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Sample records for repeated drug offences

  1. Criminal offences in trans-border territories. Drug trade in the Province of Tamarugal, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Corder Tapia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the drug trade in Tamarugal Province for the years 2003 to 2010, through an analysis of crime statistics from the police (Chilean Carabineros and Police Investigations Unit, and penal system institutions (National Prison Service and the Office of the Prosecutor. The analysis of the drug trade situates the drug trafficking issue in the international context of globalization and in a border area emergency that does not necessarily correspond to the traditional definition of the nation state. The research proposes to situate this issue of criminal offence in the context of the international legal order, focusing on the specific characteristics of the Tarapacá region and its condition as a trans border territory. It also proposes to situate this issue in a regional context, as well as in terms of the efforts of the international order to control illegal trafficking of drugs.

  2. [Motivation for change and recidivism among prison inmates for drug-related offences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mana; Mori, Takemi; Ushiki, Junko

    2014-12-01

    Programs for improving motivation to recover drug dependence were conducted in penal institutes in Japan. This study examined the effects of these programs, in order to increase their efficacy. Furthermore, relationship between increased motivation and prevention of recidivism was examined. The following programs had been conducted in penal institutions: (1) speed learning program using audio-visual aids, (2) meeting program (meet a experienced person in recover), in cooperation with DARC (Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Center), and (3) relapse prevention program. Participants were female inmates (N = 94) that had taken part in one of the programs. In order to examine the relationship between motivation for change and recidivism, the motivation for change score was assessed before and after the treatment program. Furthermore, a followed-up was conducted to assess recidivism after release. Results indicated that all the programs resulted in improvements in motivation for change. However, motivation for change resulting from none of the programs had any significant effect on recidivism. The objectives of the treatment programs were reached as expected, since motivation for change improved after the treatment However, it is suggested that to prevent recidivism, more effective treatment methods for improving motivation to change are required.

  3. Lorazepam: a weapon of offence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Kaur, Sumeet; Singh, Dalbir; Aggarwal, Akashdeep

    2015-03-01

    The use of knock out drugs for perpetuation of crime has significantly increased in recent years. These drug facilitated crimes mainly involve robbery and sexual offences. Most of the drugs employed for these purposes affect the nervous system and bring a state of incapacitation and amnesia. The miscreants exploit these properties of drugs to commit such crimes. The unsuspecting travellers on public transport vehicles and women in disco parties are most vulnerable to such crimes. The unrestricted and unregulated sale of prescription drugs and general ignorance of such incidents is a challenge that needs to be addressed promptly.

  4. Environmental Related Offences. Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Manta,Claudiu

    2009-01-01

    This article tries to reveal the existing particularities regarding criminal liability in environmental law, by defining the notion of ecologic offence and making a short synthesis of compared law in this field.

  5. Environmental criminal offences - victimless crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Batrićević Ana

    2013-01-01

    Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, soci...

  6. Environmental criminal offences - victimless crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, social groups, entire society or environment as value per se?” Perceiving ecological criminal offences as victimless crimes diminishes their importance and the circle of subjects interested to unveil, prove, prevent, suppress and impose punishments for these offences. Therefore, the author discusses the sustainability of the traditional, anthropocentrically defined term of victim in the context of biocentrism and its growing influence on criminal law, criminology and victimology. Attempting to determine whether ecological criminal offences represent victimless crimes, the author analyzes their term, characteristics and significance. Starting from the traditional definition of victim, she analyzes the term of “victimless crimes“ and its (unsustainability in the context of environmental crime, focusing on its most frequent victims and the necessity of their protection.

  7. Epidemiological analysis of doping offences in the professional tennis circuit

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    Maquirriain Javier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tennis is a professional sport under a strict anti-doping control. However, since the first violation of the code, the positive cases have not been statistically studied. The objective of this study was to analyze doping offences in the international professional tennis circuit. Methods All offences to the Doping Code committed by tennis players during 2003-2009 were collected from the ITF official webpage, registered and analyzed. Results An average of 1905.7 (±174.5 samples was obtained per year. Fifty-two doping offences were reported and the overall incidence of positive doping samples accounted for 0.38% and 7.4 (±4.1 cases/year. Male players showed higher incidence doping offences than females (p = 0.0004. The incidence in wheelchair players was higher than in non-handicapped subjects (p = 0.0001 Banned substance distribution showed: stimulants 32.69%, cannabis 23.07%; anabolic 11.53%, diuretics and masking agents 11.53, β2-agonists 9.61%; corticosteroids 3.84%, others 3.84%. The overall incidence of 'social drugs' (cocaine, cannabis was 36.53%. All EPO and blood samples were normal, while the incidence of 'out-of-competition' offences was 0.12%. The lower incidence of doping was found in Grand Slams tournaments. Conclusions The incidence of positive doping samples among professional tennis players is quite low supporting the assumption that there is no evidence of systematic doping in Tennis. "Social drugs" misuse constitutes the main problem of doping in tennis. Male and wheelchair tennis players showed higher risk of infringing the doping code than their females and non-handicapped counterparts. Findings of this study should help to determine the direction of the ongoing strategy in the fight against doping in Tennis.

  8. Money Laundering – an Economic Offence

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    Camelia ŞERBAN MORĂREANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Preventing and combating money laundering, the product of the transnational organized crime, in general, is one of the most efficient means of stopping this activity, which is a threat for the national or international economic operations.The penal incrimination and sanction of money laundering is a useful instrument for the accountability of all categories of offenders, but also with the purpose of imposing more severe sanctions for those who commit offences generating dirty money, behind so called legal commercial activities.Eventually, we shall review the internal regulations on money laundering, and also of the international judicial instruments incriminating this offence, analysing the offence by its constitutive elements.

  9. Measuring Offence-Specific Forgiveness in Marriage: The Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale (MOFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, F. Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies involving 328 married couples were conducted to validate the Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale, a new measure assessing offence-specific forgiveness for marital transgressions. The studies examined the dimensionality; internal consistency; and discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the new measure. The final…

  10. Measuring Offence-Specific Forgiveness in Marriage: The Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale (MOFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleari, F. Giorgia; Regalia, Camillo; Fincham, Frank D.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies involving 328 married couples were conducted to validate the Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale, a new measure assessing offence-specific forgiveness for marital transgressions. The studies examined the dimensionality; internal consistency; and discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the new measure. The final…

  11. CRIME INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY OF MONEY LAUNDERING OFFENCES

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    Constantin NEDELCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the non-adoption of certain new laws specific to market economy such as: the bankruptcy law, the law of incriminating tax avoidance, the law on foreign currency transfer etc., as well as the desincrimination of offences concerning the public wealth, the crime phenomenon is increasing. To this end, the enforcement of the provisions related to offences concerning public wealth, due to the reduced amount of punishments, does not perform anymore the general necessary prevention, these being even encouraging in certain cases. Not accidentally, decision makers in the economy sector were corrupted or let themselves bribed, participating directly in the commission of certain economic offences having substantial repercussions over the state wealth, over the equity of state-owned companies in favor of private agents

  12. The Cartoon Controversy: Offence, Identity, Oppression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    such publications to be wrong, and asks whether they provide plausible moral reasons against such publications, and whether they justify legal restrictions on freedom of speech. The arguments concern: (a) the consistent extension of group defamation legislation to cover Muslims; (b) offence to religious...

  13. The Cartoon Controversy: Offence, Identity, Oppression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    If the publication of twelve drawings of the Prophet Mohammad in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten, which sparked the ‘cartoon controversy', was wrong, why might this be the case? The article considers four arguments advanced in relation to the quite similar Rushdie affair for judging...... such publications to be wrong, and asks whether they provide plausible moral reasons against such publications, and whether they justify legal restrictions on freedom of speech. The arguments concern: (a) the consistent extension of group defamation legislation to cover Muslims; (b) offence to religious...... for judging the kind of publications under consideration to be morally wrong or suitable objects for legal restrictions. The argument from oppression is different, however, in pointing to different kinds of factors, but its applicability is limited both by a number of conditions for when oppression provides...

  14. OFFENCES AND PENALTIES IN THE INTERNAL AUDIT ACTIVITY

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    Mihaela Iuliana DUMITRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present the offences and penalties that can be instituted as a result of actions performed by the internal audit. On the other hand, we sought to highlight the mechanisms used for the ascertainment of offences and the establishment of the corresponding penalties. For this purpose, we started from the basic concepts related to the offence and penalty problems in the internal audit missions and we continued with their application at practical level in the accomplishment of an actual audit mission. We also tried to highlight the role and place of the offence and of the penalty respectively in the process of exercising the internal audit activity, and also the finality at the level of entities and persons responsible for the improper exercise of the designated actions.

  15. Adaptive and repeated cumulative meta-analyses of safety data during a new drug development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Hui; Ma, Yingqiu; Zheng, Yan; Cho, Meehyung; Lorenzato, Christelle; Hecquet, Carole

    2015-01-01

    During a new drug development process, it is desirable to timely detect potential safety signals. For this purpose, repeated meta-analyses may be performed sequentially on accumulating safety data. Moreover, if the amount of safety data from the originally planned program is not enough to ensure adequate power to test a specific hypothesis (e.g., the noninferiority hypothesis of an event of interest), the total sample size may be increased by adding new studies to the program. Without appropriate adjustment, it is well known that the type I error rate will be inflated because of repeated analyses and sample size adjustment. In this paper, we discuss potential issues associated with adaptive and repeated cumulative meta-analyses of safety data conducted during a drug development process. We consider both frequentist and Bayesian approaches. A new drug development example is used to demonstrate the application of the methods.

  16. Juvenile female sex offenders: Offender and offence characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijkman, M.; Bijleveld, C.; Hendriks, J.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all research on juvenile sex offending pertains to adolescent males. This study comprises all female juveniles convicted for sexual offences in the Netherlands between 1993 and 2008 (N = 66). From analysis of their court files and their criminal records, these female offenders are described i

  17. Indian NGO challenges penal code prohibition of "unnatural offences".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne

    2002-07-01

    On 7 December 2001, the Naz Foundation (India) Trust (NFIT), a non-governmental organization based in New Delhi, filed a petition in the Delhi High Court to repeal the "unnatural offences" section of the Indian Penal Code that criminalizes men who have sex with men.

  18. Workplace Offences in the Light of the New Criminal Code

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    Amalia-Mihaela Lazer-Gavrilă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of current regulations, workplace offences and also the concept of public service require shaping of a shared vision, creating effective structures, but also a rational adoption of a European vision. Also, the personality of a nation is appreciated by the degree of appreciation of its values.

  19. Alternate policing strategies: Cost-effectiveness of cautioning for cannabis offences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Marian; Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; McSweeney, Tim; Griffin, Beth Ann

    2017-03-01

    There is increasing international interest in alternatives to the use of arrest for minor drug offences. While Australia has been at the forefront in the provision of diversionary programs for minor drug offences there remain key gaps in knowledge about the cost-effectiveness of different approaches. Here we set out to assess the cost-effectiveness of cannabis cautioning schemes whereby police refer minor cannabis use and possession offenders to education and/or treatment instead of arresting and charging them. This study used a purpose built nation-wide online survey to evaluate cost-effectiveness of cannabis cautioning versus a traditional response for minor cannabis offences (arrest). The survey was completed by a self-selected group of detected cannabis offenders. The outcome measure was self-reported cannabis use days in the previous month post-intervention. Cost data included costs of policing, court, penalties, assessment, treatment and educational sessions. Propensity score weighting and doubly robust regression analyses were utilised to address differences between the groups. There were 195 respondents who reported being arrested for a cannabis possession/use offence and 355 who reported receiving a formal cannabis caution. After matching on a range of characteristics (age, prior criminal conviction, cannabis consumption, employment status, self-reported criminal activity prior to detection, severity of dependence) there was no statistically significant difference in cannabis use pre- and post-police intervention between the two groups(N=544). After matching and bootstrapping the costs there was a significant difference in costs; the mean cost for the charge group (net of fines) was $733 (SD 151) and $388 (SD 111) for the caution group. These results indicate that after matching on a range of relevant characteristics there were no differences across groups in the change in self-reported cannabis use days, but cannabis cautioning was less costly than charge

  20. EUTHANASIA STIPULATED BY ROMANIAN CRIMINAL LAW, MITIGATING CIRCUMSTANCES VS. OFFENCE

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    MONICA POCORA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a scientific approach to the issue of euthanasia, bringing into the debate current and future controversies raised by euthanasia, as a result of the introduction into the Romanian penal law of the criminal offence of homicide by request of the victim. The study represents an approach to moral, religious, constitutional, civil, criminal procedure debates and last but not least to criminal debates regarding the legalization of the euthanasia, as the most difficult task lies with the criminal law.

  1. Conceptualising Terrorism: International Offence or Domestic Governance Tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that terrorism does not belong within the realm of international criminal law. On the surface, it is the lack of internationally agreed definition of terrorism and its domestic law origins that set it apart from the notions of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide....... Digging just a little deeper, the divergence, which is best explained using the language of criminology, stems from the political nature of the war on terror. Terrorism is a policy offence utilised by states in pursuit of broader governance objectives....

  2. Inmate responses to prison-based drug treatment: a repeated measures analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Wayne N

    2010-06-01

    Using a sample of 347 prison inmates and general linear modeling (GLM) repeated measures analyses, this paper examined during-treatment responses (e.g., changes in psychological and social functioning) to prison-based TC drug treatment. These effects have rarely been examined in previous studies, and never with a fully multivariate model accounting for within-subjects effects (changes over time), between-subjects effects (e.g., levels of risk and motivation), and within/between-subjects interactions (timexriskxmotivation). The results provide evidence of positive inmate change in response to prison TC treatment, but the patterns of results varied depending upon: (a) specific indicators of psychological and social functioning, motivation, and treatment process; (b) the time periods examined (1, 6, and 12 months during treatment); and (c) baseline levels of risk and motivation. Significant interactions between time and type of inmate suggest important new directions for research, theory, and practice in offender-based substance abuse treatment.

  3. How indicative is a self-reported driving behaviour profile of police registered traffic law offences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    of reliable predictors of safe or unsafe driving behaviour. Given this background, the aim of this study was to test whether driver sub-groups identified based on self-reported driving behaviour and skill differed in registered traffic law offences and accidents, and whether group membership was predictive...... of having traffic law offences. Sub-groups of drivers were identified based on the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI), while traffic offences and accidents were register-based (Statistics Denmark). The participants (N = 3683) were aged 18–84 years and randomly selected...... from the Danish Driving License Register. Results show that the driver sub-groups differed significantly in registered traffic offences but not in registered accidents. In a logistic regression analysis, the sub-group “Violating unsafe drivers” was found predictive of having a traffic offence, even...

  4. The Offence of Beauty in Modern Western Art Music

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    Peter Bannister

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, beauty has become a largely unfashionable, even offensive notion within art and philosophy. As Eastern Orthodox theologian, David Bentley Hart, has pointed out, this offence has a twofold sense. Firstly, the ‘beautiful’ has been dismissed as philosophically insignificant in comparison to the ‘sublime’ by an intellectual tradition tracing itself back to Immanuel Kant’s Critique of Judgment. Secondly, the making of apparently beautiful art has, especially after the Shoah, frequently been regarded as ethically offensive in the face of suffering in the world. The present essay discusses how these two critiques of the beautiful find themselves reflected in twentieth and twenty-first century musical aesthetics, with particular reference to the writings of Theodor W. Adorno, and asks what solutions have been found by composers of Christian sacred music in the Western tradition confronted by this ‘taboo on beauty’.

  5. Contrast effect on the perception of the severity of a criminal offence

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    Gabriel Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All the participants (undergraduate students were exposed sequentially (one by one to 5 brief descriptions of different actions constituting criminal offences according to the Spanish Penal Code. Each description was accompanied by the specific name of the offence, and the range of the jail sentence length (in months that might be imposed for the offence according to this penal code. The participants were asked to choose within this range a penalty for each case as a function of the severity that was perceived in the description of the facts. The participants in Group SEVERE were initially exposed to the descriptions of four relatively severe offences. The participants from Group MILD, however, were initially exposed to four less severe offences. The fifth offence to which the participants were exposed was the same in both groups–a description of a violent robbery. It was observed that participants in Group SEVERE imposed lighter penalties for the robbery with violence than participants in Group MILD. These results indicate that our perception of the severity of a criminal offence can be modulated by the severity of other actions to which we have previously been exposed.

  6. Criminal offences of schizophrenics and psychopaths from the aspect of authorized expertise in jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichá, M

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of an analysis of criminal offences committed by persons with the diagnosis of schizophreny and psychopathy revealed that the generally assumed dangerous character of schizophrenics did not appear in our set of subjects that were examined. The results of the comparison of the two diagnostic groups suggest a much greater danger of aggressive criminal offences in psychopaths, in whom also a much higher percentage was influenced by alcohol and in whom repetition of criminal offences was found more often. The problem of prevention of delinquency in psychopaths appears to be rather complex because of the complexity of the problems found in psychopaths--their ethiopathogenesis, insufficient effect of therapy, and insufficient effect of the reformatory measures. The problem of prevention of criminal offences in persons with diagnosis of schizophreny involves early identification of the disease or a deterioration of the patient's condition, and an early treatment including rehabilitation in a wide sense of the word.

  7. THE CRIMINAL OFFENCE OF MONEY LAUNDERING – A SERIES OF THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

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    Constantin NEDELCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper at hand addresses the extremely complex and sensitive matter relating to one of the most controversial offences in the criminal laws of Romania – in particular, the criminal offence of money laundering. This paper bears both theoretical and practical interest, in that it points out specific instances of court case-law which were given different constructions by various judiciary authorities.

  8. How indicative is a self-reported driving behaviour profile of police registered traffic law offences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, L M; Møller, M; Prato, C G; Haustein, S

    2017-02-01

    Although most motorised countries have experienced massive improvements in road safety over the last decades, human behaviour and differences in accident risk across sub-groups of drivers remains a key issue in the area of road safety. The identification of risk groups requires the identification of reliable predictors of safe or unsafe driving behaviour. Given this background, the aim of this study was to test whether driver sub-groups identified based on self-reported driving behaviour and skill differed in registered traffic law offences and accidents, and whether group membership was predictive of having traffic law offences. Sub-groups of drivers were identified based on the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI), while traffic offences and accidents were register-based (Statistics Denmark). The participants (N=3683) were aged 18-84 years and randomly selected from the Danish Driving License Register. Results show that the driver sub-groups differed significantly in registered traffic offences but not in registered accidents. In a logistic regression analysis, the sub-group "Violating unsafe drivers" was found predictive of having a traffic offence, even when socio-demographic variables and exposure were controlled for. The most important predictive factor, however, was having a criminal record for non-traffic offences, while gender, living without a partner, and being self-employed also had a significant effect. The study confirms the use of the DBQ and DSI as suitable instruments for predicting traffic offences while also confirming previous results on accumulation of problematic behaviours across life contexts. The finding that driver sub-groups did not differ in registered accidents supports the recent research activities in finding and modelling surrogate safety measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extraterritorial jurisdiction, criminal law and transnational crime: Insights from the application of Australia's child sex tourism offences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curley, Melissa; Stanley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    .... Meanwhile, existing international legal commentary notes that there are difficulties attached to using extraterritorial offences as the primary tool to deter and combat Child Sex Tourism ('CST...

  10. Forms of cooperation and subjects responsible for committing offences in commercial companies

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    Skerdian Kurti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the offences envisaged under the Criminal Code and other specific laws can be committed by general subjects, while another part may be committed only by subjects that enjoy certain qualities. A special significance in commercial criminal law takes the detailed study and knowledge of the entities responsible for committing offences of an economic nature. As noted above, it comes to criminal offenses which can be committed not only by special subjects, but also by general ones. What appears problematic in the current case due to the highly technical nature of these offences is the knowledge and understanding of the distinctive features of particular subjects. The definition of responsible subjects constitutes an important problem for the configuration of these offences, due to the fact that we are dealing with special subjects, which are lined with special qualities, that charge them with clearly defined rights and duties. Such a formulation of these offences may give rise to no less important problems of interpretation, especially in the collaboration cases of foreign persons and the formal exercise of specific functions provided by law.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from areas of repeated emergence of drug resistant malaria show no evidence of hypermutator phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyler S; Jacob, Christopher G; Silva, Joana C; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Djimdé, Abdoulaye; Dondorp, Arjen M; Fukuda, Mark; Noedl, Harald; Nyunt, Myaing Myaing; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Mayxay, Mayfong; Hien, Tran Tinh; Plowe, Christopher V; Cummings, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    Multiple transcontinental waves of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have originated in Southeast Asia before spreading westward, first into the rest of Asia and then to sub-Saharan Africa. In vitro studies have suggested that hypermutator P. falciparum parasites may exist in Southeast Asia and that an increased rate of acquisition of new mutations in these parasites may explain the repeated emergence of drug resistance in Southeast Asia. This study is the first to test the hypermutator hypothesis using field isolates. Using genome-wide SNP data from human P. falciparum infections in Southeast Asia and West Africa and a test for relative rate differences we found no evidence of increased relative substitution rates in P. falciparum isolates from Southeast Asia. Instead, we found significantly increased substitution rates in Mali and Bangladesh populations relative to those in populations from Southeast Asia. Additionally we found no association between increased relative substitution rates and parasite clearance following treatment with artemisinin derivatives.

  12. Relationship between sexual offences and mental and developmental disorders: a review

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    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that concerns and faces our society. The prevalence, magnitude and consequences of this problem have merited growing attention by health researchers and human rights scholars. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature regarding the relationship between mental disorders, sexual offences and those of development. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and Lilacs, employing the terms "sexual crime", "sexual offence", "mental disorder", "mental retardation", "developmental disability" and its combinations. RESULTS: The mental disorders and developmental disorders more frequently related to the perpetration of sexual offences were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and mental retardation. DISCUSSION: The detection and treatment of psychiatric morbidity among sexual offenders in health and criminal justice systems, which may contribute to a lower risk of recidivism of this sexual behaviour, is important.

  13. Impact of Regulation Change on Half-Court Offence in the Polish Basketball League

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    Gryko Karol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694 performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences, before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences, after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001 decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.

  14. Types, Problems and Their Causes, and Solutions to the Offences against the Environmental Laws by Probationers in Maha Sarakham Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlu, Somchai; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore types, problems and their causes, and solutions to the offences against the environmental laws of probationers in Maha Sarakham Province. The study comprised 2 phases: Phase 1 was a study of types of the offences against the environmental laws: and phase 2 was an interview with 25 people directly dealing with the…

  15. Stressing Academia? Stress-as-Offence-to-Self at Danish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Academic work has traditionally been seen as relatively stress free. However, a growing number of studies have reported increases in occupational stress experienced by university researchers. In order to explain stress among this group, we build on a new perspective in occupational stress research: the so-called stress-as-offence-to-self…

  16. Stressing Academia? Stress-as-Offence-to-Self at Danish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstrup, Niels; Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Academic work has traditionally been seen as relatively stress free. However, a growing number of studies have reported increases in occupational stress experienced by university researchers. In order to explain stress among this group, we build on a new perspective in occupational stress research: the so-called stress-as-offence-to-self…

  17. Traffic law enforcement in The Netherlands : Short cuts to sanction small traffic offences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch procedure for the enforcement of small traffic offences, codified in the Mulder Act, is internationally known for being extremely efficient. On the basis of the Mulder Act, police officers and special investigating officers have the competence to impose administrative fines if they detect

  18. The Mechanism of Restricting the Legal Status of Individuals Convicted of Multiple Offences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, Natalya N.

    2016-01-01

    The subject of the article is the legal status of individuals serving custodial sentences. Special emphasis is laid on the legal status of individuals serving sentences for multiple offences. The soviet state directed substantial public resources to maintenance of basic human conditions in prisons. Now the Russian Federation, which embarked on a…

  19. Keeping a common bawdy house becomes a "serious offence" under Criminal Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New federal regulations targeting organized crime will make keeping a common bawdy house a "serious offence" under the Criminal Code. Sex work advocates reacted by calling the measure a serious step back that will undermine the protection of sex workers' human rights, safety, dignity and health.

  20. Chronic cranial window with access port for repeated cellular manipulations, drug application, and electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Joel Roome

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cranial windows have been instrumental in advancing optical studies in vivo, permitting long-term, high-resolution imaging in various brain regions. However, once a window is attached it is difficult to regain access to the brain under the window for cellular manipulations. Here we describe a simple device that combines long term in vivo optical imaging with direct brain access via glass or quartz pipettes and metal, glass, or quartz electrodes for cellular manipulations like dye or drug injections and electrophysiological stimulations or recordings while keeping the craniotomy sterile. Our device comprises a regular cranial window glass coverslip with a drilled access hole later sealed with biocompatible silicone. This chronic cranial window with access port is cheap, easy to manufacture, can be mounted just as the regular chronic cranial window, and is self-sealing after retraction of the pipette or electrode. We demonstrate that multiple injections can be performed through the silicone port by repetitively bolus loading calcium sensitive dye into mouse barrel cortex and recording spontaneous cellular activity over a period of weeks. As an example to the extent of its utility for electrophysiological recording, we describe how simple removal of the silicone seal can permit patch pipette access for whole-cell patch clamp recordings in vivo. During these chronic experiments we do not observe any infections under the window or impairment of animal health.

  1. Analysis of multiple offences: a contribution to a better socio-statistical understanding of convicted multiple offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Delarre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crime statistics in France are complicated by the problem of convictions for multiple offences. In these cases, the statistical characterization of the conviction (or of the individual occurs by selection, from among the total of offences listed, with only one of them named as the “principal offence”. Such a method obscures a certain number of effects that this article intends to underline. The analysis of multiple offences embodies new possibilities, and corrects the problems created by statistics based on the “first rank method”. This article aims at a better understanding of the phenomenon, and to achieve this, will propose several methods.

  2. Region-specific induction of deltaFosB by repeated administration of typical versus atypical antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, J B; Chlan-Fourney, J; Nye, H E; Hiroi, N; Carlezon, W A; Nestler, E J

    1999-08-01

    Whereas acute administration of many types of stimuli induces c-Fos and related proteins in brain, recent work has shown that chronic perturbations cause the region-specific accumulation of novel Fos-like proteins of 35-37 kD. These proteins, termed chronic FRAs (Fos-related antigens), have recently been shown to be isoforms of DeltaFosB, which accumulate in brain due to their enhanced stability. In the present study, we sought to extend earlier findings that documented the effects of acute administration of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) on induction of Fos-like proteins by investigating the ability of typical and aytpical APDs, after chronic administration, to induce these DeltaFosB isoforms in several brain regions implicated in the clinical actions of these agents. By Western blotting we found that chronic administration of the typical APD, haloperidol, dramatically induces DeltaFosB in caudate-putamen (CP), a brain region associated with the extrapyramidal side effects of this drug. A smaller induction was seen in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), brain regions associated with the antipsychotic effects of the drug. In contrast, chronic administration of the prototype atypical APD clozapine failed to significantly increase levels of DeltaFosB in any of the three brain regions, and even tended to reduce DeltaFosB levels in the NAc. Two putative atypical APDs, risperidone and olanzapine, produced small but still significant increases in the levels of DeltaFosB in CP, but not NAc or PFC. Studies with selective receptor antagonists suggested that induction of DeltaFosB in CP and NAc is most dependent on antagonism of D2-D3 dopamine receptors, with antagonism of D1-like receptors most involved in the PFC. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the greater induction of DeltaFosB in CP by typical versus atypical APDs, with no significant induction seen in PFC with either class of APD. Together, these findings demonstrate that repeated administration

  3. Environmental offences in 1995. An evaluation of statistics; Umweltdelikte 1995. Eine Auswertung der Statistiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertz, M.; Werner, J.; Sanchez de la Cerda, J.; Schwertfeger, C.; Winkler, K.

    1997-06-01

    This publication deals with the execution of environmental criminal law. On the basis of police and judicial statistics it is pointed out how often an environmental criminal offence was at least suspected by the police or law courts, how they reacted to their suspicion, which individual environmental criminal offences were committed particularly frequently, and what segment of the population the typical perpetrator belonged to. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Mit der vorliegenden Schrift soll ein Blick auf den Vollzug des Umweltstrafrechts geworfen werden. Auf der Basis der Polizei- und Gerichtsstatistiken wird dargelegt, wie oft bei diesen Stellen mindestens der Verdacht einer Umweltstraftat bestand, wie auf diesen Verdacht reagiert wurde, welche einzelnen Umweltstraftaten besonders haeufig registriert wurden und aus welchem Personenkreis der tpische Taeter stammt. (orig./SR)

  4. [The dermatoglyphic peculiarities of skin patterns in the subjects convicted for the sexual offence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, I S; Zoroastrov, O M; Chistikin, A N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the dermatoglyphic peculiarities of skin patterns in the subjects convicted for the sexual offence and in the control subject who committed no criminal crime. The classical methods of dermatoglyphics and statistical treatment of the data obtained were employed. The study demonstrated abnormal dermatoglyphic features that can be used as the markers of the aggressive sexual behaviour.

  5. Relationship between sexual offences and mental and developmental disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Martins Valença; Isabella Nascimento; Antonio Egidio Nardi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that concerns and faces our society. The prevalence, magnitude and consequences of this problem have merited growing attention by health researchers and human rights scholars. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature regarding the relationship between mental disorders, sexual offences and those of development. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Lilac...

  6. Socio-cultural aspect of sexual practices and sexual offences - an Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastia, Binaya Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Ignorance of the law of the land is no defence. Furthermore, it is a legal dictum that one should not be held criminally liable unless possessing a guilty mind. But during trials of some sexual offences in India it is often observed that the accused did not know that he had committed an offence because the crime in question was a part of his socio-cultural milieu. India is a vast country with great socio-cultural diversity and many different ethnic groups, each with its own distinct cultures. However, the entire Indian culture is religion based and finds its root from the ancient Holy Scriptures. The sexual culture of Indian society stems from the Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana, an epic on sex. This text is considered holy and is accepted culturally, even though many practices contained therein are offences under modern law. Child marriages and arranged marriages are an integral part of Indian society and in some tribes, even prostitution is socially sanctioned. However, all of these are also against the law. Many of the conflicts observed between the sexual practices that are accepted in Indian culture but not by the law can be explained on the basis that the Indian legal system is borrowed from that of the British.

  7. Internet access and sexual offences against children: an analysis of crime bureau statistics from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subahani Shaik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between pornography and sexual crime is controversial, with various researchers finding positive, no, or negative associations. Recent evidence suggests that there may be a specific association between child pornography, which is easily available on the Internet, and sexual offences against children. Methods: Using methodology similar to an earlier study from India, we obtained official statistics on sexual offences against children, namely rape and procurement of minor girls, for the period 2000-2012 from the National Crime Records Bureau. We analysed the association between the rates of these crimes and Internet access, measured by the number of users per 1,00,000 people. Results: Even after correcting for population growth, we found significant linear associations between Internet availability and the rates of both these offences against children. However, there was no correlation between the growth rate of Internet access and the rate of increase of these crimes. Discussion: While the association between pornography and the rape of adults is still under debate, our results provide indirect evidence of a possible association between Internet availability and sexual crimes against children. Regulation of the Internet to suppress access to child pornography may prevent at least some of these crimes.

  8. The business cycle and drug use in Australia: evidence from repeated cross-sections of individual level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Jenny; Ritter, Alison

    2011-09-01

    This paper examined the implications of the business cycle for cannabis and alcohol use. What little we know about cannabis use suggests that young Americans (teenagers and adults in their early 20s) seem more inclined to use illicit drugs and to use them more frequently with rises in the unemployment rate. In contrast, a more fulsome alcohol literature suggests that participation in drinking is unaffected by the business cycle. Heavy drinkers drink less during economic downturns and their reduced use counteracts the fact that light drinkers might drink a little more. Using individual level data from repeated cross-sections of Australia's National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS), spanning 1991-2007, this study examined the relationship between cannabis and alcohol use of Australians aged 14-49 years and the unemployment rate and real income per capita, two indicators of the business cycle. Australians in their late 20s, 30s and 40s drink less frequently during economic downturns. If unemployment rate rises are accompanied by falls in income per capita, younger Australians will also drink less frequently. Recent participation in cannabis use (within the last year) increases with falls in income per capita regardless of age, although the increase is less marked for young people (14-24 years). Whereas the participation rate of people aged 25-49 years also falls with rising unemployment rates, the participation of younger people increases. Cannabis users younger than 35 will use more frequently as the unemployment rate rises. In contrast, older Australians will use less frequently. Australia's recent economic slowdown has been characterised by rising unemployment rates without accompanying falls in income per capita. Based on our findings this slowdown should have encouraged young Australians aged 14-24 years to both drink and use cannabis more frequently. The slowdown would have had little impact on the frequency of drinking of older Australians. However it

  9. The conception of guilt in criminal law and its importance in qualification of the criminal offences

    OpenAIRE

    Jānis Rozenbergs

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The research has been devoted to the study and assessment of the criminal law understanding of guilt, as well as the study of the role of the concept of guilt within the process of the qualification of a criminal offence. It is hard to overestimate the significance of the concept of guilt in criminal law science and criminal law practice. There is a basis for considering the principle of guilt and its use in criminal law as one of the indicators of the development o...

  10. 绑架罪既遂的认定%On Determination of Accomplished Offence of the Kidnapping Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖松平

    2011-01-01

    绑架罪既遂标准的通说观点使得绑架罪的既遂过于提前,而要求绑架行为实际勒索到了财物或实现其他不法要求的观点,则使绑架罪的既遂过于推后,甚至取消和否定了绑架罪的既遂。绑架罪应以行为人实施绑架行为后向人质的关系人提出不法要求为既遂标准。%The viewpoint of the accomplished offence of kidnapping crime makes the accomplished offence crime too ahead of time and the viewpoint of requiring kidnapping behavior actual blackmail of property or implementation other illegal requirements makes the accomplished offence crime too push-back,even canceled and negated the accomplished offence of the kidnapping crime.The standard accomplished offence of the kidnapping crime should be lied in the tortfeasor's requirement to the hostages for illegal requirement after the accomplishing of the kidnapping behavior.

  11. Myths and legends: The reality of rape offences reported to a UK police force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve F. Waterhouse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rape myths affect many aspects of the investigative and criminal justice systems. One such myth, the ‘real rape’ myth, states that most rapes involve a stranger using a weapon attacking a woman violently at night in an isolated, outdoor area, and that women sustain serious injuries from these attacks. The present study examined how often actual offences reported to a central UK police force over a two year period matched the ‘real rape’ myth. Out of 400 cases of rape reported, not a single incident was found with all the characteristics of the ‘real rape’ myth. The few stranger rapes that occurred had a strong link to night-time economy activities, such as the victim and offender both having visited pubs, bars, and clubs. By contrast, the majority of reported rape offences (280 cases, 70.7% were committed by people known to the victim (e.g., domestic and acquaintance rapes, occurred inside a residence, with most victims sustaining no physical injuries from the attack. The benefits of these naturalistic findings from the field for educating people about the inaccuracy of rape myths are discussed.

  12. Homicide with a screwdriver and simulation of a similar offence by self-infliction of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller-Marquardt, M; Pollak, S

    1996-09-01

    In an underground garage of a department store, a 52-year-old woman was attacked and fatally wounded by several stabs with a screwdriver. The offence happened as the woman was getting into her car. The homicide itself and the subsequent trial were extensively covered in the local media. A few days before the judgement was pronounced, another attack in an underground garage was reported to the police of the town, where the homicide had happened. A 52-year-old woman claimed to have been hurt by an assailant. The wound pattern (several equally shallow cuts arranged in groups), however, suggested self-infliction, which was finally admitted by the informant. The 'victim' used a newly bought kitchen knife to cut herself and left it at the place of the alleged assault. The knife blade was soiled with blood. Referring to the pertinent literature both cases are compared with regard to the injury characteristics and to the damage to the clothing. The morphological features of screwdriver injuries, the criteria differentiating self-infliction and assault as well as the manifestation of copycat offences are discussed.

  13. Can experiments on animals constitute a criminal offence of cruelty to animals?

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    Ristivojevic Branislav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The criminal offence “killing and torturing animals” under Article 269 of the Criminal Code says that it can be committed only “contrary to regulations”. The regulations governing the treatment of experimental animals are the Animal Welfare Law from 2009 and the Law on the Ratification of the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes amended by the Protocol of amendment to the European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes from 2010. The first one imposes numerous obligations and introduces numerous prohibitions in the treatment of experimental animals, which at first sight make the possibilities of committing this criminal offence greater. The other law does not contain most of the prohibitions and restrictions that are included in the Animal Welfare Law. Thanks to a legal rule which says that a later law regulating the same subject replaces the former one (lex posterior derogate legi priori and the aforementioned unconstitutionality of many provisions of the Animal Welfare Law, researchers and teachers in Serbia are not in particular danger of criminal prosecution. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179079: Biomedicine, Environmental Protection and the Law

  14. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

    2014-03-01

    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Pattern of Sexual Offences Attended at Accident and Emergency Department of HUSM from Year 2000 to 2003: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed Nasimul; See, Khoo Lay; Ting, Lai Chin; Khan, Jesmine

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the pattern of sexual offence cases attended at the One Stop Crisis Center (OSCC) of the Accident and Emergency Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan. A total of 439 reported sexual offence cases were examined over a period of 4 years from 2000 to 2003. Sexual offence constituted by male partner or boyfriend in 18.9%, by relatives in 27.3% and by "others" in 53.8% of cases. Only 0.7% of victims did not attempt to lodge a police report. There is a significant relationship between occupation and the risk of experiencing sexual violence. Students were mostly targeted by the perpetrator throughout the study period. Among the offences, rape cases were the highest in number, among those who attended at the OSCC, HUSM with a total of 72.7%; followed by 27.3% of incest; 26.4% of child sexual abuse; 4.8% of sodomy and lastly 1.6% of gerontophilia cases. Only 70% of the specimens obtained from sexual offences victims were sent for laboratory analysis. The result remained negative in 82.4% specimens and thus the laboratory analysis result is merely functioning as a supportive evidence for sexual offence cases attended at OSCC. The studies showed that most of the sexual assault perpetrators were known to the victims. The place of crime was also known to the perpetrators. Health sectors of various levels should be working in conjunction to promote a societal changes to improve more of the women's right and thus to reduce the violence crime.

  16. The effect of repeated nicotine administration on the performance of drug-naive rats in a five-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel, A; Simon, H; Sanger, D J; Moser, P

    1999-11-01

    Nicotine improves cognitive performance both in animals and in humans, particularly in tests involving attentional processes. The five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used as a model of attentional performance in rats, and previous studies have demonstrated effects of nicotine in this task on measures such as improved reaction time. Using a modified version of this task (in which rats were required to respond to the disappearance of one of five stimulus lights), we evaluated the effects of repeated nicotine administration (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, on three occasions over 7 days) in drug-naive rats. After the first administration, nicotine increased accuracy and reduced inappropriate responding (anticipatory responses and responses during time-out) compared to performance following vehicle administration on the preceding day. However, with repeated administration the improvement in accuracy disappeared, and other effects became apparent. Thus, after the third administration the main effects of nicotine were to increase inappropriate responding and to reduce reaction times. A fourth administration 1-2 weeks later produced similar results to the third administration, suggesting that the effects of nicotine were now constant. Despite the general increase in inappropriate responding, there was no impairment in accuracy. In contrast to the response to repeated nicotine, the performance of the rats on the 3 vehicle days remained constant. These data demonstrate that the administration of nicotine to drug-naive subjects improves performance in the 5-CSRTT but that with repeated administration this effect disappears and is replaced by a profile in which inappropriate and impulsive responding predominate.

