh volume measurement.

  5. Effects of repeatability measures on results of fMRI sICA: a study on simulated and real resting-state effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Jukka J; Starck, Tuomo; Nikkinen, Juha; Ollila, Esa; Beckmann, Christian F; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Silven, Olli

    2011-05-15

    Spatial independent components analysis (sICA) has become a widely applied data-driven method for fMRI data, especially for resting-state studies. These sICA approaches are often based on iterative estimation algorithms and there are concerns about accuracy due to noise. Repeatability measures such as ICASSO, RAICAR and ARABICA have been introduced as remedies but information on their effects on estimates is limited. The contribution of this study was to provide more of such information and test if the repeatability analyses are necessary. We compared FastICA-based ordinary and repeatability approaches concerning mixing vector estimates. Comparisons included original FastICA, FSL4 Melodic FastICA and original and modified ICASSO. The effects of bootstrapping and convergence threshold were evaluated. The results show that there is only moderate improvement due to repeatability measures and only in the bootstrapping case. Bootstrapping attenuated power from time courses of resting-state network related ICs at frequencies higher than 0.1 Hz and made subsets of low frequency oscillations more emphasized IC-wise. The convergence threshold did not have a significant role concerning the accuracy of estimates. The performance results suggest that repeatability measures or strict converge criteria might not be needed in sICA analyses of fMRI data. Consequently, the results in existing sICA fMRI literature are probably valid in this sense. A decreased accuracy of original bootstrapping ICASSO was observed and corrected by using centrotype mixing estimates but the results warrant for thorough evaluations of data-driven methods in general. Also, given the fMRI-specific considerations, further development of sICA methods is strongly encouraged. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of the Bs mixing phase at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    At scales that are not accessible by direct searches at the LHC, precision measurements of CP violating observables in the mixing and decay of B mesons  may reveal new physics through loop corrections. A good candidate for such indirect searches is the measurement of the CP violating phase phi_s which arises in the interference between the amplitudes of Bs meson decaying directly and after oscillation via b->ccs transitions. This talk will cover recent measurements of phi_s from Bs->J/psihh and DsDs decays at LHCb. Additionally, estimates of possible penguin contributions which are assumed to be zero in SM predictions will be discussed.  

  7. Comparison of mixing zone thicknesses from two measurement campaigns on Richtmyer-Meshkov induced mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jean-Francois; Counilh, Denis; Schwaederle, Laurent; Bouzgarrou, Ghazi; Bury, Yannick; Jamme, Stephane; Joly, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    We have measured twice in a nearly similar shock tube the mixing induced by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of an air (below) - SF6 (above) interface accelerated by a Mach 1.2 shock in air and decelerated by a Mach 1.3 reflected shock in SF6 followed by a weaker rarefaction wave. The interface is a thin microfilm maintained between two grids, the lower one of mesh size supports the microfilm, the upper one of mesh size 1.8 or 12.1 mm slices the microfilm at shock passage. In both campaigns, the diagnostic was based on Schlieren visualization of the mixing zone. In the first campaign carried out at CEA, two initial SF6 lengths (30 and 25 cm) were chosen for the visualization using a still camera. In the second campaign carried out at ISAE on the modified shock tube. Schlieren visualization are performed with the aid of high speed camera. The visualizations have been obtained for initial SF6 lengths 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm. We also varied the mesh size of the grid used to slice the membrane separating air below from SF6 above. In each campaign, several filtering techniques have been used for the analysis of the Schlieren images. For identical parameters of the experiments, we will examine similarities and differences in the measurements.

  8. Interferometric Measurement of Far Infrared Plasmons via Resonant Homodyne Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Dyer, Gregory C; Allen, S James; Grine, Albert D; Bethke, Don; Reno, John L; Shaner, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    We present an electrically tunable terahertz two dimensional plasmonic interferometer with an integrated detection element that down converts the terahertz fields to a DC signal. The integrated detector utilizes a resonant plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism that measures the component of the plasma waves in-phase with an excitation field functioning as the local oscillator. Plasmonic interferometers with two independently tuned paths are studied. These devices demonstrate a means for developing a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical length plays a role analogous to that of physical path length in macroscopic Fourier transform interferometers.

  9. Turbulent correlation measurements in a two-stream mixing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. G.; Planchon, H. P.; Hammersley, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Two point space-time measurements of the axial component of fluctuating velocity were made using linearized hot-wire anemometry. Space scales, convected frame correlations and time scales, and convection velocities in the shear layer were evaluated. Both filtered narrow and broad band convected frame autocorrelations were determined. Differences between axial broad band convection velocities and both mean turbulence and mean entrained fluid velocities were observed. Scaled broad band convection velocities for the mixing layer and simple round jets were found to collapse to a common curve. Axial narrow band convection velocities showed strong frequency and transverse position dependence.

  10. Enhancement of fermentative hydrogen production in an extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed-culture environment by repeated batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjing; Fan, Gaoyuan; Zhao, Chenxi; Wang, Hongtao; Chi, Zifang

    2012-05-01

    Repeated batch cultivation was applied to enrich hydrogen fermentative microflora under extreme-thermophilic (70°C) environment. Initial inoculums received from a hydrogen producing reactor fed with organic fraction of household solid wastes. In total seven transfers was conducted and maximum hydrogen yield reached 296 ml H(2)/g (2.38 mol/mol) glucose and 252 ml H(2)/g (2.03 mol/mol) for 1 and 2 g/l glucose medium, respectively. It was found that hydrogen production was firstly decreased and got increased gradually from third generation. Acetate was found to be the main metabolic by-product in all batch cultivation. Furthermore, the diversity of bacterial community got decreased after repeated batch cultivation. It was proved that repeated batch cultivation was a good method to enhance the hydrogen production by enriching the mixed cultures of dominant species.

  11. Accuracy and repeatability of an inertial measurement unit system for field-based occupational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard; Oyama, Sakiko; Douphrate, David I

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) system for directly measuring trunk angular displacement and upper arm elevation were evaluated over eight hours (i) in comparison to a gold standard, optical motion capture (OMC) system in a laboratory setting, and (ii) during a field-based assessment of dairy parlour work. Sample-to-sample root mean square differences between the IMU and OMC system ranged from 4.1° to 6.6° for the trunk and 7.2°-12.1° for the upper arm depending on the processing method. Estimates of mean angular displacement and angular displacement variation (difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles of angular displacement) were observed to change IMU system may serve as an acceptable instrument for directly measuring trunk and upper arm postures in field-based occupational exposure assessment studies with long sampling durations. Practitioner Summary: Few studies have evaluated inertial measurement unit (IMU) systems in the field or over long sampling durations. Results of this study indicate that the IMU system evaluated has reasonably good accuracy and repeatability for use in a field setting over a long sampling duration.

  12. An L-band SAR for repeat pass deformation measurements on a UAV platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling; Rosen, Paul; Wheeler, Kevin; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Miller, Tim; Hoffman, Jim; Farra, Don

    2003-01-01

    We are proposing to develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for repeat-pass differential interferometric measurements of deformation for rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes that is to be flown on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or minimally piloted vehicle (MPV). Upon surveying the capabilities and availabilities of such aircraft, the Proteus aircraft and the ALTAIR UAV appear to meet our criteria in terms of payload capabilities, flying altitude, and endurance. To support the repeat pass deformation capability it is necessary to control flight track capability of the aircraft to be within a specified 10 m tube with a goal of 1 m. This requires real-time GPS control of the autopilot to achieve these objectives that has not been demonstrated on these aircraft. Based on the Proteus and ALTAIR's altitude of 13.7 km (45,000 ft), we are designing a fully polarimetric L-band radar with 80 MHz bandwidth and a 16 km range swath. The radar will have an active electronic beam steering antenna to achieve a Doppler centroid stability that is necessary for repeat-pass interferometry. This paper presents some of the trade studies for the platform, instrument and the expected science.

  13. Measurement of bedform migration rates on the Lower Missouri River in Missouri, USA using repeat measurements with a multibeam echosounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution repeat multibeam echosounder measurements on the Lower Missouri River near Boonville, Missouri, USA show bedform movement and sand storage patterns over daily to seasonal time scales and a range of discharges. Higher flows are frequently, but not always, associated with larger bedforms, higher bedform movement rates, and higher bedload transport rates. Measurements of the temporal and spatial variability in sand dune sizes, transport rates, and sand storage across the river channel have increased understanding of the dynamics of habitats utilized by benthic organisms over multiple life stages and daily to seasonal time scales.

  14. Specific Measurement of Tethered Running Kinetics and its Relationship to Repeated Sprint Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Filipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Repeated sprint ability has been widely studied by researchers, however, analysis of the relationship between most kinetic variables and the effect of fatigue is still an ongoing process. To search for the best biomechanical parameter to evaluate repeated sprint ability, several kinetic variables were measured in a tethered field running test and compared regarding their sensitivity to fatigue and correlation with time trials in a free running condition. Nine male sprint runners (best average times: 100 m = 10.45 ± 0.07 s; 200 m = 21.36 ± 0.17 s; 400 m = 47.35 ± 1.09 s completed two test sessions on a synthetic track. Each session consisted of six 35 m sprints interspersed by 10 s rest under tethered field running or free running conditions. Force, power, work, an impulse and a rate of force development were all directly measured using the sensors of a new tethered running apparatus, and a one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc test used to verify differences between sprints (p < 0.05. Pearson product-moment correlation measured the relationship between mechanical variables and free running performance. A total impulse, the rate of force development and maximum force did not show significant differences for most sprints. These three variables presented low to moderate correlations with free running performance (r between 0.01 and -0.35. Maximum and mean power presented the strongest correlations with free running performance (r = -0.71 and -0.76, respectively; p < 0.001, followed by mean force (r = -0.61; p < 0.001 and total work (r = -0.50; p < 0.001. It was concluded that under a severe work-to-rest ratio condition, power variables were better suited to evaluating repeated sprint ability than the other studied variables.

  15. Measurement of Bd mixing using opposite-side flavor tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Blumenschein, U; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Claes, D; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doidge, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fatakia, S N; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J M; Kalk, J R; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martens, M; McCarthy, R; Meder, D; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miettinen, H; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Monk, J; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Oliveira, N; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, K; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rud, V I; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smith, R P; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; vanden Berg, P J; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, G; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, C; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2006-01-01

    We report on a measurement of the $B^0_d$ mixing frequency and the calibration of an opposite-side flavor tagger in the D{\\O}experiment. Various properties associated with the $b$ quark on the opposite side of the reconstructed $B$ meson were combined using a likelihood-ratio method into a single variable with enhanced tagging power. Its performance was tested with data, using a large sample of reconstructed semileptonic $B \\to \\mu \\dzero X$ and $B \\to \\mu \\dst X$ decays, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 1 fb$^{-1}$. The events were divided into groups depending on the value of the combined tagging variable, and an independent analysis was performed in each group. Combining the results of these analyses, the overall effective tagging power was found to be eD^2 = (2.48 \\pm 0.21 (stat.) ^{+0.08}_{-0.06} (syst.))%. The measured $B^0_d$ mixing frequency dmd = 0.506 \\pm 0.020 {\\rm (stat) \\pm 0.016 (syst) ps}^{-1} is in good agreement with the world average value.

  16. Characterisation and measurement of signals generated by DVB-H 'GAP-filler' repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, M; Barellini, A; Bogi, L; Licitra, G; Silvi, A M; Zari, A

    2009-12-01

    DVB-H (Digital Video Broadcasting Handheld) is the standard developed by DVB Project and approved by ETSI with the aim of providing the reception of DVB signals even in mobility but also data transfers and multimedia services. The introduction and development of the DVB-H system is still ongoing. In this context, this work focuses on the temporal trend of electromagnetic impact of an urban DVB-H repeater (called 'gap-filler') for exposure assessment purposes; it also describes a method for its measurement by means of narrow band instrumental chains.

  17. Measuring the Activity of Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2: A Kinase Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung Dae; Li, Xiaojie; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 (Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2) gene are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has multiple functional domains including a kinase domain. The kinase activity of LRRK2 is implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Developing an assay to understand the mechanisms of LRRK2 kinase activity is important for the development of pharmacologic and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe how to measure in vitro LRRK2 kinase activity and its inhibition. PMID:21960214

  18. Iterative Weighted Semiparametric Least Squares Estimation in Repeated Measurement Partially Linear Regression Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge-mai Chen; Jin-hong You

    2005-01-01

    Consider a repeated measurement partially linear regression model with an unknown vector pasemiparametric generalized least squares estimator (SGLSE) ofβ, we propose an iterative weighted semiparametric least squares estimator (IWSLSE) and show that it improves upon the SGLSE in terms of asymptotic covariance matrix. An adaptive procedure is given to determine the number of iterations. We also show that when the number of replicates is less than or equal to two, the IWSLSE can not improve upon the SGLSE.These results are generalizations of those in [2] to the case of semiparametric regressions.

  19. Measuring Starlight Deflection during the 2017 Eclipse: Repeating the Experiment that made Einstein Famous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Donald

    2016-05-01

    In 1919, astronomers performed an experiment during a solar eclipse, attempting to measure the deflection of stars near the sun, in order to verify Einstein's theory of general relativity. The experiment was very difficult and the results were marginal, but the success made Albert Einstein famous around the world. Astronomers last repeated the experiment in 1973, achieving an error of 11%. In 2017, using amateur equipment and modern technology, I plan to repeat the experiment and achieve a 1% error. The best available star catalog will be used for star positions. Corrections for optical distortion and atmospheric refraction are better than 0.01 arcsec. During totality, I expect 7 or 8 measurable stars down to magnitude 9.5, based on analysis of previous eclipse measurements taken by amateurs. Reference images, taken near the sun during totality, will be used for precise calibration. Preliminary test runs performed during twilight in April 2016 and April 2017 can accurately simulate the sky conditions during totality, providing an accurate estimate of the final uncertainty.

  20. Repeatability and Accuracy of Exoplanet Eclipse Depths Measured with Post-Cryogenic Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Ingalls, James G; Carey, S J; Stauffer, John R; Lawrence, Patrick J; Grillmair, Carl J; Buzasi, Derek; Deming, Drake; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Evans, Thomas M; Morello, G; Stevenson, Kevin B; Wong, Ian; Capak, Peter; Glaccum, William; Laine, Seppo; Surace, Jason; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We examine the repeatability, reliability, and accuracy of differential exoplanet eclipse depth measurements made using the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope during the post-cryogenic mission. We have re-analyzed an existing 4.5{\\mu}m dataset, consisting of 10 observations of the XO-3 b system during secondary eclipse, using 7 different techniques for removing correlated noise. We find that, on average, for a given technique the eclipse depth estimate is repeatable from epoch to epoch to within 150 parts per million (ppm). Most techniques derive eclipse depths that do not vary by more than a factor 2 of the photon noise limit. Nearly all methods accurately assess their own errors: for these methods the individual measurement uncertainties are comparable to the scatter in eclipse depths over the 10-epoch sample. To assess the accuracy of the techniques as well as clarify the difference between instrumental and other sources of measurement error, we have also analyzed a simulated datas...

  1. Repeatability and reproducibility of horizontal corneal diameter and anterior corneal power measurements using the Oculus Keratograph 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khathutshelo P. Mashige

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of horizontal corneal diameter (HCD and anterior corneal power (ACP measurements obtained with the Oculus Keratograph 4 (OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH.Methods: These parameters (HCD and ACP were prospectively measured in quick succession three times in each of the right eyes of 40 healthy subjects, aged 18–28 years, with normal vision (6/6 or better visual acuity in the first session by a single examiner. Measurements were then repeated in the second session scheduled 1 week later by the same examiner using the same instrument. Repeatability and reproducibility of HCD and ACP measurements was assessed based on the intra-session and intersession within-subject standard deviation (sw, repeatability (2.77sw, coefficient of variation (CoV and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC.Results: Intra-session repeatability and intersession reproducibility of all measured parameters showed a repeatability (2.77sw of 0.35 mm or less for HCD and 0.35 D or less for ACP, a CoV of 0.30% or less and an ICC of more than 0.9.Conclusion: HCD and ACP measurements obtained using an Oculus Keratograph 4 show good repeatability and reproducibility in healthy eyes; therefore, these parameters can be used for longitudinal follow-up when measured with this device.

  2. Measuring the Dynamic Soil Response During Repeated Wheeling Using Seismic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Thomas; Carizzon, Marco; Berisso, Feto Esimo

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of soil deformation processes, especially its dynamics, remains limited. This hampers accurate predictions of the impact of soil management practices such as agricultural field traffic on (physical) soil functions. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether...... seismic measurements could be used to assess the dynamic soil behavior during repeated loading. Moreover, we aimed at linking the velocity of P-waves, Vp, to traditionally measured soil properties associated with soil compaction, namely bulk density (ρb) and penetrometer resistance. A wheeling experiment......, and simulated the evolution of bulk density due to the wheeling using a soil compaction model. The dynamic soil response during loading–unloading–reloading cycles could be well captured with the seismic method. The measured Vp related to bulk density, and the compaction-induced increase in Vp correlated...

  3. A Fiber-Coupled Self-Mixing Laser Diode for the Measurement of Young’s Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Yu, Yanguang; Xi, Jiangtao; Li, Huijun; Guo, Qinghua; Tong, Jun; Su, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a fiber-coupled self-mixing laser diode (SMLD) for non-contact and non-destructive measurement of Young’s modulus. By the presented measuring system, the Young’s modulus of aluminum 6061 and brass are measured as 70.0 GPa and 116.7 GPa, respectively, showing a good agreement within the standards in the literature and yielding a much smaller deviation and a higher repeatability compared with traditional tensile testing. Its fiber-coupled characteristics make the system quite easy to be installed in many application cases. PMID:27338413

  4. A Fiber-Coupled Self-Mixing Laser Diode for the Measurement of Young’s Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a fiber-coupled self-mixing laser diode (SMLD for non-contact and non-destructive measurement of Young’s modulus. By the presented measuring system, the Young’s modulus of aluminum 6061 and brass are measured as 70.0 GPa and 116.7 GPa, respectively, showing a good agreement within the standards in the literature and yielding a much smaller deviation and a higher repeatability compared with traditional tensile testing. Its fiber-coupled characteristics make the system quite easy to be installed in many application cases.

  5. Information Contents of a Signal at Repeated Positioning Measurements of the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM by Laser Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stejskal Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The input of this paper lies in displaying possibilities how to determine the condition of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM based on a large number of repeated measurements. The number of repeated measurements exceeds common requirements for determining positioning accuracy. The total offset in the accuracy of spatial positioning consists of partial inaccuracies of individual axes. 6 basic errors may be defined at each axis. In a triaxial set, that translates into 18 errors, to which an offset from the perpendicularity between the axial pairs must be added. Therefore, the combined number of errors in a single position is 21. These errors are systemic and stem from the machine’s geometry. In addition, there are accidental errors to account for as well. Accidental errors can be attributed to vibrations, mass inertness, passive resistance, and in part to fluctuations in temperature. A peculiar set of systemic errors are time-varying errors. The nature of those errors may be reversible, for instance if they result from influence of temperature or elastic deformation. They can be also irreversible, for example as a result of wear and tear or line clogging, due to loosened connection or permanent deformation of a part post collision. A demonstration of thermal equalizing of the machine’s parts may also be observed in case of failure to adhere to a sufficient time interval from the moment the air-conditioning is turned on. Repeated measurements done on a selected axis with linear interferometer can provide complex information on the CMM condition and also on the machine’s interaction with the given technical environment.

  6. Specific Measurement of Tethered Running Kinetics and its Relationship to Repeated Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipe; Dos Reis, Ivan; Ribeiro, Luiz; Martins, Luiz; Gobatto, Claudio

    2015-12-22

    Repeated sprint ability has been widely studied by researchers, however, analysis of the relationship between most kinetic variables and the effect of fatigue is still an ongoing process. To search for the best biomechanical parameter to evaluate repeated sprint ability, several kinetic variables were measured in a tethered field running test and compared regarding their sensitivity to fatigue and correlation with time trials in a free running condition. Nine male sprint runners (best average times: 100 m = 10.45 ± 0.07 s; 200 m = 21.36 ± 0.17 s; 400 m = 47.35 ± 1.09 s) completed two test sessions on a synthetic track. Each session consisted of six 35 m sprints interspersed by 10 s rest under tethered field running or free running conditions. Force, power, work, an impulse and a rate of force development were all directly measured using the sensors of a new tethered running apparatus, and a one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc test used to verify differences between sprints (p sprints. These three variables presented low to moderate correlations with free running performance (r between 0.01 and -0.35). Maximum and mean power presented the strongest correlations with free running performance (r = -0.71 and -0.76, respectively; p sprint ability than the other studied variables.

  7. Multiple-objective response-adaptive repeated measurement designs in clinical trials for binary responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuanyuan; Li, Yin; Wang, Jing; Carriere, Keumhee C

    2014-02-20

    A multiple-objective allocation strategy was recently proposed for constructing response-adaptive repeated measurement designs for continuous responses. We extend the allocation strategy to constructing response-adaptive repeated measurement designs for binary responses. The approach with binary responses is quite different from the continuous case, as the information matrix is a function of responses, and it involves nonlinear modeling. To deal with these problems, we first build the design on the basis of success probabilities. Then we illustrate how various models can accommodate carryover effects on the basis of logits of response profiles as well as any correlation structure. Through computer simulations, we find that the allocation strategy developed for continuous responses also works well for binary responses. As expected, design efficiency in terms of mean squared error drops sharply, as more emphasis is placed on increasing treatment benefit than estimation precision. However, we find that it can successfully allocate more patients to better treatment sequences without sacrificing much estimation precision.

  8. Role of Repeat Muscle Compartment Pressure Measurements in Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P. M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Teijink, Joep A. W.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic gold standard for diagnosing chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurement of the muscle. The potential role of a repeat ICP (re-ICP) measurement in patients with persistent lower leg symptoms after surgical decompression or with ongoing symptoms after an earlier normal ICP is unknown. Purpose: To study whether re-ICP measurements in patients with persistent CECS-like symptoms of the lower leg may contribute to the diagnosis of CECS after both surgical decompression and a previously normal ICP measurement. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Charts of patients who underwent re-ICP measurement of lower leg compartments (anterior [ant], deep posterior [dp], and/or lateral [lat] compartments) between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. CECS was diagnosed on the basis of generally accepted cutoff pressures for newly onset CECS (Pedowitz criteria: ICP at rest ≥15 mmHg, ≥30 mmHg after 1 minute, or ≥20 mmHg 5 minutes after a provocative test). Factors predicting recurrent CECS after surgery or after a previously normal ICP measurement were analyzed. Results: A total of 1714 ICP measurements were taken in 1513 patients with suspected CECS over a 13-year observation period. In all, 201 (12%) tests were re-ICP measurements for persistent lower leg symptoms. Based on the proposed ICP cutoff values, CECS recurrence was diagnosed in 16 of 62 previously operated compartments (recurrence rate, 26%; 53 patients [64% female]; median age, 24 years; age range, 15-78 years). Recurrence rates were not different among the 3 lower leg CECS compartments (ant-CECS, 17%; dp-CECS, 33%; lat-CECS, 30%; χ2 = 1.928, P = .381). Sex (χ2 = 0.058, P = .810), age (U = 378, z = 1.840, P = .066), bilaterality (χ2 = 0.019, P = .889), and prefasciotomy ICP did not predict recurrence. Re-ICP measurements evaluating 20 compartments with previously normal ICP measurements (15

  9. Role of Repeat Muscle Compartment Pressure Measurements in Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lower Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P M; de Bruijn, Johan A; Winkes, Michiel B; Hoogeveen, Adwin R; Teijink, Joep A W; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2017-06-01

    The diagnostic gold standard for diagnosing chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurement of the muscle. The potential role of a repeat ICP (re-ICP) measurement in patients with persistent lower leg symptoms after surgical decompression or with ongoing symptoms after an earlier normal ICP is unknown. To study whether re-ICP measurements in patients with persistent CECS-like symptoms of the lower leg may contribute to the diagnosis of CECS after both surgical decompression and a previously normal ICP measurement. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Charts of patients who underwent re-ICP measurement of lower leg compartments (anterior [ant], deep posterior [dp], and/or lateral [lat] compartments) between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. CECS was diagnosed on the basis of generally accepted cutoff pressures for newly onset CECS (Pedowitz criteria: ICP at rest ≥15 mmHg, ≥30 mmHg after 1 minute, or ≥20 mmHg 5 minutes after a provocative test). Factors predicting recurrent CECS after surgery or after a previously normal ICP measurement were analyzed. A total of 1714 ICP measurements were taken in 1513 patients with suspected CECS over a 13-year observation period. In all, 201 (12%) tests were re-ICP measurements for persistent lower leg symptoms. Based on the proposed ICP cutoff values, CECS recurrence was diagnosed in 16 of 62 previously operated compartments (recurrence rate, 26%; 53 patients [64% female]; median age, 24 years; age range, 15-78 years). Recurrence rates were not different among the 3 lower leg CECS compartments (ant-CECS, 17%; dp-CECS, 33%; lat-CECS, 30%; χ(2) = 1.928, P = .381). Sex (χ(2) = 0.058, P = .810), age (U = 378, z = 1.840, P = .066), bilaterality (χ(2) = 0.019, P = .889), and prefasciotomy ICP did not predict recurrence. Re-ICP measurements evaluating 20 compartments with previously normal ICP measurements (15 patients [53% female]; mean age, 31 ± 10 years

  10. Parental Language Mixing: Its Measurement and the Relation of Mixed Input to Young Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Is parental language mixing related to vocabulary acquisition in bilingual infants and children? Bilingual parents (who spoke English and another language; n = 181) completed the Language Mixing Scale questionnaire, a new self-report measure that assesses how frequently parents use words from two different languages in the same sentence, such as…

  11. Parental Language Mixing: Its Measurement and the Relation of Mixed Input to Young Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Is parental language mixing related to vocabulary acquisition in bilingual infants and children? Bilingual parents (who spoke English and another language; n = 181) completed the Language Mixing Scale questionnaire, a new self-report measure that assesses how frequently parents use words from two different languages in the same sentence, such as…

  12. ±25ppm repeatable measurement of trapezoidal pulses with 5MHz bandwidth

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)712364; Arpaia, Pasquale; Cerqueira Bastos, Miguel; Martino, Michele

    2015-01-01

    High-quality measurements of pulses are nowadays widely used in fields such as radars, pulsed lasers, electromagnetic pulse generators, and particle accelerators. Whilst literature is mainly focused on fast systems for nanosecond regime with relaxed metrological requirements, in this paper, the high-performance measurement of slower pulses in microsecond regime is faced. In particular, the experimental proof demonstration for a 15 MS/s,_25 ppm repeatable acquisition system to characterize the flat-top of 3 ms rise-time trapezoidal pulses is given. The system exploits a 5MHz bandwidth circuit for analogue signal processing based on the concept of flat-top removal. The requirements, as well as the conceptual and physical designs are illustrated. Simulation results aimed at assessing the circuit performance are also presented. Finally, an experimental case study on the characterization of a pulsed power supply for the klystrons modulators of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN is reported. In ...

  13. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  14. Observing quantum chaos with noisy measurements and highly mixed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Jason F.; Jacobs, Kurt; Everitt, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for the emergence of classical behavior from an underlying quantum description is that certain observed quantum systems make a transition to chaotic dynamics as their action is increased relative to ℏ . While experiments have demonstrated some aspects of this transition, the emergence of quantum trajectories with a positive Lyapunov exponent has never been observed directly. Here, we remove a major obstacle to achieving this goal by showing that, for the Duffing oscillator, the transition to a positive Lyapunov exponent can be resolved clearly from observed trajectories even with measurement efficiencies as low as 20%. We also find that the positive Lyapunov exponent is robust to highly mixed, low-purity states and to variations in the parameters of the system.

  15. Mixed Methods: Incorporating multiple learning styles into a measurements course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    The best scientists and engineers regularly combine creative and critical skill sets. As faculty, we are responsible to provide future scientists and engineers with those skills sets. EGR 390: Engineering Measurements at Murray State University is structured to actively engage students in the processes that develop and enhance those skills. Students learn through a mix of traditional lecture and homework, active discussion of open-ended questions, small group activities, structured laboratory exercises, oral and written communications exercises, student chosen team projects, and peer evaluations. Examples of each of these activities, the skill set addressed by each activity, outcomes from and effectiveness of each activity and recommendations for future directions in the EGR 390 course as designed will be presented.

  16. Simultaneous Concentration and Velocity Field Measurements in a Shock-accelerated Mixing Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Daniel; Oakley, Jason; Weber, Chris; Rothamer, David; Navarro, Jose; Bonazza, Riccardo

    2013-11-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) is experimentally investigated at the Wisconsin Shock Tube Laboratory. Simultaneous concentration and velocity field measurements from the mixing layer of experimental RMI images are obtained through the application of the Advection-Corrected Correlation Image Velocimetry (ACCIV) technique. A statistically repeatable broadband initial condition is created by first setting up a gravitationally stable stagnation plane of helium +acetone over argon and then injecting the gases horizontally at the interface to create a shear layer. The shear layer is then accelerated by a Mach 2.2 planar shock wave that causes the growth of any perturbations present at the interface, and time-separated image pair data of the mixing layer are obtained using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF). The image pair is corrected to show relative acetone concentration, and is then used as input to the ACCIV algorithm to obtain velocity field results. These velocity field measurements are compared with those obtained from numerical simulations. Turbulent kinetic energy spectra are compared with particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and simulation results to validate regions of applicability. We wish to thank the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration for supporting this work.

  17. Optic-microwave mixing velocimeter for superhigh velocity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng Jidong; Wang Xiang; Tao Tianjiong; Liu Cangli; Tan Hua [Laboratory for Shock Waves and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China)

    2011-12-15

    The phenomenon that a light beam reflected off a moving object experiences a Doppler shift in its frequency underlies practical interferometric techniques for remote velocity measurements, such as velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR), displacement interferometer system for any reflector (DISAR), and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV). While VISAR velocimeters are often bewildered by the fringe loss upon high-acceleration dynamic process diagnosis, the optic-fiber velocimeters such as DISAR and PDV, on the other hand, are puzzled by high velocity measurement over 10 km/s, due to the demand for the high bandwidth digitizer. Here, we describe a new optic-microwave mixing velocimeter (OMV) for super-high velocity measurements. By using currently available commercial microwave products, we have constructed a simple, compact, and reliable OMV device, and have successfully obtained, with a digitizer of bandwidth 6 GH only, the precise velocity history of an aluminum flyer plate being accelerated up to 11.2 km/s in a three stage gas-gun experiment.

  18. Detecting variable responses in time-series using repeated measures ANOVA: Application to physiologic challenges [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Macey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach to analyzing physiologic timetrends recorded during a stimulus by comparing means at each time point using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA. The approach allows temporal patterns to be examined without an a priori model of expected timing or pattern of response. The approach was originally applied to signals recorded from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI volumes-of-interest (VOI during a physiologic challenge, but we have used the same technique to analyze continuous recordings of other physiological signals such as heart rate, breathing rate, and pulse oximetry. For fMRI, the method serves as a complement to whole-brain voxel-based analyses, and is useful for detecting complex responses within pre-determined brain regions, or as a post-hoc analysis of regions of interest identified by whole-brain assessments. We illustrate an implementation of the technique in the statistical software packages R and SAS. VOI timetrends are extracted from conventionally preprocessed fMRI images. A timetrend of average signal intensity across the VOI during the scanning period is calculated for each subject. The values are scaled relative to baseline periods, and time points are binned. In SAS, the procedure PROC MIXED implements the RMANOVA in a single step. In R, we present one option for implementing RMANOVA with the mixed model function “lme”. Model diagnostics, and predicted means and differences are best performed with additional libraries and commands in R; we present one example. The ensuing results allow determination of significant overall effects, and time-point specific within- and between-group responses relative to baseline. We illustrate the technique using fMRI data from two groups of subjects who underwent a respiratory challenge. RMANOVA allows insight into the timing of responses and response differences between groups, and so is suited to physiologic testing paradigms eliciting complex

  19. Impact of repeated measures and sample selection on genome-wide association studies of fasting glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Alonso, Alvaro; Li, Man; Kao, Wen; Köttgen, Anna; Yan, Yuer; Couper, David; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bielinski, Suzette J.; Pankow, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Although GWAS have been performed in longitudinal studies, most used only a single trait measure. GWAS of fasting glucose have generally included only normoglycemic individuals. We examined the impact of both repeated measures and sample selection on GWAS in ARIC, a study which obtained four longitudinal measures of fasting glucose and included both individuals with and without prevalent diabetes. The sample included Caucasians and the Affymetrix 6.0 chip was used for genotyping. Sample sizes for GWAS analyses ranged from 8372 (first study visit) to 5782 (average fasting glucose). Candidate SNP analyses with SNPs identified through fasting glucose or diabetes GWAS were conducted in 9133 individuals, including 761 with prevalent diabetes. For a constant sample size, smaller p-values were obtained for the average measure of fasting glucose compared to values at any single visit, and two additional significant GWAS signals were detected. For four candidate SNPs (rs780094, rs10830963, rs7903146, and rs4607517), the strength of association between genotype and glucose was significantly (p-interaction fasting glucose candidate SNPs (rs780094, rs10830963, rs560887, rs4607517, rs13266634) the association with measured fasting glucose was more significant in the smaller sample without prevalent diabetes than in the larger combined sample of those with and without diabetes. This analysis demonstrates the potential utility of averaging trait values in GWAS studies and explores the advantage of using only individuals without prevalent diabetes in GWAS of fasting glucose. PMID:20839289

  20. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Nicholas; Baucom, Katherine; Bourne, Stacia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor–partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal...... patterns estimated in RM-APIM. Interpretation of results from these models largely focuses on the meaning of single-parameter estimates in isolation from all the others. However, considering individual coefficients separately impedes the understanding of how these associations combine to produce...... to improve the understanding and presentation of dyadic patterns of association described by standard RM-APIMs. The current article briefly reviews the conceptual foundations of RM-APIMs, demonstrates how change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and VFDs can aid interpretation of standard RM-APIMs, and provides a tutorial...

  1. Inmate responses to prison-based drug treatment: a repeated measures analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Wayne N

    2010-06-01

    Using a sample of 347 prison inmates and general linear modeling (GLM) repeated measures analyses, this paper examined during-treatment responses (e.g., changes in psychological and social functioning) to prison-based TC drug treatment. These effects have rarely been examined in previous studies, and never with a fully multivariate model accounting for within-subjects effects (changes over time), between-subjects effects (e.g., levels of risk and motivation), and within/between-subjects interactions (timexriskxmotivation). The results provide evidence of positive inmate change in response to prison TC treatment, but the patterns of results varied depending upon: (a) specific indicators of psychological and social functioning, motivation, and treatment process; (b) the time periods examined (1, 6, and 12 months during treatment); and (c) baseline levels of risk and motivation. Significant interactions between time and type of inmate suggest important new directions for research, theory, and practice in offender-based substance abuse treatment.

  2. Bayesian latent variable models for hierarchical clustered count outcomes with repeated measures in microbiome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhen; Paterson, Andrew D; Xu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the multivariate nature of microbiome data with hierarchical taxonomic clusters, counts that are often skewed and zero inflated, and repeated measures, we propose a Bayesian latent variable methodology to jointly model multiple operational taxonomic units within a single taxonomic cluster. This novel method can incorporate both negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial responses, and can account for serial and familial correlations. We develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that is built on a data augmentation scheme using Pólya-Gamma random variables. Hierarchical centering and parameter expansion techniques are also used to improve the convergence of the Markov chain. We evaluate the performance of our proposed method through extensive simulations. We also apply our method to a human microbiome study.

  3. Causal inference in longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Pin; Jo, Booil; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-09-10

    We propose a principal stratification approach to assess causal effects in nonrandomized longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with a binary endpoint outcome and repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable. Our method is an extension of the principal stratification approach originally proposed for the longitudinal randomized study "Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial" to assess the treatment effect on the continuous Hamilton depression score adjusting for the heterogeneity of repeatedly measured binary compliance status. Our motivation for this work comes from a comparison of the effect of two glucose-lowering medications on a clinical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we consider a causal inference problem assessing how well the two medications work relative to one another on two binary endpoint outcomes: cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Clinically, these glucose-lowering medications can have differential effects on the intermediate outcome, glucose level over time. Ultimately, we want to compare medication effects on the endpoint outcomes among individuals in the same glucose trajectory stratum while accounting for the heterogeneity in baseline covariates (i.e., to obtain 'principal effects' on the endpoint outcomes). The proposed method involves a three-step model estimation procedure. Step 1 identifies principal strata associated with the intermediate variable using hybrid growth mixture modeling analyses. Step 2 obtains the stratum membership using the pseudoclass technique and derives propensity scores for treatment assignment. Step 3 obtains the stratum-specific treatment effect on the endpoint outcome weighted by inverse propensity probabilities derived from Step 2.

  4. Microcomputer-based tests for repeated-measures: Metric properties and predictive validities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Baltzley, Dennis R.; Dunlap, William P.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Kuntz, Lois-Ann

    1989-01-01

    A menu of psychomotor and mental acuity tests were refined. Field applications of such a battery are, for example, a study of the effects of toxic agents or exotic environments on performance readiness, or the determination of fitness for duty. The key requirement of these tasks is that they be suitable for repeated-measures applications, and so questions of stability and reliability are a continuing, central focus of this work. After the initial (practice) session, seven replications of 14 microcomputer-based performance tests (32 measures) were completed by 37 subjects. Each test in the battery had previously been shown to stabilize in less than five 90-second administrations and to possess retest reliabilities greater than r = 0.707 for three minutes of testing. However, all the tests had never been administered together as a battery and they had never been self-administered. In order to provide predictive validity for intelligence measurement, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Wonderlic Personnel Test were obtained on the same subjects.

  5. Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klejda, B.

    2005-01-28

    The weak mixing parameter, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}, is one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model. Its tree-level value has been measured with high precision at energies near the Z{sup 0} pole; however, due to radiative corrections at the one-loop level, the value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} is expected to change with the interaction energy. As a result, a measurement of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} at low energy (Q{sup 2} << m{sub Z}, where Q{sup 2} is the momentum transfer and m{sub Z} is the Z boson mass), provides a test of the Standard Model at the one-loop level, and a probe for new physics beyond the Standard Model. One way of obtaining sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} at low energy is from measuring the left-right, parity-violating asymmetry in electron-electron (Moeller) scattering: A{sub PV} = {sigma}{sub R}-{sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub R}+{sigma}{sub L}, where {sigma}{sub R} and {sigma}{sub L} are the cross sections for right- and left-handed incident electrons, respectively. The parity violating asymmetry is proportional to the pseudo-scalar weak neutral current coupling in Moeller scattering, g{sub ee}. At tree level g{sub ee} = (1/4 -sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}). A precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in Moeller scattering was performed by Experiment E158 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). During the experiment, {approx}50 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons scattered off unpolarized atomic electrons in a liquid hydrogen target, corresponding to an average momentum transfer Q{sup 2} {approx} 0.03 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The tree-level prediction for A{sub PV} at such energy is {approx}300 ppb. However one-loop radiative corrections reduce its value by {approx}40%. This document reports the E158 results from the 2002 data collection period. The parity-violating asymmetry was found to be A{sub PV} = -160 {+-} 21 (stat.) {+-} 17 (syst.) ppb, which represents the first observation of a parity-violating asymmetry in Moeller

  6. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  7. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  8. Experimental and Measurement Uncertainty Associated with Characterizing Slurry Mixing Performance of Pulsating Jets at Multiple Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2015-09-10

    Understanding how uncertainty manifests itself in complex experiments is important for developing the testing protocol and interpreting the experimental results. This paper describes experimental and measurement uncertainties, and how they can depend on the order of performing experimental tests. Experiments with pulse-jet mixers in tanks at three scales were conducted to characterize the performance of transient-developing periodic flows in Newtonian slurries. Other test parameters included the simulant, solids concentration, and nozzle exit velocity. Critical suspension velocity and cloud height were the metrics used to characterize Newtonian slurry flow associated with mobilization and mixing. During testing, near-replicate and near-repeat tests were conducted. The experimental results were used to quantify the combined experimental and measurement uncertainties using standard deviations and percent relative standard deviations (%RSD) The uncertainties in critical suspension velocity and cloud height tend to increase with the values of these responses. Hence, the %RSD values are the more appropriate summary measure of near-replicate testing and measurement uncertainty.

  9. Characterization of the peripheral blood transcriptome in a repeated measures design using a panel of healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boever, Patrick; Wens, Britt; Forcheh, Anyiawung Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A repeated measures microarray design with 22 healthy, non-smoking volunteers (aging 32. ±. 5. years) was set up to study transcriptome profiles in whole blood samples. The results indicate that repeatable data can be obtained with high within-subject correlation. Probes that could discriminate....... Our study suggests that the blood transcriptome of healthy individuals is reproducible over a time period of several months. © 2013 Elsevier Inc....