  17. Assess drug resistance pattern and genetic profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates by molecular typing methods using direct repeats and IS6110 in pulmonary tuberculosis cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalo, Deepika; Kant, Surya; Srivastava, Kanchan; Sharma, Ajay K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB), a highly contagious disease that sees no gender, age, or race is mainly a disease of lungs. According to World Health Organization, a TB patient can be completely cured with 6–9 months of anti-TB treatment under directly observed treatment short course. Objectives: The aim of this study was to check the mono, multi- and triple-drug resistance to first line drugs (FLDs) among TB patients and to access their genetic profile using DR 3074, DR 0270, DR 0642, DR 2068, and DR 4110 using molecular techniques. Material and Methods: To gain a better understanding of drug resistant TB, we characterized 121 clinical isolates recovered from 159 drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis patients by IS6110 genotyping. MTB isolates recovered from HIV- negative, and smear positive cases of both genders, age varied from 18 to 70 years with drug resistant-TB that was refractory to chemotherapy given for > 12 months. Of a total of 159 sputum smear positive patients sum number of male and female patients was 121 (76.10%) and 38 (23.89%), respectively. Among these patients, number of literate and illiterate patients were 123 (77.3%) and 36 (22.6%). 25 (15.7%) patients had farming as their occupation, 80 (50.3%) had nonagricultural occupation and 54 (33.9%) women were housewives. Results: Mono drug resistant, multi-drug resistant, and totally drug resistant (TDR) cases of TB were calculated as 113.83%, 125.1%, and 67.9%. Isoniazid showed the highest percentage of resistance among the patients. Conclusion: Any noncompliance to TB medications, lack of knowledge, and poor management in health centers, etc., results in the emergence of deadly direct repeat forms of TB, which are further complicated and complex to treat. PMID:28360464

  18. From Custody to Community: Development of Assessment and Treatment for Juveniles Serving Sentences for Sex Offences in an Irish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Peter; Cherry, Joan; Swift, Aaron; Tallon, Mary; Doyle, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The Baseline Project provided an assessment package and treatment for juveniles (aged 16-21 years) serving sentences for sexual offences, and was the only such programme available in Ireland (ROI). It was a venture between the Northside Inter-Agency Project and the Psychology Department of the Irish Prison Service and worked with juveniles on a…

  19. Psychological profiling of offender characteristics from crime behaviors in serial rape offences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W; Irwin, Harvey J

    2002-04-01

    Criminal psychological profiling has progressively been incorporated into police procedures despite a dearth of empirical research. Indeed, in the study of serial violent crimes for the purpose of psychological profiling, very few original, quantitative, academically reviewed studies actually exist. This article reports on the analysis of 62 incidents of serial sexual assault. The statistical procedure of multidimensional scaling was employed in the analysis of this data, which in turn produced a five-cluster model of serial rapist behavior. First, a central cluster of behaviors were identified that represent common behaviors to all patterns of serial rape. Second, four distinct outlying patterns were identified as demonstrating distinct offence styles, these being assigned the following descriptive labels brutality, intercourse, chaotic, and ritual. Furthermore, analysis of these patterns also identified distinct offender characteristics that allow for the use of empirically robust offender profiles in future serial rape investigations.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  1. Relationship between drug resistance and the clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat-associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella from giant panda dung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lu; Deng, Lin-Hua; Zhang, Ri-Peng; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Li, De-Sheng; Xi, Li-Xin; Chen, Zhen-rong; Yang, Rui; Huang, Jie; Zeng, Yang-ru; Wu, Hong-Lin; Cao, San-Jie; Wu, Rui; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qi-Gui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: To detect drug resistance in Shigella obtained from the dung of the giant panda, explore the factors leading to drug resistance in Shigella, understand the characteristics of clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and assess the relationship between CRISPR and drug resistance. Methods: We collected fresh feces from 27 healthy giant pandas in the Giant Panda Conservation base (Wolong, China). We identified the strains of Shigella in the samples by using nucleotide sequence analysis. Further, the Kirby-Bauer paper method was used to determine drug sensitivity of the Shigella strains. CRISPR-associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PCR products were sequenced and compared. Results: We isolated and identified 17 strains of Shigella from 27 samples, including 14 strains of Shigella flexneri, 2 strains of Shigella sonnei, and 1 strain of Shigella dysenteriae. Further, drug resistance to cefazolin, imipenem, and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid was identified as a serious problem, as multidrug-resistant strains were detected. Further, cas1 and cas2 showed different degrees of point mutations. Conclusion: The CRISPR system widely exists in Shigella and shares homology with that in Escherichia coli. The cas1 and cas 2 mutations contribute to the different levels of resistance. Point mutations at sites 3176455, 3176590, and 3176465 in cas1 (a); sites 3176989, 3176992, and 3176995 in cas1 (b); sites 3176156 and 3176236 in cas2 may affect the resistance of bacteria, cause emergence of multidrug resistance, and increase the types of drug resistance. PMID:28207509

  2. Relationship between drug resistance and the clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat-associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella from giant panda dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lu; Deng, Lin-Hua; Zhang, Ri-Peng; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Li, De-Sheng; Xi, Li-Xin; Chen, Zhen-Rong; Yang, Rui; Huang, Jie; Zeng, Yang-Ru; Wu, Hong-Lin; Cao, San-Jie; Wu, Rui; Huang, Yong; Yan, Qi-Gui

    2017-02-01

    To detect drug resistance in Shigella obtained from the dung of the giant panda, explore the factors leading to drug resistance in Shigella, understand the characteristics of clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and assess the relationship between CRISPR and drug resistance. We collected fresh feces from 27 healthy giant pandas in the Giant Panda Conservation base (Wolong, China). We identified the strains of Shigella in the samples by using nucleotide sequence analysis. Further, the Kirby-Bauer paper method was used to determine drug sensitivity of the Shigella strains. CRISPR-associated protein genes cas1 and cas2 in Shigella were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PCR products were sequenced and compared. We isolated and identified 17 strains of Shigella from 27 samples, including 14 strains of Shigella flexneri, 2 strains of Shigella sonnei, and 1 strain of Shigella dysenteriae. Further, drug resistance to cefazolin, imipenem, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was identified as a serious problem, as multidrug-resistant strains were detected. Further, cas1 and cas2 showed different degrees of point mutations. The CRISPR system widely exists in Shigella and shares homology with that in Escherichia coli. The cas1 and cas 2 mutations contribute to the different levels of resistance. Point mutations at sites 3176455, 3176590, and 3176465 in cas1 (a); sites 3176989, 3176992, and 3176995 in cas1 (b); sites 3176156 and 3176236 in cas2 may affect the resistance of bacteria, cause emergence of multidrug resistance, and increase the types of drug resistance.

  3. Experimental Adjustment on Drug Interactions through Intestinal CYP3A Activity in Rat: Impacts of Kampo Medicines Repeat Administered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsumi Kinoshita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To provide the information that is necessary for making the proper use of kampo medicines, we have proposed the adequate methodology focused on the following issues: (i kampo medicines emphasize the effects produced by the combination of herbal drugs rather than the individual effect of any single herb and (ii Intestinal CYP3A has become a key factor for the bioavailability of orally administrated drugs. In the present study, we investigated both the in vivo and in vitro effects of Saireito and Hochuekkito (kampo formulas on CYP3A activities. From our study, oral pre-treatment with Saireito or Hochuekkito did not affect the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine after intravenous administration to rats. When nifedipine was administered to rat intrajejunum, a significant decrease of AUC was showed by pre-treatment with both kampo formulas. Saireito pre-treatment led to 80% decrease in max of nifedipine. Saireito caused significant increases in both protein expression and metabolic activity of CYP3A in intestinal microsome, whereas it had no effect on CYP3A in hepatic microsome. Our result also showed that this affect of Saireito can be gone by wash-out with 1 week. These findings demonstrated that Saireito may induce CYP3A activity of intestine but not of liver in rats. When resources for research are limited, well-designed scientific studies except clinical trials also have many advantages.

  4. Rapid in situ repeatable analysis of drugs in powder form using reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, Dora; Monti, Dario; D'Elia, Marcello; Luciano, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study takes the first step toward in situ analysis of powder drugs which does not require any alteration of the samples. A fast, inexpensive analytical method based on reflectance near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry and multivariate calibration was applied. A diode-array fiber-optic portable spectrometer in the 900-1700 nm range was employed. Samples were laboratory-prepared ternary powders (diacetylmorphine, caffeine, and paracetamol). Partial least squares regression was applied. The choice of the standard samples for calibration and validation was performed through a D-optimal experimental design. The explained variance was higher than 90%, and the relative root mean square errors were <2%. The number of principal components (6) was very low when compared with the number of raw variables (356 absorbance values). Response plots showed slopes and intercepts were very close to optimal values. Correlation coefficients ranged between 0.909 and 0.989. The method here proposed proved to be competitive with Fourier transform NIR spectrometry.

  5. The relationship of the temperament of the subject of crime with the characteristics of offences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyakov S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The features of communication psychological characteristics of temperament types of crimes. The analysis of scientific views on the role of temperament in the predisposition of the individual to the crime. With the help of empirical study confirmed the hypothesis that the subjects who had committed certain type of crime have specific personal psychological characteristics that reveal the determinants of their offences. The personality questionnaires EPI and MMPI used methods of analysis of personal files of prisoners; observation of their behaviour and discussions with them; drawing up of psychological portraits. Also developed and used an original questionnaire. The results showed that among criminals-murderers is dominated by people with a tendency to choleric expression of properties of temperament, expressed the need for self-affirmation, affective behavior, impulsivity, and disregard for social demands. The perpetrators of the theft inherent in the assertion of his personality not only in the eyes of the environment, but above all in its own. The perpetrators of rape there is usually no clear idea of traditionally male and female traits in behaviour, the relationship between a man and a woman are limited to sexual function. Criminals convicted of fraud and hooliganism, unable to establish contact with others not able to take the point of view of another, there is a disregard for moral and ethical standards.

  6. High-risk sexual offenders: an examination of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, psychopathy, and offence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Speeding and maxillofacial injuries: impact of the introduction of penalty points for speeding offences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, O T; Nayyar, M S; Brady, F A; Beirne, J C; Stassen, L F A

    2006-02-01

    On 31 October 2002 the Irish Government introduced a point demerit scheme for road speeding offences. To evaluate the impact of the scheme, we made a comparative assessment of the number of maxillofacial operations necessitated by road crashes at two tertiary surgical centres in the year before and the year after the introduction of penalty points. There were no significant differences in the composition of the groups between the two study periods. There were 57 operations in the year before and 22 in the year after for injuries caused by collisions (a 61% reduction). No changes were seen in the distribution or severity of maxillofacial injuries or in the pattern or severity of other injuries. Severity was assessed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Maximum Abbreviated Injury Severity Scale (MAIS), and bodily injuries by the Injury Severity Scale (ISS). The number of patients requiring intensive care and the duration of admission to the unit were unchanged, as was the total duration of hospital admission. There were no differences in the requirement for other specialist management.

  8. Solid-state probe based electrochemical aptasensor for cocaine: a potentially convenient, sensitive, repeatable, and integrated sensing platform for drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Chen, Chaogui; Yin, Jianyuan; Li, Bingling; Zhou, Ming; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2010-02-15

    Aptamers, which are artificial oligonucleotides selected in vitro, have been employed to design novel biosensors (i.e., aptasensors). In this work, we first constructed a label-free electrochemical aptasensor introducing a probe immobilization technique by the use of a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembled multilayer with ferrocene-appended poly(ethyleneimine) (Fc-PEI) on an indium tin oxide (ITO) array electrode for detection of cocaine. The Fc-PEI and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were LBL assembled on the electrode surface via electrostatic interaction. Then, cocaine aptamer fragments, SH-C2, were covalently labeled onto the outermost AuNP layer. When the target cocaine and cocaine aptamer C1 were present simultaneously, the SH-C2 layer hybridized partly with C1 to bind the cocaine, which led to a decreased differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signal of Fc-PEI. This DPV signal change could be used to sensitively detect cocaine with the lowest detectable concentration down to 0.1 microM and the detection range up to 38.8 microM, which falls in the the expected range for medical use of detecting drug abuse involving cocaine. Meanwhile, the sensor was specific to cocaine in complex biologic fluids such as human plasma, human saliva, etc. The sensing strategy had general applicability, and the detection of thrombin could also be realized, displayed a low detection limit, and exhibited worthiness to other analytes. The aptasensor based on the array electrode held promising potential for integration of the sensing ability in multianalysis for simultaneous detection.

  9. Traffic Offences: Planned or Habitual? Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour and habit strength to explain frequency and magnitude of speeding and driving under the influence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lheureux, Florent; Auzoult, Laurent; Charlois, Colette; Hardy-Massard, Sandrine; Minary, Jean-Pierre

    2016-02-01

    This study addresses the socio-cognitive determinants of traffic offences, in particular of speeding and drinking and driving. It has two aims: (1) to test the hypothesis of a direct effect of habits on offences (i.e., independent of intentions) by employing a specific measure of habits (i.e., the SRIH) and (2) to analyse the offences by taking account of three distinct parameters: Frequency, usual magnitude (i.e., the most frequent deviation from the law) and maximal magnitude (i.e., the greatest deviation occasionally adopted) in order to represent more accurately the variability of the offending behaviours. A total of 642 drivers replied to a questionnaire. The results corroborate the idea that intention and habit are distinct and direct determinants of offences. The use of the SRIH dismisses the criticisms made with regard to the measure of past behaviour. The distinction between the three behavioural parameters proves to be relevant, as their determinants are not exactly similar. Finally, attitude and subjective norm had direct effects on the maximal magnitude and/or on the frequency of the offence. The discussion concerns the contribution of this study to the analysis of offences as well as its limitations and addresses the theoretical plausibility of the direct effects of attitude and the subjective norm. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Repeated exposure to amphetamine during adolescence alters inhibitory tone in the medial prefrontal cortex following drug re-exposure in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Charles L.; Gulley, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral sensitization following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) exposure is associated with changes in GABA function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In rats exposed to AMPH during adolescence compared to adulthood, there are unique patterns of sensitization that may reflect age-dependent differences in drug effects on prefrontal GABAergic function. In the current study, we used a sensitizing regimen of repeated AMPH exposure in adolescent and adult rats to determine if a post-withdrawal AMPH challenge would alter inhibitory transmission in the mPFC in a manner that depends on age of exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline or 3 mg/kg AMPH (i.p.) during adolescence [postnatal day (P) 27 to P45] or adulthood (P85 to P103) and were sacrificed either at similar ages in adulthood (~P133; Experiment 1) or after similar withdrawal times (3-4 weeks; Experiment 2). Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded in vitro from deep layer pyramidal cells in the mPFC using the whole-cell configuration. We found no effect of AMPH pre-exposure on baseline sIPSC frequency. Subsequent application of AMPH (25 μM) produced a stable increase in sIPSC frequency in controls, suggesting that AMPH increases inhibitory tone in the mPFC. However, AMPH failed to increase sIPSCs in adolescent- or adult-exposed rats. In Experiment 2, where withdrawal period was kept similar for both exposure groups, AMPH induced a suppression of sIPSC activity in adolescent-exposed rats. These results suggest that sensitizing treatment with AMPH during adolescence or adulthood dampens inhibitory influences on mPFC pyramidal cells, but potentially through different mechanisms. PMID:27085589

  11. Sex and gender characteristics in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Croatia with special reference to the criminal offences of rape and domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škorić Marissabell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the issue of whether the norms of criminal law make a distinction between male and female sex with regard to the perpetrator of the criminal offence as well as with regard to the victim of the criminal offence and also the issue of whether male or female sex have any role in the criminal law. It is with this objective in mind that the author analyzed the provisions of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Croatia and statistical data on total crime in the Republic of Croatia and the relation between male and female perpetrators of criminal offences. The statistical data reveal that men commit a far greater number of offences than women. Apart from this, women and men also differ according to the type of the criminal offence they tend to commit. Women as perpetrators of criminal offences that involve the element of violence are very rare. At the same time, women are very often victims of violent offences perpetrated by men, which leads us to the term of gender-based violence. Although significant steps forward have been made at the normative level in the Republic of Croatia in defining and sanctioning of genderbased violence, gender stereotypes can still be observed in practice when sexual crimes are in question so that we can witness domestic violence on a daily basis. All of this leads to the conclusion that it is necessary to make further efforts in order to remove all obstacles that prevent changes in social relations and ensure equality between women and men, not only de jure but also de facto.

  12. 结果加重犯的认定思路%Way to Identify the Offence of Aggregated Consequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斯洁

    2013-01-01

    It is crucial to prove the substantivity between basic act and the aggregated consequence of the offence of aggregated consequence, and it is a objective way of subjection to analyze the subjective anticipation and objective anticipation hierarchically. The theory of action commonness can be applied both in the joint principal offender and accomplice in narrow sense . And it returns to the essence of single offenders to analyze problems of joint offence, which provides a new solution to the aggregated consequence in the field of joint offence. The respectively concrete knowledge of subjective purpose among joint offenders,decides the existence of responsibilities of the aggregated consequence.%结果加重犯的基本犯行为与加重结果之间的直接性是认定结果加重犯的客观层面的关键,对于加重结果分层判断客观预见可能与主观预见可能是主观客观化的思路兑现。行为共同说不仅适用于共同正犯,同样可以适用于狭义共犯。行为共同说回归单独犯本质探讨共犯问题为解决结果加重犯的共犯问题提供了新的思路。共同正犯、教唆犯、帮助犯对于各自故意视野中的共同行为的具体认识,直接决定是否承担加重结果的责任。

  13. CONFLICTING ROLE OF LAND OFFICE AND FORESTRY DEPARTMENT: A COMPARATIVE DISCUSSION REGARDING TO FOREST OFFENCES PREVENTION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Uzair Azizan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article study the discrepancy between theory and practice, especially the roles play by Land Office and Forestry Department in term of overlapping of power and penalties between Land Office and Forestry Department especially the forest on the state land leading to susceptibility in monitoring and enforcement system. The whole empirical works took place in the Central Region of Peninsular Malaysia namely as Negeri Sembilan. The total area of permanent reserved forest in that state is 155,531 hectares including the Permanent Reserved Forest Johol which was selected as the case study in this research. An exploratory research design was adopted in this research. Therefore, in-depth interviews have been done with officers from the Land Office and Forestry Department regarding their role and powers in monitoring and enforcement system to combat forest offences in Permanent Reserved Forest Johol. While data collected was analyzed using the descriptive analysis method. Content analysis was used to identify the similarities and dissimilarities of acts that empower Land Office and Forestry Department to taking action against forest offences. Theoretically, there are overlapping powers occurs between Land Office and Forestry Department identified in National Land Code 1965 and National Forestry Act 1984 in terms of arrestment of the forest offenders and seized their equipment. However, penalties imposed by both acts are very different. Practically, both authorities have divided their responsibility and power accordingly to avoid overlapping. Issues and challenges that faced by them have been found and most of them are similar. There should be an amendment to the acts in terms of the penalty imposed by both authorities. The penalty stated in both acts should be synchronized or the related sections be removed if the authorities do not implement it practically to avoid overlapping and conflicting of action imposed between two acts. Keywords: state land

  14. Corporate Criminal Liability for Corruption Offences and the Due Diligence Defence: A Comparison of the Dutch and English Legal Frameworks

    OpenAIRE

    Bram Meyer; Tessa van Roomen; Eelke Sikkema

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question of to what extent companies can be held criminally liable for – active – bribery offences perpetrated by their employees. It focuses on the questions of to what extent companies have a duty of care to prevent bribery by employees and to what extent can a breach of such a duty of care cause criminal liability to ensue.In this contribution, the authors set out to answer these questions by comparing the Dutch and the British legal systems. After assessing the ...

  15. Qualitative Analysis and Judicial Application of Repeated Drug Crimes%再犯毒品犯罪情节的定性与司法适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常秀娇; 吴旸

    2012-01-01

    The Article 356 of the Criminal Code stipulates that recidivists of drug crimes should receive heavier punishment.This stipulation is neither the requirement of the existing nor that of the future recidivist system but the requirement of one of the many statutory aggravating circumstances.Our present Criminal Code further stipulates that issues under different legal applications of Article 356,Article 65 and Article 71 should be dealt with reasonably in the spirit of severe punishment while the recidivists' basic rights fully protected,and on the basis of clear interpretation of stipulations while the "principles of prohibiting repeatable evaluation" strictly followed.%我国《刑法》第三百五十六条规定了对再犯毒品犯罪的行为人从重处罚,此条规定不是已存的累犯制度,也不是将存的再犯制度,而是众多法定从重情节之一。由于我国现行刑法的规定,司法实践中存在第三百五十六条与第六十五条、第七十一条竞合时法律适用混乱的问题,应在明确条文定性的基础上,遵循"禁止重复评价原则",按照严厉打击毒品犯罪、平等尊重和保护犯罪人基本权利的精神,合理解决该问题。

  16. The criminal offence of torture in the context of criminal-law protection of human person in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etlon Peppo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the transition of the countries from a social system to another, it is understood that major changes have happened in all the areas of life, affecting even the field of the illegal criminal offences including the criminal offences directed against the human person. The human rights movements have played an important role in different time periods of the human history. The human rights and their further development represent one of the ways of the realization of the social changes. The states themselves have undertaken long-term social changes through the protection of the human rights. Due to the commitments of the civil movements for the human rights, nowadays we have laws that protect, respect and guarantee the human rights and fundamental freedoms, among which: the prohibition of torture. As a consequence of the efforts of such movements, international documents or acts have been ratified and national laws have been implemented by the state authorities resulting in providing a complete and wide protection for the citizens. In this context, the prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatments or punishments constitutes a guarantee for the citizens against any kind of abuse and it represents an incontestable norm.

  17. Criminal Sanctions Against Official Corruption and other Offences Against Official Duty Offenders in Kosovo for the Period 2008-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flutura Tahiraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to fight corruption, with the focus on official corruption in Kosovo continues to be addressed by both national and international reports. The objective of this paper is to find out the number of the cases and analyse the sactions against official corruption and other offences against official duty delivered by Municipality Courts in Kosovo during the period 2008-2015 with the aim to assess the developments during a period of eight years since most of the other researches are focused on annual performance of the courts. All data presented in this article are taken from the Kosovo Statistical Office and include statistical information on the types and frequency of criminal sanctions to perpetrators of the official corruption and other offences against official duty. Case study is also applied to analyse some court judgments. The study shows there is a slight incresase of the number of convicted perpetrators over years, the number of corruption cases addressed by the courts remained very limited, followed by low sentences or even prescription of cases. The findings will add additional scientific insights to the existing knowledge about preventing and fighting official corruption and it can be useful for scholars, policy makers and practitioners in Kosovo.

  18. [The role of forensic medical expertise of material evidence in the investigations into the cases of sexual offence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revnitskaia, L A; Ivanina, T V; Ivanina, A A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to search for the methods for the enhancement of the effectiveness of forensic medical examination of material evidence during the investigations into the crimes against sexual immunity and personal sexual freedom. The work included the analysis of the relevant expert conclusions and copies of the decisions approving the performance of the forensic medical expertises. The study was carried out with the use of the following methods: the extraction of necessary data from the primary materials, their systematization and treatment by the methods of descriptive and analytical statistics. The study has demonstrated significant differences in the frequency of discovery of biological evidence of sexual offence depending on the character of the objects available for the examination and the time of their obtaining; these parameters were shown to depend on a variety of factors. It is concluded that the multidisciplinary approach to the selection and examination of material evidence for the purpose of the investigation into the cases of sexual offence makes it possible to considerably enhance the effectiveness of forensic medical expertises for the search of biological evidence of sexual crimes and thereby to improve the quality of this work.

  19. Deployment Repeatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    controlled to great precision, but in a Cubesat , there may be no attitude determination at all. Such a Cubesat might treat sun angle and tumbling rates as...could be sensitive to small differences in motor controller timing. In these cases, the analyst might choose to model the entire deployment path, with...knowledge of the material damage model or motor controller timing precision. On the other hand, if many repeated and environmentally representative

  20. The Rights of Persons Charged with Penal Offences to Access to Lawyers——A comparison between international and domestic laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIMING

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅰ. Getting help from lawyers and its realization according to international standards The right to defense for a person involving in a law suit is a universal human right. Article 11 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides: "Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence."

  1. Corporate Criminal Liability for Corruption Offences and the Due Diligence Defence: A Comparison of the Dutch and English Legal Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of to what extent companies can be held criminally liable for – active – bribery offences perpetrated by their employees. It focuses on the questions of to what extent companies have a duty of care to prevent bribery by employees and to what extent can a breach of such a duty of care cause criminal liability to ensue.In this contribution, the authors set out to answer these questions by comparing the Dutch and the British legal systems. After assessing the international and national legal frameworks, they conclude that the Dutch anti-corruption provisions are, compared to the British, broadly formulated, including ambiguous terms and that – as a result of this – their scope is somewhat vague. Due diligence measures have a varying effect on determining the criminal liability of companies. In contrast, the due diligence question has a fixed, unequivocal place in the UK system of determining criminal liability, making the UK system seem more straightforward. But still, neither anti-corruption legislation nor case law provides clarity as to the scope of due diligence measures. To increase legal certainty, this article calls upon the Dutch Government to produce guidelines, similar to the British MoJ Guidance, that provide specific examples of the details of a compliance scheme.

  2. Corporate Criminal Liability for Corruption Offences and the Due Diligence Defence: A Comparison of the Dutch and English Legal Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Meyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of to what extent companies can be held criminally liable for – active – bribery offences perpetrated by their employees. It focuses on the questions of to what extent companies have a duty of care to prevent bribery by employees and to what extent can a breach of such a duty of care cause criminal liability to ensue.In this contribution, the authors set out to answer these questions by comparing the Dutch and the British legal systems. After assessing the international and national legal frameworks, they conclude that the Dutch anti-corruption provisions are, compared to the British, broadly formulated, including ambiguous terms and that – as a result of this – their scope is somewhat vague. Due diligence measures have a varying effect on determining the criminal liability of companies. In contrast, the due diligence question has a fixed, unequivocal place in the UK system of determining criminal liability, making the UK system seem more straightforward. But still, neither anti-corruption legislation nor case law provides clarity as to the scope of due diligence measures. To increase legal certainty, this article calls upon the Dutch Government to produce guidelines, similar to the British MoJ Guidance, that provide specific examples of the details of a compliance scheme.

  3. Effect of repeated mass drug administration with praziquantel and track and treat of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis in Taenia solium endemic rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ndawi, Benedict

    This study evaluated the effect of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel administered to school-aged children (SAC) combined with ‘track and treat’ of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis. The study was conducted in 14 villages in Mbozi and Mbeya district, Tanzania. SAC recei...

  4. Effect of repeated mass drug administration with praziquantel and track and treat of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis in Taenia solium endemic rural communities of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ndawi, Benedict

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel administered to school-aged children (SAC) combined with ‘track and treat’ of taeniosis cases in the general population on the copro-antigen (Ag) prevalence of taeniosis. The study was conducted in 14 villages in ...

  5. 'Trafficking' or 'personal use': do people who regularly inject drugs understand Australian drug trafficking laws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Caitlin E; Ritter, Alison; Cowdery, Nicholas; Sindicich, Natasha

    2014-11-01

    Legal thresholds for drug trafficking, over which possession of an illicit drug is deemed 'trafficking' as opposed to 'personal use', are employed in all Australian states and territories excepting Queensland. In this paper, we explore the extent to which people who regularly inject drugs understand such laws. Participants from the seven affected states/territories in the 2012 Illicit Drug Reporting System (n = 823) were asked about their legal knowledge of trafficking thresholds: whether, if arrested, quantity possessed would affect legal action taken; and the quantities of heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine and cannabis that would constitute an offence of supply. Data were compared against the actual laws to identify the accuracy of knowledge by drug type and state, and sociodemographics, use and purchasing patterns related to knowledge. Most Illicit Drug Reporting System participants (77%) correctly said that quantity possessed would affect charge received. However, only 55.8% nominated any specific quantity that would constitute an offence of supply, and of those 22.6% nominated a wrong quantity, namely a quantity that was larger than the actual quantity for supply (this varied by state and drug). People who regularly inject drugs have significant gaps in knowledge about Australian legal thresholds for drug trafficking, particularly regarding the actual threshold quantities. This suggests that there may be a need to improve education for this population. Necessity for accurate knowledge would also be lessened by better design of Australian drug trafficking laws. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Object memory impairment at post-drug Day 15 but not at Day 1 after a regimen of repeated treatment with oral methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taukulis, Harald K; Bigney, Erin E; Fry, Michael D; Hooper, Courtney

    2014-04-30

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that is widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adults. Its similarity to other psychostimulants suggests that, at certain doses, the drug may generate lasting neuroadaptations that can be detrimental to the recipient. Some investigators have found that, in rats, the residual effects of the drug (i.e., following a 10-14 day washout period) can interfere with memory for objects when the retention interval is 3h or more. The present experiment replicated this result and demonstrated the critical importance of the washout period. Long-Evans male rats treated with MPH (5.0mg/kg po b.i.d.) on 21 days (during a post-natal period ranging from Day 29 to Day 57) and then twice-assessed for their performance in an object recognition task were able to recognize a familiar object on Day 1 after the last dose of the drug had been administered, behaving the same as the untreated control group. However, on Day 15 post-drug, the same MPH group failed to distinguish between a familiar and a novel object, exploring both nearly equally, while the control group continued to investigate the novel object to a greater extent than the familiar one. This suggests that, if a test for object recognition is conducted too early after the MPH treatment period ceases, a memory impairment may not be detected. In general, this finding has implications for studies of other behavioral or neurophysiological consequences of MPH that may appear following a drug-free withdrawal period.

  7. Repeat-dose toxicology evaluation in cynomolgus monkeys of AVI-4658, a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) drug for the treatment of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazani, Peter; Ness, Kirk P Van; Weller, Doreen L; Poage, Duane W; Palyada, Kiran; Shrewsbury, Stephen B

    2011-05-01

    AVI-4658 is a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) drug designed to restore dystrophin expression in a subset of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Previous reports demonstrated this clinical proof-of-principle in patients with DMD following intramuscular injection of AVI-4658. This preclinical study evaluated the toxicity and toxicokinetic profile of AVI-4658 when administered either intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC) to cynomolgus monkeys once weekly over 12 weeks, at doses up to the maximum feasible dose of 320 mg/kg per injection. No drug-related effects were noted on survival, clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, opthalmoscopic or electrocardiographic evaluations, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, and macroscopic evaluations. Drug-related microscopic renal effects were dose-dependent, apparently reversible, and included basophilic granules (minimal), basophilic tubules (minimal to moderate), and tubular vacuolation (minimal to mild). These data establish the tolerability of AVI-4658 at doses up to and including the maximum feasible dose of 320 mg/kg by IV bolus or SC injection.

  8. Selenium: a double-edged sword for defense and offence in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozmanová, Jela; Mániková, Dominika; Vlčková, Viera; Chovanec, Miroslav

    2010-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary component for animals including humans and is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. Although the mode of anticancer action of Se is not fully understood yet, several mechanisms, such as antioxidant protection by selenoenzymes, specific inhibition of tumor cell growth by Se metabolites, modulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, and effect on DNA repair have all been proposed. Despite the unsupported results of the last SELECT trial, the cancer-preventing activity of Se was demonstrated in majority of the epidemiological studies. Moreover, recent studies suggest that Se has a potential to be used not only in cancer prevention but also in cancer treatment where in combination with other anticancer drugs or radiation, it can increase efficacy of cancer therapy. In combating cancer cells, Se acts as pro-oxidant rather than antioxidant, inducing apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress. Thus, the inorganic Se compound, sodium selenite (SeL), due to its prooxidant character, represents a promising alternative for cancer therapy. However, this Se compound is highly toxic compared to organic Se forms. Thus, the unregulated intake of dietary or pharmacological Se supplements mainly in the form of SeL has a potential to expose the body tissues to the toxic levels of Se with subsequent negative consequences on DNA integrity. Hence, due to a broad interest to exploit the positive effects of Se on human health and cancer therapy, studies investigating the negative effects such as toxicity and DNA damage induction resulting from high Se intake are also highly required. Here, we review a role of Se in cancer prevention and cancer therapy, as well as mechanisms underlying Se-induced toxicity and DNA injury. Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven a powerful tool for addressing some important questions regarding Se biology, a part of this review is devoted to this model system.

  9. Repeat-until-success quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, David Edward; Barlow, Thomas M.; Razavi, Mohsen; Beige, Almut

    2014-09-01

    We propose a repeat-until-success protocol to improve the performance of probabilistic quantum repeaters. Conventionally, these rely on passive static linear-optics elements and photodetectors to perform Bell-state measurements (BSMs) with a maximum success rate of 50%. This is a strong impediment for entanglement swapping between distant quantum memories. Every time a BSM fails, entanglement needs to be redistributed between the corresponding memories in the repeater link. The key ingredients of our scheme are repeatable BSMs. Under ideal conditions, these turn probabilistic quantum repeaters into deterministic ones. Under realistic conditions, our protocol too might fail. However, using additional threshold detectors now allows us to improve the entanglement generation rate by almost orders of magnitude, at a nominal distance of 1000 km, compared to schemes that rely on conventional BSMs. This improvement is sufficient to make the performance of our scheme comparable to the expected performance of some deterministic quantum repeaters.

  10. Waiting time - an offence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the original study: Patient-culture - a qualitative study among hospitalised patients, which is inspired by the work of Album and Isaksen, is to discover, and describe patients' experiences of informal relations and interpret the meaning of having fellow-patients during hospitalisa......The purpose of the original study: Patient-culture - a qualitative study among hospitalised patients, which is inspired by the work of Album and Isaksen, is to discover, and describe patients' experiences of informal relations and interpret the meaning of having fellow-patients during...... fieldwork is set up consisting of participant observation and interviews.   Based on the qualitative analysis completed to date on a data set consisting of field notes from participant observations and informal interviews I explore patients' social interactions in their day-to-day lives on two adult...... surgical units at a teaching hospital. The presentation focuses on the nature of patients' social interactions; how these social interactions influence their way of understanding their own situation; differences between patients' formal and informal social interactions; and the factors that may influence...

  11. OFFENCE OF FRAUDULENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION CRISTINEL RUJAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the directors of companies and the activity of others who are required to manage the assets of individuals or legal entities - public or private, as well as people who have special skills in relation to these legal entities must be conducted in compliance with the legal provisions incidental to heritage management . It is important that the manager of the company should not confuse the company patrimony with his own patrimony so as to be detrimental to the legal person and legal administrators , liquidators or their representatives or agents should not enter into legal acts detrimental to the person whose heritage he manages under special procedures provided by law. From the perspective of the legal protection of corporate assets and individuals, along with other legal provisions of special laws and other offenses relating to the protection of goods, fraudulent management is distinguished as a specific offense to be retained when the perpetrator inflicts an injury to a person , during the administration or preservation of its assets, although he had to take care of the administration or preservation of those goods. Fraudulent management also exists if the offense is committed by the legal administrator , the liquidator of the debtor’s fortune or a representative or his agent.

  12. Effect of repeated mass drug administration with praziquantel and track and treat of taeniosis cases on the prevalence of taeniosis in Taenia solium endemic rural communities of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Magnussen, Pascal; Ndawi, Benedict; Harrison, Wendy; Lekule, Faustin; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel administered to school-aged children (SAC) combined with 'track and treat' of taeniosis cases in the general population on the copro-antigen (Ag) prevalence of taeniosis. The study was conducted in 14 villages in Mbozi and Mbeya district, Tanzania. SAC made up 34% of the population and received MDA with praziquantel (40mg/kg) in 2012 (both districts) and in 2013 (Mbozi only). Three cross-sectional population-based surveys were performed in 2012 (R0), 2013 (R1), and 2014 (R2). In each survey approximately 3000 study subjects of all ages were tested for taeniosis using copro-Ag-ELISA. In total 9064 people were tested and copro-Ag-ELISA positive cases were offered treatment 6-8 months after sampling. The copro-Ag prevalence of taeniosis was significantly higher (Χ(2)-test, p=0.007) in Mbozi (3.0%) at R0 compared to Mbeya (1.5%). Twelve months after MDA in both districts (R1), the copro-Ag prevalence had dropped significantly in both Mbozi (2.0%, p=0.024) and in Mbeya (0.3%, p=0.004), but the significant difference between the districts persisted (Χ(2)-test, p<0.001). Ten months after the second round of MDA in Mbozi and 22 month after the first MDA (R2), the copro-Ag prevalence had dropped significantly again in Mbozi (0.8%, p<0.001), but had slightly increased in Mbeya (0.5%, p=0.051), with no difference between the two districts (Χ(2)-test, p=0.51). The taeniosis cases tracked and treated between round R0 and R2 represented 9% of the projected total number of taeniosis cases within the study area, based on the copro-Ag prevalence and village population data. Among SAC in Mbozi, infection significantly decreased at R1 (p=0.004, OR 0.12, CI: 0.02-0.41) and R2 (p=0.001, OR 0.24, CI: 0.09-0.53) when comparing to R0. In Mbeya infection significant decreased at R1 (p=0.013, OR 0.14, CI: 0.02-0.55), but no difference was found for R2 (p=0. 089), when comparing to R0 among SAC. This study

  13. Molecular characterization of tat gene and long terminal repeat region of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 detected among the injecting drug users (IDUs) of Manipur, India: identification of BC recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullick, Ranajoy; Sengupta, Satarupa; Sarkar, Kamalesh; Chakrabarti, Sekhar

    2010-02-01

    The tat gene of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is responsible for the initiation and elongation of viral transcription through the LTR (long terminal repeat) transactivation process. Our study included structural and functional analyses of the tat gene and LTR region of 35 injecting drug users (IDUs) from Manipur (a north-eastern state in India and a potential source of HIV-1 recombinants) in order to search for the recombinants and variation in the transactivation process if any due to recombination. Analysis showed prevalence of subtype C with few BC recombinants for the tat gene showing identical recombination breakpoints. Phylogenetic analysis of the LTR region of those IDU strains showed strong resemblance to Indian subtype C forming a completely separate cluster from the other global C LTR sequences. The TAR element (transactivator response region) in all the LTR sequences was fairly conserved. Further study of the transactivation rate of the C and BC tat for the Manipur C LTR showed almost equal transactivity in both the cases. This is the first report of characterisation of tat gene and LTR region of HIV-1 samples among IDUs from north-eastern India.

  14. Quantum repeated games revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Frackiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme for playing quantum repeated 2x2 games based on the Marinatto and Weber's approach to quantum games. As a potential application, we study twice repeated Prisoner's Dilemma game. We show that results not available in classical game can be obtained when the game is played in the quantum way. Before we present our idea, we comment on the previous scheme of playing quantum repeated games.

  15. A comparison of Australian men with psychotic disorders remanded for criminal offences and a community group of psychotic men who have not offended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul; Chant, David; Whiteford, Harvey

    2006-03-01

    People remanded into custody by the courts have a substantially higher rate of severe mental disorder than other prisoners and the general population. Knowledge of their prevalence, needs and characteristics and an analysis of pathways to care may be necessary to provide mental health care effectively and efficiently. Previous prison studies focusing on psychotic offenders have suffered from the use of instruments not validated in a forensic setting and lack of a relevant comparison group. The Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis (DP) is a composite semi-structured standardized interview schedule. It combines social and demographic descriptors with measures of functioning adapted from the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS). The remand centre surveyed had 466 cells and is the main remand and reception centre for males for the southern region of the state of Queensland, Australia. Of the 621 men screened, 65 answered yes to at least one question in the DP and were interviewed. Six hundred and twenty-one remandees were screened and of these 61 were interviewed as screened positive for psychotic disorder. Thirty-five per cent had been homeless for an average of 32 weeks during the previous year. Most had had little contact with families or close friends. Eighty-one per cent were receiving no treatment at the time of offence. Seventy-eight per cent were unemployed and in receipt of a pension. Eighty per cent were dependent on alcohol, cannabis or amphetamines. Statistical issues of power are detailed in the text. The simplistic 'prison, hospital or community treatment' debate is misleading. Instead, the development of flexible preventative, management and accommodation services for people with severe mental disorder who have committed offences is a priority.

  16. Drug Use and HIV Infection Status of Detainees in Re-Education through Labour Camps in Guangxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes HIV disease burden and patterns of drug use before and during incarceration among detainees in Re-education-Through-Labour-Camps (RTLCs in China. A cross-sectional survey of 576 men and 179 women from three RTLCs was conducted in Guangxi Province, China. Over three-quarters of study participants were detained due to drug-related offences. Over half of the women (n = 313, 54.3% and two-thirds of men (n = 119, 66.5% had been previously been incarcerated in a compulsory detoxification treatment centre (CDTC, and around one-third (men n = 159, 27.6%; women n = 50, 27.9% in a RTLC. Of those surveyed, 49 men (8.5% and one (0.6% woman reported ever using drugs while in a CDTC and/or RTLC. Previous incarceration in CDTCs and RTLCs were associated with HIV infection among both male (OR = 2.15 [1.11–4.15] and female (OR = 3.87 [1.86–9.04] detainees. Being married/cohabiting with a partner (OR = 0.53, [0.30–0.93] and being employed (OR = 0.46, [0.22–0.95] were associated with a reduced odds of HIV infection among male detainees. A significant proportion of RTLC detainees had a history of drug use and a limited number of inmates had used illegal substances whilst in custody. Repeat incarcerations in CDTCs/RTLCs were associated with higher risks of HIV infection.

  17. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  18. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  19. Recursive quantum repeater networks

    CERN Document Server

    Van Meter, Rodney; Horsman, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Internet-scale quantum repeater networks will be heterogeneous in physical technology, repeater functionality, and management. The classical control necessary to use the network will therefore face similar issues as Internet data transmission. Many scalability and management problems that arose during the development of the Internet might have been solved in a more uniform fashion, improving flexibility and reducing redundant engineering effort. Quantum repeater network development is currently at the stage where we risk similar duplication when separate systems are combined. We propose a unifying framework that can be used with all existing repeater designs. We introduce the notion of a Quantum Recursive Network Architecture, developed from the emerging classical concept of 'recursive networks', extending recursive mechanisms from a focus on data forwarding to a more general distributed computing request framework. Recursion abstracts independent transit networks as single relay nodes, unifies software layer...

  20. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  1. Repeating the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the celebration of the Journal 's 75th year, we are scanning each Journal issue from 25, 50, and 74 years ago. Many of the ideas and practices described are so similar to present-day "innovations" that George Santayana's adage (1) "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it" comes to mind. But perhaps "condemned" is too strong - sometimes it may be valuable to repeat something that was done long ago. One example comes from the earliest days of the Division of Chemical Education and of the Journal.

  2. All-optical repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberberg, Y

    1986-06-01

    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  3. Bidirectional Manchester repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J.

    1980-01-01

    Bidirectional Manchester repeater is inserted at periodic intervals along single bidirectional twisted pair transmission line to detect, amplify, and transmit bidirectional Manchester 11 code signals. Requiring only 18 TTL 7400 series IC's, some line receivers and drivers, and handful of passive components, circuit is simple and relatively inexpensive to build.