  10. Status of a UAVSAR designed for repeat pass interferometry for deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Wheeler, Kevin; Sadowy, Greg; Miller, Tim; Shaffer, Scott; Muellerschoen, Ron; Jones, Cathleen; Zebker, Howard; Madsen, Soren; Paul, Rose

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently implementing a reconfigurable polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track interferometric (RTI) SAR data, also known as differential interferometric measurements. Differential interferometry can provide key deformation measurements, important for the scientific studies of Earthquakes and volcanoes. Using precision real-time GPS and a sensor controlled flight management system, the system will be able to fly predefined paths with great precision. The expected performance of the flight control system will constrain the flight path to be within a 10 m diameter tube about the desired flight track. The radar wilI be designed to operate on a UAV (Unpiloted Aria1 Vehicle) but will initially be demonstrated on a minimally piloted vehicle (MPV), such as the Proteus buitt by Scaled Composites or on a NASA Gulfstream III. The radar design is a fully polarimetric with an 80 MHz bandwidth (2 m range resolution) and 16 km range swath. The antenna is an electronically steered along track to assure that the actual antenna pointing can be controlled independent of the wind direction and speed. Other features supported by the antenna include an elevation monopulse option and a pulse-to-pulse resteering capability that will enable some novel modes of operation. The system will nominally operate at 45,000 ft (13800 m). The program began out as an Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) funded by NASA Earth Science and Technology Office (ESTO).

  11. Repeated measures of serum glucose and insulin in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi; Caan, Bette J; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Gunter, Marc J; Ho, Gloria Y F; Rodriguez, Beatriz L; Shikany, James M; Strickler, Howard D; Vitolins, Mara Z; Rohan, Thomas E

    2009-12-01

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that circulating glucose and insulin may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. However, few cohort studies have examined breast cancer risk in association with glucose and insulin levels, and studies to date have had only baseline measurements of exposure. We conducted a longitudinal study of postmenopausal breast cancer risk using the 6% random sample of women in the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials whose fasting blood samples, provided at baseline and at years 1, 3 and 6, were analyzed for glucose and insulin. In addition, a 1% sample of women in the observational study, who had glucose and insulin measured in fasting blood samples drawn at baseline and in year 3, were included in the analysis. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of baseline and follow-up measurements of serum glucose and insulin with breast cancer risk. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Among 5,450 women with baseline serum glucose and insulin values, 190 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained over a median of 8.0 years of follow-up. The highest tertile of baseline insulin, relative to the lowest, was associated with a 2-fold increase in risk in the total population (multivariable hazard ratio 2.22, 95% confidence interval 1.39-3.53) and with a 3-fold increase in risk in women who were not enrolled in the intervention arm of any clinical trial (multivariable hazard ratio 3.15, 95% confidence interval 1.61-6.17). Glucose levels showed no association with risk. Analysis of the repeated measurements supported the results of the baseline analysis. These data suggest that elevated serum insulin levels may be a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer.

  12. Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in Childhood in Prediction of Hypertension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonen, Mervi; Nuotio, Joel; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Jula, Antti; Cheung, Michael; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, Ppressure. In addition, 2 abnormal childhood/youth blood pressure observations increased the prediction of hypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Corneal Topographic and Aberrometric Measurements Obtained with a Multidiagnostic Device in Healthy Eyes: Intrasession Repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the intrasession repeatability of corneal curvature, eccentricity, and aberrometric measurements obtained with a multidiagnostic device in healthy eyes. Methods. This study enrolled 107 eyes of 107 patients ranging in age from 23 to 65 years. All of them underwent a complete anterior segment examination with the VX120 system (Visionix-Luneau Technologies, Chartres, France. Three consecutive measurements were obtained. The within-subject standard deviation (Sw, intrasubject precision (1.96×Sw, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated. Results. All Sw for corneal power measurements were below 0.26 D, with ICC above 0.982. The Sw for corneal astigmatism at different areas (3, 5, and 7 mm was below 0.21 D, with ICC above 0.913. Concerning the axis of astigmatism, its Sw was below 11.27°, with ICC above 0.975. The Sw and ICC for corneal eccentricity were 0.067 and 0.957, respectively. The Sw and ICC for high-order aberration root mean square (RMS were 0.048 µm and 0.901, respectively. For 3rd- and 4th-order aberrometric parameters, all Sw were below 0.037 µm and all ICC were higher than 0.84, except for quadrafoil RMS (ICC: 0.689. Conclusions. The multidiagnostic device evaluated is able to provide consistent measurements of corneal power, eccentricity, and third- and fourth-order aberrations in healthy eyes.

  14. Measurement of repeat effects in Chicago’s criminal social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kump

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The “near-repeat” effect is a well-known criminological phenomenon in which the occurrence of a crime incident gives rise to a temporary elevation of crime risk within close physical proximity to an initial incident. Adopting a social network perspective, we instead define a near repeat in terms of geodesic distance within a criminal social network, rather than spatial distance. Specifically, we report a statistical analysis of repeat effects in arrest data for Chicago during the years 2003–2012. We divide the arrest data into two sets (violent crimes and other crimes and, for each set, we compare the distributions of time intervals between repeat incidents to theoretical distributions in which repeat incidents occur only by chance. We first consider the case of the same arrestee participating in repeat incidents (“exact repeats” and then extend the analysis to evaluate repeat risks of those arrestees near one another in the social network. We observe repeat effects that diminish as a function of geodesic distance and time interval, and we estimate typical time scales for repeat crimes in Chicago.

  15. Constructing Measure by Repeated Infinite Subdivision%通过反复无限细分定义测度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严质彬

    2005-01-01

    This paper generalizes the method of constructing measure by repeated finite subdivision in fTactal geometry to that by infinite subdivision. Two conditions for the existing method are removed. A measure on the interval [0, 1] is constructed using this generalized method.

  16. Cardiometabolic treatment decisions in patients with type 2 diabetes : the role of repeated measurements and medication burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Stolk, R. P.; Denig, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Clinical guidelines for cardiometabolic risk management indicate a simple threshold-based strategy for treatment, but physicians and their patients may be reluctant to modify drug treatment after a single elevated measurement. We determined how repeated measurements of blood pressure, choles

  17. Cardiometabolic treatment decisions in patients with type 2 diabetes : the role of repeated measurements and medication burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Stolk, R. P.; Denig, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Clinical guidelines for cardiometabolic risk management indicate a simple threshold-based strategy for treatment, but physicians and their patients may be reluctant to modify drug treatment after a single elevated measurement. We determined how repeated measurements of blood pressure,

  18. Tracking photon jumps with repeated quantum non-demolition parity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Petrenko, A; Leghtas, Z; Vlastakis, B; Kirchmair, G; Sliwa, K M; Narla, A; Hatridge, M; Shankar, S; Blumoff, J; Frunzio, L; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

    2014-07-24

    Quantum error correction is required for a practical quantum computer because of the fragile nature of quantum information. In quantum error correction, information is redundantly stored in a large quantum state space and one or more observables must be monitored to reveal the occurrence of an error, without disturbing the information encoded in an unknown quantum state. Such observables, typically multi-quantum-bit parities, must correspond to a special symmetry property inherent in the encoding scheme. Measurements of these observables, or error syndromes, must also be performed in a quantum non-demolition way (projecting without further perturbing the state) and more quickly than errors occur. Previously, quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum jumps between states of well-defined energy have been performed in systems such as trapped ions, electrons, cavity quantum electrodynamics, nitrogen-vacancy centres and superconducting quantum bits. So far, however, no fast and repeated monitoring of an error syndrome has been achieved. Here we track the quantum jumps of a possible error syndrome, namely the photon number parity of a microwave cavity, by mapping this property onto an ancilla quantum bit, whose only role is to facilitate quantum state manipulation and measurement. This quantity is just the error syndrome required in a recently proposed scheme for a hardware-efficient protected quantum memory using Schrödinger cat states (quantum superpositions of different coherent states of light) in a harmonic oscillator. We demonstrate the projective nature of this measurement onto a region of state space with well-defined parity by observing the collapse of a coherent state onto even or odd cat states. The measurement is fast compared with the cavity lifetime, has a high single-shot fidelity and has a 99.8 per cent probability per single measurement of leaving the parity unchanged. In combination with the deterministic encoding of quantum information in cat

  19. Assessing variability and comparing short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure using a repeated measurements approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, S; Manini, P; Campo, L; De Palma, G; Andreoli, R; Mutti, A; Bertazzi, P A; Rappaport, S M

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this work is to compare several short-term biomarkers of styrene exposure, namely urinary styrene (StyU), mercapturic acids (M1+M2), mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), phenylglycine (PHG), and 4-vinylphenol conjugates (VP), for use as biomarkers of exposure in epidemiologic studies. A repeated measurements protocol (typically 4 measurements per worker over 6 weeks) was applied to measure airborne styrene (StyA) and urinary biomarkers in 10 varnish and 8 fiberglass reinforced plastic workers. Estimated geometric mean personal exposures to StyA were 2.96mg/m(3) in varnish workers and 15.7mg/m(3) in plastic workers. The corresponding levels of StyU, M1+M2, MA, PGA, MA+PGA, PHG and VP were 5.13microg/L, 0.111, 38.2, 22.7, 62.6, 0.978, and 3.97mg/g creatinine in varnish workers and 8.38microg/L, 0.303, 146, 83.4, 232, 2.85 and 3.97mg/g creatinine in plastic workers. Within-worker (sigma(wY)(2)) and between-worker (sigma(bY)(2)) variance components were estimated from the log-transformed data as were the corresponding fold ranges containing 95% of the respective lognormal distributions of daily levels ((w)R(0.95)) and subject-specific mean levels ((b)R(0.95)). Estimates of (w)R(0.95) (range: 4-26) were generally smaller than those of (b)R(0.95) (range: 5-790) for both environmental and biological markers; this indicates that exposures varied much more between workers than within workers in these groups. Since attenuation bias in an estimated exposure-response relationship increases with the variance ratio lambda=sigma(wY)(2)/sigma(bY)(2), we estimated values of lambda for all exposure measures in our study. Values of lambda were typically much less than one (median=0.220) and ranged from 0.089 for M1+M2 in plastic workers to 1.38 for PHG in varnish workers. Since values of lambda were 0.147 and 0.271 for StyA in varnish workers and plastic workers, respectively, compared to 0.178 and 0.210 for MA in the same groups, our results suggest that either

  20. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  1. Analyzing repeated measures semi-continuous data, with application to an alcohol dependence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Strawderman, Robert L; Johnson, Bankole A; O'Quigley, John M

    2016-02-01

    Two-part random effects models (Olsen and Schafer,(1) Tooze et al.(2)) have been applied to repeated measures of semi-continuous data, characterized by a mixture of a substantial proportion of zero values and a skewed distribution of positive values. In the original formulation of this model, the natural logarithm of the positive values is assumed to follow a normal distribution with a constant variance parameter. In this article, we review and consider three extensions of this model, allowing the positive values to follow (a) a generalized gamma distribution, (b) a log-skew-normal distribution, and (c) a normal distribution after the Box-Cox transformation. We allow for the possibility of heteroscedasticity. Maximum likelihood estimation is shown to be conveniently implemented in SAS Proc NLMIXED. The performance of the methods is compared through applications to daily drinking records in a secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial of topiramate for alcohol dependence treatment. We find that all three models provide a significantly better fit than the log-normal model, and there exists strong evidence for heteroscedasticity. We also compare the three models by the likelihood ratio tests for non-nested hypotheses (Vuong(3)). The results suggest that the generalized gamma distribution provides the best fit, though no statistically significant differences are found in pairwise model comparisons.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of a micro-based repeated measures testing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Wilkes, Robert L.; Lane, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    A need exists for an automated performance test system to study the effects of various treatments which are of interest to the aerospace medical community, i.e., the effects of drugs and environmental stress. The ethics and pragmatics of such assessment demand that repeated measures in small groups of subjects be the customary research paradigm. Test stability, reliability-efficiency and factor structure take on extreme significance; in a program of study by the U.S. Navy, 80 percent of 150 tests failed to meet minimum metric requirements. The best is being programmed on a portable microprocessor and administered along with tests in their original formats in order to examine their metric properties in the computerized mode. Twenty subjects have been tested over four replications on a 6.0 minute computerized battery (six tests) and which compared with five paper and pencil marker tests. All tests achieved stability within the four test sessions, reliability-efficiencies were high (r greater than .707 for three minutes testing), and the computerized tests were largely comparable to the paper and pencil version from which they were derived. This computerized performance test system is portable, inexpensive and rugged.

  3. Analyzing repeated data collected by mobile phones and frequent text messages. An example of Low back pain measured weekly for 18 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axén Iben

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated data collection is desirable when monitoring fluctuating conditions. Mobile phones can be used to gather such data from large groups of respondents by sending and receiving frequently repeated short questions and answers as text messages. The analysis of repeated data involves some challenges. Vital issues to consider are the within-subject correlation, the between measurement occasion correlation and the presence of missing values. The overall aim of this commentary is to describe different methods of analyzing repeated data. It is meant to give an overview for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. Methods A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions and analytic approaches were illustrated and discussed, as well as the handling of missing data. In the applications the weekly outcome “number of days with pain” was analyzed in relation to the patients’ “previous duration of pain” (categorized as more or less than 30 days in the previous year. Research questions with appropriate analytical methods 1: How many days with pain do patients experience? This question was answered with data summaries. 2: What is the proportion of participants “recovered” at a specific time point? This question was answered using logistic regression analysis. 3: What is the time to recovery? This question was answered using survival analysis, illustrated in Kaplan-Meier curves, Proportional Hazard regression analyses and spline regression analyses. 4: How is the repeatedly measured data associated with baseline (predictor variables? This question was answered using generalized Estimating Equations, Poisson regression and Mixed linear models analyses. 5: Are there subgroups of patients with similar courses of pain

  4. A non-intrusive measurement technique applying CARS for concentration measurement in a gas mixing flow

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Ken; Moriya, Madoka; Kuriyama, Reiko; Sato, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope system was built and applied to a non-intrusive gas concentration measurement of a mixing flow in a millimeter-scale channel. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen were chosen as test fluids and CARS signals from the fluids were generated by adjusting the wavelengths of the Pump and the Stokes beams. The generated CARS signals, whose wavelengths are different from those of the Pump and the Stokes beams, were captured by an EM-CCD camera after filtering out the excitation beams. A calibration experiment was performed in order to confirm the applicability of the built-up CARS system by measuring the intensity of the CARS signal from known concentrations of the samples. After confirming that the measured CARS intensity was proportional to the second power of the concentrations as was theoretically predicted, the CARS intensities in the gas mixing flow channel were measured. Ten different measurement points were set and concentrations of both carbon dioxide and nitrog...

  5. A repeated measures experiment of green exercise to improve self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Reed

    Full Text Available Exercising in natural, green environments creates greater improvements in adult's self-esteem than exercise undertaken in urban or indoor settings. No comparable data are available for children. The aim of this study was to determine whether so called 'green exercise' affected changes in self-esteem; enjoyment and perceived exertion in children differently to urban exercise. We assessed cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity (PAQ-A in 11 and 12 year olds (n = 75. Each pupil completed two 1.5 mile timed runs, one in an urban and another in a rural environment. Trials were completed one week apart during scheduled physical education lessons allocated using a repeated measures design. Self-esteem was measured before and after each trial, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and enjoyment were assessed after completing each trial. We found a significant main effect (F (1,74, = 12.2, p<0.001, for the increase in self-esteem following exercise but there was no condition by exercise interaction (F (1,74, = 0.13, p = 0.72. There were no significant differences in perceived exertion or enjoyment between conditions. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.26, p = 0.04 between habitual physical activity and RPE during the control condition, which was not evident in the green exercise condition (r = -0.07, p = 0.55. Contrary to previous studies in adults, green exercise did not produce significantly greater increases in self-esteem than the urban exercise condition. Green exercise was enjoyed more equally by children with differing levels of habitual physical activity and has the potential to engage less active children in exercise.

  6. Repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber volume measurements using 3-dimensional corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shinichi; Kawana, Keisuke; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber volume (ACV) measurements using swept-source 3-dimensional corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (CAS-OCT) and dual Scheimpflug imaging. Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Nonrandomized clinical trial. Measurements were taken in normal eyes (subject group) and in eyes with primary angle closure (PAC) (patient group). In the subject group, the entire ACV and the central 8.0 mm diameter ACV were measured using CAS-OCT and dual Scheimpflug imaging. In the patient group, the entire ACV and 8.0 mm ACV were measured using CAS-OCT. The coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate repeatability and reproducibility, and the correlation between the 2 devices was assessed. In the subject group, the mean 8.0 mm ACV was 110.14 mm(3) ± 12.57 (SD) using CAS-OCT and 114.51 ± 14.69 mm(3) using Scheimpflug imaging; there was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.878, P ACV on CAS-OCT was 165.15 ± 29.29 mm(3). The ICCs of the 8.0 mm and entire ACV measurements were greater than 0.94. The coefficients of repeatability and reproducibility of the 8.0 mm ACV and entire ACV measurements were less than 5%. In the patient group, the 8.0 mm and entire ACV measurements showed good reproducibility and repeatability. The CAS-OCT method allowed noninvasive measurement of the entire ACV with sufficient repeatability and reproducibility. The 8.0 mm ACV measurements with CAS-OCT and Scheimpflug imaging were comparable. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring the Stop Mixing Angle at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to determine the stop mixing angle and its CP-violating phase at the LHC. As an observable we use ratios of branching ratios for different decay modes of the light stop ~t_1 to charginos and neutralinos. These observables can have a very strong dependence on the parameters of the stop sector. We discuss in detail the origin of these effects. Using various combinations of the ratios of branching ratios we show that, depending on the scenario, one can achieve accuracies in the range of a few percent for determining the light stop mass, the mixing angle and the CP phase.

  8. Precision (Repeatability and Reproducibility and Agreement of Corneal Power Measurements Obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Hua

    Full Text Available To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of corneal power measurements obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace, and assess the agreement with measurements obtained by Allegro Topolyzer and IOLMaster.The right eyes of 100 normal subjects were prospectively scanned 3 times using all the 4 devices. Another observer performed additional 3 consecutive scans using the Topcon KR-1W and iTrace in the same session. About one week later, the first observer repeated the measurements using the Topcon KR-1W and iTrace. The steep keratometry (Ks, flat keratometry (Kf, mean keratometry (Km, J0 and J45 were analyzed. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements were evaluated by the within-subject standard deviation (Sw, coefficient of variation (CoV, test-retest repeatability (2.77Sw, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Agreements between devices were assessed using Bland-Altman analysis and 95% limits of agreement (LoA.Intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility of the Ks, Kf and Km showed a CoV of no more than 0.5%, a 2.77Sw of 0.70 D or less, and an ICC of no less than 0.99. However, J0 and J45 showed poor intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility (all ICCs not greater than 0.446. Statistically significant differences existed between Topcon KR-1W and IOLMaster, Topcon KR-1W and iTrace, Topcon KR-1W and Topolyzer, iTrace and Topolyzer, iTrace and IOLMaster for Ks, Kf and Km measurements (all P < 0.05. The mean differences between Topcon KR-1W, iTrace, and the other 2 devices were small. The 95% LoA were approximately 1.0 D to 1.5 D for all measurements.The Ks, Kf and Km obtained by Topcon KR-1W and iTrace showed excellent intraobserver repeatability and interobserver and intersession reproducibility in normal eyes. The agreement between Topcon KR-1W and Topolyzer, Topcon KR-1W and IOLMaster, iTrace and Topolyzer, iTrace and IOLMaster, Topcon KR-1W and iTrace were not

  9. Separating climate-induced mass transfers and instrumental effects from tectonic signal in repeated absolute gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, M.; Viron, O.; Avouac, J. P.

    2016-05-01

    We estimate the signature of the climate-induced mass transfers in repeated absolute gravity measurements based on satellite gravimetric measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. We show results at the globe scale and compare them with repeated absolute gravity (AG) time behavior in three zones where AG surveys have been published: Northwestern Europe, Canada, and Tibet. For 10 yearly campaigns, the uncertainties affecting the determination of a linear gravity rate of change range 3-4 nm/s2/a in most cases, in the absence of instrumental artifacts. The results are consistent with what is observed for long-term repeated campaigns. We also discuss the possible artifact that can result from using short AG survey to determine the tectonic effects in a zone of high hydrological variability. We call into question the tectonic interpretation of several gravity changes reported from stations in Tibet, in particular the variation observed prior to the 2015 Gorkha earthquake.

  10. A new measurement method for color discrimination thresholds of human eyes based on PWM light-mixing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyan; Dong, Jinxin

    2016-09-01

    The color discrimination is a powerful tool for detection of eye diseases, and it is is necessary to produce different kinds of color rapidly and precisely for testing color discrimination thresholds of human eyes. Three channels' pulse-width modulation (PWM) and light-mixing technology is a new way to mixing color, and a new measurement method for color discrimination thresholds of human eyes based on PWM light-mix technology can generate kinds of color stimuli. In this study, 5 youth volunteers were measured via this equipment after the test for the stability of the device's illumination and chrominance. Though the theory of Macadam ellipses and the interleaved staircase method, a psychophysical experiment was made to study the color discrimination threshold of the human eyes around a basic color center. By analyzing the data of the chromatic ellipse and the color discrimination threshold, the result shows that each color is not uniform in a single color region and the color difference threshold of normal human is around the third Macadam ellipses. The experimental results show that the repeatability and accuracy of the observer can meet the accuracy requirements of the relevant experiments, and the data is reliable and effective, which means the measurement method is an effective way to measure the color discrimination thresholds of human visual system.

  11. Accounting for uncertainty in volumes of seabed change measured with repeat multibeam sonar surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Alexandre C. G.; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hulands, Lachlan; Kennedy, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Seafloors of unconsolidated sediment are highly dynamic features; eroding or accumulating under the action of tides, waves and currents. Assessing which areas of the seafloor experienced change and measuring the corresponding volumes involved provide insights into these important active sedimentation processes. Computing the difference between Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) obtained from repeat Multibeam Echosounders (MBES) surveys has become a common technique to identify these areas, but the uncertainty in these datasets considerably affects the estimation of the volumes displaced. The two main techniques used to take into account uncertainty in volume estimations are the limitation of calculations to areas experiencing a change in depth beyond a chosen threshold, and the computation of volumetric confidence intervals. However, these techniques are still in their infancy and, as a result, are often crude, seldom used or poorly understood. In this article, we explored a number of possible methodological advances to address this issue, including: (1) using the uncertainty information provided by the MBES data processing algorithm CUBE, (2) adapting fluvial geomorphology techniques for volume calculations using spatially variable thresholds and (3) volumetric histograms. The nearshore seabed off Warrnambool harbour - located in the highly energetic southwest Victorian coast, Australia - was used as a test site. Four consecutive MBES surveys were carried out over a four-months period. The difference between consecutive DEMs revealed an area near the beach experiencing large sediment transfers - mostly erosion - and an area of reef experiencing increasing deposition from the advance of a nearby sediment sheet. The volumes of sediment displaced in these two areas were calculated using the techniques described above, both traditionally and using the suggested improvements. We compared the results and discussed the applicability of the new methodological improvements

  12. Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006–2014 Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, ML [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Biraud, SC [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Hirsch, A [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    2015-05-01

    Uncertainty in vertical mixing between the surface layer, boundary layer, and free troposphere leads to large uncertainty in “top-down” estimates of regional land-atmosphere carbon exchange (i.e., estimates based on measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios). The radioisotope radon-222 (222Rn) is a valuable tracer for measuring atmospheric mixing because it is emitted from the land surface and has a short enough half-life (3.8 days) to allow characterization of mixing processes based on vertical profile measurements.

  13. Repeated Geophysical Surface Measurements to Estimate the Dynamics of Underground Coalfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Rüter, H.; Lindner, H.

    2009-04-01

    in a range between -130 and 176 nT. The maxima are most likely caused by the conversion of pyrite and markasit into maghemite, hematite and magnetite. Therefore the identified patches with high magnetic anomalies should have a direct connection to the burning coal in firezone 18. The firezone in Wuda has been visited now for five, that in Queergou for two times. All the discussed geophysical measurements together allow an integrated interpretation. Each result can be related to the combustion process with a particular likelihood for the vertical projection to the combustion centre. Probability calculations with chosen weight factors for each observation method are discussed. A so called fireindex deduced from the repeated measurements reveals the dynamics of the coal fire.

  14. Heart failure re-admission: measuring the ever shortening gap between repeat heart failure hospitalizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Bakal

    Full Text Available Many quality-of-care and risk prediction metrics rely on time to first rehospitalization even though heart failure (HF patients may undergo several repeat hospitalizations. The aim of this study is to compare repeat hospitalization models. Using a population-based cohort of 40,667 patients, we examined both HF and all cause re-hospitalizations using up to five years of follow-up. Two models were examined: the gap-time model which estimates the adjusted time between hospitalizations and a multistate model which considered patients to be in one of four states; community-dwelling, in hospital for HF, in hospital for any reason, or dead. The transition probabilities and times were then modeled using patient characteristics and number of repeat hospitalizations. We found that during the five years of follow-up roughly half of the patients returned for a subsequent hospitalization for each repeat hospitalization. Additionally, we noted that the unadjusted time between hospitalizations was reduced ∼40% between each successive hospitalization. After adjustment each additional hospitalization was associated with a 28 day (95% CI: 22-35 reduction in time spent out of hospital. A similar pattern was seen when considering the four state model. A large proportion of patients had multiple repeat hospitalizations. Extending the gap between hospitalizations should be an important goal of treatment evaluation.

  15. Splashing Our Way to Playfulness! An Aquatic Playgroup for Young Children with Autism, A Repeated Measures Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an aquatic playgroup on the playfulness of children, ages 2 to 3 with autism spectrum disorder. Using a repeated measures design, we followed 10 children and their caregivers who participated in a 6-week aquatic playgroup in southwest Florida. Four dyads completed the entire 12-week study period. The…

  16. Splashing Our Way to Playfulness! An Aquatic Playgroup for Young Children with Autism, A Repeated Measures Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizi, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an aquatic playgroup on the playfulness of children, ages 2 to 3 with autism spectrum disorder. Using a repeated measures design, we followed 10 children and their caregivers who participated in a 6-week aquatic playgroup in southwest Florida. Four dyads completed the entire 12-week study period. The…

  17. A Correction for the Epsilon Approximate Test in Repeated Measures Designs with Two or More Independent Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Bruno

    1991-01-01

    The routine epsilon approximate test in repeated measures designs when the condition of circularity is unfulfilled uses an erroneous formula in the case of two or more groups. Because this may lead to underestimation of the deviation from circularity when the subject number is small, a correction is proposed. (Author/SLD)

  18. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). METHODS: A prospective study consisting of patients with...

  19. Towards measuring the stop mixing angle at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We address the question of how to determine the stop mixing angle and its CP-violating phase at the LHC. As an observable we discuss ratios of branching ratios for different decay modes of the light stop t{sub 1} to charginos and neutralinos. These observables can have a very strong dependence on the parameters of the stop sector. We discuss in detail the origin of these effects. Using various combinations of the ratios of branching ratios we argue that, depending on the scenario, the observable may be promising in exposing the light stop mass, the mixing angle and the CP phase. This will, however, require a good knowledge of the supersymmetric spectrum, which is likely to be achievable only in combination with results from a linear collider. (orig.)

  20. Improved mixing height monitoring through a combination of lidar and radon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Griffiths

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface-based radon (222Rn measurements can be combined with lidar backscatter to obtain a higher quality time series of mixing height within the planetary boundary layer (PBL than is possible from lidar alone, and a more quantitative measure of mixing height than is possible from only radon. The reason why lidar measurements are improved is that there are times when lidar signals are ambiguous, and reliably attributing the mixing height to the correct aerosol layer presents a challenge. By combining lidar with a mixing length scale derived from a time series of radon concentration, automated and robust attribution is possible during the morning transition.

    Radon measurements provide mixing information during the night, but concentrations also depend on the strength of surface emissions. After processing radon in combination with lidar, we obtain nightly measurements of radon emissions and are able to normalise the mixing length scale for changing emissions. After calibration with lidar, the radon-derived equivalent mixing height agrees with other measures of mixing on daily and hourly timescales and is a potential method for studying intermittent mixing in nocturnal boundary layers.

  1. GSTM1 and APE1 genotypes affect arsenic-induced oxidative stress: a repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamruzzaman Quazi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with an increased risk of skin, bladder and lung cancers. Generation of oxidative stress may contribute to arsenic carcinogenesis. Methods To investigate the association between arsenic exposure and oxidative stress, urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG was evaluated in a cohort of 97 women recruited from an arsenic-endemic region of Bangladesh in 2003. Arsenic exposure was measured in urine, toenails, and drinking water. Drinking water and urine samples were collected on three consecutive days. Susceptibility to oxidative stress was evaluated by genotyping relevant polymorphisms in glutathione-s transferase mu (GSTM1, human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1 and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1 genes using the Taqman method. Data were analyzed using random effects Tobit regression to account for repeated measures and 8-OHdG values below the detection limit. Results A consistent negative effect for APE1 was observed across water, toenail and urinary arsenic models. APE1 148 glu/glu + asp/glu genotype was associated with a decrease in logged 8-OHdG of 0.40 (95%CI -0.73, -0.07 compared to APE1 148 asp/asp. An association between total urinary arsenic and 8-OHdG was observed among women with the GSTM1 null genotype but not in women with GSTM1 positive. Among women with GSTM1 null, a comparison of the second, third, and fourth quartiles of total urinary arsenic to the first quartile resulted in a 0.84 increase (95% CI 0.27, 1.42, a 0.98 increase (95% CI 033, 1.66 and a 0.85 increase (95% CI 0.27, 1.44 in logged 8-OHdG, respectively. No effects between 8-OHdG and toenail arsenic or drinking water arsenic were observed. Conclusion These results suggest the APE1 variant genotype decreases repair of 8-OHdG and that arsenic exposure is associated with oxidative stress in women who lack a functional GSTM1 detoxification enzyme.

  2. Pilot study: Assessing repeatability of the EcoWalk platform resistive pressure sensors to measure plantar pressure during barefoot standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zequera, Martha; Perdomo, Oscar; Wilches, Carlos; Vizcaya, Pedro

    2013-06-01

    Plantar pressure provides useful information to assess the feet's condition. These systems have emerged as popular tools in clinical environment. These systems present errors and no compensation information is presented by the manufacturer, leading to uncertainty in the measurements. Ten healthy subjects, 5 females and 5 males, were recruited. Lateral load distribution, antero-posterior load distribution, average pressure, contact area, and force were recorded. The aims of this study were to assess repeatability of the EcoWalk system and identify the range of pressure values observed in the normal foot. The coefficient of repeatability was less than 4% for all parameters considered.

  3. Mixed tau, TDP-43 and p62 pathology in FTLD associated with a C9ORF72 repeat expansion and p.Ala239Thr MAPT (tau) variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Troakes, Claire; Smith, Bradley N; Maekawa, Satomi; Iovino, Mariangela; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Shaw, Christopher E

    2013-02-01

    A massive intronic GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 has recently been identified as the most common cause of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). We have previously demonstrated that C9ORF72 mutant cases have a specific pathological profile with abundant p62-positive, TDP-43-negative cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions within cerebellar granular cells of the cerebellum and pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in addition to classical TDP-43 pathology. Here, we report mixed tau and TDP-43 pathology in a woman with behavioural variant FTLD who had the C9ORF72 mutation, and the p.Ala239Thr variant in MAPT (microtubule associated protein tau) gene not previously associated with tau pathology. Two of her brothers, who carried the C9ORF72 mutation, but not the MAPT variant, developed classical ALS without symptomatic cognitive changes. The dominant neuropathology in this woman with FTLD was a tauopathy with Pick's disease-like features. TDP-43 labelling was mainly confined to Pick bodies, but p62-positive, TDP-43-negative inclusions, characteristic of C9ORF72 mutations, were present in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Mixed pathology to this degree is unusual. One might speculate that the presence of the C9ORF72 mutation might influence tau deposition in what was previously thought to be a "benign" variant in MAPT in addition to the aggregation of TDP-43 and other as yet unidentified proteins decorated with ubiquitin and p62.

  4. Reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring biceps brachii oxygenation during sustained and repeated isometric contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Quaresima, Valentina; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-01-01

    We examine the test-retest reliability of biceps brachii tissue oxygenation index (TOI) parameters measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during a 10-s sustained and a 30-repeated (1-s contraction, 1-s relaxation) isometric contraction task at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (30% MVC) and maximal (100% MVC) intensities. Eight healthy men (23 to 33 yr) were tested on three sessions separated by 3 h and 24 h, and the within-subject reliability of torque and each TOI parameter were determined by Bland-Altman+/-2 SD limits of agreement plots and coefficient of variation (CV). No significant (P>0.05) differences between the three sessions were found for mean values of torque and TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated tasks at both contraction intensities. All TOI parameters were within+/-2 SD limits of agreement. The CVs for torque integral were similar between the sustained and repeated task at both intensities (4 to 7%) however, the CVs for TOI parameters during the sustained and repeated task were lower for 100% MVC (7 to 11%) than for 30% MVC (22 to 36%). It is concluded that the reliability of the biceps brachii NIRS parameters during both sustained and repeated isometric contraction tasks is acceptable.

  5. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Orbscan II Corneal Topography and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pachymetry Repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Tiryaki Demir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comparison of central corneal thickness (CCT measurements by ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II corneal topography and evaluation of ultrasonic pachymetry repeatability for same observer. Materials and Methods: The study included 132, 82, and 80 eyes of 66 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, 41 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT, and 40 controls, respectively. All subjects were subjected to routine ophthalmic examination. Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry (Nidek Ultrasonic Pachymetry UP-1000 were used for measurement of CCT. ANOVA (Turkey test was used for variable distribution, paired sample t-test was used for repeated measurements, and the analyses were done by SPSS 20.0. Results: Mean CCT was 558.9±37.2 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry and 553.4±37 µm by corneal topography. There was a significant difference between the two measurements (p0.05. CCT was 555±39.2 µm, 564.3±28.4 µm, and 559.7±41.5 µm by ultrasonic pachymetry in POAG, OHT, and control subjects, respectively; CCT was 550.3±38.3 µm, 558.5±28 µm, and 553.2±42.5 µm by Orbscan II corneal topography in POAG, OHT, and control subjects, respectively. There was a significant linear correlation between Orbscan II corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry in CCT measurements (r=0.975, p<0.0001. Repeatability of ultrasonic pachymetry for same observer was (ICC value 0.990. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between Orbscan II corneal topography and ultrasonic pachymetry in CCT measurements. These two methods of measurements should not be substituted for each other, since ultrasonic pachymetry measures CCT greater than Orbscan II corneal topography. Repeatability of ultrasonic pachymetry for same observer is very high. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 263-7

  6. Improved mixing height monitoring through a combination of lidar and radon measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Griffiths

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface-based radon (222Rn measurements can be combined with lidar backscatter to obtain a higher quality time series of mixing height within the Planetary Boundary-Layer (PBL than is possible from lidar alone, and a more quantitative measure of mixing height than is possible from only radon. The lidar measurements benefit because even when aerosol layers are detected, reliably attributing the mixing height to the correct layer presents a challenge. By combining lidar with a mixing length scale derived from a time series of radon concentration, automated and robust attribution is possible during the morning transition.

    Radon measurements also provide mixing information during the night and with the addition of lidar these measurements become insensitive to night-to-night changes in radon emissions. After calibration with lidar, the radon-derived equivalent mixing height agrees with other measures of mixing on daily and hourly time scales and is a potential method for studying intermittent mixing in nocturnal boundary layers.

  7. Repeatability of Volume and Regional Body Composition Measurements of the Lower Limb Using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Zerahn, Bo; Juul, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Lower limb lymphedema is a dynamic condition in which tissue composition and volume measurements are affected. Various definitions of lower limb lymphedema exist but volume differences between the limbs are widely used. It is therefore necessary to have a readily available noninvasive measurement...... of agreement on the Bland-Altman plots. These results confirm DXA to be a highly repeatable method for volume and tissue composition measurements of the lower limb. In a population at risk of lymphedema, DXA offers a clinically readily available noninvasive method allowing multiple measurements of volume...... and tissue composition on a routine basis, important for diagnosing, monitoring, managing, and researching lymphedema....

  8. Power analysis for multivariate and repeated measurements designs via SPSS: correction and extension of D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jason W

    2006-05-01

    D'Amico, Neilands, and Zambarano (2001) published SPSS syntax to perform power analyses for three complex procedures: ANCOVA, MANOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA. Unfortunately, the published SPSS syntax for performing the repeated measures analysis needed some minor revision in order to perform the analysis correctly. This article presents the corrected syntax that will successfully perform the repeated measures analysis and provides some guidance on modifying the syntax to customize the analysis.

  9. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne D. Roberts

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure’, ‘(inCompatibility’, ‘Validity’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes towards psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs.

  10. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281

  11. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; 'Limited Exposure,' '(in)Compatibility,' 'Validity,' and 'Tokenistic Qualitative Component'; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs.

  12. Repeatability and reproducibility of measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in pelvic floor ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Dresler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implants used to treat patients with urogynecological conditions are well visible in US examination. The position of the suburethral tape (sling is determined in relation to the urethra or the pubic symphysis. Aim of the study: The study was aimed at assessing the accuracy of measurements determining suburethral tape location obtained in pelvic US examination performed with a transvaginal probe. Material and methods: The analysis covered the results of sonographic measurements obtained according to a standardized technique in women referred for urogynecological diagnostics. Data from a total of 68 patients were used to analyse the repeatability and reproducibility of results obtained on the same day. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient for the repeatability and reproducibility of the sonographic measurements of suburethral tape location obtained with a transvaginal probe ranged from 0.6665 to 0.9911. The analysis of the measurements confirmed their consistency to be excellent or good. Conclusions: Excellent and good repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements of the suburethral tape location obtained in a pelvic ultrasound performed with a transvaginal probe confirm the test’s validity and usefulness for clinical and academic purposes.

  13. Repeated measures dose-finding design with time-trend detection in the presence of correlated toxicity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Paoletti, Xavier; Sargent, Daniel J; Mandrekar, Sumithra J

    2017-08-01

    Phase I trials are designed to determine the safety, tolerability, and recommended phase 2 dose of therapeutic agents for subsequent testing. The dose-finding paradigm has thus traditionally focused on identifying the maximum tolerable dose of an agent or combination therapy under the assumption that there is a non-decreasing relationship between dose-toxicity and dose-efficacy. The dose is typically determined based on the probability of severe toxicity observed during the first treatment cycle. A novel endpoint, the total toxicity profile, was previously developed to account for the multiple toxicity types and grades experienced in the first cycle. More recently, this was extended to a repeated measures design based on the total toxicity profile to account for longitudinal toxicities over multiple treatment cycles in the absence of within-patient correlation. In this work, we propose to extend the design in the presence of within-patient correlation. Furthermore, we provide a framework to detect a toxicity time trend (toxicity increasing, decreasing, or stable) over multiple treatment cycles. We utilize a linear mixed model in the Bayesian framework, with the addition of Bayesian risk functions for decision-making in dose assignment. The performance of this design was evaluated using simulation studies and real data from a phase I trial. We demonstrated that using available toxicity data from all cycles of treatment improves the accuracy of maximum tolerated dose identification and allows for the detection of a time trend. The performance is consistent regardless of the strength of the within-patient correlation. In addition, the use of a quasi-continuous total toxicity profile score significantly increased the power to detect time trends compared to when binary data only were used. The increased interest in molecularly targeted agents and immunotherapies in oncology necessitates innovative phase I study designs. Our proposed framework provides a tool to tackle

  14. Repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumunthadu, Daren; Ilginis, Tomas; Restori, Marie; Sagoo, Mandeep S; Tufail, Adnan; Balaggan, Kamaljit S; Patel, Praveen J

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to determine the intrasession repeatability of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT)-derived retinal and choroidal thickness measurements in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). A prospective study consisting of patients with active nAMD enrolled in the Distance of Choroid Study at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London. Patients underwent three 12×9 mm macular raster scans using the deep range imaging (DRI) OCT-1 SS-OCT (Topcon) device in a single imaging session. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were calculated for the ETDRS macular subfields. Repeatability was calculated according to methods described by Bland and Altman. 39 eyes of 39 patients with nAMD were included with a mean (±SD) age of 73.9 (±7.2) years. The mean (±SD) retinal thickness of the central macular subfield was 225.7 μm (±12.4 μm). The repeatability this subfield, expressed as a percentage of the mean central macular subfield thickness, was 23.2%. The percentage repeatability of the other macular subfields ranged from 13.2% to 28.7%. The intrasession coefficient of repeatability of choroidal thickness of the central macular subfield was 57.2 μm with a mean choroidal thickness (±SD) of 181 μm (±15.8 μm). This study suggests that a change >23.2% of retinal thickness and 57.2 μm choroidal thickness in the central macular subfield is required to distinguish true clinical change from measurement variability when using the DRI OCT-1 device to manage patients with nAMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Measurement Uncertainty in Racial and Ethnic Identification among Adolescents of Mixed Ancestry: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Allison J.; Erkut, Sumru; Porche, Michelle V.; Kim, Jo; Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Ceder, Ineke; Garcia, Heidie Vazquez

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we operationalize identification of mixed racial and ethnic ancestry among adolescents as a latent variable to (a) account for measurement uncertainty, and (b) compare alternative wording formats for racial and ethnic self-categorization in surveys. Two latent variable models were fit to multiple mixed-ancestry indicator data from…

  16. Measurement of Squark Flavor Mixings in Supersymmetric Models at Super B Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, M; Endo, Motoi; Mishima, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    We discuss potential to measure squark flavor mixings based on future data at super B factory and LHC. In particular we focus on the imaginary part of the mixings by investigating the CP violating observables. As a result, we find they are determined with the uncertainty about 10 % at best.