  4. Strategies for a risky business: How drug dealers manage customers, suppliers and competitors in Italy, Slovenia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzvetkova, Marina; Pardal, Mafalda; Disley, Emma; Rena, Alice; Talic, Sanela; Forberger, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of literature aims to improve understanding of the operations of drug trafficking markets through conducting interviews with dealers and traffickers. Insight into how these individuals conduct business can provide evidence to inform the efforts by policy makers, law enforcement and practitioners to disrupt illicit markets. This paper aims to make a contribution to this evidence base by extending the number of European countries in which interviews have been conducted with incarcerated drug dealers and traffickers. It draws on interviews with 135 men convicted of offences related to the distribution or sale of heroin or cocaine and imprisoned in Italy, Slovenia and Germany. The research was conducted as part of the Reframing Addictions Project (ALICE-RAP) funded by the European Commission. The sample was diverse. It included a range of nationalities and some individuals who were members of organised crime groups. The majority of the interviewees were dealers who sold at the retail and street level, but there were some who were importers and wholesalers. Most dealers in each of the three countries reported having more than one regular supplier, and were able to respond to periods of over and under supply without losing customers. Supply arrangements varied in terms of frequency and quantities bought. Dealers engaged in repeated transactions and their relationships with customers were based on trust and reputation. Dealers aimed to sell to regular customers and to provide drugs of good quality. While dealers sought to maximise their profits by cutting drugs with cutting agents, the quality of drugs that they sold could affect their reputation and thus their profits and position in the market. Lastly, while there are some significant differences in the approach between those involved in organised crime groups and those who are not, and between street dealers and those operating at higher levels of the market, there were striking similarities in terms of

  5. Distinguishing among weapons offenders, drug offenders, and weapons and drug offenders based on childhood predictors and adolescent correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Skye; Day, David M

    2013-07-01

    Weapons and drug offences incur a large cost to society and tend to be strongly associated. Improved understanding of their antecedents could inform targeted early intervention and prevention programmes. This study aimed to examine differences in criminal careers, childhood predictors and adolescent correlates among weapons-only offenders, drugs-only offenders and a versatile group of weapons + drugs offenders. We conducted a longitudinal records study of 455 young Canadians charged with drug and/or weapons offences who started their offending in late childhood/early adolescence. Consistent with expectation, differences emerged in their criminal careers as the versatile group had a longer criminal career and desisted from offending at a later age than weapons-only offenders. Against prediction, weapons-only offenders experienced the greatest number of childhood predictors and adolescent correlates. The three offending groups could be differentiated on offending trajectories and developmental factors.In making links between past events and later behaviour, life-course criminology may inform development of effective early intervention and prevention strategies.As weapons-only offenders experience the greatest level of adversity in childhood and adolescence, they may benefit most (of these three groups) from early intervention and prevention programmes.A reduction in weapon carrying and use might be achieved by early identification of children risk factors (e.g. family adversity) and appropriate intervention. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Correction of Predicate Offence of Money Laundering in the View of Typological Thinking%类型思维视野下的洗钱罪上游犯罪匡正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张理恒; 刘明智

    2014-01-01

    刑法条文的相对稳定性与生活情势的多彩变化之间存在天然裂痕,选取何种立场与思维,成为求取两者平衡的基本前提。洗钱罪短短数载便经历两次修订,其上游犯罪“类罪扩充”的列举模式虽在适用上颇具“简洁明快”之感,但对类罪之外的洗钱行为却难以规制,这凸显刑法条文与生活情势的偏斜与脱节。《反洗钱法》第二条所规定的七种类罪之后“等”字的加入,无不为洗钱罪上游犯罪范域界定提供可行切入点。突破严格解释论立场,遵循该“等”字所蕴涵开放思维之秉性,选取概念思维基础之上的双向思考纬度的类型思维来探寻洗钱罪上游犯罪的“本核”,成为洗钱罪上游犯罪匡正的可行路径。%There is a natural crack between the relative stability of criminal law provisions and the constant change of life. The selection of position and thinking mode becomes the basic premise of the bal-ance of criminal law provisions and the constant change of life. The provisions of money laundering was revised twice within a few years. Although listing its predicate offence in the form of “crime expand” is quite concise in applying, but it is difficult to regulate the predicate offence of money laundering outside of the listing crime, which demonstrates the conflict between criminal law provisions and life. Article 2 of Anti-Money Laundering Law stipulates seven kinds of crimes and adds“etc”, which defines the range of predicate offence of money laundering. Breaking through the strict interpretation and following the open thinking of the word “etc”, the bi-directional thinking latitude of typological thinking to explore the nu-clear of predicate offence of money laundering would be the feasible path of correcting predicate offence of money laundering.

  7. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  8. Drug policy reform and the reclassification of cannabis in England and Wales: A cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiner, Michael

    2015-07-01

    When the legal classification of cannabis was downgraded in 2004 it represented the most significant liberalisation of British drug law in more than 30 years. Paradoxically, however, this apparently progressive reform led to an intensification of police efforts targeting minor possession offences and its failure was confirmed in January 2009 when the decision to downgrade cannabis was reversed. This article documents the impact that reclassification had on law enforcement activities and seeks to explain why it failed to deliver a more progressive approach. Drawing on official statistics, the analysis charts the process of net-widening that followed the reform, identifying a sharp increase in the number of people caught in the criminal justice net for minor possession offences. While police targeting of such offences was an unintended consequence of performance targets, broader political influences were also at play. The contradictions and reversals involved in the reclassification of cannabis, it is argued, can be readily understood in terms of the broader politics of crime and control and the 'structured ambivalence' of state responses.

  9. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  10. 再次置入药物洗脱支架治疗经皮冠状动脉支架置入术后早期与晚期支架内再狭窄的对比研究%Comparison of repeated drug eluting stent for treatment of early and late in-stent restenosis after drug eluting stent implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玮玮; 赵林; 郭成军; 方冬平; 何东方; 张晓江; 迟云鹏; 刘梅颜; 吴小凡

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较再次置入药物洗脱支架(DES)治疗置入DES后早期(≤1年)与晚期(>1年)支架内再狭窄(ISR)患者的临床疗效.方法 收集2008年10月至2011年12月在北京安贞医院因DES置入术后ISR接受再次DES置人治疗并完成临床随访的患者资料.根据DES置入术后发生ISR的时间分为早期ISR组和晚期ISR组.对比2组随访期间的主要不良心血管事件(MACE)[包括全因死亡、心肌梗死和靶病变血运重建(TLR)].结果 总计107例患者入选本研究,其中早期ISR组43例,晚期ISR组64例.2组的患者基线资料、靶病变部位、类型、长度、置入支架特征及ISR类型、再次置入支架特征差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).早期ISR组糖尿病患病率明显低于晚期ISR组[22.7% (10/44)比42.9% (27/63),P<0.01].晚期ISR组MACE发生率明显低于早期ISR组[15.9% (10/63)比47.7% (21/44),P<0.01];晚期ISR组TLR率明显低于早期ISR组[12.7% (8/63))比43.2% (19/44),P<0.01].Logistic回归分析显示,DES术后早期ISR(OR=6.47,95% CI:2.26~18.50,P<0.01)是DES治疗ISR后再次TLR的唯一预测因素.结论 再次DES置入治疗DES置入后ISR安全有效,但治疗早期ISR时TLR明显升高.%Objective To compare the efficiency and safety of repeated drug eluting stent (DES) for treatment of early and late DES in-stent restenosis(ISR).Methods Patients treated with repeated DES for DES ISR in Beijing anzhen hospital between October 2008 and December 2011 were followed up.All lesions were divided into early ISR group(within 1 year) (43 cases)and late ISR group (in > 1 year) (64 cases) by the period ISR occurring after initial DES implantation.Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including all-cause death,myocardial infarction and clinical target lesion revascularization (TLR) were the primary endpoints.Results There were not differences between early ISR group and late ISR group in clinical and angiographic characteristics(P >0

  11. Punishability of transfrontier environmental offences. Also a contribution to the dogmatic aspects of hazards and on international law in the field of ecology. Strafbarkeit grenzueberschreitender Umweltbeeintraechtigungen. Zugleich ein Beitrag zur Gefaehrdungsdogmatik und zum Umweltvoelkerrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.

    1989-01-01

    National environmental Acts include a great number of areas and this applies even more if there is an international component. It is not only the German international criminal law but also questions of general criminal law dogmatic and the relationship between environmental criminal law and administrative law that must be taken into account. In order to prevent inadmissible interferences with another country's sovereign rights it is necessary to harmonize the international environmental law and the international environmental criminal law. Aspects of the international civil law and the administrative law have to be considered as well. The book concludes that even abstract offences that carry the potential of endangerment also qualify as statutorily proscribed harm. The German environmental criminal law is therefore applicable even if the offence cause only a domestic danger. An action which is permissible under another country's administrative law is not punishable under some few regulations. In all other cases it is punishable unless the foreign country's Sovereign Act is recognised. This applies if the Federal Republic of Germany has to tolerate harm under international environmental law. Claims under international law to refrain from transformer pollution can often be much more extensive than commonly assumed. (orig.).

  12. 犯罪预防视角下罪错青少年社会工作理论研究%The Theory Study of Crime Prevention Field with Offence Adolescent Social Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华

    2015-01-01

    本文从罪错青少年社会工作的视角出发,理顺青少年社会工作的古典与现代犯罪预防理论发展脉络,以社会生态系统、增权与犯罪断念理论为切入点,探讨罪错青少年社会工作的理论新视角,研究社会工作理论发展的趋势及对社会工作指导与实践创新的影响与效用。%Based on the field of crime prevention offence adolescent social work as the research object, combing juvenile social work of classical and modern theory of crime prevention development, according to the theory of social ecosystem theory, empowerment and the theory of crime desist, discusses the theory of offence adolescent social work new perspective, the trend in the development of social work theory and the study on the influence of the social work instruction and practice innovation and utility.

  13. Effects of 3-repeat tau on taxol mobility through microtubules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Fygenson, Deborah; Kim, Mahn Won

    2005-03-01

    Both the anti-cancer drug taxol and the microtubule-associated protein tau suppress dynamics of microtubules (MT). We have observed taxol mobility with full-length 3-repeat tau, one of six tau isoforms, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) on MTs and compare with earlier results on recombinant full-length adult 4-repeat tau. Taxol mobility becomes highly sensitive to taxol concentration in the presence of 3-repeat tau (up to 1:1 molar ratio) as it does in the presence of 4-repeat tau, but is 2 to 3 times faster at low taxol concentrations. Fitting to a mean-field binding reaction model [J.L. Ross et.al, PNAS 101:12910-5 (2004)] suggests that the presence of 3-repeat tau enhances taxol movement through pores in the MT walls.

  14. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  15. DWI Repeaters and Non-Repeaters: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, Stan

    1981-01-01

    Discussed how driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) repeaters differed signigicantly from nonrepeaters on 4 of 23 variables tested. Repeaters were more likely to have zero or two dependent children, attend church frequently, drink occasionally and have one or more arrests for public intoxication. (Author)

  16. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  17. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  18. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  19. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  20. Repeatability of Response to Asthma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann; Tantisira, Kelan; Li, Lingling; Schuemann, Brooke; Weiss, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies of drug response in asthma assume that patients respond consistently to a treatment but that treatment response varies across patients, however, no formal studies have demonstrated this. Objective To determine the repeatability of commonly used outcomes for treatment response to asthma medications: bronchodilator response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and provocative concentration of methacholine producing a 20% decline in FEV1 (PC20). Methods The Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) was a multi-center clinical trial of children randomized to receiving budesonide, nedocromil, or placebo. We determined the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for each outcome over repeated visits over four years in CAMP using mixed effects regression models. We adjusted for the covariates: age, race/ethnicity, height, family income, parental education, and symptom score. We incorporated each outcome for each child as repeated outcome measurements and stratified by treatment group. Results The ICC for bronchodilator response was 0.31 in the budesonide group, 0.35 in the nedocromil group, and 0.40 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for FEV1 was 0.71 in the budesonide group, 0.60 in the nedocromil group, and 0.69 in the placebo group, after adjusting for covariates. The ICC for PC20 was 0.67 in the budesonide and placebo groups and 0.73 in the nedocromil group, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusion The within treatment group repeatability of FEV1 and PC20 are high; thus these phenotypes are heritable. FEV1 and PC20 may be better phenotypes than bronchodilator response for studies of treatment response in asthma. PMID:19064281

  1. Postoperative repeated respiratory insufficiency and thyrotoxicosis in molar pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekic, B; Geze, S; Ulusoy, H; Coskun, I; Erturk, E

    2012-06-01

    Following the removal of a hydatiform mole in a 34-year-old, 14-week pregnant patient, thyrotoxicosis and respiratory insufficiency attacks were twice unexpectedly repeated. The symptoms were resolved with the administration of plasmapheresis, antithyroid and β-blocker drugs and non-invasive mechanical ventilation; however, she was again operated due to prolonged elevated β-hCG.

  2. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  3. 短期重复使用几种精神药物对小鼠自主活动和脑单胺递质的影响%Effect of short-term repeated administration of several psychoactive drugs on locomotor activity and cerebral monamine transmitters in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹皓; 唐桂香; 辛益妹

    2001-01-01

    目的观察短期重复使用几种精神药物对小鼠自主活动和脑单胺递质的影响,以评价药物作用的耐受性和副作用。方法雄性小鼠作为实验对象。中枢兴奋药实验分3组(每组n=6):①对照组;②咖啡因(Caf)组30 mg/kg;③右旋苯丙胺(Dex)组10 mg/kg。催眠药实验分4组(每组n=6):①对照组;②三唑仑(TZ)组0.04 mg/kg;③速可眠(Sec)组60 mg/kg;④褪黑素(Mel)组120 mg/kg。小鼠灌胃给药,1次/d,共7 d。于第1天和第7天称重和测定自主活动。Dex和TZ连续用药7 d后,用高效液相色谱法测定小鼠大脑皮层单胺递质及其代谢产物的变化。结果①对照组和用药组的体重差异无显著性意义;②连续用药7 d,Caf和Dex对自主活动的兴奋作用较第1天明显增强(P<0.05);③连续用药7 d,虽然催眠药对小鼠自主活动仍有显著的抑制作用,但作用强度较之第1天明显降低(P<0.05);④Dex和TZ连续用药7 d,小鼠大脑皮层单胺递质水平无明显改变,但Dex组的双羟基苯乙酸(DOPAC)和5-羟基吲哚乙酸(5-HIAA)及TZ组的5-HIAA明显降低(P<0.05)。结论①连续应用催眠药1周,其作用有一定的耐受性;②重复使用Dex和TZ 1周对鼠脑单胺递质的代谢可能产生不良影响。%Objective To observe the effect of short-term repeated administration of several psychoactive drugs on locomotor activity and cerebral monamine transmitters in mice and evaluate tolerance of drug action and their side-effects. Methods Male mice were used as subjects. The experiment of central stimulants was divided into 3 groups (n=6 each): ①control;②caffeine(Caf) 30 mg/kg; ③dexamphetamine(Dex) 10 mg/kg. The experiment of hypnotics included 4 groups: ①control; ②triazolam (TZ) 0.04 mg/kg;③seconal (Sec) 60 mg/kg; ④melatonin (Mel) 120 mg/kg. These drugs were given orally to the mice once daily for 7 days. Body weight and locomotor activity were determined on first

  4. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  5. Hysteresis of magnetostructural transitions: Repeatable and non-repeatable processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provenzano, Virgil [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Della Torre, Edward; Bennett, Lawrence H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); ElBidweihy, Hatem, E-mail: Hatem@gwmail.gwu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} alloy and the off-stoichiometric Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} Heusler alloy belong to a special class of metallic materials that exhibit first-order magnetostructural transitions near room temperature. The magnetic properties of this class of materials have been extensively studied due to their interesting magnetic behavior and their potential for a number of technological applications such as refrigerants for near-room-temperature magnetic refrigeration. The thermally driven first-order transitions in these materials can be field-induced in the reverse order by applying a strong enough field. The field-induced transitions are typically accompanied by the presence of large magnetic hysteresis, the characteristics of which are a complicated function of temperature, field, and magneto-thermal history. In this study we show that the virgin curve, the major loop, and sequentially measured MH loops are the results of both repeatable and non-repeatable processes, in which the starting magnetostructural state, prior to the cycling of field, plays a major role. Using the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 15} alloys, as model materials, we show that a starting single phase state results in fully repeatable processes and large magnetic hysteresis, whereas a mixed phase starting state results in non-repeatable processes and smaller hysteresis.

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn Children Drug Use Hurts Your Health Drug Use Hurts ... Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug-Free Talking to Kids ...

  7. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use and Other People Drug Use and Families Drug Use and Kids Drug Use and Unborn ...

  8. EAMJ Dec. Repeatability.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Results:Kappa values for four-week repeatability for the wheeze and asthma questions were 0.61 ... for logistic, cultural and ethical reasons, to use ... individual with baseline forced expiratory volume in .... period is likely to also include the effects of true ... data, the writing of the manuscript or the decision.

  9. Using 'payment by results' to fund the treatment of dependent drug users--proceed with care!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Alan; Street, Andrew; Hunter, Rachael

    2011-10-01

    The UK government is changing its system of payment for drug treatment services in order to reward the achievement of better patient outcomes. This is a model that may be taken up internationally. This 'payment by results' funding system will reward providers for achieving good outcomes in terms of whether clients are drug free, employed and/or not convicted of a criminal offence. Providers will also receive a payment based on health and wellbeing outcome measurement. The definition and measurement of success in achieving these outcomes is complex and challenging, as is the need to bridge treatment costs during the period in which outcomes are pursued. This experiment requires careful evaluation if the delivery of drug treatment is not to be jeopardized or fragmented.

  10. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  11. Directionality switchable gain stabilized linear repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takayuki; Ohmachi, Tadashi; Aida, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    We propose a new approach to realize a bidirectional linear repeater suitable for future optical internet networks and fault location in repeater chain with OTDR. The proposed approach is the linear repeater of simple configuration whose directionality is rearranged dynamically by electrical control signal. The repeater is composed of a magneto-optical switch, a circulator, a dynamically gain stabilized unidirectional EDFA, and control circuits. The repeater directionality is rearranged as fast as 0.1ms by an electrical control pulse. It is experimentally confirmed that OTDR with the directionality switchable repeater is feasible for repeater chain. The detailed design and performance of the repeater are also discussed, including the multi-pass interference (MPI) which may arise in the proposed repeater, the effect of the MPI on SNR degradation of the repeater chain and the feed-forward EDFA gain control circuit.

  12. Measurement-based quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zwerger, M; Briegel, H J

    2012-01-01

    We introduce measurement-based quantum repeaters, where small-scale measurement-based quantum processors are used to perform entanglement purification and entanglement swapping in a long-range quantum communication protocol. In the scheme, pre-prepared entangled states stored at intermediate repeater stations are coupled with incoming photons by simple Bell-measurements, without the need of performing additional quantum gates or measurements. We show how to construct the required resource states, and how to minimize their size. We analyze the performance of the scheme under noise and imperfections, with focus on small-scale implementations involving entangled states of few qubits. We find measurement-based purification protocols with significantly improved noise thresholds. Furthermore we show that already resource states of small size suffice to significantly increase the maximal communication distance. We also discuss possible advantages of our scheme for different set-ups.

  13. A Repeating Fast Radio Burst

    CERN Document Server

    Spitler, L G; Hessels, J W T; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Cordes, J M; Crawford, F; Deneva, J; Ferdman, R D; Freire, P C C; Kaspi, V M; Lazarus, P; Lynch, R; Madsen, E C; McLaughlin, M A; Patel, C; Ransom, S M; Seymour, A; Stairs, I H; Stappers, B W; van Leeuwen, J; Zhu, W W

    2016-01-01

    Fast Radio Bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measures (i.e. integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of the fast radio bursts has led several authors to hypothesise that they originate in cataclysmic astrophysical events. Here we report the detection of ten additional bursts from the direction of FRB121102, using the 305-m Arecibo telescope. These new bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and wh...

  14. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lili

    2003-01-01

    Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

  15. Was an increase in cocaine use among injecting drug users in New South Wales, Australia, accompanied by an increase in violent crime?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conroy Elizabeth

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sharp reduction in heroin supply in Australia in 2001 was followed by a large but transient increase in cocaine use among injecting drug users (IDU in Sydney. This paper assesses whether the increase in cocaine use among IDU was accompanied by increased rates of violent crime as occurred in the United States in the 1980s. Specifically, the paper aims to examine the impact of increased cocaine use among Sydney IDU upon police incidents of robbery with a weapon, assault and homicide. Methods Data on cocaine use among IDU was obtained from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS. Monthly NSW Police incident data on arrests for cocaine possession/use, robbery offences, homicides, and assaults, were obtained from the Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research. Time series analysis was conducted on the police data series where possible. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives from law enforcement and health agencies about the impacts of cocaine use on crime and policing. Results There was a significant increase in cocaine use and cocaine possession offences in the months immediately following the reduction in heroin supply. There was also a significant increase in incidents of robbery where weapons were involved. There were no increases in offences involving firearms, homicides or reported assaults. Conclusion The increased use of cocaine among injecting drug users following the heroin shortage led to increases in violent crime. Other States and territories that also experienced a heroin shortage but did not show any increases in cocaine use did not report any increase in violent crimes. The violent crimes committed did not involve guns, most likely because of its stringent gun laws, in contrast to the experience of American cities that have experienced high rates of cocaine use and violent crime.

  16. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts Families Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn ...

  17. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Use Hurts Unborn Children Drug Use Hurts Your Health Drug Use Hurts Bodies Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  18. Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of consciousness Other conditions resulting from drug allergy Less common drug allergy reactions occur days or ... you take the drug. Drugs commonly linked to allergies Although any drug can cause an allergic reaction, ...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Addiction? Addiction Risk Factors Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? ... Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts Families Drug Use Hurts Kids Drug Use Hurts Unborn ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? ... and Family Can Help Find Treatment/Rehab Resources Prevent Drug Use Help Children and Teens Stay Drug- ...

  1. Origin and fate of repeats in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaz, G; Rocha, E P C; Netter, P; Coissac, E

    2002-07-01

    We investigated 53 complete bacterial chromosomes for intrachromosomal repeats. In previous studies on eukaryote chromosomes, we proposed a model for the dynamics of repeats based on the continuous genesis of tandem repeats, followed by an active process of high deletion rate, counteracted by rearrangement events that may prevent the repeats from being deleted. The present study of long repeats in the genomes of Bacteria and Archaea suggests that our model of interspersed repeats dynamics may apply to them. Thus the duplication process might be a consequence of very ancient mechanisms shared by all three domains. Moreover, we show that there is a strong negative correlation between nucleotide composition bias and the repeat density of genomes. We hypothesise that in highly biased genomes, non-duplicated small repeats arise more frequently by random effects and are used as primers for duplication mechanisms, leading to a higher density of large repeats.

  2. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  4. Crowding by a repeating pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sarah; Pelli, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    Theinability to recognize a peripheral target among flankers is called crowding. For a foveal target, crowding can be distinguished from overlap masking by its sparing of detection, linear scaling with eccentricity, and invariance with target size.Crowding depends on the proximity and similarity of the flankers to the target. Flankers that are far from or dissimilar to the target do not crowd it. On a gray page, text whose neighboring letters have different colors, alternately black and white, has enough dissimilarity that it might escape crowding. Since reading speed is normally limited by crowding, escape from crowding should allow faster reading. Yet reading speed is unchanged (Chung & Mansfield, 2009). Why? A recent vernier study found that using alternating-color flankers produces strong crowding (Manassi, Sayim, & Herzog, 2012). Might that effect occur with letters and reading? Critical spacing is the minimum center-to-center target-flanker spacing needed to correctly identify the target. We measure it for a target letter surrounded by several equidistant flanker letters of the same polarity, opposite polarity, or mixed polarity: alternately white and black. We find strong crowding in the alternating condition, even though each flanker letter is beyond its own critical spacing (as measured in a separate condition). Thus a periodic repeating pattern can produce crowding even when the individual elements do not. Further, in all conditions we find that, once a periodic pattern repeats (two cycles), further repetition does not affect critical spacing of the innermost flanker.

  5. Automatization and familiarity in repeated checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Giele, Catharina L.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated checking paradoxically increases memory uncertainty. This study investigated the underlying mechanism of this effect. We hypothesized that as a result of repeated checking, familiarity with stimuli increases, and automatization of the checking procedure occurs, which should result in decrea

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... file Error processing SSI file Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 in 5 births to teens, ages ...

  7. Drugs and Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Robert, Comp.; And Others.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Drugs and drug abuse. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several sections, each of which is in outline or list form. It is xeroxed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The major portion of the guide contains a…

  8. Drug allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  9. Expanded complexity of unstable repeat diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Polak, Urszula; McIvor, Elizabeth; Dent, Sharon Y.R.; Wells, Robert D.; Napierala, Marek.

    2012-01-01

    Unstable Repeat Diseases (URDs) share a common mutational phenomenon of changes in the copy number of short, tandemly repeated DNA sequences. More than 20 human neurological diseases are caused by instability, predominantly expansion, of microsatellite sequences. Changes in the repeat size initiate a cascade of pathological processes, frequently characteristic of a unique disease or a small subgroup of the URDs. Understanding of both the mechanism of repeat instability and molecular consequen...

  10. 47 CFR 97.205 - Repeater station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater station. 97.205 Section 97.205... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.205 Repeater station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a repeater. A holder of...

  11. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015... Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1015 Repeater operation. Offshore central stations may be used as repeater stations provided that the licensee is able to maintain control of the station, and in...

  12. ProtRepeatsDB: a database of amino acid repeats in genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauhan Virander S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome wide and cross species comparisons of amino acid repeats is an intriguing problem in biology mainly due to the highly polymorphic nature and diverse functions of amino acid repeats. Innate protein repeats constitute vital functional and structural regions in proteins. Repeats are of great consequence in evolution of proteins, as evident from analysis of repeats in different organisms. In the post genomic era, availability of protein sequences encoded in different genomes provides a unique opportunity to perform large scale comparative studies of amino acid repeats. ProtRepeatsDB http://bioinfo.icgeb.res.in/repeats/ is a relational database of perfect and mismatch repeats, access to which is designed as a resource and collection of tools for detection and cross species comparisons of different types of amino acid repeats. Description ProtRepeatsDB (v1.2 consists of perfect as well as mismatch amino acid repeats in the protein sequences of 141 organisms, the genomes of which are now available. The web interface of ProtRepeatsDB consists of different tools to perform repeat s; based on protein IDs, organism name, repeat sequences, and keywords as in FASTA headers, size, frequency, gene ontology (GO annotation IDs and regular expressions (REGEXP describing repeats. These tools also allow formulation of a variety of simple, complex and logical queries to facilitate mining and large-scale cross-species comparisons of amino acid repeats. In addition to this, the database also contains sequence analysis tools to determine repeats in user input sequences. Conclusion ProtRepeatsDB is a multi-organism database of different types of amino acid repeats present in proteins. It integrates useful tools to perform genome wide queries for rapid screening and identification of amino acid repeats and facilitates comparative and evolutionary studies of the repeats. The database is useful for identification of species or organism specific

  13. Protection provided by criminal law against hazards of nuclear energy and the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Also a survey of the history of definition of offences against the atomic energy law and radiation protection law in the Federal Republic of Germany. Der strafrechtliche Schutz vor den Gefahren der Kernenergie und den schaedlichen Wirkungen ionisierender Strahlen. Zugleich eine Darstellung der historischen Entwicklung der Kernenergie- und Strahlendelikte in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, M.

    1989-01-01

    The subjects, principles and purpose of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law are set out, and criminal offences under atomic energy law are outlined explaining the legal terminology applied. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radioactive materials are briefly discussed, primarily looking at the hazards involved and the protective role of criminal law principles that have been developed in connection with the atomic energy law and its application in practice. The draft version of the 16th criminal law amendment act - Act to combat environmental delinquency - is discussed, which aims at adoption of all criminal offences under atomic energy law by the Criminal Code. The book furthermore presents considerations about basic features of delinquency under atomic energy and radiation protection law, revealing elements and facts of offences defined, and particular problems resulting thereof. The question arises, e.g., whether an incorporation of the provisions into the Special Annex to the Criminal Code, in sections 27 and 28, is a wise and suitable decision. The book finally discusses the development of definition of criminal offences by a de lege feranda approach, referring to (1) the Chernobyl reactor accident, (2) the Nuclear Safeguards agreements, and (3) the definition of maximum permissible radiation dose. (HP).

  14. Pentatricopeptide repeat proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Alice; Small, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins constitute one of the largest protein families in land plants, with more than 400 members in most species. Over the past decade, much has been learned about the molecular functions of these proteins, where they act in the cell, and what physiological roles they play during plant growth and development. A typical PPR protein is targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts, binds one or several organellar transcripts, and influences their expression by altering RNA sequence, turnover, processing, or translation. Their combined action has profound effects on organelle biogenesis and function and, consequently, on photosynthesis, respiration, plant development, and environmental responses. Recent breakthroughs in understanding how PPR proteins recognize RNA sequences through modular base-specific contacts will help match proteins to potential binding sites and provide a pathway toward designing synthetic RNA-binding proteins aimed at desired targets.

  15. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  16. General benchmarks for quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Using a technique based on quantum teleportation, we simplify the most general adaptive protocols for key distribution, entanglement distillation and quantum communication over a wide class of quantum channels in arbitrary dimension. Thanks to this method, we bound the ultimate rates for secret key generation and quantum communication through single-mode Gaussian channels and several discrete-variable channels. In particular, we derive exact formulas for the two-way assisted capacities of the bosonic quantum-limited amplifier and the dephasing channel in arbitrary dimension, as well as the secret key capacity of the qubit erasure channel. Our results establish the limits of quantum communication with arbitrary systems and set the most general and precise benchmarks for testing quantum repeaters in both discrete- and continuous-variable settings.

  17. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  18. Quality control during repeated fryings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta, C.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

  19. Individual, family and offence characteristics of high risk childhood offenders: comparing non-offending, one-time offending and re-offending Dutch-Moroccan migrant children in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Gonneke WJM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood offenders are at an increased risk for developing mental health, social and educational problems later in life. An early onset of offending is a strong predictor for future persistent offending. Childhood offenders from ethnic minority groups are a vulnerable at-risk group. However, up until now, no studies have focused on them. Aims To investigate which risk factors are associated with (re-offending of childhood offenders from an ethnic minority. Method Dutch-Moroccan boys, who were registered by the police in the year 2006-2007, and their parents as well as a control group (n = 40 were interviewed regarding their individual and family characteristics. Two years later a follow-up analysis of police data was conducted to identify one-time offenders (n = 65 and re-offenders (n = 35. Results All groups, including the controls, showed substantial problems. Single parenthood (OR 6.0 and financial problems (OR 3.9 distinguished one-time offenders from controls. Reading problems (OR 3.8, having an older brother (OR 5.5 and a parent having Dutch friends (OR 4.3 distinguished re-offenders from one-time offenders. First offence characteristics were not predictive for re-offending. The control group reported high levels of emotional problems (33.3%. Parents reported not needing help for their children but half of the re-offender's families were known to the Child Welfare Agency, mostly in a juridical framework. Conclusion The Moroccan subgroup of childhood offenders has substantial problems that might hamper healthy development. Interventions should focus on reaching these families tailored to their needs and expectations using a multi-system approach.

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Use and Unborn Children Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug ...

  1. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses. Other uses of these drugs are abuse. Club drugs are also sometimes used as "date rape" drugs, to make someone unable to say no to or fight back against sexual assault. Abusing these drugs can ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? Do You or a Loved One Have a Drug Use Problem? Signs of Drug Use and Addiction How Does Drug Use Become Addiction? Addiction Risk ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drug Use and Your Health Other Effects on the Body Drug Use Hurts Brains Drug Use and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & ...

  4. Drug Addiction in Urban Life of Bangladesh: A Sociological Study for Exploring the Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Hasam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is becoming a social problem in Bangladesh. It creates many social offences. Consequently, the youth - the future of the nation - are running into the depth of darkness. This study tries to discover the causes of drug addiction in the urban life of Bangladesh. To conduct this study, analytical research design, social survey method & stratified random sampling have been followed. To measure the causes of drug addiction, the Likert Scaling five rating scale has been applied. Further, for hypotheses testing, an ᵡ 2 - test has been used to test the degree to which two or more groups vary or differ in an experiment. The present findings suggest that the majority (67.67 % of drug addicts think that drug addiction is high/very high, simultaneously 9.10% medium and 23.23% low/very low due to the influence of frustration, addicted parents and peer group in society. Again, the result of hypotheses testing suggests that a man can become addicted to drugs by the influence of frustration and peer group not influenced by the parental drug addiction. Therefore, these findings may help the policy makers and planners of the government and non-government organizations to take appropriate initiatives to prevent drug addiction in society.

  5. Comparison of drug abuse in Germany and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingo Ilja MICHELS; Yu-xia FANG; Dong ZHAO; Li-yan ZHAO; Lin LU

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse has a long, but also different history in Germany and China. The Opium War largely influenced the history of China in 19th century; however,China was once recognized as a drug-free nation for 3 decades from the 1950s to the 1980s. Drug abuse has spread quickly since re-emerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70000 in 1990 to more than 1 million by the end of 2005. In past decades, illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most provinces in China, and drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drugrelated problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. Germany, the largest developed European country, also faces the drug and addiction problem. Germany has about 150 000 heroin addicts, for whom HIV/AIDS has become a serious threat since the mid 1980s. To control the drug problem, the German Government adopted the "Action Plan on Drugs and Addiction" in 2003; the China Central Government approved a similar regulation in the antidrug campaign in 2005. Germany has experience in reducing drug-related harm. The methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program has run for more than 20 years and the public has become more tolerant of addicts. In 2003,China began the MMT program for controlling the spread of HIV/AIDS. It is necessary for China to learn from developed countries to acquire success in its antidrug campaign. In this review, we will go over the differences and similarities in drug abuse between Germany and China. The differences are related to history,population and economics, drug policy context, drug laws, HIV/hepatitis C virus infection, the MMT program and so on. These 2 nations have drug abuse problems with different histories and currently use different approaches to handle illicit drug marketing and use. The legal penalties for illicit drug offences reflect the social differences of these 2

  6. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system.

  7. Repeat concussions in the national football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casson, Ira R; Viano, David C; Powell, John W; Pellman, Elliot J

    2011-01-01

    Repeat concussion is an important issue in the National Football League (NFL). An initial description of repeat injuries was published for 6 years (1996-2001). The characteristics and frequency of repeat concussion in the NFL have not changed in the subsequent 6 years (2002-2007). Case control. From 1996 to 2007, concussions were reported using a standardized form documenting signs and symptoms, loss of consciousness and medical action taken. Data on repeat concussions were analyzed for the 12 years and compared between the 2 periods. In 2002-2007, 152 players had repeat concussions (vs 160 in 1996-2001); 44 had 3+ head injuries (vs 52). The positions most often associated with repeat concussion in 2002-2007 were the defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker. The odds for repeat concussion were elevated for wide receivers, tight ends, and linebackers but lower than in the earlier period. During 2002-2007, over half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and fewer immediately returned (vs 1996-2001). The average duration between concussions was 1.25 years for 2002-2007 and 1.65 years for the 12-year period. Over 12 years, 7.6% of all repeat concussions occurred within 2 weeks of the prior concussion. The defensive secondary, kick unit, running back, and linebacker have the highest incidence of repeat concussion. During 2002-2007, more than half of players with repeat concussion were removed from play, and only a fraction immediately returned. Although concussion was managed more conservatively by team physicians in the recent 6 years, repeat concussions occurred at similar rates during both periods.

  8. Automated quality checks on repeat prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jeremy E; Wroe, Christopher J; Roberts, Angus; Swallow, Angela; Stables, David; Cantrill, Judith A; Rector, Alan L.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good clinical practice in primary care includes periodic review of repeat prescriptions. Markers of prescriptions that may need review have been described, but manually checking all repeat prescriptions against the markers would be impractical. AIM: To investigate the feasibility of computerising the application of repeat prescribing quality checks to electronic patient records in United Kingdom (UK) primary care. DESIGN OF STUDY: Software performance test against benchmark manual...

  9. Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 130 Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database (Web, free access)   Short Tandem Repeat DNA Internet Database is intended to benefit research and application of short tandem repeat DNA markers for human identity testing. Facts and sequence information on each STR system, population data, commonly used multiplex STR systems, PCR primers and conditions, and a review of various technologies for analysis of STR alleles have been included.

  10. Study on the Playing Style of WCBA Teams and the Offence Strategy Characteristics of Bayi Women's Basketball Team%WCBA球队打法风格和八一女篮进攻战术特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁靓; 杨跃青; 陶小岗

    2011-01-01

    历经十多年的不断改革与发展,我国女子篮球职业联赛(WCBA)已经逐步走向成熟。联盟的参赛队伍也逐渐形成了各自独特的风格和打法特点。作为WCBA的领军队伍之一,八一女篮更是凭借自身优秀的运动人才和科学有效的战术打法,长期以来一直占据着联盟中的霸主地位。结合多年WCBA征战经验以及在八一女篮的随队训练、比赛实践,综合运用文献资料法,录像观察法,数理统计法等方法,对WCBA参赛队伍的技战术风格进行了概括总结,对八一女篮进攻战术的特点进行了深入分析,是八一女篮未来科学训练,进一步提高进攻技战术水平的重要参考。同时也可作为WCBA其它各队深入了解八一女篮进攻战术特点的重要参考。%WCBA in China has experienced lots of reforms and developments during the past decade, and its teams have gradually formed their own characteristics in the way they offense. As one of the top teams in the league, Bayi Women' s Basketball team has many advantages such as its talented players and effective strate- gies, and has entitled many WCBA championships. This paper summarizes the playing style of WCBA teams as well as the offence strategy characteristics of Bayi women' s basketball team. The authors believe that this paper could help Bayi women' s basketball team to achieve more successes in the future, and be treated as an important reference for the other teams in the league.

  11. Environmental offences: finally making the polluter pay?

    OpenAIRE

    Outhwaite, Opi

    2015-01-01

    This update focuses on developments in sentencing for environmental crimes. The imposition of appropriate penalties is crucial, not only to the use of judicial mechanisms for securing access to environmental justice, but also to respect for the polluter pays principle, a keystone of environmental law. There has been long-standing criticism in the UK of the failure of the courts to treat environmental crimes sufficiently seriously when imposing sentences. Fisher et al observed that insufficien...

  12. Republican Dignity : The Importance of Taking Offence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Rijt, Jan-Willem

    This paper analyses the republican notion of non-domination from the viewpoint of individual dignity. It determines the aspect of individual dignity that republicans are concerned with and scrutinises how it is safeguarded by non-domination. I argue that the notion of non-domination as it is

  13. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of ... to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of ...

  14. Drug Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem is interactions, which may occur between Two drugs, such as aspirin and blood thinners Drugs and food, such as statins and grapefruit Drugs and supplements, such as ginkgo and blood thinners ...

  15. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  16. Repeatability & Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2009

    KAUST Repository

    Manegold, Stefan

    2010-12-15

    SIGMOD 2008 was the first database conference that offered to test submitters\\' programs against their data to verify the repeatability of the experiments published [1]. Given the positive feedback concerning the SIGMOD 2008 repeatability initiative, SIGMOD 2009 modified and expanded the initiative with a workability assessment.

  17. Reward modulation of contextual cueing: Repeated context overshadows repeated target location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Fariba; Contier, Oliver; Preuschhof, Claudia; Pollmann, Stefan

    2017-08-07

    Contextual cueing can be enhanced by reward. However, there is a debate if reward is associated with the repeated target-distractor configurations or with the repeated target locations that occur in both repeated and new displays. Based on neuroimaging evidence, we hypothesized that reward becomes associated with the target location only in new displays, but not in repeated displays, where the repeated target location is overshadowed by the more salient repeated target-distractor configuration. To test this hypothesis, we varied the reward value associated with the same target location in repeated and new displays. The results confirmed the overshadowing hypothesis in that search facilitation in repeated target-distractor configurations was modulated by the variable value associated with the target location. This effect was observed mainly in early learning.

  18. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... suicidal behavior. The results showed that three fourths of the patients attempted suicide more than once (62% nonfatal and 14% fatal outcome). The sex distribution was about the same among the first-evers as among the repeaters. Most repeaters were younger people in their twenties and thirties......, and the first-evers on average were past the age of 40. Somewhat unexpectedly, significantly more repeaters than first-evers had grown up with both their parents. However, the results also showed that significantly more repeaters than first-evers had had an unhappy childhood. This indicates...

  19. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  20. The child accident repeater: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J G

    1980-04-01

    The child accident repeater is defined as one who has at least three accidents that come to medical attention within a year. The accident situation has features in common with those of the child who has a single accident through simple "bad luck", but other factors predispose him to repeated injury. In the child who has a susceptible personality, a tendency for accident repetition may be due to a breakdown in adjustment to a stressful environment. Prevention of repeat accidents should involve the usual measures considered appropriate for all children as well as an attempt to provide treatment of significant maladjustment and modification of a stressful environment.

  1. A tendency for re-offending in drug-facilitated crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chèze, Marjorie; Muckensturm, Aurélie; Hoizey, Guillaume; Pépin, Gilbert; Deveaux, Marc

    2010-03-20

    The authors present 3 cases that demonstrate a return to DFC following periods of inactivity. The offences occurred in Paris and its suburbs and in each of the cases there were two distinct periods of activity by the offenders with 2, 8 and 22 victims attributed to each of the perpetrators. To 20mg of decontaminated and cut hair, 100 pg/mg of clonazepam-d4 was added as internal standard. Hair specimens were extracted with CH(2)Cl(2)/ether after incubation overnight at 56 degrees C in pH 7.6 buffer. Extractions were performed on blood and urine using Toxi-tube A with 5 ng/mL of clonazepam-d4. The residues were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Calibration curves in blood and urine (0.5-500 ng/mL) were prepared by spiking aliquots of blank fluids (r(2)>0.9816 for all drugs). LOD in body fluids ranged 0.5-10 ng/mL. Calibration curves in hair (0.5-100 pg/mg) were prepared by spiking aliquots of blank hair (r(2)>0.9877 for all drugs). LOD in hair ranged 0.5-5 pg/mg. Case #1: Two young women were raped with an interval of approximately 1 year between the incidents. Lorazepam (present, doxylamine, cyamemazine, zolpidem and lorazepam. Drugs were detected in all victims' hair (n=18) at concentrations in the range 1-81 pg/mg for all drugs. Between the two series (of respectively 4 and 16 victims) the offender spent 6 months in jail, and then police spent 6 months looking for him while he was under judiciary control prior to his judgment. Segmental hair analysis permits retrospective information on drug exposure and should be considered in the investigation of drug-facilitated crimes not only to prove single exposure but also when there has been any appreciable delay in samples being obtained for analysis. Indeed, in 56% cases reported in this paper, due to the long time that elapsed between offences and the opportunity to obtain samples for analysis hair analysis was considered the only viable matrix to investigate the possibility of drug involvement in the crimes. Our experience

  2. Repeated Time-to-event Analysis of Consecutive Analgesic Events in Postoperative Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Kreilgaard, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in consumption of opioid rescue medication is often used as an endpoint when investigating analgesic efficacy of drugs by adjunct treatment, but appropriate methods are needed to analyze analgesic consumption in time. Repeated time-to-event (RTTE) modeling is proposed as a w...

  3. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  4. Reconstructing the Mode to Indentify a "Considerable Loss" in the Offence of Infringing Trade Secrets%侵犯商业秘密罪中“重大损失”认定模式之重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆国

    2014-01-01

    在侵犯商业秘密罪逐渐多发的大环境下,司法审判中“重大损失”的认定模式却呈现多元化现象,亟需重构类型化认定模式。实证研究司法实践中的案例有利于对重大损失的认定模式形成概观;辨析与反思实证研究中重大损失认定模式的利弊可为重构合理的认定模式提供价值基础。基于实证研究中“商业秘密市场价值说、商业秘密许可费用说”与“给权利人造成全部损失、给权利人造成部分损失”的对应关系,以“类型学”的范式研究为方法论,对侵犯商业秘密罪的行为以“行为人结果”①为标准再类型化,可形成“商业秘密市场价值说、商业秘密许可费用说---行为人结果---两种新行为类型”的对应关系;有利于通过司法解释的形式上升为刑法规范从而指导司法实践。%With more and more offences of infringing trade secrets , the mode to indentify a "considerable loss"has been so diversified in the judicial practice that we need to give our urgent attention to its reconstruction .An empirical study on cases in the judicial practice benefits us to form a general viewpoint about what is a good mode , and the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages in the existing modes based on the empirical study can provide us with a value basis for reconstructing a reasonable identification mode .Taking into account the relationship be-tween "the theory of market value of trade secrets , the theory of license fees of trade secrets"and"the total or par-tial loss for the holders", with the help of a researching method , called"typology", we can retype the behavior of infringing trade secrets with "the actor result"as the standard to develop the correspondence among "the theory of market value of trade secrets , the theory of license fees of trade secrets -the actor result -two new behavior types".And this favors the guidance of judicial practice when judicial

  5. Star repeaters for fiber optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D H; Gravel, R L

    1977-02-01

    A star repeater combines the functions of a passive star coupler and a signal regenerating amplifier. By more effectively utilizing the light power radiated by a light emitting diode, the star repeater can, when used with small diameter channels, couple as much power to all receivers of a multiterminal link as would be coupled to the single receiver of a simple point-to-point link.

  6. Forensic drug intelligence: an important tool in law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseiva, Pierrre; Ioset, Sylvain; Anglada, Frédéric; Gasté, Laëtitia; Ribaux, Olivier; Margot, Pierre; Gallusser, Alain; Biedermann, Alex; Specht, Yves; Ottinger, Edmond

    2007-04-11

    magistrates, forensic scientists, law enforcement investigators and crime analysts from different institutions with the aim of generating, using and validating relevant profiling case data as integral part of investigative and crime analysis processes. Original advances are highlighted through experiences from criminal investigations of offences related to the unlawful importation, exportation, supply and possession of illicit drugs.

  7. Digital repeat analysis; setup and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, J; Isouard, G; Mirecki, J

    2006-06-01

    Since the emergence of digital imaging, there have been questions about the necessity of continuing reject analysis programs in imaging departments to evaluate performance and quality. As a marketing strategy, most suppliers of digital technology focus on the supremacy of the technology and its ability to reduce the number of repeats, resulting in less radiation doses given to patients and increased productivity in the department. On the other hand, quality assurance radiographers and radiologists believe that repeats are mainly related to positioning skills, and repeat analysis is the main tool to plan training needs to up-skill radiographers. A comparative study between conventional and digital imaging was undertaken to compare outcomes and evaluate the need for reject analysis. However, digital technology still being at its early development stages, setting a credible reject analysis program became the major task of the study. It took the department, with the help of the suppliers of the computed radiography reader and the picture archiving and communication system, over 2 years of software enhancement to build a reliable digital repeat analysis system. The results were supportive of both philosophies; the number of repeats as a result of exposure factors was reduced dramatically; however, the percentage of repeats as a result of positioning skills was slightly on the increase for the simple reason that some rejects in the conventional system qualifying for both exposure and positioning errors were classified as exposure error. The ability of digitally adjusting dark or light images reclassified some of those images as positioning errors.

  8. Quantum Key Distribution over Probabilistic Quantum Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Amirloo, Jeyran; Majedi, A Hamed

    2010-01-01

    A feasible route towards implementing long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) systems relies on probabilistic schemes for entanglement distribution and swapping as proposed in the work of Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) [Nature 414, 413 (2001)]. Here, we calculate the conditional throughput and fidelity of entanglement for DLCZ quantum repeaters, by accounting for the DLCZ self-purification property, in the presence of multiple excitations in the ensemble memories as well as loss and other sources of inefficiency in the channel and measurement modules. We then use our results to find the generation rate of secure key bits for QKD systems that rely on DLCZ quantum repeaters. We compare the key generation rate per logical memory employed in the two cases of with and without a repeater node. We find the cross-over distance beyond which the repeater system outperforms the non-repeater one. That provides us with the optimum inter-node distancing in quantum repeater systems. We also find the optimal exci...

  9. Remarkable selective constraints on exonic dinucleotide repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasl, Ryan J; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Long dinucleotide repeats found in exons present a substantial mutational hazard: mutations at these loci occur often and generate frameshifts. Here, we provide clear and compelling evidence that exonic dinucleotides experience strong selective constraint. In humans, only 18 exonic dinucleotides have repeat lengths greater than six, which contrasts sharply with the genome-wide distribution of dinucleotides. We genotyped each of these dinucleotides in 200 humans from eight 1000 Genomes Project populations and found a near-absence of polymorphism. More remarkably, divergence data demonstrate that repeat lengths have been conserved across the primate phylogeny in spite of what is likely considerable mutational pressure. Coalescent simulations show that even a very low mutation rate at these loci fails to explain the anomalous patterns of polymorphism and divergence. Our data support two related selective constraints on the evolution of exonic dinucleotides: a short-term intolerance for any change to repeat length and a long-term prevention of increases to repeat length. In general, our results implicate purifying selection as the force that eliminates new, deleterious mutants at exonic dinucleotides. We briefly discuss the evolution of the longest exonic dinucleotide in the human genome--a 10 x CA repeat in fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1 (FGFRL1)--that should possess a considerably greater mutation rate than any other exonic dinucleotide and therefore generate a large number of deleterious variants. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  11. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts ... Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs ...

  12. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu ... misuse of prescription drugs can make driving a car unsafe—just like driving after drinking alcohol. Drugged ...

  13. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  14. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? What are some signs and symptoms of someone ... use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted ...

  15. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice ( ...

  16. Study Drugs

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    ... study drugs: amphetamines like Adderall, Dexedrine, or Vyvanse methylphenidates like Ritalin or Concerta Most people get study ... How Much Sleep Do I Need? Prescription Drug Abuse How to Make Homework Less Work Organizing Schoolwork & ...

  17. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... abuse, addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth ... 662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter ...

  18. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts ... addiction, and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain ...

  19. Drugs (image)

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    ... Drugs for fever, cough, stuffy nose, runny nose, diarrhea, and allergies are common drugs which are especially helpful during times of illness. All medications should be kept out of the reach of children.

  20. Drug Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug. "Max" was addicted to prescription drugs. The addiction slowly took over his life. I need different people around me. To stop using marijuana, "Cristina" is making positive changes in her life. She finds support from ...

  1. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  2. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662-HELP (4357) at any time to find drug treatment centers near you. I want my daughter to ...

  3. Repeat prescribing: scale, problems and quality management in ambulatory care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Peter A G M; Dautzenberg, Maaike

    2004-01-01

    The reported scale of repeat prescriptions ranges from 29% to 75% of all items prescribed, depending on the definition of repeat prescribing and other variables. It is likely that a substantial part of repeat prescribing by general practitioners (GPs) occurs without direct doctor-patient contact. While this reduces the workload for the GP and is convenient for the patient, it does not provide the adequate control that is needed to ensure that every repeat prescription is still appropriate, effective and well tolerated, and that it is still being viewed upon and taken by the patient as intended. Infrequent therapy reviews may lead to failure to prevent, identify and solve drug-related problems and drug wastage, and may, thereby, have a negative impact on the effectiveness, safety or cost of the medications prescribed. Studies evaluating the repeat prescribing process have shown that GPs and medical practices vary widely in their degree of administrative and clinical control of repeat prescriptions. Contrary to the opinion that GPs cannot change prescribing behaviour when the prescription is initiated by a medical specialist, GPs have their own responsibility for controlling the repeats of such prescriptions. Intervention studies suggest that a medication review by a pharmacist can help to reduce drug-related problems with repeat prescriptions, and the effectiveness of the intervention may be increased by combining the medication review with a consultation of the patient's medical records and a patient interview. In several studies, such an intervention was relatively inexpensive and, therefore, feasible. However, these conclusions should be viewed with appropriate caution because a number of caveats pertain. There is still no evidence that these types of intervention improve health-related quality of life or reduce healthcare cost, and so far only a few trials have produced any evidence of clinical improvement. As implicit and explicit screening criteria have their

  4. Drug allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrington Richard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug allergy encompasses a spectrum of immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity reactions with varying mechanisms and clinical presentations. This type of adverse drug reaction (ADR not only affects patient quality of life, but may also lead to delayed treatment, unnecessary investigations, and even mortality. Given the myriad of symptoms associated with the condition, diagnosis is often challenging. Therefore, referral to an allergist experienced in the identification, diagnosis and management of drug allergy is recommended if a drug-induced allergic reaction is suspected. Diagnosis relies on a careful history and physical examination. In some instances, skin testing, graded challenges and induction of drug tolerance procedures may be required. The most effective strategy for the management of drug allergy is avoidance or discontinuation of the offending drug. When available, alternative medications with unrelated chemical structures should be substituted. Cross-reactivity among drugs should be taken into consideration when choosing alternative agents. Additional therapy for drug hypersensitivity reactions is largely supportive and may include topical corticosteroids, oral antihistamines and, in severe cases, systemic corticosteroids. In the event of anaphylaxis, the treatment of choice is injectable epinephrine. If a particular drug to which the patient is allergic is indicated and there is no suitable alternative, induction of drug tolerance procedures may be considered to induce temporary tolerance to the drug. This article provides a backgrounder on drug allergy and strategies for the diagnosis and management of some of the most common drug-induced allergic reactions, such allergies to penicillin, sulfonamides, cephalosporins, radiocontrast media, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  5. Assessing the concordance between illicit drug laws on the books and drug law enforcement: Comparison of three states on the continuum from "decriminalised" to "punitive".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belackova, Vendula; Ritter, Alison; Shanahan, Marian; Hughes, Caitlin E

    2017-03-01

    Variations in drug laws, as well as variations in enforcement practice, exist across jurisdictions. This study explored the feasibility of categorising drug laws "on the books" in terms of their punitiveness, and the extent of their concordance with "laws in practice" in a cross-national comparison. "Law on the books", classified with respect to both cannabis and other drug offences in the Czech Republic, NSW (AU) and Florida (USA) were analysed in order to establish an ordinal relationship between the three states. Indicators to assess the "laws in practice" covered both police (arrests) and court (sentencing) activity between 2002 and 2013. Parametric and non-parametric tests of equality of means, tests of stationarity and correlation analysis were used to examine the concordance between the ordinal categorisation of "laws on the books" and "laws in practice", as well as trends over time. The Czech Republic had the most lenient drug laws; Florida had the most punitive and NSW was in-between. Examining the indicators of "laws in practice", we found that the population adjusted number of individuals sentenced to prison ranked across the three states was concordant with categorisation of "laws on the books", but the average sentence length and percentage of court cases sentenced to prison were not. Also, the de jure decriminalisation of drug possession in the Czech Republic yielded a far greater share of administrative offenses than the de facto decriminalisation of cannabis use / possession in NSW. Finally, the mean value of most "laws in practice" indicators changed significantly over time although the "laws on the books" didn't change. While some indicators of "laws in practice" were concordant with the ordinal categorisation of drug laws, several indicators of "laws in practice" appeared to operate independently from the drug laws as stated. This has significant implications for drug policy analysis and means that research should not assume they are

  6. Assessing geographical differences in illicit drug consumption--A comparison of results from epidemiological and wastewater data in Germany and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Benaglia, Lisa; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Botero-Coy, Ana M; Castiglioni, Sara; Kraus, Ludwig; Zobel, Frank; Schaub, Michael P; Bücheli, Alexander; Hernández, Félix; Delémont, Olivier; Esseiva, Pierre; Ort, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater analysis is an innovative approach that allows monitoring illicit drug use at the community level. This study focused on investigating geographical differences in drug consumption by comparing epidemiological, crime and wastewater data. Wastewater samples were collected in 19 cities across Germany and Switzerland during one week, covering a population of approximately 8.1 million people. Self-report data and consumption offences for the investigated areas were used for comparison and to investigate differences between the indicators. Good agreement between data sources was observed for cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants, whereas substantial discrepancies were observed for cocaine. In Germany, an important distinction could be made between Berlin, Dortmund and Munich, where cocaine and particularly amphetamine were more prevalent, and Dresden, where methamphetamine consumption was clearly predominant. Cocaine consumption was relatively homogenous in the larger urban areas of Switzerland, although prevalence and offences data suggested a more heterogeneous picture. Conversely, marked regional differences in amphetamine and methamphetamine consumption could be highlighted. Combining the available data allowed for a better understanding of the geographical differences regarding prevalence, typology and amounts of substances consumed. For cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants, the complementarity of survey, police and wastewater data could be highlighted, although notable differences could be identified when considering more stigmatised drugs (i.e. cocaine and heroin). Understanding illicit drug consumption at the national scale remains a difficult task, yet this research illustrates the added value of combining complementary data sources to obtain a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mining of simple sequence repeats in the Genome of Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sathishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeats (SSRs or short tandem repeats are short repeat motifs that show high level of length polymorphism due to insertion or deletion mutations of one or more repeat types. Here, we present the detection and abundance of microsatellites or SSRs in nucleotide sequences of Gentianaceae family. A total of 545 SSRs were mined in 4698 nucleotide sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. Among the SSR sequences, the frequency of repeat type was about 429 -mono repeats, 99 -di repeats, 15 -tri repeats, and 2 --hexa repeats. Mononucleotide repeats were found to be abundant repeat types, about 78%, followed by dinucleotide repeats (18.16% among the SSR sequences. An attempt was made to design primer pairs for 545 identified SSRs but these were found only for 169 sequences.

  8. PolyQ repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are CAA interrupted repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Yu

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, rapidly progressive disease leading to paralysis and death. Recently, intermediate length polyglutamine (polyQ repeats of 27-33 in ATAXIN-2 (ATXN2, encoding the ATXN2 protein, were found to increase risk for ALS. In ATXN2, polyQ expansions of ≥ 34, which are pure CAG repeat expansions, cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. However, similar length expansions that are interrupted with other codons, can present atypically with parkinsonism, suggesting that configuration of the repeat sequence plays an important role in disease manifestation in ATXN2 polyQ expansion diseases. Here we determined whether the expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS were pure or interrupted CAG repeats, and defined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs695871 and rs695872 in exon 1 of the gene, to assess haplotype association. We found that the expanded repeat alleles of 40 ALS patients and 9 long-repeat length controls were all interrupted, bearing 1-3 CAA codons within the CAG repeat. 21/21 expanded ALS chromosomes with 3CAA interruptions arose from one haplotype (GT, while 18/19 expanded ALS chromosomes with <3CAA interruptions arose from a different haplotype (CC. Moreover, age of disease onset was significantly earlier in patients bearing 3 interruptions vs fewer, and was distinct between haplotypes. These results indicate that CAG repeat expansions in ATXN2 associated with ALS are uniformly interrupted repeats and that the nature of the repeat sequence and haplotype, as well as length of polyQ repeat, may play a role in the neurological effect conferred by expansions in ATXN2.

  9. Repeatability of peripheral aberrations in young emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Karthikeyan; Theagarayan, Baskar; Carius, Staffan; Gustafsson, Jörgen

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the intrasession repeatability of ocular aberration measurements in the peripheral visual field with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann aberrometer (complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research). The higher-order off-axis aberrations data in young healthy emmetropic eyes are also reported. The aberrations of the right eye of 18 emmetropes were measured using an aberrometer with an open field of view that allows peripheral measurements. Five repeated measures of ocular aberrations were obtained and assessed in steps of 10° out to ±40° in the horizontal visual field (nasal + and temporal -) and -20° in the inferior visual field. The coefficient of repeatability, coefficient of variation, and the intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated as a measure of intrasession repeatability. In all eccentric angles, the repeatability of the third- and fourth-order aberrations was better than the fifth and sixth order aberrations. The coefficient of variation was coefficient was >0.90 for the third and fourth order but reduced gradually for higher orders. There was no statistical significant difference in variance of total higher-order root mean square between on- and off-axis measurements (p > 0.05). The aberration data in this group of young emmetropes showed that the horizontal coma (C(3)(1)) was most positive at 40° in the temporal field, decreasing linearly toward negative values with increasing off-axis angle into the nasal field, whereas all other higher-order aberrations showed little or no change. The complete ophthalmic analysis system-high definition-vision research provides fast, repeatable, and valid peripheral aberration measurements and can be used efficiently to measure off-axis aberrations in the peripheral visual field.

  10. Safety of Repeated Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Marnix G. E. H.; Louie, John D. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Iagaru, Andrei H.; Goris, Michael L. [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine (United States); Sze, Daniel Y., E-mail: dansze@stanford.edu [Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Repeated radioembolization (RE) treatments carry theoretically higher risk of radiation-induced hepatic injury because of the liver's cumulative memory of previous exposure. We performed a retrospective safety analysis on patients who underwent repeated RE. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, a total of 247 patients were treated by RE. Eight patients (5 men, 3 women, age range 51-71 years) underwent repeated treatment of a targeted territory, all with resin microspheres (SIR-Spheres; Sirtex, Lane Cove, Australia). Adverse events were graded during a standardized follow-up. In addition, the correlation between the occurrence of RE-induced liver disease (REILD) and multiple variables was investigated in univariate and multivariate analyses in all 247 patients who received RE. Results: Two patients died shortly after the second treatment (at 84 and 107 days) with signs and symptoms of REILD. Both patients underwent whole liver treatment twice (cumulative doses 3.08 and 2.66 GBq). The other 6 patients demonstrated only minor toxicities after receiving cumulative doses ranging from 2.41 to 3.88 GBq. All patients experienced objective tumor responses. In the whole population, multifactorial analysis identified three risk factors associated with REILD: repeated RE (p = 0.036), baseline serum total bilirubin (p = 0.048), and baseline serum aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.043). Repeated RE proved to be the only independent risk factor for REILD in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 9.6; p = 0.002). Additionally, the administered activity per target volume (in GBq/L) was found to be an independent risk factor for REILD, but only in whole liver treatments (p = 0.033). Conclusion: The risk of REILD appears to be elevated for repeated RE. Objective tumor responses were observed, but establishment of safety limits will require improvement in dosimetric measurement and prediction.

  11. Repeat Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubuchon, Adam C., E-mail: acaubuchon@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Balamucki, Christopher J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Ellis, Thomas L.; Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Deguzman, Allan F.; Ekstrand, Kenneth E.; Bourland, J. Daniel; Shaw, Edward G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Repeat gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS) for recurrent or persistent trigeminal neuralgia induces an additional response but at the expense of an increased incidence of facial numbness. The present series summarized the results of a repeat treatment series at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, including a multivariate analysis of the data to identify the prognostic factors for treatment success and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between January 1999 and December 2007, 37 patients underwent a second GKRS application because of treatment failure after a first GKRS treatment. The mean initial dose in the series was 87.3 Gy (range, 80-90). The mean retreatment dose was 84.4 Gy (range, 60-90). The dosimetric variables recorded included the dorsal root entry zone dose, pons surface dose, and dose to the distal nerve. Results: Of the 37 patients, 81% achieved a >50% pain relief response to repeat GKRS, and 57% experienced some form of trigeminal dysfunction after repeat GKRS. Two patients (5%) experienced clinically significant toxicity: one with bothersome numbness and one with corneal dryness requiring tarsorraphy. A dorsal root entry zone dose at repeat treatment of >26.6 Gy predicted for treatment success (61% vs. 32%, p = .0716). A cumulative dorsal root entry zone dose of >84.3 Gy (72% vs. 44%, p = .091) and a cumulative pons surface dose of >108.5 Gy (78% vs. 44%, p = .018) predicted for post-GKRS numbness. The presence of any post-GKRS numbness predicted for a >50% decrease in pain intensity (100% vs. 60%, p = .0015). Conclusion: Repeat GKRS is a viable treatment option for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia, although the patient assumes a greater risk of nerve dysfunction to achieve maximal pain relief.

  12. REPEATED URETHRITIS DUE TO ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS- A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enterobius vermicularis is an intestinal nematode o f humans and its principal mode of transmission is direct contact between infe cted and uninfected persons. Human infections occur when the eggs in the infective sta ge are accidentally ingested in a contaminated environment. Although the majority of infections ar e asymptomatic, adults usually have low worm burden and are asymptomatic. Ectopic infections in the pelvic area or urinary tract rarely occur in women. However, in children, particularly w hen there are heavy worm burden neurological symptoms such as nervousness, restlessn ess, irritability and distraction may occur and these may influence child growth [1] . Rarely ectopic infections in the pelvic area or uri nary tract are reported [2,3] . Here we are reporting a rare case of repeated ure thritis in four years old girl due to Enterobius vermicularis even after trea ting with antihelminthic drugs.

  13. Safety of Ketoprofen in Cow calves following repeated intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Singh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic properties in Veterinary Medicine. The present study was planned to assess safety of ketoprofen (3 mg.kg-1 after repeated intravenous administration at 24 hours interval for five days in six crossbred cow calves (6-12 months age and weighing between 60-122 kg. Ketoprofen in calves was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC, blood biochemical (AKP, ACP, AST, ALT, LDH, Total bilirubin, Serum Creatinine, BUN, Serum total protein, Serum albumin and Blood glucose parameters. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 105-107

  14. Copy number of tandem direct repeats within the inverted repeats of Marek's disease virus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, A; Nakajima, K; Ikuta, K; Ueda, S; Kato, S; Hirai, K

    1986-12-01

    We previously reported that DNA of the oncogenic strain BC-1 of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1) contains three units of tandem direct repeats with 132 base pair (bp) repeats within the inverted repeats of the long regions of the MDV1 genome, whereas the attenuated, nononcogenic viral DNA contains multiple units of tandem direct repeats (Maotani et al., 1986). In the present study, the difference in the copy numbers of 132 bp repeats of oncogenic and nononcogenic MDV1 DNAs in other strains of MDV1 was investigated by Southern blot hybridization. The main copy numbers in different oncogenic MDV1 strains differed: those of BC-1, JM and highly oncogenic Md5 were 3, 5 to 12 and 2, respectively. The viral DNA population with two units of repeats was small, but detectable, in cells infected with either the oncogenic BC-1 or JM strain. The MDV1 DNA in various MD cell lines contained either two units or both two and three units of repeats. The significance of the copy number of repeats in oncogenicity of MDV1 is discussed.

  15. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  16. Analysis of Tandem Repeat Patterns in Nlrc4 using a Motif Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim-Hui Tee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Exponential accumulation of biological data requires computer scientists and bioinformaticians to improve the efficiency of computer algorithms and databases. The recent advancement of computational tools has boosted the processing capacity of enormous volume of genetic data. This research applied a computational approach to analyze the tandem repeat patterns in Nlrc4 gene. Because the protein product of Nlrc4 gene is important in detecting pathogen and triggering subsequent immune responses, the results of this genetic analysis is essential for the understanding of the genetic characteristics of Nlrc4. The study on the distribution of tandem repeats may provide insights for drug design catered for the Nlrc4-implicated diseases.

  17. Y Se Repite = And It Repeats Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzew, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses Y Se Repite [And It Repeats Itself], a project she conceptualized due to the growing number of Latino/a Mexican migrant workers in dairy farms in the state of Vermont. In 2006, approximately 2,000 Latinos/as--most of them undocumented Mexican migrant workers--worked throughout the state's dairy farms, yet…

  18. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  19. Episodes of repeated sudden deafness following pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Osinska, Katarzyna; Burduk, Pawel K; Kopczynski, Andrzej

    2009-04-01

    Sex hormones influence and provoke changes in hearing levels. Sudden deafness is rarely observed in pregnant women. The effective treatment of sudden deafness in pregnant women is a challenging problem. We present a case of repeatable, completely regressed sudden deafness in a woman during her first and second pregnancies.

  20. Repeated sprint training in normobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Harvey M; Cooke, Karl; Sumners, David P; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2013-12-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) is a critical success factor for intermittent sport performance. Repeated sprint training has been shown to improve RSA, we hypothesised that hypoxia would augment these training adaptations. Thirty male well-trained academy rugby union and rugby league players (18.4 ± 1.5 years, 1.83 ± 0.07 m, 88.1 ± 8.9 kg) participated in this single-blind repeated sprint training study. Participants completed 12 sessions of repeated sprint training (10 × 6 s, 30 s recovery) over 4 weeks in either hypoxia (13% FiO₂) or normoxia (21% FiO₂). Pretraining and post-training, participants completed sports specific endurance and sprint field tests and a 10 × 6 s RSA test on a non-motorised treadmill while measuring speed, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, muscle and cerebral deoxygenation and respiratory measures. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test performance improved after RS training in both groups, but gains were significantly greater in the hypoxic (33 ± 12%) than the normoxic group (14 ± 10%, prepeated aerobic high intensity workout than an equivalent normoxic training. Performance gains are evident in the short term (4 weeks), a period similar to a preseason training block.

  1. Adaptation and complexity in repeated games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maenner, Eliot Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a learning model for two-player infinitely repeated games. In an inference step players construct minimally complex inferences of strategies based on observed play, and in an adaptation step players choose minimally complex best responses to an inference. When players randomly ...

  2. A Structured Group Program for Repeat Dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Kathleen

    1989-01-01

    Describes a structured group program for women who repeatedly diet and may be at risk of developing more serious eating disorders. Discusses sessions focusing on eating behavior as well as internal factors that contribute to low body esteem and food and weight preoccupation. Evaluates effectiveness of program by self-reports of members of two…

  3. Why Do Students Repeat Admissions Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martha S.

    Attitudes and beliefs about the admissions process, especially the role of standardized testing in admissions, were examined for students who took a standardized admissions test more than once. Their attitudes were compared with those of students who did not repeat the test. About 200 preveterinary students who had taken the Veterinary Aptitude…

  4. The Effect of Repeaters on Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HeeKyoung; Kolen, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Test equating might be affected by including in the equating analyses examinees who have taken the test previously. This study evaluated the effect of including such repeaters on Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) equating using a population invariance approach. Three-parameter logistic (3-PL) item response theory (IRT) true score and…

  5. Triggering of repeating earthquakes in central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunquan; Gomberg, Joan; Ben-Naim, Eli; Johnson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic stresses carried by transient seismic waves have been found capable of triggering earthquakes instantly in various tectonic settings. Delayed triggering may be even more common, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Catalogs of repeating earthquakes, earthquakes that recur repeatedly at the same location, provide ideal data sets to test the effects of transient dynamic perturbations on the timing of earthquake occurrence. Here we employ a catalog of 165 families containing ~2500 total repeating earthquakes to test whether dynamic perturbations from local, regional, and teleseismic earthquakes change recurrence intervals. The distance to the earthquake generating the perturbing waves is a proxy for the relative potential contributions of static and dynamic deformations, because static deformations decay more rapidly with distance. Clear changes followed the nearby 2004 Mw6 Parkfield earthquake, so we study only repeaters prior to its origin time. We apply a Monte Carlo approach to compare the observed number of shortened recurrence intervals following dynamic perturbations with the distribution of this number estimated for randomized perturbation times. We examine the comparison for a series of dynamic stress peak amplitude and distance thresholds. The results suggest a weak correlation between dynamic perturbations in excess of ~20 kPa and shortened recurrence intervals, for both nearby and remote perturbations.

  6. A Repeater in the Language Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, B. T.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the feasilility of the use of repeater devices in the language laboratory in order to enable the student to "recapitulate effortlessly and and indefinitely any utterance of any length which is causing him difficulty or is of special interest. (FWB)

  7. The Differential Effects of Repeating Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkam, David T.; LoGerfo, Laura; Ready, Doug; Lee, Valerie E.

    2007-01-01

    We use the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate national patterns addressing (a) who repeats kindergarten, and (b) the subsequent cognitive effects of this event. Using OLS regression techniques, we investigate 1st-time kindergartners who are promoted, 1st-time kindergartners who are retained, and children who are already repeating…

  8. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  9. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiji eNageshwaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions frequently exist as dinucleotide, trinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeats. The association between repetitive regions and disease was emphasised following the discovery of abnormal trinucleotide repeats underlying spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy’s disease and fragile X syndrome of mental retardation (FRAXA in 1991. In this review we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and then focus on several diseases caused by DNA triplet-repeat expansions, which exhibit diverse epigenetic effects. It is clear that the emerging field of epigenetics is already generating novel potential therapeutic avenues for this group of largely incurable diseases.

  10. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  11. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species

  12. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  13. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-01

    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  14. Costly renegotiation in repeated Bertand games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the concept of weak renegotiation-proof equilibrium (WRP) to allow for costly renegotiation and shows that even small renegotiation costs can have dramatic effects on the set of equilibria. More specifically, the paper analyzes the infinitely repeated Bertrand game. It is shown...

  15. Photometric Repeatability of Scanned Imagery: UVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Clare E.; McCullough, Peter; Baggett, Sylvia

    2017-08-01

    We provide the preliminary results of a study on the photometric repeatability of spatial scans of bright, isolated white dwarf stars with the UVIS channel of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze straight-line scans from the first pair of identical orbits of HST program 14878 to assess if sub 0.1% repeatability can be attained with WFC3/UVIS. This study is motivated by the desire to achieve better signal-to-noise in the UVIS contamination and stability monitor, in which observations of standard stars in staring mode have been taken from the installation of WFC3 in 2009 to the present to assess temporal photometric stability. Higher signal to noise in this program would greatly benefit the sensitivity to detect contamination, and to better characterize the observed small throughput drifts over time. We find excellent repeatability between identical visits of program 14878, with sub 0.1% repeatability achieved in most filters. These! results support the initiative to transition the staring mode UVIS contamination and photometric stability monitor from staring mode images to spatial scans.

  16. Repeat surgery after failed midurethral slings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss Hansen, Margrethe; Lose, Gunnar; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    MUS from 1998 through 2007. The outcome was repeat surgery with any subsequent procedure code for urinary incontinence within a 5-year period of the first procedure. RESULTS: A total of 5,820 women (mean age 55.4 years, ± 12.1) were registered with a synthetic MUS, and 354 (6 %) underwent reoperation...

  17. EVOLUTION AND RECOMBINATION OF BOVINE DNA REPEATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOBSE, C; BUNTJER, JB; HAAGSMA, N; BREUKELMAN, HJ; BEINTEMA, JJ; LENSTRA, JA

    1995-01-01

    The history of the abundant repeat elements in the bovine genome has been studied by comparative hybridization and PCR. The Bov-A and Bov-B SINE elements both emerged just after the divergence of the Camelidae and the true ruminants. A 31-bp subrepeat motif in satellites of the Bovidae species cattl

  18. Multivariate linear models and repeated measurements revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Methods for generalized analysis of variance based on multivariate normal theory have been known for many years. In a repeated measurements context, it is most often of interest to consider transformed responses, typically within-subject contrasts or averages. Efficiency considerations leads...

  19. On balanced minimal repeated measurements designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Ahmad Mir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated Measurements designs are concerned with scientific experiments in which each experimental unit is assigned more than once to a treatment either different or identical. This class of designs has the property that the unbiased estimators for elementary contrasts among direct and residual effects are obtainable. Afsarinejad (1983 provided a method of constructing balanced Minimal Repeated Measurements designs p < t , when t is an odd or prime power, one or more than one treatment may occur more than once in some sequences and  designs so constructed no longer remain uniform in periods. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a new method to overcome this drawback. Specifically, two cases have been considered                RM[t,n=t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=1 for balanced minimal repeated measurements designs and  RM[t,n=2t(t-t/(p-1,p], λ2=2 for balanced  repeated measurements designs. In addition , a method has been provided for constructing              extra-balanced minimal designs for special case RM[t,n=t2/(p-1,p], λ2=1.

  20. Orphan drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goločorbin-Kon Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Drugs used for treatment of rare diseases are known worldwide under the term of orphan drugs because pharmaceutical companies have not been interested in ”adopting” them, that is in investing in research, developing and producing these drugs. This kind of policy has been justified by the fact that these drugs are targeted for small markets, that only a small number of patients is available for clinical trials, and that large investments are required for the development of drugs meant to treat diseases whose pathogenesis has not yet been clarified in majority of cases. The aim of this paper is to present previous and present status of orphan drugs in Serbia and other countries. The beginning of orphan drugs development. This problem was first recognized by Congress of the United States of America in January 1983, and when the ”Orphan Drug Act” was passed, it was a turning point in the development of orphan drugs. This law provides pharmaceutical companies with a series of reliefs, both financial ones that allow them to regain funds invested into the research and development and regulatory ones. Seven years of marketing exclusivity, as a type of patent monopoly, is the most important relief that enables companies to make large profits. Conclusion. There are no sufficient funds and institutions to give financial support to the patients. It is therefore necessary to make health professionals much more aware of rare diseases in order to avoid time loss in making the right diagnosis and thus to gain more time to treat rare diseases. The importance of discovery, development and production of orphan drugs lies in the number of patients whose life quality can be improved significantly by administration of these drugs as well as in the number of potential survivals resulting from the treatment with these drugs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41012

  1. Differences between youth with a single suicide attempt and repeaters regarding their and their parents history of psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Christiansen, Erik; Larsen, Kim Juul; Waaktaar, Trine

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine predictors of repeated suicide attempts in young people, focusing on psychiatric illness. A longitudinal population-based register study of all adolescents born in Denmark between 1984 and 2006 was conducted. Greater numbers of hospitalizations, psychiatric diagnoses, and psychopharmacological medications prescribed to youth before and after the index attempt were risk factors for repeated suicide attempts. Parental diagnoses and drug prescriptions following a child's first suicide attempt moderated the risk of repeated attempts. Psychiatric illness is a strong predictor of repeated suicide attempts in young people, and those with co-morbid diagnoses are at increased risk of repeated suicide attempts. Treatment of psychiatric illness in the parents after their child's first suicide attempt is a potential protective factor.

  2. Club Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...

  3. RepeatsDB 2.0: improved annotation, classification, search and visualization of repeat protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladin, Lisanna; Hirsh, Layla; Piovesan, Damiano; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Kajava, Andrey V.; Tosatto, Silvio C.E.

    2017-01-01

    RepeatsDB 2.0 (URL: http://repeatsdb.bio.unipd.it/) is an update of the database of annotated tandem repeat protein structures. Repeat proteins are a widespread class of non-globular proteins carrying heterogeneous functions involved in several diseases. Here we provide a new version of RepeatsDB with an improved classification schema including high quality annotations for ∼5400 protein structures. RepeatsDB 2.0 features information on start and end positions for the repeat regions and units for all entries. The extensive growth of repeat unit characterization was possible by applying the novel ReUPred annotation method over the entire Protein Data Bank, with data quality is guaranteed by an extensive manual validation for >60% of the entries. The updated web interface includes a new search engine for complex queries and a fully re-designed entry page for a better overview of structural data. It is now possible to compare unit positions, together with secondary structure, fold information and Pfam domains. Moreover, a new classification level has been introduced on top of the existing scheme as an independent layer for sequence similarity relationships at 40%, 60% and 90% identity. PMID:27899671

  4. Sensitization and Tolerance Following Repeated Exposure to Caffeine and Alcohol in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Christina E.; Haun, Harold L.; Griffin, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Energy drinks are popular mixers with alcohol. While energy drinks contain many ingredients, caffeine is an important pharmacologically active component and is generally present in larger amounts than in other caffeinated beverages. In these studies, we investigated the hypothesis that caffeine would influence the effects of alcohol (ethanol) on conditioned taste aversion, ataxia and locomotor activity after repeated exposure. Methods Four groups of mice were exposed by oral gavage twice daily to vehicle, ethanol (4 g/kg), caffeine (15 mg/kg), or the ethanol/caffeine combination. Conditioned taste aversion to saccharin and ataxia in the parallel rod task were evaluated after 8 or 16 gavages, respectively, using ethanol (1–3 g/kg) or ethanol/caffeine (3mg/kg + 2 g/kg) challenges. In addition, locomotor activity was evaluated initially and after repeated exposure to oral gavage of these drugs and doses. Results Repeated oral gavage of ethanol produced significant locomotor sensitization, with those mice increasing total distance traveled by 2-fold. The locomotor response to caffeine, while significantly greater than vehicle gavage, did not change with repeated exposure. On the other hand, repeated gavage of caffeine/ethanol combination produced a substantial increase in total distance traveled after repeated exposure (~4-fold increase). After repeated ethanol exposure, there was significant tolerance to ethanol in the conditioned taste aversion and parallel rod tests. However, neither a history of caffeine exposure nor including caffeine influenced ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Interestingly, a history of caffeine exposure increased the ataxic response to the caffeine/ethanol combination and appeared to reduce the ataxic response to high doses of ethanol. Conclusion The data support the general hypothesis that repeated exposure to caffeine influences the response to ethanol. Together with previously published work, these data indicate

  5. Repeat endocarditis: analysis of risk factors based on the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagna, L; Park, L P; Nicholson, B P; Keiger, A J; Strahilevitz, J; Morris, A; Wray, D; Gordon, D; Delahaye, F; Edathodu, J; Miró, J M; Fernández-Hidalgo, N; Nacinovich, F M; Shahid, R; Woods, C W; Joyce, M J; Sexton, D J; Chu, V H

    2014-06-01

    Repeat episodes of infective endocarditis (IE) can occur in patients who survive an initial episode. We analysed risk factors and 1-year mortality of patients with repeat IE. We considered 1874 patients enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study between January 2000 and December 2006 (ICE-PCS) who had definite native or prosthetic valve IE and 1-year follow-up. Multivariable analysis was used to determine risk factors for repeat IE and 1-year mortality. Of 1874 patients, 1783 (95.2%) had single-episode IE and 91 (4.8%) had repeat IE: 74/91 (81%) with new infection and 17/91 (19%) with presumed relapse. On bivariate analysis, repeat IE was associated with haemodialysis (p 0.002), HIV (p 0.009), injection drug use (IDU) (p < 0.001), Staphylococcus aureus IE (p 0.003), healthcare acquisition (p 0.006) and previous IE before ICE enrolment (p 0.001). On adjusted analysis, independent risk factors were haemodialysis (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.3), IDU (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6-5.4), previous IE (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.1) and living in the North American region (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4). Patients with repeat IE had higher 1-year mortality than those with single-episode IE (p 0.003). Repeat IE is associated with IDU, previous IE and haemodialysis. Clinicians should be aware of these risk factors in order to recognize patients who are at risk of repeat IE.

  6. 我国毒驾规制的行政法反思%Introspect on Administration Law of Driving after using Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文远

    2013-01-01

    毒驾问题是继醉驾问题后又一个公共话题。在未经由行政法规制而将毒驾直接入刑的做法是与现代刑法谦抑主义相悖的,基于此,我国毒驾规制采用行政规制手段,并体现在事先性驾驶禁止的法规范之中。这种“以权利换管理”的规制模式直接违反我国《禁毒法》的相应规定,且对毒驾问题采用行政事先审查办法予以解决,这不符合行政许可的一般法理,也不符合实践的发展需要。因此,毒驾规制的重心应当实现从行政事先强制性禁止向事后的行政严惩转变。%"Driving after using drugs" is a new problem after "Driving in drunken state". Without the permit of administrative rules, putting the behavior in the criminal law directly is a breach to the modesty-and-restraint principle of criminal law. According to this, this driving offence is ruled by the administration regulations, and embodied in the forbidden driving behaviors. This kind of"Management Impairs Right"rule directly breaches the Anti-drugs Law. Besides, administrative check on this driving behavior after using drugs is not adopted in the ad-ministrative law and is not fit for the need of factual development. Therefore, the focus of preventing this offence should turn into the punishment after incidents form the administration compulsive forbiddance in advance.

  7. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Dülger

    2014-01-01

    Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions ...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must be met: (a) The on-board repeater antenna must be located no higher than 3 meters (10 feet) above...

  9. Drugged Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age Adults in 2015 Teens and E-cigarettes Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most Substance Use in Women and Men View All NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts Mind Over Matter Research Reports NIDA Home ...

  10. Drug treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010263 Drug resistance mechanism of non-small cell lung cancer PC9/AB2 cell line with acquired drug resistance to gefitinib.JU Lixia(鞠立霞),et al. Dept Oncol,Shanghai Pulm Hosp,Tongji Univ,Shanghai 200433. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2010;33(5):354-358. Objective To

  11. Drug Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardana, Raj K.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of such drugs as marijuana and LSD, with emphasis on drug abuse. It is suggested that it can be used in science classes at the middle level of school. No prerequisites are suggested. The teacher's guide lists the behavioral objectives, the equipment needed to complete the experience and suggests…

  12. Shortening trinucleotide repeats using highly specific endonucleases: a possible approach to gene therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck

    2015-04-01

    Trinucleotide repeat expansions are involved in more than two dozen neurological and developmental disorders. Conventional therapeutic approaches aimed at regulating the expression level of affected genes, which rely on drugs, oligonucleotides, and/or transgenes, have met with only limited success so far. An alternative approach is to shorten repeats to non-pathological lengths using highly specific nucleases. Here, I review early experiments using meganucleases, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), and transcription-activator like effector nucleases (TALENs) to contract trinucleotide repeats, and discuss the possibility of using CRISPR-Cas nucleases to the same end. Although this is a nascent field, I explore the possibility of designing nucleases and effectively delivering them in the context of gene therapy.