  17. Measurement of ionic conductivity in mixed conducting compounds using solid electrolyte microcontacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zipprich, W.M.; Wiemhöfer, H.D.

    2000-01-01

    Ion conducting (=electron blocking) microelectrodes were used to measure the oxygen ion conductivity in mixed conducting oxides as a function of the thermodynamic activity of oxygen. The reported data concern mixed conducting perovskites of the composition La0.8E0.2CoO3 with E=Mg, Ca, Sr. The

  18. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements by Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Orbscan II Corneal Topography and Evaluation of Ultrasonic Pachymetry Repeatability

    OpenAIRE

    Semra Tiryaki Demir; Mahmut Odabaşı; Mehmet Ersin Oba; Ayşe Burcu Dirim; Efe Can; Orhan Kara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Comparison of central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by ultrasonic pachymetry and Orbscan II corneal topography and evaluation of ultrasonic pachymetry repeatability for same observer. Materials and Methods: The study included 132, 82, and 80 eyes of 66 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), 41 patients with ocular hypertension (OHT), and 40 controls, respectively. All subjects were subjected to routine ophthalmic examination. Orbscan II (Bausch&Lomb) ...

  19. Incomplete quality of life data in lung transplant research: comparing cross sectional, repeated measures ANOVA, and multi-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Bij Wim

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In longitudinal studies on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL it frequently occurs that patients have one or more missing forms, which may cause bias, and reduce the sample size. Aims of the present study were to address the problem of missing data in the field of lung transplantation (LgTX and HRQL, to compare results obtained with different methods of analysis, and to show the value of each type of statistical method used to summarize data. Methods Results from cross-sectional analysis, repeated measures on complete cases (ANOVA, and a multi-level analysis were compared. The scores on the dimension 'energy' of the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP after transplantation were used to illustrate the differences between methods. Results Compared to repeated measures ANOVA, the cross-sectional and multi-level analysis included more patients, and allowed for a longer period of follow-up. In contrast to the cross sectional analyses, in the complete case analysis, and the multi-level analysis, the correlation between different time points was taken into account. Patterns over time of the three methods were comparable. In general, results from repeated measures ANOVA showed the most favorable energy scores, and results from the multi-level analysis the least favorable. Due to the separate subgroups per time point in the cross-sectional analysis, and the relatively small number of patients in the repeated measures ANOVA, inclusion of predictors was only possible in the multi-level analysis. Conclusion Results obtained with the various methods of analysis differed, indicating some reduction of bias took place. Multi-level analysis is a useful approach to study changes over time in a data set where missing data, to reduce bias, make efficient use of available data, and to include predictors, in studies concerning the effects of LgTX on HRQL.

  20. Repeated Microsphere Delivery for Serial Measurement of Regional Blood Perfusion in the Chronically Instrumented, Conscious Canine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Carlo R.; Okabe, Kazunori; Akiyama, Ichiro; Coull, Brent; Godleski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION For chronic, repeated hemodynamic studies in conscious dogs, we designed and tested a chronically instrumented canine, microsphere delivery model. The goals of this study were to investigate the accuracy of repeated estimations of blood perfusion using fluorescent-labeled microspheres and to develop and validate a chronic preparation that permits consecutive estimations in the same conscious animal over an extended protocol. METHODS Via thoracotomy, 9 dogs were instrumented with left atrial appendage and aortic vascular access catheters connected to subcutaneous vascular access ports (VAPs). Four animals received 7 serial injections of 1.6 million 15μm microspheres (total: 11.2 million), and five animals received 8 serial injections of 2.25 million microspheres (total: 18 million) over the course of 11 or 18 weeks. RESULTS All catheters have remained bidirectionally patent during protocol for 14.9±0.8 (Mean±SEM) weeks. Sphere accumulation did not significantly alter global myocardial (p=0.69, p=0.25), renal (p=0.92, p=0.12), hepatic (p=0.84, p=0.32), or splenic (p=0.33, p=0.70) blood perfusion in either set of animals. CONCLUSIONS Catheters remained bidirectionally patent for months, did not interfere with the hemodynamic responses of the preparation, and allowed repeat percutaneous injection of microspheres and withdrawal of reference arterial blood from within conscious canines. Eight serial injections totaling 18 million microspheres over 18 weeks did not alter regional myocardial, hepatic, renal, or splenic blood flow. This dependable, chronic, percutaneous arterial access preparation provides a means for examining acute and long-term effects of pathophysiological, pharmaceutical, and environmental influences on regional arterial blood perfusion in conscious, large animals. PMID:17632127

  1. Measuring Aseismic Slip through Characteristically Repeating Earthquakes at the Mendocino Triple Junction, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materna, K.; Taira, T.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Mendocino Triple Junction (MTJ), at the transition point between the San Andreas fault system, the Mendocino Transform Fault, and the Cascadia Subduction Zone, undergoes rapid tectonic deformation and produces more large (M>6.0) earthquakes than any region in California. Most of the active faults of the triple junction are located offshore, making it difficult to characterize both seismic slip and aseismic creep. In this work, we study aseismic creep rates near the MTJ using characteristically repeating earthquakes (CREs) as indicators of creep rate. CREs are generally interpreted as repeated failures of the same seismic patch within an otherwise creeping fault zone; as a consequence, the magnitude and recurrence time of the CREs can be used to determine a fault's creep rate through empirically calibrated scaling relations. Using seismic data from 2010-2016, we identify CREs as recorded by an array of eight 100-Hz PBO borehole seismometers deployed in the Cape Mendocino area. For each event pair with epicenters less than 30 km apart, we compute the cross-spectral coherence of 20 seconds of data starting one second before the P-wave arrival. We then select pairs with high coherence in an appropriate frequency band, which is determined uniquely for each event pair based on event magnitude, station distance, and signal-to-noise ratio. The most similar events (with median coherence above 0.95 at two or more stations) are selected as CREs and then grouped into CRE families, and each family is used to infer a local creep rate. On the Mendocino Transform Fault, we find relatively high creep rates of >5 cm/year that increase closer to the Gorda Ridge. Closer to shore and to the MTJ itself, we find many families of repeaters on and off the transform fault with highly variable creep rates, indicative of the complex deformation that takes place there.

  2. Persistent repeated measurements by magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrate minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheau, C; Popa, G A; Ghergus, A E; Preda, E M; Capsa, R A; Lupescu, I G

    2013-09-15

    Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy (MHE), previously referred to as infraclinical or subclinical is a precursor in the development of clinical hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The demonstration of MHE is done through neuropsychological testing in the absence of clinical evidence of HE, patients showing only a mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychological tests employed consist of Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) test score. Unfortunately, there are numerous occasions when the tests prove irrelevant: in the situation of inexperienced investigators, the patient's poor education, vision problems or concurring central nervous system disease, all of which may delay or deviate from the correct diagnosis.

  3. Measured turbulent mixing in a small-scale circuit breaker model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basse, N P T; Bini, R; Seeger, M

    2009-11-10

    The performance of high voltage gas circuit breakers depends on the temperature distribution of hot gas or plasma from the arc zone mixed with cold gas that is present, for example, in the exhausts and mixing volume. Understanding the details of the mixing process is imperative to estimate the temperature distribution within the entire breaker volume. Design studies rely on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to search for the best way to achieve satisfactory mixing. One key uncertainty in the CFD simulations is the role of turbulence in this process and how to properly account for it. To gain knowledge of the mixing process between hot and cold gases, we have constructed a simplified breaker geometry that is flexible and accessible to diagnostics. Apart from standard measurements of current and arc voltage, we measure pressure in the arc zone and the mixing volume. Further, the mixing volume is specially designed to be transparent, allowing us to make shadowgraphy measurements of the turbulent mixing during and after the arcing phase. We report on experiments performed in air at atmospheric pressure.

  4. Accuracy and repeatability of direct ciliary sulcus diameter measurements by full-scale 50-megahertz ultrasound biomicroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-jiao; WANG Ning-li; CHEN Shu; LI Shu-ning; MU Da-peng; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Background Phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation has been a popular means for the treatment of high ametropia. Measurements of ciliary sulcus diameter is important for pIOL size determining. But till now, no perfect system can directly measure it. The present study was to evaluate the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of direct sulcus diameter measurements obtained by a full-scale 50-megahertz (MHz) ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods A fresh cadaver human eye with a scale marker inserted through the posterior chamber plane from 3 o'clock to 9 o'clock meridian and 30 randomly selected eyes from 30 normal subjects were scanned by full-scale 50-MHz UBM in horizontal meridional scan plane. The distance between the scales and the whole length of the marker inside the cadaver eye were measured by the same observer using the "built-in" measurement tools and the indicating error of instrument was calculated. Reproducibility of the measurement was evaluated in 30 eyes by 2 operators using Blander and Altman plot test. Repeatability was evaluated from 10 successive eyes randomly selected from the 30 eyes by one operator.Results On a scale of 1 mm, the greatest indicating error was 40 μm; the mean largest indicating error of 1 mm scale from the 10 images was (26±14) μm; on a scale of 11 mm, the greatest indicating error was 70 μo; the error rate was 0.64%. The mean length of the needle inside the eye of the 10 images was 11.05 mm, with the mean indicating error of 47 μm, the average error rate was 0.43%. For ciliary sulcus diameter measurements in vivo, the coefficient of variation was 0.38%; the coefficients of repeatability for intra-observer and inter-observer measurements were 1.99% and 2.55%, respectively. The limits of agreement for intra-observer and inter-observer measurement were-0.41 mm to 0.48 mm and -0.59 mm to 0.58 ram, respectively.Conclusion The full-scale 50-MHz UBM can be a high accuracy and good repeatability means for direct

  5. Purification and correlated measurements of bipartite mixed states

    CERN Document Server

    Bouda, J; Bouda, Jan; Buzek, Vladimir

    2001-01-01

    We prove that all purifications of a non-factorable state (i.e., the state which cannot be expressed in a form $\\rho_{AB}=\\rho_A\\otimes\\rho_B$) are entangled. We also show that for any bipartite state there exists a pair of measurements which are correlated on this state if and only if the state is non-factorable.

  6. Measurement repeatability of tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove offset distance in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Jensen, Bente Rona; Kirpensteijn, Jolle

    2013-01-01

    Objective-To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind limbs. An...... and applied criteria. The TT-TG offset distance has potential as an objective assessment of alignment of the distal portion of the quadriceps mechanism; its use as an aid in case selection for corrective femoral osteotomy among dogs with medial patellar luxation warrants investigation....

  7. Improving Mixed-phase Cloud Parameterization in Climate Model with the ACRF Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhien [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-12-13

    of mixed-phase cloud simulations by CAM5 were performed. Measurement results indicate that ice concentrations control stratiform mixed-phase cloud properties. The improvement of ice concentration parameterization in the CAM5 was done in close collaboration with Dr. Xiaohong Liu, PNNL (now at University of Wyoming).

  8. Eliciting mixed emotions: a meta-analysis comparing models, types, and measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Raul; Totterdell, Peter; Kellett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The idea that people can experience two oppositely valenced emotions has been controversial ever since early attempts to investigate the construct of mixed emotions. This meta-analysis examined the robustness with which mixed emotions have been elicited experimentally. A systematic literature search identified 63 experimental studies that instigated the experience of mixed emotions. Studies were distinguished according to the structure of the underlying affect model—dimensional or discrete—as well as according to the type of mixed emotions studied (e.g., happy-sad, fearful-happy, positive-negative). The meta-analysis using a random-effects model revealed a moderate to high effect size for the elicitation of mixed emotions (dIG+ = 0.77), which remained consistent regardless of the structure of the affect model, and across different types of mixed emotions. Several methodological and design moderators were tested. Studies using the minimum index (i.e., the minimum value between a pair of opposite valenced affects) resulted in smaller effect sizes, whereas subjective measures of mixed emotions increased the effect sizes. The presence of more women in the samples was also associated with larger effect sizes. The current study indicates that mixed emotions are a robust, measurable and non-artifactual experience. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for an affect system that has greater versatility and flexibility than previously thought. PMID:25926805

  9. Measurement of B_s mixing phase at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Kreps, Michal

    2010-01-01

    We present improved bounds on the CP-violating phase \\beta_s^{\\Jpsi\\phi} and on the decay-width difference \\Delta\\Gamma of the neutral B_s^0 meson system obtained by the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider . We use 6500 B_s^0 --> J/psi phi decays collected by the dimuon trigger and reconstructed in a sample corresponding to integrated luminosity of 5.2 fb-1. Besides exploiting a two-fold increase in statistics with respect to the previous measurement, several improvements have been introduced in the analysis including a fully data-driven flavour-tagging calibration and proper treatment of possible S-wave contributions.

  10. Intergenic and repeat transcription in human, chimpanzee and macaque brains measured by RNA-Seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augix Guohua Xu

    Full Text Available Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism's phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes' boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 20-28% of non-ribosomal transcripts correspond to annotated exons and 20-23% to introns. By contrast, transcripts originating within intronic and intergenic repetitive sequences constitute 40-48% of the total brain transcriptome. Notably, some repeat families show elevated transcription. In non-repetitive intergenic regions, we identify and characterize 1,093 distinct regions highly expressed in the human brain. These regions are conserved at the RNA expression level across primates studied and at the DNA sequence level across mammals. A large proportion of these transcripts (20% represents 3'UTR extensions of known genes and may play roles in alternative microRNA-directed regulation. Finally, we show that while transcriptome divergence between species increases with evolutionary time, intergenic transcripts show more expression differences among species and exons show less. Our results show that many yet uncharacterized evolutionary conserved transcripts exist in the human brain. Some of these transcripts may play roles in transcriptional regulation and contribute to evolution of human-specific phenotypic traits.

  11. A Description of Quasar Variability Measured Using Repeated SDSS and POSS Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    MacLeod, Chelsea L; Sesar, Branimir; de Vries, Wim; Kochanek, Christopher S; Kelly, Brandon C; Becker, Andrew C; Lupton, Robert H; Hall, Patrick B; Richards, Gordon T; Anderson, Scott F; Schneider, Donald P

    2011-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description and statistical interpretation of the optical continuum variability of quasars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has obtained repeated imaging in five UV-to-IR photometric bands for 34,727 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. About 10,000 quasars have an average of 60 observations in each band obtained over a decade along stripe 82 (S82), whereas the remaining ~25,000 have 2-3 observations due to scan overlaps. The observed time lags span the range from a day to almost 10 years, and constrain quasar variability at rest-frame time lags of up to 4 years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000A to 6000A. We publicly release a user-friendly catalog of quasars from the SDSS Data Release 7 that have been observed at least twice in SDSS or once in both SDSS and the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and we use it to analyze the ensemble properties of quasar variability. Based on a damped random walk (DRW) model defined by a characteristic time scale and an asymptotic variabilit...

  12. Estimation of spatial patterns of urban air pollution over a 4-week period from repeated 5-min measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Jonathan; Masey, Nicola; Heal, Mathew R.; Hamilton, Scott; Beverland, Iain J.

    2017-02-01

    Determination of intra-urban spatial variations in air pollutant concentrations for exposure assessment requires substantial time and monitoring equipment. The objective of this study was to establish if short-duration measurements of air pollutants can be used to estimate longer-term pollutant concentrations. We compared 5-min measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) concentrations made once per week on 5 occasions, with 4 consecutive 1-week average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at 18 locations at a range of distances from busy roads in Glasgow, UK. 5-min BC and PN measurements (averaged over the two 5-min periods at the start and end of a week) explained 40-80%, and 7-64% respectively, of spatial variation in the intervening 1-week NO2 concentrations for individual weeks. Adjustment for variations in background concentrations increased the percentage of explained variation in the bivariate relationship between the full set of NO2 and BC measurements over the 4-week period from 28% to 50% prior to averaging of repeat measurements. The averages of five 5-min BC and PN measurements made over 5 weeks explained 75% and 33% respectively of the variation in average 1-week NO2 concentrations over the same period. The relatively high explained variation observed between BC and NO2 measured on different time scales suggests that, with appropriate steps to correct or average out temporal variations, repeated short-term measurements can be used to provide useful information on longer-term spatial patterns for these traffic-related pollutants.

  13. Variation in repeated mouth-opening measurements in head and neck cancer patients with and without trismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H; Dijkstra, P U; Vissink, A; van Oort, R P; Roodenburg, J L N

    2009-01-01

    Trismus after head and neck cancer treatment may severely limit mandibular functioning. Interventions aimed at reducing trismus can only be evaluated when the amount of variation associated with these measurements is known. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in mouth-opening measurements in patients treated for head and neck cancer, with and without trismus. Maximal mouth opening was measured in 120 patients in two sessions of three repeated measurements by one observer. To analyse the influence of interobserver variation on mouth-opening measurements a subgroup of 30 patients was measured by a second observer. The standard deviation of the six measurements per patient was used as the variation in measurements of maximal mouth opening. No significant difference was found in maximal mouth opening in patients with (n=33) or without (n=87) trismus. The interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.98. Intraobserver ICC and intersession ICC reliabilities both were 0.99. The variation in the mean values of the three measurements was only slightly smaller than the variation of the single measurements. Variation in maximal mouth opening in patients with trismus does not differ from variation in maximal mouth opening in patients without trismus. Interobserver variation is limited.

  14. The use of a measure of acute irritation to predict the outcome of repeated usage of hand soap products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Wilkinson, M; McShane, P; Pennington, D; Fernandez, C; Pierce, S

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is an important worldwide problem that could be reduced by better hand hygiene practice. However, an increasing number of healthcare workers are experiencing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands as a result of repeated hand washing. This may lead to a reduced level of compliance with regard to hand hygiene. To assess whether a measure of acute irritation by hand soaps could predict the effects of repeated usage over a 2-week period. In a double-blind, randomized comparison study, the comparative irritation potential of four different hand soaps was assessed over a 24-h treatment period. The effect of repeated hand washing with the hand soap products over a 2-week period in healthy adult volunteers on skin barrier function was then determined by assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), epidermal hydration and a visual assessment using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) at days 0, 7 and 14. A total of 121 subjects from the 123 recruited completed phase 1 of the study. All four products were seen to be significantly different from each other in terms of the irritant reaction observed and all products resulted in a significantly higher irritation compared with the no-treatment control. Seventy-nine of the initial 121 subjects were then enrolled into the repeated usage study. A statistically significant worsening of the clinical condition of the skin as measured by HECSI was seen from baseline to day 14 in those subjects repeatedly washing their hands with two of the four soap products (products C and D) with P-values of 0·02 and 0·01, respectively. Subclinical assessment of the skin barrier function by measuring epidermal hydration was significantly increased from baseline to day 7 after repeated hand washing with products A, B and D but overall no significant change was seen in all four products tested by day 14. A statistically significant increase in TEWL at day 14 was seen for product A (P = 0·02) indicating a

  15. Speckle affected fringe detection based on three envelope extraction for self-mixing displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Huang; Chengwei, Li; Songquan, Li; Zhenghe, Zhang; Dongyu, Li

    2017-06-01

    Speckle is an especially relevant issue as far as self-mixing interferometry works onto diffusive targets and for large displacements sensing. This article proposed a new signal processing technique, based on three envelope extraction transition detection algorithm, to correctly extract and processes self-mixing signals corrupted by speckle. The algorithm also discriminates the direction of the target movement for different self-mixing regimes. The validity of the proposed method was demonstrated by means of simulated signals and confirmed by several experimental measurements with envelope variation of a decade in amplitude. The use of this technique effectively removes the need for optical/electro-mechanical component and strict sampling number determination.

  16. A DESCRIPTION OF QUASAR VARIABILITY MEASURED USING REPEATED SDSS AND POSS IMAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Becker, Andrew C.; Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); De Vries, Wim [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Lupton, Robert H. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Hall, Patrick B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We provide a quantitative description and statistical interpretation of the optical continuum variability of quasars. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) has obtained repeated imaging in five UV-to-IR photometric bands for 33,881 spectroscopically confirmed quasars. About 10,000 quasars have an average of 60 observations in each band obtained over a decade along Stripe 82 (S82), whereas the remaining {approx}25,000 have 2-3 observations due to scan overlaps. The observed time lags span the range from a day to almost 10 years, and constrain quasar variability at rest-frame time lags of up to 4 years, and at rest-frame wavelengths from 1000 A to 6000 A. We publicly release a user-friendly catalog of quasars from the SDSS Data Release 7 that have been observed at least twice in SDSS or once in both SDSS and the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey, and we use it to analyze the ensemble properties of quasar variability. Based on a damped random walk (DRW) model defined by a characteristic timescale and an asymptotic variability amplitude that scale with the luminosity, black hole mass, and rest wavelength for individual quasars calibrated in S82, we can fully explain the ensemble variability statistics of the non-S82 quasars such as the exponential distribution of large magnitude changes. All available data are consistent with the DRW model as a viable description of the optical continuum variability of quasars on timescales of {approx}5-2000 days in the rest frame. We use these models to predict the incidence of quasar contamination in transient surveys such as those from the Palomar Transient Factory and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  17. Evaluation of Multiple Imputation in Missing Data Analysis: An Application on Repeated Measurement Data in Animal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazel Ser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of multiple imputation method in case that missing observation structure is at random and completely at random from the approach of general linear mixed model. The application data of study was consisted of a total 77 heads of Norduz ram lambs at 7 months of age. After slaughtering, pH values measured at five different time points were determined as dependent variable. In addition, hot carcass weight, muscle glycogen level and fasting durations were included as independent variables in the model. In the dependent variable without missing observation, two missing observation structures including Missing Completely at Random (MCAR and Missing at Random (MAR were created by deleting the observations at certain rations (10% and 25%. After that, in data sets that have missing observation structure, complete data sets were obtained using MI (multiple imputation. The results obtained by applying general linear mixed model to the data sets that were completed using MI method were compared to the results regarding complete data. In the mixed model which was applied to the complete data and MI data sets, results whose covariance structures were the same and parameter estimations and standard estimations were rather close to the complete data are obtained. As a result, in this study, it was ensured that reliable information was obtained in mixed model in case of choosing MI as imputation method in missing observation structure and rates of both cases.

  18. Measuring the correlation of two optical frequencies using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Watts, Regan T; Huynh, Tam N; Venkitesh, Deepa; Barry, Liam P

    2014-11-10

    We use the physics of four-wave mixing to study the decorrelation of two optical frequencies as they propagate through different fiber delays. The phase noise relationship between the four-wave mixing components is used to quantify and measure the correlation between the two optical frequencies using the correlation coefficient. We show the difference in the evolution of decorrelation between frequency-dependent and frequency-independent components of phase noise.

  19. Spectrometer equipment for neutron spectra measurements in mixed neutron/photon fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Trykov, L A

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes spectrometer equipment in the IPPE experimental laboratory for neutron spectra measurement in mixed (n,gamma) fields. The laboratory was founded in 1957 and it occupies a leading position in the field of nuclear facilities radiation spectrometry and benchmark experiments in Russia. Spectrometer equipment includes spectrometers based on the organic stilbene scintillator, hydrogen counter and Bonner balls. Basic fields of spectrometer application are mixed radiation neutron spectra measurement of radionuclide sources, of nuclear reactors and accelerators; study of neutron transfer through the material, including benchmark experiments and measurement of neutron spectra in the rooms of nuclear facilities.

  20. Measures of the DSM-5 mixed-features specifier of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-04-01

    During the past two decades, a number of studies have found that depressed patients frequently have manic symptoms intermixed with depressive symptoms. While the frequency of mixed syndromes are more common in bipolar than in unipolar depressives, mixed states are also common in patients with major depressive disorder. The admixture of symptoms may be evident when depressed patients present for treatment, or they may emerge during ongoing treatment. In some patients, treatment with antidepressant medication might precipitate the emergence of mixed states. It would therefore be useful to systematically inquire into the presence of manic/hypomanic symptoms in depressed patients. We can anticipate that increased attention will likely be given to mixed depression because of changes in the DSM-5. In the present article, I review instruments that have been utilized to assess the presence and severity of manic symptoms and therefore could be potentially used to identify the DSM-5 mixed-features specifier in depressed patients and to evaluate the course and outcome of treatment. In choosing which measure to use, clinicians and researchers should consider whether the measure assesses both depression and mania/hypomania, assesses all or only some of the DSM-5 criteria for the mixed-features specifier, or assesses manic/hypomanic symptoms that are not part of the DSM-5 definition. Feasibility, more so than reliability and validity, will likely determine whether these measures are incorporated into routine clinical practice.

  1. Repeatability of Cone Spacing Measures in Eyes With Inherited Retinal Degenerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Sippl-Swezey, Nicolas; Porco, Travis C; Lynch, Stephanie K; Syed, Reema; Ratnam, Kavitha; Menghini, Moreno; Roorda, Austin J; Duncan, Jacque L

    2015-01-01

    ...)-derived cone spacing measures in eyes with inherited retinal degenerations (IRD) and in normal eyes. Twenty IRD patients and 10 visually normal subjects underwent AOSLO imaging at two visits separated by no more than 1 month...

  2. Repeatability of Choroidal Thickness Measurements on Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Using Different Posterior Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Vivian S; Moisseiev, Elad; Cunefare, David; Farsiu, Sina; Moshiri, Ala; Yiu, Glenn

    2016-09-01

    To assess the reliability of manual choroidal thickness measurements by comparing different posterior boundary definitions of the choroidal-scleral junction on enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Reliability analysis. Two graders marked the choroidal-scleral junction with segmentation software using different posterior boundaries: (1) the outer border of the choroidal vessel lumen, (2) the outer border of the choroid stroma, and (3) the inner border of the sclera, to measure the vascular choroidal thickness (VCT), stromal choroidal thickness (SCT), and total choroidal thickness (TCT), respectively. Measurements were taken at 0.5-mm intervals from 1.5 mm nasal to 1.5 mm temporal to the fovea, and averaged continuously across the central 3 mm of the macula. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of reliability (CR) were compared to assess intergrader and intragrader reliability. Choroidal thickness measurements varied significantly with different posterior boundaries (P choroidal-scleral junction visibility was Choroidal thickness measurements are more reproducible when measured to the border of the choroid stroma (SCT) than the vascular lumen (VCT) or sclera (TCT). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, A.; Bombach, R.; Hubschmid, W.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    We report on measurements of the mixing of fuel oil with air at atmospheric pressure in an industrial premixed gas turbine burner. The concentration of the vaporized fuel oil was measured with laser induced fluorescence. We reason that the fuel oil concentration can be considered with good accuracy as proportional to the fluorescence intensity. (author) 6 fig., 3 refs.

  4. Correlation coefficient measurement of the mode-locked laser tones using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Panapakkam, Vivek; Vujicic, Vidak; Merghem, Kamel; Lelarge, Francois; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Barry, Liam P

    2016-06-01

    We use four-wave mixing to measure the correlation coefficient of comb tones in a quantum-dash mode-locked laser under passive and active locked regimes. We study the uncertainty in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the proposed method.

  5. The Repeatability Assessment of Three-Dimensional Capsule-Intraocular Lens Complex Measurements by Means of High-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pingjun; Li, Jin; Savini, Giacomo; Huang, Jinhai; Huang, Shenghai; Zhao, Yinying; Liao, Na; Lin, Lei; Yu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Yun-e

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To rebuild the three-dimensional (3-D) model of the anterior segment by high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) and evaluate the repeatability of measurement for the parameters of capsule-intraocular lens (C-IOL) complex. Methods Twenty-two pseudophakic eyes from 22 patients were enrolled. Three continuous SSOCT measurements were performed in all eyes and the tomograms obtained were used for 3-D reconstruction. The output data were used to evaluate the measurement repeatability. The parameters included postoperative aqueous depth (PAD), the area and diameter of the anterior capsule opening (Area and D), IOL tilt (IOL-T), horizontal, vertical, and space decentration of the IOL, anterior capsule opening, and IOL-anterior capsule opening. Results PAD, IOL-T, Area, D, and all decentration measurements showed high repeatability. Repeated measure analysis showed there was no statistically significant difference among the three continuous measurements (all P > .05). Pearson correlation analysis showed high correlation between each pair of them (all r >0.90, P<0.001). ICCs were all more than 0.9 for all parameters. The 95% LoAs of all parameters were narrow for comparison of three measurements, which showed high repeatability for three measurements. Conclusion SSOCT is available to be a new method for the 3-D measurement of C-IOL complex after cataract surgery. This method presented high repeatability in measuring the parameters of the C-IOL complex. PMID:26600254

  6. Measurements of Electric Field in a Nanosecond Pulse Discharge by 4-WAVE Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratte, Edmond; Adamovich, Igor V.; Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig

    2017-06-01

    Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and spatially resolved electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric discharge sustained in room air and in an atmospheric pressure hydrogen diffusion flame. Measurements of the electric field, and more precisely the reduced electric field (E/N) in the plasma is critical for determination rate coefficients of electron impact processes in the plasma, as well as for quantifying energy partition in the electric discharge among different molecular energy modes. The four-wave mixing measurements are performed using a collinear phase matching geometry, with nitrogen used as the probe species, at temporal resolution of about 2 ns . Absolute calibration is performed by measurement of a known electrostatic electric field. In the present experiments, the discharge is sustained between two stainless steel plate electrodes, each placed in a quartz sleeve, which greatly improves plasma uniformity. Our previous measurements of electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharge by picosecond 4-wave mixing have been done in air at room temperature, in a discharge sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode (a quartz plate or a layer of distilled water). Electric field measurements in a flame, which is a high-temperature environment, are more challenging because the four-wave mixing signal is proportional to the to square root of the difference betwen the populations of N2 ground vibrational level (v=0) and first excited vibrational level (v=1). At high temperatures, the total number density is reduced, thus reducing absolute vibrational level populations of N2. Also, the signal is reduced further due to a wider distribution of N2 molecules over multiple rotational levels at higher temperatures, while the present four-wave mixing diagnostics is using spectrally narrow output of a ps laser and a high

  7. Observation of $B^0_s$-$\\bar{B}^0_s$ mixing and measurement of mixing frequencies using semileptonic B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Andrianala, F; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hess, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palczewski, T; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vervink, K; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The $B^0_s$ and $B^0$ mixing frequencies, $\\Delta m_s$ and $\\Delta m_d$, are measured using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment in $pp$ collisions at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV during 2011. Around 1.8x10$^{6}$ candidate events are selected of the type $B^0_{(s)} \\to D^-_{(s)} \\mu^+$(+anything), where about half are from peaking and combinatorial backgrounds. To determine the $B$ decay times, a correction is required for the momentum carried by missing particles, which is performed using a simulation-based statistical method. Associated production of muons or mesons allows us to tag the initial-state flavour and so to resolve oscillations due to mixing. We obtain \\begin{align} &\\Delta m_s = ( 17.93 \\pm 0.22\\,\\textrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.15\\,\\textrm{(syst)}) \\,\\textrm{ps}^{-1} \

  8. Repeatability of measurements: Non-Hermitian observables and quantum Coriolis force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardas, Bartłomiej; Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2016-08-01

    A noncommuting measurement transfers, via the apparatus, information encoded in a system's state to the external "observer." Classical measurements determine properties of physical objects. In the quantum realm, the very same notion restricts the recording process to orthogonal states as only those are distinguishable by measurements. Therefore, even a possibility to describe physical reality by means of non-Hermitian operators should volens nolens be excluded as their eigenstates are not orthogonal. Here, we show that non-Hermitian operators with real spectra can be treated within the standard framework of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, we propose a quantum canonical transformation that maps Hermitian systems onto non-Hermitian ones. Similar to classical inertial forces this map is accompanied by an energetic cost, pinning the system on the unitary path.

  9. Mediation of the Relationship between Maternal Phthalate Exposure and Preterm Birth by Oxidative Stress with Repeated Measurements across Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly K; Chen, Yin-Hsiu; VanderWeele, Tyler J; McElrath, Thomas F; Meeker, John D; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2017-03-01

    Mediation analysis is useful for understanding mechanisms and has been used minimally in the study of the environment and disease. We examined mediation of the association between phthalate exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth by oxidative stress. This nested case-control study of preterm birth (n = 130 cases, 352 controls) included women who delivered in Boston, Massachusestts, from 2006 through 2008. Phthalate metabolites and 8-isoprostane, an oxidative stress biomarker, were measured in urine from three visits in pregnancy. We applied four counterfactual mediation methods: method 1, utilizing exposure and mediator averages; method 2, using averages but allowing for an exposure-mediator interaction; method 3, incorporating longitudinal measurements of the exposure and mediator; and method 4, using longitudinal measurements and allowing for an exposure-mediator interaction. We observed mediation of the associations between phthalate metabolites and all preterm birth by 8-isoprostane, with the greatest estimated proportion mediated observed for spontaneous preterm births specifically. Fully utilizing repeated measures of the exposure and mediator improved precision of indirect (i.e., mediated) effect estimates, and including an exposure-mediator interaction increased the estimated proportion mediated. For example, for mono(2-ethyl-carboxy-propyl) phthalate (MECPP), a metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the percent of the total effect mediated by 8-isoprostane increased from 47% to 60% with inclusion of an exposure-mediator interaction term, in reference to a total adjusted odds ratio of 1.67 or 1.48, respectively. This demonstrates mediation of the phthalate-preterm birth relationship by oxidative stress, and the utility of complex regression models in capturing mediated associations when repeated measures of exposure and mediator are available and an exposure-mediator interaction may exist. Citation: Ferguson KK, Chen YH, VanderWeele TJ, Mc

  10. Statistically steady measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor mixing in a gas channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arindam

    A novel gas channel experiment was constructed to study the development of high Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor mixing. Two gas streams, one containing air and the other containing helium-air mixture, flow parallel to each other separated by a thin splitter plate. The streams meet at the end of a splitter plate leading to the formation of an unstable interface and of buoyancy driven mixing. This buoyancy driven mixing experiment allows for long data collection times, short transients and was statistically steady. The facility was designed to be capable of large Atwood number studies of At ˜ 0.75. We describe work to measure the self similar evolution of mixing at density differences corresponding to 0.035 hot-wire anemometer, and high resolution digital image analysis. The hot-wire probe gives velocity, density and velocity-density statistics of the mixing layer. Two different multi-position single-wire techniques were used to measure the velocity fluctuations in three mutually perpendicular directions. Analysis of the measured data was used to explain the mixing as it develops to a self-similar regime in this flow. These measurements are to our knowledge, the first use of hot-wire anemometry in the Rayleigh-Taylor community. Since the measurement involved extensive calibration of the probes in a binary gas mixture of air and helium, a new convective heat transfer correlation was formulated to account for variable-density low Reynolds number flows past a heated cylinder. In addition to the hot-wire measurements, a digital image analysis procedure was used to characterize various properties of the flow and also to validate the hot-wire measurements. A test of statistical convergence was performed and the study revealed that the statistical convergence was a direct consequence of the number of different large three-dimensional structures that were averaged over the duration of the run.

  11. An L-band SAR for repeat pass deformation measurements on a UAV platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin; Hensley, Scott; Lou, Yunling

    2004-01-01

    We are proposing to develop a miniaturized polarimetric L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for repeatpass differential interferometric measurements of deformation for rapidly deforming surfaces of geophysical interest such as volcanoes or earthquakes that is to be flown on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV or minimally piloted vehicle (MPV).

  12. Repeated measurements of P retention in ponies fed rations with various Ca:P ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, D A; Schaafstra, F J W C; Wouterse, H; Everts, H; Estepa, J C; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Beynen, A C

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question of whether feeding rations rich in P for a period of up to 42 d induces a positive P balance in adult ponies. Biochemical bone markers and parathyroid hormone (PTH; intact as well as whole PTH) were measured to obtain clues as to the effect of P loading on bone meta

  13. Repeated measures of urinary oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly K; McElrath, Thomas F; Chen, Yin-Hsiu; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Meeker, John D

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate oxidative stress as a mechanism of preterm birth in human subjects; we examined associations between urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress that were measured at multiple time points during pregnancy and preterm birth. This nested case-control study included 130 mothers who delivered preterm and 352 mothers who delivered term who were originally recruited as part of an ongoing prospective birth cohort at Brigham and Women's Hospital. Two biomarkers that included 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-isoprostane were measured in urine samples that were collected at up to 4 time points (median 10, 18, 26, and 35 weeks) during gestation. Urinary concentrations of 8-isoprostane and 8-OHdG decreased and increased, respectively, as pregnancy progressed. Average levels of 8-isoprostane across pregnancy were associated with increased odds of spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 6.25; 95% confidence interval, 2.86-13.7), and associations were strongest with levels measured later in pregnancy. Average levels of 8-OHdG were protective against overall preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.34), and there were no apparent differences in the protective effect in cases of spontaneous preterm birth compared with cases of placental origin. Odds ratios for overall preterm birth were more protective in association with urinary 8-OHdG concentrations that were measured early in pregnancy. Maternal oxidative stress may be an important contributor to preterm birth, regardless of subtype and timing of exposure during pregnancy. The 2 biomarkers that were measured in the present study had opposite associations with preterm birth; an improved understanding of what each represents may help to identify more precisely important mechanisms in the pathway to preterm birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Semiconductor laser self-mixing micro-vibration measuring technology based on Hilbert transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yufeng; Wang, Ming; Xia, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A signal-processing synthesizing Wavelet transform and Hilbert transform is employed to measurement of uniform or non-uniform vibrations in self-mixing interferometer on semiconductor laser diode with quantum well. Background noise and fringe inclination are solved by decomposing effect, fringe counting is adopted to automatic determine decomposing level, a couple of exact quadrature signals are produced by Hilbert transform to extract vibration. The tempting potential of real-time measuring micro vibration with high accuracy and wide dynamic response bandwidth using proposed method is proven by both simulation and experiment. Advantages and error sources are presented as well. Main features of proposed semiconductor laser self-mixing interferometer are constant current supply, high resolution, simplest optical path and much higher tolerance to feedback level than existing self-mixing interferometers, which is competitive for non-contact vibration measurement.

  15. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig.

  16. Extended fluctuation theorems for repeated measurements and feedback within Hamiltonian framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahiri, Sourabh, E-mail: sourabhlahiri@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Théorique, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, F-75231 Paris (France); Jayannavar, A.M. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)

    2016-04-29

    We derive the extended fluctuation theorems in presence of multiple measurements and feedback, when the system is governed by Hamiltonian dynamics. We use only the forward phase space trajectories in the derivation. However, to obtain an expression for the efficacy parameter, we must necessarily use the notion of reverse trajectory. Our results show that the correction term appearing in the exponent of the extended fluctuation theorems is non-unique, whereas the physical meaning of the efficacy parameter is unique. - Highlights: • Extended Fluctuation Theorems under multiple measurements and feedback have been derived using Hamiltonian dynamics. • We prove the theorems without using the notion of reverse trajectory. • We show that the correction terms are not unique. • The efficacy parameter is shown to have a unique physical meaning.

  17. Composite tube and plate manufacturing repeatability as determined by precision measurements of thermal strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Lenn A.; Tucker, James R.; Bluth, A. Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Composite materials often carry the reputation of demonstrating high variability in critical material properties. The JWST telescope metering structure is fabricated of several thousand separate composite piece parts. The stringent dimensional stability requirements on the metering structure require the critical thermal strain response of every composite piece be verified either at the billet or piece part level. JWST is a unique composite space structure in that it has required the manufacturing of several hundred composite billets that cover many lots of prepreg and many years of fabrication. The flight billet thermal expansion acceptance criteria limits the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to a tolerance ranging between +/-0.014 ppm/K to +/-0.04 ppm/K around a prescribed nominal when measured from 293 K down to 40 K. The different tolerance values represent different material forms including flat plates and different tube cross-section dimensions. A precision measurement facility was developed that could measure at the required accuracy and at a pace that supported the composite part fabrication rate. The test method and facility is discussed and the results of a statistical process analysis of the flight composite billets are surveyed.