  13. [A case of postcardiac injury syndrome with repeated pleuritis after blunt chest trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Ryoichi; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Nawa, Takeshi; Endo, Katuyuki

    2009-12-01

    A 59-year-old man suffered blunt injury to the left chest during a fall in August 2004. He had 5 repeated episodes of back and left chest pain in three years since August 2005. Since these symptoms were accompanied by left pleural effusion and serum inflammatory reaction, the tentative diagnosis was pleuritis. Although examinations of pleural effusion showed exudation with marked augmentation of inflammatory cells, there were no findings that suggested the cause of repetitive pleuritis. All symptoms were relieved within one or two weeks following administration of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Surgical thoracoscopy was carried out to investigate the cause of repeated pleuritis, and an acquired deficit of the left pericardium was noted. We considered this case to be postcardiac injury syndrome causing repeated pleuritis following blunt chest injury.

  14. Stability of dental waxes following repeated heatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiomiti, E; McCabe, J F

    1995-02-01

    The flow and strength properties of dental waxes were examined following excessive and repeated heatings of the materials. For one product, the flow at 40 +/- 0.5 degrees C was reduced by 25.3% following heating above 200 degrees C. A decrease of the elastic modulus at 20 +/- 1 degree C by approximately 66% was observed in some cases after the heating temperature had been increased to 300 degrees C. Property variations were related to compositional changes, which were investigated by infrared spectoscopy and thermal analysis. Exposure of dental waxes to temperatures higher than 200 degrees C, particularly if it is repeated, may affect the composition and properties, resulting in inferior materials.

  15. Learning with repeated-game strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos A; Romero, Julian

    2014-01-01

    We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2 × 2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we find that the strategy with the most occurrences is the "Grim-Trigger." In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" and "Grim-Trigger" strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  16. Learning With Repeated-Game Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Ioannou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We use the self-tuning Experience Weighted Attraction model with repeated-game strategies as a computer testbed to examine the relative frequency, speed of convergence and progression of a set of repeated-game strategies in four symmetric 2x2 games: Prisoner's Dilemma, Battle of the Sexes, Stag-Hunt, and Chicken. In the Prisoner's Dilemma game, we fi□nd that the strategy with the most occurrences is the Grim-Trigger. In the Battle of the Sexes game, a cooperative pair that alternates between the two pure-strategy Nash equilibria emerges as the one with the most occurrences. In the Stag-Hunt and Chicken games, the Win-Stay, Lose-Shift and Grim-Trigger strategies are the ones with the most occurrences. Overall, the pairs that converged quickly ended up at the cooperative outcomes, whereas the ones that were extremely slow to reach convergence ended up at non-cooperative outcomes.

  17. Quantum repeaters with entangled coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Sangouard, Nicolas; Gisin, Nicolas; Laurat, Julien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Entangled coherent states can be prepared remotely by subtracting non-locally a single photon from two quantum superpositions of coherent states, the so-called "Schroedinger's cat" state. Such entanglement can further be distributed over longer distances by successive entanglement swapping operations using linear optics and photon-number resolving detectors. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of this approach to quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communications. Despite many attractive features at first sight, we show that, when using state-of-the-art photon counters and quantum memories, they do not achieve higher entanglement generation rates than repeaters based on single-photon entanglement. We discuss potential developments which may take better advantage of the richness of entanglement based on continuous variables, including in particular efficient parity measurements.

  18. Quantum repeaters based on heralded qubit amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum repeater scheme based on the recently proposed qubit amplifier [N. Gisin, S. Pironio and N. Sangouard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)]. It relies on a on-demand entangled-photon pair source which uses on-demand single-photon sources, linear optical elements and atomic ensembles. Interestingly, the imperfections affecting the states created from this source, caused e.g. by detectors with non-unit efficiencies, are systematically purified from an entanglement swapping operation based on a two-photon detection. This allows the distribution of entanglement over very long distances with a high fidelity, i.e. without vacuum components and multiphoton errors. Therefore, the resulting quantum repeater architecture does not necessitate final postselections and thus achieves high entanglement distribution rates. This also provides unique opportunities for device-independent quantum key distribution over long distances with linear optics and atomic ensembles.

  19. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  20. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  1. High-bandwidth hybrid quantum repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, W J; Van Meter, R; Louis, Sebastien G R; Nemoto, Kae

    2008-07-25

    We present a physical- and link-level design for the creation of entangled pairs to be used in quantum repeater applications where one can control the noise level of the initially distributed pairs. The system can tune dynamically, trading initial fidelity for success probability, from high fidelity pairs (F=0.98 or above) to moderate fidelity pairs. The same physical resources that create the long-distance entanglement are used to implement the local gates required for entanglement purification and swapping, creating a homogeneous repeater architecture. Optimizing the noise properties of the initially distributed pairs significantly improves the rate of generating long-distance Bell pairs. Finally, we discuss the performance trade-off between spatial and temporal resources.

  2. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  3. 2D Metals by Repeated Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Tang, Hao; Fang, Minghao; Si, Wenjie; Zhang, Qinghua; Huang, Zhaohui; Gu, Lin; Pan, Wei; Yao, Jie; Nan, Cewen; Wu, Hui

    2016-10-01

    A general and convenient strategy for manufacturing freestanding metal nanolayers is developed on large scale. By the simple process of repeatedly folding and calendering stacked metal sheets followed by chemical etching, free-standing 2D metal (e.g., Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, and Ni) nanosheets are obtained with thicknesses as small as 1 nm and with sizes of the order of several micrometers.

  4. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  5. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  6. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  7. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  8. A Central Limit Theorem for Repeating Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Landau, Henry; Landau, Zeph; Pommersheim, James

    2012-01-01

    This note gives a central limit theorem for the length of the longest subsequence of a random permutation which follows some repeating pattern. This includes the case of any fixed pattern of ups and downs which has at least one of each, such as the alternating case considered by Stanley in [2] and Widom in [3]. In every case considered the convergence in the limit of long permutations is to normal with mean and variance linear in the length of the permutations.

  9. Repeatability and Workability Evaluation of SIGMOD 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    SIGMOD has offered, since 2008, to verify the experiments published in the papers accepted at the conference. This year, we have been in charge of reproducing the experiments provided by the authors (repeatability), and exploring changes to experiment parameters (workability). In this paper, we a...... find that most experiments are distributed as Linux packages accompanied by instructions on how to setup and run the experiments. We are still far from the vision of executable papers...

  10. Epigenetics and Triplet-Repeat Neurological Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nageshwaran, Sathiji; Festenstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The term “junk DNA” has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterochromatinized resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions f...

  11. Epigenetics and triplet repeat neurological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sathiji eNageshwaran; Richard eFestenstein

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘junk DNA’ has been reconsidered following the delineation of the functional significance of repetitive DNA regions. Typically associated with centromeres and telomeres, DNA repeats are found in nearly all organisms throughout their genomes. Repetitive regions are frequently heterchromatinised resulting in silencing of intrinsic and nearby genes. However, this is not a uniform rule, with several genes known to require such an environment to permit transcription. Repetitive regions fr...

  12. Fixed drug eruptions with modafinil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loknath Ghoshal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil is a psychostimulant drug, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of narcolepsy associated excessive daytime sleepiness, sleep disorder related to shift work, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, presently it is being used as a lifestyle medicine; in India, it has been misused as an "over the counter" drug. Modafinil is known to have several cutaneous side effects. Fixed drug eruption (FDE is a distinctive drug induced reaction pattern characterized by recurrence of eruption at the same site of the skin or mucous membrane with repeated systemic administration. Only two case reports exist in the literature describing modafinil induced FDE until date. Here, we report two similar cases. The increasing use of this class of drug amongst the medical personnel might be posing a threat to the proper use and encouraging subsequent abuse. There might be a considerable population using these drugs unaware of the possible adverse effects. Authorities should be more alert regarding the sale and distribution of such medicines.

  13. Repeated-sprint ability and aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Nicolas; Léger, Luc A; Passelergue, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to reinvestigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and fatigue indices of repeated-sprint ability (RSA), with special attention to methodological normalization. Soldiers were divided into low (n = 10) and high (n = 9) fitness groups according to a preset maximal aerobic speed (MAS) of 17 km·h(-1) (∼60 ml O2·kg(-1)·min) measured with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Subjects' assessment included the RSA test (3 sets of 5 40-m sprints with 1-minute rest between sprints and 1.5 minutes between sets), a 40-m sprint (criterion test used in the computation of fatigue indices for the RSA test), strength and power measurement of the lower limbs, and the 20-m shuttle run test (20-m SRT) and the UMTT, which are measures of maximal aerobic power. The highest correlation with the RSA fatigue indices was obtained with the 20-m SRT (r = 0.90, p = 0.0001, n = 19), a test with 180° direction changes and accelerations and decelerations. The lower correlation (r = 0.66, p repeated sprints and achieved better recovery between series. A MAS of at least 17 km·h(-1) favors constant and high speed level during repeated sprints. From a practical point of view, a high aerobic fitness is a precious asset in counteracting fatigue in sports with numerous sprint repetitions.

  14. Histone deacetylase complexes promote trinucleotide repeat expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Debacker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of DNA trinucleotide repeats cause at least 17 inherited neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease. Expansions can occur at frequencies approaching 100% in affected families and in transgenic mice, suggesting that specific cellular proteins actively promote (favor expansions. The inference is that expansions arise due to the presence of these promoting proteins, not their absence, and that interfering with these proteins can suppress expansions. The goal of this study was to identify novel factors that promote expansions. We discovered that specific histone deacetylase complexes (HDACs promote CTG•CAG repeat expansions in budding yeast and human cells. Mutation or inhibition of yeast Rpd3L or Hda1 suppressed up to 90% of expansions. In cultured human astrocytes, expansions were suppressed by 75% upon inhibition or knockdown of HDAC3, whereas siRNA against the histone acetyltransferases CBP/p300 stimulated expansions. Genetic and molecular analysis both indicated that HDACs act at a distance from the triplet repeat to promote expansions. Expansion assays with nuclease mutants indicated that Sae2 is one of the relevant factors regulated by Rpd3L and Hda1. The causal relationship between HDACs and expansions indicates that HDACs can promote mutagenesis at some DNA sequences. This relationship further implies that HDAC3 inhibitors being tested for relief of expansion-associated gene silencing may also suppress somatic expansions that contribute to disease progression.

  15. Landauer's Principle in Repeated Interaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Eric P.; Joye, Alain; Pautrat, Yan; Raquépas, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    We study Landauer's Principle for Repeated Interaction Systems (RIS) consisting of a reference quantum system S in contact with a structured environment E made of a chain of independent quantum probes; S interacts with each probe, for a fixed duration, in sequence. We first adapt Landauer's lower bound, which relates the energy variation of the environment E to a decrease of entropy of the system S during the evolution, to the peculiar discrete time dynamics of RIS. Then we consider RIS with a structured environment E displaying small variations of order {T^{-1}} between the successive probes encountered by S, after {n ˜eq T} interactions, in keeping with adiabatic scaling. We establish a discrete time non-unitary adiabatic theorem to approximate the reduced dynamics of S in this regime, in order to tackle the adiabatic limit of Landauer's bound. We find that saturation of Landauer's bound is related to a detailed balance condition on the repeated interaction system, reflecting the non-equilibrium nature of the repeated interaction system dynamics. This is to be contrasted with the generic saturation of Landauer's bound known to hold for continuous time evolution of an open quantum system interacting with a single thermal reservoir in the adiabatic regime.

  16. A Unified Model for Repeating and Non-repeating Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Manjari

    2017-04-01

    The model that fast radio bursts (FRBs) are caused by plunges of asteroids onto neutron stars can explain both repeating and non-repeating bursts. If a neutron star passes through an asteroid belt around another star, there would be a series of bursts caused by a series of asteroid impacts. Moreover, the neutron star would cross the same belt repetitively if it were in a binary with the star hosting the asteroid belt, leading to a repeated series of bursts. I explore the properties of neutron star binaries that could lead to the only known repeating FRB so far (FRB121102). In this model, the next two epochs of bursts are expected around 2017 February 27 and 2017 December 18. On the other hand, if the asteroid belt is located around the neutron star itself, then a chance fall of an asteroid from that belt onto the neutron star would lead to a non-repeating burst. Even a neutron star grazing an asteroid belt can lead to a non-repeating burst caused by just one asteroid plunge during the grazing. This is possible even when the neutron star is in a binary with the asteroid-hosting star, if the belt and the neutron star orbit are non-coplanar.

  17. Repeated toluene exposure increases c-Fos in catecholaminergic cells of the nucleus accumbens shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Aulerich, Kelsey E; Bowen, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Toluene is a frequently abused solvent. Previous studies have suggested that toluene acts like other drugs of abuse, specifically on the dopaminergic system in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the mesolimbic pathway. Although changes in dopamine (DA) levels and c-Fos have been observed in both acute and repeated exposure paradigms, the extent to which c-Fos is localized to catecholaminergic cells is unknown. The present study tested the effects of repeated toluene exposure (1000-4000ppm) on locomotor activity and cells containing c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), or both in the core and shell of the NAc, as well as the anterior and posterior VTA. We focused our study on adolescents, since adolescence is a time of great neural change and a time when individuals tend to be more susceptible to drug abuse. In early tests, toluene dose-dependently increased locomotor activity. Repeated exposure to the highest concentration of toluene resulted in sensitization to toluene's effects on locomotor activity. Although the number of cells immunopositive for c-Fos or TH did not significantly differ across groups, cells immunopositive for TH+c-Fos were higher in the NAc shell of animals exposed to 4000ppm than in animals exposed to air (control) or 1000ppm. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that repeated high dose toluene exposure increases locomotor activity as well as activation of catecholaminergic cells in the shell of the NAc. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  19. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Link Between Drug Use and HIV/AIDS Treatment & Recovery What is Treatment? Why Does a Person Need ... Work? What Are the Treatment Options? What Is Recovery? What Is a Relapse? How Can Friends and ...

  20. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  1. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco ... Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You ...

  2. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA ( ... Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/ ...

  3. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulants Stimulants include amphetamines, meth (methamphetamine), cocaine and methylphenidate (Ritalin). They are often used and abused in ... a medication, talk to your doctor. Preventing drug abuse in children and teenagers Take these steps to ...

  4. Antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2010-10-01

    In October 2010, it will be exactly 25 years ago that the first antiretroviral drug, AZT (zidovudine, 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine), was described. It was the first of 25 antiretroviral drugs that in the past 25 years have been formally licensed for clinical use. These antiretroviral drugs fall into seven categories [nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), fusion inhibitors (FIs), co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs) and integrase inhibitors (INIs). The INIs (i.e. raltegravir) represent the most recent advance in the search for effective and selective anti-HIV agents. Combination of several anti-HIV drugs [often referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] has drastically altered AIDS from an almost uniformly fatal disease to a chronic manageable one.

  5. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and ... Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs You can ...

  7. Prescription Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jackets, Yellows, and Zombie Pills Stimulants: Bennies, Black Beauties, Hearts, Roses, Skippy, The Smart Drug, Speed, and ... used to relieve anxiety or help a person sleep, such as Valium or Xanax Stimulants — used for ...

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly) Facts Meth ( ... Information About Drugs Alcohol Bath Salts Cocaine Heroin Marijuana MDMA Meth Pain Medicines Spice (K2) Tobacco/Nicotine ...

  9. Intermittent adaptation. A theory of drug tolerance, dependence and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, A

    2009-05-01

    A mathematical model of drug tolerance and its underlying theory is presented. The model is essentially more complex than the generally used model of homeostasis, which is demonstrated to fail in describing tolerance development to repeated drug administrations. The model assumes the development of tolerance to a repeatedly administered drug to be the result of a regulated adaptive process. The oral detection and analysis of endogenous substances is proposed to be the primary stimulus for the mechanism of drug tolerance. Anticipation and environmental cues are in the model considered secondary stimuli, becoming primary only in dependence and addiction or when the drug administration bypasses the natural--oral--route, as is the case when drugs are administered intravenously. The model considers adaptation to the effect of a drug and adaptation to the interval between drug taking autonomous tolerance processes. Simulations with the mathematical model demonstrate the model's behaviour to be consistent with important characteristics of the development of tolerance to repeatedly administered drugs: the gradual decrease in drug effect when tolerance develops, the high sensitivity to small changes in drug dose, the rebound phenomenon and the large reactions following withdrawal in dependence. Simulations of different ways withdrawal can be accomplished, demonstrates the practical applicability of the model.

  10. Repeated use of mifepristone and levonorgestrel and their effect on the ovarian function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Shi, Xiaobo

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effects of repeated mifepristone and levonorgestrel use on estrous cycle and expression of ovarian follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in mice. Ovarian FSHR and LHR mRNA expression was measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, while the protein levels were measured using immunohistochemistry. Repeated use of mifepristone and levonorgestrel significantly lengthened the estrous cycle and decreased FSHR and LHR mRNA and protein expression in the ovaries of mice at 4, 24, and 48 days after discontinuing drug use. Repeated use of mifepristone and levonorgestrel had significant main effects on estrous cycle length and the mRNA expression and protein level of ovarian FSHR and LHR. Repeated mifepristone and levonorgestrel use and withdrawal time had a significant interaction with mouse estrous cycle (F = 16.65, P < 0.05), ovarian LHR and FSHR mRNA expression (F = 563.072, P < 0.05), and protein level (F = 6.536, P < 0.05). Repeated use of mifepristone and levonorgestrel can lead to sustained damage to ovarian function through inhibition of ovarian FSHR and LHR expression in mice. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Drug-drug interactions: antiretroviral drugs and recreational drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staltari, Orietta; Leporini, Christian; Caroleo, Benedetto; Russo, Emilio; Siniscalchi, Antonio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Gallelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    With the advances in antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are living longer, however, some patients encounter co- morbidities which sometimes require treatment. Therefore, during the treatment with ARV drugs these patients could take several recreational drugs (e.g. amphetamines, hallucinogenes, opiates, or alcohol) with a possible development of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In particular, Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs/NtRTIs) are mainly excreted through the kidney and are not substrates of the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein, therefore the DDIs during this treatment are minimal. In contrast, the other ARV drugs (i.e. non-nucleoside reversetranscriptase inhibitors, Protease inhibitors, Integrase inhibitors, chemokine receptor 5 antagonists and HIV-fusion inhibitors) are an important class of antiretroviral medications that are frequent components of HAART regimens but show several DDIs related to interaction with the cytochrome P450 or P-glycoprotein. In this paper we will review data concerning the possibility of DDI in HIV patients treated with ARV and taking recreational drugs.

  12. Psychostimulant Drugs and Neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Fernandez-Espejo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Drugs of abuse induce plastic changes in the brain that seem to underlie addictive phenomena. These plastic changes can be structural (morphological or synaptic (biochemical, and most of them take place in the mesolimbic and mesostriatal circuits. Several addiction-related changes in brain circuits (hypofrontality, sensitization, tolerance as well as the outcome of treatment have been visualized in addicts to psychostimulants using neuroimaging techniques. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants induces morphological changes such as increase in the number of dendritic spines, changes in the morphology of dendritic spines, and altered cellular coupling through new gap junctions. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants also induces various synaptic adaptations, many of them related to sensitization and neuroplastic processes, that include up- or down-regulation of D1, D2 and D3 dopamine receptors, changes in subunits of G proteins, increased adenylyl cyclase activity, cyclic AMP and protein kinase A in the nucleus accumbens, increased tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme activity, increased calmodulin and activated CaMKII in the ventral tegmental area, and increased deltaFosB, c-Fos and AP-1 binding proteins. Most of these changes are transient, suggesting that more lasting plastic brain adaptations should take place. In this context, protein synthesis inhibitors block the development of sensitization to cocaine, indicating that rearrangement of neural networks must develop for the long-lasting plasticity required for addiction to occur. Self-administration studies indicate the importance of glutamate neurotransmission in neuroplastic changes underlying transition from use to abuse. Finally, plastic changes in the addicted brain are enhanced and aggravated by neuroinflammation and neurotrophic disbalance after repeated psychostimulants.

  13. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Virtual Subjective Refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    To establish the repeatability and reproducibility of a virtual refraction process using simulated retinal images. With simulation software, aberrated images corresponding with each step of the refraction process were calculated following the typical protocol of conventional subjective refraction. Fifty external examiners judged simulated retinal images until the best sphero-cylindrical refraction and the best visual acuity were achieved starting from the aberrometry data of three patients. Data analyses were performed to assess repeatability and reproducibility of the virtual refraction as a function of pupil size and aberrometric profile of different patients. SD values achieved in three components of refraction (M, J0, and J45) are lower than 0.25D in repeatability analysis. Regarding reproducibility, we found SD values lower than 0.25D in the most cases. When the results of virtual refraction with different pupil diameters (4 and 6 mm) were compared, the mean of differences (MoD) obtained were not clinically significant (less than 0.25D). Only one of the aberrometry profiles with high uncorrected astigmatism shows poor results for the M component in reproducibility and pupil size dependence analysis. In all cases, vision achieved was better than 0 logMAR. A comparison between the compensation obtained with virtual and conventional subjective refraction was made as an example of this application, showing good quality retinal images in both processes. The present study shows that virtual refraction has similar levels of precision as conventional subjective refraction. Moreover, virtual refraction has also shown that when high low order astigmatism is present, the refraction result is less precise and highly dependent on pupil size.

  14. Oxygen uptake during repeated-sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Bishop, David J

    2015-03-01

    Repeated-sprint ability appears to be influenced by oxidative metabolism, with reductions in fatigue and improved sprint times related to markers of aerobic fitness. The aim of the current study was to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) during the first and last sprints during two, 5 × 6-s repeated-sprint bouts. Cross-sectional study. Eight female soccer players performed two, consecutive, 5 × 6-s maximal sprint bouts (B1 and B2) on five separate occasions, in order to identify the minimum time (trec) required to recover total work done (Wtot) in B1. On a sixth occasion, expired air was collected during the first and last sprint of B1 and B2, which were separated by trec. The trec was 10.9 ± 1.1 min. The VO₂ during the first sprint was significantly less than the last sprint in each bout (psprint (measured in kJ) was significantly related to VO₂max in both B1 (r=0.81, p=0.015) and B2 (r=0.93, p=0.001). In addition, the VO₂ attained in the final sprint was not significantly different from VO₂max in B1 (p=0.284) or B2 (p=0.448). The current study shows that the VO₂ increases from the first to the last of 5 × 6-s sprints and that VO₂max may be a limiting factor to performance in latter sprints. Increasing V˙O₂max in team-sport athletes may enable increased aerobic energy delivery, and consequently work done, during a bout of repeated sprints. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. COPD - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - control drugs; Bronchodilators - COPD - control drugs; Beta agonist inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Anticholinergic inhaler - COPD - control drugs; Long-acting inhaler - COPD - ...

  16. Mechanical processes with repeated attenuated impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaev, R F

    1999-01-01

    This book is devoted to considering in the general case - using typical concrete examples - the motion of machines and mechanisms of impact and vibro-impact action accompanied by a peculiar phenomenon called "impact collapse". This phenomenon is that after the initial collision, a sequence of repeated gradually quickening collisions of decreasing-to-zero intensity occurs, with the final establishment of protracted contact between the interacting bodies. The initiation conditions of the impact collapse are determined and calculation techniques for the quantitative characteristics of the corresp

  17. Source coding model for repeated snapshot imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Junhui; Yang, Dongyue; wu, Guohua; Yin, Longfei; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging based on successive repeated snapshot measurement is modeled as a source coding process in information theory. The necessary number of measurement to maintain a certain level of error rate is depicted as the rate-distortion function of the source coding. Quantitative formula of the error rate versus measurement number relation is derived, based on the information capacity of imaging system. Second order fluctuation correlation imaging (SFCI) experiment with pseudo-thermal light verifies this formula, which paves the way for introducing information theory into the study of ghost imaging (GI), both conventional and computational.

  18. REPEAT facility. Report for May, June, July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, C. B.

    1981-08-01

    The construction of the REPEAT facility, a test facility for passive and hybrid solar heating systems is reported. The development of a simulation program for envelope type passive solar systems, constructing an envelope test cell, collecting data to validate the program, and application of the program to determine the best envelope type design are discussed. A low cost monitoring system using a dedicated microprocessor system, an inexpensive, high accuracy A/D converter, and minimum system hardware is developed. A method to determine the average temperature and the average daily temperature variation inside a passively heated solar building is presented.

  19. Cataractogenesis after Repeat Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been the unsubstantiated clinical impression that laser refractive surgery accelerates cataract development along with solid experimental data about the cataractogenic effects of excimer laser treatment. We present the first documented case of significant cataract formation in a young myope after repeat excimer laser ablation necessitating phacoemulsification with a posterior chamber implant. Proposed explanations include focusing of the ablation wave on the posterior capsule (acoustic wave lens epithelial damage, photooxidative stress of the lens (ultraviolet and inflammatory oxidative stress, and corticosteroid-induced cataract (lens toxicity.

  20. Multiplicatively Repeated Non-Binary LDPC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Kasai, Kenta; Poulliat, Charly; Sakaniwa, Kohichi

    2010-01-01

    We propose non-binary LDPC codes concatenated with multiplicative repetition codes. By multiplicatively repeating the (2,3)-regular non-binary LDPC mother code of rate 1/3, we construct rate-compatible codes of lower rates 1/6, 1/9, 1/12,... Surprisingly, such simple low-rate non-binary LDPC codes outperform the best low-rate binary LDPC codes so far. Moreover, we propose the decoding algorithm for the proposed codes, which can be decoded with almost the same computational complexity as that of the mother code.

  1. Improving repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players: repeated shuttle sprints vs. explosive strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Delhomel, Gregory; Brughelli, Matt; Ahmaidi, Said

    2010-10-01

    To compare the effects of explosive strength (ExpS) vs. repeated shuttle sprint (RS) training on repeated sprint ability (RSA) in young elite soccer players, 15 elite male adolescents (14.5 ± 0.5 years) performed, in addition to their soccer training program, RS (n = 7) or ExpS (n = 8) training once a week for a total of 10 weeks. RS training consisted of 2-3 sets of 5-6 × 15- to 20-m repeated shuttle sprints interspersed with 14 seconds of passive or 23 seconds of active recovery (≈2 m·s⁻¹); ExpS training consisted of 4-6 series of 4-6 exercises (e.g., maximal unilateral countermovement jumps (CMJs), calf and squat plyometric jumps, and short sprints). Before and after training, performance was assessed by 10 and 30 m (10 and 30 m) sprint times, best (RSAbest) and mean (RSAmean) times on a repeated shuttle sprint ability test, a CMJ, and a hopping (Hop) test. After training, except for 10 m (p = 0.22), all performances were significantly improved in both groups (all p's repeated shuttle sprint test were only observed after RS training, whereas CMJ height was only increased after ExpS. Because RS and ExpS were equally efficient at enhancing maximal sprinting speed, RS training-induced improvements in RSA were likely more related to progresses in the ability to change direction.

  2. Repeated vitrification/warming of human sperm gives better results than repeated slow programmable freezing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teraporn Vutyavanich; Worashorn Lattiwongsakorn; Waraporn Piromlertamorn; Sudarat Samchimchom

    2012-01-01

    In this study,we compared the effects of repeated freezing/thawing of human sperm by our in-house method of rapid freezing with slow programmable freezing.Sperm samples from 11 normozoospermic subjects were processed through density gradients and divided into three aliquots:non-frozen,rapid freezing and slow programmable freezing.Sperm in the rapid freezing group had better motility and viability than those in the slow freezing group (P<O.01) after the first,second and third cycles of freezing/thawing,but there was no difference in morphology.In the second experiment,rapid freezing was repeated three times in 20 subjects.The samples from each thawing cycle were evaluated for DNA fragmentation using the alkaline comet assay.DNA fragmentation began to increase considerably after the second cycle of freezing/thawing,but to a level that was not clinically important.In the third experiment,rapid freezing was done repeatedly in 10 subjects,until no motile sperm were observed after thawing.The median number of repeated freezing/thawing that yielded no motile sperm was seven (range:5-8,mean:6.8).In conclusion,we demonstrated that repeated freezing/thawing of processed semen using our rapid freezing method gave better results than standard slow programmable freezing.This method can help maximize the usage of precious cryopreserved sperm samples in assisted reproduction technology.

  3. Treating glioblastoma multiforme with selective high-dose liposomal doxorubicin chemotherapy induced by repeated focused ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Feng-Yi Yang1, Ming-Che Teng1, Maggie Lu2, Hsiang-Fa Liang2, Yan-Ru Lee1, Chueh-Chuan Yen3, Muh-Lii Liang4,5, Tai-Tong Wong51Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 2Drug Delivery Laboratory, Biomedical Technology and Device Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, 3Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, 4Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, 5Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: High-dose tissue-specific delivery of therapeutic agents would be a valuable clinical strategy. We have previously shown that repeated transcranial focused ultrasound is able to increase the delivery of Evans blue significantly into brain tissue. The present study shows that repeated pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU can be used to deliver high-dose atherosclerotic plaque-specific peptide-1 (AP-1-conjugated liposomes selectively to brain tumors.Methods: Firefly luciferase (Fluc-labeled human GBM8401 glioma cells were implanted into NOD-scid mice. AP-1-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin or liposomal doxorubicin alone was administered followed by pulsed HIFU and the doxorubicin concentration in the treated brains quantified by fluorometer. Growth of the labeled glioma cells was monitored through noninvasive bioluminescence imaging and finally the brain tissue was histologically examined after sacrifice.Results: Compared with the control group, the animals treated with 5 mg/kg injections of AP-1 liposomal doxorubicin or untargeted liposomal doxorubicin followed by repeated pulsed HIFU not only showed significantly enhanced accumulation of drug at the sonicated tumor site but also a significantly elevated tumor-to-normal brain drug

  4. Herbal drugs and drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Dülger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs are defined as any form of a plant or plant product that contains a single herb or combinations of herbs that are believed to have complementary effects. Although they are considered to be safe, because they are natural, they may have various adverse effects, and may interact with other herbal products or conventional drugs. These interactions are especially important for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices.In the present study, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of some most commanly used herbals (St John's wort, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, ginger, garlic, echinacea, ephedra and valerian with the conventional drugs were reviewed. Pharmacokinetic interactions involve mainly induction or inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isozymes and p-glycoproteins by the herbal medicine, thus changing the absorption and/or elimination rate and consequently the efficacy of the concommitantly used drugs. St John's wort, a well known enzyme inducer, decreases the efficacy of most of the other drugs that are known to be the substrates of these enzymes.Pharmacodynamic interactions may be due to additive or synergistic effects which results in enhanced effect or toxicity, or herbal medicines with antagonistic properties reduce drug efficacy and result in therapeutic failure. For exampla, St John's wort may have synergistic effects with other antidepressant drugs used by the patient, resulting in increased CNS effects.Herbals like ginseng, ginkgo, garlic, ginger were reported to increase bleeding time, thus potentiating the effect of anticoagulant and antithrombotic agents. In conclusion, patients should be warned against the interaction between the herbal products and conventional medicines.

  5. Comparative genomics and molecular dynamics of DNA repeats in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Guy-Franck; Kerrest, Alix; Dujon, Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Repeated elements can be widely abundant in eukaryotic genomes, composing more than 50% of the human genome, for example. It is possible to classify repeated sequences into two large families, "tandem repeats" and "dispersed repeats." Each of these two families can be itself divided into subfamilies. Dispersed repeats contain transposons, tRNA genes, and gene paralogues, whereas tandem repeats contain gene tandems, ribosomal DNA repeat arrays, and satellite DNA, itself subdivided into satellites, minisatellites, and microsatellites. Remarkably, the molecular mechanisms that create and propagate dispersed and tandem repeats are specific to each class and usually do not overlap. In the present review, we have chosen in the first section to describe the nature and distribution of dispersed and tandem repeats in eukaryotic genomes in the light of complete (or nearly complete) available genome sequences. In the second part, we focus on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the fast evolution of two specific classes of tandem repeats: minisatellites and microsatellites. Given that a growing number of human neurological disorders involve the expansion of a particular class of microsatellites, called trinucleotide repeats, a large part of the recent experimental work on microsatellites has focused on these particular repeats, and thus we also review the current knowledge in this area. Finally, we propose a unified definition for mini- and microsatellites that takes into account their biological properties and try to point out new directions that should be explored in a near future on our road to understanding the genetics of repeated sequences.

  6. Cardiometabolic treatment decisions in patients with type 2 diabetes : the role of repeated measurements and medication burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Stolk, R. P.; Denig, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Clinical guidelines for cardiometabolic risk management indicate a simple threshold-based strategy for treatment, but physicians and their patients may be reluctant to modify drug treatment after a single elevated measurement. We determined how repeated measurements of blood pressure, choles

  7. Cardiometabolic treatment decisions in patients with type 2 diabetes : the role of repeated measurements and medication burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Stolk, R. P.; Denig, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Clinical guidelines for cardiometabolic risk management indicate a simple threshold-based strategy for treatment, but physicians and their patients may be reluctant to modify drug treatment after a single elevated measurement. We determined how repeated measurements of blood pressure,

  8. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  9. The Perpetual Repeater: an Educative Musical Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Skriagina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Music Undergraduate Program of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional (National Pedagogic University, two musical events were planned: an original work written for choir, soloists and symphonic band, and an opera for children. As a result, the cantata ‘The Perpetual Repeater” has been created as an adaptation of a work named “50 Milions de Segons” (50 Millions of Seconds, staged by the CATANIA project of the Barcelona Servei Educatiu de L’Auditori. This work tells the story of those school teachers who, paradoxically enough repeat the same course year after year. After visiting L’Auditori of Barcelona to participate in the pedagogic musical work carried out with school children, we considered the possibility of developing an analogous project, in a similar sociocultural and educational environment, within our Music Undergraduate Program. So, this article deals with two fundamental moments which are essential to understand the educational work implemented with the ISPA students of sixth degree, as well as with a group of the program’s students: The Purpose, which describes in detail the planning of the musical work for children, and The Experience, in which the way the process of The Perpetual Repeater Cantatawas carried out is described.

  10. Airborne Radar Interferometric Repeat-Pass Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry R.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Muellerschoen, Ronald J.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Fore, Alexander; Simard, Marc; Zebker, Howard A.

    2011-01-01

    Earth science research often requires crustal deformation measurements at a variety of time scales, from seconds to decades. Although satellites have been used for repeat-track interferometric (RTI) synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) mapping for close to 20 years, RTI is much more difficult to implement from an airborne platform owing to the irregular trajectory of the aircraft compared with microwave imaging radar wavelengths. Two basic requirements for robust airborne repeat-pass radar interferometry include the ability to fly the platform to a desired trajectory within a narrow tube and the ability to have the radar beam pointed in a desired direction to a fraction of a beam width. Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is equipped with a precision auto pilot developed by NASA Dryden that allows the platform, a Gulfstream III, to nominally fly within a 5 m diameter tube and with an electronically scanned antenna to position the radar beam to a fraction of a beam width based on INU (inertial navigation unit) attitude angle measurements.

  11. Aggregating quantum repeaters for the quantum internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Kato, Go

    2017-09-01

    The quantum internet holds promise for accomplishing quantum teleportation and unconditionally secure communication freely between arbitrary clients all over the globe, as well as the simulation of quantum many-body systems. For such a quantum internet protocol, a general fundamental upper bound on the obtainable entanglement or secret key has been derived [K. Azuma, A. Mizutani, and H.-K. Lo, Nat. Commun. 7, 13523 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms13523]. Here we consider its converse problem. In particular, we present a universal protocol constructible from any given quantum network, which is based on running quantum repeater schemes in parallel over the network. For arbitrary lossy optical channel networks, our protocol has no scaling gap with the upper bound, even based on existing quantum repeater schemes. In an asymptotic limit, our protocol works as an optimal entanglement or secret-key distribution over any quantum network composed of practical channels such as erasure channels, dephasing channels, bosonic quantum amplifier channels, and lossy optical channels.

  12. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  13. Chromosome-specific DNA Repeat Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly Fung; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.

    2006-03-16

    In research as well as in clinical applications, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has gained increasing popularity as a highly sensitive technique to study cytogenetic changes. Today, hundreds of commercially available DNA probes serve the basic needs of the biomedical research community. Widespread applications, however, are often limited by the lack of appropriately labeled, specific nucleic acid probes. We describe two approaches for an expeditious preparation of chromosome-specific DNAs and the subsequent probe labeling with reporter molecules of choice. The described techniques allow the preparation of highly specific DNA repeat probes suitable for enumeration of chromosomes in interphase cell nuclei or tissue sections. In addition, there is no need for chromosome enrichment by flow cytometry and sorting or molecular cloning. Our PCR-based method uses either bacterial artificial chromosomes or human genomic DNA as templates with {alpha}-satellite-specific primers. Here we demonstrate the production of fluorochrome-labeled DNA repeat probes specific for human chromosomes 17 and 18 in just a few days without the need for highly specialized equipment and without the limitation to only a few fluorochrome labels.

  14. Repeat-induced gene silencing in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, D; Fiering, S; Martin, D I; Whitelaw, E

    1998-01-01

    In both plants and Drosophila melanogaster, expression from a transgenic locus may be silenced when repeated transgene copies are arranged as a concatameric array. This repeat-induced gene silencing is frequently manifested as a decrease in the proportion of cells that express the transgene, resulting in a variegated pattern of expression. There is also some indication that, in transgenic mammals, the number of transgene copies within an array can exert a repressive influence on expression, with several mouse studies reporting a decrease in the level of expression per copy as copy number increases. However, because these studies compare different sites of transgene integration as well as arrays with different numbers of copies, the expression levels observed may be subject to varying position effects as well as the influence of the multicopy array. Here we describe use of the lox/Cre system of site-specific recombination to generate transgenic mouse lines in which different numbers of a transgene are present at the same chromosomal location, thereby eliminating the contribution of position effects and allowing analysis of the effect of copy number alone on transgene silencing. Reduction in copy number results in a marked increase in expression of the transgene and is accompanied by decreased chromatin compaction and decreased methylation at the transgene locus. These findings establish that the presence of multiple homologous copies of a transgene within a concatameric array can have a repressive effect upon gene expression in mammalian systems.

  15. Discrepancies in reporting the CAG repeat lengths for Huntington's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarrell, Oliver W; Handley, Olivia; O'Donovan, Kirsty

    2011-01-01

    Huntington's disease results from a CAG repeat expansion within the Huntingtin gene; this is measured routinely in diagnostic laboratories. The European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY project centrally measures CAG repeat lengths on fresh samples; these were compared with the original...

  16. Comparison of behavioral effects after single and repeated administrations of four benzodiazepines in three mice behavioral models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourin, M; Hascoet, M; Mansouri, B; Colombel, M C; Bradwejn, J

    1992-01-01

    The behavioral and clinical profiles of various benzodiazepines after acute and chronic treatment are not well defined and may differ. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral profiles of alprazolam, bromazepam, diazepam and lorazepam in mice after single and repeated (every half-life for seven half-lives) administrations using a stimulation-sedation test (actimeter), a myorelaxation test (rotarod), and an anxiolysis test ("four plates"). A dose range from 0.03 to 4 mg/kg was used. A single administration of alprazolam showed stimulating and anxiolytic effects which diminished after repeated administration. Lorezapam's sedative effect diminished but its anxiolytic effect increased upon repeated administration. Except for lorazepam, the myorelaxing effect of all four drugs increased after repeated treatment. These results suggest that the behavioral profile of benzodiazepines may not be identical during acute and chronic treatment. These differences may be present in clinical treatment and warrant investigation in humans. PMID:1637802

  17. Comparison of behavioral effects after single and repeated administrations of four benzodiazepines in three mice behavioral models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourin, M; Hascoet, M; Mansouri, B; Colombel, M C; Bradwejn, J

    1992-06-01

    The behavioral and clinical profiles of various benzodiazepines after acute and chronic treatment are not well defined and may differ. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral profiles of alprazolam, bromazepam, diazepam and lorazepam in mice after single and repeated (every half-life for seven half-lives) administrations using a stimulation-sedation test (actimeter), a myorelaxation test (rotarod), and an anxiolysis test ("four plates"). A dose range from 0.03 to 4 mg/kg was used. A single administration of alprazolam showed stimulating and anxiolytic effects which diminished after repeated administration. Lorezapam's sedative effect diminished but its anxiolytic effect increased upon repeated administration. Except for lorazepam, the myorelaxing effect of all four drugs increased after repeated treatment. These results suggest that the behavioral profile of benzodiazepines may not be identical during acute and chronic treatment. These differences may be present in clinical treatment and warrant investigation in humans.

  18. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  19. Patient characteristics and patterns of intoxication: one-time and repeated use of emergency ambulance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Barbara M; Minder, Christoph E; Rosset, Nina; Schaetti, Gabriela; Battegay, Edouard; Mueller, Stefan; Zimmerli, Lukas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of ambulance services that resulted from alcohol and drug intoxication over a period of 1 year in a metropolitan area, with an emphasis on characteristic differences between patients with one-time versus repeated use. All ambulance-service report forms filed in 2010 were systematically screened for utilizations in which alcohol intoxication or intoxication resulting from consumption of illicit or legal drugs other than alcohol was the chief complaint (N = 2,341 patients; 65% male). Repeat users differed from persons with one-time use in their characteristics and patterns of intoxication. On average, patients with repeated ambulance use were almost 8 years older and had a different pattern of ambulance use over the course of the week with no clear peak on any specific day. The mean number of ambulance services in patients with repeated use was 2.8 (SD = 1.517) in the 1-year study period. Repeat users were less likely to be injured than patients with one-time ambulance-service use and more often showed aggression or uncooperative behavior toward paramedics. All cases of death associated with intoxication involved patients with one-time ambulance use. The ambulance-service users' generally slight impairment of consciousness and the high proportion of intoxicated patients without any injuries raise the question of how many of these patients could be adequately cared for in a sobering center. Sobering centers might relieve hospital emergency departments of patients not requiring acute emergency care and, in addition, could provide intervention services to prevent relapses.

  20. Contrasting effects of diazepam and repeated restraint stress on latent inhibition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Raymond; Marcello, Stefania; Andersen, Jacob Sparre; Pani, Luca

    2007-11-02

    The effects on latent inhibition (LI; a delay in conditioning when a CS has been pre-exposed without consequences) of repeated restraint stress and the anxiolytic drug diazepam were examined in C57BL/6 mice to know whether previous aversive events or anxiolysis are factors determining the expression of LI. The LI model was optimized for this strain particularly sensitive to stress (using both the CER and the conditioned freezing procedures) and characterized with typical (haloperidol) and atypical (clozapine and olanzapine) antipsychotic drugs administered either during the conditioning or the pre-exposure phases. An acute challenge with amphetamine, a dopamine releaser, was done to verify the enhancement of hyperactivity in C57BL/6 mice after the restraint stress sensitization. At all doses tested, diazepam decreased latent inhibition when administered during the pre-exposure phase (similarly to atypical antipsychotic drugs). Repeated restraint stress enhanced LI by blocking the CS-induced freezing in pre-exposed mice. In contrast, pre-treatment with diazepam before pre-exposure allowed the expression of CS-induced freezing in stressed mice pre-exposed to the tone. It is suggested that stress and anxiolytic drugs can have opposite effects on attention or perseveration processes during learning of conflicting contingency responses.

  1. 47 CFR 90.247 - Mobile repeater stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile repeater stations. 90.247 Section 90.247... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Non-Voice and Other Specialized Operations § 90.247 Mobile repeater stations. A... repeater to extend the communications range of hand-carried units subject to the following: (a)...

  2. Polymorphic GGC repeat differentially regulates human reelin gene expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, A M; Levitt, P; Pimenta, A F

    2006-10-01

    The human gene encoding Reelin (RELN), a pivotal protein in neurodevelopment, includes a polymorphic GGC repeat in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). CHO cells transfected with constructs encompassing the RELN 5'UTR with 4-to-13 GGC repeats upstream of the luciferase reporter gene show declining luciferase activity with increasing GGC repeat number (P autism.

  3. CGG repeat in the FMR1 gene: Size matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Willemsen (Ralph); G.J. Levenga (Josien); B.A. Oostra (Ben)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe FMR1 gene contains a CGG repeat present in the 5'-untranslated region which can be unstable upon transmission to the next generation. The repeat is up to 55 CGGs long in the normal population. In patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS), a repeat length exceeding 200 CGGs (full

  4. Exposure to repeated immobilization stress inhibits cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in the rat ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón; Abarca, Jorge; Araya, Katherine A; Renard, Georgina M; Andrés, María E; Gysling, Katia

    2015-11-01

    A higher vulnerability to drug abuse has been observed in human studies of individuals exposed to chronic or persistent stress, as well as in animal models of drug abuse. Here, we explored the effect of repeated immobilization stress on cocaine-induced increase in dopamine extracellular levels in VTA and its regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and GABA systems. Cocaine (10mg/Kg i.p.) induced an increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in control rats. However, this effect was not observed in repeated stress rats. Considering the evidence relating stress with CRF, we decided to perfuse CRF and CP-154526 (selective antagonist of CRF1 receptor) in the VTA of control and repeated stress rats, respectively. We observed that perfusion of 20μM CRF inhibited the increase of VTA DA extracellular levels induced by cocaine in control rats. Interestingly, we observed that in the presence of 10μM CP-154526, cocaine induced a significant increase of VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats. Regarding the role of VTA GABA neurotransmission, cocaine administration induced a significant increase in VTA GABA extracellular levels only in repeated stress rats. Consistently, cocaine was able to increase VTA DA extracellular levels in repeated stress rats when 100μM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABAA receptor, was perfused intra VTA. Thus, both CRF and GABA systems are involved in the lack of response to cocaine in the VTA of repeated stress rats. It is tempting to suggest that the loss of response in VTA dopaminergic neurons to cocaine, after repeated stress, is due to an interaction between CRF and GABA systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Repeat Testing Effects on Credentialing Exams: Are Repeaters Misinformed or Uninformed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Raymond, Mark R.; Haist, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate security concerns and unfair score gains, credentialing programs routinely administer new test material to examinees retesting after an initial failing attempt. Counterintuitively, a small but growing body of recent research suggests that repeating the identical form does not create an unfair advantage. This study builds upon and…

  6. Who Repeats Algebra, and How Does Initial Performance Relate to Improvement When the Course Is Repeated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Anthony; Jaquet, Karina; Finkelstein, Neal

    2016-01-01

    The information provided in this report shows how students perform when they repeat algebra I and how the level of improvement varies depending on initial course performance and the academic measure (course grades or CST scores). This information can help inform decisions and policies regarding whether and under what circumstances students should…

  7. Antineoplastic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sara; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antineoplastic drugs is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  8. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the button ... sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | ...

  9. Mucoactive drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balsamo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucus hypersecretion is a clinical feature of severe respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Airway mucosal infection and/or inflammation associated with these diseases often gives rise to inflammatory products, including neutrophil-derived DNA and filamentous actin, in addition to bacteria, apoptotic cells and cellular debris, that may collectively increase mucus production and viscosity. Mucoactive agents have been the medication of choice for the treatment of respiratory diseases in which mucus hypersecretion is a clinical complication. The main purpose of mucoactive drugs is to increase the ability to expectorate sputum and/or decrease mucus hypersecretion. Many mucoactive drugs are currently available and can be classified according to their putative mechanism of action. Mucoactive medications include expectorants, mucoregulators, mucolytics and mucokinetics. By developing our understanding of the specific effects of mucoactive agents, we may result in improved therapeutic use of these drugs. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant mucoactive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action.

  10. Drug Facts

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share Listen English Español Information about this page Click on the ... información sobre el abuso de drogas, y adicción. English Español About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  11. Drug resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Potschka, H.; Noebels, J.L.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.A.; Olsen, R.W.; Delgado-Escueta, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance remains to be one of the major challenges in epilepsy therapy. Identification of factors that contribute to therapeutic failure is crucial for future development of novel therapeutic strategies for difficult-to-treat epilepsies. Several clinical studies have shown that high seizure f

  12. Drug Dependence Treatment Awareness among Japanese Female Stimulant Drug Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinzo Yatsugi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Few stimulant drug users receive adequate treatment. This cross-sectional study describes the characteristics of female drug offenders that use stimulants and clarifies the factors related to the awareness of treatment for drug dependencies. We included 80 females imprisoned due to stimulant control law violations from 2012 to 2015. The characteristics of the female prisoners were stratified according to various treatment awareness levels, and associations between each characteristic and treatment awareness were evaluated using logistic regression models. The average period of stimulant drug use was 17.7 years. Participants imprisoned for the second time were significantly more likely to consider treatment compared to those imprisoned only once: odds ratio (OR = 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.0–10.7. This elevated OR was diluted in repeat offenders. Participants who had experienced multiple aftereffects (≥7 or serious depressive symptoms were also more likely to consider treatment: OR = 6.1 (95% CI: 1.8–20.8 and OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.0–6.2, respectively. Second-time stimulant offenders or offenders who had experienced health problems were more likely to consider it important to receive drug dependence treatment. To overcome relapses of stimulant use, it is recommended that stimulant use offenders are encouraged to accept adequate treatment.

  13. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Myall, Michelle

    2011-11-03

    To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Ethnographic case study. Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as "exceptions" by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge. Clinicians were often unaware of this input and it did not feature in policy

  14. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  15. Potential of repeated polymer well treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, I.; Lakatos-Szabo, J. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)); Munkacsi, I.; Troemboeczki, S.

    1993-11-01

    This paper analyzes field results obtained by routine application of a polymer/silicate well treatment technique at the Algyo-2 field in Hungary. First, the reservoir is described briefly; then, the basic concept of the method is outlined. Reference is made to the multifunctioning chemical mechanism of gelation and the favorable rheological properties of the treating fluids that jointly result in a highly selective placement and an efficient permeability reduction in the target reservoir space. Application of the method 17 times in 16 producing wells yielded more than 90,000 Mg of incremental oil production. Typical well behaviors also are illustrated. Finally, the potential of repeated treatments is discussed, taking laboratory and field results into account.

  16. Quantum repeaters using continuous-variable teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Josephine; Ralph, T. C.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum optical states are fragile and can become corrupted when passed through a lossy communication channel. Unlike for classical signals, optical amplifiers cannot be used to recover quantum signals. Quantum repeaters have been proposed as a way of reducing errors and hence increasing the range of quantum communications. Current protocols target specific discrete encodings, for example quantum bits encoded on the polarization of single photons. We introduce a more general approach that can reduce the effect of loss on any quantum optical encoding, including those based on continuous variables such as the field amplitudes. We show that in principle the protocol incurs a resource cost that scales polynomially with distance. We analyze the simplest implementation and find that while its range is limited it can still achieve useful improvements in the distance over which quantum entanglement of field amplitudes can be distributed.

  17. Statistical Properties of repeating FRB 121102

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond-duration radio signals possibly occurring at cosmological distances. However the physical model of FRBs is mystery, many models have been proposed. Here we study the frequency distributions of peak flux, fluence, duration and waiting time for repeating FRB 121102. The cumulative distributions of peak flux, fluence and duration show power-law forms. The waiting time distribution also shows power-law distribution, and is consistent with a non-stationary Poisson process. We also use the statistical results to test the proposed models for FRBs. Comparing with the model predications, we find that the theoretical models proposed by Dai et al. (2016) and Katz (2016) are favored. These distributions are consistent with the predications from avalanche models of driven systems.

  18. Simple sequence repeats in mycobacterial genomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vattipally B Sreenu; Pankaj Kumar; Javaregowda Nagaraju; Hampapathalu A Nagarajaram

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are the repetitive nucleotide sequences of motifs of length 1–6 bp. They are scattered throughout the genomes of all the known organisms ranging from viruses to eukaryotes. Microsatellites undergo mutations in the form of insertions and deletions (INDELS) of their repeat units with some bias towards insertions that lead to microsatellite tract expansion. Although prokaryotic genomes derive some plasticity due to microsatellite mutations they have in-built mechanisms to arrest undue expansions of microsatellites and one such mechanism is constituted by post-replicative DNA repair enzymes MutL, MutH and MutS. The mycobacterial genomes lack these enzymes and as a null hypothesis one could expect these genomes to harbour many long tracts. It is therefore interesting to analyse the mycobacterial genomes for distribution and abundance of microsatellites tracts and to look for potentially polymorphic microsatellites. Available mycobacterial genomes, Mycobacterium avium, M. leprae, M. bovis and the two strains of M. tuberculosis (CDC1551 and H37Rv) were analysed for frequencies and abundance of SSRs. Our analysis revealed that the SSRs are distributed throughout the mycobacterial genomes at an average of 220–230 SSR tracts per kb. All the mycobacterial genomes contain few regions that are conspicuously denser or poorer in microsatellites compared to their expected genome averages. The genomes distinctly show scarcity of long microsatellites despite the absence of a post-replicative DNA repair system. Such severe scarcity of long microsatellites could arise as a result of strong selection pressures operating against long and unstable sequences although influence of GC-content and role of point mutations in arresting microsatellite expansions can not be ruled out. Nonetheless, the long tracts occasionally found in coding as well as non-coding regions may account for limited genome plasticity in these genomes.

  19. Repeat Gamma Knife surgery for vestibular schwannomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonneville, Sarah; Delbrouck, Carine; Renier, Cécile; Devriendt, Daniel; Massager, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamma Knife (GK) surgery is a recognized treatment option for the management of small to medium-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) associated with high-tumor control and low morbidity. When a radiosurgical treatment fails to stop tumor growth, repeat GK surgery can be proposed in selected cases. Methods: A series of 27 GK retreatments was performed in 25 patients with VS; 2 patients underwent three procedures. The median time interval between GK treatments was 45 months. The median margin dose used for the first, second, and third GK treatments was 12 Gy, 12 Gy, and 14 Gy, respectively. Six patients (4 patients for the second irradiation and 2 patients for the third irradiation) with partial tumor regrowth were treated only on the growing part of the tumor using a median margin dose of 13 Gy. The median tumor volume was 0.9, 2.3, and 0.7 cc for the first, second, and third treatments, respectively. Stereotactic positron emission tomography (PET) guidance was used for dose planning in 6 cases. Results: Mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range 24–110). At the last follow-up, 85% of schwannomas were controlled. The tumor volume decreased, remained unchanged, or increased after retreatment in 15, 8, and 4 cases, respectively. Four patients had PET during follow-up, and all showed a significant metabolic decrease of the tumor. Hearing was not preserved after retreatment in any patients. New facial or trigeminal palsy did not occur after retreatment. Conclusions: Our results support the long-term efficacy and low morbidity of repeat GK treatment for selected patients with tumor growth after initial treatment. PMID:26500799

  20. 341例精神分裂症被鉴定人精神症状与社会危害行为的关系%Correlation between psychiatric symptom and the index offence of 3 4 1 schizophrenic offenders for criminal responsibility assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纯; 王小平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the correlation between psychiatric symptom and the index offence of schizophrenic offenders for criminal responsibility assessment.Methods A self-developed questionnaire was used to investigate 341 schizophrenic offenders with no criminal responsibility by reason of mental disorder.The related information was recorded,such as the main psychiatric symptom (hallucination,delusion,hallucination and delusion coexisting,logic disorder,conduct disorder)during schizophrenic offenders imple-mented offence and the index offence (severe violent crime,non-severe violent crime).The Chi-Square Test was used to test the cor-relation between psychiatric symptom and the index offence of schizophrenic offenders in this study.Results ①Results of the Chi-Square Test showed that theχ2=16.259,P=0.003(P<0.05),contingency coefficient=0.213.②The frequence of delusion related to severe violent crime was 45.7% and the frequence of logic disorder related to non-severe violent crime was 44.3%.③In delusion or hallucination related to severe violent crime,the frequence of persecutory delusion and command hallucination were 82.8% and 54. 2% respectively,and in hallucination and delusion coexisting related to severe violent crime,the frequence of other verbal auditory hal-lucination and delusion of persecution coexisting was 7 6 .6% in these schizophrenic offenders.Conclusion The severe violent crime was may related to delusion and non-severe violent crime was may related to logic disorders in the schizophrenic offenders for criminal re-sponsibility assessment.Delusion of persecution,command hallucination and other verbal auditory hallucination and delusion of perse-cution coexisting were may related to the severe violent crime of schizophrenic offenders for criminal responsibility assessment.%目的:探讨精神分裂症被鉴定人精神症状与社会危害行为的相关性。方法采用自制的调查表,通过查阅委托单位的鉴定委托送交材料

  1. The excess of small inverted repeats in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses have shown that there is a large excess of perfect inverted repeats in many prokaryotic genomes but not in eukaryotic ones. This difference could be due to a genuine difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes or to differences in the methods and types of data analyzed--full genome versus protein coding sequences. We used simulations to show that the method used previously tends to underestimate the expected number of inverted repeats. However, this bias is not large and cannot explain the excess of inverted repeats observed in real data. In contrast, our method is unbiased. When both methods are applied to bacterial protein coding sequences they both detect an excess of inverted repeats, which is much lower than previously reported in whole prokaryotic genomes. This suggests that the reported large excess of inverted repeats is due to repeats found in intergenic regions. These repeats could be due to transcription factor binding sites, or other types of repetitive DNA, on opposite strands of the DNA sequence. In contrast, the smaller, but significant, excess of inverted repeats that we report in protein coding sequences may be due to sequence-directed mutagenesis (SDM). SDM is a process where one copy of a small, imperfect, inverted repeat corrects the other copy via strand misalignment, resulting in a perfect repeat and a series of mutations. We show by simulation that even very low levels of SDM, relative to the rate of point mutation, can generate a substantial excess of inverted repeats.

  2. Studies of an expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, P.; Wang, S.; Merry, D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a progressive motor neuron disease caused by expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in the androgen receptor gene (AR{sup exp}). AR{sup exp} repeats expand further or contract in approximately 25% of transmissions. Analogous {open_quotes}dynamic mutations{close_quotes} have been reported in other expanded trinucleotide repeat disorders. We have been developing a mouse model of this disease using a transgenic approach. Expression of the SBMA AR was documented in transgenic mice with an inducible promoter. No phenotypic effects of transgene expression were observed. We have extended our previous results on stability of the expanded trinucleotide repeat in transgenic mice in two lines carrying AR{sup exp}. Tail DNA was amplified by PCR using primers spanning the repeat on 60 AR{sup exp} transgenic mice from four different transgenic lines. Migration of the PCR product through an acrylamide gel showed no change of the 45 CAG repeat length in any progeny. Similarly, PCR products from 23 normal repeat transgenics showed no change from the repeat length of the original construct. Unlike the disease allele in humans, the expanded repeat AR cDNA in transgenic mice showed no change in repeat length with transmission. The relative stability of CAG repeats seen in the transgenic mice may indicate either differences in the fidelity of replicative enzymes, or differences in error identification and repair between mice and humans. Integration site or structural properties of the transgene itself might also play a role.

  3. Role of DNA Polymerases in Repeat-Mediated Genome Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik A. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansions of simple DNA repeats cause numerous hereditary diseases in humans. We analyzed the role of DNA polymerases in the instability of Friedreich’s ataxia (GAAn repeats in a yeast experimental system. The elementary step of expansion corresponded to ∼160 bp in the wild-type strain, matching the size of Okazaki fragments in yeast. This step increased when DNA polymerase α was mutated, suggesting a link between the scale of expansions and Okazaki fragment size. Expandable repeats strongly elevated the rate of mutations at substantial distances around them, a phenomenon we call repeat-induced mutagenesis (RIM. Notably, defects in the replicative DNA polymerases δ and ∊ strongly increased rates for both repeat expansions and RIM. The increases in repeat-mediated instability observed in DNA polymerase δ mutants depended on translesion DNA polymerases. We conclude that repeat expansions and RIM are two sides of the same replicative mechanism.

  4. Repeated administration of histamine improves memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance by lithium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Parsaei, Leila; Ahmadi, Shamseddin

    2008-01-01

    The influence of repeated administration of histamine on lithium-induced state dependency has been investigated. A single-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task was used to assess memory in adult male NMRI mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of lithium (10 mg/kg), immediately after training (post-training), impaired inhibitory avoidance memory on the test day. Pre-test administration of lithium reversed amnesia induced by the drug given after training, with the maximum response at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Repeated intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of histamine (20 microg/mouse) for 3 consecutive days followed by 5 days of no drug treatment improved memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance by a pre-test lower dose (5 mg/kg i.p.) of lithium. In contrast, 3 days of i.c.v. injections of both the histamine H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine (40 microg/mouse) and the histamine H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (6.25 and 12.5 microg/mouse) prevented the improving effect of pre-test lithium (10 mg/kg i.p.) on memory retrieval. The results suggest that the repeated administration of histaminergic agents may induce a sensitization which affects the memory impairment induced by lithium.

  5. Repeatability of ellipsometric data in cholera toxin G M1-ELISA structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leon G.; Thompson, Daniel W.; Tiwald, Thomas; Berberov, Emil M.; Woollam, John A.

    2007-04-01

    The need for repeated measurements in a wide range of biological testing due to statistical variations is well known. In this paper, we discuss a specific example in which the measurement probe is a spectroscopic ellipsometer. Repeatable results are needed in a wide range of applications such as drug testing, immunoassays and other tests for disease, and fundamental biomaterial research. The present paper seeks to help reduce the non-meaningful causes of lack of repeatability by identifying a large number of externally controllable factors. Another goal of this work was to quantify the effects of many of these factors on ellipsometric measurements. By exploiting the sensitivity of spectroscopic ellipsometry to ultrathin layers, improved ways to detect and quantitatively differentiate biological events can be explored. This initial work was motivated from an interest to distinguish one disease from another or discern effects of one drug from another using the high surface sensitivity of spectroscopic ellipsometry. In this paper, we investigate the example biological system of cholera toxin (CT) in an ELISA structure with monosialoganglioside (G M1).

  6. Temporal asthma patterns using repeated questionnaires over 13 years in a large French cohort of women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux Sanchez

    Full Text Available Variable expression is one aspect of the heterogeneity of asthma. We aimed to define a variable pattern, which is relevant in general health epidemiological cohorts. Our objectives were to assess whether: 1 asthma patterns defined using simple asthma questions through repeated measurements could reflect disease variability 2 these patterns may further be classified according to asthma severity/control. Among 70,428 French women, we used seven questionnaires (1992-2005 and a comprehensive reimbursement database (2004-2009 to define three reliable asthma patterns based on repeated positive answers to the ever asthma attack question: "never asthma" (n = 64,061; "inconsistent" ("yes" followed by "no", n = 3,514; "consistent" (fully consistent positive answers, n = 2,853. The "Inconsistent" pattern was related to both long-term (childhood-onset asthma with remission in adulthood and short-term (reported asthma attack in the last 12 months, associated with asthma medication asthma variability, showing that repeated questions are relevant markers of the variable expression of asthma. Furthermore, in this pattern, the number of positive responses (1992-2005 predicted asthma drug consumption in subsequent years, a marker of disease severity. The "Inconsistent" pattern is a phenotype that may capture the variable expression of asthma. Repeated answers, even to a simple question, are too often neglected.

  7. A critical window of CAG repeat-length correlates with phenotype severity in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Damian M; Alaghband, Yasaman; Hickey, Miriam A; Joshi, Prasad R; Hong, S Candice; Zhu, Chunni; Ando, Timothy K; André, Véronique M; Cepeda, Carlos; Watson, Joseph B; Levine, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    The R6/2 mouse is the most frequently used model for experimental and preclinical drug trials in Huntington's disease (HD). When the R6/2 mouse was first developed, it carried exon 1 of the huntingtin gene with ~150 cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats. The model presented with a rapid and aggressive phenotype that shared many features with the human condition and was particularly similar to juvenile HD. However, instability in the CAG repeat length due to different breeding practices has led to both decreases and increases in average CAG repeat lengths among colonies. Given the inverse relationship in human HD between CAG repeat length and age at onset and to a degree, the direct relationship with severity of disease, we have investigated the effect of altered CAG repeat length. Four lines, carrying ~110, ~160, ~210, and ~310 CAG repeats, were examined using a battery of tests designed to assess the basic R6/2 phenotype. These included electrophysiological properties of striatal medium-sized spiny neurons, motor activity, inclusion formation, and protein expression. The results showed an unpredicted, inverted "U-shaped" relationship between CAG repeat length and phenotype; increasing the CAG repeat length from 110 to 160 exacerbated the R6/2 phenotype, whereas further increases to 210 and 310 CAG repeats greatly ameliorated the phenotype. These findings demonstrate that the expected relationship between CAG repeat length and disease severity observed in humans is lost in the R6/2 mouse model and highlight the importance of CAG repeat-length determination in preclinical drug trials that use this model.

  8. Optimal drug use and rational drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Geoffrey F

    2011-12-01

    The Müller & Schumann (M&S) view of drug use is courageous and compelling, with radical implications for drug policy and research. It implies that most nations prohibit most drugs that could promote happiness, social capital, and economic growth; that most individuals underuse rather than overuse drugs; and that behavioral scientists could use drugs more effectively in generating hypotheses and collaborating empathically.

  9. REPdenovo: Inferring De Novo Repeat Motifs from Short Sequence Reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Chu

    Full Text Available Repeat elements are important components of eukaryotic genomes. One limitation in our understanding of repeat elements is that most analyses rely on reference genomes that are incomplete and often contain missing data in highly repetitive regions that are difficult to assemble. To overcome this problem we develop a new method, REPdenovo, which assembles repeat sequences directly from raw shotgun sequencing data. REPdenovo can construct various types of repeats that are highly repetitive and have low sequence divergence within copies. We show that REPdenovo is substantially better than existing methods both in terms of the number and the completeness of the repeat sequences that it recovers. The key advantage of REPdenovo is that it can reconstruct long repeats from sequence reads. We apply the method to human data and discover a number of potentially new repeats sequences that have been missed by previous repeat annotations. Many of these sequences are incorporated into various parasite genomes, possibly because the filtering process for host DNA involved in the sequencing of the parasite genomes failed to exclude the host derived repeat sequences. REPdenovo is a new powerful computational tool for annotating genomes and for addressing questions regarding the evolution of repeat families. The software tool, REPdenovo, is available for download at https://github.com/Reedwarbler/REPdenovo.

  10. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  11. Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki eMatsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.

  12. Modelling repeatedly flaring delta-sunspots

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Active regions (AR) appearing on the surface of the Sun are classified into $\\alpha$, $\\beta$, $\\gamma$, and $\\delta$ by the rules of the Mount Wilson Observatory, California on the basis of their topological complexity. Amongst these, the $\\delta$-sunspots are known to be super-active and produce the most X-ray flares. Here, we present results from a simulation of the Sun by mimicking the upper layers and the corona, but starting at a more primitive stage than any earlier treatment. We find that this initial state consisting of only a thin sub-photospheric magnetic sheet breaks into multiple flux-tubes which evolve into a colliding-merging system of spots of opposite polarity upon surface emergence, similar to those often seen on the Sun. The simulation goes on to produce many exotic $\\delta$-sunspot associated phenomena: repeated flaring in the range of typical solar flare energy release and ejective helical flux ropes with embedded cool-dense plasma filaments resembling solar coronal mass ejections.

  13. A Repeated Signal Difference for Recognising Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Greer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new mechanism that might help with defining pattern sequences, by the fact that it can produce an upper bound on the ensemble value that can persistently oscillate with the actual values produced from each pattern. With every firing event, a node also receives an on/off feedback switch. If the node fires then it sends a feedback result depending on the input signal strength. If the input signal is positive or larger, it can store an ‘on’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the signal is negative or smaller it can store an ‘off’ switch feedback for the next iteration. If the node does not fire, then it does not affect the current feedback situation and receives the switch command produced by the last active pattern event for the same neuron. The upper bound therefore also represents the largest or most enclosing pattern set and the lower value is for the actual set of firing patterns. If the pattern sequence repeats, it will oscillate between the two values, allowing them to be recognised and measured more easily, over time. Tests show that changing the sequence ordering produces different value sets, which can also be measured.

  14. Responsiveness of 5-HT2C receptors in repeatedly diazepam-injected rats: a behavioral and neurochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asma; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2008-01-01

    The role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT)2C receptors in anxiety and the anxiolytic effects of drugs is well documented. In view of the withdrawal anxiety associated with repeated diazepam intake, the present study concerns the efficacy of 5-HT2C receptors in rats treated with diazepam. Results show that diazepam injections at a dose of 2 mg/kg daily for two weeks increased weekly food intake and growth rate. Anxiolytic effects of the drug monitored in a light/dark activity box were not significant after single administration. One week and two weeks of administration elicited anxiolytic effects, which were smaller after two weeks of administration as compared to one week, suggesting the development of tolerance to the anxiolytic profile of diazepam. Moreover, three days' withdrawal from repeated administration elicited anxiogenic behavior in the light/dark activity box. The behavioral and neurochemical effects of 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (m-CPP) (3 mg/kg), a 5-HT2C agonist, were monitored following withdrawal (three days) from two weeks of diazepam administration. Results showed that hypophagic as well as anxiogenic-like effects of m-CPP were not different from repeated saline or repeated diazepam-injected animals. Administration of m-CPP increased 5-HT metabolism in repeated saline as well as repeated diazepam-injected animals. However, m-CPP-induced increases in 5-HT metabolism were greater in repeated diazepam-injected animals. Results are discussed in the context of the role of 5-HT2C receptors in the precipitation of withdrawal anxiety.

  15. [Pro-aggressive effect of diazepam in male mice with repeated experience of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'eva, A E; Smagin, D A; Bondar', N P; Galiamina, A G; Kudriavtseva, N N

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that repeated experience of aggression is attended with the development of increased anxiety in male mice. The paper aimed to investigate effect of anxiolytic, diazepam, on the level of anxiety and aggression in these animals. The drug was chronically administrated for two weeks at the process of aggression experience acquisition. It was shown that diazepam decreased anxiety but didn't influence aggression level assessed by total time of attacks. However, diazepam decreased demonstration of aggressive grooming in part of aggressive males. Group of diazepam-treated aggressive males which displayed aggressive grooming didn't differ in level of anxiety and aggression in saline-treated male mice. Diazepam had anxiolytic and pro-aggressive effects in male mice without demonstrating aggressive grooming. Thus, we can conclude that anxiolytic effect of diazepam is accompanied with increased aggression as side effect in some male mice which have repeated experience of aggression.

  16. [Emergent drugs (I): smart drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, G; Díaz, B Climent; Pazos, J L Echarte; Mas, P Munné; Miró, O; Puiguriguer, J; Dargan, P

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a series of new drugs, known as smart drugs or legal highs, have gaining in popularity. They are easily obtainable through online shops. This is happening amongst younger segments of the population and is associated with recreational consumption, at weekends. In general, they are synthetic derivatives of natural products. There has been hardly any clinical research into them and they are not detectable in hospital laboratories. Three of these products, BZP (1- benzylpiperazine), mefedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and Spice are probably the most widely used in Europe. The first two are consumed as an alternative to ecstasy and cocaine and are characterized by their producing a clinical profile of a sympathetic mimetic type; on occasion, they have serious consequences, with convulsions and even death. Spice (a mixture of herbs with synthetic cannabinoids such as JWH-018, JWH-073 and CP 47497-C8) is giving rise to profiles of dependence and schizophrenia. Although the emergent drugs have an aura of safety, there is an increasing amount of experience on their secondary effects.

  17. Natural rewards, neuroplasticity, and non-drug addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christopher M

    2011-12-01

    There is a high degree of overlap between brain regions involved in processing natural rewards and drugs of abuse. "Non-drug" or "behavioral" addictions have become increasingly documented in the clinic, and pathologies include compulsive activities such as shopping, eating, exercising, sexual behavior, and gambling. Like drug addiction, non-drug addictions manifest in symptoms including craving, impaired control over the behavior, tolerance, withdrawal, and high rates of relapse. These alterations in behavior suggest that plasticity may be occurring in brain regions associated with drug addiction. In this review, I summarize data demonstrating that exposure to non-drug rewards can alter neural plasticity in regions of the brain that are affected by drugs of abuse. Research suggests that there are several similarities between neuroplasticity induced by natural and drug rewards and that, depending on the reward, repeated exposure to natural rewards might induce neuroplasticity that either promotes or counteracts addictive behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Olsen, Peter D; Marshall, Helen C; Lizamore, Catherine A; Elliot, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using "top-up" sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1-3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second "top-up" intervention (Post 4-5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: -1.8 ± 1.6%, -1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: -2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: -2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: -1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: -1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3-5 (-2.0 ± 2.4%, -2.2 ± 2.4%, -1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13-37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of "top-up" training after intervention 1, had little effect on either group. Repeat-sprint training in

  19. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Olsen, Peter D.; Marshall, Helen C.; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Elliot, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using “top-up” sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1–3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second “top-up” intervention (Post 4–5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: −1.8 ± 1.6%, −1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: −2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: −2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: −1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: −1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3–5 (−2.0 ± 2.4%, −2.2 ± 2.4%, −1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13–37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of “top-up” training after intervention 1, had little effect on either

  20. Effect of tramadol on metamizol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after single and repeated administrations in arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rocha, Luis Alfonso; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Medina-López, José Raúl; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam

    2016-11-01

    Combined administration of certain doses of opioid compounds with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug can produce additive or supra-additive effects while reducing unwanted effects. We have recently reported that co-administration of metamizol with tramadol produces antinociceptive effect potentiation, after acute treatment. However, none information about the effect produced by the combination after chronic or repeated dose administration exists. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the antinociceptive synergism produced by the combination of metamizol and tramadol (177.8 + 17.8 mg/kg, s.c. respectively) is maintained after repeated treatment and whether the effects observed are primarily due to pharmacodynamic interactions or may be related to pharmacokinetics changes. Administration of metamizol plus tramadol acute treatment significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect of the drugs given alone (P metamizol and tramadol was found under acute treatment (P > 0.05). The mechanism involved in the synergism of the antinociceptive effect observed with the combination of metamizol and tramadol in single dose cannot be attributed to a pharmacokinetic interaction, and other pharmacodynamic interactions have to be considered. On the other hand, when metamizol and tramadol were co-administered under repeated administrations, a pharmacokinetic interaction and tolerance development occurred. Differences found in metamizol active metabolites' pharmacokinetics (P < 0.05) were related to the development of tolerance produced by the combination after repeated doses. This work shows an additional preclinical support for the combination therapy. The clinical utility of this combination in a suitable dose range should be evaluated in future studies.

  1. Effect of tramadol on metamizol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after single and repeated administrations in arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfonso Moreno-Rocha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Combined administration of certain doses of opioid compounds with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug can produce additive or supra-additive effects while reducing unwanted effects. We have recently reported that co-administration of metamizol with tramadol produces antinociceptive effect potentiation, after acute treatment. However, none information about the effect produced by the combination after chronic or repeated dose administration exists. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the antinociceptive synergism produced by the combination of metamizol and tramadol (177.8 + 17.8 mg/kg, s.c. respectively is maintained after repeated treatment and whether the effects observed are primarily due to pharmacodynamic interactions or may be related to pharmacokinetics changes. Administration of metamizol plus tramadol acute treatment significantly enhanced the antinociceptive effect of the drugs given alone (P  0.05. The mechanism involved in the synergism of the antinociceptive effect observed with the combination of metamizol and tramadol in single dose cannot be attributed to a pharmacokinetic interaction, and other pharmacodynamic interactions have to be considered. On the other hand, when metamizol and tramadol were co-administered under repeated administrations, a pharmacokinetic interaction and tolerance development occurred. Differences found in metamizol active metabolites’ pharmacokinetics (P < 0.05 were related to the development of tolerance produced by the combination after repeated doses. This work shows an additional preclinical support for the combination therapy. The clinical utility of this combination in a suitable dose range should be evaluated in future studies.

  2. Buprenorphine for pain relief in mice: repeated injections vs sustained-release depot formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkof, P; Tourvieille, A; Cinelli, P; Arras, M

    2015-07-01

    Sustained-release formulations of analgesic drugs are promising alternatives to repeated drug injections. Here, we compared a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (SB, 2.2 mg/kg) with a standard protocol of three injections of buprenorphine (Temgesic, 0.1 mg/kg/8 h) in mice. Buprenorphine serum concentration and analgesic action (thermal sensitivity) were determined in healthy mice. Additionally, the pain relief properties of both protocols were assessed after laparotomy using physiological and ethological measures of pain and recovery. Serum concentrations and thermal sensitivity tests indicated duration of action of at least 4 h (but less than 8 h) with the Temgesic protocol, and 24-48 h with SB. Behavioural and clinical parameters indicated at least partial pain relief after surgery for both protocols. Observed side-effects of buprenorphine independent of the protocol were increased activity, disturbed circadian rhythm and several abnormal behaviours. A tendency for decreased food and water intake as well as body weight reduction was also seen. Body weight decreased significantly in animals that received three injections of Temgesic, regardless of whether surgery was performed or not (P = 0.015; P = 0.023), hinting at a stress response towards this repeated intervention. In conclusion, an application interval of 8 h (Temgesic) appears too long and might lead to repeated periods with insufficient analgesia in animals undergoing lasting and/or substantial pain after surgery. In comparison to the standard protocol, SB provided a long-lasting, assured analgesia without possible stressful repeated injections in a standard surgical model, with only limited and acceptable behavioural side-effects.

  3. Repeated administration of imipramine modifies GABAergic transmission in rat frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabno, Joanna; Hess, Grzegorz

    2013-05-01

    Alterations in the functions of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory system and a distortion in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission have been hypothesized to be possible causes of mood disorders. Experimental evidence points to modifications of GABAergic transmission as a result of prolonged treatment with antidepressant drugs, however, the influence of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine on inhibitory synaptic transmission in the rat cerebral cortex has not yet been investigated. Therefore, in the present study the effects of single and repeated administration of imipramine were evaluated ex vivo in slices of the rat frontal cortex using electrophysiological approach. In slices prepared 2 days after the last drug administration from animals receiving imipramine for 14 days (dose 10 mg/kg p.o., twice daily) the mean frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) recorded from layer II/III pyramidal neurons was decreased, while the mean amplitude of sIPSCs was increased. These effects were absent in slices obtained from rats which received imipramine once. Application of N,N'-dibenzhydrylethane-1,2-diamine dihydrochloride (AMN 082), a selective mGluR7 allosteric agonist, to the slice incubation medium resulted in a decrease in the mean frequency of sIPSCs in preparations obtained from repeated imipramine-treated animals, in contrast to slices originating from control rats where no AMN 082-induced effects were observed. Repeated imipramine treatment reduced protein density levels of the three tested GABAA receptor subunits: α 1, β 2 and γ 2. These data indicate that repeated treatment of normal rats with imipramine results in a modification of the release mechanism of GABA from presynaptic terminals and its modulation by mGluR7 receptors as well as in an alteration in GABAA receptor subunit protein levels in the rat cerebral cortex.

  4. Drug resistance and antiretroviral drug development

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, Robert W.; Jonathan M Schapiro

    2005-01-01

    As more drugs for treating HIV have become available, drug resistance profiles within antiretroviral drug classes have become increasingly important for researchers developing new drugs and for clinicians integrating new drugs into their clinical practice. In vitro passage experiments and comprehensive phenotypic susceptibility testing are used for the pre-clinical evaluation of drug resistance. Clinical studies are required, however, to delineate the full spectrum of mutations responsible fo...

  5. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-08-26

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the -1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded repeats with more than 35 consecutive CAG codons. An atypical +1 shift site, UUC C at the 5' end of CAG repeats, which has some resemblance to the influenza A virus shift site, triggers the +1 frameshifting and is enhanced by the increased propensity of the expanded CAG repeats to form a stem-loop structure. The +1 trans-frame-encoded product can directly influence the aggregation of the parental Htt exon 1.

  6. Repeats in transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Seema

    2013-06-01

    Transforming acidic coiled-coil proteins (TACC1, 2, and 3) are essential proteins associated with the assembly of spindle microtubules and maintenance of bipolarity. Dysregulation of TACCs is associated with tumorigenesis, but studies of microsatellite instability in TACC genes have not been extensive. Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat instability is known to cause many types of cancer. The present in silico analysis of SSRs in human TACC gene sequences shows the presence of mono- to hexa-nucleotide repeats, with the highest densities found for mono- and di-nucleotide repeats. Density of repeats is higher in introns than in exons. Some of the repeats are present in regulatory regions and retained introns. Human TACC genes show conservation of many repeat classes. Microsatellites in TACC genes could be valuable markers for monitoring numerical chromosomal aberrations and or cancer.

  7. Survey of simple sequence repeats in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, L; Huang, J F; Feng, G Q; Wang, X W; Wang, Y; Chen, B Y; Qiao, Y S

    2013-07-30

    The use of simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, as genetic markers has become popular due to their abundance and variation in length among individuals. In this study, we investigated linkage groups (LGs) in the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) and demonstrated variation in the abundances, densities, and relative densities of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were more common than longer repeats in all LGs examined. Perfect SSRs were the predominant SSR type found and their abundance was extremely stable among LGs and chloroplasts. Abundances of mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats were positively correlated with LG size, whereas those of tetranucleotide and hexanucleotide SSRs were not. Generally, in each LG, the abundance, relative abundance, relative density, and the proportion of each unique SSR all declined rapidly as the repeated unit increased. Furthermore, the lengths and frequencies of SSRs varied among different LGs.

  8. Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats for High-Level Microsatellite Instability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Buhard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability.

  9. Zinc-finger directed double-strand breaks within CAG repeat tracts promote repeat instability in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, David; Moye, Christopher; Morton, Jason; Sykoudis, Kristen; Lin, Yunfu; Carroll, Dana; Wilson, John H

    2009-06-16

    Expanded triplet repeats have been identified as the genetic basis for a growing number of neurological and skeletal disorders. To examine the contribution of double-strand break repair to CAG x CTG repeat instability in mammalian systems, we developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) that recognize and cleave CAG repeat sequences. Engineered ZFNs use a tandem array of zinc fingers, fused to the FokI DNA cleavage domain, to direct double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a site-specific manner. We first determined that the ZFNs cleave CAG repeats in vitro. Then, using our previously described tissue culture assay for identifying modifiers of CAG repeat instability, we found that transfection of ZFN-expression vectors induced up to a 15-fold increase in changes to the CAG repeat in human and rodent cell lines, and that longer repeats were much more sensitive to cleavage than shorter ones. Analysis of individual colonies arising after treatment revealed a spectrum of events consistent with ZFN-induced DSBs and dominated by repeat contractions. We also found that expressing a dominant-negative form of RAD51 in combination with a ZFN, dramatically reduced the effect of the nuclease, suggesting that DSB-induced repeat instability is mediated, in part, through homology directed repair. These studies identify a ZFN as a useful reagent for characterizing the effects of DSBs on CAG repeats in cells.

  10. Assembly of Repeat Content Using Next Generation Sequencing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    labutti, Kurt; Kuo, Alan; Grigoriev, Igor; Copeland, Alex

    2014-03-17

    Repetitive organisms pose a challenge for short read assembly, and typically only unique regions and repeat regions shorter than the read length, can be accurately assembled. Recently, we have been investigating the use of Pacific Biosciences reads for de novo fungal assembly. We will present an assessment of the quality and degree of repeat reconstruction possible in a fungal genome using long read technology. We will also compare differences in assembly of repeat content using short read and long read technology.

  11. Neuropathological diagnosis and CAG repeat expansion in Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Xuereb, J H; MacMillan, J C; Snell, R; Davies, P.; Harper, P S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To correlate the degree of CAG repeat expansion with neuropathological findings in Huntington's disease. METHODS--The CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a large series of brain samples from 268 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Huntington's disease in which full neuropathological data was available. RESULTS--Analysis by polymerase chain reaction was successful in 63% of samples (169 of 268). Repeat expansions were detected in 152 of 153 (99%) samples with a neuropathologic...

  12. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of rep...

  13. Repeated fecal microbiota transplantation in a child with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hirotaka; Arai, Katsuhiro; Abe, Jun; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshioka, Takako; Hosoi, Kenji; Kuroda, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy, who was subsequently treated successfully with repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). The patient was steroid dependent despite several infliximab treatments, and colectomy was proposed to improve quality of life. After repeated FMT, she was able to maintain remission with on minimal dose of steroid. Although her fecal microbiota was dysbiotic before FMT, it was restored to a similar pattern as the donor after repeated FMT.