  18. Are exhaled nitric oxide measurements using the portable NIOX MINO repeatable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Abid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exhaled nitric oxide is a non-invasive marker of airway inflammation and a portable analyser, the NIOX MINO (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden, is now available. This study aimed to assess the reproducibility of the NIOX MINO measurements across age, sex and lung function for both absolute and categorical exhaled nitric oxide values in two distinct groups of children and teenagers. Methods Paired exhaled nitric oxide readings were obtained from 494 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, enrolled in an unselected birth cohort and 65 young people, aged 6-17 years, with asthma enrolled in an interventional asthma management study. Results The birth cohort participants showed a high degree of variability between first and second exhaled nitric oxide readings (mean intra-participant difference 1.37 ppb, 95% limits of agreement -7.61 to 10.34 ppb, although there was very close agreement when values were categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high (kappa = 0.907, p Conclusions The reproducibility of exhaled nitric oxide is poor for absolute values but acceptable when values are categorised as low, normal, intermediate or high in children and teenagers. One measurement is therefore sufficient when using categorical exhaled nitric oxide values to direct asthma management but a mean of at least two measurements is required for absolute values.

  19. Reliability of plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) from repeated measures in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citronberg, Jessica S; Wilkens, Lynne R; Lim, Unhee; Hullar, Meredith A J; White, Emily; Newcomb, Polly A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-09-01

    Plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a measure of internal exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, has been associated with several chronic conditions and may be a marker of chronic inflammation; however, no studies have examined the reliability of this biomarker in a healthy population. We examined the temporal reliability of LBP measured in archived samples from participants in two studies. In Study one, 60 healthy participants had blood drawn at two time points: baseline and follow-up (either three, six, or nine months). In Study two, 24 individuals had blood drawn three to four times over a seven-month period. We measured LBP in archived plasma by ELISA. Test-retest reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Plasma LBP concentrations showed moderate reliability in Study one (ICC 0.60, 95 % CI 0.43-0.75) and Study two (ICC 0.46, 95 % CI 0.26-0.69). Restricting the follow-up period improved reliability. In Study one, the reliability of LBP over a three-month period was 0.68 (95 % CI: 0.41-0.87). In Study two, the ICC of samples taken ≤seven days apart was 0.61 (95 % CI 0.29-0.86). Plasma LBP concentrations demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability in healthy individuals with reliability improving over a shorter follow-up period.

  20. Global sensitivity analysis for repeated measures studies with informative drop-out: A semi-parametric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Daniel; McDermott, Aidan; Díaz, Iván; Carone, Marco; Lunardon, Nicola; Turkoz, Ibrahim

    2017-05-23

    In practice, both testable and untestable assumptions are generally required to draw inference about the mean outcome measured at the final scheduled visit in a repeated measures study with drop-out. Scharfstein et al. (2014) proposed a sensitivity analysis methodology to determine the robustness of conclusions within a class of untestable assumptions. In their approach, the untestable and testable assumptions were guaranteed to be compatible; their testable assumptions were based on a fully parametric model for the distribution of the observable data. While convenient, these parametric assumptions have proven especially restrictive in empirical research. Here, we relax their distributional assumptions and provide a more flexible, semi-parametric approach. We illustrate our proposal in the context of a randomized trial for evaluating a treatment of schizoaffective disorder. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  1. Repeated serum creatinine measurement in primary care: Not all patients have chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentille Lorente, Delicia; Gentille Lorente, Jorge; Salvadó Usach, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of kidney failure in patients from a primary care centre in a basic healthcare district with laboratory availability allowing serum creatinine measurements. An observational descriptive cross-sectional study. A basic healthcare district serving 23,807 people aged ≥ 18 years. Prevalence of kidney failure among 17,240 patients having at least one laboratory measurement available was 8.5% (mean age 77.6 ± 12.05 years). In 33.2% of such patients an occult kidney failure was found (98.8% were women). Prevalence of chronic kidney failure among 10,011 patients having at least 2 laboratory measurements available (≥ 3 months apart) was 5.5% with mean age being 80.1 ± 10.0 years (most severely affected patients were those aged 75 to 84); 59.7% were men and 76.3% of cases were in stage 3. An occult kidney failure was found in 5.3% of patients with women being 86.2% of them (a glomerular filtration rate<60 ml/min was estimated for plasma creatinine levels of 0.9 mg/dl or higher). Comparison of present findings to those previously reported demonstrates the need for further studies on the prevalence of overall (chronic and acute) kidney failure in Spain in order to estimate the real scope of the disease. Primary care physicians play a critical role in disease detection, therapy, control and recording (in medical records). MDRD equation is useful and practical to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of individual agreements with repeated measurements based on generalized confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Burdick, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Individual agreement between two measurement systems is determined using the total deviation index (TDI) or the coverage probability (CP) criteria as proposed by Lin (2000) and Lin et al. (2002). We used a variance component model as proposed by Choudhary (2007). Using the bootstrap approach, Choudhary (2007), and generalized confidence intervals, we construct bounds on TDI and CP. A simulation study was conducted to assess whether the bounds maintain the stated type I error probability of the test. We also present a computational example to demonstrate the statistical methods described in the paper.

  3. Prediction Accuracy in Multivariate Repeated-Measures Bayesian Forecasting Models with Examples Drawn from Research on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Kogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In study designs with repeated measures for multiple subjects, population models capturing within- and between-subjects variances enable efficient individualized prediction of outcome measures (response variables by incorporating individuals response data through Bayesian forecasting. When measurement constraints preclude reasonable levels of prediction accuracy, additional (secondary response variables measured alongside the primary response may help to increase prediction accuracy. We investigate this for the case of substantial between-subjects correlation between primary and secondary response variables, assuming negligible within-subjects correlation. We show how to determine the accuracy of primary response predictions as a function of secondary response observations. Given measurement costs for primary and secondary variables, we determine the number of observations that produces, with minimal cost, a fixed average prediction accuracy for a model of subject means. We illustrate this with estimation of subject-specific sleep parameters using polysomnography and wrist actigraphy. We also consider prediction accuracy in an example time-dependent, linear model and derive equations for the optimal timing of measurements to achieve, on average, the best prediction accuracy. Finally, we examine an example involving a circadian rhythm model and show numerically that secondary variables can improve individualized predictions in this time-dependent nonlinear model as well.

  4. Prediction Accuracy in Multivariate Repeated-Measures Bayesian Forecasting Models with Examples Drawn from Research on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Clark; Kalachev, Leonid; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2016-01-01

    In study designs with repeated measures for multiple subjects, population models capturing within- and between-subjects variances enable efficient individualized prediction of outcome measures (response variables) by incorporating individuals response data through Bayesian forecasting. When measurement constraints preclude reasonable levels of prediction accuracy, additional (secondary) response variables measured alongside the primary response may help to increase prediction accuracy. We investigate this for the case of substantial between-subjects correlation between primary and secondary response variables, assuming negligible within-subjects correlation. We show how to determine the accuracy of primary response predictions as a function of secondary response observations. Given measurement costs for primary and secondary variables, we determine the number of observations that produces, with minimal cost, a fixed average prediction accuracy for a model of subject means. We illustrate this with estimation of subject-specific sleep parameters using polysomnography and wrist actigraphy. We also consider prediction accuracy in an example time-dependent, linear model and derive equations for the optimal timing of measurements to achieve, on average, the best prediction accuracy. Finally, we examine an example involving a circadian rhythm model and show numerically that secondary variables can improve individualized predictions in this time-dependent nonlinear model as well.

  5. Does population mixing measure infectious exposure in children at the community level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John C; Law, Graham R; Boyle, Paul J; Feng, Zhiqiang; Gilthorpe, Mark S; Parslow, Roger C; Rudge, Gavin; Feltbower, Richard G

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies focusing on the etiology of childhood chronic diseases have used population mixing as a proxy for the level of infection circulating in a community. We compared different measures of population mixing (based on residential migration and commuting) and other demographic variables, derived from the United Kingdom Census, with hospital inpatient data on infections from two Government Office Regions in England (Eastern and the West Midlands) to inform the development of an infectious disease proxy for future epidemiological studies. The association between rates of infection and the population mixing measures was assessed, using incidence rate ratios across census areas, from negative binomial regression. Commuting distance demonstrated the most consistent association with admissions for infections across the two regions; areas with a higher median distance travelled by commuters leaving the area having a lower rate of hospital admissions for infections. Deprived areas and densely populated areas had a raised rate of admissions for infections. Assuming hospital admissions are a reliable indicator of common infection rates, the results from this study suggest that commuting distance is a consistent measure of population mixing in relation to infectious disease and deprivation and population density are reliable demographic proxies for infectious exposure. Areas that exhibit high levels of population mixing do not necessarily possess raised rates of hospital admissions for infectious disease.

  6. Comparison of measured and modelled mixing heights during the Borex`95 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Astrup, P.; Joergensen, H.E.; Ott, S. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Soerensen, J.H. [Danish Meteorological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Loefstroem, P. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A real-time modelling system designed for `on-the-fly` assessment of atmospheric dispersion during accidental releases is under establishment within the framework of the European Union. It integrates real-time dispersion models for both local scale and long range transport with wind, turbulence and deposition models. As meteorological input, the system uses both on-situ measured and on-line available meteorology. The resulting real-time dispersion system is called MET-RODOS. This paper focuses on evaluation of the MET-RODOS systems build-in local scale pre-processing software for real-time determination of mixing height, - an important parameter for the local scale dispersion assessments. The paper discusses the systems local scale mixing height algorithms as well as its in-line mixing height acquisition from the DMI-HIRLAM model. Comparisons of the diurnal mixing height evolution is made with measured mixing heights from in-situ radio-sonde data during the Borex`95 field trials, and recently also with remote sensed (LIDAR) aerosol profiles measured at Risoe. (LN)

  7. The clinical applicability of a daily summary of patients' self-reported postoperative pain-A repeated measure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikström, Lotta; Eriksson, Kerstin; Fridlund, Bengt; Nilsson, Mats; Årestedt, Kristofer; Broström, Anders

    2017-03-23

    (i) To determine whether a central tendency, median, based on patients' self-rated pain is a clinically applicable daily measure to show patients' postoperative pain on the first day after major surgery (ii) and to determine the number of self-ratings required for the calculation of this measure. Perioperative pain traits in medical records are difficult to overview. The clinical applicability of a daily documented summarising measure of patients' self-rated pain scores is little explored. A repeated measure design was carried out at three Swedish country hospitals. Associations between the measures were analysed with nonparametric statistical methods; systematic and individual group changes were analysed separately. Measure I: pain scores at rest and activity postoperative day 1; measure II: retrospective average pain from postoperative day 1. The sample consisted of 190 general surgery patients and 289 orthopaedic surgery patients with a mean age of 65; 56% were men. Forty-four percent had a pre-operative daily intake of analgesia, and 77% used postoperative opioids. A range of 4-9 pain scores seem to be eligible for the calculation of the daily measures of pain. Rank correlations for individual median scores, based on four ratings, vs. retrospective self-rated average pain, were moderate and strengthened with increased numbers of ratings. A systematic group change towards a higher level of reported retrospective pain was significant. The median values were clinically applicable daily measures. The risk of obtaining a higher value than was recalled by patients seemed to be low. Applicability increased with increased frequency of self-rated pain scores and with high-quality pain assessments. The documenting of daily median pain scores at rest and during activity could constitute the basis for obtaining patients' experiences by showing their pain severity trajectories. The measures could also be an important key to predicting postoperative health

  8. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Gareth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95% of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80% of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis. Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise

  9. Repeated measures of inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly K; Meeker, John D; McElrath, Thomas F; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Cantonwine, David E

    2017-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a prevalent and enigmatic disease, in part characterized by poor remodeling of the spiral arteries. However, preeclampsia does not always clinically present when remodeling has failed to occur. Hypotheses surrounding the "second hit" that is necessary for the clinical presentation of the disease focus on maternal inflammation and oxidative stress. Yet, the studies to date that have investigated these factors have used cross-sectional study designs or small study populations. In the present study, we sought to explore longitudinal trajectories, beginning early in gestation, of a panel of inflammation and oxidative stress markers in women who went on to have preeclamptic or normotensive pregnancies. We examined 441 subjects from the ongoing LIFECODES prospective birth cohort, which included 50 mothers who experienced preeclampsia and 391 mothers with normotensive pregnancies. Participants provided urine and plasma samples at 4 time points during gestation (median, 10, 18, 26, and 35 weeks) that were analyzed for a panel of oxidative stress and inflammation markers. Oxidative stress biomarkers included 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. Inflammation biomarkers included C-reactive protein, the cytokines interleukin-1β, -6, and -10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We created Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios based on time of preeclampsia diagnosis in association with biomarker concentrations at each of the 4 study visits. In adjusted models, hazard ratios of preeclampsia were significantly (Pinflammation biomarkers that were measured at visit 2 (median, 18 weeks; hazard ratios, 1.31-1.83, in association with an interquartile range increase in biomarker). Hazard ratios at this time point were the most elevated for C-reactive protein, for interleukin-1β, -6, and -10, and for the oxidative stress biomarker 8-isoprostane (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.48) compared to other time points. Hazard ratios for

  10. C-reactive Protein: Repeated Measurements will Improve Dialysis Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Gabriela; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a common feature in the uremic phenotype and associates with poor outcomes. The awareness regarding the importance of inflammation assessment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has risen in recent years, and despite the development of novel biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP) is still the most measured inflammatory parameter. Notwithstanding, the possible weak points of CRP determination, this biomarker has demonstrated being useful both for guidance in clinical practice and for risk estimation. In addition, regular determination of CRP among dialysis patients has been associated with better outcomes in different dialysis facilities. Because persistent inflammation may be a silent reflection of various pathophysiologic alterations in CKD, it is crucial that inflammatory markers are regularly monitored and therapeutic attempts be made to target this inflammation.

  11. Repeated heart rate measurement and cardiovascular outcomes in left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Victoria; Ford, Ian; Fox, Kim; Böhm, Michael; Borer, Jeffrey S; Ferrari, Roberto; Komajda, Michel; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; Tavazzi, Luigi; Tendera, Michal; Swedberg, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Elevated resting heart rate is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, particularly in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Heart rate is not monitored routinely in these patients. We hypothesized that routine monitoring of heart rate would increase its prognostic value in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. We analyzed the relationship between heart rate measurements and a range of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including hospitalization for worsening heart failure, in the pooled placebo-treated patients from the morBidity-mortality EvAlUaTion of the If inhibitor ivabradine in patients with coronary disease and left ventricULar dysfunction (BEAUTIFUL) trial and Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine (SHIFT) Trial, using standard and time-varying covariate Cox proportional hazards models. By adjusting for other prognostic factors, models were fitted for baseline heart rate alone or for time-updated heart rate (latest heart rate) alone or corrected for baseline heart rate or for immediate previous time-updated heart rate. Baseline heart rate was strongly associated with all outcomes apart from hospitalization for myocardial infarction. Time-updated heart rate increased the strengths of associations for all outcomes. Adjustment for baseline heart rate or immediate previous time-updated heart rate modestly reduced the prognostic importance of time-updated heart rate. For hospitalization for worsening heart failure, each 5 beats/min increase in baseline heart rate and time-updated heart rate was associated with a 15% (95% confidence interval, 12-18) and 22% (confidence interval, 19-40) increase in risk, respectively. Even after correction, the prognostic value of time-updated heart rate remained greater. In patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, time-updated heart rate is more strongly related with adverse cardiovascular outcomes than baseline heart rate. Heart rate should be measured to

  12. Psychological impact and recovery after involvement in a patient safety incident: a repeated measures analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, Eva; Bruyneel, Luk; Panella, Massimiliano; Euwema, Martin; Sermeus, Walter; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine individual, situational and organisational aspects that influence psychological impact and recovery of a patient safety incident on physicians, nurses and midwives. Design Cross-sectional, retrospective surveys of physicians, midwives and nurses. Setting 33 Belgian hospitals. Participants 913 clinicians (186 physicians, 682 nurses, 45 midwives) involved in a patient safety incident. Main outcome measures The Impact of Event Scale was used to retrospectively measure psychological impact of the safety incident at the time of the event and compare it with psychological impact at the time of the survey. Results Individual, situational as well as organisational aspects influenced psychological impact and recovery of a patient safety incident. Psychological impact is higher when the degree of harm for the patient is more severe, when healthcare professionals feel responsible for the incident and among female healthcare professionals. Impact of degree of harm differed across clinicians. Psychological impact is lower among more optimistic professionals. Overall, impact decreased significantly over time. This effect was more pronounced for women and for those who feel responsible for the incident. The longer ago the incident took place, the stronger impact had decreased. Also, higher psychological impact is related with the use of a more active coping and planning coping strategy, and is unrelated to support seeking coping strategies. Rendered support and a support culture reduce psychological impact, whereas a blame culture increases psychological impact. No associations were found with job experience and resilience of the health professional, the presence of a second victim support team or guideline and working in a learning culture. Conclusions Healthcare organisations should anticipate on providing their staff appropriate and timely support structures that are tailored to the healthcare professional involved in the incident and to the specific

  13. Mixed waste landfill corrective measures study final report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peace, Gerald (Jerry) L.; Goering, Timothy James (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill occupies 2.6 acres in the north-central portion of Technical Area 3 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The landfill accepted low-level radioactive and mixed waste from March 1959 to December 1988. This report represents the Corrective Measures Study that has been conducted for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the study was to identify, develop, and evaluate corrective measures alternatives and recommend the corrective measure(s) to be taken at the site. Based upon detailed evaluation and risk assessment using guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the New Mexico Environment Department, the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories recommend that a vegetative soil cover be deployed as the preferred corrective measure for the Mixed Waste Landfill. The cover would be of sufficient thickness to store precipitation, minimize infiltration and deep percolation, support a healthy vegetative community, and perform with minimal maintenance by emulating the natural analogue ecosystem. There would be no intrusive remedial activities at the site and therefore no potential for exposure to the waste. This alternative poses minimal risk to site workers implementing institutional controls associated with long-term environmental monitoring as well as routine maintenance and surveillance of the site.

  14. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  15. Analytical studies of B sub s sup 0 B sub s sup 0 mixing measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, I T

    1999-01-01

    The direct measurement of B sub s sup 0 B sub s sup 0 mixing can be achieved by detecting fast oscillations in the time distribution of the data. The measurements from current high-energy experiments have obtained very limited results due to severe experimental requirements. We study the effects of detector resolutions and B sub s reconstruction modes on these fast oscillations and derive general formulae for the experimental measurement. An alternative approach using the lifetime difference between B sub s weak eigenstates is also studied in detail and is found to complement the oscillation measurement. Our results provide a method to optimize future high-energy B meson experiments for B sub s sup 0 B sub s sup 0 mixing measurements.

  16. What can we learn from high precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Mohapatra

    2004-12-01

    Many experiments are being planned to measure the neutrino mixing angles more precisely. In this note, the theoretical significance of a high precision measurement of these parameters is discussed. It is emphasized that they can provide crucial information about different ways to understand the origin of large atmospheric neutrino mixing and move us closer towards determining the neutrino mass matrix. They may also be able to throw light on the question of lepton–quark unification as well as the existence of any leptonic symmetries. For instance if exact ↔ symmetry in the neutrino mass matrix is assumed to be the reason for maximal - mixing, one gets 13 = 0 and 13 ≃ $\\sqrt{ m^{2}_{\\odot} / m^{2}_{{\\text{A}}}$ or 13 ≃ $ m^{2}_{\\odot} / m^{2}_{{\\text{A}}}$ can provide information about the way the ↔ symmetry breaking manifests in the case of normal hierarchy.

  17. A novel AX+/BX- paradigm to assess fear learning and safety-signal processing with repeated-measure designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Andy M; Schauder, Kimberly B; McKinnon, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Davis, Michael

    2013-04-15

    One of the core symptoms of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder, is the failure to overcome feelings of danger despite being in a safe environment. This deficit likely stems from an inability to fully process safety signals, which are cues in the environment that enable healthy individuals to over-ride fear in aversive situations. Studies examining safety signal learning in rodents, humans, and non-human primates currently rely on between-groups designs. Because repeated-measure designs reduce the number of subjects required, and facilitate a broader range of safety signal studies, the current project sought to develop a repeated-measures safety-signal learning paradigm in non-human primates. Twelve healthy rhesus macaques of both sexes received three rounds of auditory fear-potentiated startle training and testing using an AX+/BX- design with all visual cues. Cue AX was paired with an aversive blast of air, whereas the same X cue in compound with another B cue (BX) signaled the absence of an air blast. Hence, cue B served as a safety signal. Once animals consistently discriminated between the aversive (AX+) and safe (BX-) cues, measured by greater startle amplitude in the presence of AX vs. BX, they were tested for conditioned inhibition by eliciting startle in the presence of a novel ambiguous combined cue (AB). Similar to previous AX+/BX- studies, healthy animals rapidly learned to discriminate between the AX+ and BX- cues as well as demonstrate conditioned inhibition in the presence of the combined AB cue (i.e. lower startle amplitude in the presence of AB vs. AX). Additionally, animals performed consistently across three rounds of testing using three new cues each time. The results validate this novel method that will serve as a useful tool for better understanding the mechanisms for the regulation of fear and anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatic 18F-FDG Uptake Measurements on PET/MR: Impact of Volume of Interest Location on Repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Domachevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To investigate same day 18F-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose PET (Positron Emission Tomography/MR (Magnetic Resonance test-retest repeatability of Standardized Uptake Value measurements normalized for body weight (SUV and lean body mass (SUL in different locations in the liver. Methods. This prospective study was IRB approved with written informed consent obtained. 35 patients (20 women and 15 men, 61±11.2 years that performed a whole-body 18F-FDG PET/MR followed by liver-dedicated contrast-enhanced 18F-FDG PET/MR were included. SUV/L max, mean, and peak were measured inferior to, superior to, and at the right portal vein and in the left lobe of the liver. The coefficient of variation (CV and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were obtained. Results. The variability for SUV/L’s measurements was lowest inferior to the portal vein (<9.2% followed by measurements performed at the level of the portal vein (<14.6%. Conclusion. The area inferior to the portal vein is the most reliable location for hepatic 18F-FDG uptake measurements on PET/MR.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Patients with Insomnia: A Repeated Measurement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Nissen, Christoph; Feige, Bernd; Baglioni, Chiara; Riemann, Dieter; Hennig, Jürgen; Lange, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Chronic insomnia is one of the most prevalent central nervous system disorders. It is characterized by increased arousal levels, however, the neurobiological causes and correlates of hyperarousal in insomnia remain to be further determined. In the current study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used in the morning and evening in a well-characterized sample of 20 primary insomnia patients (12 females; 8 males; 42.7 ± 13.4 years) and 20 healthy good sleepers (12 females; 8 males; 44.1 ± 10.6 years). The most important inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate/glutamine (Glx), were assessed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The primary hypothesis, a diurnal effect on GABA levels in patients with insomnia, could not be confirmed. Moreover, the current results did not support previous findings of altered GABA levels in individuals with insomnia. Exploratory analyses, however, suggested that GABA levels in the ACC may be positively associated with habitual sleep duration, and, thus, reduced GABA levels may be a trait marker of objective sleep disturbances. Moreover, there was a significant GROUP x MEASUREMENT TIME interaction effect on Glx in the DLPFC with increasing Glx levels across the day in the patients but not in the control group. Therefore, Glx levels may reflect hyperarousal at bedtime in those with insomnia. Future confirmatory studies should include larger sample sizes to investigate brain metabolites in different subgroups of insomnia.

  20. Using high-dynamic-range digital repeat photography to measure plant phenology in a subarctic mire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnello, A.; Dye, D. G.; Bogle, R.; Vogel, J.; Saleska, S. R.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    A novel Visual Imaging System (VIS) was designed and deployed in a subarctic mire (68° 20' N, 19° 03'E) aimed at cataloging plant biological changes (phenology) and analyzing seasonal color shifts in relation to micrometeorological data along the summer growing season: June-November, 2015. The VIS is designed as a tower-based, solar-powered, automated phenology camera (Phenocam) that collects red, green, blue (RGB) and near-infrared (NIR) landscape images in High Dynamic Range (HDR) with fully programmable temporal resolution. HDR composite images are made through combining a series of rapid-capture photos with incremental increases of exposure times and a fixed focus, minimizing the spatial and visual data lost from shadows or from the over-saturation of light. This visual record of ecosystem phenology stages (Phenophases) is being used to (1) investigate vegetation-dependent spectral indices; (2) establish a cross-year comparison record of Phenophase seasonality; (3) investigate meteorological-dependent vegetation Phenophases; (4) provide ground-truthing measurements that enhance broader spatial-scale remote sensing analyses of subarctic wetlands.

  1. A Finite Mixture of Nonlinear Random Coefficient Models for Continuous Repeated Measures Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Nidhi; Harring, Jeffrey R; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2016-09-01

    Nonlinear random coefficient models (NRCMs) for continuous longitudinal data are often used for examining individual behaviors that display nonlinear patterns of development (or growth) over time in measured variables. As an extension of this model, this study considers the finite mixture of NRCMs that combine features of NRCMs with the idea of finite mixture (or latent class) models. The efficacy of this model is that it allows the integration of intrinsically nonlinear functions where the data come from a mixture of two or more unobserved subpopulations, thus allowing the simultaneous investigation of intra-individual (within-person) variability, inter-individual (between-person) variability, and subpopulation heterogeneity. Effectiveness of this model to work under real data analytic conditions was examined by executing a Monte Carlo simulation study. The simulation study was carried out using an R routine specifically developed for the purpose of this study. The R routine used maximum likelihood with the expectation-maximization algorithm. The design of the study mimicked the output obtained from running a two-class mixture model on task completion data.

  2. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  3. Direct inversion of circulation and mixing from tracer measurements - Part 1: Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Clarmann, Thomas; Grabowski, Udo

    2016-11-01

    From a series of zonal mean global stratospheric tracer measurements sampled in altitude vs. latitude, circulation and mixing patterns are inferred by the inverse solution of the continuity equation. As a first step, the continuity equation is written as a tendency equation, which is numerically integrated over time to predict a later atmospheric state, i.e., mixing ratio and air density. The integration is formally performed by the multiplication of the initially measured atmospheric state vector by a linear prediction operator. Further, the derivative of the predicted atmospheric state with respect to the wind vector components and mixing coefficients is used to find the most likely wind vector components and mixing coefficients which minimize the residual between the predicted atmospheric state and the later measurement of the atmospheric state. Unless multiple tracers are used, this inversion problem is under-determined, and dispersive behavior of the prediction further destabilizes the inversion. Both these problems are addressed by regularization. For this purpose, a first-order smoothness constraint has been chosen. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by application to various tracer measurements recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). This method aims at a diagnosis of the Brewer-Dobson circulation without involving the concept of the mean age of stratospheric air, and related problems like the stratospheric tape recorder, or intrusions of mesospheric air into the stratosphere.

  4. A Well-mixed, Polymer-based Microbioreactor with Integrated Optical Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Z.; Szita, Nicolas; Boccazzi, P.;

    2005-01-01

    We describe a 150 µL microbioreactor fabricated in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to cultivate microbial cell cultures. Mixing is achieved by a small magnetic stir bar and fluorescent sensors are integrated for on-line measurement of pH and dissolved oxygen...

  5. Measurements of charm mixing and CP violation using D-0 -> K-+/-pi(-/+) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Dufour, L.; Mulder, M; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.; van Veghel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of charm mixing and CP violation parameters from the decay-time-dependent ratio of D-0 -> K+pi(-) to D-0 -> K-pi(+) decay rates and the charge-conjugate ratio are reported. The analysis uses (B) over bar -> D*(+) mu X-, and charge-conjugate decays, where D *(+) -> D-0 pi(+), and D-0 ->

  6. A modified DCB sandwich specimen for measuring mixed-mode cohesive laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent F.; Berggreen, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    A test method is described for measuring cohesive laws for interfaces in sandwich structures. It is proposed to increase the bending stiffness of the sandwich faces by adhering steel bars onto the sandwich faces. This stiffening reduces rotations and ensures that the method is applicable for thin...... which mixed-mode cohesive laws are extracted....

  7. Repeatability of corticospinal and spinal measures during lengthening and shortening contractions in the human tibialis anterior muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Tallent

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Elements of the human central nervous system (CNS constantly oscillate. In addition, there are also methodological factors and changes in muscle mechanics during dynamic muscle contractions that threaten the stability and consistency of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and perpherial nerve stimulation (PNS measures. PURPOSE: To determine the repeatability of TMS and PNS measures during lengthening and shortening muscle actions in the intact human tibialis anterior. METHODS: On three consecutive days, 20 males performed lengthening and shortening muscle actions at 15, 25, 50 and 80% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. The amplitude of the Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs produced by TMS was measured at rest and during muscle contraction at 90° of ankle joint position. MEPs were normalised to Mmax determined with PNS. The corticospinal silent period was recorded at 80% MVC. Hoffman reflex (H-reflex at 10% isometric and 25% shortening and lengthening MVCs, and V-waves during MVCs were also evoked on each of the three days. RESULTS: With the exception of MEPs evoked at 80% shortening MVC, all TMS-derived measures showed good reliability (ICC = 0.81-0.94 from days 2 to 3. Confidence intervals (CI, 95% were lower between days 2 and 3 when compared to days 1 and 2. MEPs significantly increased at rest from days 1 to 2 (P = 0.016 and days 1 to 3 (P = 0.046. The H-reflex during dynamic muscle contraction was reliable across the three days (ICC = 0.76-0.84. V-waves (shortening, ICC = 0.77, lengthening ICC = 0.54 and the H-reflex at 10% isometric MVC (ICC = 0.66 was generally less reliable over the three days. CONCLUSION: Although it is well known that measures of the intact human CNS exhibit moment-to-moment fluctuations, careful experimental arrangements make it possible to obtain consistent and repeatable measurements of corticospinal and spinal excitability in the actively lengthening and shortening human

  8. Are There Linguistic Markers of Suicidal Writing That Can Predict the Course of Treatment? A Repeated Measures Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancu, Mira; Jobes, David; Wagner, Barry M; Greene, Jeffrey A; Fratto, Timothy A

    2016-07-02

    The purpose of this pilot study was to predict resolution of suicidal ideation and risk over the course of therapy among suicidal outpatients (N = 144) using a novel method for analyzing Self- verses Relationally oriented qualitative written responses to the Suicide Status Form (SSF). A content analysis software program was used to extract word counts and a repeated measures longitudinal design was implemented to assess improvement over time. Patients with primarily Relationally focused word counts were more likely to have a quicker suicide risk resolution than those with more Self-focused word counts (6-7 sessions versus 17-18 sessions). Implications of these data are discussed, including the potential for enhancing treatment outcomes using this method with individuals entering treatment.

  9. Heat of Dissolution Measurements for CO2 in Mixed Alkanolamine Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayak Kabadi

    2007-03-17

    The main objective of this research was to measure heat of dissolution of CO{sub 2} in carefully mixed alkanolamine solvent systems, and provide such directly measured data that might be used for efficient design of CO{sub 2} capture process, and for better understanding of the thermodynamics of CO{sub 2}-Alkanolamine systems. An experimental set-up has been designed using the Isothermal Micro Calorimeter for measuring the solubilities and enthalpies of CO{sub 2} in mixed solvents made of MEA, MDEA, PZ, KF and water. All the measurements were done at temperatures 15, 40, and 75 C by maintaining a constant pressure of 100 psig. A detailed study has been done on the variation of solubilities and enthalpies over a wide range of temperatures, pressures and concentrations, by extracting the information from the literature.

  10. Size measurement of nano-particles using self-mixing effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huarui Wang; Jianqi Shen

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, the technique of laser self-mixing effect is employed for nano-particle size analysis. In contrast to the photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and photon cross correlation spectroscopy (PCCS),the main advantages of this technique are sensitive, compact, low-cost, and simple experimental setup etc.An improved Kaczmarz projection method is developed in the inversion problem to extract the particle size distribution. The experimental results prove that nano-particle size can be measured reasonably by using the self-mixing effect technique combined with the improved projection algorithm.

  11. PIV Measurements of Supersonic Internally-Mixed Dual-Stream Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    While externally mixed, or separate flow, nozzle systems are most common in high bypass-ratio aircraft, they are not as attractive for use in lower bypass-ratio systems and on aircraft that will fly supersonically. The noise of such propulsion systems is also dominated by jet noise, making the study and noise reduction of these exhaust systems very important, both for military aircraft and future civilian supersonic aircraft. This paper presents particle image velocimetry of internally mixed nozzle with different area ratios between core and bypass, and nozzles that are ideally expanded and convergent. Such configurations independently control the geometry of the internal mixing layer and of the external shock structure. These allow exploration of the impact of shocks on the turbulent mixing layers, the impact of bypass ratio on broadband shock noise and mixing noise, and the impact of temperature on the turbulent flow field. At the 2009 AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference the authors presented data and analysis from a series of tests that looked at the acoustics of supersonic jets from internally mixed nozzles. In that paper the broadband shock and mixing noise components of the jet noise were independently manipulated by holding Mach number constant while varying bypass ratio and jet temperature. Significant portions of that analysis was predicated on assumptions regarding the flow fields of these jets, both shock structure and turbulence. In this paper we add to that analysis by presenting particle image velocimetry measurements of the flow fields of many of those jets. In addition, the turbulent velocity data documented here will be very useful for validation of computational flow codes that are being developed to design advanced nozzles for future aircraft.

  12. Mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates: Shock tube ignition delay time measurements and chemical kinetic modeling

    KAUST Repository

    AlRamadan, Abdullah S.

    2015-10-01

    The demand for fuels with high anti-knock quality has historically been rising, and will continue to increase with the development of downsized and turbocharged spark-ignition engines. Butanol isomers, such as 2-butanol and tert-butanol, have high octane ratings (RON of 105 and 107, respectively), and thus mixed butanols (68.8% by volume of 2-butanol and 31.2% by volume of tert-butanol) can be added to the conventional petroleum-derived gasoline fuels to improve octane performance. In the present work, the effect of mixed butanols addition to gasoline surrogates has been investigated in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The ignition delay times of mixed butanols stoichiometric mixtures were measured at 20 and 40bar over a temperature range of 800-1200K. Next, 10vol% and 20vol% of mixed butanols (MB) were blended with two different toluene/n-heptane/iso-octane (TPRF) fuel blends having octane ratings of RON 90/MON 81.7 and RON 84.6/MON 79.3. These MB/TPRF mixtures were investigated in the shock tube conditions similar to those mentioned above. A chemical kinetic model was developed to simulate the low- and high-temperature oxidation of mixed butanols and MB/TPRF blends. The proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data with some deviations at low temperatures. The effect of mixed butanols addition to TPRFs is marginal when examining the ignition delay times at high temperatures. However, when extended to lower temperatures (T < 850K), the model shows that the mixed butanols addition to TPRFs causes the ignition delay times to increase and hence behaves like an octane booster at engine-like conditions. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  13. Detection of quasi-periodic processes in repeated measurements: New approach for the fitting and clusterization of different data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, R.; Rakhmatullin, R.

    2014-12-01

    Many experimentalists were accustomed to think that any independent measurement forms a non-correlated measurement that depends weakly from others. We are trying to reconsider this conventional point of view and prove that similar measurements form a strongly-correlated sequence of random functions with memory. In other words, successive measurements "remember" each other at least their nearest neighbors. This observation and justification on real data help to fit the wide set of data based on the Prony's function. The Prony's decomposition follows from the quasi-periodic (QP) properties of the measured functions and includes the Fourier transform as a partial case. New type of decomposition helps to obtain a specific amplitude-frequency response (AFR) of the measured (random) functions analyzed and each random function contains less number of the fitting parameters in comparison with its number of initial data points. Actually, the calculated AFR can be considered as the generalized Prony's spectrum (GPS), which will be extremely useful in cases where the simple model pretending on description of the measured data is absent but vital necessity of their quantitative description is remained. These possibilities open a new way for clusterization of the initial data and new information that is contained in these data gives a chance for their detailed analysis. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements realized for empty resonator (pure noise data) and resonator containing a sample (CeO2 in our case) confirmed the existence of the QP processes in reality. But we think that the detection of the QP processes is a common feature of many repeated measurements and this new property of successive measurements can attract an attention of many experimentalists. To formulate some general conditions that help to identify and then detect the presence of some QP process in the repeated experimental measurements. To find a functional equation and its solution that

  14. Association between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements and CAG repeat number in patients with spinocerebellar ataxias 2, 3, or 6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Shan Wang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS measurements, including that for the N-acetyl aspartate (NAA/creatine (Cr ratio in the vermis (denoted V-NAA, right cerebellar hemisphere (R-NAA, and left (L-NAA cerebellar hemisphere, with the clinical scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA score for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA types 2, 3, and 6. A total of 24 patients with SCA2, 48 with SCA3, and 16 with SCA6 were recruited; 12 patients with SCA2, 43 with SCA3, and 8 with SCA6 underwent detailed magnetic resonance neuroimaging. Forty-four healthy, age-matched individuals without history of neurologic disease served as control subjects. V-NAA and patient age were used to calculate the predicted age at which a patient with SCA2 or SCA3 would reach an onset V-NAA value. Results showed the following: the NAA/Cr ratio decreased with increasing age in patients with SCA but not in control subjects; the SARA score increased progressively with age and duration of illness; V-NAA showed a better correlation with SARA score than R-NAA in patients with SCA2 or SCA3; the ratio of age to V-NAA correlated well with CAG repeat number; the retrospectively predicted age of onset for SCA2 and SCA3 was consistent with patient-reported age of onset; R-NAA showed a better correlation with SARA score than V-NAA in patients with SCA6; V-NAA and R-NAA correlated with clinical severity (SARA score in patients with SCA. The correlation between CAG repeat number and age could be expressed as a simple linear function, which might explain previous observations claiming that the greater the CAG repeat number, the earlier the onset of illness and the faster the disease progression. These findings support the use of MRS values to predict age of disease onset and to retrospectively evaluate the actual age of disease onset in SCA.

  15. Association between proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements and CAG repeat number in patients with spinocerebellar ataxias 2, 3, or 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Shan; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Wu, Yu-Te; Soong, Bing-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements, including that for the N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) ratio in the vermis (denoted V-NAA), right cerebellar hemisphere (R-NAA), and left (L-NAA) cerebellar hemisphere, with the clinical scale for the assessment and rating of ataxia (SARA) score for patients with spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) types 2, 3, and 6. A total of 24 patients with SCA2, 48 with SCA3, and 16 with SCA6 were recruited; 12 patients with SCA2, 43 with SCA3, and 8 with SCA6 underwent detailed magnetic resonance neuroimaging. Forty-four healthy, age-matched individuals without history of neurologic disease served as control subjects. V-NAA and patient age were used to calculate the predicted age at which a patient with SCA2 or SCA3 would reach an onset V-NAA value. Results showed the following: the NAA/Cr ratio decreased with increasing age in patients with SCA but not in control subjects; the SARA score increased progressively with age and duration of illness; V-NAA showed a better correlation with SARA score than R-NAA in patients with SCA2 or SCA3; the ratio of age to V-NAA correlated well with CAG repeat number; the retrospectively predicted age of onset for SCA2 and SCA3 was consistent with patient-reported age of onset; R-NAA showed a better correlation with SARA score than V-NAA in patients with SCA6; V-NAA and R-NAA correlated with clinical severity (SARA score) in patients with SCA. The correlation between CAG repeat number and age could be expressed as a simple linear function, which might explain previous observations claiming that the greater the CAG repeat number, the earlier the onset of illness and the faster the disease progression. These findings support the use of MRS values to predict age of disease onset and to retrospectively evaluate the actual age of disease onset in SCA.

  16. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of lung lesions: repeatability of the apparent diffusion coefficient measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, L.; Douglas, N.H.M.; Collins, D.J.; Giles, S.L.; O' Flynn, E.A.M.; Orton, M.; DeSouza, N.M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, CRUK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    To establish repeatability of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) acquired from free-breathing diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in malignant lung lesions and investigate effects of lesion size, location and respiratory motion. Thirty-six malignant lung lesions (eight patients) were examined twice (1- to 5-h interval) using T1-weighted, T2-weighted and axial single-shot echo-planar DW-MRI (b = 100, 500, 800 s/mm{sup 2}) during free-breathing. Regions of interest around target lesions on computed b = 800 s/mm{sup 2} images by two independent observers yielded ADC values from maps (pixel-by-pixel fitting using all b values and a mono-exponential decay model). Intra- and inter-observer repeatability was assessed per lesion, per patient and by lesion size (> or <2 cm) or location. ADCs were similar between observers (mean ± SD, 1.15 ± 0.28 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, observer 1; 1.15 ± 0.29 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, observer 2). Intra-observer coefficients of variation of the mean [median] ADC per lesion and per patient were 11 % [11.4 %], 5.7 % [5.7 %] for observer 1 and 9.2 % [9.5 %], 3.9 % [4.7 %] for observer 2 respectively; inter-observer values were 8.9 % [9.3 %] (per lesion) and 3.0 % [3.7 %] (per patient). Inter-observer coefficient of variation (CoV) was greater for lesions <2 cm (n = 20) compared with >2 cm (n = 16) (10.8 % vs 6.5 % ADC{sub mean}, 11.3 % vs 6.7 % ADC{sub median}) and for mid (n = 14) vs apical (n = 9) or lower zone (n = 13) lesions (13.9 %, 2.7 %, 3.8 % respectively ADC{sub mean}; 14.2 %, 2.8 %, 4.7 % respectively ADC{sub median}). Free-breathing DW-MRI of whole lung achieves good intra- and inter-observer repeatability of ADC measurements in malignant lung tumours. (orig.)