  14. Artificial leucine rich repeats as new scaffolds for protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baabur-Cohen, Hemda; Dayalan, Subashini; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2011-04-15

    The leucine rich repeat (LRR) motif that participates in many biomolecular recognition events in cells was suggested as a general scaffold for producing artificial receptors. We describe here the design and first total chemical synthesis of small LRR proteins, and their structural analysis. When evaluating the tertiary structure as a function of different number of repeating units (1-3), we were able to find that the 3-repeats sequence, containing 90 amino acids, folds into the expected structure.

  15. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  16. Mononucleotide repeats are asymmetrically distributed in fungal genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graaff Leo H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic analyses of sequence features have resulted in a better characterisation of the organisation of the genome. A previous study in prokaryotes on the distribution of sequence repeats, which are notoriously variable and can disrupt the reading frame in genes, showed that these motifs are skewed towards gene termini, specifically the 5' end of genes. For eukaryotes no such intragenic analysis has been performed, though this could indicate the pervasiveness of this distribution bias, thereby helping to expose the selective pressures causing it. Results In fungal gene repertoires we find a similar 5' bias of intragenic mononucleotide repeats, most notably for Candida spp., whereas e.g. Coccidioides spp. display no such bias. With increasing repeat length, ever larger discrepancies are observed in genome repertoire fractions containing such repeats, with up to an 80-fold difference in gene fractions at repeat lengths of 10 bp and longer. This species-specific difference in gene fractions containing large repeats could be attributed to variations in intragenic repeat tolerance. Furthermore, long transcripts experience an even more prominent bias towards the gene termini, with possibly a more adaptive role for repeat-containing short transcripts. Conclusion Mononucleotide repeats are intragenically biased in numerous fungal genomes, similar to earlier studies on prokaryotes, indicative of a similar selective pressure in gene organization.

  17. Huntington's disease as caused by 34 CAG repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, Jürgen; Arning, Larissa; Wieczorek, Stefan; Kraus, Peter H; Gold, Ralf; Saft, Carsten

    2008-04-30

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of a polymorphic stretch of CAG repeats in the coding 5' part of the HD gene on chromosome 4p. Expansions of CAG blocks beyond 35 repeats are associated with the clinical presentation of HD. There is an intermediate range of rare alleles between 27 and 35 CAG repeats with a higher risk for further expansion in subsequent generations. Here, we report a 75-year-old male with clinical features of HD and 34 CAG repeat units.

  18. Intragenic tandem repeat variation between Legionella pneumophila strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarraud Sophie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial genomes harbour a large number of tandem repeats, yet the possible phenotypic effects of those found within the coding region of genes are only beginning to be examined. Evidence exists from other organisms that these repeats can be involved in the evolution of new genes, gene regulation, adaptation, resistance to environmental stresses, and avoidance of the immune system. Results In this study, we have investigated the presence and variability in copy number of intragenic tandemly repeated sequences in the genome of Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. Within the genome of the Philadelphia strain, we have identified 26 intragenic tandem repeat sequences using conservative selection criteria. Of these, seven were "polymorphic" in terms of repeat copy number between a large number of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. These strains were collected from a wide variety of environments and patients in several geographical regions. Within this panel of strains, all but one of these seven genes exhibited statistically different patterns in repeat copy number between samples from different origins (environmental, clinical, and hot springs. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that intragenic tandem repeats could play a role in virulence and adaptation to different environments. While tandem repeats are an increasingly popular focus of molecular typing studies in prokaryotes, including in L. pneumophila, this study is the first examining the difference in tandem repeat distribution as a function of clinical or environmental origin.

  19. Repeated ketamine treatment induces sex-specific behavioral and neurochemical effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Connor; Sens, Jonathon; Mauch, Joseph; Pandit, Radhika; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2016-10-01

    One of the most striking discoveries in the treatment of major depression was the finding that infusion of a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients. However, ketamine's antidepressant-like actions are transient and can only be sustained by repeated drug treatment. Despite the fact that women experience major depression at roughly twice the rate of men, research regarding the neurobiological antidepressant-relevant effects of ketamine has focused almost exclusively on the male sex. Importantly, knowledge regarding the sex-differentiated effects, the frequency and the dose on which repeated ketamine administration stops being beneficial, is limited. In the current study, we investigated the behavioral, neurochemical and synaptic molecular effects of repeated ketamine treatment (10mg/kg; 21days) in male and female C57BL/6J mice. We report that ketamine induced beneficial antidepressant-like effects in male mice, but induced both anxiety-like (i.e., decreased time spent in the center of the open field arena) and depressive-like effects (i.e., enhanced immobility duration in the forced swim test; FST) in their female counterparts. Moreover, repeated ketamine treatment induced sustained sex-differentiated neurochemical and molecular effects, as it enhanced hippocampal synapsin protein levels and serotonin turnover in males, but attenuated glutamate and aspartate levels in female mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that repeated ketamine treatment induces opposite behavioral effects in male and female mice, and thus, present data have far-reaching implications for the sex-oriented use of ketamine in both experimental and clinical research settings.

  20. Pharmacology of ayahuasca administered in two repeated doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Grasa, Eva; Valle, Marta; Ballester, Maria Rosa; Bouso, José Carlos; Nomdedéu, Josep F; Homs, Rosa; Barbanoj, Manel J; Riba, Jordi

    2012-02-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian tea containing the natural psychedelic 5-HT(2A/2C/1A) agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). It is used in ceremonial contexts for its visionary properties. The human pharmacology of ayahuasca has been well characterized following its administration in single doses. To evaluate the human pharmacology of ayahuasca in repeated doses and assess the potential occurrence of acute tolerance or sensitization. In a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled clinical trial, nine experienced psychedelic drug users received PO the two following treatment combinations at least 1 week apart: (a) a lactose placebo and then, 4 h later, an ayahuasca dose; and (b) two ayahuasca doses 4 h apart. All ayahuasca doses were freeze-dried Amazonian-sourced tea encapsulated to a standardized 0.75 mg DMT/kg bodyweight. Subjective, neurophysiological, cardiovascular, autonomic, neuroendocrine, and cell immunity measures were obtained before and at regular time intervals until 12 h after first dose administration. DMT plasma concentrations, scores in subjective and neurophysiological variables, and serum prolactin and cortisol were significantly higher after two consecutive doses. When effects were standardized by plasma DMT concentrations, no differences were observed for subjective, neurophysiological, autonomic, or immunological effects. However, we observed a trend to reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and a significant decrease for growth hormone (GH) after the second ayahuasca dose. Whereas there was no clear-cut tolerance or sensitization in the psychological sphere or most physiological variables, a trend to lower cardiovascular activation was observed, together with significant tolerance to GH secretion.

  1. Drug Coverage (Part D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insurance Find health & drug plans Drug coverage (Part D) How to get drug coverage Get Medicare prescription drug coverage either from a Part D plan or a Medicare Advantage Plan offering Medicare ...

  2. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs...

  3. National Drug Code Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Listing Act of 1972 requires registered drug establishments to provide the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a current list of all drugs manufactured,...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter medications. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-over-counter- ... 2015. Prescription drug abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/prescription-drugs/ ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the FDA for use in leukemia. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  6. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  9. Medication/Drug Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Education & Training Home Conditions Medication/Drug Allergy Medication/Drug Allergy Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... immediate or delayed. What Is an Allergy to Medication/Drugs? Allergies to drugs/medications are complicated, because ...

  10. Role and mechanism of action of leucine-rich repeat kinase 1 in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Weirong R; Goodluck, Helen; Zeng, Canjun; Mohan, Subburaman

    2017-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 1 (LRRK1) plays a critical role in regulating cytoskeletal organization, osteoclast activity, and bone resorption with little effect on bone formation parameters. Deficiency of Lrrk1 in mice causes a severe osteopetrosis in the metaphysis of the long bones and vertebrae bones, which makes LRRK1 an attractive alternative drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis and other high-turnover bone diseases. This review summarizes recent advances on the functions of the Lrrk1-related family members, Lrrk1 deficiency-induced skeletal phenotypes, LRRK1 structure–function, potential biological substrates and interacting proteins, and the mechanisms of LRRK1 action in osteoclasts. PMID:28326224

  11. Genus-specific protein binding to the large clusters of DNA repeats (short regularly spaced repeats) present in Sulfolobus genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xu; Brügger, Kim; Shen, Biao

    2003-01-01

    Short regularly spaced repeats (SRSRs) occur in multiple large clusters in archaeal chromosomes and as smaller clusters in some archaeal conjugative plasmids and bacterial chromosomes. The sequence, size, and spacing of the repeats are generally constant within a cluster but vary between clusters...... that are identical in sequence to one of the repeat variants in the S. solfataricus chromosome. Repeats from the pNOB8 cluster were amplified and tested for protein binding with cell extracts from S. solfataricus. A 17.5-kDa SRSR-binding protein was purified from the cell extracts and sequenced. The protein is N...... terminally modified and corresponds to SSO454, an open reading frame of previously unassigned function. It binds specifically to DNA fragments carrying double and single repeat sequences, binding on one side of the repeat structure, and producing an opening of the opposite side of the DNA structure. It also...

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Repeated Melatonin Drug Administrations Prior to and After Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Nathja Groth; Andersen, Lars Peter Kloster; Mielke, Louise Vennegaard

    2016-01-01

    treatment protocol was standardized between patients. During the study, each patient received two separate oral administrations of melatonin 10 mg. Melatonin was administered 60 min before surgery, and at 9:00 p.m. the evening after surgery. The pharmacokinetic variables absorption half-life (t ½ absorption...... not differ between the study phases (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results indicate that postoperative melatonin dose should be augmented compared with preoperative administration if corresponding melatonin plasma levels are intended. Furthermore, postoperative administration times should...... be advanced compared with preoperative administration....

  13. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  14. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia

    2017-01-01

    Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in

  15. DrugCentral: online drug compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Oleg; Holmes, Jayme; Knockel, Jeffrey; Bologa, Cristian G; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L; Nelson, Stuart J; Oprea, Tudor I

    2017-01-04

    DrugCentral (http://drugcentral.org) is an open-access online drug compendium. DrugCentral integrates structure, bioactivity, regulatory, pharmacologic actions and indications for active pharmaceutical ingredients approved by FDA and other regulatory agencies. Monitoring of regulatory agencies for new drugs approvals ensures the resource is up-to-date. DrugCentral integrates content for active ingredients with pharmaceutical formulations, indexing drugs and drug label annotations, complementing similar resources available online. Its complementarity with other online resources is facilitated by cross referencing to external resources. At the molecular level, DrugCentral bridges drug-target interactions with pharmacological action and indications. The integration with FDA drug labels enables text mining applications for drug adverse events and clinical trial information. Chemical structure overlap between DrugCentral and five online drug resources, and the overlap between DrugCentral FDA-approved drugs and their presence in four different chemical collections, are discussed. DrugCentral can be accessed via the web application or downloaded in relational database format. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Drug Preferences of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    Examined drug preferences of a group of active multiple drug abusers referred for treatment. Nearly half the respondents preferred drugs other than type they most frequently used. Preferences were related to method of administration. Results suggest preference is one among several determinants of drug use. (Author/BEF)

  17. Nearby inverted repeats fuse to generate acentric and dicentric palindromic chromosomes by a replication template exchange mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Ken'Ichi; Lambert, Sarah; Baldacci, Giuseppe; Murray, Johanne M; Carr, Antony M

    2009-12-15

    Gene amplification plays important roles in the progression of cancer and contributes to acquired drug resistance during treatment. Amplification can initiate via dicentric palindromic chromosome production and subsequent breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. Here we show that, in fission yeast, acentric and dicentric palindromic chromosomes form by homologous recombination protein-dependent fusion of nearby inverted repeats, and that these fusions occur frequently when replication forks arrest within the inverted repeats. Genetic and molecular analyses suggest that these acentric and dicentric palindromic chromosomes arise not by previously described mechanisms, but by a replication template exchange mechanism that does not involve a DNA double-strand break. We thus propose an alternative mechanism for the generation of palindromic chromosomes dependent on replication fork arrest at closely spaced inverted repeats.

  18. Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vural, B; Poda, M; Atlioglu, E;

    1998-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals.......Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals....

  19. PILER-CR: Fast and accurate identification of CRISPR repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of prokaryotic genomes has recently revealed the presence of CRISPR elements: short, highly conserved repeats separated by unique sequences of similar length. The distinctive sequence signature of CRISPR repeats can be found using general-purpose repeat- or pattern-finding software tools. However, the output of such tools is not always ideal for studying these repeats, and significant effort is sometimes needed to build additional tools and perform manual analysis of the output. Results We present PILER-CR, a program specifically designed for the identification and analysis of CRISPR repeats. The program executes rapidly, completing a 5 Mb genome in around 5 seconds on a current desktop computer. We validate the algorithm by manual curation and by comparison with published surveys of these repeats, finding that PILER-CR has both high sensitivity and high specificity. We also present a catalogue of putative CRISPR repeats identified in a comprehensive analysis of 346 prokaryotic genomes. Conclusion PILER-CR is a useful tool for rapid identification and classification of CRISPR repeats. The software is donated to the public domain. Source code and a Linux binary are freely available at http://www.drive5.com/pilercr.

  20. Repeatable mechanochemical activation of dynamic covalent bonds in thermoplastic elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imato, Keiichi; Kanehara, Takeshi; Nojima, Shiki; Ohishi, Tomoyuki; Higaki, Yuji; Takahara, Atsushi; Otsuka, Hideyuki

    2016-08-18

    Repeated mechanical scission and recombination of dynamic covalent bonds incorporated in segmented polyurethane elastomers are demonstrated by utilizing a diarylbibenzofuranone-based mechanophore and by the design of the segmented polymer structures. The repeated mechanochemical reactions can accompany clear colouration and simultaneous fading.

  1. PCR-free digital minisatellite tandem repeat genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuchao; Seo, Tae Seok

    2011-06-01

    We demonstrated a proof-of-concept for novel minisatellite tandem repeat typing, called PCR-free digital VNTR (variable number tandem repeat) typing, which is composed of three steps: a ligation reaction instead of PCR thermal cycling, magnetic bead-based solid-phase capture for purification, and an elongated sample stacking microcapillary electrophoresis (μCE) for sensitive digital coding of repeat number. We designed a 16-bp fluorescently labeled ligation probe which is complementary to a repeat unit of a biotinylated synthetic template mimicking the human D1S80 VNTR locus and is randomly hybridized with the minisatellite tandem repeats. A quick isothermal ligation reaction was followed to link the adjacent ligation probes on the DNA templates, and then the ligated products were purified by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. After a denaturing step, a large amount of ligated products whose size difference was equivalent to the repeat unit were released and recovered. Through the elongated sample stacking μCE separation on a microdevice, the fluorescence signal of the ligated products was generated in the electropherogram and the peak number was directly counted which was exactly matched with the repeat number of VNTR locus. We could successfully identify the minisatellite tandem repeat number with only 5 fmol of DNA template in 30 min.

  2. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  3. Vocabulary Learning through Assisted and Unassisted Repeated Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C-S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research investigating the effects of unassisted and assisted repeated reading has primarily focused on how each approach may contribute to improvement in reading comprehension and fluency. Incidental learning of the form and meaning of unknown or partially known words encountered through assisted and unassisted repeated reading has yet…

  4. Impact of Inclusion or Exclusion of Repeaters on Test Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhan, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including or excluding repeaters on the equating process and results. New forms of two tests were equated to their respective old forms using either all examinees or only the first timer examinees in the new form sample. Results showed that for both tests used in this study, including or excluding repeaters in the…

  5. Effect of Repeated Simulations by Standardized Patients on Intercase Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study using five Southern Illinois University senior medical school classes (n=350 students) investigated whether having a standardized patient simulate a case repeatedly in postclerkship medical student evaluation affects the measure's reliability. Results suggest that repeated simulation had little or no effect on intercase reliability of…

  6. Analysis of CR1 Repeats in the Zebra Finch Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most bird species have smaller genomes and fewer repeats than mammals. Chicken Repeat 1 (CR1 repeat is one of the most abundant families of repeats, ranging from ~133,000 to ~187,000 copies accounting for ~50 to ~80% of the interspersed repeats in the zebra finch and chicken genomes, respectively. CR1 repeats are believed to have arisen from the retrotransposition of a small number of master elements, which gave rise to multiple CR1 subfamilies in the chicken. In this study, we performed a global assessment of the divergence distributions, phylogenies, and consensus sequences of CR1 repeats in the zebra finch genome. We identified and validated 34 CR1 subfamilies and further analyzed the correlation between these subfamilies. We also discovered 4 novel lineage-specific CR1 subfamilies in the zebra finch when compared to the chicken genome. We built various evolutionary trees of these subfamilies and concluded that CR1 repeats may play an important role in reshaping the structure of bird genomes.

  7. Repeated Witnessing of Conspecifics in Pain : Effects on Emotional Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrillo, Maria; Migliorati, Filippo; Bruls, Rune; Han, Yingying; Heinemans, Mirjam; Pruis, Ilanah; Gazzola, V.; Keysers, C.

    2015-01-01

    Witnessing of conspecifics in pain has been shown to elicit socially triggered freezing in rodents. It is unknown how robust this response is to repeated exposure to a cage-mate experiencing painful stimulation. To address this question, shock-experienced Observer rats repeatedly witnessed familiar

  8. Secret key rates for an encoded quantum repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2014-03-01

    We investigate secret key rates for the quantum repeater using encoding [L. Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325] and compare them to the standard repeater scheme by Briegel, Dür, Cirac, and Zoller. The former scheme has the advantage of a minimal consumption of classical communication. We analyze the trade-off in the secret key rate between the communication time and the required resources. For this purpose we introduce an error model for the repeater using encoding which allows for input Bell states with a fidelity smaller than one, in contrast to the model given by L. Jiang et al. [Phys. Rev. A 79, 032325 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevA.79.032325]. We show that one can correct additional errors in the encoded connection procedure of this repeater and develop a suitable decoding algorithm. Furthermore, we derive the rate of producing entangled pairs for the quantum repeater using encoding and give the minimal parameter values (gate quality and initial fidelity) for establishing a nonzero secret key. We find that the generic quantum repeater is optimal regarding the secret key rate per memory per second and show that the encoded quantum repeater using the simple three-qubit repetition code can even have an advantage with respect to the resources compared to other recent quantum repeater schemes with encoding.

  9. CTG trinucleotide repeat "big jumps": large expansions, small mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Gomes-Pereira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinucleotide repeat expansions are the genetic cause of numerous human diseases, including fragile X mental retardation, Huntington disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Disease severity and age of onset are critically linked to expansion size. Previous mouse models of repeat instability have not recreated large intergenerational expansions ("big jumps", observed when the repeat is transmitted from one generation to the next, and have never attained the very large tract lengths possible in humans. Here, we describe dramatic intergenerational CTG*CAG repeat expansions of several hundred repeats in a transgenic mouse model of myotonic dystrophy type 1, resulting in increasingly severe phenotypic and molecular abnormalities. Homozygous mice carrying over 700 trinucleotide repeats on both alleles display severely reduced body size and splicing abnormalities, notably in the central nervous system. Our findings demonstrate that large intergenerational trinucleotide repeat expansions can be recreated in mice, and endorse the use of transgenic mouse models to refine our understanding of triplet repeat expansion and the resulting pathogenesis.

  10. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  11. Monotone missing data and repeated controls of fallible authors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Chapters 2 and 3 focus on repeated audit controls with categorical variables. Chapter 4 and 5 introduce and analyse a very general multivariate regression model for (monotone) missing data. In the final Chapter 6 the previous chapters are combined into a more realistic model for repeated audit contr

  12. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  13. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used ... social sigma24, repeat abortion may be as well, perhaps even .... 0.1198. aIncludes hostess, cleaner, waitress, housemaid, commercial sex worker, and cook ..... be made to support the process by strengthening.

  14. Witness recall across repeated interviews in a case of repeated abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Sonja P; La Rooy, David

    2014-02-01

    In this illustrative case study we examine the three forensic interviews of a girl who experienced repeated sexual abuse from ages 7 to 11. She disclosed the abuse after watching a serialized television show that contained a storyline similar to her own experience. This triggered an investigation that ended in successful prosecution of the offender. Because this case involved abuse that was repeated on a weekly basis for 4 years we thus investigated the degree to which the child's narrative reflected specific episodes or generic accounts, and both the interviewer's and child's attempts to elicit and provide, respectively, specific details across the 3 interviews collected in a 1 month period. Across the 3 interviews, the child's account was largely generic, yet on a number of occasions she provided details specific to individual incidents (episodic leads) that could have been probed further. As predicted: earlier interviews were characterized more by episodic than generic prompts and the reverse was true for the third interview; the child often responded using the same style of language (episodic or generic) as the interviewer; and open questions yielded narrative information. We discuss the importance of adopting children's words to specify occurrences, and the potential benefits of permitting generic recall in investigative interviews on children's ability to provide episodic leads. Despite the fact that the testimony was characterized by generic information about what usually happened, rather than specific episodic details about individual occurrences, this case resulted in successful prosecution.

  15. Anxiolytic profile of fluoxetine as monitored following repeated administration in animal rat model of chronic mild stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farhan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI, has been proposed to be more effective as an antidepressive drug as compared to other SSRIs. After chronic SSRI administration, the increase in synaptic levels of 5-HT leads to desensitization of somatodentritic 5-HT autoreceptors in the raphe nuclei. Chronic stress may alter behavioral, neurochemical and physiological responses to drug challenges and novel stressors. Methods: Twenty four male rats were used in this study. Animals of CMS group were exposed to CMS. Animals of stressed and unstressed group were administrated with fluoxetine at dose of 1.0 mg/kg s well as 5.0 mg/kg repeatedly for 07 days 1 h before exposed to CMS. The objective of the present study was to evaluate that repeated treatment with fluoxetine could attenuate CMS-induced behavioral deficits. Results: Treatment with fluoxetine attenuated CMS-induced behavioral deficits. Fluoxetine administration induced hypophagia in unstressed as well as CMS rats. Acute and repeated administration of fluoxetine increased motor activity in familiar environment but only repeated administration increased exploratory activity in open field. Anxiolytic effects of fluoxetine were greater in unstressed rats. These anxiolytic effects were produced as result of repeated administration not on acute administration of fluoxetine at 1.0 mg/kg as well as 5.0 mg/kg. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that CMS exposure resulted into behavioral deficits and produced depressive-like symptoms. Fluoxetine, an SSRI, administration attenuated behavioral deficits induced by CMS. Anxiolytic effects of repeated fluoxetine administration were greater in unstressed than CMS animals.

  16. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  17. CAG trinucleotide RNA repeats interact with RNA-binding proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, B.A.; Eberwine, J.; Spencer, C. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Genes associated with several neurological diseases are characterized by the presence of an abnormally long trinucleotide repeat sequence. By way of example, Huntington`s disease (HD), is characterized by selective neuronal degeneration associated with the expansion of a polyglutamine-encoding CAG tract. Normally, this CAG tract is comprised of 11-34 repeats, but in HD it is expanded to >37 repeats in affected individuals. The mechanism by which CAG repeats cause neuronal degeneration is unknown, but it has been speculated that the expansion primarily causes abnormal protein functioning, which in turn causes HD pathology. Other mechanisms, however, have not been ruled out. Interactions between RNA and RNA-binding proteins have previously been shown to play a role in the expression of several eukaryotic genes. Herein, we report the association of cytoplasmic proteins with normal length and extended CAG repeats, using gel shift and LJV crosslinking assays. Cytoplasmic protein extracts from several rat brain regions, including the striatum and cortex, sites of neuronal degeneration in HD, contain a 63-kD RNA-binding protein that specifically interacts with these CAG-repeat sequences. These protein-RNA interactions are dependent on the length of the CAG repeat, with longer repeats binding substantially more protein. Two CAG repeat-binding proteins are present in human cortex and striatum; one comigrates with the rat protein at 63 kD, while the other migrates at 49 kD. These data suggest mechanisms by which RNA-binding proteins may be involved in the pathological course of trinucleotide repeat-associated neurological diseases. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Repeatability Evaluation of Finger Tapping Device with Magnetic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Takagi, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    We tested the repeatability of a finger tapping device with magnetic sensors to determine its reliability. This device, which was developed to assist in the diagnosis of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and strokes, measures the distance between the first and index fingers during finger tapping movements (opening and closing the fingers repeatedly). We evaluated three types of repeatability based on ICC (interclass correlation coefficient) and Welch's test (test for equal means in a oneway layout): repeatability when measured at different times, when using different devices, and when using different measurers. We calculated these three types for three finger tapping tasks on both hands for 21 characteristics calculated from finger tapping waveforms. Results demonstrated that the repeatability when using different devices is high regardless of the task or hand. The repeatability when measuring at different times and when using different measurers is high at some tasks, but not all. One of the finger tapping tasks (finger tapping movement with the largest amplitude and highest velocity), which is used in a conventional PD diagnosis method (UPDRS), does not have enough repeatability, while other tasks show high repeatability. Results also showed that five characteristics have the highest repeatability (ICC ≥ 0.5 or significance probability of Welch's test ≥ 5% in all tasks): “total moving distance,” “average of local minimum acceleration in opening motion,” “average of local minimum acceleration in closing motion,” “average of local maximum distance” and “average of local minimum velocity”. These results clearly demonstrate the strong repeatability of this device and lead to more precise diagnosis of movement disorders.

  19. Crystal structures of the human G3BP1 NTF2-like domain visualize FxFG Nup Repeat Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vognsen, Tina Reinholdt; Möller, Ingvar Rúnar; Kristensen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Ras GTPase Activating Protein SH3 Domain Binding Protein (G3BP) is a potential anti-cancer drug target implicated in several cellular functions. We have used protein crystallography to solve crystal structures of the human G3BP1 NTF2-like domain both alone and in complex with an FxFG Nup repeat...... crystal form might indicate a novel ligand binding site that, however, remains to be validated. The crystal structures give insight into the nuclear transportation mechanisms of G3BP and provide a basis for future structure based drug design....

  20. Simulation for clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials applying a peak-and-trough sampling design to estimate oral clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kazuya; Kayano, Yuichiro; Taguchi, Masato; Hashimoto, Yukiya

    2007-11-01

    We performed a simulation for the clinical pharmacokinetic study, in which blood was sampled at two time points corresponding to the peak concentration (C(peak)) and trough concentration (C(trough)) following repetitive oral drug administration to subjects. We estimated the approximate oral clearance (CL/F(approx)) as 2.D/(C(peak).tau+C(trough).tau), where D is the dose, and tau is the dosing interval. The CL/F(approx) value was accurate for drugs with a long-elimination half-life, and the estimation error of the CL/F value was slightly increased for drugs with a shorter elimination half-life. The accuracy of CL/F(approx) in each subject was not affected by the magnitude of the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, but was significantly decreased by the larger measurement error of drug concentrations (or intraindividual pharmacokinetic variability). We further performed several computer simulations to mimic statistical hypothesis testing following the clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials. The statistical power to detect the difference of oral clearance between two groups was marginally dependent on the measurement error of drug concentration, but was highly dependent on the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. These findings suggested that the peak-and-trough sampling design to estimate the CL/F(approx) value is useful for clinical repeated-dose pharmacokinetic trials, and that the study design and protocol should be evaluated carefully by computer simulation prior to a real clinical trial.

  1. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  2. Personality, Drug Preference, Drug Use, and Drug Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Marc; Boyer, Bret; Kumar, V. K.; Prout, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between drug preference, drug use, drug availability, and personality among individuals (n = 100) in treatment for substance abuse in an effort to replicate the results of an earlier study (Feldman, Kumar, Angelini, Pekala, & Porter, 2007) designed to test prediction derived from Eysenck's (1957, 1967)…

  3. Strategy When Faced with Failure: Persistence and Degree Attainment of Course Repeaters versus Non-Repeaters. AIR 2002 Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Kathleen S.

    Graduation and persistence rates were compared for 184 students, 92 of whom had repeated multiple courses or at least 1 course 3 times. A control group of 92 nonrepeating students was drawn from the remaining 303 students of the entire 1996 cohort. There was no difference between the graduation rate of repeaters and nonrepeaters. The persistence…

  4. Activation of physiological stress responses by a natural reward: Novel vs. repeated sucrose intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Ann E; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2015-10-15

    Pharmacological rewards, such as drugs of abuse, evoke physiological stress responses, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It is not clear to what extent the natural reward of palatable foods elicits similar physiological responses. In order to address this question, HPA axis hormones, heart rate, blood pressure and brain pCREB immunolabeling were assessed following novel and repeated sucrose exposure. Briefly, adult, male rats with ad libitum food and water were given either a single (day 1) or repeated (twice-daily for 14 days) brief (up to 30 min) exposure to a second drink bottle containing 4 ml of 30% sucrose drink vs. water (as a control for bottle presentation). Sucrose-fed rats drank more than water-fed on all days of exposure, as expected. On day 1 of exposure, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma corticosterone, and locomotion were markedly increased by presentation of the second drink bottle regardless of drink type. After repeated exposure (day 14), these responses habituated to similar extents regardless of drink type and pCREB immunolabeling in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) also did not vary with drink type, whereas basolateral amygdala pCREB was increased by sucrose intake. Taken together, these data suggest that while sucrose is highly palatable, physiological stress responses were evoked principally by the drink presentation itself (e.g., an unfamiliar intervention by the investigators), as opposed to the palatability of the offered drink.

  5. Safety level of Levofloxacin following repeated oral adminstration in White Leg Horn layer birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin H. Patel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Levofloxacin is a fluorinated quinolone which has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity at low plasma/tissue concentration. The present study was designed to investigate safety of levofloxacin (10 mg/kg after repeated oral administration at 12 hours interval for 14 days in layer birds (30-35 weeks old and weighing between 1.5-2.0 kg and to determine tissue concentration of the drug following oral administration (10 mg/kg for 5 days. Drug concentration in tissue was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Repeated oral administration of levofloxacin in layer birds was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC, blood biochemical (AST, ALT, AKP, ACP, LDH, BUN, Serum total protein, Serum albumin, Serum Creatinine, Blood glucose and Total bilirubin and histopathology of liver, kidney and joint cartilage. Levofloxacin could not be detected in body tissues (liver and skeletal muscle at 12 hours after the last administration. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 137-139

  6. Wheel-running behavior is altered following withdrawal from repeated cocaine in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Anthony C; Hernandez, Lizandra; Caba, Julissa

    2008-04-01

    The residual effects on open-field habituation and self-generated wheel running following withdrawal from repeated cocaine (COC; 30 mg/kg for 7 days) were examined in adult male rats. Control subjects received equivolumetric injections of saline (SAL) and were either allowed to feed ad libitum or pair-fed matched (PF SAL) to COC subjects to control for the drug's potential anorexic effect. Following 10 days of withdrawal, all subjects were examined twice on each of the two assessment instruments. Results indicated that COC subjects over the two test sessions failed to increase their wheel-running rates and did not show the expected habituation in the open field. However, because both COC and PF SAL groups yielded similar effects in the open field, conclusions about cocaine's consequences on habituation could not be established independent of the drug's anorexic effect. These data provide evidence for the view that repeated cocaine impairs motivational processes responsible for engaging in self-generated naturally rewarding behaviors. Speculation concerning the neurobiobehavioral substrates for this effect is presented.

  7. Molecular understanding of aluminum-induced topological changes in (CCG)12 triplet repeats: relevance to neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Kallur Siddaramaiah; Anitha, Suram; Rao, Kosagi Sharaf Jagannatha; Viswamitra, Mysore Ananthamurthy

    2002-10-09

    Recent studies have shown that gene mutations are involved in the pathology of neurological disorders. CCG repeats cause genetic instability and are localized at the 5' end of the non-coding regions of the FMR1 gene in fragile X syndrome. Our studies for the first time showed that aluminum (Al) levels were elevated in the serum samples of fragile X syndrome and also provide evidence for the interaction of aluminum with (CCG)12-repeats. Circular dichroism spectroscopic studies of (CCG)12 indicated B-DNA conformation and in the presence of Al (10(-5) M) CCG repeats attained Z-DNA conformation. Further spectroscopic studies, which included melting profiles, ethidium bromide binding patterns and interaction of Z-DNA specific polyclonal antibodies confirmed the Z-conformation in (CCG)12-repeats in the presence of Al (10(-5) M). It is interesting to mention that Al-induced Z-conformation is stable even after the total removal of Al from CCG by desferoximine, a chelating drug. This is the first report to proof the role of Al in modulating the DNA (CCG repeats) topology and this information provides a clue about the possible involvement of Al at a molecular level in neurological/neurodegenerative disorders.

  8. Repeating earthquakes recorded by Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-tong; WU Zhong-liang; JIANG Chang-sheng; LI Guang-ping

    2008-01-01

    In the list of 'repeating pairs' or 'doublets' of earthquakes in China identified by Schaff and Richards using tele-seismic waveform cross-correlation, there were 23 repeating pairs located in Liaoning Province. In this study the waveforms of these events were cross-correlated using records from Liaoning Regional Seismograph Network (LRSN), and the 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation were obtained. The result was compared with that of Schaff and Richards and was used for the assessment of the seismic phase picking and event location practice of LRSN. The result shows that 'repeating events' in the sense of teleseismic waveform cross-correlation and those in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation have significant difference, al-though with some overlap. However, the overall assessment of the location accuracy and the phase pick errors of LRSN by using these two sets of 'repeating events', respectively, provides similar results, while 'repeating events' in the sense of regional waveform cross-correlation seem to be better performing in such an assessment. With the assumption that the separation between the 'repeaters' be less than 1 km, the uncertainty in routine earthquake location of LRSN is estimated to be below 5 km, with the average of 2 km. In the observational bulletins of LRSN the time error in phase picking is estimated to be within±Is for 94% Pg readings and for 88% Sg readings.

  9. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Saraswat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding in buffaloes was evaluated in terms of incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. The incidence of repeat breeding is low in buffaloes however in different studies the incidence varied from 0.70% to 30%. Because of seasonal suppression of fertility repeat breeding in buffaloes should be limited to the breeding season. Spring and winter calving, first parity, peri-parturient disease and lactation are significant risk factors for repeat breeding in buffaloes. The etiologies of repeat breeding in buffaloes can be failure of fertilization and early embryonic deaths. Only a few of causes of failure of fertilization have been identified in buffaloes. Ovulatory disturbances and ovarian cysts are uncommon in buffaloes and cysts have poor clinical manifestation. Endometritis is the common female cause of fertilization failures in buffaloes whereas poor semen quality and improper insemination are the bull side factors for fertilization failures. Early embryonic deaths are common in buffaloes mated/inseminated during the end of the breeding season due to a low luteal progesterone however embryonic deaths occur late (<25 days in buffaloes. Diagnostic approaches for repeat breeding include vaginoscopic and transrectal examination and uterine cytology for genital health. More precise evaluations of the ovarian and uterine function can be obtained by ultrasonographic and hysteroscopic examinations performed sequentially however, precise diagnosis of the cause of repeat breeding seems difficult.

  10. Exploring the repeat protein universe through computational protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, T J; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Huang, Po-Ssu; Bhabha, Gira; Ekiert, Damian C; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hura, Greg L; Tainer, John A; Baker, David

    2015-12-24

    A central question in protein evolution is the extent to which naturally occurring proteins sample the space of folded structures accessible to the polypeptide chain. Repeat proteins composed of multiple tandem copies of a modular structure unit are widespread in nature and have critical roles in molecular recognition, signalling, and other essential biological processes. Naturally occurring repeat proteins have been re-engineered for molecular recognition and modular scaffolding applications. Here we use computational protein design to investigate the space of folded structures that can be generated by tandem repeating a simple helix-loop-helix-loop structural motif. Eighty-three designs with sequences unrelated to known repeat proteins were experimentally characterized. Of these, 53 are monomeric and stable at 95 °C, and 43 have solution X-ray scattering spectra consistent with the design models. Crystal structures of 15 designs spanning a broad range of curvatures are in close agreement with the design models with root mean square deviations ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Å. Our results show that existing repeat proteins occupy only a small fraction of the possible repeat protein sequence and structure space and that it is possible to design novel repeat proteins with precisely specified geometries, opening up a wide array of new possibilities for biomolecular engineering.

  11. ACCA phosphopeptide recognition by the BRCT repeats of BRCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Hind; Moreau, Karen; Dizin, Eva; Callebaut, Isabelle; Venezia, Nicole Dalla

    2006-06-16

    The tumour suppressor gene BRCA1 encodes a 220 kDa protein that participates in multiple cellular processes. The BRCA1 protein contains a tandem of two BRCT repeats at its carboxy-terminal region. The majority of disease-associated BRCA1 mutations affect this region and provide to the BRCT repeats a central role in the BRCA1 tumour suppressor function. The BRCT repeats have been shown to mediate phospho-dependant protein-protein interactions. They recognize phosphorylated peptides using a recognition groove that spans both BRCT repeats. We previously identified an interaction between the tandem of BRCA1 BRCT repeats and ACCA, which was disrupted by germ line BRCA1 mutations that affect the BRCT repeats. We recently showed that BRCA1 modulates ACCA activity through its phospho-dependent binding to ACCA. To delineate the region of ACCA that is crucial for the regulation of its activity by BRCA1, we searched for potential phosphorylation sites in the ACCA sequence that might be recognized by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using sequence analysis and structure modelling, we proposed the Ser1263 residue as the most favourable candidate among six residues, for recognition by the BRCA1 BRCT repeats. Using experimental approaches, such as GST pull-down assay with Bosc cells, we clearly showed that phosphorylation of only Ser1263 was essential for the interaction of ACCA with the BRCT repeats. We finally demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of ACCA in cells, that the whole BRCA1 protein interacts with ACCA when phosphorylated on Ser1263.

  12. Repeated administration of dopaminergic agents in the dorsal hippocampus and morphine-induced place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrindast, M-R; Nasehi, M; Rostami, P; Rezayof, A; Fazli-Tabaei, S

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to investigate whether repeated intra-hippocampal CA1 (intra-CA1) administration of dopaminergic agents can affect morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Effects of repeated intra-CA1 injections of dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists on morphine-induced CPP in rats were investigated using an unbiased 3-day schedule of place conditioning. Animals receiving once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of morphine (1-9 mg/kg) or saline (1.0 ml/kg, s.c.) showed a significant place preference in a dose-dependent manner: the maximum response was observed with 3 mg/kg morphine. Three days' intra-CA1 injections of apomorphine (0.25-1 microg/rat) followed by 5 days free of the drug, significantly decreased morphine CPP (1 and 3 mg/kg, s.c.). Moreover, pre-treatment with the highest dose of apomorphine (1 microg/rat) altered the effect of morphine to an aversive response. The morphine (1 and 3 mg/kg) CPP was also significantly decreased in animals that previously received three intra-CA1 injections of SKF 38393 (2-9 microg/rat), quinpirole (1-3 microg/rat) or sulpiride (1-3 microg/rat), and significantly increased in animals that had previously received three intra-CA1 injections of SCH 23390 (0.02 microg/rat). The 3-day pre-treatment with apomorphine, SKF 38393 or quinpirole reduced locomotor activity in the test session, while SCH 23390 and sulpiride did not have any influence on locomotor activity. It is concluded that repeated injections of DA receptor agents in the dorsal hippocampus, followed by 5 days free of the drugs, can affect morphine reward.

  13. Repeated Ketamine Exposure Induces an Enduring Resilient Phenotype in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Eric M.; Alcantara, Lyonna F.; Warren, Brandon L.; Wright, Katherine N.; Hadad, Roey; Sial, Omar K.; Kroeck, Kyle G.; Iñiguez, Sergio D.; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) afflicts up to 10% of adolescents. However, nearly 50% of those afflicted are considered non-responsive to available treatments. Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist has shown potential as a rapid-acting and long-lasting treatment for MDD in adults. Thus, the effectiveness and functional consequences of ketamine exposure during adolescence were explored. Methods Adolescent male rats (postnatal day [PD] 35) received two ketamine (0, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg) injections, 4 hours apart, after exposure to day 1 of the forced swim test (FST). The next day, rats were re-exposed to the FST to assess ketamine-induced antidepressant-like responses. Separate groups were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to confirm findings from the FST. After these initial experiments, adolescent naïve rats were exposed to either 1 or 15 consecutive days (PD35–49) of ketamine (20 mg/kg) twice/daily. Ketamine's influence on behavioral reactivity to rewarding (i.e., sucrose preference) and aversive (i.e., elevated plus-maze, FST) circumstances was then assessed 2 months after treatment. To control for age-dependent effects, adult rats (PD75–89) were exposed to identical experimental conditions. Results Ketamine (20 mg/kg) reversed the CUS-induced depression-like behaviors in the FST. Repeated ketamine exposure resulted in anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like responses 2 months after drug exposure. None of the ketamine doses used were capable of inducing drug-seeking behaviors as measured by place preference conditioning. Conclusions Repeated ketamine exposure induces enduring resilient-like responses regardless of age of exposure. These findings point to ketamine, and its repeated exposure, as a potentially useful antidepressant during adolescence. PMID:23790225

  14. Secure quantum network coding for controlled repeater networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Tao; Li, Jiao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2016-07-01

    To realize efficient quantum communication based on quantum repeater, we propose a secure quantum network coding scheme for controlled repeater networks, which adds a controller as a trusted party and is able to control the process of EPR-pair distribution. As the key operations of quantum repeater, local operations and quantum communication are designed to adopt quantum one-time pad to enhance the function of identity authentication instead of local operations and classical communication. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can defend against active attacks for quantum communication and realize long-distance quantum communication with minimal resource consumption.

  15. Instability of trinucleotidic repeats during chromatin remodeling in spermatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Olivier; Grégoire, Marie-Chantal; Arguin, Mélina; Brazeau, Marc-André; Leduc, Frédéric; Marois, Isabelle; Richter, Martin V; Boissonneault, Guylain

    2014-11-01

    Transient DNA breaks and evidence of DNA damage response have recently been reported during the chromatin remodeling process in haploid spermatids, creating a potential window of enhanced genetic instability. We used flow cytometry to achieve separation of differentiating spermatids into four highly purified populations using transgenic mice harboring 160 CAG repeats within exon 1 of the human Huntington disease gene (HTT). Trinucleotic repeat expansion was found to occur immediately following the chromatin remodeling steps, confirming the genetic instability of the process and pointing to the origin of paternal anticipation observed in some trinucleotidic repeats diseases.