  17. The fractal measurement of experimental images of supersonic turbulent mixing layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO YuXin; YI ShiHe; TIAN LiFeng; HE Lin; CHENG ZhongYu

    2008-01-01

    Flow Visualization of supersonic mixing layer has been studied based on the high spatiotemporal resolution Nano-based Planar Laser Scattering (NPLS) method in SML-1 wind tunnel. The corresponding images distinctly reproduced the flow structure of laminar, transitional and turbulent region, with which the fractal meas-urement can be implemented. Two methods of measuring fractal dimension wereintroduced and compared. The fractal dimension of the transitional region and the fully developing turbulence region of supersonic mixing layer were measured based on the box-counting method. In the transitional region, the fractal dimension will increase with turbulent intensity. In the fully developing turbulent region, the fractal dimension will not vary apparently for different flow structures, which em-bodies the self-similarity of supersonic turbulence.

  18. Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon

    2016-06-14

    Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.

  19. The fractal measurement of experimental images of supersonic turbulent mixing layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Flow visualization of supersonic mixing layer has been studied based on the high spatiotemporal resolution Nano-based Planar Laser Scattering(NPLS) method in SML-1 wind tunnel. The corresponding images distinctly reproduced the flow structure of laminar,transitional and turbulent region,with which the fractal measurement can be implemented. Two methods of measuring fractal dimension were introduced and compared. The fractal dimension of the transitional region and the fully developing turbulence region of supersonic mixing layer were measured based on the box-counting method. In the transitional region,the fractal dimension will increase with turbulent intensity. In the fully developing turbulent region,the fractal dimension will not vary apparently for different flow structures,which em-bodies the self-similarity of supersonic turbulence.

  20. Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Møller Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, P. L.; Arnold, R. G.; Arroyo, C.; Bega, K.; Biesiada, J.; Bosted, P. E.; Bower, G.; Cahoon, J.; Carr, R.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; Cooke, M.; Decowski, P.; Deur, A.; Emam, W.; Erickson, R.; Fieguth, T.; Field, C.; Gao, J.; Gary, M.; Gustafsson, K.; Hicks, R. S.; Holmes, R.; Hughes, E. W.; Humensky, T. B.; Jones, G. M.; Kaufman, L. J.; Keller, L.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kumar, K. S.; Laviolette, P.; Lhuillier, D.; Lombard-Nelsen, R. M.; Marshall, Z.; Mastromarino, P.; McKeown, R. D.; Michaels, R.; Niedziela, J.; Olson, M.; Paschke, K. D.; Peterson, G. A.; Pitthan, R.; Relyea, D.; Rock, S. E.; Saxton, O.; Singh, J.; Souder, P. A.; Szalata, Z. M.; Turner, J.; Tweedie, B.; Vacheret, A.; Walz, D.; Weber, T.; Weisend, J.; Woods, M.; Younus, I.

    2005-08-01

    We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Møller) scattering: APV=[-131±14(stat)±10(syst)]×10-9, leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle sin⁡2θWeff=0.2397±0.0010(stat)±0.0008(syst), evaluated at Q2=0.026GeV2. Combining this result with the measurements of sin⁡2θWeff at the Z0 pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6σ significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale.

  1. Measurement of the b forward-backward asymmetry and mixing using high-p$_{\\perp}$ leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palla, Fabrizio; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Wildish, T; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Büscher, V; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    The B0-B0# average mixing parameter chi and b forward-backward asymmetry are measured from a sample of 4,200,000 Z -> q qbar events recorded with the ALEPH detector at LEP in the years 1990-1995. High transverse momentum electrons and muons produced in b semileptonic decays provide the tag of the quark flavour and of its charge. The average mixing parameter and the pole b asymmetry are measured to be Chi = 0.1246 +/- 0.0051 stat +/- 0.0052 syst, A0_fb(b) = 0.1008 +/- 0.0043 stat +/- 0.0028 syst. The value of sin^2_eff(theta) = 0.23198 +/- 0.00092 is extracted from the asymmetry measurement.

  2. Mixed sand and gravel beaches: accurate measurement of active layer depth and sediment transport volumes using PIT tagged tracer pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, A.; Moses, C.; Sear, D. A.; Cope, S.

    2016-12-01

    As sediments containing significant gravel portions are increasingly used for beach replenishment projects globally, the total number of beaches classified as `mixed sand and gravel' (MSG) increases. Calculations for required replenishment sediment volumes usually assume a uniform layer of sediment transport across and along the beach, but research into active layer (AL) depth has shown variations both across shore and according to sediment size distribution. This study addresses the need for more accurate calculations of sediment transport volumes on MSG beaches by using more precise measurements of AL depth and width, and virtual velocity of tracer pebbles. Variations in AL depth were measured along three main profile lines (from MHWS to MLWN) at Eastoke, Hayling Island (Hampshire, UK). Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged pebbles were deployed in columns, and their new locations repeatedly surveyed with RFID technology. These data were combined with daily dGPS beach profiles and sediment sampling for detailed analysis of the influence of beach morphodynamics on sediment transport volumes. Data were collected over two consecutive winter seasons: 2014-15 (relatively calm, average wave height sandy lower foreshore reduced the AL to 10% of wave height in this area. The disparity in AL depth across the beach profile indicates that traditional models are not accurately representing bulk sediment transport on MSG beaches. It is anticipated that by improving model inputs, beach managers will be better able to predict necessary volumes and sediment grain size proportions of replenishment material for effective management of MSG beaches.

  3. Accuracy and repeatability of quantitative fluoroscopy for the measurement of sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Alexander; Breen, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative fluoroscopy (QF) was developed to measure intervertebral mechanics in vivo and has been found to have high repeatability and accuracy for the measurement of intervertebral rotations. However, sagittal plane translation and finite centre of rotation (FCR) are potential measures of stability but have not yet been fully validated for current QF. This study investigated the repeatability and accuracy of QF for measuring these variables. Repeatability was assessed from L2-S1 in 20 human volunteers. Accuracy was investigated using 10 consecutive measurements from each of two pairs of linked and instrumented dry human vertebrae as reference; one which tilted without translation and one which translated without tilt. The results found intra- and inter-observer repeatability for translation to be 1.1mm or less (SEM) with fair to substantial reliability (ICC 0.533-0.998). Intra-observer repeatability of FCR location for inter-vertebral rotations of 5° and above ranged from 1.5mm to 1.8mm (SEM) with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.626-0.988). Inter-observer repeatability for FCR ranged from 1.2mm to 5.7mm, also with moderate to substantial reliability (ICC 0.621-0.878). Reliability was substantial (ICC>0.81) for 10/16 measures for translation and 5/8 for FCR location. Accuracy for translation was 0.1mm (fixed centre) and 2.2mm (moveable centre), with an FCR error of 0.3mm(x) and 0.4mm(y) (fixed centre). This technology was found to have a high level of accuracy and with a few exceptions, moderate to substantial repeatability for the measurement of translation and FCR from fluoroscopic motion sequences.

  4. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  5. The use of portable NIRS to measure muscle oxygenation and haemodynamics during a repeated sprint running test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben; Hesford, Catherine M; Cooper, Chris E

    2013-01-01

    Portable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices were originally developed for use in exercise and sports science by Britton Chance in the 1990s (the RunMan and microRunman series). However, only recently with the development of more robust, and wireless systems, has the routine use in elite sport become possible. As with the medical use of NIRS, finding applications of the technology that are relevant to practitioners is the key issue. One option is to use NIRS to track exercise training-induced adaptations in muscle. Portable NIRS devices enable monitoring during the normal 'field' routine uses to assess fitness, such as repeat sprint shuttle tests. Knowledge about the acute physiological responses to these specific tests has practical applications within team sport training prescription, where development of both central and peripheral determinants of high-intensity intermittent exercise needs to be considered. The purpose of this study was to observe NIRS-detected parameters during a repeat sprint test. We used the PortaMon, a two wavelength spatially resolved NIR spectrometer manufactured by Artinis Inc., to assess NIR changes in the gastrocnemius muscle of both the left and right leg during high-intensity running. Six university standard rugby players were assessed (age 20 ± 1.5 years; height 183 ± 1.0 cm; weight 89.4 ± 5.8 kg; body fat 12.2 ± 3.0 %); the subjects completed nine repeated shuttle runs, which incorporated forward, backward and change of direction movements. Individual sprint time, total time to complete test, blood lactate response (BL), heart rate values (HR) and haemoglobin variables (ΔHHb, ΔtHb, ΔHbO2 and ΔTSI%) were measured. Total time to complete the test was 260 ± 20 s, final blood lactate was 14.3 ± 2.8 mM, and maximal HR 182 ± 5 bpm. NIRS variables displayed no differences between right and left legs. During the test, the group-averaged data showed a clear decrease in HbO2 (max. decrease 11.41 ± 4.95 μM), increase in HHb

  6. A call for caution and transparency in the calculation of land use mix: measurement bias in the estimation of associations between land use mix and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Joseph, Lawrence; Ross, Nancy A

    2014-09-01

    There is evidence that land use mix based on the Shannon (1948) entropy formula may be misspecified in some studies. The aim of this study was to quantify the bias arising from this misspecification. Spatial coordinates were obtained from Statistics Canada for 9348 unique point locations. Five hundred-metre polygon-based network buffers were drawn around each coordinate (ArcGIS 10.1). Land use mix was calculated for each buffer using the true and misspecified land use mix formulas. Linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between a simulated dataset of daily steps and the true and misspecified measures. Misspecification of the land use mix formula resulted in a systematic underestimation of the true association by 26.4% (95% CI 25.8-27.0%). To minimize measurement bias in future studies, researchers are encouraged to use a constant definition of N in the denominator of the Shannon entropy formula.

  7. Spectrometer equipment for photon spectra measurements in mixed neutron/photon fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Trykov, L A

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the description of spectrometers in the experimental laboratory of the IPPE for measuring, processing and systematizing of gamma-radiation spectra. The complete set includes spectrometers based on stilbene crystal and silicon Si(Li) detector. Spectrometers are used for photon spectra measuring of the mixed neutron/photon radiation radionuclide sources, nuclear reactors and accelerators; for the study of neutron and photon spectra in materials, including benchmark experiments; for the photon spectra measurements in the rooms of nuclear facilities in order to determine the radionuclide contents of the sources and to provide radiation safety.

  8. Development of Scales for Measuring Specific Elements of the Services Marketing Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Rajh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop scales that might be used for measuring specific elements of services marketing mix, including service delivery process, physical environment, and employees. Psychometric characteristics of initial set of items were analyzed by assessment of reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and dimensionality of initial set of items. Cronbach alpha coeficients, explorative and confrimative factor analysis were employed. Results indicated that developed measurement scales had satisfactory psychometric characteristics. Measurement scales had very good reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and unidimensionality.

  9. Conditional purity and quantum correlation measures in two qubit mixed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebón, L.; Rossignoli, R.; Varga, J. J. M.; Gigena, N.; Canosa, N.; Iemmi, C.; Ledesma, S.

    2016-11-01

    We analyze and show experimental results of the conditional purity, the quantum discord and other related measures of quantum correlation in mixed two-qubit states constructed from a pair of photons in identical polarization states. The considered states are relevant for the description of spin pair states in interacting spin chains in a transverse magnetic field. We derive clean analytical expressions for the conditional local purity and other correlation measures obtained as a result of a remote local projective measurement, which are fully verified by the experimental results. A simple exact expression for the quantum discord of these states in terms of the maximum conditional purity is also derived.

  10. Scalar mixing and strain dynamics methodologies for PIV/LIF measurements of vortex ring flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouremel, Yann; Ducci, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Fluid mixing operations are central to possibly all chemical, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries either being related to biphasic blending in polymerisation processes, cell suspension for biopharmaceuticals production, and fractionation of complex oil mixtures. This work aims at providing a fundamental understanding of the mixing and stretching dynamics occurring in a reactor in the presence of a vortical structure, and the vortex ring was selected as a flow paradigm of vortices commonly encountered in stirred and shaken reactors in laminar flow conditions. High resolution laser induced fluorescence and particle imaging velocimetry measurements were carried out to fully resolve the flow dissipative scales and provide a complete data set to fully assess macro- and micro-mixing characteristics. The analysis builds upon the Lamb-Oseen vortex work of Meunier and Villermaux ["How vortices mix," J. Fluid Mech. 476, 213-222 (2003)] and the engulfment model of Baldyga and Bourne ["Simplification of micromixing calculations. I. Derivation and application of new model," Chem. Eng. J. 42, 83-92 (1989); "Simplification of micromixing calculations. II. New applications," ibid. 42, 93-101 (1989)] which are valid for diffusion-free conditions, and a comparison is made between three methodologies to assess mixing characteristics. The first method is commonly used in macro-mixing studies and is based on a control area analysis by estimating the variation in time of the concentration standard deviation, while the other two are formulated to provide an insight into local segregation dynamics, by either using an iso-concentration approach or an iso-concentration gradient approach to take into account diffusion.

  11. How integrated are behavioral and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress-coping style model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Kay; Couto, Elsa; Grimmer, Andrew J; Earley, Ryan L; Canario, Adelino V M; Wilson, Alastair J; Walling, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive-proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress response traits, few studies incorporate repeated observations of both. To test this model, we use a multivariate, repeated measures approach in a captive-bred population of Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantify among-individual variation in behavioral stress response to an open field trial (OFT) with simulated predator attack (SPA) and measure waterborne steroid hormone levels (cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone) before and after exposure. Under the mild stress stimulus (OFT), (multivariate) behavioral variation among individuals was consistent with a strong axis of personality (shy-bold) or coping style (reactive-proactive) variation. However, behavioral responses to a moderate stressor (SPA) were less repeatable, and robust statistical support for repeatable endocrine state over the full sampling period was limited to 11-ketotestosterone. Although post hoc analysis suggested cortisol expression was repeatable over short time periods, qualitative relationships between behavior and glucocorticoid levels were counter to our a priori expectations. Thus, while our results clearly show among-individual differences in behavioral and endocrine traits associated with stress response, the correlation structure between these is not consistent with a simple proactive-reactive axis of integrated stress-coping style. Additionally, the low repeatability of cortisol suggests caution is warranted if single observations (or indeed repeat measures over short sampling

  12. Boundary Layer CO2 mixing ratio measurements by an airborne pulsed IPDA lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Allan, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the primary signature of CO2 fluxes at the surface occurs in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), remote sensing measurements of CO2 that can resolve the CO2 absorption in the PBL separate from the total column are more sensitive to fluxes than those that can only measure a total column. The NASA Goddard CO2 sounder is a pulsed, range-resolved lidar that samples multiple (presently 30) wavelengths across the 1572.335 nm CO2 absorption line. The range resolution and line shape measurement enable CO2 mixing ratio measurements to be made in two or more altitude layers including the PBL via lidar cloud-slicing and multi-layer retrievals techniques. The pulsed lidar approach allows range-resolved backscatter of scattering from ground and cloud tops. Post flight data analysis can be used split the vertical CO2 column into layers (lidar cloud-slicing) and solve for the CO2 mixing ratio in each layer. We have demonstrated lidar cloud slicing with lidar measurements from a flight over Iowa, USA in August 2011 during the corn-growing season, remotely measuring a ≈15 ppm drawdown in the PBL CO2. We will present results using an improved lidar cloud slicing retrieval algorithm as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming ASCENDS 2014 flight campaign. The CO2 absorption line is also more pressure broadened at lower altitudes. Analyzing the line shape also allows solving for some vertical resolution in the CO2 distribution. By allowing the retrieval process to independently vary the column concentrations in two or more altitude layers, one can perform a best-fit retrieval to obtain the CO2 mixing ratios in each of the layers. Analysis of airborne lidar measurements (in 2011) over Iowa, USA and Four Corners, New Mexico, USA show that for altitudes above 8 km, the CO2 sounder can detect and measure enhanced or diminished CO2 mixing ratios in the PBL even in the absence of clouds. We will present these results as well as preliminary measurements from the upcoming

  13. The weak mixing angle from low energy neutrino measurements: a global update

    CERN Document Server

    Canas, B C; Miranda, O G; Tortola, M; Valle, J W F

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account recent theoretical and experimental inputs on reactor fluxes we reconsider the determination of the weak mixing angle from low energy experiments. We perform a global analysis to all available neutrino-electron scattering data from reactor antineutrino experiments, obtaining sin^2(theta_W) = 0.252 \\pm 0.030. We discuss the impact of the new theoretical prediction for the neutrino spectrum, the new measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum by the Daya Bay collaboration, as well as the effect of radiative corrections. We also reanalyze the measurements of the nu_e-e cross section at accelerator experiments including radiative corrections. By combining reactor and accelerator data we obtain an improved determination for the weak mixing angle, sin^2(theta_W) = 0.254 \\pm 0.024.

  14. Measurement of mixing characteristics of the Missouri River between Sioux City, Iowa, and Plattsmouth, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsukura, Nobuhiro; Fischer, Hugo B.; Sayre, William W.

    1970-01-01

    Measurements of longitudinal dispersion, transverse mixing, channel geometry, and transverse velocity distribution were made in the Missouri River at a flow of about 33,000 cubic feet per second. The results show that the longitudinal dispersion coefficient for the 141-mile reach from Sioux City, Iowa, to Plattsmouth, Nebr., is about 16,000 square feet per second (approximately 5,600 U*d, where U* is the shear velocity and d is mean depth). The transverse mixing coefficient, Ez, for a 6-mile reach immediately downstream from Blair, Nebr., is about 1.3 square feet per second (approximately 0.6 U*d). The value of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient is one of the largest ever measured, and the value of the ratio Ez/U*d is approximately three times as large as that frequently reported for small straight channels.

  15. The weak mixing angle from low energy neutrino measurements: A global update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas, B. C.; Garcés, E. A.; Miranda, O. G.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-10-01

    Taking into account recent theoretical and experimental inputs on reactor fluxes we reconsider the determination of the weak mixing angle from low energy experiments. We perform a global analysis to all available neutrino-electron scattering data from reactor antineutrino experiments, obtaining sin2 ⁡θW = 0.252 ± 0.030. We discuss the impact of the new theoretical prediction for the neutrino spectrum, the new measurement of the reactor antineutrino spectrum by the Daya Bay collaboration, as well as the effect of radiative corrections. We also reanalyze the measurements of the νe - e cross section at accelerator experiments including radiative corrections. By combining reactor and accelerator data we obtain an improved determination for the weak mixing angle, sin2 ⁡θW = 0.254 ± 0.024.

  16. The underwater coincidence counter (UWCC) for plutonium measurements in mixed oxide fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.; Abhold, M.; Baker, M.; Pecos, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of fresh uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in light-water reactors (LWR) is increasing in Europe and Japan and it is necessary to verify the plutonium content in the fuel for international safeguards purposes. The UWCC is a new instrument that has been designed to operate underwater and nondestructively measure the plutonium in unirradiated MOX fuel assemblies. The UWCC can be quickly configured to measure either boiling-water reactor (BWR) or pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The plutonium loading per unit length is measured using the UWCC to precisions of less than 1% in a measurement time of 2 to 3 minutes. Initial calibrations of the UWCC were completed on measurements of MOX fuel in Mol, Belgium. The MCNP-REN Monte Carlo simulation code is being benchmarked to the calibration measurements to allow accurate simulations for extended calibrations of the UWCC.

  17. Improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ with the Double Chooz detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Y; Barriere, J C; Baussan, E; Bekman, I; Bergevin, M; Bezerra, T J C; Bezrukov, L; Blucher, E; Buck, C; Busenitz, J; Cabrera, A; Caden, E; Camilleri, L; Carr, R; Cerrada, M; Chang, P -J; Chauveau, E; Chimenti, P; Collin, A P; Conover, E; Conrad, J M; Crespo-Anadón, J I; Crum, K; Cucoanes, A S; Damon, E; Dawson, J V; Dietrich, D; Djurcic, Z; Dracos, M; Elnimr, M; Etenko, A; Fallot, M; von Feilitzsch, F; Felde, J; Fernandes, S M; Fischer, V; Franco, D; Franke, M; Furuta, H; Gil-Botella, I; Giot, L; Göger-Neff, M; Gonzalez, L F G; Goodenough, L; Goodman, M C; Grant, C; Haag, N; Hara, T; Haser, J; Hofmann, M; Horton-Smith, G A; Hourlier, A; Ishitsuka, M; Jochum, J; Jollet, C; Kaether, F; Kalousis, L N; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Kawasaki, T; Kemp, E; de Kerret, H; Kryn, D; Kuze, M; Lachenmaier, T; Lane, C E; Lasserre, T; Letourneau, A; Lhuillier, D; Lima, H P; Lindner, M; López-Castaño, J M; LoSecco, J M; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lucht, S; Maeda, J; Mariani, C; Maricic, J; Martino, J; Matsubara, T; Mention, G; Meregaglia, A; Miletic, T; Milincic, R; Minotti, A; Nagasaka, Y; Nikitenko, Y; Novella, P; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Onillon, A; Osborn, A; Palomares, C; Pepe, I M; Perasso, S; Pfahler, P; Porta, A; Pronost, G; Reichenbacher, J; Reinhold, B; Röhling, M; Roncin, R; Roth, S; Rybolt, B; Sakamoto, Y; Santorelli, R; Schilithz, A C; Schönert, S; Schoppmann, S; Shaevitz, M H; Sharankova, R; Shimojima, S; Shrestha, D; Sibille, V; Sinev, V; Skorokhvatov, M; Smith, E; Spitz, J; Stahl, A; Stancu, I; Stokes, L F F; Strait, M; Stüken, A; Suekane, F; Sukhotin, S; Sumiyoshi, T; Sun, Y; Svoboda, R; Terao, K; Tonazzo, A; Thi, H H Trinh; Valdiviesso, G; Vassilopoulos, N; Veyssiere, C; Vivier, M; Wagner, S; Watanabe, H; Wiebusch, C; Winslow, L; Wurm, M; Yang, G; Yermia, F; Zimmer, V

    2014-01-01

    The Double Chooz experiment presents improved measurements of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ using the data collected in 467.90 live days from a detector positioned at an average distance of 1050 m from two reactor cores at the Chooz nuclear power plant. Several novel techniques have been developed to achieve significant reductions of the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties with respect to previous publications, whereas the efficiency of the $\\bar\

  18. Measuring Turbulence Mixing in Indonesian Seas Using Microstructure EM-APEX Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    hour per response, including the t ime for rev iewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and mainta ining the data needed, and...ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Columbia University REPORT NUMBER Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory GGOI0736 61 Route 9W Palisades, NY I 0964 9...Measuring Turbulence Mixing in Indonesian Seas Using Microstructure EM- APEX Floats Arnold L. Gordon Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 61 Route 9W

  19. Implications of measured properties of the mixing matrix on mass matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, S; Sánchez-Colón, G; Chaturvedi, Subhash; Gupta, Virendra; Sanchez-Colon, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is shown how the two experimentally measurable properties of the mixing matrix $V$, the asymmetry Delta(V)=|V_{12}|^2- |V_{21}|^2 of V with respect to the main diagonal and the Jarlskog invariant J(V)=Im(V_{11}V_{12}^*V_{21}^*V_{22}), can be exploited to obtain constraints on possible structures of mass matrices in the quark sector. Specific mass matrices are examined in detail as an illustration.

  20. Measurement of the $CP$ asymmetry in $B^0_s -\\overline B {^0 _s}$ mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, V.V.; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The $CP$ asymmetry in the mixing of $B_s^0$ and $\\overline{B}{}_s^0$ mesons is measured in proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$, recorded by the LHCb experiment at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. Semileptonic $B_s^0$ and $\\overline{B}{}_s^0$ decays are studied in the inclusive mode $D_s^{\\mp} \\mu^{\\pm} {^(}\\overline {\

  1. Precise measurement of the weak mixing angle in neutrino-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, C.G.; King, B.J.; Bachmann, K.T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bolton, T.; Foudas, C.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.J.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H. (Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)); Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schumm, B.A. (University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)); Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.B.; Schellman, H.M.; Yovanovitch, D.D. (Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)); Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; de Barbaro, P.; Sakumoto, W.K. (University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)); Kinnel, T.; Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H. (University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States))

    1994-05-30

    We report a precise measurement of the weak mixing angle from the ratio of neutral current to charged current inclusive cross sections in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. The data were gathered at the CCFR neutrino detector in the Fermilab quadrupole-triplet beam, with neutrino energies up to 600 GeV. Using the on-shell definition, sin[sup 2][theta][sub [ital W

  2. B Mixing and Lifetime Measurements with the BaBar Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzi, C.

    2001-01-01

    Recent BaBar measurements on lifetime and mixing of B mesons are reported. Various techniques are used, ranging from the full reconstruction of hadronic B decays, to partial reconstruction techniques, and to a totally inclusive approach with dilepton events. The results presented are based on a data sample collected by BaBar during the 1999-2000 data taking, and should be considered as preliminary.

  3. Viscosity Measurement of Hydrogen-Methane Mixed Gas for Future Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yohei; Kurokawa, Akira; Hirata, Masaru

    In order to reduce the CO2 emission, in May 2004, the European Union (EU) started an experimental approach known as the “naturalhy Project” in order to transport hydrogen by mixing it with the existing high-pressure natural gas in the pipelines. Naturalhy represents a mixture of hydrogen and natural gas. In other words, this gas is also known as hythane, which is an abbreviation of hydrogen and methane. The name “hythane” is the registered trademark of Hydrogen Consulting Inc., USA. Why will this gas gain importance? It is generally considered that the sudden realization of a hydrogen energy society cannot take place. It is normally assumed that the present status of methane as an energy carrier gradually changes to a state of hydrogen-methane mixed gas and finally to 100% hydrogen. This is why the authors investigate the properties of this mixture. This study is considered to be the first to measure the temperature dependence of the viscosity of hydrogen-methane mixed gas. In order to measure the viscosity, the authors used a capillary method that measures the pressure drop in the laminar flow through a pipe. It was conducted in an electrically polished, ultra clean and smooth tube and the pressure drop between the upstream and downstream was carefully measured using a capacitance manometer. In order to remove the effect of temperature dependence, the tube was placed in a constant temperature bath, and the temperature fluctuation was maintained within ±0.3°C throughout this experimental study. The authors obtained the viscosity of the hydrogen-methane mixed gas within a temperature range of 20-70°C.

  4. Repeated-sprint cycling does not induce respiratory muscle fatigue in active adults: measurements from the powerbreathe® inspiratory muscle trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahan, Clare; Sheehan, Beth; Doutreband, Rachel; Kirkwood, Tom; Reeves, Daniel; Cross, Troy

    2015-03-01

    This study examined respiratory muscle strength using the POWERbreathe® inspiratory muscle trainer (i.e., 'S-Index') before and after repeated-sprint cycling for comparison with maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) values obtained during a Mueller maneuver. The S-Index was measured during six trials across two sessions using the POWERbreathe® and MIP was measured during three trials in a single session using a custom-made manometer in seven recreationally active adults. Global respiratory muscle strength was measured using both devices before and after the performance of sixteen, 6-s sprints on a cycle ergometer. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the POWERbreathe® S-index indicated excellent (p Repeated-sprint cycling had no effect on respiratory muscle strength as measured by the POWERbreathe® (p > 0.99) and during the Mueller maneuver (p > 0.99). The POWERbreathe® S-Index is a moderately reliable, but not equivalent, measure of MIP determined during a Mueller maneuver. Furthermore, repeated-sprint cycling does not induce globalized respiratory muscle fatigue in recreationally-active adults. Key pointsThe S-Index as measured by the POWERbreathe® is a reliable measure of respiratory muscle strengthThe S-Index does not accurately reflect maximal inspiratory pressure obtained from a Mueller maneuverRepeated-sprint cycling does not induce respiratory muscle fatigue as measured by the POWERbreathe® and the Manometer.

  5. Ambient particulate air pollution and circulating antioxidant enzymes: A repeated-measure study in healthy adults in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Bin; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Huang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Qin, Yu; Zheng, Chanjuan; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    The association of systemic antioxidant activity with ambient air pollution has been unclear. A panel of 40 healthy college students underwent repeated blood collection for 12 occasions under three exposure scenarios before and after relocating from a suburban area to an urban area in Beijing, China in 2010-2011. We measured various air pollutants including fine particles (PM2.5) and determined circulating levels of antioxidant enzymes extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) in the laboratory. An interquartile range increase of 63.4 μg/m(3) at 3-d PM2.5 moving average was associated with a 6.3% (95% CI: 0.6, 12.4) increase in EC-SOD and a 5.5% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.8) increase in GPX1. Several PM2.5 chemical constituents, including negative ions (nitrate and chloride) and metals (e.g., iron and strontium), were consistently associated with increases in EC-SOD and GPX1. Our results support activation of circulating antioxidant enzymes following exposure to particulate air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A method to construct a points system to predict cardiovascular disease considering repeated measures of risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbayo-Herencia, Julio Antonio; Vigo, Maria Isabel; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Current predictive models for cardiovascular disease based on points systems use the baseline situation of the risk factors as independent variables. These models do not take into account the variability of the risk factors over time. Predictive models for other types of disease also exist that do consider the temporal variability of a single biological marker in addition to the baseline variables. However, due to their complexity these other models are not used in daily clinical practice. Bearing in mind the clinical relevance of these issues and that cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide we show the properties and viability of a new methodological alternative for constructing cardiovascular risk scores to make predictions of cardiovascular disease with repeated measures of the risk factors and retaining the simplicity of the points systems so often used in clinical practice (construction, statistical validation by simulation and explanation of potential utilization). We have also applied the system clinically upon a set of simulated data solely to help readers understand the procedure constructed. PMID:26893963

  7. Are diagnostic criteria for acute malnutrition affected by hydration status in hospitalized children? A repeated measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegan Gregory

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dehydration and malnutrition commonly occur together among ill children in developing countries. Dehydration (change in total body water is known to alter weight. Although muscle tissue has high water content, it is not known whether mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC may be altered by changes in tissue hydration. We aimed to determine whether rehydration alters MUAC, MUAC Z score (MUACz, weight-for-length Z-score (WFLz and classification of nutritional status among hospitalised Kenyan children admitted with signs of dehydration. Study procedure We enrolled children aged from 3 months to 5 years admitted to a rural Kenyan district hospital with clinical signs compatible with dehydration, and without kwashiorkor. Anthropometric measurements were taken at admission and repeated after 48 hours of treatment, which included rehydration by WHO protocols. Changes in weight observed during this period were considered to be due to changes in hydration status. Results Among 325 children (median age 11 months the median weight gain (rehydration after 48 hours was 0.21 kg, (an increase of 2.9% of admission body weight. Each 1% change in weight was associated with a 0.40 mm (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.44 mm, p Conclusion MUAC is less affected by dehydration than WFLz and is therefore more suitable for nutritional assessment of ill children. However, both WFLz and MUAC misclassify SAM among dehydrated children. Nutritional status should be re-evaluated following rehydration, and management adjusted accordingly.

  8. Investigating mixed phase clouds using a synergy of ground based remote sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierens, Rosa; Kneifel, Stefan; Löhnert, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Low level mixed phase clouds occur frequently in the Arctic, and can persist from hours to several days. However, the processes that lead to the commonality and persistence of these clouds are not well understood. The aim of our work is to get a more detailed understanding of the dynamics of and the processes in Arctic mixed phase clouds using a combination of instruments operating at the AWIPEV station in Svalbard. In addition, an aircraft campaign collecting in situ measurements inside mixed phase clouds above the station is planned for May-June 2017. The in situ data will be used for developing and validating retrievals for microphysical properties from Doppler cloud radar measurements. Once observational data for cloud properties is obtained, it can be used for evaluating model performance, for studies combining modeling and observational approaches, and eventually lead to developing model parameterizations of mixed phase microphysics. To describe the low-level mixed phase clouds, and the atmospheric conditions in which they occur, we present a case study of a persistent mixed phase cloud observed above the AWIPEV station. In the frame of the Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and Surface Processes and Feedback Mechanisms ((AC)3) -project, a millimeter wavelength cloud radar was installed at the site in June 2016. The high vertical (4 m in the lowest layer) and temporal (2.5 sec) resolution allows for a detailed description of the structure of the cloud. In addition to radar reflectivity and mean vertical velocity, we also utilize the higher moments of the Doppler spectra, such as skewness and kurtosis. To supplement the radar measurements, a ceilometer is used to detect liquid layers inside the cloud. Liquid water path and integrated water vapor are estimated using a microwave radiometer, which together with soundings can also provide temperature and humidity profiles in the lower troposphere. Moreover, a three-dimensional wind field is be

  9. Correlations and risk contagion between mixed assets and mixed-asset portfolio VaR measurements in a dynamic view: An application based on time varying copula models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Gong, Pu; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply time varying Gaussian and SJC copula models to study the correlations and risk contagion between mixed assets: financial (stock), real estate and commodity (gold) assets in China firstly. Then we study the dynamic mixed-asset portfolio risk through VaR measurement based on the correlations computed by the time varying copulas. This dynamic VaR-copula measurement analysis has never been used on mixed-asset portfolios. The results show the time varying estimations fit much better than the static models, not only for the correlations and risk contagion based on time varying copulas, but also for the VaR-copula measurement. The time varying VaR-SJC copula models are more accurate than VaR-Gaussian copula models when measuring more risky portfolios with higher confidence levels. The major findings suggest that real estate and gold play a role on portfolio risk diversification and there exist risk contagion and flight to quality between mixed-assets when extreme cases happen, but if we take different mixed-asset portfolio strategies with the varying of time and environment, the portfolio risk will be reduced.

  10. A mixed method for measuring low-frequency acoustic properties of macromolecular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Hongwei; YAO; Lei; ZHAO; Hong; ZHANG; Jichuan; XUE; Zhaohong

    2006-01-01

    A mixed method for measuring low-frequency acoustic properties of macromolecular materials is presented.The dynamic mechanical parameters of materials are first measured by using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Apparatus(DMTA) at low frequencies,usually less than 100 Hz; then based on the Principles of Time-Temperature Super position (TTS),these parameters are extended to the frequency range that acousticians are concerned about,usually from hundreds to thousands of hertz; finally the extended dynamic mechanical parameters are transformed into acoustic parameters with the help of acoustic measurement and inverse analysis.To test the feasibility and accuracy,we measure a kind of rubber sample in DMTA and acquire the basic acoustic parameters of the sample by using this method.While applying the basic parameters to calculating characteristics of the sample in acoustic pipe,a reasonable agreement of sound absorption coefficients is obtained between the calculations and measurements in the acoustic pipe.

  11. Effects of ambient air pollution on functional status in patients with chronic congestive heart failure: a repeated-measures study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Russell S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using administrative data report a positive association between ambient air pollution and the risk of hospitalization for congestive heart failure (HF. Circulating levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP are directly associated with cardiac hemodynamics and symptom severity in patients with HF and, therefore, serves as a marker of functional status. We tested the hypothesis that BNP levels would be positively associated with short-term changes in ambient pollution levels among 28 patients with chronic stable HF and impaired systolic function. Methods BNP was measured in whole blood at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. We used linear mixed models to evaluate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon and log(BNP. Lags of 0 to 3 days were considered in separate models. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficient and within-subject coefficient of variation as measures of reproducibility. Results We found no association between any pollutant and measures of BNP at any lag. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a 0.8% (95% CI: -16.4, 21.5; p = 0.94 increase in BNP on the same day. The within-subject coefficient of variation was 45% on the natural scale and 9% on the log scale. Conclusion These results suggest that serial BNP measurements are unlikely to be useful in a longitudinal study of air pollution-related acute health effects. The magnitude of expected ambient air pollution health effects appears small in relation to the considerable within-person variability in BNP levels in this population.

  12. Planar measurements of velocity and concentration of turbulent mixing in a T-junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, N. F.

    Turbulent mixing of two isothermal air streams in a T-junction of square ducts are investigated. Three dimensional velocity fields and turbulent kinetic energy are measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The concentration field is obtained with a planar Mie scattering technique...... using the stereoscopic PIV setup. The concentration measurement method is developed in the present study and the accuracy of the technique is investigated. The resulting data are two dimensional concentration fields taken at 4Hz. The combination of velocity, turbulence and concentration fields give...

  13. Carleson Type Measures for Harmonic Mixed Norm Spaces with Application to Toeplitz Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangjian HU; Xiaofen LV

    2013-01-01

    Let Ω be a bounded domain in Rn with a smooth boundary,and let hp,q be the space of all harmonic functions with a finite mixed norm.The authors first obtain an equivalent norm on hp,q,with which the definition of Carleson type measures for hp,q is obtained.And also,the authors obtain the boundedness of the Bergman projection on hp,q which turns out the dual space of hp,q.As an application,the authors characterize the boundedness (and compactness) of Toeplitz operators Tμ on hp,q for those positive finite Borel measures μ.

  14. Diabetic Foot Prevention: Repeatability of the Loran Platform Plantar Pressure and Load Distribution Measurements in Nondiabetic Subjects during Bipedal Standing—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Zequera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the repeatability of the Loran Platform and evaluate the variability of plantar pressure and postural balance, during barefoot standing in nondiabetic subjects, for future diabetic foot clinical evaluation. Measurements were taken for eight nondiabetic subjects (4 females, 4 males, aged 47±7.2 years who had no musculoskeletal symptoms. Five variables were measured with the platform in the barefoot standing position. Ten measurements were taken using two different techniques for feet and posture positioning, during three sessions, once a week. For most measurements, no significant effect over time was found with Student's t-test (P<.000125. The ANOVA test of statistical significance confirmed that measurement differences between subjects showed higher variations than measurements taken from the same subject (P<.001. The measurements taken by the Loran Platform system were found to be repeatable.

  15. Repeated measurements of blood lactate concentration as a prognostic marker in horses with acute colitis evaluated with classification and regression trees (CART) and random forest analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M B; Tolver, A; Husted, L; Tølbøll, T H; Pihl, T H

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of single and repeated measurements of blood l-lactate (Lac) and ionised calcium (iCa) concentrations, packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma total protein (TP) concentration in horses with acute colitis. A total of 66 adult horses admitted with acute colitis (2 mmol/L (sensitivity, 0.72; specificity, 0.8). In conclusion, blood lactate concentration measured at admission and repeated 6 h later aided the prognostic evaluation of horses with acute colitis in this population with a very high mortality rate. This should allow clinicians to give a more reliable prognosis for the horse.

  16. Critical report of current fisheries management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Ulrich, Clara; Hegland, Troels J.

    The present report is an EU-FP7-SOCIOEC Report giving an overview and critical evaluation of the current management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries and the fish stocks involved in this. Also, this involves review and critical evaluation of the scientific advice sup...... to distinguish specific effects and impacts of each individual measures implemented. Accordingly, it is also very difficult to make scientific management evaluation and advice associated to the individual measures......The present report is an EU-FP7-SOCIOEC Report giving an overview and critical evaluation of the current management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries and the fish stocks involved in this. Also, this involves review and critical evaluation of the scientific advice....... The prevailing management system and principle has been landing quotas (TAC, Total Allowable Catch) mainly based on the EU principle of relative stability in the international sharing of the TAC. Also, general effort limitations and technical measures are set for the EU and Norwegian fisheries on top of the TAC...

  17. Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiments for Precise Measurements of Mixing Parameters and CP Violating Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Diwan, M V; Gallardo, J; Kahn, S; Kirk, H; Marciano, W; Morse, W; Parsa, Z; Samios, Nicholas P; Semertzidis, Y K; Viren, B M; Weng, W; Yamin, P; Frati, W; Lande, K; Mann, A K; Berg, R V; Wildenhain, P S; Klein, J R; Mocioiu, I; Shrock, R E; McDonald, K T

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the prospects of a feasible, very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment consisting of a conventional horn produced low energy wide band beam and a detector of 500 kT fiducial mass with modest requirements on event recognition and resolution. Such an experiment is intended primarily to measure CP violating effects in the neutrino sector for 3-generation mixing. We analyze the sensitivity of such an experiment. We conclude that this experiment will allow determination of the CP parameter $\\delta_{CP}$, if the currently unknown mixing parameter $\\sin ^2 2 \\theta_{13} \\geq 0.01$, a value about 10 times lower than the present experimental upper limit. In addition to $\\theta_{13}$ and $\\delta_{CP}$, the experiment has great potential for precise measurements of most other parameters in the neutrino mixing matrix including $\\Delta m^2_{32}$, $\\sin^2 2\\theta_{23}$, $\\Delta m^2_{21}\\times \\sin^2 2 \\theta_{12}$, and the mass ordering of neutrinos through the observation of the matter effect in the $\\...

  18. Cardiac output measurement in newborn infants using the ultrasonic cardiac output monitor: an assessment of agreement with conventional echocardiography, repeatability and new user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neil; Dodsworth, Melissa; Mills, John F

    2011-05-01

    To assess (1) agreement between the ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM) 1A device for measurement of cardiac output in newborn infants and conventional echocardiography (ECHO), (2) repeatability of USCOM measurements and (3) agreement between novice and expert users of the USCOM. A prospective observational study. The Neonatal Unit at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. 56 term and near-term infants, with no evidence of structural or functional cardiovascular disease, or haemodynamic shunts. Agreement between ECHO and USCOM was assessed by paired measurements of ventricular outputs by a single experienced user. Repeatability was assessed using five repeated measurements in 10 infants. Agreement between five novices and one expert user was assessed by paired USCOM measurements over 30 training measurements. Agreement between USCOM and ECHO for left ventricular output (LVO) was (bias, ±limits of agreement, mean % error): 14, ±108 ml/kg/min, 43%, and for right ventricular output (RVO): -59, ±160, ml/kg/min, 57%. Intra-observer repeatability was 6.7% for USCOM LVO and 3.6% for ECHO LVO. After five training measurements, the mean difference between USCOM measures of LVO by novice and expert users was less than 50 ml/kg/min, but with variability. Repeatability of USCOM measures is high in newborn infants. New users can be trained quickly, but with high inter-user variability. Agreement between USCOM and conventional ECHO is broad, and worse for RVO and LVO. Further studies are required to assess the ability of the device to detect clinically significant changes in infant cardiac output.

  19. HEAT OF HYDRATION OF SALTSTONE MIXES-MEASUREMENT BY ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Tommy Edwards, T

    2007-07-02

    This report provides initial results on the measurement of heat of hydration of Saltstone mixes using isothermal calorimetry. The results were obtained using a recently purchased TAM Air Model 3116 Isothermal Conduction Calorimeter. Heat of hydration is an important property of Saltstone mixes. Greater amounts of heat will increase the temperature of the curing mix in the vaults and limit the processing rate. The heat of hydration also reflects the extent of the hydraulic reactions that turn the fluid mixture into a ''stone like'' solid and consequently impacts performance properties such as permeability. Determining which factors control these reactions, as monitored by the heat of hydration, is an important goal of the variability study. Experiments with mixes of portland cement in water demonstrated that the heats measured by this technique over a seven day period match very well with the literature values of (1) seven day heats of hydration using the standard test method for heat of hydration of hydraulic cement, ASTM C 186-05 and (2) heats of hydration measured using isothermal calorimetry. The heats of hydration of portland cement or blast furnace slag in a Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) simulant revealed that if the cure temperature is maintained at 25 C, the amount of heat released over a seven day period is roughly 62% less than the heat released by portland cement in water. Furthermore, both the blast furnace slag and the portland cement were found to be equivalent in heat production over the seven day period in MCU. This equivalency is due to the activation of the slag by the greater than 1 Molar free hydroxide ion concentration in the simulant. Results using premix (a blend of 10% cement, 45% blast furnace slag, and 45% fly ash) in MCU, Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants reveal that the fly ash had not significantly reacted (undergone hydration

  20. Measurement of the Neutrino Mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ in NOvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P.; et al.

    2017-01-20

    This Letter reports new results on muon neutrino disappearance from NOvA, using a 14 kton detector equivalent exposure of $6.05\\times10^{20}$ protons-on-target from the NuMI beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The measurement probes the muon-tau symmetry hypothesis that requires maximal mixing ($\\theta_{23} = \\pi/4$). Assuming the normal mass hierarchy, we find $\\Delta m^2 = (2.67 \\pm 0.11)\\times 10^{-3}$ eV$^2$ and $\\sin^2 \\theta_{23}$ at the two statistically degenerate values $0.404^{+0.030}_{-0.022}$ and $0.624^{+0.022}_{-0.030}$, both at the 68% confidence level. Our data disfavor the maximal mixing scenario with 2.6 $\\sigma$ significance.

  1. Sodar measurements of the mixed-layer depth over a large city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurygin, E.A. [Russia Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Atmospheric Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    The results of synchronous sodar`s measurements on a territory of city and suburban area have shown: (a) The types of stratification over centre of the city and periphery considerably differ, and these distinctions are more often displayed in morning and evening transition period. The agreement between types of stratification in the centre and on the periphery was observed in 40% of cases; (b) At equal temperature stratification the mixed-layer depth in centre of the city is about 50-150 m higher at inversions in comparison with a periphery, at advanced convection - these depths are identical; (c) At different stratification between the city and periphery the distinction in the mixed-layer depth can reach 200. (au)

  2. Measurement of the Neutrino Mixing Angle θ23 in NOvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P.; Aliaga, L.; Ambrose, D.; Anfimov, N.; Antoshkin, A.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Baird, M.; Bambah, B. A.; Bays, K.; Behera, B.; Bending, S.; Bernstein, R.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Blackburn, T.; Bolshakova, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brown, J.; Brunetti, G.; Buchanan, N.; Butkevich, A.; Bychkov, V.; Campbell, M.; Catano-Mur, E.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Chowdhury, B.; Coan, T. E.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Colo, M.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Cremonesi, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Davies, G. S.; Davies, J. P.; Derwent, P. F.; Desai, S.; Dharmapalan, R.; Ding, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Dukes, E. C.; Duyang, H.; Edayath, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Feldman, G. J.; Frank, M. J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Ghosh, T.; Giri, A.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Grichine, V.; Group, R.; Grover, D.; Guo, B.; Habig, A.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Heller, K.; Himmel, A.; Holin, A.; Hylen, J.; Jediny, F.; Judah, M.; Kafka, G. K.; Kalra, D.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kasetti, S.; Keloth, R.; Kolupaeva, L.; Kotelnikov, S.; Kourbanis, I.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Kurbanov, S.; Lang, K.; Lee, W. M.; Lin, S.; Liu, J.; Lokajicek, M.; Lozier, J.; Luchuk, S.; Maan, K.; Magill, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Matera, K.; Matveev, V.; Méndez, D. P.; Messier, M. D.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mohanta, R.; Moren, A.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Murphy, R.; Musser, J.; Nelson, J. K.; Nichol, R.; Niner, E.; Norman, A.; Nosek, T.; Oksuzian, Y.; Olshevskiy, A.; Olson, T.; Paley, J.; Pandey, P.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Pershey, D.; Petrova, O.; Petti, R.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poling, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Principato, C.; Psihas, F.; Radovic, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Rebel, B.; Reed, B.; Rocco, D.; Rojas, P.; Ryabov, V.; Sachdev, K.; Sail, P.; Samoylov, O.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schroeter, R.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.; Shanahan, P.; Sheshukov, A.; Singh, J.; Singh, J.; Singh, P.; Singh, V.; Smolik, J.; Solomey, N.; Song, E.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Strait, M.; Suter, L.; Talaga, R. L.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tas, P.; Thayyullathil, R. B.; Thomas, J.; Tian, X.; Tognini, S. C.; Tripathi, J.; Tsaris, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Vasel, J.; Vinton, L.; Vold, A.; Vrba, T.; Wang, B.; Wetstein, M.; Whittington, D.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wolcott, J.; Yadav, N.; Yang, S.; Zalesak, J.; Zamorano, B.; Zwaska, R.; NOvA Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    This Letter reports new results on muon neutrino disappearance from NOvA, using a 14 kton detector equivalent exposure of 6.05 ×1 020 protons on target from the NuMI beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The measurement probes the muon-tau symmetry hypothesis that requires maximal θ23 mixing (θ23=π /4 ). Assuming the normal mass hierarchy, we find Δ m322 =(2.67 ±0.11 )×10-3 eV2 and sin2θ23 at the two statistically degenerate values 0.40 4-0.022+0.030 and 0.62 4-0.030+0.022, both at the 68% confidence level. Our data disfavor the maximal mixing scenario with 2.6 σ significance.

  3. Measurement of isospin mixing at a finite temperature in 80Zr via giant dipole resonance decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, A.; Wieland, O.; Barlini, S.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Baiocco, G.; Bardelli, L.; Benzoni, G.; Bini, M.; Blasi, N.; Brambilla, S.; Bruno, M.; Casini, G.; Ciemala, M.; Cinausero, M.; Crespi, F. C. L.; D'Agostino, M.; Degerlier, M.; Giaz, A.; Gramegna, F.; Kmiecik, M.; Leoni, S.; Maj, A.; Marchi, T.; Mazurek, K.; Meczynski, W.; Million, B.; Montanari, D.; Morelli, L.; Myalski, S.; Nannini, A.; Nicolini, R.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Vandone, V.; Vannini, G.

    2011-10-01

    Isospin mixing in the hot compound nucleus 80Zr was studied by measuring and comparing the γ-ray emission from the fusion reactions 40Ca+40Ca at Ebeam=200 MeV and 37Cl+44Ca at Ebeam=153 MeV. The γ yield associated with the giant dipole resonance is found to be different in the two reactions because, in self-conjugate nuclei, the E1 selection rules forbid the decay between states with isospin I=0. The degree of mixing is deduced from statistical-model analysis of the γ-ray spectrum emitted by the compound nucleus 80Zr with the standard parameters deduced from the γ decay of the nucleus 81Rb. The results are used to deduce the zero-temperature value, which is then compared with the latest predictions. The Coulomb spreading width is found to be independent of temperature.

  4. Measurement and Correlation for Solubility of Diosgenin in Some Mixed Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞雄; 赵明蕊; 冯露; 任保增

    2014-01-01

    The solubility data of diosgenin in mixed systems of ethanol+1-propanol (1︰1), ethanol+1-butanol (1︰1), ethanol+isobutyl alcohol (1︰1), methanol+isobutyl alcohol (1︰1), methanol+isobutyl alcohol (1︰4), ethanol+1-pentanol (1︰1) and carbon tetrachloride were measured over the temperature range from 289.15 K to 334.15 K by a laser monitoring observation technique at atmospheric pressure, with all mixtures mixed by volume ratio. The Apelblat equation, the ideal solution model, and theλh equation are used to correlate the solubility data. The results show that the three models agree well with the experimental data, providing essential support for industrial design and further theoretical study.

  5. Effects of CAG repeat length, HTT protein length and protein context on cerebral metabolism measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy in transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Bruce G; Andreassen, Ole A; Dedeoglu, Alpaslan; Leavitt, Blair; Hayden, Michael; Borchelt, David; Ross, Christopher A; Ferrante, Robert J; Beal, M Flint

    2005-10-01

    Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative illness caused by expansion of CAG repeats at the N-terminal end of the protein huntingtin. We examined longitudinal changes in brain metabolite levels using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy in five different mouse models. There was a large (>50%) exponential decrease in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) with time in both striatum and cortex in mice with 150 CAG repeats (R6/2 strain). There was a linear decrease restricted to striatum in N171-82Q mice with 82 CAG repeats. Both the exponential and linear decreases of NAA were paralleled in time by decreases in neuronal area measured histologically. Yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice with 72 CAG repeats, but low expression levels, had less striatal NAA loss than the N171-82Q mice (15% vs. 43%). We evaluated the effect of gene context in mice with an approximate 146 CAG repeat on the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (HPRT). HPRT mice developed an obese phenotype in contrast to weight loss in the R6/2 and N171-82Q mice. These mice showed a small striatal NAA loss (21%), and a possible increase in brain lipids detectable by magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and decreased brain water T1. Our results indicate profound metabolic defects that are strongly affected by CAG repeat length, as well as gene expression levels and protein context.

  6. The underwater coincidence counter for plutonium measurements in mixed-oxide fuel assemblies manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. W. Eccleston; H. O. Menlove; M. Abhold; M. Baker; J. Pecos

    1999-05-01

    This manual describes the Underwater Coincidence Counter (UWCC) that has been designed for the measurement of plutonium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies prior to irradiation. The UWCC uses high-efficiency {sup 3}He neutron detectors to measure the spontaneous-fission and induced-fission rates in the fuel assembly. Measurements can be made on MOX fuel assemblies in air or underwater. The neutron counting rate is analyzed for singles, doubles, and triples time correlations to determine the {sup 240}Pu effective mass per unit length of the fuel assembly. The system can verify the plutonium loading per unit length to a precision of less than 1% in a measurement time of 2 to 3 minutes. System design, components, performance tests, and operational characteristics are described in this manual.

  7. Modeling continuous self-report measures of perceived emotion using generalized additive mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Gary J; Sneddon, Ian

    2014-03-01

    Emotion research has long been dominated by the "standard method" of displaying posed or acted static images of facial expressions of emotion. While this method has been useful, it is unable to investigate the dynamic nature of emotion expression. Although continuous self-report traces have enabled the measurement of dynamic expressions of emotion, a consensus has not been reached on the correct statistical techniques that permit inferences to be made with such measures. We propose generalized additive models and generalized additive mixed models as techniques that can account for the dynamic nature of such continuous measures. These models allow us to hold constant shared components of responses that are due to perceived emotion across time, while enabling inference concerning linear differences between groups. The generalized additive mixed model approach is preferred, as it can account for autocorrelation in time series data and allows emotion decoding participants to be modeled as random effects. To increase confidence in linear differences, we assess the methods that address interactions between categorical variables and dynamic changes over time. In addition, we provide comments on the use of generalized additive models to assess the effect size of shared perceived emotion and discuss sample sizes. Finally, we address additional uses, the inference of feature detection, continuous variable interactions, and measurement of ambiguity.

  8. Bayesian hierarchical joint modeling of repeatedly measured continuous and ordinal markers of disease severity: Application to Ugandan diabetes data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhule, O D; Wahed, A S; Youk, A O

    2017-08-22

    Modeling of correlated biomarkers jointly has been shown to improve the efficiency of parameter estimates, leading to better clinical decisions. In this paper, we employ a joint modeling approach to a unique diabetes dataset, where blood glucose (continuous) and urine glucose (ordinal) measures of disease severity for diabetes are known to be correlated. The postulated joint model assumes that the outcomes are from distributions that are in the exponential family and hence modeled as multivariate generalized linear mixed effects model associated through correlated and/or shared random effects. The Markov chain Monte Carlo Bayesian approach is used to approximate posterior distribution and draw inference on the parameters. This proposed methodology provides a flexible framework to account for the hierarchical structure of the highly unbalanced data as well as the association between the 2 outcomes. The results indicate improved efficiency of parameter estimates when blood glucose and urine glucose are modeled jointly. Moreover, the simulation studies show that estimates obtained from the joint model are consistently less biased and more efficient than those in the separate models. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Measurement of coherence decay in GaMnAs using femtosecond four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Daniel; de Boer, Tristan; Yildirim, Murat; March, Sam; Mathew, Reuble; Gamouras, Angela; Liu, Xinyu; Dobrowolska, Margaret; Furdyna, Jacek; Hall, Kimberley

    2013-12-03

    The application of femtosecond four-wave mixing to the study of fundamental properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors ((s,p)-d hybridization, spin-flip scattering) is described, using experiments on GaMnAs as a prototype III-Mn-V system.  Spectrally-resolved and time-resolved experimental configurations are described, including the use of zero-background autocorrelation techniques for pulse optimization.  The etching process used to prepare GaMnAs samples for four-wave mixing experiments is also highlighted.  The high temporal resolution of this technique, afforded by the use of short (20 fsec) optical pulses, permits the rapid spin-flip scattering process in this system to be studied directly in the time domain, providing new insight into the strong exchange coupling responsible for carrier-mediated ferromagnetism.  We also show that spectral resolution of the four-wave mixing signal allows one to extract clear signatures of (s,p)-d hybridization in this system, unlike linear spectroscopy techniques.   This increased sensitivity is due to the nonlinearity of the technique, which suppresses defect-related contributions to the optical response. This method may be used to measure the time scale for coherence decay (tied to the fastest scattering processes) in a wide variety of semiconductor systems of interest for next generation electronics and optoelectronics.

  10. Measuring the Leptonic CP Phase in Neutrino Oscillations with Non-Unitary Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Tortola, M; Valle, J W F

    2016-01-01

    Non-unitary neutrino mixing implies an extra CP violating phase that can fake the leptonic Dirac CP phase $\\delta_{CP}$ of the simplest three-neutrino mixing benchmark scheme. This would hinder the possibility of probing for CP violation in accelerator-type experiments. We take T2K and T2HK as examples to demonstrate the degeneracy between the "standard" (or "unitary") and "non-unitary" CP phases. We find, under the assumption of non-unitary mixing, that their CP sensitivities severely deteriorate. Fortunately, the TNT2K proposal of supplementing T2(H)K with a $\\mu$DAR source for better measurement of $\\delta_{CP}$ can partially break the CP degeneracy by probing both $\\cos \\delta_{CP}$ and $\\sin \\delta_{CP}$ dependences in the wide spectrum of the $\\mu$DAR flux. We also show that the further addition of a near detector to the $\\mu$DAR setup can eliminate the degeneracy completely.

  11. Measuring the weak mixing angle with the P2 experiment at MESA

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Niklaus; Baunack, Sebastian; Becker, Dominik; Diefenbach, Jürgen; Gericke, Michael; Gerz, Kathrin; Herbertz, Ruth; Kumar, Krishna; Maas, Frank; Molitor, Matthias; Piñeiro, David Rodríguez; Sorokin, Iurii; Souder, Paul; Spiesberger, Hubert; Tyukin, Alexey; Tyukin, Valery; Zimmermann, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The P2 experiment in Mainz aims to measure the weak mixing angle in electron- proton scattering to a precision of 0.13 %. In order to suppress uncertainties due to proton structure and contributions from box graphs, both a low average momentum transfer $Q^2$ of $4.5\\cdot 10^{-3}$ GeV$^2/c^2$ and a low beam energy of 155 MeV are chosen. In order to collect the enormous statistics required for this measurement, the new Mainz Energy Recovery Superconducting Accelerator (MESA) is being constructed. These proceedings describe the motivation for the measurement, the experimental and accelerator challenges and how we plan to tackle them.

  12. Using rates to measure mixed modulus-anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Conley, J A; Glaser, L; Kraemer, M; Tattersall, J

    2011-01-01

    If SUSY is discovered at the LHC, the task will immediately turn to determining the model of SUSY breaking. Here, we employ a Mixed Modulus-Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking (MMAMSB) model with very similar LHC phenomenology to the more conventionally studied Constrained Minimal SUSY Model (CMSSM) and minimal Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking (mAMSB) models. We then study whether the models can be distinguished and measured. If we only fit to the various mass edges and mass end-points from cascade decay chains that are normally studied, a unique determination and measurement of the model is problematic without substantial amounts of LHC data. However, if event rate information is included, we can quickly distinguish and measure the correct SUSY model and exclude alternatives.

  13. The Effects of Group Leader Learning Style on Student Knowledge Gain in a Leadership Camp Setting: A Repeated-Measures Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Terry, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many state FFA associations conduct summer camps focusing on leadership and personal development for FFA members. Interestingly, little research has been conducted on the impact or outcomes of these common activities. The purpose of this split-plot factorial repeated-measures experiment was to assess the level of campers' learning of the…

  14. Predictors and Variability of Repeat Measurements of Urinary Phenols and Parabens in a Cohort of Shanghai Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jessie P.; Yang, Gong; Liao, Linda M.; Satagopan, Jaya; Calafat, Antonia M.; Matthews, Charles E.; Cai, Qiuyin; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cai, Hui; Wolff, Mary S.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    , under certain circumstances, among women. Citation: Engel LS, Buckley JP, Yang G, Liao LM, Satagopan J, Calafat AM, Matthews CE, Cai Q, Ji BT, Cai H, Engel SM, Wolff MS, Rothman N, Zheng W, Xiang YB, Shu XO, Gao YT, Chow WH. 2014. Predictors and variability of repeat measurements of urinary phenols and parabens in a cohort of Shanghai women and men. Environ Health Perspect 122:733–740; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306830 PMID:24659570

  15. A review of the reporting and handling of missing data in cohort studies with repeated assessment of exposure measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karahalios Amalia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retaining participants in cohort studies with multiple follow-up waves is difficult. Commonly, researchers are faced with the problem of missing data, which may introduce biased results as well as a loss of statistical power and precision. The STROBE guidelines von Elm et al. (Lancet, 370:1453-1457, 2007; Vandenbroucke et al. (PLoS Med, 4:e297, 2007 and the guidelines proposed by Sterne et al. (BMJ, 338:b2393, 2009 recommend that cohort studies report on the amount of missing data, the reasons for non-participation and non-response, and the method used to handle missing data in the analyses. We have conducted a review of publications from cohort studies in order to document the reporting of missing data for exposure measures and to describe the statistical methods used to account for the missing data. Methods A systematic search of English language papers published from January 2000 to December 2009 was carried out in PubMed. Prospective cohort studies with a sample size greater than 1,000 that analysed data using repeated measures of exposure were included. Results Among the 82 papers meeting the inclusion criteria, only 35 (43% reported the amount of missing data according to the suggested guidelines. Sixty-eight papers (83% described how they dealt with missing data in the analysis. Most of the papers excluded participants with missing data and performed a complete-case analysis (n = 54, 66%. Other papers used more sophisticated methods including multiple imputation (n = 5 or fully Bayesian modeling (n = 1. Methods known to produce biased results were also used, for example, Last Observation Carried Forward (n = 7, the missing indicator method (n = 1, and mean value substitution (n = 3. For the remaining 14 papers, the method used to handle missing data in the analysis was not stated. Conclusions This review highlights the inconsistent reporting of missing data in cohort studies and the continuing

  16. A review of the reporting and handling of missing data in cohort studies with repeated assessment of exposure measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahalios, Amalia; Baglietto, Laura; Carlin, John B; English, Dallas R; Simpson, Julie A

    2012-07-11

    Retaining participants in cohort studies with multiple follow-up waves is difficult. Commonly, researchers are faced with the problem of missing data, which may introduce biased results as well as a loss of statistical power and precision. The STROBE guidelines von Elm et al. (Lancet, 370:1453-1457, 2007); Vandenbroucke et al. (PLoS Med, 4:e297, 2007) and the guidelines proposed by Sterne et al. (BMJ, 338:b2393, 2009) recommend that cohort studies report on the amount of missing data, the reasons for non-participation and non-response, and the method used to handle missing data in the analyses. We have conducted a review of publications from cohort studies in order to document the reporting of missing data for exposure measures and to describe the statistical methods used to account for the missing data. A systematic search of English language papers published from January 2000 to December 2009 was carried out in PubMed. Prospective cohort studies with a sample size greater than 1,000 that analysed data using repeated measures of exposure were included. Among the 82 papers meeting the inclusion criteria, only 35 (43%) reported the amount of missing data according to the suggested guidelines. Sixty-eight papers (83%) described how they dealt with missing data in the analysis. Most of the papers excluded participants with missing data and performed a complete-case analysis (n=54, 66%). Other papers used more sophisticated methods including multiple imputation (n=5) or fully Bayesian modeling (n=1). Methods known to produce biased results were also used, for example, Last Observation Carried Forward (n=7), the missing indicator method (n=1), and mean value substitution (n=3). For the remaining 14 papers, the method used to handle missing data in the analysis was not stated. This review highlights the inconsistent reporting of missing data in cohort studies and the continuing use of inappropriate methods to handle missing data in the analysis. Epidemiological journals

  17. Measurement of day and night neutrino energy spectra at SNO and constraints on neutrino mixing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Q R; Allen, R C; Andersen, T C; Anglin, J D; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S D; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Bühler, G; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, H H; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T H; Cowan, J H M; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Hamian, A A; Handler, W B; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C P; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Kazkaz, K; Keener, P T; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Manor, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; Meijer Drees, R; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, M; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W P; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schwendener, M H; Schülke, A; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Spreitzer, T; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P M; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y I; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J-X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2002-07-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has measured day and night solar neutrino energy spectra and rates. For charged current events, assuming an undistorted 8B spectrum, the night minus day rate is 14.0%+/-6.3%(+1.5%)(-1.4%) of the average rate. If the total flux of active neutrinos is additionally constrained to have no asymmetry, the nu(e) asymmetry is found to be 7.0%+/-4.9%(+1.3%)(-1.2%). A global solar neutrino analysis in terms of matter-enhanced oscillations of two active flavors strongly favors the large mixing angle solution.

  18. Precise Measurement of $B^{0}-\\overline{B}^{0}$ Mixing Parameters at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$

    CERN Document Server

    Behrens, B H; Gritsan, A; Roy, J D; Smith, J G; Alexander, J P; Baker, R; Bebek, C; Berger, B E; Berkelman, K; Blanc, F; Boisvert, V; Cassel, David G; Dickson, M; Drell, P S; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Foland, A D; Gaidarev, P B; Gibbons, L K; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hopman, P I; Jones, C D; Kreinick, D L; Lohner, M; Magerkurth, A; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Nordberg, E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Thayer, J G; Thies, P G; Valant-Spaight, B L; Warburton, A; Avery, P; Prescott, C; Rubiera, A I; Yelton, J; Zheng, J; Brandenburg, G; Ershov, A; Gao, Y S; Kim, D Y J; Wilson, R; Browder, T E; Li, Y; Rodríguez, J L; Yamamoto, H; Bergfeld, T; Eisenstein, B I; Ernst, J; Gladding, G E; Gollin, G D; Hans, R M; Johnson, E; Karliner, I; Marsh, M A; Palmer, M; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Janicek, R; Patel, P M; Sadoff, A J; Ammar, R; Bean, A; Besson, D; Davis, R; Kwak, N; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Kubota, Y; Lee, S J; Mahapatra, R; O'Neill, J J; Poling, R A; Riehle, T; Smith, A; Urheim, J; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Athar, S B; Jian, L; Ling, L; Mahmood, A H; Saleem, M; Timm, S; Wappler, F; Anastassov, A; Duboscq, J E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Hart, T; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Schwarthoff, H; Thayer, J B; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Richichi, S J; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Undrus, A; Chen, S; Fast, J; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Menon, N; Miller, D H; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Pavlunin, V; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Kwon, Y; Lyon, A L; Thorndike, E H; Jessop, C P; Marsiske, H; Perl, Martin Lewis; Savinov, V; Ugolini, D W; Zhou, X; Coan, T E; Fadeev, V; Maravin, Y; Narsky, I; Stroynowski, R; Ye, J; Wlodek, T; Artuso, M; Ayad, R; Boulahouache, C; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Karamov, S; Majumder, G; Moneti, G C; Mountain, R; Schuh, S; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Viehhauser, G; Wang, J C; Wolf, A; Wu, J; Kopp, S E; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; McLean, K W; Marka, S; Xu, Z; Godang, R; Kinoshita, K; Lai, I C; Schrenk, S; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; McGee, S; Perera, L P; Zhou, G J; Lipeles, E; Schmidtler, M; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J; Würthwein, F; Jaffe, D E; Masek, G E; Paar, H P; Potter, E M; Prell, S; Sharma, V; Asner, D M; Eppich, A; Gronberg, J B; Hill, T S; Morrison, R J; Nelson, H N; Briere, R A

    2000-01-01

    We describe a measurement of B^0-B^0bar mixing parameters exploiting a method of partial reconstruction of the decay chains B0 -> D^{*-}\\pi^+ and B0 -> D^{*-}\\rho^+. Using 9.6 x 10^6 BBbar pairs collected at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we find \\chi_d = 0.198 +- 0.013 +- 0.014, |y_d|<0.41 at 95% confidence level, and |Re(\\epsilon_B)|<0.034 at 95% confidence level.

  19. Complex permittivity measurements and mixing laws of ceramic materials and application to microwave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, David Louis

    The complex permittivity of alumina composites was examined with respect to its dependence on the volume fraction of constituents, microstructure, processing temperature, and processing method. In addition, the effective permittivity of these composites was quantitatively modeled based on the permittivities, volume fractions, and microstructures of the constituents. The studies focused on the complex permittivity of alumina composites, which contained the lossy additives silicon carbide and copper oxide. Two composite systems were prepared by physically mixing alumina and one of the additives. A third composite system was produced by chemically precipitating copper oxide onto alumina. The two synthesis methods produced composites with different microstructures and complex permittivities. The imaginary part of the complex permittivity was generally larger in the chemically precipitated composites than in the physically mixed composites. The dependence of the complex permittivities of the composites on volume fraction and microstructure were compared with several algebraic mixing laws and with three dimensional, electrostatic numerical simulations. The algebraic mixing laws do not take into account for the dependence of the imaginary part of the complex permittivity on absorbed water and microstructure, which is affected by composite synthesis. By incorporating general physical characteristics of the composites, the electrostatic simulations were able to accurately predict their permittivity. Heating some selected alumina composites in conventional and microwave furnaces demonstrate several interesting results. The densification and dielectric proper-ties of the alumina/copper oxide composites varied due to processing temperature. The changes in these properties depended upon preparation method and not on heating method. The density and real part of the complex permittivity of alumina/silicon carbide also varied due to processing temperature and not on heating method

  20. EMF measurements on mixed protonic/electronic conductors for hydrogen membrane applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzer, Henrik Karnøe; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Phair, John

    2010-01-01

    Electromotive force (EMF) measurements are often used to estimate the transport number of conducting species in ionic and mixed conductors. In this work, the applicability of the method to systems, where both protonic, oxide-ionic and electronic conduction is significant, was examined. The effect...... large errors in the determination of the oxide-ionic transport number, but gave good estimates of the protonic transport number. The protonic transport number was estimated to around 0.80 at 600 °C, decreasing to around 0.65 at 800 °C, consistent with previous investigations on similar materials....

  1. Testing temperature on interfacial shear strength measurements of epoxy resins at different mixing ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helga Nørgaard; Thomason, James L.; Minty, Ross;

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial properties as Interfacial Shear Stress (IFSS) in fibre reinforced polymers are essential for further understanding of the mechanical properties of the composite. In this work a single fibre testing method is used in combination with an epoxy matrix made from Araldite 506 epoxy resin...... and triethylenetetramine (TETA) hardener. The IFSS was measured by a microbond test developed for a Thermal Mechanical Analyzer. The preliminary results indicate that IFSS has an inverse dependency of both testing temperature and the mixing ratio of hardener and epoxy resin. Especially interesting was the decreasing...

  2. Flavor physics at the Tevatron. Decay, mixing and CP-violation measurements in pp-collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhr, Thomas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik

    2013-07-01

    Provides a comprehensive overview. The book reviews the latest experimental results of charm and bottom flavor physics at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider. The measurements of lifetimes, branching ratios and mixing properties of heavy flavored hadrons provide important constraints on fundamental parameters of the standard model - the elements of the CKM matrix. Comparisons of experimental results with theoretical predictions allow to search for physics beyond the standard model or to set bounds on parameters of new physics models. The experimental techniques developed at the Tevatron are highly relevant for the next generation flavor physics experiments at the LHC.

  3. Measurement of the neutrino mixing angle 13 in the Double Chooz experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Anadón, J. I.

    2015-07-01

    The neutrino mixing angle θ13 is one of the parameters that relate the neutrino flavor eigenstates to the mass eigenstates. The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations (the periodic change in the probability of measuring a certain neutrino flavor as a function of the distance traveled by the neutrino) proves that the flavor eigenstates are not aligned with the mass eigenstates, and that neutrinos are massive particles. Unlike the other neutrino mixing angles, θ12 and θ23, the angle θ13 is small and was measured for the first time in 2011 and 2012 by several experiments, Double Chooz among them. The value of θ13 is important not only because it is a fundamental parameter of nature but also because only if the three angles are non-null CP violation can occur in neutrino oscillations The Double Chooz experiment measures θ13 from the disappearance of electron antineutrinos (ve) in the antineutrino flux emitted by the reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant (France). The ve are detected using the inverse β-decay reaction (IBD): ve + p → e + + n. Two identical detectors are used: one close to the reactor cores (a∼ 400 m, the Near Detector) which measures the ve flux where the disappearance has barely begun, and another away from the reactor cores (a∼ 1050 m, the Far Detector) which measures the ?e flux where the disappearance is almost maximal. As a consequence of the identicalness between detectors, the uncertainties on the reactor ve flux and the detection of the ve are reduced, increasing the precision of the measurement of θ13. (Author)

  4. Analyzing repeated data collected by mobile phones and frequent text messages. An example of Low back pain measured weekly for 18 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Bodin, Lennart; Kongsted, Alice

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Repeated data collection is desirable when monitoring fluctuating conditions. Mobile phones can be used to gather such data from large groups of respondents by sending and receiving frequently repeated short questions and answers as text messages. The analysis of repeated data...... for the clinical researcher in order for complex outcome measures to be interpreted in a clinically meaningful way. METHODS: A model data set was formed using data from two clinical studies, where patients with low back pain were followed with weekly text messages for 18 weeks. Different research questions...... questions with appropriate analytical methods 1: How many days with pain do patients experience? This question was answered with data summaries. 2: What is the proportion of participants "recovered" at a specific time point? This question was answered using logistic regression analysis. 3: What is the time...

  5. Measuring the efficiency of ice formation in mixed-phase clouds over Europe with Cloudnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühl, Johannes; Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Patric, Seifert

    2016-04-01

    Mixed-phase clouds play an important role in current weather and climate research. The complex interaction between aerosols, clouds and dynamics taking place within these clouds is still not understood. The unknown impact of ice formation on cloud lifetime and precipitation evolution introduces large uncertainties into numeric weather prediction and climate projections. In the framework of the BACCHUS project, we have evaluated combined remote sensing data gathered at different European Cloudnet sites (Leipzig, Lindenberg, Potenza and Mace-Head) to study the relation between ice and liquid water in mixed-phase cloud layers. In this way, we can quantify the efficiency of ice production within these clouds. The study also allows contrasting marine (Potenza and Mace-Head) and continental sites (Leipzig and Lindenberg). We derive liquid and ice water content together with vertical motions of ice particles falling through cloud base. The ice mass flux is quantified by combining measurements of ice water content and particle fall velocity. The efficiency of heterogeneous ice formation and its impact on cloud lifetime is estimated for different cloud-top temperatures by relating the ice mass flux and the liquid water content at cloud top. Cloud radar measurements of polarization and fall velocity yield, that ice crystals formed in cloud layers with a geometrical thickness of less than 350 m are mostly pristine when they fall out of the cloud. A difference of four orders of magnitude in ice formation efficiency in mixed-phase cloud layers is found over the cloud-top-temperature range from -40 to 0 °C.

  6. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction and...

  7. Heart rate variability and DNA methylation levels are altered after short-term metal fume exposure among occupational welders: a repeated-measures panel study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: In occupational settings, boilermakers are exposed to high levels of metallic fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated during the welding process. The effect of welding PM2.5 on heart rate variability (HRV) has been described, but the relationship between PM2.5, DNA methylation, and HRV is not known. Methods: In this repeated-measures panel study, we recorded resting HRV and measured DNA methylation levels in transposable elements Alu and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE...

  8. Measurement of mixed higher order flow harmonics in PbPb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The mixed higher order flow harmonics and nonlinear response coefficients of charged particles are measured for the first time as a function of $p_{\\rm{T}}$ and centrality in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76~\\mathrm{TeV}$ and $5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$ with the CMS detector. The results are obtained using the scalar product method, and cover a $p_{\\rm{T}}$ range from $0.3~\\mathrm{GeV}/c$ to $8.0~\\mathrm{GeV}/c$, pseudorapidity $|\\eta| < 2.4$, and a centrality range of $0-60\\%$. At $5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$, results for mixed harmonics are compared to the matching higher order flow harmonics from two-particle correlations, which measure $v_n$ values with respect to the $n$-th order event plane. It is observed that the nonlinear response coefficients of the odd harmonics are larger than the even harmonics ones. The results are compared with hydrodynamic predictions with different shear viscosity to entropy density ratios and different initial conditions.

  9. Mobile lidar system for measurement of water vapor mixing ratio and ozone number density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D.

    1988-01-01

    The Water Vapor Lidar was modified and extended to make differential absorption measurements of ozone. Water vapor measurements make use of a weak molecular scattering process known as Raman scattering. It is characterized by a shift in wavelength of the scattered beam of light relative to the incident one. Some of the energy of the incident photon is converted to vibrational or rotational energy within the molecule leaving the scattered photon shifted to a slightly longer wavelength. When performing water vapor measurements, profiles are acquired of water vapor mixing ratio from near the ground to beyond 7 km every 2 minutes. By forming a color composite image of the individual profiles, the spatial and temporal evolution of water vapor is visible with vertical resolution of 75 to 150m and temporal resolution of 2 minutes. The ozone lidar is intended for use as a cross calibration facility for other stationary ozone lidar systems. The ozone measurement employs the technique known as differential absorption. The backscattered laser radiation from two different wavelengths is measured. Successful measurements of 308 nm returns were made from 80 km with an averaging period of 6 hours. Using these data and a standard atmosphere density curve, an ozone number density profile was made which agrees very well with the standard ozone curve between 20 and 40 km.

  10. Henry Primakoff Award: The Mixed-Up Neutrino: Precision Measurement of Oscillation at Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    It is estimated that there are more neutrinos in the universe than all of the atoms in the stars, the planets, and us. Yet until recently this particle was poorly understood. Neutrinos are nearly decoupled from the universe we know, tied only by the rare weak interaction. The Daya Bay Experiment in Southern China provided an ideal location to characterize these elusive particles. Six identical detectors measured the relative flux versus distance of electron antineutrinos emitted by nuclear reactors. The disappearance of electron antineutrinos revealed an unexpectedly large mixing of neutrino flavor, and also provided an independent estimate of the larger neutrino mass difference. I will present the details of this measurement, including expected and unexpected obstacles faced along the way. I will then discuss the implications of our observations and future steps in neutrino physics. Supported in part under DOE Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  11. Compound cavity theory of resonant phase modulation in laser self-mixing ultrasonic vibration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yufeng; Wang, Ming; Guo, Dongmei

    2016-07-01

    The theoretical basis of self-mixing interference (SMI) employing a resonant phase modulator is explored to prove its tempting advantages. The adopted method induces a pure phase carrier without increasing system complexity. A simple time-domain signal process is used to estimate modulation depth and precisely track vibrating trail, which promises the flexibility of measuring ultrasonic vibration regardless of the constraint of the Bessel functions. The broad bandwidth, low speckle noise, compact, safe, and easy operating SMI system obtains the best resolution of a poor reflection environment. Numerical simulation discusses the spectrum broadening and errors due to multiple reflections. Experimental results agree with theory coherently and are compared with laser Doppler vibration meter showing a dynamical error better than 20 nm in ultrasonic vibration measurement.

  12. Measurement of the Beam Longitudinal Profile in a Storage Ring by Non-Linear Laser Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-11-01

    We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid-state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of un trapped particles, and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets ("ghost bunches").

  13. Measurement of the beam longitudinal profile in a storage ring bynon-linear laser mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, J.-F.; Byrd, J.; De Santis, S.; Denes, P.; Placidi, M.; Turner, W.; Zolotorev, M.

    2004-05-03

    We report on the development of a new technique for the measurement of the longitudinal beam profile in storage rings. This technique, which has been successfully demonstrated at the Advanced Light Source, mixes the synchrotron radiation with the light from a mode-locked solid state laser oscillator in a non-linear crystal. The up-converted radiation is then detected with a photomultiplier and processed to extract, store, and display the required information. The available choices of laser repetition frequency, pulse width, and phase modulation give a wide range of options for matching the bunch configuration of a particular storage ring. Besides the dynamic measurement of the longitudinal profile of each bunch, the instrument can monitor the evolution of the bunch tails, the presence of untrapped particles and their diffusion into nominally empty RF buckets (''ghostbunches'').

  14. Measurement of an accelerator based mixed field with a Timepix detector

    CERN Document Server

    George, S P; Fröjdh, E; Murtas, F; Silari, M

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of a high energy mixed field taken with a Timepix chip at the CERF facility at CERN. The Timepix is an active array of 65K energy measuring pixels which allows visualization and energy measurement of the tracks created by individual particles. This allows characteristics of interest such as the LET and angular distributions of the incoming tracks to be calculated, as well as broad morphological track categories based on pattern recognition techniques. We compute and compare LET-like and angular information for different morphological track categories. Morphological track categories are found to possess overlapping LET and energy spectra, however the approaches are found to be complementary with morphological clustering yielding information which is indistinguishable on the basis of LET alone. The use of the Timepix as an indirect monitoring device outside of the primary beam at CERF is briefly discussed.

  15. A Measurement of Neutral B Mixing using Di-Lepton Events with the BaBar Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardane, Naveen [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-12-01

    This thesis reports on a measurement of the neutral B meson mixing parameter, Δmd, at the BABAR experiment and the work carried out on the electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) data acquisition (DAQ) system and simulation software.

  16. Testing of models of stomatal ozone fluxes with field measurements in a mixed Mediterranean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S.; Matteucci, G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, G.; Morani, A.; Calfapietra, C.; Salvatori, E.; Fusaro, L.; Manes, F.; Loreto, F.