  16. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  17. Frequency Bandwidth of Half-Wave Impedance Repeater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Dvorsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article brings in the second part general information about half-wave impedance repeater. The third part describes the basic functional principles of the half-wave impedance repeater using Smith chart. The main attention is focused in part four on the derivation of repeater frequency bandwidth depending on characteristics and load impedance of unknown feeder line. Derived dependences are based on the elementary features of the feeder lines with specific length. The described functionality is proved in part 4.3 by measurement of transformed impedance using vector several unbalanced feeder lines and network analyzer VNWA3+.

  18. AIDSinfo Drug Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z All Drugs Drug News Thursday, February 2, 2017 Sustiva Drug Label Updated ... Drug Label Updated Tuesday, January 31, 2017 Stribild Drug Label Updated More News Mobile Apps iPhone/iPad App Android App Back ...

  19. Use of polyglycerol (PG), instead of polyethylene glycol (PEG), prevents induction of the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon against long-circulating liposomes upon repeated administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Lila, Amr S; Nawata, Kosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    The accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon accounts for the rapid systemic clearance of PEGylated nanocarriers upon repeated administrations. IgM production against the polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating in PEGylated liposomes is now known to be responsible for such unexpected pharmacokinetical alterations. The ABC phenomenon poses a remarkable clinical challenge by reducing the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs and causing harmful effects due to the altered tissue distribution pattern of the drugs. In this study, we investigated the in vivo performance of liposomes modified with polyglycerol (PG) upon repeated injection, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of such liposomes when they encapsulated a cytotoxic agent, doxorubicin (DXR). Repeated injection of PEG-coated liposomes in rats induced the ABC phenomenon, while repeated injection of PG-coated liposomes did not. In addition, DXR-containing PG-coated liposomes showed antitumor activity that was superior to that of free DXR and similar to that of DXR-containing PEG-coated liposomes upon repeated administration. These results indicate that polyglycerol (PG) might represent a promising alternative to PEG via enhancing the in vivo performance of liposomes by not eliciting the ABC phenomenon upon repeated administration.

  20. Toxicity from repeated doses of acetaminophen in children: assessment of causality and dose in reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Kennon; Bui, Alison; Mlynarchek, Sara L; Green, Jody L; Bond, G Randall; Clark, Richard F; Kozer, Eran; Koff, Raymond S; Dart, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Liver injury has been reported in children treated with repeated doses of acetaminophen. The objective of this study was to identify and validate reports of liver injury or death in children younger than 6 years who were administered repeated therapeutic doses of acetaminophen. We reviewed US Poison Center data, peer-reviewed literature, US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reports, and US Manufacturer Safety Reports describing adverse effects after acetaminophen administration. Reports that described hepatic abnormalities (description of liver injury or abnormal laboratory testing) or death after acetaminophen administration to children younger than 6 years were included. The identified reports were double abstracted and then reviewed by an expert panel to determine if the hepatic injury was related to acetaminophen and whether the dose of acetaminophen was therapeutic (≤75 mg/kg) or supratherapeutic. Our search yielded 2531 reports of adverse events associated with acetaminophen use. From these cases, we identified 76 cases of hepatic injury and 26 deaths associated with repeated acetaminophen administration. There were 6 cases of hepatic abnormalities and no deaths associated with what our panel determined to be therapeutic doses. A large proportion of cases could not be fully evaluated due to incomplete case reporting. Although we identified numerous examples of liver injury and death after repeated doses of acetaminophen, all the deaths and all but 6 cases of hepatic abnormalities involved doses more than 75 mg/kg per day. This study suggests that the doses of less than 75 mg/kg per day of acetaminophen are safe for children younger than 6 years.

  1. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? An explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, M P M René; Akhtar, Juned

    2013-03-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for decades in many countries, but new legislation and testing of drivers for drug use have recently been implemented in some countries. In this article we present a methodology for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of increased law enforcement of roadside drug screening. This is an analysis of the profitability for society, where costs of control are weighed against the reduction in injuries expected from fewer drugged drivers on the roads. We specify assumptions regarding costs and the effect of the specificity of the drug screening device, and quantify a deterrence effect related to sensitivity of the device yielding the benefit estimates. Three European countries with different current enforcement levels were studied, yielding benefit-cost ratios in the approximate range of 0.5-5 for a tripling of current levels of enforcement, with costs of about 4000 EUR per convicted and in the range of 1.5 and 13 million EUR per prevented fatality. The applied methodology for CBA has involved a simplistic behavioural response to enforcement increase and control efficiency. Although this methodology should be developed further, it is clearly indicated that the cost-efficiency of increased law enforcement of drug driving offences is dependent on the baseline situation of drug-use in traffic and on the current level of enforcement, as well as the RR and prevalence of drugs in road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Repeated methamphetamine administration differentially alters fos expression in caudate-putamen patch and matrix compartments and nucleus accumbens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub P Jedynak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The repeated administration of psychostimulant drugs produces a persistent and long-lasting increase ("sensitization" in their psychomotor effects, which is thought to be due to changes in the neural circuitry that mediate these behaviors. One index of neuronal activation used to identify brain regions altered by repeated exposure to drugs involves their ability to induce immediate early genes, such as c-fos. Numerous reports have demonstrated that past drug experience alters the ability of drugs to induce c-fos in the striatum, but very few have examined Fos protein expression in the two major compartments in the striatum--the so-called patch/striosome and matrix. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the effects of pretreatment with methamphetamine on the ability of a subsequent methamphetamine challenge to induce Fos protein expression in the patch and matrix compartments of the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen and in the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens. Animals pretreated with methamphetamine developed robust psychomotor sensitization. A methamphetamine challenge increased the number of Fos-positive cells in all areas of the dorsal and ventral striatum. However, methamphetamine challenge induced Fos expression in more cells in the patch than in the matrix compartment in the dorsolateral and dorsomedial caudate-putamen. Furthermore, past experience with methamphetamine increased the number of methamphetamine-induced Fos positive cells in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate putamen, but not in the matrix or in the core or shell of the nucleus accumbens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that drug-induced alterations in the patch compartment of the dorsal caudate-putamen may preferentially contribute to some of the enduring changes in brain activity and behavior produced by repeated treatment with methamphetamine.

  3. Trends in reports of driving following illicit drug consumption among regular drug users in Australia, 2007-2013: Has random roadside drug testing had a deterrent effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horyniak, Danielle; Dietze, Paul; Lenton, Simon; Alati, Rosa; Bruno, Raimondo; Matthews, Allison; Breen, Courtney; Burns, Lucy

    2017-07-01

    Driving following illicit drug consumption ('drug-driving') is a potential road safety risk. Roadside drug testing (RDT) is conducted across Australia with the dual aims of prosecuting drivers with drugs in their system and deterring drug-driving. We examined trends over time in self-reported past six-month drug-driving among sentinel samples of regular drug users and assessed the impact of experiences of RDT on drug-driving among these participants. Data from 1913 people who inject drugs (PWID) and 3140 regular psychostimulant users (RPU) who were first-time participants in a series of repeat cross-sectional sentinel studies conducted in Australian capital cities from 2007 to 2013 and reported driving in the past six months were analysed. Trends over time were assessed using the χ(2) test for trend. Multivariable logistic regressions assessed the relationship between experiences of RDT and recent drug-driving, adjusting for survey year, jurisdiction of residence and socio-demographic and drug use characteristics. The percentage of participants reporting recent (past six months) drug-driving decreased significantly over time among both samples (PWID: 83% [2007] vs. 74% [2013], pdrug-driving remained prevalent. Lifetime experience of RDT increased significantly over time (PWID: 6% [2007] vs. 32% [2013], pdrug-driving among either PWID or RPU. Although there is some evidence that drug-driving among key risk groups of regular drug users is declining in Australia, possibly reflecting a general deterrent effect of RDT, experiencing RDT appears to have no specific deterrent effect on drug-driving. Further intervention, with a particular focus on changing attitudes towards drug-driving, may be needed to further reduce this practice among these groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Striatal Signal Transduction and Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibin, Scott D.; Hernandez, Adan; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug addiction. PMID

  5. Striatal signal transduction and drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Philibin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug

  6. Drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and novel cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Francesco; Rollini, Fabiana; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Greco, Cesare; Gaudio, Carlo; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2015-10-15

    The combination of aspirin and the thienopyridine clopidogrel is a cornerstone in the prevention of atherothrombotic events. These two agents act in concert to ameliorate the prothrombotic processes stimulated by plaque rupture and vessel injury complicating cardiovascular disease. Guidelines recommend the use of clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, and the drug remains the most utilized P2Y12 receptor inhibitor despite the fact that newer antiplatelet agents are now available. In recent years, numerous studies have shown inconsistency in the efficacy of clopidogrel to prevent atherothrombotic events. Studies of platelet function testing have shown variability in the response to clopidogrel. One of the major reason for this phenomenon lies in the interaction between clopidogrel and other drugs that may affect clopidogrel absorption, metabolism, and ultimately its antiplatelet action. Importantly, these drug-drug interactions have prognostic implications, since patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity associated with reduced clopidogrel metabolism have an increased risk of ischemia. Previous systematic reviews have focused on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and specific pharmacologic classes, such as proton pump inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and statins. However, more recent pieces of scientific evidence show that clopidogrel may also interact with newer drugs that are now available for the treatment of cardiovascular patients. Accordingly, the aim of this review is to highlight and discuss recent data on drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and third-generation proton pump inhibitors, pantoprazole and lansoprazole, statins, pitavastatin, and antianginal drug, ranolazine.

  7. KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) [KEGG DRUG

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DRUG: D06027 Entry D06027Drug Name Technetium Tc 99m apcitide (USP); Acutect (TN) F... 1 838085 1 848586 1 857781 1 868182 1 878280 1 888687 1 898288 2 908689 2 918390 1 929091 2 939092 1 949495 2 KEGG DRUG / Acutect (TN) ...

  8. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  9. Repeated morphine treatment influences operant and spatial learning differentially

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Na WANG; Zhi-Fang DONG; Jun CAO; Lin XU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether repeated morphine exposure or prolonged withdrawal could influence operant and spatial learning differentially. Methods Animals were chronically treated with morphine or subjected to morphine withdrawal. Then, they were subjected to two kinds of learning: operant conditioning and spatial learning.Results The acquisition of both simple appetitive and cued operant learning was impaired after repeated morphine treatment. Withdrawal for 5 weeks alleviated the impairments. Single morphine exposure disrupted the retrieval of operant memory but had no effect on rats after 5-week withdrawal. Contrarily, neither chronic morphine exposure nor 5-week withdrawal influenced spatial learning task of the Morris water maze. Nevertheless, the retrieval of spatial memory was impaired by repeated morphine exposure but not by 5-week withdrawal. Conclusion These observations suggest that repeated morphine exposure can influence different types of learning at different aspects, implicating that the formation of opiate addiction may usurp memory mechanisms differentially.

  10. Highly Informative Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers for Fingerprinting Hazelnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) or microsatellite markers have many applications in breeding and genetic studies of plants, including fingerprinting of cultivars and investigations of genetic diversity, and therefore provide information for better management of germplasm collections. They are repeatab...

  11. On the role of memory errors in quantum repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, L; Dür, W; Kraus, B

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the influence of memory errors in the quantum repeater scheme for long-range quantum communication. We show that the communication distance is limited in standard operation mode due to memory errors resulting from unavoidable waiting times for classical signals. We show how to overcome these limitations by (i) improving local memory, and (ii) introducing two new operational modes of the quantum repeater. In both operational modes, the repeater is run blindly, i.e. without waiting for classical signals to arrive. In the first scheme, entanglement purification protocols based on one-way classical communication are used allowing to communicate over arbitrary distances. However, the error thresholds for noise in local control operations are very stringent. The second scheme makes use of entanglement purification protocols with two-way classical communication and inherits the favorable error thresholds of the repeater run in standard mode. One can increase the possible communication distance by an o...

  12. Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Genomes of Rhizobia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ya-mei; HAN Yi-qiang; TANG Hui; SUN Dong-mei; WANG Yan-jie; WANG Wei-dong

    2008-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites, as genetic markers, are ubiquitous in genomes of various organisms. The analysis of SSR in rhizobia genome provides useful information for a variety of applications in population genetics of rhizobia. We analyzed the occurrences, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs, the most common in Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Mesorhizobium loti, and Sinorhizobium meliloti genomes se-quenced in the microorganisms tandem repeats database, and SSRs in the three species genomes were compared with each other. The result showed that there were 1 410, 859, and 638 SSRs in B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti genomes, respectively. In the genomes of B. japonicum, M. loti, and 5. meliloti, tetranucleotide, pentanucleotide, and hexanucleotide repeats were more abundant and indicated higher mutation rates in these species. The least abundance was mononucleotide repeat. The SSRs type and distribution were similar among these species.

  13. simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in genetic analysis of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 ... mean (UPGMA) with each cluster representing a particular Vigna species. ..... were reported to be more frequent than the compound.

  14. Study of simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphism for biotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... back cross breeding; SSRs, simple sequence repeats; PIC, polymorphism ..... PIC values were reported in barley wheat and rice (Gu et ... doubled-haploid rice population. Theor. ... Grover A, Aishwarya V, Sharma PC (2007).

  15. Markerless modification of trinucleotide repeat loci in BACs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzow, Kellie A; Koob, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Transcription and splicing of human genes are regulated by nucleotide sequences encoded across large segments of our genome, and trinucleotide repeat expansion mutations can have both profound and subtle effects on these processes. In the course of our work to understand the impact of the Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 8 (SCA8) CTG repeat expansion on the transcription and splicing of the RNAs encoded near the SCA8 locus, we have developed a set of reagents and protocols for modifying large genomic BAC clones of this region. We describe the two-step procedure that allows us to precisely replace unexpanded trinucleotide repeats with expanded variants of these repeat sequences without leaving any exogenous sequences in the final constructs, and we discuss how this approach can be adapted to make other desired sequence changes to these genomic clones.

  16. Discriminant analysis for repeated measures data: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lix

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis (DA encompasses procedures for classifying observations into groups (i.e., predictive discriminative analysis and describing the relative importance of variables for distinguishing amongst groups (i.e., descriptive discriminative analysis. In recent years, a number of developments have occurred in DA procedures for the analysis of data from repeated measures designs. Specifically, DA procedures have been developed for repeated measures data characterized by missing observations and/or unbalanced measurement occasions, as well as high-dimensional data in which measurements are collected repeatedly on two or more variables. This paper reviews the literature on DA procedures for univariate and multivariate repeated measures data, focusing on covariance pattern and linear mixed-effects models. A numeric example illustrates their implementation using SAS software.

  17. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Joris; Klugkist, I.G.; Schoot, Rens van de; Meeus, W.H.J.; Selfhout, Maarten; Hoijtink, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between

  18. Bayesian model selection of informative hypotheses for repeated measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823031; Klugkist, I.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/27330089X; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; van Zalk, M.H.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836214; Hoijtink, H.J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075184427

    2009-01-01

    When analyzing repeated measurements data, researchers often have expectations about the relations between the measurement means. The expectations can often be formalized using equality and inequality constraints between (i) the measurement means over time, (ii) the measurement means between groups,

  19. Correct use of repeated measures analysis of variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunsik; Cho, Meehye; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2009-02-01

    In biomedical research, researchers frequently use statistical procedures such as the t-test, standard analysis of variance (ANOVA), or the repeated measures ANOVA to compare means between the groups of interest. There are frequently some misuses in applying these procedures since the conditions of the experiments or statistical assumptions necessary to apply these procedures are not fully taken into consideration. In this paper, we demonstrate the correct use of repeated measures ANOVA to prevent or minimize ethical or scientific problems due to its misuse. We also describe the appropriate use of multiple comparison tests for follow-up analysis in repeated measures ANOVA. Finally, we demonstrate the use of repeated measures ANOVA by using real data and the statistical software package SPSS (SPSS Inc., USA).

  20. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  1. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  2. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself ... drug plan How Part D works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules ...

  3. Drugs: Shatter the Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ML. Tobacco, alcohol, and other risk behaviors in film: how well do MPAA ratings distinguish content? J ... about drugs and drug abuse. NDFW includes local school and community events and Drug Facts Chat Day, ...

  4. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome ( ...

  6. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  8. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Device Approvals The Drug Development Process The Drug Development Process Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Pin it Email Print Step 1 Discovery and Development Discovery and Development Research for a new drug ...

  9. The Pathogenic Role of Low Range Repeats in SCA17.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hwan Shin

    Full Text Available SCA17 is an autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with expansion of the CAG/CAA trinucleotide repeats in the TATA-binding protein (TBP gene. SCA17 can have various clinical presentations including parkinsonism, ataxia, chorea and dystonia. SCA17 is diagnosed by detecting the expanded CAG repeats in the TBP gene; however, in the literature, pathologic repeat numbers as low as 41 overlap with normal repeat numbers.The subjects in this study included patients with involuntary movement disorders such as cerebellar ataxia, parkinsonism, chorea and dystonia who visited Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2006 and Apr. 2014 and were screened for SCA17. Those who were diagnosed with other genetic diseases or nondegenerative diseases were excluded. DNA from healthy subjects who did not have a family history of parkinsonism, ataxia, psychiatric symptoms, chorea or dystonia served as the control. In total, 5242 chromosomes from 2099 patients and 522 normal controls were analyzed.The total number of patients included in the analysis was 2099 (parkinsonism, 1706; ataxia, 345; chorea, 37; and dystonia, 11. In the normal control, up to 44 repeats were found. In the 44 repeat group, there were 7 (0.3% patients and 1 (0.2% normal control. In 43 repeat group, there were 8 (0.4% patients and 2 (0.4% normal controls. In the 42 repeat group, there were 16 (0.8% patients and 3 (0.6% normal controls. In 41 repeat group, there were 48 (2.3% patients and 8 (1.5% normal controls. Considering the overlaps and non-significant differences in allelic frequencies between the patients and the normal controls with low-expansions, we could not determine a definitive cutoff value for the pathologic CAG repeat number of SCA17.Because the statistical analysis between the normal controls and patients with low range expansions failed to show any differences so far, we must consider that clinical cases with low range expansions could be idiopathic movement disorders showing

  10. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs (AOR=6.14; 95% CI: 5.08–7.41 were more likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation.Conclusion: We conclude that the incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation is rather high. An understanding of risk factors predicting repeat vertebral augmentation provides valuable basis to improve health care for geriatric populations. Keywords: vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, comorbidity, bisphosphonate, old ageTwo Letters to the Editor have been recieved and published İlhan et alWilson et al 

  11. Drug: D06912 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nese Medicine in Japan [BR:br08304] Crude Drugs Drugs for blood Drugs for removing blood stasis D06912 *Quercus cortex; Bokusoku Drug...s for external use Drugs for external use D06912 *Quercu

  12. Evaluation of Mammalian Interspersed Repeats to investigate the goat genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the repeated sequences present in most eukaryotic genomes, SINEs (Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements are widely used to investigate evolution in the mammalian order (Buchanan et al., 1999. One family of these repetitive sequences, the MIR (Mammalian Interspersed Repeats; Jurka et al., 1995, is ubiquitous in all mammals.MIR elements are tRNA-derived SINEs and are identifiable by a conserved core region of about 70 nucleotides.

  13. The evolution of filamin – A protein domain repeat perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S.; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. PMID:22414427

  14. The evolution of filamin-a protein domain repeat perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Sara; Sagit, Rauan; Ithychanda, Sujay S; Qin, Jun; Elofsson, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Particularly in higher eukaryotes, some protein domains are found in tandem repeats, performing broad functions often related to cellular organization. For instance, the eukaryotic protein filamin interacts with many proteins and is crucial for the cytoskeleton. The functional properties of long repeat domains are governed by the specific properties of each individual domain as well as by the repeat copy number. To provide better understanding of the evolutionary and functional history of repeating domains, we investigated the mode of evolution of the filamin domain in some detail. Among the domains that are common in long repeat proteins, sushi and spectrin domains evolve primarily through cassette tandem duplications while scavenger and immunoglobulin repeats appear to evolve through clustered tandem duplications. Additionally, immunoglobulin and filamin repeats exhibit a unique pattern where every other domain shows high sequence similarity. This pattern may be the result of tandem duplications, serve to avert aggregation between adjacent domains or it is the result of functional constraints. In filamin, our studies confirm the presence of interspersed integrin binding domains in vertebrates, while invertebrates exhibit more varied patterns, including more clustered integrin binding domains. The most notable case is leech filamin, which contains a 20 repeat expansion and exhibits unique dimerization topology. Clearly, invertebrate filamins are varied and contain examples of similar adjacent integrin-binding domains. Given that invertebrate integrin shows more similarity to the weaker filamin binder, integrin β3, it is possible that the distance between integrin-binding domains is not as crucial for invertebrate filamins as for vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DSR-Based Selective Repeat ARQ Protocol in MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全新; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    The efficient route algorithms involved in mobile ad hoc network(MANET) are studied. An arrangement of a combination of the traditional dynamic source routing(DSR) protocol is put forward and the selective repeat ARQ protocol is put forward by analyzing and studying them in detail and providing the scheme. In networks, especially in wireless networks, the nodes are capable to process data much faster than transmission, the DSR-based selective repeat ARQ protocol has real meanings in MANET.

  16. Are major repeater patients addicted to suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José

    2014-01-01

    The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.

  17. A note on renegotiation in repeated Bertrand duopolies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2007-01-01

    Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome......Weak Renegotiation-Proofness (WRP) singles out marginal cost pricing as a unique pure-strategy equilibrium of the infinitely repeated Bertrand duopoly. We show that, with a discrete strategy space, WRP does not eliminate any relevant subgame perfect equilibrium outcome...

  18. Repeated nondiagnostic result of thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiańska, Klaudia; Kopczyński, Janusz; Kowalska, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the most accurate and cost-effective method to evaluate the risk of malignancy of thyroid nodules, but approximately 1-24% of FNABs generate a nondiagnostic result (ND-FNAB). The aim of this study was to determine the predictive factors of a repeated nondiagnostic result of FNAB. A total of 4018 FNABs performed in a territorial referral centre were analysed, of which 288 (7.17%) were nondiagnostic. Medical records were available for 245 biopsies performed in 228 patients. The retrospective analysis of factors that may influence a repeat ND-FNAB, including demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics, was performed. A repeat FNAB was performed in 159 nodules giving a diagnostic result in 79.2% of cases. The time between the biopsies ranged from 1 to 611 days (mean 154.4, median 119). The timing of a repeat FNAB did not significantly alter the diagnostic output (p = 0.29). In the univariate analysis, significant predictors of a repeat ND-FNAB were older patient age (p = 0.02), L-thyroxine supplementation (p = 0.05), and a history of (131)I therapy (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, only a history of (131)I therapy was a statistically significant risk factor for a repeat ND-FNAB (p = 0.002). Patients with a history of (131)I therapy and ND-FNAB should undergo periodic ultrasonographic assessment rather than a repeat biopsy. The interval between repeated FNABs recommended by guidelines does not affect the diagnostic output.

  19. Linking SNPs to CAG repeat length in Huntington's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanzhao; Kennington, Lori A; Rosas, H Diana; Hersch, Steven; Cha, Jang-Ho; Zamore, Phillip D; Aronin, Neil

    2008-11-01

    Allele-specific silencing using small interfering RNAs targeting heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is a promising therapy for human trinucleotide repeat diseases such as Huntington's disease. Linking SNP identities to the two HTT alleles, normal and disease-causing, is a prerequisite for allele-specific RNA interference. Here we describe a method, SNP linkage by circularization (SLiC), to identify linkage between CAG repeat length and nucleotide identity of heterozygous SNPs using Huntington's disease patient peripheral blood samples.

  20. Failure Characteristic of Laser Cladding Samples on Repeated Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shi-hong; ZHENG Qi-guang; FU Ge-yan; ZHANG Jin-ping

    2004-01-01

    Using self-made impact fatigue test instruments and related analytic devices,the mechanical components with laser cladding layer have been attempted.It is found that,on repeated impact force,several failure modes of the components include the surface cracks,surface plastic deformation,corrosive pitting and coat collapse,etc.The paper reported the test method and initial analysis conclusions about the unique failure characteristics of the mechanical components on repeated impact load.

  1. Memory-based quantum repeater in quantum information communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiang-Sheng

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the quantum repeater in quantum information communication. We propose to introduce the photon buffer mechanism for storing photons, which uses fibre delay loops as photon memories and a programmable 1 × N switcher for distributing photon delay time. Meanwhile, we also consider entanglement purification and entanglement swapping restoration at an entanglement purification or entanglement swapping failure and introduce a protection link mechanism that allows the photonic quantum repeater of a broken connection to initiate a connection restoration process.

  2. Nuclear Receptors in Drug Metabolism, Drug Response and Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prakash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orally delivered small-molecule therapeutics are metabolized in the liver and intestine by phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs, and transport proteins coordinate drug influx (phase 0 and drug/drug-metabolite efflux (phase III. Genes involved in drug metabolism and disposition are induced by xenobiotic-activated nuclear receptors (NRs, i.e. PXR (pregnane X receptor and CAR (constitutive androstane receptor, and by the 1α, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3-activated vitamin D receptor (VDR, due to transactivation of xenobiotic-response elements (XREs present in phase 0-III genes. Additional NRs, like HNF4-α, FXR, LXR-α play important roles in drug metabolism in certain settings, such as in relation to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. The phase I enzymes CYP3A4/A5, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2A6, CYP2J2, and CYP2E1 metabolize >90% of all prescription drugs, and phase II conjugation of hydrophilic functional groups (with/without phase I modification facilitates drug clearance. The conjugation step is mediated by broad-specificity transferases like UGTs, SULTs, GSTs. This review delves into our current understanding of PXR/CAR/VDR-mediated regulation of DME and transporter expression, as well as effects of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and epigenome (specified by promoter methylation, histone modification, microRNAs, long non coding RNAs on the expression of PXR/CAR/VDR and phase 0-III mediators, and their impacts on variable drug response. Therapeutic agents that target epigenetic regulation and the molecular basis and consequences (overdosing, underdosing, or beneficial outcome of drug-drug/drug-food/drug-herb interactions are also discussed. Precision medicine requires understanding of a drug's impact on DME and transporter activity and their NR-regulated expression in order to achieve optimal drug efficacy without adverse drug reactions. In future drug screening, new tools such as humanized mouse

  3. El papel de la víctima durante la ejecución de condenas por delitos referentes a organizaciones y grupos terroristas y de terrorismo en España / Le rôle de la victime dans la mise en application des condamnations pour terrorisme / The role of the victim in the enforcement of prison sentences for terrorism offences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraldo Cabana Patricia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo analizza, innanzi tutto, le modalità attraverso le quali il codice penale spagnolo promuove attività volontarie effettuate dal condannato alla reclusione al fine di rispondere alle esigenze di protezione degli interessi della vittima, sottolineando l’esistenza di un sistema penitenziario d’eccezione per i condannati per reati di terrorismo.Successivamente, lo scritto riflette sul fatto che questo tipo di misure dirette alla protezione degli interessi della vittima durante l’espiazione della pena detentiva da parte dei condannati possa condurre alla riabilitazione dei delinquenti oppure se diventa un ostacolo ai fini della loro reintegrazione nella società.Cet article analyse en premier lieu les modalités utilisées par le code pénal espagnol afin de promouvoir des activités volontaires effectuées par le condamné à la détention en vue de répondre aux exigences de protection des intérêts de la victime, soulignant l’existence d’un système pénitentiaire exceptionnel pour les condamnés pour délits de terrorisme.Ensuite, l’auteur du texte s’interroge sur ce type de mesures, dont le but est de protéger les intérêts de la victime pendant la période de détention des auteurs du crime la question étant de savoir s’il peut conduire à la réhabilitation du criminel or s’il constitue un obstacle à sa réintégration dans la société. This paper first of all analyses how the Spanish Criminal Code promotes voluntary activities carried out by the convict during the custodial sentence in order to respond to the need to protect the victim’s interests, highlighting the existence of an exceptional prison system for those convicted of offences related to terrorism. Secondly, this text discusses if this kind of measures, whose purpose is to protect the victim’s interests during the prison sentence, leads to the rehabilitation of offenders or poses an obstacle to their reintegration back into society.

  4. On Offence Forms of Death Caused by Drunk Driving from the Perspective of Actio Libera in Causa%论醉酒驾车致人死亡的主观罪过形式——以原因自由行为理论为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜英杰

    2011-01-01

    The provision on dangerous driving in the Amendment 8 to the Criminal Law has played a positive role for cracking down the criminals of dangerous driving such as the drag racing and drunk driving.But the dilemmas,while practicing,will be confronted in holding the intention or negligence and in sticking to the principle of legality or meeting the people's emotional needs.By using the analysis of know to structure,the judgment for offence forms of death caused by drunk driving is to be judged according to the doers' attitude to the harmful consequences.In the judicial practice,instead of the denial of opposing the results of harm on account of intention of the knowledge factor,all the commission of crimes with the manner of voiding desires to the harmful consequences should be found criminal negligence.%我国《刑法修正案》(八)关于危险驾驶的规定,对于严厉打击以飙车、醉驾为代表的危险驾驶行为,具有积极的作用。但在具体实践中,却面临着认定故意与过失的困境,坚守罪刑法定与满足民众情感的困境。醉酒驾车致人死亡的主观罪过形式的判定应当围绕行为人对危害结果的态度,运用"知"、"欲"构造分析判断。司法实践中,凡是对危害结果的发生持"无欲"态度的犯罪都应认定为过失犯罪,不能以认识因素的明知,否认对危害结果的排斥。

  5. Quantum repeater based on cavity QED evolutions and coherent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonţa, Denis; van Loock, Peter

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of cavity QED, we propose a quantum repeater scheme that uses coherent light and chains of atoms coupled to optical cavities. In contrast to conventional repeater schemes, in our scheme there is no need for an explicit use of two-qubit quantum logical gates by exploiting solely the cavity QED evolution. In our previous work (Gonta and van Loock in Phys Rev A 88:052308, 2013), we already proposed a quantum repeater in which the entanglement between two neighboring repeater nodes was distributed using controlled displacements of input coherent light, while the produced low-fidelity entangled pairs were purified using ancillary (four-partite) entangled states. In the present work, the entanglement distribution is realized using a sequence of controlled phase shifts and displacements of input coherent light. Compared to previous coherent-state-based distribution schemes for two-qubit entanglement, our scheme here relies only upon a simple discrimination of two coherent states with opposite signs, which can be performed in a quantum mechanically optimal fashion via a beam splitter and two on-off detectors. For the entanglement purification, we employ a method that avoids the use of extra entangled ancilla states. Our repeater scheme exhibits reasonable fidelities and repeater rates providing an attractive platform for long-distance quantum communication.

  6. Considerations on repeated repairing of weldments in Inconel 718 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. O.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcilwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of repeated weld repairs on the metallurgical characteristics, high cycle fatigue (HCF), and tensile properties of Inconel 718 butt weld joints were determined. A 1/4 in thick plate and a 1/2 in thick plate were used as well as tungsten inert gas welding, and Inconel 718 filler wire. Weld panels were subjected to 2, 6, and 12 repeated repairs and were made in a highly restrained condition. Post weld heat treatments were also conducted with the welded panel in the highly restrained condition. Results indicate that no significant metallurgical anomaly is evident as a result of up to twelve repeated weld repairs. No degradation in fatigue life is noted for up to twelve repeated repairs. Tensile results from specimens which contained up to twelve repeated weld repairs revealed no significant degradation in UTS and YS. However, a significant decrease in elongation is evident with specimens (solution treated and age hardened after welding) which contained twelve repeated repairs. The elongation loss is attributed to the presence of a severe notch on each side (fusion line) of the repair weld bead reinforcement.

  7. Evolutionary dynamics of satellite DNA repeats from Phaseolus beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tiago; Dos Santos, Karla G B; Richard, Manon M S; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Geffroy, Valérie; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) subtelomeres are highly enriched for khipu, the main satellite DNA identified so far in this genome. Here, we comparatively investigate khipu genomic organization in Phaseolus species from different clades. Additionally, we identified and characterized another satellite repeat, named jumper, associated to khipu. A mixture of P. vulgaris khipu clones hybridized in situ confirmed the presence of khipu-like sequences on subterminal chromosome regions in all Phaseolus species, with differences in the number and intensity of signals between species and when species-specific clones were used. Khipu is present as multimers of ∼500 bp and sequence analyses of cloned fragments revealed close relationship among khipu repeats. The new repeat, named jumper, is a 170-bp satellite sequence present in all Phaseolus species and inserted into the nontranscribed spacer (NTS) of the 5S rDNA in the P. vulgaris genome. Nevertheless, jumper was found as a high-copy repeat at subtelomeres and/or pericentromeres in the Phaseolus microcarpus lineage only. Our data argue for khipu as an important subtelomeric satellite DNA in the genus and for a complex satellite repeat composition of P. microcarpus subtelomeres, which also contain jumper. Furthermore, the differential amplification of these repeats in subtelomeres or pericentromeres reinforces the presence of a dynamic satellite DNA library in Phaseolus.

  8. Quantum key distribution with two-segment quantum repeaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampermann, Hermann; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bruss, Dagmar [Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum repeaters represent one possible way to achieve long-distance quantum key distribution. One way of improving the repeater rate and decreasing the memory coherence time is the usage of multiplexing. Motivated by the experimental fact that long-range connections are practically demanding, we extend the analysis of the quantum repeater multiplexing protocol to the case of short-range connections. We derive formulas for the repeater rate and we show that short-range connections lead to most of the benefits of a full-range multiplexing protocol. A less demanding QKD-protocol without quantum memories was recently introduced by Lo et al. We generalize this measurement-device-independent quantum key Distribution protocol to the scenario where the repeater Station contains also heralded quantum memories. We assume either single-photon sources or weak coherent pulse sources plus decay states. We show that it is possible to significantly outperform the original proposal, even in presence of decoherence of the quantum memory. We give formulas in terms of device imperfections i.e., the quantum bit error rate and the repeater rate.

  9. Ising Model Reprogramming of a Repeat Protein's Equilibrium Unfolding Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millership, C; Phillips, J J; Main, E R G

    2016-05-08

    Repeat proteins are formed from units of 20-40 aa that stack together into quasi one-dimensional non-globular structures. This modular repetitive construction means that, unlike globular proteins, a repeat protein's equilibrium folding and thus thermodynamic stability can be analysed using linear Ising models. Typically, homozipper Ising models have been used. These treat the repeat protein as a series of identical interacting subunits (the repeated motifs) that couple together to form the folded protein. However, they cannot describe subunits of differing stabilities. Here we show that a more sophisticated heteropolymer Ising model can be constructed and fitted to two new helix deletion series of consensus tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (CTPRs). This analysis, showing an asymmetric spread of stability between helices within CTPR ensembles, coupled with the Ising model's predictive qualities was then used to guide reprogramming of the unfolding pathway of a variant CTPR protein. The designed behaviour was engineered by introducing destabilising mutations that increased the thermodynamic asymmetry within a CTPR ensemble. The asymmetry caused the terminal α-helix to thermodynamically uncouple from the rest of the protein and preferentially unfold. This produced a specific, highly populated stable intermediate with a putative dimerisation interface. As such it is the first step in designing repeat proteins with function regulated by a conformational switch. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  11. Repeated measurement sampling in genetic association analysis with genotyping errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Renzhen; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2007-02-01

    Genotype misclassification occurs frequently in human genetic association studies. When cases and controls are subject to the same misclassification model, Pearson's chi-square test has the correct type I error but may lose power. Most current methods adjusting for genotyping errors assume that the misclassification model is known a priori or can be assessed by a gold standard instrument. But in practical applications, the misclassification probabilities may not be completely known or the gold standard method can be too costly to be available. The repeated measurement design provides an alternative approach for identifying misclassification probabilities. With this design, a proportion of the subjects are measured repeatedly (five or more repeats) for the genotypes when the error model is completely unknown. We investigate the applications of the repeated measurement method in genetic association analysis. Cost-effectiveness study shows that if the phenotyping-to-genotyping cost ratio or the misclassification rates are relatively large, the repeat sampling can gain power over the regular case-control design. We also show that the power gain is not sensitive to the genetic model, genetic relative risk and the population high-risk allele frequency, all of which are typically important ingredients in association studies. An important implication of this result is that whatever the genetic factors are, the repeated measurement method can be applied if the genotyping errors must be accounted for or the phenotyping cost is high.

  12. Renal amyloidosis in a drug abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A U; Cohen, A H; Levine, B S

    1995-03-01

    Drug abusers, particularly those who inject drugs s.c. ("skin popping"), may develop amyloidosis. Chronic infections are thought to play a pathogenetic role in this setting. A patient is presented who had a history of "skin popping" cocaine and heroin and developed nephrotic syndrome, with an elevated serum creatinine and a creatinine clearance of 61 mL/min. Renal biopsy demonstrated amyloidosis. Treatment with colchicine was initiated, and proteinuria decreased to near normal levels after 12 months. Concomitant with the decrease in proteinuria, creatinine clearance improved, although a repeat renal biopsy failed to show any significant improvement in amyloid burden. These observations suggest that colchicine may be a useful treatment in reversing the proteinuria of renal amyloidosis associated with drug abuse. Furthermore, clinical improvement may occur before any demonstrable regression in the amyloidosis.

  13. PAIN RELIEF MEDIATED BY IMPLANTABLE DRUG-DELIVERY DEVICES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOEKSTRA, A

    1994-01-01

    Various totally implantable drug delivery systems from single access ports to micropumps are now available for administration of repeated boluses, and continuous or programmable infusions. In this respect, emphasis is given to a relatively cheap, totally implantable system for self-administering int

  14. Extinction of drug cue reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kimber L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Tolliver, Bryan K; DeSantis, Stacia M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-09-01

    Conditioned responses to drug-related environmental cues (such as craving) play a critical role in relapse to drug use. Animal models demonstrate that repeated exposure to drug-associated cues in the absence of drug administration leads to the extinction of conditioned responses, but the few existing clinical trials focused on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues in drug-dependent individuals show equivocal results. The current study examined drug-related cue reactivity and response extinction in a laboratory setting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Methamphetamine cue-elicited craving was extinguished during two sessions of repeated (3) within-session exposures to multi-modal (picture, video, and in-vivo) cues, with no evidence of spontaneous recovery between sessions. A trend was noted for a greater attenuation of response in participants with longer (4-7 day) inter-session intervals. These results indicate that extinction of drug cue conditioned responding occurs in methamphetamine-dependent individuals, offering promise for the development of extinction- based treatment strategies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extinction of Drug Cue Reactivity in Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kimber L.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Tolliver, Bryan K.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2010-01-01

    Conditioned responses to drug-related environmental cues (such as craving) play a critical role in relapse to drug use. Animal models demonstrate that repeated exposure to drug-associated cues in the absence of drug administration leads to the extinction of conditioned responses, but the few existing clinical trials focused on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues in drug-dependent individuals show equivocal results. The current study examined drug-related cue reactivity and response extinction in a laboratory setting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Methamphetamine cue-elicited craving was extinguished during two sessions of repeated (3) within-session exposures to multi-modal (picture, video, and in-vivo) cues, with no evidence of spontaneous recovery between sessions. A trend was noted for a greater attenuation of response in participants with longer (4-7 day) inter-session intervals. These results indicate that extinction of drug-cue conditioned responding occurs in methamphetamine-dependent individuals, offering promise for the development of extinction- based treatment strategies. PMID:20538262

  16. Impact of pharmaceutical representative visits on GPs' drug preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Vach, Kirstin; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical representative visits are believed to have substantial impact, but the effects on prescribing patterns have not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates how pharmaceutical sales representative visits influenced physicians' company-specific drug...... were (i) company-specific drug preferences measured as the proportion of dispensings of the promoted drug among all dispensings of fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonists and (ii) the proportion of patients receiving repeated beta2-agonist dispensings who were...... treated with inhaled steroids. RESULTS: The first visit had a statistically significant effect on the GPs' drug preference in favour of the marketed drug [odds ratio (OR), 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-3.32]. The effect on drug preference increased further after the second visit (OR, 1.51; 95...

  17. Page | 131 RISING CASES OF RAPE OFFENCES IN NIGERIA: NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Rape has a history that almost equaled the history of man's creation. It is on ... required to convict for it. .... lies the fact that every individual is the master of himself or herself and reserves ... to lodge the complaint with a certain amount of money.

  18. Figures of criminal offences that are committed through mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvete Uka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology created endless possibilities for the information and communication between people in the world. This made possible that within few seconds information could be elaborated. In the meantime that freedom of speech and opinion are protected with all international conventions and laws, this freedom and together with it also the possibilities and actual standards endanger to put in service of the persons which in one form or another, damage the general interest. The study seeks to explain cases, forms and methods of how the presence in media can be misused. Based in the Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo there are the range of criminal offenses which can be committed through mass communication in general and sometimes also through more serious media, written or electronic. The major number of them has to do with such acts that help terrorism, encourage race and religious hatred and in different forms, the use of children for pornography, risking in this manner the greater values of humanism anywhere in the world. The fact of abolition of special dispositions for criminal offenses that are committed through media does not mean that the danger from committing these acts does not exist. It is based in the fact that criminal responsibility lays directly on the crime committer and not on the director or publisher of certain media, in the meantime the last ones should be careful not to be in the service of crime instigators by giving space to publication.

  19. Design and Development of Biometric Traffic Offence System (BTOS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-12-01

    Dec 1, 2014 ... West African Journal of Industrial & Academic Research Vol.12 No.1 ... abdulhakimowolabi@gmail.com, Phone: 08067015567, ..... performance of the proposed system is ... can run on cell phones so that the offended.

  20. Reporting sexual offences involving child patients: What is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-26

    May 26, 2014 ... engage in sexual conduct with children aged 12 - 15 years (hereinafter referred to ... Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act 92 of 1996,[2] which require ..... uploads/images/unpan005172.pdf (accessed 13 March 2014). 11.