    2013-03-01

    Mediterranean forests close to urban areas are exposed to polluted plumes loaded with tropospheric ozone. This is the case of Castelporziano Estate, a 6000 ha Mediterranean forest 25 km from Rome downtown on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2011 we started an intensive field campaign aimed at investigating ozone deposition from a mixed Mediterranean forest, mainly composed by Quercus suber, Quercus ilex, Pinus pinea. Measurements at canopy level with the eddy covariance technique were supported by a vegetation survey and the measurement of all environmental parameters which allowed to calculate stomatal ozone fluxes. Leaf-level measurements were used to parameterize models to calculate stomatal conductance based on a Jarvis-type and Ball-Berry approach. We show changes in magnitude of ozone fluxes from a warm (September) to a cold period (October-December). Stomatal component explained almost the totality of ozone fluxes during the cold days, but contributed only up to 50% to total ozone deposition during warm days, suggesting that other sinks (e.g. chemistry in the gas-phase) play a major role. Modeled stomatal ozone fluxes based on a Jarvis-type approach (DO3SE) correlated with measured fluxes better than using a Ball-Berry approach. A third model based on a modified Ball-Berry equation was proposed to account for the non-linear dependency of stomatal conductance on relative humidity. This research will help the development of metrics for ozone-risk assessment and advance our understanding of mixed Mediterranean forests in biosphere-atmosphere exchange.

  17. Field measurements of hygroscopic properties and state of mixing of nucleation mode particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Väkevä

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An Ultrafine Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (UF-TDMA has been used in several field campaigns over the last few years. The investigations were focused on the origin and properties of nucleation event aerosols, which are observed frequently in various environments. This paper gives a summary of the results of 10 nm and 20 nm particle hygroscopic properties from different measurement sites: an urban site, an urban background site and a forest site in Finland and a coastal site in western Ireland. The data can be classified in four hygroscopic growth classes: hydrofobic, less-hygroscopic, more-hygroscopic and sea-salt. Similar classification has been earlier presented for Aitken and accumulation mode particles. In urban air, the summertime 10 nm particles showed varying less-hygroscopic growth behaviour, while winter time 10 nm and 20 nm particles were externally mixed with two different hygroscopic growth modes. The forest measurements revealed diurnal behaviour of hygroscopic growth, with high growth factors at day time and lower during night. The urban background particles had growth behaviour similar to the urban and forest measurement sites depending on the origin of the observed particles. The coastal measurements were strongly affected by air mass history. Both 10 nm and 20 nm particles were hygroscopic in marine background air. The 10 nm particles produced during clean nucleation burst periods were hydrofobic. Diurnal variation and higher growth factors of 10 nm particles were observed in air affected by other source regions. External mixing was occasionally observed at all the sites, but incidents with more than two growth modes were extremely rare.

  18. A Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering at Low Q^2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.

    2005-01-28

    The electroweak theory has been probed to a high level of precision at the mass scale of the Z{sup 0} through the joint contributions of LEP at CERN and the SLC at SLAC. The E158 experiment at SLAC complements these results by measuring the weak mixing angle at a Q{sup 2} of 0.026 (GeV/c){sup 2}, far below the weak scale. The experiment utilizes a 48 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on unpolarized atomic electrons in a target of liquid hydrogen to measure the parity-violating asymmetry A{sup PV} in Moeller scattering. The tree-level prediction for A{sup PV} is proportional to 1-4 sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. Since sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} {approx} 0.25, the effect of radiative corrections is enhanced, allowing the E158 experiment to probe for physics effects beyond the Standard Model at the TeV scale. This work presents the results from the first two physics runs of the experiment, covering data collected in the year 2002. The parity-violating asymmetry A{sup PV} was measured to be A{sup PV} = -158 ppb {+-} 21 ppb (stat) {+-} 17 ppb (sys). The result represents the first demonstration of parity violation in Moeller scattering. The observed value of A{sup PV} corresponds to a measurement of the weak mixing angle of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2380 {+-} 0.0016(stat) {+-} 0.0013(sys), which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2385 {+-} 0.0006 (theory).

  19. Young investigator challenge: Atypia of undetermined significance in thyroid FNA: Standardized terminology without standardized management--a closer look at repeat FNA and quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Tamar C; Aziz, Mohamed S; Coutsouvelis, Constantinos; Rosen, Lisa; Rafael, Oana C; Souza, Fabiola; Jelloul, Fatima-Zahra; Klein, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    The Bethesda system (TBS) for the reporting of thyroid cytopathology established the category of atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) with a 7% target rate and a 5% to 15% implied malignancy risk. Recent literature has reported a broad range of AUS rates, subsequent malignancy rates, and discrepant results from repeat fine-needle aspiration (FNA) versus surgical follow-up. Therefore, this study examined AUS data from the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine to determine the best clinical follow-up. Thyroid aspirates interpreted as AUS in 2012-2014 at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine were collected. Repeat FNA and surgical follow-up data were tabulated to establish AUS, secondary AUS (diagnosed upon repeat FNA follow-up of a primary FNA AUS diagnosis), atypia of undetermined significance/malignancy (AUS:M) ratios (according to the TBS categories), and malignancy rates for AUS. The AUS rate was 8.5% (976/11,481), and there was follow-up data for 545 cases. The AUS:M ratio was 2.0. Repeat FNA was performed for 281 cases; 57 proceeded to surgical intervention. Repeat FNA reclassified 71.17% of the cases. The malignancy rates for AUS cases proceeding directly to surgery and for those receiving a surgical intervention after a repeat AUS diagnosis were 33.33% and 43.75%, respectively. Repeat FNA resulted in definitive diagnostic reclassification for 67.61% of primary AUS cases and reduced the number of patients triaged to surgery, with 56.58% of the cases recategorized as benign. Cases undergoing surgery after repeat AUS had a higher malignancy rate than those going straight to surgery, and this emphasizes the value of repeat FNA in selecting surgical candidates. In addition, this study highlights the utility of AUS rate monitoring as a quality measure that has contributed to the ability of the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine to adhere closely to TBS recommendations. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  20. The effects of repeated-sprint training on field-based fitness measures: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan; Macpherson, Tom; Spears, Iain; Weston, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    Repeated-sprint training appears to be an efficient and practical means for the simultaneous development of different components of fitness relevant to team sports. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and meta-analyse the effect of repeated-sprint training on a selection of field-based measures of athletic performance, i.e. counter-movement jump, 10 m sprint, 20 m sprint, 30 m sprint, repeated-sprint ability and high-intensity intermittent running performance. The SPORTDiscus, PubMed, MEDLINE and Web of Science databases were searched for original research articles. Search terms included 'repeated-sprint training', 'sprint training', 'aerobic endurance', 'repeated-sprint ability', 'counter-movement jump' and 'sprint performance'. Inclusion criteria included intervention consisting of a series of ≤10 s sprints with ≤60 s recovery; trained participants; intervention duration of 2-12 weeks; field-based fitness measures; running- or cycling-based intervention; published up to, and including, February 2014. Our final dataset included six trials for counter-movement jump (two controlled trials), eight trials for 10 m sprint, four trials for 20 m sprint (three controlled trials), two trials for 30 m sprint, eight trials for repeated-sprint ability and three trials for high-intensity intermittent running performance. Analyses were conducted using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Uncertainty in the meta-analysed effect of repeated-sprint training was expressed as 95% confidence limits (CL), along with the probability that the true value of the effect was trivial, beneficial or harmful. Magnitude-based inferences were based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes of 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 standard deviations, respectively. Repeated-sprint training had a likely small beneficial effect in non-controlled counter-movement jump trials (effect size 0.33; 95% CL ±0.30), with a possibly moderate beneficial effect in controlled

  1. Measurement of the pseudoscalar mixing angle and $\\eta^{\\prime}$ gluonium content with KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Antonelli, M; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Bowring, D; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; Conetti, S; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Dell'Agnello, S; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Murtas, F; Müller, S; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Pontecorvo, L; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Santovetti, E; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Xu, G; al, et

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the ratio $R_{\\phi}=BR(\\phi \\to \\eta^{\\prime} \\gamma)/BR(\\phi \\to \\eta \\gamma)$ by looking for the radiative decays $\\phi \\to \\eta^{\\prime} \\gamma$ and $\\phi \\to \\eta \\gamma$ in the final states $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ 7 $\\gamma$'s and 7 $\\gamma$'s respectively, in a sample of $\\sim 1.3\\cdot 10^{9}$ $\\phi$ mesons produced at the Frascati $\\phi$-factory. We obtain $R_{\\phi}=(4.77\\pm0.09_{stat}\\pm0.19_{sys})\\cdot 10^{-3}$ from which we derive $BR(\\phi \\to \\eta^{\\prime} \\gamma)=(6.20\\pm0.11_{stat}\\pm0.25_{sys})\\cdot 10^{-5}$. In the hypothesis of no gluonium content we extract the pseudoscalar mixing angle in the quark-flavor basis $\\phi_P=(41.4\\pm0.3_{stat}\\pm0.7_{sys}\\pm0.6_{th})^{\\circ}$. Combining the value of $R_{\\phi}$ with other constraints, we estimate the gluonium fractional content of $\\eta^{\\prime}$ meson as $Z^2 = 0.14\\pm0.04$ and the mixing angle $\\phi_P = (39.7\\pm0.7)^{\\circ}$.

  2. Using a Mixed IRT Model to Assess the Scale Usage in the Measurement of Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Tanja; Crayen, Claudia; Eid, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adequacy of a rating scale with a large number of response categories that is often used in panel surveys for assessing diverse aspects of job satisfaction. An inappropriate scale usage is indicative of overstraining respondents and of diminished psychometric scale quality. The mixed Item Response Theory (IRT) approach for polytomous data allows exploring heterogeneous patterns of inappropriate scale usage in form of avoided categories and response styles. In this study, panel data of employees (n = 7036) on five aspects of job satisfaction measured on an 11-point rating scale within the "Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia" (wave 2001) were analyzed. A three-class solution of the restricted mixed generalized partial credit model fit the data best. The results showed that in no class the 11-point scale was appropriately used but that the number of categories used was reduced in all three classes. Respondents of the large class (40%) appropriately differentiate between up to six categories. The two smaller classes (33 and 27%) avoid even more categories and show some kind of extreme response style. Furthermore, classes differ in socio-demographic and job-related factors. In conclusion, a two- to six-point scale without the middle point might be more adequate for assessing job satisfaction.

  3. Measurement of the semileptonic $CP$ asymmetry in $B^0-\\overline{B}{}^0$ mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The semileptonic $CP$ asymmetry in $B^0-\\overline{B}{}^0$ mixing, $a_{\\rm sl}^d$, is measured in proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb$^{-1}$, recorded by the LHCb experiment. Semileptonic $B^0$ decays are reconstructed in the inclusive final states $D^-\\mu^+$ and $D^{*-}\\mu^+$, where the $D^-$ meson decays into the $K^+\\pi^-\\pi^-$ final state, and the $D^{*-}$ meson into the $\\overline{D}{}^0(\\rightarrow K^+\\pi^-)\\pi^-$ final state. The asymmetry between the numbers of $D^{(*)-}\\mu^+$ and $D^{(*)+}\\mu^-$ decays is measured as a function of the decay time of the $B^0$ mesons. The $CP$ asymmetry is measured to be $a_{\\rm sl}^d = (-0.02 \\pm 0.19 \\pm 0.30)\\%$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. This is the most precise measurement of $a_{\\rm sl}^d$ to date and is consistent with the prediction from the Standard Model.

  4. O/M RATIO MEASUREMENT IN PURE AND MIXED OXIDE FULES - WHERE ARE WE NOW?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. RUBIN; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio is one of the most critical parameters of nuclear fuel fabrication, and its measurement is closely monitored for manufacturing process control and to ensure the service behavior of the final product. Thermogravimetry is the most widely used method, the procedure for which has remained largely unchanged since its development some thirty years ago. It was not clear to us, however, that this method is still the optimum one in light of advances in instrumentation, and in the current regulatory environment, particularly with regard to waste management and disposal. As part of the MOX fuel fabrication program at Los Alamos, we conducted a comprehensive review of methods for O/M measurements in UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors. A concerted effort was made to access information not available in the open literature. We identified approximately thirty five experimental methods that (a) have been developed with the intent of measuring O/M, (b) provided O/M indirectly by suitable reduction of the measured data, or (c) could provide O/M data with suitable data reduction or when combined with other methods. We will discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods in their application to current routine and small-lot production environment.

  5. Measurement of the semileptonic $CP$ asymmetry in $B^0 - \\bar {B^0}$ mixing

    CERN Multimedia

    De Vries, Jacco

    2015-01-01

    The semileptonic CP asymmetry in B0−B⎯⎯⎯0 mixing, adsl, is measured in proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb−1, recorded by the LHCb experiment. Semileptonic B0 decays are reconstructed in the inclusive final states D−μ+ and D∗−μ+, where the D− meson decays into the K+π−π− final state, and the D∗− meson into the D⎯⎯⎯0(→K+π−)π− final state. The asymmetry between the numbers of D(∗)−μ+ and D(∗)+μ− decays is measured as a function of the decay time of the B0 mesons. The CP asymmetry is measured to be adsl=(−0.02±0.19±0.30)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. This is the most precise measurement of adsl to date and is consistent with the prediction from the Standard Model.

  6. Measurement of the semileptonic CP asymmetry in B0-B[over ¯]0 mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R F; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Geraci, A; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martín Sánchez, A

    2015-01-30

    The semileptonic CP asymmetry in B0-B[over ¯]0 mixing, a(sl)(d), is measured in proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0  fb-1, recorded by the LHCb experiment. Semileptonic B0 decays are reconstructed in the inclusive final states D-μ+ and D*-μ+, where the D- meson decays into the K+π-π- final state and the D*- meson into the D[over ¯]0(→K+π-)π- final state. The asymmetry between the numbers of D(*)-μ+ and D(*)+μ- decays is measured as a function of the decay time of the B0 mesons. The CP asymmetry is measured to be a(sl)(d)=(-0.02±0.19±0.30)%, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. This is the most precise measurement of a(sl)(d) to date and is consistent with the prediction from the standard model.

  7. Measurement of Day and Night Neutrino Energy Spectra at SNO and Constraints on Neutrino Mixing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Q. R.; Allen, R. C.; Andersen, T. C.; Anglin, J. D.; Barton, J. C.; Beier, E. W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S. D.; Black, R. A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R. J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowler, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Brice, S. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Bühler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, H. H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B. T.; Clifford, E. T.; Cowan, J. H.; Cowen, D. F.; Cox, G. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W. F.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J. A.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A. P.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E. D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D. R.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamer, A. S.; Hamian, A. A.; Handler, W. B.; Haq, R. U.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hepburn, J. D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.; Hykawy, J. G.; Isaac, M. C.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N. A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P. T.; Klein, J. R.; Knox, A. B.; Komar, R. J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H. W.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A. D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McDonald, D. S.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer Drees, R.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, G. G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B. A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C. W.; Neubauer, M. S.; Newcomer, F. M.; Ng, H. S.; Noble, A. J.; Norman, E. B.; Novikov, V. M.; O'Neill, M.; Okada, C. E.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Oser, S. M.; Poon, A. W.; Radcliffe, T. J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G.; Rosendahl, S. S.; Rowley, J. K.; Rusu, V. L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schwendener, M. H.; Schülke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J. J.; Sims, C. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A. R.; Smith, M. W.; Spreitzer, T.; Starinsky, N.; Steiger, T. D.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stonehill, L. C.; Storey, R. S.; Sur, B.; Tafirout, R.; Tagg, N.; Tanner, N. W.; Taplin, R. K.; Thorman, M.; Thornewell, P. M.; Trent, P. T.; Tserkovnyak, Y. I.; van Berg, R.; van de Water, R. G.; Virtue, C. J.; Waltham, C. E.; Wang, J.-X.; Wark, D. L.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wittich, P.; Wouters, J. M.; Yeh, M.

    2002-07-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has measured day and night solar neutrino energy spectra and rates. For charged current events, assuming an undistorted (sup 8)B spectrum, the night minus day rate is 14.0%[plus-or-minus]6.3%(sup +1.5)-1.4 % of the average rate. If the total flux of active neutrinos is additionally constrained to have no asymmetry, the [nu]e asymmetry is found to be 7.0%[plus-or-minus]4.9%(sup +1.3)-1.2% . A global solar neutrino analysis in terms of matter-enhanced oscillations of two active flavors strongly favors the large mixing angle solution.

  8. Measurement of the neutrino mass splitting and flavor mixing by MINOS

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, P; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Ilic, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Petyt, D A; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Shanahan, P; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Yang, T; Zwaska, R

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations using the disappearance of muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam as observed by the two MINOS detectors are reported. New analysis methods have been applied to an enlarged data sample from an exposure of $7.25 \\times 10^{20}$ protons on target. A fit to neutrino oscillations yields values of $|\\Delta m^2| = (2.32^{+0.12}_{-0.08})\\times10^{-3}$\\,eV$^2$ for the atmospheric mass splitting and $\\rm \\sin^2\\!(2\\theta) > 0.90$ (90%\\,C.L.) for the mixing angle. Pure neutrino decay and quantum decoherence hypotheses are excluded at 7 and 9 standard deviations, respectively.

  9. Measurement of the neutrino mass splitting and flavor mixing by MINOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P; Andreopoulos, C; Armstrong, R; Auty, D J; Ayres, D S; Backhouse, C; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Boehnlein, D J; Bogert, D; Cavanaugh, S; Cherdack, D; Childress, S; Choudhary, B C; Coelho, J A B; Coleman, S J; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Danko, I Z; de Jong, J K; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Dorman, M; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Frohne, M V; Gallagher, H R; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grant, N; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Harris, D; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Himmel, A; Holin, A; Huang, X; Hylen, J; Ilic, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; Jaffe, D E; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kopp, S; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Lefeuvre, G; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Litchfield, R P; Loiacono, L; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGowan, A M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Michael, D G; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Mitchell, J; Moore, C D; Morfín, J; Mualem, L; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; Oliver, W P; Orchanian, M; Ospanov, R; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Pearce, G F; Petyt, D A; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Qiu, X; Ratchford, J; Raufer, T M; Rebel, B; Rodrigues, P A; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreiner, P; Shanahan, P; Smith, C; Sousa, A; Stamoulis, P; Strait, M; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tinti, G; Toner, R; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Wojcicki, S G; Yang, T; Zwaska, R

    2011-05-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations using the disappearance of muon neutrinos from the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam as observed by the two MINOS detectors are reported. New analysis methods have been applied to an enlarged data sample from an exposure of 7.25×10(20) protons on target. A fit to neutrino oscillations yields values of |Δm(2)|=(2.32(-0.08)(+0.12))×10(-3) eV(2) for the atmospheric mass splitting and sin(2)(2θ)>0.90 (90% C.L.) for the mixing angle. Pure neutrino decay and quantum decoherence hypotheses are excluded at 7 and 9 standard deviations, respectively.

  10. Some effects of ice crystals on the FSSP measurements in mixed phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Febvre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that in mixed phase clouds, the presence of ice crystals may induce wrong FSSP 100 measurements interpretation especially in terms of particle size and subsequent bulk parameters. The presence of ice crystals is generally revealed by a bimodal feature of the particle size distribution (PSD. The combined measurements of the FSSP-100 and the Polar Nephelometer give a coherent description of the effect of the ice crystals on the FSSP-100 response. The FSSP-100 particle size distributions are characterized by a bimodal shape with a second mode peaked between 25 and 35 μm related to ice crystals. This feature is observed with the FSSP-100 at airspeed up to 200 m s−1 and with the FSSP-300 series. In order to assess the size calibration for clouds of ice crystals the response of the FSSP-100 probe has been numerically simulated using a light scattering model of randomly oriented hexagonal ice particles and assuming both smooth and rough crystal surfaces. The results suggest that the second mode, measured between 25 μm and 35 μm, does not necessarily represent true size responses but corresponds to bigger aspherical ice particles. According to simulation results, the sizing understatement would be neglected in the rough case but would be significant with the smooth case. Qualitatively, the Polar Nephelometer phase function suggests that the rough case is the more suitable to describe real crystals. Quantitatively, however, it is difficult to conclude. A review is made to explore different hypotheses explaining the occurrence of the second mode. However, previous cloud in situ measurements suggest that the FSSP-100 secondary mode, peaked in the range 25–35 μm, is likely to be due to the shattering of large ice crystals on the probe inlet. This finding is supported by the rather good relationship between the concentration of particles larger than 20 μm (hypothesized to be ice shattered-fragments measured by the

  11. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  12. Regional and hemispheric influences on measured spring peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) mixing ratios at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Christopher S.; Cape, J. Neil; Jones, Matthew R.; Leeson, Sarah R.; Coyle, Mhairi; Braban, Christine F.; Heal, Mathew R.; Twigg, Marsailidh M.

    2016-06-01

    This work presents 15-min averaged measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) obtained during spring 2014 (24/04/2014 - 06/05/2014) at the Auchencorth UK EMEP supersite (southeast Scotland). The aim of this analysis was to investigate the conditions producing the distribution of PAN mixing ratios at the supersite in spring 2014. Air mass back trajectories showed the majority of air masses to have spent substantial time over the UK, continental Europe or Scandinavia prior to arrival at Auchencorth. The median and 95th percentile PAN mixing ratios observed were 0.46 ppb and 1.03 ppb, respectively. The median mixing ratio was elevated compared with previous PAN measurements during springtime (April-May) in southeast Scotland (corresponding median mixing ratios April-May 1994-1998: 0.1-0.3 ppb), which is hypothesised to be due to conditions conducive to regional (European) photochemical PAN production. Additionally, PAN mixing ratios during regionally influenced conditions (0.4-1.5 ppb) were substantially more elevated from hemispheric background mixing ratios (0.4-0.6 ppb) than for ozone (O3, regional: 10-45 ppb, hemispheric: 30-40 ppb). PAN and O3 both impact upon vegetation and human health and it is necessary to understand the extent to which hemispheric and regional processes contribute to their abundances in different locations. Regional processes can both increase and decrease PAN and O3 mixing ratios compared to imported hemispheric background mixing ratios. This study concludes that during the measurement period in spring 2014 at the Auchencorth supersite, regional PAN and O3 modifying processes enhanced PAN mixing ratios more than for O3.

  13. Measurement of the Bottom-Strange Meson Mixing Phase in the Full CDF Data Set

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    We report a measurement of the bottom-strange meson mixing phase \\beta_s using the time evolution of B0_s -> J/\\psi (->\\mu+\\mu-) \\phi (-> K+ K-) decays in which the quark-flavor content of the bottom-strange meson is identified at production. This measurement uses the full data set of proton-antiproton collisions at sqrt(s)= 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron, corresponding to 9.6 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. We report confidence regions in the two-dimensional space of \\beta_s and the B0_s decay-width difference \\Delta\\Gamma_s, and measure \\beta_s in [-\\pi/2, -1.51] U [-0.06, 0.30] U [1.26, \\pi/2] at the 68% confidence level, in agreement with the standard model expectation. Assuming the standard model value of \\beta_s, we also determine \\Delta\\Gamma_s = 0.068 +- 0.026 (stat) +- 0.009 (syst) ps-1 and the mean B0_s lifetime, \\tau_s = 1.528 +- 0.019 (stat) +- 0.009 (syst) ps, which are consistent and competitive with determinations by other experiments.

  14. Measurement of mixing and CP violation parameters in two-body charm decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Arrabito, L; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Bailey, D S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Constantin, F; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Lorenzi, F; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Estève, L; Falabella, A; Fanchini, E; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Gracianiv Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koppenburg, P; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    A study of mixing and indirect CP violation in $D^0$ mesons through the determination of the parameters $y_{CP}$ and $A_\\Gamma$ is presented. The parameter $y_{CP}$ is the deviation from unity of the ratio of effective lifetimes measured in $D^0$ decays to the CP eigenstate $K^+K^-$ with respect to decays to the Cabibbo favoured mode $K^-\\pi^+$. The result measured using data collected by LHCb in 2010, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $29~pb^{-1}$, is $$y_{CP} = (5.5\\pm6.3_{\\rm stat}\\pm4.1_{\\rm syst})\\times 10^{-3}.$$ The parameter $A_\\Gamma$ is the asymmetry of effective lifetimes measured in decays of $D^0$ and $\\overline{D}^0$ mesons to $K^+K^-$. The result is $$A_\\Gamma = (-5.9\\pm5.9_{\\rm stat}\\pm2.1_{\\rm syst})\\times 10^{-3}.$$ A data-driven technique is used to correct for lifetime-biasing effects.

  15. Direct velocity measurement and enhanced mixing in laminar flows over ultrahydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jia

    2005-11-01

    A series of experiment are presented studying the kinematics of water flowing over drag-reducing ultrahydrophobic surfaces. The surfaces are fabricated from silicon wafers using photolithography and are designed to incorporate patterns of microridges with precise spacing and alignment. These surfaces are reacted with an organosilane to achieve high hydrophobicity. Microridges with different widths, spacing and alignments are tested in a microchannel flow cell with rectangular cross-section. The velocity profile across the microchannel is measured with micro particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV) capable of resolving the flow down to length scales well below the size of the surface features. A maximum slip velocity of >60% of the average velocity in the flow is observed at the center of the air-water interface supported between these hydrophobic microridges, and the no-slip boundary condition is found at the hydrophobic microridges. The μ-PIV measurements demonstrate that slip along the shear-free air-water interface supported between the hydrophobic micron-sized ridges is the primary mechanism responsible for the drag reduction. The experiment velocity and pressure drop measurement are compared with the prediction of numerical simulation and an analytical model. By aligning the hydrophobic microridges at an acute angle to the flow direction a secondary flow is produced which can significantly enhance mixing in this laminar flow.

  16. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  17. O/M ratio measurement in pure and mixed oxide fuels - where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.; Chidester, K.; Thompson, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The scale-down in the US and Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles has produced a surplus of weapons grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The incorporation into mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) is one of the currently favored routes for surplus weapons-grade plutonium. The use of MOX as a nuclear reactor fuel is well established, particularly in Europe and Japan but not in the US. The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate existing analytical techniques for their applicability to O/M (oxygen-to-metal ratio) measurements of MOX derived from excess weapons plutonium. The second objective of this investigation was to bring up-to-date the literature on O/M measurement methods, which has not been undertaken in over 20 years. There are several classification schemes that can be used to organize O/M measurement methods. The most popular schemes are based on (a) whether the analysis is performed in solution (wet chemical) or on solid material (dry), and (b) whether the concentration of major constituents are analyzed directly (direct) or are inferred (indirect). Solid state coulometric titration is currently used extensively in studies of phase equilibria, defect chemistry, thermochemical measurement of oxides, including ferrites. Regardless of which indirect method is used (solid state coulometric titration or thermogravimetry), a primary, direct method will also be required for the establishment of the MO{sub 2} reference state, determination of method bias, and periodic calibration. It was recommended that the following direct method be adapted for this purpose: oxygen measurement by inert gas fusion/carbon reduction, and total U, Pu by controlled potential coulometry. In a table are listed the experimental values of accuracy for about 30 O/M methods. (A.C.)

  18. Measurements of Flow Mixing at Subchannels in a Wire-Wrapped 61-Rod Bundle for a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Hyungmo; Ko, Yung Joo; Choi, Hae Seob; Euh, Dong-Jin; Jeong, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyeong-Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    For a safety analysis in a core thermal design of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), flow mixing characteristics at subchannels in a wire-wrapped rod bundle are crucial factor for the design code verification and validation. Wrapped wires make a cross flow in a circumference of the fuel rod, and this effect lets flow be mixed. Therefore the sub-channel analysis method is commonly used for thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped sub-channel type. To measure flow mixing characteristics, a wire mesh sensing technique can be useful method. A wire mesh sensor has been traditionally used to measure the void fraction of a two-phase flow field, i.e. gas and liquid. However, the recent reports that the wire mesh sensor can be used successfully to recognize the flow field in liquid phase by injecting a tracing liquid with a different level of electric conductivity. The subchannel flow characteristics analysis method is commonly used for the thermal hydraulic analysis of a SFR, a wire wrapped subchannel type. In this study, mixing experiments were conducted successfully at a hexagonally arrayed 61-pin wire-wrapped fuel rod bundle test section. Wire mesh sensor was used to measure flow mixing characteristics. The developed post-processing method has its own merits, and flow mixing results were reasonable.

  19. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Neuronal and Axonal Measures on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Patients with Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Hong-Teck Loh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWith increasing interest in determining if measurement of retinal neuronal structure with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT is useful in accessing neurodegenerative process in cognitive decline and development of dementia, it is important to evaluate whether the SD-OCT measurements are repeatable and reproducible in these patients.MethodsThis is a retrospective cohort study. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI with no change in global clinical dementia rating (CDR score at 1-year follow-up were eligible to be included. Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL parameters were measured with SD-OCT at baseline, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up visits. At baseline, SD-OCT scans were repeated to access intra-visit repeatability of the SD-OCT measurement. SD-OCT measurement over three visits was used to access inter-visit reproducibility. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and coefficients of variation (CoVs.ResultsWe included 32 patients with stable AD and 29 patients with stable MCI in the final analysis. For GC-IPL measures, the average intra-visit ICC was 0.969 (range: 0.948–0.985, and CoV was 1.81% (range: 1.14–2.40; while the average inter-visit ICC was 0.968 (0.941–0.985, and CoV was 1.91% (range: 1.24–2.32. The average ICC and CoV of intra-visit RNFL measured were 0.965 (range: 0.937–0.986 and 2.32% (range: 1.34–2.90%, respectively. The average ICC and CoV of inter-visit RNFL measures were 0.927 (range: 0.845–0.961 and 3.83% (range: 2.71–5.25%, respectively.ConclusionBoth GC-IPL and RNFL measurements had good intra-visit repeatability and inter-visit reproducibility over 1 year in elderly patients with no decline in cognitive function, suggesting that SD-OCT is a reliable tool to assess neurodegenerative process over time.

  20. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2015-08-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets. Copyright © 2014

  1. Detailed Measurements of Turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing at Large and Small Atwood Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm J. Andrews, Ph.D.

    2004-12-14

    This project has two major tasks: Task 1. The construction of a new air/helium facility to collect detailed measurements of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing at high Atwood number, and the distribution of these data to LLNL, LANL, and Alliance members for code validation and design purposes. Task 2. The collection of initial condition data from the new Air/Helium facility, for use with validation of RT simulation codes at LLNL and LANL. Also, studies of multi-layer mixing with the existing water channel facility. Over the last twelve (12) months there has been excellent progress, detailed in this report, with both tasks. As of December 10, 2004, the air/helium facility is now complete and extensive testing and validation of diagnostics has been performed. Currently experiments with air/helium up to Atwood numbers of 0.25 (the maximum is 0.75, but the highest Reynolds numbers are at 0.25) are being performed. The progress matches the project plan, as does the budget, and we expect this to continue for 2005. With interest expressed from LLNL we have continued with initial condition studies using the water channel. This work has also progressed well, with one of the graduate Research Assistants (Mr. Nick Mueschke) visiting LLNL the past two summers to work with Dr. O. Schilling. Several journal papers are in preparation that describe the work. Two MSc.'s have been completed (Mr. Nick Mueschke, and Mr. Wayne Kraft, 12/1/03). Nick and Wayne are both pursuing Ph.D.s' funded by this DOE Alliances project. Presently three (3) Ph.D. graduate Research Assistants are supported on the project, and two (2) undergraduate Research Assistants. During the year two (2) journal papers and two (2) conference papers have been published, ten (10) presentations made at conferences, and three (3) invited presentations.

  2. Comparing the Construct and Criterion-Related Validity of Ability-Based and Mixed-Model Measures of Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Holly A.; Day, Arla L.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the concept of emotional intelligence(EI), there is much controversy around its definition, measurement, and validity. Therefore, the authors examined the construct and criterion-related validity of an ability-based EI measure (Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]) and a mixed-model EI measure…

  3. Kinetic Temperature and Electron Density Measurement in an Inductively Coupled Plasma Torch using Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Julia; Lyons, Wendy; Tong, WIlliam G.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Laser wave mixing is presented as an effective technique for spatially resolved kinetic temperature measurements in an atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasma. Measurements are performed in a 1 kW, 27 MHz RF plasma using a continuous-wave, tunable 811.5-nm diode laser to excite the 4s(sup 3)P2 approaches 4p(sup 3)D3 argon transition. Kinetic temperature measurements are made at five radial steps from the center of the torch and at four different torch heights. The kinetic temperature is determined by measuring simultaneously the line shape of the sub-Doppler backward phase-conjugate degenerate four-wave mixing and the Doppler-broadened forward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing. The temperature measurements result in a range of 3,500 to 14,000 K+/-150 K. Electron densities measured range from 6.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm to 10.1 (+/-0.3) x 10(exp 15)/cu cm. The experimental spectra are analyzed using a perturbative treatment of the backward phase-conjugate and forward-geometry wave-mixing theory. Stark width is determined from the collisional broadening measured in the phase-conjugate geometry. Electron density measurements are made based on the Stark width. The kinetic temperature of the plasma was found to be more than halved by adding deionized water through the nebulizer.

  4. Measurement and modelling of the defect chemistry and transport properties of ceramic oxide mixed ionic and electronic conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The mixed ionic and electronic conducting fluorite and perovskite materials examined in this thesis are all oxide ion conducting materials. The defect chemistry and transport properties of a number of these materials are measured using: 1) a measurement technique using an oxygen pump and an electrol

  5. Model-independent measurement of mixing parameters in D-0 -> K-S(0)pi(+)pi(-) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abelian; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediagal, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M. -O; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabresef, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cencis, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Mirandal, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Donleavy, S.; Dordeill, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorinif, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grilloll, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Keckell, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodemll, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, I. T.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-01-01

    The first model-independent measurement of the charm mixing parameters in the decay D-0 -> K-S(0)pi(+)pi(-) is reported, using a sample of pp collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb(-1) at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measured valu

  6. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Ara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. Methods. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, coefficient of variation (COV, and test-retest variability (TRT were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. Results. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946 in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982 and inferior average (0.978 yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43% in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. Conclusions. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression.

  7. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Parameters Measured by Scanning Laser Polarimetry with Enhanced Corneal Compensation in Normal and Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Mirian; Ferreras, Antonio; Pajarin, Ana B; Calvo, Pilar; Figus, Michele; Frezzotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    To assess the intrasession repeatability and intersession reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) with enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes. One randomly selected eye of 82 healthy individuals and 60 glaucoma subjects was evaluated. Three scans were acquired during the first visit to evaluate intravisit repeatability. A different operator obtained two additional scans within 2 months after the first session to determine intervisit reproducibility. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (COV), and test-retest variability (TRT) were calculated for all SLP parameters in both groups. ICCs ranged from 0.920 to 0.982 for intravisit measurements and from 0.910 to 0.978 for intervisit measurements. The temporal-superior-nasal-inferior-temporal (TSNIT) average was the highest (0.967 and 0.946) in normal eyes, while nerve fiber indicator (NFI; 0.982) and inferior average (0.978) yielded the best ICC in glaucomatous eyes for intravisit and intervisit measurements, respectively. All COVs were under 10% in both groups, except NFI. TSNIT average had the lowest COV (2.43%) in either type of measurement. Intervisit TRT ranged from 6.48 to 12.84. The reproducibility of peripapillary RNFL measurements obtained with SLP-ECC was excellent, indicating that SLP-ECC is sufficiently accurate for monitoring glaucoma progression.

  8. A Precision Low-Energy Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastromarino, P.

    2005-01-26

    The E-158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) measures the parity-violating cross-section asymmetry in electron-electron (Moeller) scattering at low Q{sup 2}. This asymmetry, whose Standard Model prediction is roughly -150 parts per billion (ppb), is directly proportional to (1-4 sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}), where {theta}{sub W} is the weak mixing angle. Measuring this asymmetry to within 10% provides an important test of the Standard Model at the quantum loop level and probes for new physics at the TeV scale. The experiment employs the SLAC 50 GeV electron beam, scattering it off a liquid hydrogen target. A system of magnets and collimators is used to isolate and focus the Moeller scattering events into an integrating calorimeter. The electron beam is generated at the source using a strained, gradient-doped GaAs photocathode, which produces roughly 5 x 10{sup 11} electrons/pulse (at a beam rate of 120 Hz) with {approx} 80% longitudinal polarization. The helicity of the beam can be rapidly switched, eliminating problems associated with slow drifts. Helicity-correlations in the beam parameters (charge, position, angle and energy) are minimized at the source and corrected for using precision beam monitoring devices.

  9. A multiplexed two-wave mixing interferometer for laser ultrasonic measurements of material anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Murray, Todd W.; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2002-05-01

    A method to optically measure ultrasonic displacements simultaneously over an array of detection points has been developed. Optical phase gratings are used to create a detection-array of laser beams that are directed to the specimen. The detection array can be arranged in several ways on the test object. The scattered beams from the detection-array are collected and combined with a single reference beam in a photorefractive crystal to from a multiplexed two-wave mixing (MTWM) configuration. Each of the output beams from the photorefractive crystal is imaged on to a separate element of a photodetector array. The resulting MTWM system is capable of providing simultaneous optical detection (with high spatial resolution and sub-nanometer displacement sensitivities) at several points on a test object. The MTWM system can be used in several modes for laser ultrasonic NDE of flaws and materials characterization. In this paper, the MTWM is used to characterize material anisotropy. Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are generated using a pulsed laser focused to a point on a test object. The resulting SAW propagation is monitored optically simultaneously at 8 points arranged circularly around the generating spot. The scattered beams from the eight detection points are processed simultaneously in the MTWM setup. The group velocity slowness curve is obtained directly from the measured signals from the MTWM array. Results are shown for silicon and quartz. It is shown that the MTWM enables rapid experimental determination of material anisotropy.

  10. A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter-the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models.

  11. Mixing in the Extratropical Stratosphere: Model-measurements Comparisons using MLM Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Waugh, Darryn W.; Douglass, Anne R.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We evaluate transport processes in the extratropical lower stratosphere for both models and measurements with the help of equivalent length diagnostic from the modified Lagrangian-mean (MLM) analysis. This diagnostic is used to compare measurements of long-lived tracers made by the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) with simulated tracers. Simulations are produced in Chemical and Transport Models (CTMs), in which meteorological fields are taken from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS), the Middle Atmosphere Community Climate Model (MACCM2), and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) "SKYHI" model, respectively. Time series of isentropic equivalent length show that these models are able to capture major mixing and transport properties observed by CLAES, such as the formation and destruction of polar barriers, the presence of surf zones in both hemispheres. Differences between each model simulation and the observation are examined in light of model performance. Among these differences, only the simulation driven by GEOS DAS shows one case of the "top-down" destruction of the Antarctic polar vortex, as observed in the CLAES data. Additional experiments of isentropic advection of artificial tracer by GEOS DAS winds suggest that diabatic movement might have considerable contribution to the equivalent length field in the 3D CTM diagnostics.

  12. Repeatability of Brain Volume Measurements Made with the Atlas-based Method from T1-weighted Images Acquired Using a 0.4 Tesla Low Field MR Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Suzuki, Makoto; Mizukami, Shinya; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Fukuda, Michinari; Gomi, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru

    2016-10-11

    An understanding of the repeatability of measured results is important for both the atlas-based and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods of magnetic resonance (MR) brain volumetry. However, many recent studies that have investigated the repeatability of brain volume measurements have been performed using static magnetic fields of 1-4 tesla, and no study has used a low-strength static magnetic field. The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability of measured volumes using the atlas-based method and a low-strength static magnetic field (0.4 tesla). Ten healthy volunteers participated in this study. Using a 0.4 tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner and a quadrature head coil, three-dimensional T1-weighted images (3D-T1WIs) were obtained from each subject, twice on the same day. VBM8 software was used to construct segmented normalized images [gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) images]. The regions-of-interest (ROIs) of GM, WM, CSF, hippocampus (HC), orbital gyrus (OG), and cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) were generated using WFU PickAtlas. The percentage change was defined as[100 × (measured volume with first segmented image - mean volume in each subject)/(mean volume in each subject)]The average percentage change was calculated as the percentage change in the 6 ROIs of the 10 subjects. The mean of the average percentage changes for each ROI was as follows: GM, 0.556%; WM, 0.324%; CSF, 0.573%; HC, 0.645%; OG, 1.74%; and CPL, 0.471%. The average percentage change was higher for the orbital gyrus than for the other ROIs. We consider that repeatability of the atlas-based method is similar between 0.4 and 1.5 tesla MR scanners. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that the level of repeatability with a 0.4 tesla MR scanner is adequate for the estimation of brain volume change by the atlas-based method.

  13. Effects of ice crystals on the FSSP measurements in mixed phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Febvre

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that in mixed phase clouds FSSP-100 measurements may be contaminated by ice crystals, inducing wrong interpretation of particle size and subsequent bulk parameters. This contamination is generally revealed by a bimodal feature of the particle size distribution; in other words, in mixed phase clouds bimodal features could be an indication of the presence of ice particles. The combined measurements of the FSSP-100 and the Polar Nephelometer give a coherent description of the effect of the ice crystals on the FSSP-100 response. The FSSP-100 particle size distributions are characterized by a bimodal shape with a second mode peaked between 25 and 35 μm related to ice crystals. This feature is observed with the FSSP-100 at airspeed up to 200 m s−1 and with the FSSP-300 series. In order to assess the size calibration for clouds of ice crystals the response of the FSSP-100 probe has been numerically simulated using a light scattering model of randomly oriented hexagonal ice particles and assuming both smooth and rough crystal surfaces. The results suggest that the second mode measured between 25 μm and 35 μm, does not necessarily represent true size responses but likely corresponds to bigger aspherical ice particles. According to simulation results, the sizing understatement would be neglected in the rough case but would be major with the smooth case. Qualitatively, the Polar Nephelometer phase function suggests that the rough case is the more suitable to describe real crystals. Quantitatively, however, it is difficult to conclude. Previous cloud in situ measurements suggest that the FSSP-100 secondary mode, peaked in the range 25–35 μm, is likely to be due to the shattering of large ice crystals on the probe tips. This finding is supported by the rather good relationship between the concentration of particles larger than 20 μm (hypothesized to be ice shattered-fragments measured by the FSSP and the

  14. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  15. Observation of B{sup 0}{sub s}- anti B{sup 0}{sub s} mixing and measurement of mixing frequencies using semileptonic B decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The LHCb Collaboration; and others

    2013-12-15

    The B{sup 0}{sub s} and B{sup 0} mixing frequencies, {Delta}m{sub s} and {Delta}m{sub d}, are measured using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb{sup -1} collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at a centre of mass energy of 7 TeV during 2011. Around 1.8 x 10{sup 6} candidate events are selected of the type B{sup 0}{sub (s)} {yields} D{sup -}{sub (s)}{mu}{sup +} (+ anything), where about half are from peaking and combinatorial backgrounds. To determine the B decay times, a correction is required for the momentum carried by missing particles, which is performed using a simulation-based statistical method. Associated production of muons or mesons allows us to tag the initial-state flavour and so to resolve oscillations due to mixing. We obtain {Delta}m{sub s} = (17.93 {+-} 0.22(stat) {+-} 0.15(syst)) ps{sup -1}, {Delta}m{sub d} = (0.503 {+-} 0.011(stat) {+-} 0.013(syst)) ps{sup -1}. The hypothesis of no oscillations is rejected by the equivalent of 5.8 standard deviations for B{sup 0}{sub s} and 13.0 standard deviations for B{sup 0}. This is the first observation of B{sup 0}{sub s} mixing to be made using only semileptonic decays. (orig.)

  16. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK). A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34-0.61; %CV=4.48%-9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85)-0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. Measurement of the semileptonic b branching fractions and average b mixing parameter in Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Ajinenko, I.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, Dmitri Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bizouard, M.A.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R.A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dolbeau, J.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Geralis, T.; Gerdyukov, L.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gouz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Gris, P.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huber, M.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovanski, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostioukhine, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumstein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kurowska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lamsa, J.W.; Lane, D.W.; Laugier, J.P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Loerstad, B.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; McPherson, G.; Merle, E.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moller, Rasmus; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Moraes, D.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Mundim, L.M.; Muresan, R.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Naraghi, F.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Orazi, G.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pavel, T.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Rames, J.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinertsen, P.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Sedykh, Y.; Segar, A.M.; Seibert, N.; Sekulin, R.; Sette, G.; Shellard, R.C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.; Tchikilev, O.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Transtromer, G.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Van Dam, Piet; Van den Boeck, W.; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zumerle, G.; Zupan, M.

    2001-01-01

    The semileptonic branching fractions for primary and cascade b decays BR(b -> lepton-), BR(b -> c -> lepton+) and BR(b -> cbar -> lepton-) were measured in hadronic Z decays collected by the DELPHI experiment at LEP. The sample was enriched in b decays using the lifetime information and various techniques were used to separate leptons from direct or cascade b decays. By fitting the momentum spectra of di-leptons in opposite jets, the average b mixing parameter chi-bar was also extracted. The following results have been obtained: BR(b -> lepton-) = (10.70 +/- 0.08 (stat) +/- 0.21 (syst)_{+0.44}^{-0.30}(model))% BR(b -> c -> lepton+) = ( 7.98 +/- 0.22 (stat) +/- 0.21 (syst)^{+0.14}_{-0.20}(model))% BR(b -> cbar -> lepton-) = (1.61 +/- 0.20 (stat) +/- 0.17 (syst)^{+0.30}_{-0.44}(model))% chi-bar = 0.127 +/- 0.013 (stat) +/- 0.005 (syst) +/- 0.004(model)

  18. Measuring and testing the interview mode effect in mixed mode surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Camillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies are showing an increased tendency to use more than one data collection mode for a particular survey. However, mixed data collection modes may influence responses given by interviewees and require researchers to verify if differences in responses, when present, are ascribable to the type of data collection mode. Often, random assignment is not feasible and requires researchers to solve an additional and not negligible problem, namely to verify if differences in responses are ascribable to the self selection or to the type of data collection mode being used. The aim of the present paper is to measure the mode effect on the answers using a new data driven multivariate approach, that allows to disentangle the interview mode effect on answers from the effect of self selection. We will work through the use of the new multivariate method with AlmaLaurea case concerning the evaluation of two different data collection methods: the CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interviewing and the CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. As with any new statistical method, the success of this method depends on its efficacy in relation to that of the existing methods. Therefore, results of the multivariate approach will be compared to the Propensity Score method that AlmaLaurea usually applies to identify the presence of an interview mode effect. Both methods produce similar results.

  19. Velocity measurements within a shock and reshock induced air/SF6 turbulent mixing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jean-Francois; Bouzgarrou, Ghazi; Bury, Yannick; Jamme, Stephane; Joly, Laurent; Shock-induced mixing Team

    2012-11-01

    A turbulent mixing zone (TMZ) is created in a shock tube (based in ISAE, DAEP) when a Mach 1.2 shock wave in air accelerates impulsively to 70 m/s an air/SF6 interface. The gases are initially separated by a 1 μm thick plastic microfilm maintained flat and parallel to the shock by two wire grids. The upper grid of square spacing 1.8 mm imposes the nonlinear initial perturbation for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). After interaction with a reshock and a rarefaction, the TMZ remains approximately stagnant but much more turbulent. High speed Schlieren visualizations enable the choice of abscissae for Laser Doppler Velocity (LDV) measurements. For a length of the SF6 section equal to 250 mm, the LDV abscissae are 43, 135 and 150 mm from the initial position of the interface. Because of numerous microfilm fragments in the flow and a limited number of olive oil droplets as seeding particles for the LDV, statistical convergence requires the superposition of a least 50 identical runs at each abscissa. The dependence of TMZ structure and velocity field on length of the SF6 section between 100 and 300 mm will be presented. This experimental investigation is carried out in support of modeling and multidimensional simulation efforts at CEA, DAM, DIF. Financial support from CEA is thanksfully appreciated by ISAE.

  20. Safety in ready mixed concrete industry: descriptive analysis of injuries and development of preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akboğa, Özge; Baradan, Selim

    2017-02-07

    Ready mixed concrete (RMC) industry, one of the barebones of construction sector, has its distinctive occupational safety and health (OSH) risks. Employees experience risks that emerge during the fabrication of concrete, as well as its delivery to the construction site. Statistics show that usage and demand of RMC have been increasing along with the number of producers and workers. Unfortunately, adequate OSH measures to meet this rapid growth are not in place even in top RMC producing countries, such as Turkey. Moreover, lack of statistical data and academic research in this sector exacerbates this problem. This study aims to fill this gap by conducting data mining in Turkish Social Security Institution archives and performing univariate frequency and cross tabulation analysis on 71 incidents that RMC truck drivers were involved. Also, investigations and interviews were conducted in seven RMC plants in Turkey and Netherlands with OSH point of view. Based on the results of this research, problem areas were determined such as; cleaning truck mixer/pump is a hazardous activity where operators get injured frequently, and struck by falling objects is a major hazard at RMC industry. Finally, Job Safety Analyses were performed on these areas to suggest mitigation methods.

  1. Repeated-Sprint Cycling Does Not Induce Respiratory Muscle Fatigue in Active Adults: Measurements from The Powerbreathe® Inspiratory Muscle Trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Minahan, Beth Sheehan, Rachel Doutreband, Tom Kirkwood, Daniel Reeves, Troy Cross

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined respiratory muscle strength using the POWERbreathe® inspiratory muscle trainer (i.e., ‘S-Index’ before and after repeated-sprint cycling for comparison with maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP values obtained during a Mueller maneuver. The S-Index was measured during six trials across two sessions using the POWERbreathe® and MIP was measured during three trials in a single session using a custom-made manometer in seven recreationally active adults. Global respiratory muscle strength was measured using both devices before and after the performance of sixteen, 6-s sprints on a cycle ergometer. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the POWERbreathe® S-index indicated excellent (p 0.99 and during the Mueller maneuver (p > 0.99. The POWERbreathe® S-Index is a moderately reliable, but not equivalent, measure of MIP determined during a Mueller maneuver. Furthermore, repeated-sprint cycling does not induce globalized respiratory muscle fatigue in recreationally-active adults.

  2. Repeatability of measurements of packed cell volume and egg count as indicators of endoparasite load and their relationship with sheep productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, T; Kasali, O B; Rege, J E

    1991-12-01

    Monthly measurements of packed cell volume (PCV) and nematode and trematode eggs per gram (EPG) were made in Ethiopian highland sheep at Debre Berhan, Dejen, Deneba, Tulu Meko and Wereilu from June 1988 to December 1989. High frequencies of low PCV, high nematode EPG and high trematode EPG were found at Tulu Meko. Among the productivity traits examined, body condition scores and live-weights were significantly (P less than 0.05) associated with differences in PCV and nematode and trematode EPG levels at most sites. The lambing interval was, however, not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by these variables. Monthly repeatabilities of PCV, body weight and body condition scores were 0.44 +/- 0.01, 0.71 +/- 0.01 and 0.35 +/- 0.01, respectively, while those of nematode (0.09 +/- 0.01) and trematode EPGs (0.20 +/- 0.02) were much lower. The high repeatability for PCV indicates that it was less affected by the variable factors influencing egg output, and hence it could be utilized in conjunction with nematode and trematode EPG levels for endoparasite monitoring. Repeatability of the lambing interval across parities was 0.43 +/- 0.14.

  3. Relationship between measures of aerobic fitness, speed and repeated sprint ability in full and part time youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, N; Currie, J; Johnston, R; Hill, J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) involving changes in direction, short linear sprinting and aerobic capacity in young elite soccer players. A secondary aim was to assess any differences in performance of these assessments between players of different age groups. Thirty-two male adolescent soccer players belonging to the same elite club academy were assessed for RSA comprising 6 x 40m efforts interspersed by 25s recovery, linear sprinting speed over 15m, and aerobic capacity via the YYIE2 assessment. There was a significant correlation between performance in the YYIE2 and RSA total time, RSA fastest sprint and RSA percentage decrement (r = -0.71, -0.53, and -0.52 respectively. Psprint (Psprinting. Assessments of RSA over 40m and incorporating changes of direction appear to be significantly correlated with YYIE2 performance in young elite level soccer players. In addition older players performed significantly better in the YYIE2 assessment and RSA protocol but not in short linear sprinting. These results have implications for the design of assessment protocols for young elite soccer players of different ages.

  4. Very long Detection Times after High and repeated intake of Heroin and Methadone, measured in Oral Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vindenes V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When detection times for psychoactive drugs in oral fluid are reported, they are most often based on therapeutic doses administered in clinical studies. Repeated ingestions of high doses, as seen after drug abuse, are however likely to cause positive samples for extended time periods. Findings of drugs of abuse in oral fluid might lead to negative sanctions, and the knowledge of detection times of these drugs are important to ensure correct interpretation. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection times of opioids in oral fluid. 25 patients with a history of heavy drug abuse admitted to a detoxification ward were included. Oral fluid and urine were collected daily and, if the patient gave consent, a blood sample was drawn during the first five days after admission. Morphine, codeine and/or 6-monoacetyl morphine (6-MAM were found in oral fluid and/or urine from 20 patients. The maximum detection times in oral fluid for codeine, morphine and 6-MAM were 1, 3 and 8 days, respectively. Positive oral fluid samples were interspersed with negative samples, mainly for concentrations around cut off. Elimination curves for methadone in oral fluid were found for two subjects, and the detection times were 5 and 8 days. Oral fluid is likely to become a good method for detection of drug abuse in the future

  5. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  6. Comparison of intraclass correlation coefficient estimates and standard errors between using cross-sectional and repeated measurement data: the Safety Check cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Edward H; Wasserman, Richard; Barkin, Shari

    2011-03-01

    Designing cluster randomized trials in clinical studies often requires accurate estimates of intraclass correlation, which quantifies the strength of correlation between units, such as participants, within a cluster, such as a practice. Published ICC estimates, even when available, often suffer from the problem of wide confidence intervals. Using data from a national, randomized, controlled study concerning violence prevention for children--the Safety Check--we compare the ICC values derived from two approaches only baseline data and using both baseline and follow-up data. Using a variance component decomposition approach, the latter method allows flexibility in handling complex data sets. For example, it allows for shifts in the outcome variable over time and for an unbalanced cluster design. Furthermore, we evaluate the large-sample formula for ICC estimates and standard errors using the bootstrap method. Our findings suggest that ICC estimates range from 0.012 to 0.11 for providers within practice and range from 0.018 to 0.11 for families within provider. The estimates derived from the baseline-only and repeated-measurements approaches agree quite well except in cases in which variation over repeated measurements is large. The reductions in the widths of ICC confidence limits from using repeated measurement over baseline only are, respectively, 62% and 42% at the practice and provider levels. The contribution of this paper therefore includes two elements, which are a methodology for improving the accuracy of ICC, and the reporting of such quantities for pediatric and other researchers who are interested in designing clustered randomized trials similar to the current study.

  7. Rotational spectroscopy and three-wave mixing of 4-carvomenthenol: A technical guide to measuring chirality in the microwave regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubert, V. Alvin; Schmitz, David; Medcraft, Chris; Krin, Anna [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); The Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Patterson, David; Doyle, John M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Schnell, Melanie, E-mail: melanie.schnell@mpsd.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); The Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Universität Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-06-07

    We apply chirality sensitive microwave three-wave mixing to 4-carvomenthenol, a molecule previously uncharacterized with rotational spectroscopy. We measure its rotational spectrum in the 2-8.5 GHz range and observe three molecular conformers. We describe our method in detail, from the initial step of spectral acquisition and assignment to the final step of determining absolute configuration and enantiomeric excess. Combining fitted rotational constants with dipole moment components derived from quantum chemical calculations, we identify candidate three-wave mixing cycles which were further tested using a double resonance method. Initial optimization of the three-wave mixing signal is done by varying the duration of the second excitation pulse. With known transition dipole matrix elements, absolute configuration can be directly determined from a single measurement.

  8. A dilution technique for the direct measurement of viral production: a comparison in stratified and tidally mixed coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, S W; Brigden, S M; Suttle, C A

    2002-01-01

    The abundance of heterotrophic bacteria and viruses, as well as rates of viral production and virus-mediated mortality, were measured in Discovery Passage and the Strait of Georgia (British Columbia, Canada) along a gradient of tidal mixing ranging from well mixed to stratified. The abundances of bacteria and viruses were approximately 10(6) and 10(7) mL(-1), respectively, independent of mixing regime. Viral production estimates, monitored by a dilution technique, demonstrated that new viruses were produced at rates of 10(6) and 10(7) mL(-1)h(-1) across the different mixing regimes. Using an estimated burst size of 50 viruses per lytic event, ca. 19 to 27% of the standing stock of bacteria at the stratified stations and 46 to 137% at the deep-mixed stations were removed by viruses. The results suggest that mixing of stratified waters during tidal exchange enhances virus-mediated bacterial lysis. Consequently, viral lysis recycled a greater proportion of the organic carbon required for bacterial growth under non-steady-state compared to steady-state conditions.

  9. Bicycling crashes on streetcar (tram) or train tracks: mixed methods to identify prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Dennis, Jessica; Reynolds, Conor C O; Winters, Meghan; Harris, M Anne

    2016-07-22

    Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada. We complemented this with engineering information about the rail systems, interviews of personnel at seven bike shops about advice they provide to customers, and width measurements of tires on commonly sold bikes. In our study, 32 % of injured cyclists had crashes that directly involved tracks. The vast majority resulted from the bike tire being caught in the rail flangeway (gap in the road surface alongside rails), often when cyclists made unplanned maneuvers to avoid a collision. Track crashes were more common on major city streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure, with left turns at intersections, with hybrid, racing and city bikes, among less experienced and less frequent bicyclists, and among women. Commonly sold bikes typically had tire widths narrower than the smallest track flangeways. There were no track crashes in route sections where streetcars and trains had dedicated rights of way. Given our results, prevention efforts might be directed at individual knowledge, bicycle tires, or route design, but their potential for success is likely to differ. Although it may be possible to reach a broader audience with continued advice about how to avoid track crashes, the persistence and frequency of these crashes and their unpredictable circumstances indicates that other solutions are needed. Using tires wider than streetcar or train flangeways could prevent some crashes, though there are other considerations that lead many

  10. Handling ordinal variables in three-way analysis of quantification matrices for variables of mixed measurement levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.

    1993-01-01

    For the analysis of variables of mixed measurement levels a class of methods can be used that is based on three-way analysis of quantification matrices for nominal or quantitative variables. This class of methods incorporates some well-known techniques but also offers a series of interesting new alt

  11. Intraoperative auditory steady state response measurements during Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implantation in patients with mixed hearing loss: preliminary results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, V.J.O.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Noten, J.F.P.; Luijten, B.M.A.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize intraoperatively the coupling of the floating mass transducer (FMT) of the Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implant to the round or oval cochlear window in patients with mixed hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Intraoperative measurement of objective hearing thresholds using auditory s

  12. Handling ordinal variables in three-way analysis of quantification matrices for variables of mixed measurement levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.

    For the analysis of variables of mixed measurement levels a class of methods can be used that is based on three-way analysis of quantification matrices for nominal or quantitative variables. This class of methods incorporates some well-known techniques but also offers a series of interesting new

  13. A Measurement of the lifetime and mixing frequency of neutral B mesons with semileptonic decays in the BABAR detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, C H

    2003-01-01

    The neutral B meson, consisting of a b quark and an anti-d quark, can mix (oscillate) to its own anti-particle through second-order weak interactions. The measurement of the mixing frequency can constrain the quark mixing matrix in the Standard Model of particle physics. The PEP-II B-factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center provides a very large data sample that enables us to make measurements with much higher precisions than previous measurements, and to probe physics beyond the Standard Model. The lifetime of the neutral B meson tau sub B sub 0 and the B sup 0 -(bar B) sup 0 mixing frequency DELTA m sub d are measured with a sample of approximately 14,000 exclusively reconstructed B sup 0 -> D* sup - (ell) sup +nu sub e sub l sub l signal events, selected from 23 million B(bar B) pairs recorded at the UPSILON(4S)resonance with the BABAR detector at the asymmetric-energy e sup + e sup - collider, PEP-II. The decay position of the exclusively reconstructed B is determined by the charged tracks in the...

  14. The near-infrared spectroscopy-derived deoxygenated haemoglobin breaking-point is a repeatable measure that demarcates exercise intensity domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetta, Danilo; Qahtani, Ahmad; Mattioni Maturana, Felipe; Murias, Juan Manuel

    2017-09-01

    A breaking-point in the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived deoxygenated haemoglobin ([HHb]) profile towards the end of a ramp incremental (RI) cycling test has been associated to the respiratory compensation point (RCP). Despite the physiological value of this measure, its repeatability remains unknown. The aim was to examine the repeatability of the [HHb] breaking-point ([HHb]BP) and its association to RCP during a RI cycling test. A repeated measures design was performed on 11 males (30.5±8.4 year; 76.5±8.4kg) and 4 females (30.5±5.9 year; 61.9±4.4 Kg). Gas exchange and NIRS [HHb] data were collected during RI tests performed on two different days separated by 48h. The [HHb]BP and the RCP were determined and compared for each trial. The [HHb]BP and the respiratory compensation point (RCP) occurred at the same VO2 in test 1 and test 2 ([HHb]BP: 3.49±0.52Lmin(-1) test 1; 3.48±0.45Lmin(-1) test 2; RCP: 3.38±0.40Lmin(-1) test 1; 3.38±0.44Lmin(-1) test 2) (P>0.05). The VO2 associated with the [HHb]BP and the VO2 at RCP were not significantly different from each other either in test 1 as well as in test 2 (P>0.05). Neither test 1 nor test 2 showed significant mean average error between the VO2 at the [HHb]BP and RCP using Bland & Altman plots. The [HHb]BP is a repeatable measure that consistently occurs towards the end of a RI test. The association between the [HHb]BP and the RCP reinforces the idea that these parameters may share similar mechanistic basis. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Discovery of a Highly Potent, Cell-Permeable Macrocyclic Peptidomimetic (MM-589) Targeting the WD Repeat Domain 5 Protein (WDR5)–Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) Protein–Protein Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatas, Hacer; Li, Yangbing; Liu, Liu; Ji, Jiao; Lee, Shirley; Chen, Yong; Yang, Jiuling; Huang, Liyue; Bernard, Denzil; Xu, Jing; Townsend, Elizabeth C.; Cao, Fang; Ran, Xu; Li, Xiaoqin; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin; Stuckey, Jeanne A; Lei, Ming; Dou, Yali; Wang, Shaomeng (Michigan)

    2017-06-06

    We report herein the design, synthesis, and evaluation of macrocyclic peptidomimetics that bind to WD repeat domain 5 (WDR5) and block the WDR5–mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) protein–protein interaction. Compound 18 (MM-589) binds to WDR5 with an IC50 value of 0.90 nM (Ki value <1 nM) and inhibits the MLL H3K4 methyltransferase (HMT) activity with an IC50 value of 12.7 nM. Compound 18 potently and selectively inhibits cell growth in human leukemia cell lines harboring MLL translocations and is >40 times better than the previously reported compound MM-401. Cocrystal structures of 16 and 18 complexed with WDR5 provide structural basis for their high affinity binding to WDR5. Additionally, we have developed and optimized a new AlphaLISA-based MLL HMT functional assay to facilitate the functional evaluation of these designed compounds. Compound 18 represents the most potent inhibitor of the WDR5–MLL interaction reported to date, and further optimization of 18 may yield a new therapy for acute leukemia.

  16. Structure-Based Optimization of a Small Molecule Antagonist of the Interaction Between WD Repeat-Containing Protein 5 (WDR5) and Mixed-Lineage Leukemia 1 (MLL1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getlik, Matthäus; Smil, David; Zepeda-Velázquez, Carlos; Bolshan, Yuri; Poda, Gennady; Wu, Hong; Dong, Aiping; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Marcellus, Richard; Senisterra, Guillermo; Dombrovski, Ludmila; Hajian, Taraneh; Kiyota, Taira; Schapira, Matthieu; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Brown, Peter J; Vedadi, Masoud; Al-Awar, Rima

    2016-03-24

    WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5) is an important component of the multiprotein complex essential for activating mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1). Rearrangement of the MLL1 gene is associated with onset and progression of acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemias, and targeting the WDR5-MLL1 interaction may result in new cancer therapeutics. Our previous work showed that binding of small molecule ligands to WDR5 can modulate its interaction with MLL1, suppressing MLL1 methyltransferase activity. Initial structure-activity relationship studies identified N-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-5-substituted-phenyl) benzamides as potent and selective antagonists of this protein-protein interaction. Guided by crystal structure data and supported by in silico library design, we optimized the scaffold by varying the C-1 benzamide and C-5 substituents. This allowed us to develop the first highly potent (Kdisp < 100 nM) small molecule antagonists of the WDR5-MLL1 interaction and demonstrate that N-(4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-3'-(morpholinomethyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-yl)-6-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,6-dihydropyridine-3-carboxamide 16d (OICR-9429) is a potent and selective chemical probe suitable to help dissect the biological role of WDR5.

  17. Changes in surgical team performance and safety climate attitudes following expansion of perioperative services: a repeated-measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Harbeck, Emma; Kang, Evelyn; Steel, Catherine; Fairweather, Nicole; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2017-08-10

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe process changes in surgical team performance and team members' attitudes to safety culture following hospital relocation and expansion of perioperative services.Methods The study was a naturalistic study using structured observations and surveys to assess non-technical skills (NTS; i.e. communication, teamwork, situational awareness, decision making and leadership) in surgery. This interrupted time series design used mixed-linear regression models to examine the effect of phase (before and after hospital relocation) on surgical teams' NTS and their processes that may affect performance. Differences in self-reported teamwork and safety climate attitudes were also examined.Results In all, 186 procedures (100 before and 81 after hospital relocation) were observed across teams working in general, paediatric, orthopaedic and thoracic surgeries. Interobserver agreement ranged from 86% to 95%. An effect of phase was found, indicating that there were significant improvements after relocation in the use of NTS by the teams observed (P=0.020; 95% confidence interval 1.9-4.7).Conclusions The improvements seen in surgical teams' NTS performance and safety culture attitudes may be related to the move to a new state-of-the-art perioperative department.What is known about the topic? Patient safety in surgery relies on optimal team performance, underpinned by effective NTS.What does this paper add? The NTS of surgical teams may be improved through ergonomic innovations that promote teams' shared mental models.What are the implications for practitioners? Effective multidisciplinary teamwork relies on a combination of NTS and ergonomic factors, which inherently contribute to team performance and safety climate attitudes.

  18. The KASKA project - a Japanese medium-baseline reactor-neutrino oscillation experiment to measure the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ -

    CERN Document Server

    Kuze, M

    2005-01-01

    A new reactor-neutrino oscillation experiment, KASKA, is proposed to measure the unknown neutrino-mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ using the world's most powerful Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. It will measure a very small deficit of reactor-neutrino flux using three identical detectors, two placed just close to the sources and one at a distance of about 1.8km. Its conceptual design and physics reach are discussed.

  19. Lidar measurements of the atmospheric entrainment zone and the potential temperature jump across the top of the mixed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, R.; Eloranta, E. W.

    1986-01-01

    Lidar data of the atmospheric entrainment zone from six days of clear air convection obtained in central Illinois during July 1979 are presented. A new method to measure the potential temperature jump across the entrainment zone based on only one temperature sounding and continuous lidar measurements of the mixed layer height is developed. An almost linear dependence is found between the normalized entrainment rate and the normalized thickness of the entrainment zone.

  20. Measurements of D0-D-0 mixing and searches for CP violation: HFAG combination of all data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. J. Schwartz

    2008-01-01

    We present world average values for D0- mixing parameters x and y, CP violation parameters |q/P| and Arg(q/p), and strong phase differences δ and δKππ. These values are calculated by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) by performing a global fit to relevant experimental measurements. The results for x and y differ significantly from zero and are inconsistent with no mixing at the level of 6.7σ. The results for |q/P| and Arg(q/p) are consistent with no CP violation. The strong phase difference δ is less than 45° at 95% C.L.

  1. Variation in repeated mouth-opening measurements in head and neck cancer patients with and without trismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Vissink, A.; van Oort, R. P.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.

    2009-01-01

    Trismus after head and neck cancer treatment may severely limit mandibular functioning. Interventions aimed at reducing trismus can only be evaluated when the amount of variation associated with these measurements is known. The aim of this Study was to analyse the variation in mouth-opening measurem

  2. Repeated measurements of mite and pet allergen levels in house dust over a time period of 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antens, C. J. M.; Oldenwening, M.; Wolse, A.; Gehring, U.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kerkhof, M.; Gerritsen, J.; de Jongste, J. C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between indoor allergen exposure and the development of allergic diseases have often measured allergen exposure at one point in time. Objective We investigated the variability of house dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergen in Dutch homes over a

  3. Variation in repeated mouth-opening measurements in head and neck cancer patients with and without trismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Vissink, A.; van Oort, R. P.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.

    2009-01-01

    Trismus after head and neck cancer treatment may severely limit mandibular functioning. Interventions aimed at reducing trismus can only be evaluated when the amount of variation associated with these measurements is known. The aim of this Study was to analyse the variation in mouth-opening measurem

  4. Variation in repeated mouth-opening measurements in head and neck cancer patients with and without trismus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Vissink, A.; van Oort, R. P.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.

    Trismus after head and neck cancer treatment may severely limit mandibular functioning. Interventions aimed at reducing trismus can only be evaluated when the amount of variation associated with these measurements is known. The aim of this Study was to analyse the variation in mouth-opening

  5. Repeated measurements of mite and pet allergen levels in house dust over a time period of 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antens, C. J. M.; Oldenwening, M.; Wolse, A.; Gehring, U.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kerkhof, M.; Gerritsen, J.; de Jongste, J. C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between indoor allergen exposure and the development of allergic diseases have often measured allergen exposure at one point in time. Objective We investigated the variability of house dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergen in Dutch homes over a

  6. A technique for conditioning and calibrating force-sensing resistors for repeatable and reliable measurement of compressive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rick S; Desmoulin, Geoffrey T; Milner, Theodore E

    2008-12-01

    Miniature sensors that could measure forces applied by the fingers and hand without interfering with manual dexterity or range of motion would have considerable practical value in ergonomics and rehabilitation. In this study, techniques have been developed to use inexpensive pressure-sensing resistors (FSRs) to accurately measure compression force. The FSRs are converted from pressure-sensing to force-sensing devices. The effects of nonlinear response properties and dependence on loading history are compensated by signal conditioning and calibration. A fourth-order polynomial relating the applied force to the current voltage output and a linearly weighted sum of prior outputs corrects for sensor hysteresis and drift. It was found that prolonged (>20h) shear force loading caused sensor gain to change by approximately 100%. Shear loading also had the effect of eliminating shear force effects on sensor output, albeit only in the direction of shear loading. By applying prolonged shear loading in two orthogonal directions, the sensors were converted into pure compression sensors. Such preloading of the sensor is, therefore, required prior to calibration. The error in compression force after prolonged shear loading and calibration was consistently industrial design applications where measurements of finger and hand force are needed.

  7. Repeated measures of body mass index and C-reactive protein in relation to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Jørgensen, Torben; Borglykke, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been linked with elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), and both have been associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previous studies have used a single 'baseline' measurement and such analyses cannot account for possible changes in these which...... body mass index (BMI) and CRP with all-cause mortality and CVD. Being overweight (≥25-obese (≥30-....79-0.94) and 0.80 (0.72-0.89). A similar relationship was found, but only for overweight in Glostrup, HR (95 % CI) 0.88 (0.76-1.02); and moderately obese in Tromsø, HR (95 % CI) 0.79 (0.62-1.01). Associations were not evident between repeated measures of BMI and CVD. Conversely, increasing CRP concentrations...

  8. Measuring DO-D-O mixing in D→Fo(980)K* and more

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; L(U) Cai-Dian

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the DO-D-O mixing through the doubly Cabibbo suppressed (DCS) channel DO→fO(980)K*O and its charge conjugate channel,in which the K*O meson is reconstructed in both K+π- and KsπO final state.Although the decay DO→ fo(980)K* has a small branching ratio,the final state mesons are relatively easy to identify.The fo(980) meson can be replaced by the S-wave π+π- state,or a longitudinally polarized vector meson pO.All mixing parameters,including the mass difference and decay width difference,can be extracted by studying the time-dependent decay width of these channels.We show that the method is valid in all regions for mixing parameters and it does not depend on the strong phase difference.

  9. A proposed experimental platform for measuring the properties of warm dense mixtures: Testing the applicability of the linear mixing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawreliak, James

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a proposed experimental technique for investigating the impact of chemical interactions in warm dense liquid mixtures. It uses experimental equation of state (EOS) measurements of warm dense liquid mixtures with different compositions to determine the deviation from the linear mixing model. Statistical mechanics is used to derive the EOS of a mixture with a constant pressure linear mixing term (Amagat's rule) and an interspecies interaction term. A ratio between the particle density of two different compositions of mixtures, K(P, T)i: ii, is defined. By comparing this ratio for a range of mixtures, the impact of interspecies interactions can be studied. Hydrodynamic simulations of mixtures with different carbon/hydrogen ratios are used to demonstrate the application of this proposed technique to multiple shock and ramp compression experiments. The limit of the pressure correction that can be measured due to interspecies interactions using this methodology is determined by the uncertainty in the density measurement.

  10. Direct Measurements of Line-Mixing Coefficients in the nu1 + nu2 Q Branch of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman; Duggan; Sinclair; May; Drummond

    1997-04-01

    High-resolution measurements of the (nu1 + nu2) Q branch of pure CO2 were made using a difference frequency spectrometer with resolution of 5 x 10(-5) cm-1 and a signal-to-noise ratio of 2000:1. Lines Q(2) through Q(32) were measured with up to 14 lines in a single spectrum. The analysis of the branch has been performed on data taken at 301 K and pressures less than 11 kPa. The spectra were analyzed on a line-by-line basis within the Rosenkranz approximation of weak overlap [P. W. Rosenkranz, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagation AP-23, 498 (1975)]. The lineshape profile included Doppler broadening and Dicke narrowing [R. H. Dicke, Phys. Rev. 89, 472 (1953)] using a modified hard collision model [S. G. Rautian and I. I. Sobel'man, Sov. Phys. Uspekh. 9, 701 (1967)] with line mixing. For each line the broadening, Dicke narrowing, and line-mixing coefficients were determined. The broadening coefficients are in good agreement with measurements of lines belonging to different CO2 bands. Our measured line-mixing parameters are compared to those predicted by a relaxation matrix which was calculated from an exponential power gap (EPG) law [L. L. Strow, D. C. Tobin, and S. E. Hannon, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 281 (1994)]. The vibrational band intensity and the linear pressure shift of the branch were also measured. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  11. An approach to measuring adolescents' perception of complexity for pictures of fruit and vegetable mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Line Holler; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-01-01

    . An adolescent consumer group (n = 242) and an adult consumer group (n = 86) subsequently rated the pictures on simplicity and attractiveness. Pearson's correlation coefficients revealed strong correlations between the sensory panel and both consumer groups' usage of simplicity. This suggests that simplicity can...... adolescents' perception of complexity of pictures of fruit and vegetable mixes. A sensory panel evaluated 10 descriptive attributes, including simplicity and complexity, for 24 pictures of fruit and vegetable mixes. The descriptive analysis found strong inverse correlation between complexity and simplicity...

  12. Characterizing Three-Dimensional Mixing Process in a River Confluence using Hydro-acoustical Backscatter and Flow Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Geunsoo; Kim, Dongsu; Kim, YoungDo; Lyu, Siwan; Kim, Seojun

    2017-04-01

    River confluences are zones where two rivers with different geomorphic and hydraulic characteristics amalgamate, resulting in rapid change in terms of flow regime, sediment entrainment and hydraulic geometry. In these confluence zones, the flow structure is basically complicated responded with concurrent mixing of physical and chemical aquatic properties, and continuous channel morphology could be changed due to erosion and sedimentation. In addition, the confluences are regions in which two rivers join and play an important role in river ecology. In order to characterize the mixing process of confluence for understanding the impacts of a river on the other river, therefore, it has been crucial to analyze the spatial mixing patterns for main streams depending on various inflow conditions of tributaries. However, most conventional studies have mostly relied upon hydraulic or water quality numerical models for understanding mixing pattern analysis of confluences, due to the difficulties to acquire a wide spatial range of in-situ data especially for characterizing this kind of mixing process. Even with intensive in-situ measurements, those researches tended to focus mainly on the hydraulic characteristics such as the flow and morphological complexity of confluence, so that very few studies comprehensively included sediment variation with flow at the same time. In this study, subsequently, flow and sediment mixing characteristics were concurrently investigated in the confluence between Nakdong and Nam river in South Korea, where it has been frequently questioned to determine how Nam river affects Nakdong river that recently have suffered various environmental problems such as green algae bloom and erosion/deposition in the confluence. We basically examined the mixing characteristics of confluence by using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) which were used to measure hydraulic factors such as flow rate and depth, as well as measuring the suspended sediment

  13. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  14. Repeated-measure validation of craniofacial metrics from three-dimensional surface scans: application to medical genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Eric A.; Corner, Brian D.; Li, Peng; Beecher, Robert M.; Deutsch, Curtis

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, medical geneticists have employed visual inspection (anthroposcopy) to clinically evaluate dysmorphology. In the last 20 years, there has been an increasing trend towards quantitative assessment to render diagnosis of anomalies more objective and reliable. These methods have focused on direct anthropometry, using a combination of classical physical anthropology tools and new instruments tailor-made to describe craniofacial morphometry. These methods are painstaking and require that the patient remain still for extended periods of time. Most recently, semiautomated techniques (e.g., structured light scanning) have been developed to capture the geometry of the face in a matter of seconds. In this paper, we establish that direct anthropometry and structured light scanning yield reliable measurements, with remarkably high levels of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, as well as validity (contrasting the two methods).

  15. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danov, K.D.; Kralchevsky, P.A.; Radulova, G.M.; Basheva, E.S.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Pelan, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, Esh and ¿sh,

  16. 躯体X线测量板的研制和应用%Validation and repeatability of Limb X Film Measuring Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫小春; 柴旭峰; 许趁心

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the efficacy and repeatability of the Limb X Film Measuring Plate (LXMP)in clinical x film measurement of lengths and angles of limbs.Methods The LXMP was de- signed and manufactured for testing.Three known points in 9 templates were taken as golden standards.which were to be compared with measuring results of these projected points on the X film for testing efficacy of LXMP.Twenty-one patients with knees osteoarthritis were selected.The lengths and angles of their lower limbs were measured twice with the help of LXMP by an observer at different time intervals for testing in. Tra-observer repeatability.Two observers measured once on films at the same time for testing inter-observer repeatability.The correlation coefficients,mean absolute difierences between the repeated measurements,and error rate were calculated. Results The points on LXMP could be seen clearly on X film.Validation tests showed the differences in angle measurement between golden standards and measuring results for those pro- jeted points on the X film were insignificant.with mean absolute difference being O.10.-0.21,error rate being 0.12%-3.15%and r being close to 1.The differences in length measurement were insignificant ei- ther,with mean absolute differenee being 0.05 cm-0.16 cm.error rate being 0.12%-o.28%and r being close to 1.The intra-observer repeatability test for beth angles and lengths showed that r was close to I.mean absolute diffefences 0.55.and 0.1-0.37cm and error rate 0.3l%-O.97%.while the inter-observer re- peatability test showed that r was close to 1.mean absolute difierences o.39.and0.05-0.13cm and error rate O.16%-O.35%. Conclusion The Limb X Film Measuring Plate Can be used for accurately mcasuring limb lengths and angles with good efficacy and repeatability.%目的 介绍躯体X线测量板的制作方法 ,探讨其有效性、重复性,为临床X线测量提供一套精确、实用、经济的方法 和工具.方法 设计和制作躯体X线

  17. Repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow in the left superior temporal gyrus reveal tonic hyperactivity in patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: A possible trait marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHoman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The left superior temporal gyrus (STG has been suggested to play a key role in auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Eleven medicated subjects with schizophrenia and medication-resistant auditory verbal hallucinations and 19 healthy controls underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling. Three additional repeated measurements were conducted in the patients. Patients underwent a treatment with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS between the first 2 measurements. The main outcome measure was the pooled cerebral blood flow (CBF, which consisted of the regional CBF measurement in the left superior temporal gyrus (STG and the global CBF measurement in the whole brain.Results: Regional CBF in the left STG in patients was significantly higher compared to controls (p < 0.0001 and to the global CBF in patients (p < 0.004 at baseline. Regional CBF in the left STG remained significantly increased compared to the global CBF in patients across time (p < 0.0007, and it remained increased in patients after TMS compared to the baseline CBF in controls (p < 0.0001. After TMS, PANSS (p = 0.003 and PSYRATS (p = 0.01 scores decreased significantly in patients.Conclusions: This study demonstrated tonically increased regional CBF in the left STG in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations despite a decrease in symptoms after TMS. These findings were consistent with what has previously been termed a trait marker of auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  18. Measurements of mass flux and concentration in supersonic air/helium mixing by hot-wire anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    KONDO, Akira; Sakaue, Shoji; Arai, Takakage; 近藤 暁; 坂上 昇史; 新井 隆景

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we made efforts to realize a measurement method of mass flux and concentration in supersonic air/helium flow in order to clarify the mixing process. The measuring equipment, which was used for measuring the fluctuations of mass flux and concentration, is consisted of a double-hot-wire probe and CVA (Constant Voltage Anemometer) circuit with 500 kHz bandwidth. The distance between two wires of double-hot-wire probe was 0.16 mm. By using the same material as the hot wire, t...

  19. Anti-Measurement Matrix Uncertainty for Robust Sparse Signal Recovery with The Mixed l2 and l1 Norm Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yipeng

    2010-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a technique for estimating a sparse signal from the random measurements and the measurement matrix. Traditional sparse signal recovery methods have seriously degeneration with the measurement matrix uncertainty (MMU). Here the MMU is modeled as a bounded additive error. An anti-uncertainty constraint in the form of a mixed l2 and l1 norm is deduced from the sparse signal model with MMU. Then we combine the sparse constraint with the anti-uncertainty constraint to get an anti-uncertainty sparse signal recovery operator. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed operator has a better reconstructing performance with the MMU than traditional methods.

  20. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedslund Geir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

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